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1

Diagnosis of pineal region tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to explain the different radio-clinical presentations of pineal region tumors. Although MR images provide a important help to diagnosis, because of topographic analysis and evaluation of MR characteristics in the tumors, clinic, presentation tumors markers and the stereotaxic surgery are also of great importance. Radiological appearances, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnostic of pineal region tumours. (authors)

2

Papillary tumor of the pineal region  

OpenAIRE

Presented is a patient with papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR), an uncommon and recently recognized neoplasm. As its name implies, PTPR does not arise from the pineal gland itself. The cell of origin is thought to be the specialized ependymocytes of the subcommissural organ. Primary tumors of the pineal region include pineal parenchymal neoplasms, germ cell neoplasms, and tumors arising from adjacent structures, including meningiomas, astrocytomas, and ependymomas. Like other masses ...

Vandergriff, Clayton; Opatowsky, Michael; O Rourke, Brian; Layton, Kennith

2012-01-01

3

Fully Endoscopic Resection of Pineal Region Tumors  

OpenAIRE

Background and Objective Surgical treatment for pineal tumors is technically challenging—weighing the risks and benefits of microsurgical resection for the patient with a pineal tumor versus settling for an endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy is sometimes difficult. Traditional microsurgical resection for pineal region tumors has typically required large open craniotomies and involvement or retraction of neural tissue with significant mortality and morbidity. With the advancement of...

Shahinian, Hrayr; Ra, Yoon

2013-01-01

4

The challenge of pineal region tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These preceding case studies serve to emphasize various facets of pineal region tumors. The first case highlights the possible effect of such tumors on pineal physiology. A clear relationship between pineal function and diurnal rhythms is noted. While the pineal gland has been studied extensively in various mammals, basic investigation in man is somewhat lacking. However, with the development of an accurate, sensitive, and specific melatonin assay, more can be learned in the clinical setting. Application of this basic work is seen in the second case. Another aspect of clinical investigation focuses on the immunopathology of pineal tumors. Tumors of the pineal region can be ''benign'' and/or radio-insensitive. Some require surgical treatment, others do not. Lipomas may well be diagnosed radiographically and do not necessarily require surgical intervention, while meningiomas can often be surgically cured

5

Diagnosis and treatment of pineal region tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this volume is to review the pertinent literature dealing with pineal tumors and thus aid in the handling of these rather uncommon lesions. After the first, introductory, chapter, three chapters treat the pathology and diagnosis of pineal tumors. There is also one chapter on intracranial germ cell tumors (natural history and pathogenesis) and one on the normal function of the pineal gland. With the exception of the chapter on diagnostic radiology of pineal tumors, which seems somewhat superficial, these five chapters summarize current knowledge about the nature of these complex lesions and their symptomatology very well. The next nine chapters deal with biopsy and surgery of these tumors and how to manage the patient. The first of these gives a historical review of the development of surgical techniques - from the first attempt by Horsley in 1905 to the microsurgical techniques of today. It is followed by a very important and detailed description of the microsurgical anatomy of the pineal region

6

CT and MR of pineal region tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging features of pineal region tumors were analyzed in 14 oncologic cases. The tumors were classified as germ-cell tumors, glial tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, meningiomas, and cysts. They demonstrated different MR signal characteristics on precontrast scans and nodular or ring type enhancement with occasional central lucencies, except for benign cysts, which have not shown enhancement. MR images were useful in defining the relationship of the tumor to the posterior third ventricle, sylvian aqueduct, vein of Galen, and tentorium. Although CT can demonstrate in more evident fashion displacement of the original pineal calcification as well as tumor calcifications, MR imaging demonstrates different signal characteristics in germinomas and pineoblastomas which can be a useful adjunct in the evaluation and differential diagnosis of these tumors. PMID:8295504

Gouliamos, A D; Kalovidouris, A E; Kotoulas, G K; Athanasopoulou, A K; Kouvaris, J R; Trakadas, S J; Vlahos, L J; Papavasiliou, C G

1994-01-01

7

Tumors of the pineal region: radiological findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To consider the different radiological findings that, together with age, sex, clinical picture and serum markers, indicate a presumed or even definitive diagnosis in tumors of the pineal region. We reviewed retrospectively 18 patients diagnosed as having pineal region tumors. The lesions in this series consisted of seven germinoma, three meningiomas, one pineoblastoma. two ependymomas, one teratoma, two glial cysts, and arachnoid cyst and a lipoma. All but the arachnoid cysts and the lipoma were confirmed histologically. We took into account mainly the epidemiological data, tumor markers and CT and MR features. The germinoma was the most common lesions, representing 38.8% of the tumors in our series. All developed in men (mean age: 21 years). Small non tumoral calcifications were present in pineal gland in six of these cases. This tumor usually invades adjacent structures and produces metastatic seeding in CSF. The pineoblastoma contained prominent tumor calcifications. Meningiomas were detected only in middle-aged women. In addition to the fact that the behavior of these lesions was typical of that meningiomas in other locations, meningeal enhancement in the vicinity of the extraaxial tumor aided in the diagnosis. The teratoma showed variable attenuation, ranging from a fatty substance to calcium, and elevated fetoprotein levels. The glial cyst is a cyst lesion that does not be-have exactly like the CSF, while the arachnoid cyst was isointense with respect to the CSFyst was isointense with respect to the CSF in all sequences. Enhancement was observed in the glial cysts, one peripheral and the other nodular. The assessment of age, sex, clinical picture and tumor markers, together with the features observed in CT an MR images are suggestive of the histological diagnosis of pineal region tumors. We recommend the use of CT because of its availability and its ability detect calcifications, thus indicating a specific histological type, and of MR because of its greater anatomical definition and its, ability to determine the degree of tumor extension or invasion. (Author) 19 refs

8

Transcallosal approach to pineal tumors and the hospital for sick children series of pineal region tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Direct surgery on a pineal region mass can be carried out safely and is justified in that the pineal region harbors many benin tumors which would not benefit from radiotherapy. Furthermore, this region contains some highly malignant tumors that need more than just local radiotherapy. In order to discern between these various groups of tumors, histologic proof of the nature of the entire tumor is necessary. The author has found the posterior transcallosal approach to the pineal region a safe and satisfactory approach to tumors in this region and also found this approach particularly advantageous when the tumor extends upwards and forwards into the third ventricle. Direct surgery on pineal tumors can now be carried out confidently and safely and in many cases, radical if not total removal of the neoplasm can be achieved

9

Pineal region tumors: analysis of treatment results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article represents a review of 32 patients with pineal region tumors seen and treated at the University of Michigan Medical Center from January 1950 to December 1980. All patients presented with manifestations of increased intracranial pressure: limitation of the upward gaze (Parinaud's syndrome), hydrocephalus and a mass in the posterior aspect of the third ventricle. The tumor was demonstrated by pneumoencephalography, ventriculography, angiography or CT scans. Ventricular decompression was performed in all patients. Twenty-seven patients received post-operative irradiation. The overall 10 year survival for evaluable patients was 16/24 (67%). Few complications were seen

10

Pineal region tumors: Clinical symptoms and syndromes.  

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The present paper investigates the clinical picture and the different clinical signs that reveal pineal region tumors or appear during the course of the follow-up. Biological malignancy and tumor extension determine the semiology and its setting up mode. Typical endocrine signs, dominated by abnormal puberty development, are frequently a part of the clinical scene. Bifocal or ectopic localization in the hypothalamic-pituitary region is accompanied by other endocrine signs such as ante- or post-pituitary insufficiencies which occur several months or even years after the first neurological signs appear. Due to a mass syndrome and obstructive hydrocephalus, intracranial hypertension signs are frequent but unspecific. A careful ophthalmologic examination is essential to search upward gaze paralysis and other signs of the Parinaud's tetrad or pentad. Midbrain dysfunction, including extrinsic aqueduct stenosis, are also prevalent. Except for abnormal pubertal signs, hyper-melatoninemia (secretory tumors) or a-hypo-melatoninemia (tumors destructing pineal) generally remains dormant. Some patients present sleep problems such as narcolepsy or sleepiness during the daytime as well as behavioral problems. This suggests a hypothalamic extension rather than a true consequence of melatonin secretion anomalies. Similarly, some patients may present signs of a "pinealectomized" syndrome, including (cluster) headaches, tiredness, eventually responsive to melatonin. PMID:24439798

Rousselle, C; des Portes, V; Berlier, P; Mottolese, C

2014-01-16

11

Pineal region tumors: computed tomographic-pathologic spectrum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While several computed tomographic (CT) studies of posterior third ventricular neoplasms have included descriptions of pineal tumors, few reports have concentrated on these uncommon lesions. Some authors have asserted that the CT appearance of many pineal tumors is virtually pathognomonic. A series of nine biopsy-proved pineal gland and eight other presumed tumors is presented that illustrates their remarkable heterogeneity in both histopathologic and CT appearance. These tumors included germinomas, teratocarcinomas, hamartomas, and other varieties. They had variable margination, attentuation, calcification, and suprasellar extension. Germinomas have the best response to radiation therapy. Biopsy of pineal region tumors is now feasible and is recommended for treatment planning

12

Endoscopic approach for the treatment of pineal region tumors.  

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Tumors of the pineal region account for 3 to 8% of the tumors involving the central nervous system. The most common are germ cell tumors (39%). Less common examples include teratomas, primitive neuroectodermic tumors, astrocytomas, and choriocarcinomas. Clinical presentation in pediatric patients is in direct relation to the anatomical structures surrounding the pineal region and to the associated hydrocephalus that is present in almost 90% of cases. The diagnosis of a tumor in the pineal region is based on radiological findings and the presence of tumor markers such as ?-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotrophic hormone subfraction ?. Neuroendoscopy is considered to be one of the minimally invasive techniques useful for the management of such patients. This minimally invasive approach to pineal region tumors allows the treatment of hydrocephalus in a safe and effective way, avoiding the complications derived from other procedures such as external ventricular drainage or shunt surgery. PMID:23532609

Herrada-Pineda, Tenoch; Revilla-Pacheco, Francisco; Manrique-Guzman, Salvador

2015-01-01

13

Cellular pleomorphism in papillary tumors of the pineal region.  

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Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a recently recognized entity. We present the pathologic findings of two cases of PTPR as examples, and discuss the presence of cellular pleomorphism in these tumors. Patient 1 is a 48-year-old man with a pineal region mass. The tumor had unique biphasic patterns, papillary/pseudopapillary areas, and increased mitotic activity. Juxtaposed areas had marked pleomorphism, including nuclear enlargement, smudgy chromatin, nuclear pseudoinclusions, and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Mitoses were absent in these areas. Immunohistochemical staining revealed strong S100 expression. CAM 5.2 and CK18 were strongly positive in a patchy fashion. MIB1 labeling indices were high in classic PTPR regions but very low in pleomorphic areas. Patient 2 was a 35-year-old male with a pineal region tumor characterized by papillary architecture and overall cellular monotony, rare mitoses, and pleomorphism as a more isolated finding, with associated nuclear enlargement and crowding. S100 and CAM 5.2 labeling were present, and MIB1 labeling index was very low throughout the tumor. We discuss the pathologic and phenotypic features of PTPR. Variable pleomorphism may be present, reflected in size variation and nuclear hyperchromasia, but was not accompanied by increased proliferative activity in these cases, suggesting a degenerative phenomenon. PMID:22622671

Magalhães, Juliana; Rostad, Steven; Foltz, Greg; Pytel, Peter; Rodriguez, Fausto J

2013-04-01

14

Diagnostic radiation and its prognosis of pineal region tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

20 Gy of local irradiation was performed for the patients with pineal region tumor. We evaluated the tumor volume on X-CT in the pre-radiation and 20 Gy of post-radiation state. If tumor is sensitive enough to radiation therapy, we add 40 Gy of whole brain and 30 to 40 Gy of whole spine irradiation. If not, we transfer patients to neurosurgeons for the purpose of tumor ressection. We call this procedure ''Diagnostic Radiation.'' We proposed the concept of TRR (Tumor Regression Ratio) in order to evaluate our protocol more objctively. TRR is as follows: TRR (%) = [1-Total Tumor Volume (at each dose) / Total Tumor Volume (at o Gy)] x 100 (%) Total Tumor Volume(mm3) = slice thickness(mm) x siguma HDA (mm2) on each slice: where HDA is high density area on enhanced CT. Eleven patients were studied and TRR of each patients was calculated. The relations between TRR, tumor markers, CSF seeding and prognoiss was discussed. From our study, (1) TRR at 20Gy was important and might predict approximate prognosis of each cae case. A) TRR = 100 ? very good B) TRR < 20 ? poor C) 20 <= TRR < 100 ? high possibility (2) Majority of TRR < 100 cases have turned out to be histologically in teratoma category. (3) Good correlation between the level of tumor markers and prognosis was observed. Cases with elevated level of AFP and/or HCG were radio- resistant and had poor prognosis. (4) Distant metastasis must also be kept in mind in the treatment of pineal region tuin the treatment of pineal region tumor. (author)

15

Pineal region tumor manifesting initially as hearing impairment.  

Science.gov (United States)

An 18-year-old male presented with a pineal region germinoma with hearing impairment as the chief complaint. Magnetic resonance image demonstrated a well-enhanced multi-cystic tumor extending into the upper fourth ventricle and wall of the bilateral lateral ventricles. Audiometry revealed bilateral mild hearing impairment in the low frequencies. Auditory brainstem response recording showed low amplitudes in all waves (IV-V/I ratio cochlear aqueduct. PMID:12160310

Islam, Md Shafiqul; Asano, Kenichiro; Tabata, Hidefumi; Ohkuma, Hiroki; Suzuki, Shigeharu

2002-07-01

16

Clinicopathological characteristics of papillary tumor of the pineal region  

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Full Text Available Background Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR is a newly recognized distinct entity in the 2007 WHO nomenclature. This tumor is characterized by epithelial-appearing areas with papillary features and more densely cellular areas that often display ependymal-like differentiation, which is likely to originate from the specialized ependymocytes of subcommissural organ near the Sylvian cerebral aqueduct. Due to its rarity and non-specific appearance in radiological exanimation, it is a diagnostic challenge for radiologists and histopathologists to differentiate PTPR from other primary or metastatic lesions located in the pineal region because of their similarities in radiological and histological findings. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinicopathological features of PTPR and discuss the differential diagnosis of histologically similar papillary tumors in pineal region.  Methods The clinical manifestations of a patient with PTPR occurring in supratentorial pineal region were presented retrospectively. Resected mass was routinely paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dako EnVision immunohistochemical staining system was used to detect the tumor antigen expressions, including vimentin (Vim, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, S-100 protein (S-100, pan cytokeratin (PCK, cytokeratin 7 (CK7, CK20, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN, synaptophysin (Syn, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, and Ki-67 labeling index (MIB-1.  Results A 57-year-old male patient presented with 6-month history of mild headache, and became severe in last one month. MRI revealed a solid well-circumscribed lesion in supratentorial midline near the pineal region and the posterior third ventricle with mild heterogeneous enhancement. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was removed totally. Histological examination revealed that the lesion contained papillary areas lined by columnar epithelioid tumor cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and more cellular areas with cells exhibiting clear or eosinophilic cytoplasm. Perivascular pseudorosettes and ependymal rosettes may be identified. The tumor cells were observed to invade the surrounding brain parenchymal. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor cells were diffusely positive to Vim, PCK and S-100, but negative to GFAP, EMA, CK7 and CK20. Syn and NSE were observed to be focally weak positivity. Ki-67 labeling index was approximately 5%. Based on clinical presentations and histological findings, a final histological diagnosis of PTPR, WHO grade ?-?, was made according to the criteria of WHO classification. The patient did not receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and was followed-up for 12 months, without any neurological deficit or signs of recurrence.  Conclusions PTPR is a rare tumor of central nervous system with aggressive clinical behaviors. Due to the relative paucity of reported cases of PTPR, its natural history is unknown. Histological grading criteria remain undefined, and the prognosis of tumor is uncertain. Due to similarities in histological findings, it may be difficult to differentiate PTPR from other primary or metastatic tumors with prominent papillary feature occurring in central nervous system. Thorough inspection under the microscopy and appropriate immunohistochemical profile are necessary for correct diagnosis. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.07.010

Guang-yu JIANG

2014-07-01

17

Radiotherapy of pineal tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiotherapy has universally been used in the treatment of pineal tumors and suprasellar germinomas. Recently however, major technical advances related to the use of the operating microscope and development of microsurgical techniques have prompted a renewed interest in the direct surgical approach for biopsy and/or excision. This interest has resulted in a controversy regarding the role of surgery prior to radiotherapy. Because of the heterogeneity of tumors occurring in the pineal region (i.e., germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, glial tumors, and cysts) and their differing biological behavior, controversy also surrounds aspects of radiotherapy such as: the optimal radiation dose, the volume to be irradiated, and indications for prophylactic spinal irradiation. A review of the available data is presented in an attempt to answer these questions

18

Pineal region tumors: the role of stereotactic radiosurgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between July 1992 and August 1995, 11 patients with pineal region tumors (PRTs) were treated at our center. Ages ranged from 8 to 72 years (median 21). Diagnosis was confirmed by histological examination in 7 patients. The remaining cases had strong neuroradiological and marker evidence of the diagnosis, so that a stereotactic biopsy could be avoided. The pathological diagnoses were pinealocytoma (n = 1), tectal astrocytoma (n = 1), germinoma (n = 2), pinealoblastoma (n = 2), and meningioma (n = 3). The marginal dose of these tumors ranged from 12 to 18-20 Gy. Conventional external radiotherapy was never used in this series. With a median follow-up of 12.3 months (range 2-34), all tumors responded to treatment and disappeared or ceased growing. We observed no mortality or major morbidity. One patient (tectal astrocytoma) had a mild radiation-induced reaction, with headache and transient worsening of an abducent nerve palsy, which were controlled with steroids. In germinomas and pinealoblastomas, recovery of normal cerebrospinal fluid circulation was observed in less than 7 days, in parallel with major tumor shrinkage. In this study we confirm that radiosurgery can be an effective and safe alternative for the treatment of pinealocytomas and low-grade tectal gliomas. Moreover, we consider that the characteristics of the radiosurgery technique suggest the method should be evaluated for the treatment of malignant PRTs. PMID:9032858

Manera, L; Régis, J; Chinot, O; Porcheron, D; Levrier, O; Farnarier, P; Peragut, J C

1996-01-01

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Lung carcinoma metastasis presenting as a pineal region tumor / Metástasis del carcinoma de pulmón que se presenta como tumor de la región pineal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish La región pineal es un sitio inusual para el depósito de metástasis y la mayoría de las metástasis pineales son asintomáticas. Un hombre de 53 años debutó con una cefalea intensa, limitación en la supraversión y diplopia. La exploración neurológica fue irrelevante. La resonancia magnética (RM) cereb [...] ral demostró una lesión solitaria de 1,5 x 2 cm bien delimitada, en la región pineal con hidrocefalia. Fue intervenido quirúrgicamente siendo el diagnóstico anatomopatológico de adenocarcinoma. Un estudio sistémico descubrió un adenocarcinoma de pulmón como tumor primario. Aunque muy raramente, las metástasis deben considerarse en el diagnóstico diferencial de tumores de la región pineal. Abstract in english The pineal region is an unusual site for brain metastasis and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. A 53 year-old man presented with severe headache, limitation of upward gaze and diplopia. The patient's neurological examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of [...] the brain demonstrated a 1,5 x 2 cm well demarcated solitary mass in the pineal region with hydrocephalus. Surgery was performed and adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. A systemic investigation revealed adenocarcinoma of the lung as primary lesion. Although rare, metastatic tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors.

Y., Samanci; C., Iplikcioglu; E., Ozek; D., Ozcan; B., Marangozoglu.

2011-12-01

20

Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors - quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma  

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Our study aimed to elucidate the imaging features for the differentiation of pineal germinoma and other pineal region tumors. Image data sets of computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 93 pineal region tumors including 33 germinomas, 30 nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), and 10 miscellaneous tumors of pineal region were reviewed. Imaging features on CT and MRI were qualitatively assessed by three readers. To know the reasons for morphological differences between germinomas and NGGCTs, histological investigation was done. Localized calcification was seen in more than 70 % of germ cells tumors (GCTs: germinomas and NGGCTs) while it was scattered in more than half of PPTs. Cystic components in tumors were most frequent in NGGCTs (62 %). Multiplicity of lesion was restricted to GCTs: 39.4 % in germinoma and 10.0 % in NGGCTs. Thick peritumoral edema was more frequent in germinoma than in NGGCT: 40.6 vs. 14.8 % (p = 0.0433, Fisher's test). Bithalamic extension of tumor was seen in 78.8 % of germinomas. It was significantly rare in other groups of tumors (p < 0.0001, Fisher's test). The relative collagen amount per unit area was significantly lower in germinoma than in NGGCTs. By paying attention to characteristic features as bithalamic extension, thick peritumoral edema, calcification pattern, multiplicity, and their combination, the preoperative differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma will become more accurate. (orig.)

Awa, Ryuji; Campos, Francia; Arita, Kazunori; Karki, Prasanna; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Oyoshi, Tatsuki; Hirano, Hirofumi [Kagoshima University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuhiko [Hiroshima University, Department of Clinical Oncology and Neuro-oncology Program, Hiroshima (Japan); Tominaga, Atsushi; Kurisu, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki [Hiroshima University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Fukukura, Yoshihiko [Kagoshima University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Fujii, Yukihiko [Niigata University, Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

2014-07-15

21

Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors - quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our study aimed to elucidate the imaging features for the differentiation of pineal germinoma and other pineal region tumors. Image data sets of computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 93 pineal region tumors including 33 germinomas, 30 nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), and 10 miscellaneous tumors of pineal region were reviewed. Imaging features on CT and MRI were qualitatively assessed by three readers. To know the reasons for morphological differences between germinomas and NGGCTs, histological investigation was done. Localized calcification was seen in more than 70 % of germ cells tumors (GCTs: germinomas and NGGCTs) while it was scattered in more than half of PPTs. Cystic components in tumors were most frequent in NGGCTs (62 %). Multiplicity of lesion was restricted to GCTs: 39.4 % in germinoma and 10.0 % in NGGCTs. Thick peritumoral edema was more frequent in germinoma than in NGGCT: 40.6 vs. 14.8 % (p = 0.0433, Fisher's test). Bithalamic extension of tumor was seen in 78.8 % of germinomas. It was significantly rare in other groups of tumors (p < 0.0001, Fisher's test). The relative collagen amount per unit area was significantly lower in germinoma than in NGGCTs. By paying attention to characteristic features as bithalamic extension, thick peritumoral edema, calcification pattern, multiplicity, and their combination, the preoperative differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma will become more accurate. (orig.)

22

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor located in the pineal region following prophylactic irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare entity. In the central nervous system, AT/RT generally arises from the posterior fossa of infants and behaves aggressively. AT/RT is reported to arise from the infratentorial region (63%) and other sites, such as the suprasellar region, cerebellopontine angle, and spinal cord. The pineal region is rare (6%) as a site of origin. Radiation-induced brain tumors are well known. In this report, we present a case of a pineal region tumor causing acute hydrocephalus that could be pathologically diagnosed as AT/RT following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (author)

23

Papillary Tumor of the Pineal Region: MR Signal Intensity Correlated to Histopathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumors of the pineal region are rare and can be challenging to differentiate by imaging. Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) was recently recognized as a neoplasm in the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007 classification, arising from specialized ependymocytes in the subcommissural organ, which is located in the pineal region. It is a rare histological type of pineal tumor with only a few cases reported. Here, we describe a case of histologically confirmed PTPR in a 17-year-old man who presented with a headache. A literature review was performed to clarify the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of PTPR. Pineal neoplasms do not have pathognomonic imaging findings; however, we discuss T1 hyperintensity, which is a key for imaging diagnosis according to recent reports. In particular, if the hyperintensity in T1 is not due to fat, calcification, melanin, or hemorrhage in a mass of the posterior commissure or pineal region, the diagnosis of a PTPR may be suggested, as observed in this case. PMID:25688307

Rosa Junior, Marcos; da Rocha, Antonio Jose; Zanon da Silva, Adriano; Rosemberg, Sergio

2015-01-01

24

Radiotherapy of Pineal and Ectopic Pineal Tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From December 1984 to February 1990, 16 patients with tumors of pineal and suprasellar location were treated with radiation therapy. Tissue diagnoses were obtained before radiation therapy in 5 patients and 11 were irradiated without histologic confirmation. Initial treatments for these patients were craniospinal plus boost primary irradiation(six), whole brain plus boost primary irradiation(nine), primary tumor site irradiation(one). The 5 year actuarial survival rate is 71%. Three cases with elevated beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) responded favorably to radiation, but pineal tumors with elevated alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) did not respond well. Spinal metastasis developed in 2 cases (2/15) with elevated AFP : one received prophylactic spinal irradiation, another did not. Our studies suggest that more aggressive treatment would be necessary in patient with elevated AFP and in this patient, radiation therapy may be initiate without pathologic confirmation. From the result of our study, routine use of prophylactic spinal irradiation for all patients with pineal region tumor is not indicated and use of prophylactic spinal irradiation is considered for the patients with positive craniospinal fluid cytology, meningeal seeding, disease extension along the ventricular wall and biopsy proven germinoma

25

Surgical treatment of the tumors of posterior part of third ventricle and pineal region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To summarize the experiences of the surgical treatment of tumors in the posterior part of the third ventricle and pineal region. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with tumors in this region treated micro-surgically from 1990 to 2000 were analyzed. The surgical indications, approaches, and operative key points were discussed. The prognostic factors were also analyzed. Results: Tumors were removed totally in 11 patients, removed sub-totally in 7 and removed partially in 5. Biopsy and ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was performed in 4 patients. Of 17 patients in follow-up, 13 patients survived longer than 5 years. Conclusions: Most tumors in the posterior part of the third ventricle and pineal region can be surgically removed. Sufficient specimen obtained in the operation can confirm pathologic property of the tumor, guiding next chemotherapy and radiotherapy

26

Pineal region tumors: results of radiation therapy and indications for elective spinal irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighteen patients with pineal region tumors seen from November 1960 to November 1978 were reviewed. Thirteen patients treated with radiation therapy received tumor doses in the 4000 to 5500 rad range. The five year survival and five year disease-free survival were 73 and 63% respectively. Spinal cord metastasis occurred in 2 of 13 (15%) patients. Attempts at salvage radiotherapy for these patients were unsuccessful. Computerized tomography (CT) scan provides an excellent method of evaluating the response of pineal region tumors to radiation. Rapid regression of the tumor mass on CT scan reflects the highly radioresponsive nature of germinomas, the tumor type most likely to disseminate throughout the neuraxis. This principle can be exploited to select unbiopsied patients with a high risk of spinal cord metastasis for prophylactic spinal radiation at an early stage of treatment

27

Stereotactic techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of pineal region tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The marked diversity of pathological lesions arising in the pineal region supports the increasing need to obtain a definitive tissue diagnosis. In the pre-CT era, radiographic studies rarely allowed for anything more than the outlining of a mass lesion. Contrast ventriculography could not distinguish between a non-neoplastic cyst and an astrocytoma. This limitation illustrates the difficulty of interpreting the results of previous retrospective series in which the majority of patients treated had neither a tissue diagnosis nor a CT scan to confirm the clinical impression of a pineal region tumor. Computerized tomography now offers a much improved definition of the pathological process. The utilization of computerized tomography, angiography, biochemical markers, and the clinical presentation all contribute to the establishment of the correct diagnosis. Prior to the widespread application of microsurgical techniques, exploration of the pineal region had proved hazardous even in the best of hands. More recently, several experienced neurosurgeons have reported satisfactory results in the microsurgical exploration of the pineal region. Stereotactic needle biopsy has been used predominantly in European centers as an alternative to either open surgical exploration or blind radiation therapy. Their published series have demonstrated both a high degree of efficacy in establishing the diagnosis while avoiding some of the risk associated with direct surgical visualization of thd with direct surgical visualization of the pineal region. In this chapter the author describe the technique of CT/stereotactic biopsy at the M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute and review the results obtained at several major centers. The use of, and indications for, stereotactic radiosurgery and interstitial brachytherapy is discussed

28

DNA copy number alterations in central primitive neuroectodermal tumors and tumors of the pineal region: an international individual patient data meta-analysis  

OpenAIRE

Little is known about frequency, association with clinical characteristics, and prognostic impact of DNA copy number alterations (CNA) on survival in central primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CNS-PNET) and tumors of the pineal region. Searches of MEDLINE, Pubmed, and EMBASE-after the original description of comparative genomic hybridization in 1992 and July 2010-identified 15 case series of patients with CNS-PNET and tumors of the pineal region whose tumors were investigated for genome-wide C...

Von Bueren, Andre? O.; Gerss, Joachim; Hagel, Christian; Cai, Haoyang; Remke, Marc; Hasselblatt, Martin; Feuerstein, Burt G.; Pernet, Sarah; Delattre, Olivier; Korshunov, Andrey; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pfister, Stefan M.; Baudis, Michael

2012-01-01

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Pre- and postoperative management of pineal region tumors and the occipital transtentorial approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the use of the operating microscope, a variety of malignant as well as benign lesions of the pineal region can be excised safely. In cases in which complete excision is impossible, obtaining tissue for a histological diagnosis has been extremely helpful in planning appropriate postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Reducing tumor bulk may also be beneficial, as has been shown to be the case in medulloblastoma. As adjunctive modes of therapy for malignant pineal tumors become available, such as chemotherapy and possibly immunotherapy, the authors believe that the burden will be on the neurosurgeon to provide a tissue diagnosis. Complete myelography should be considered preoperatively or postoperatively to detect asymptomatic meningeal implants. The presence of such metastases makes postoperative craniospinal irradiation essential. The authors advocate liberal dosages of corticosteroids (i.e. 10-20 mg dexamethasone/day) for 24-48 hr prior to surgery. The authors recommend postoperative radiotherapy in all patients with malignant pineal region lesions regardless of whether or not complete excision was possible. The lowest incidence of recurrence in the literature seems to occur following 5,000-5,500 rads. In the face of negative myelography and CSF cytology, there is controversy regarding prophylactic spinal axis irradiation. The use of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy is probably the initial therapy of choice in such a patient. Following this, if a small, loca patient. Following this, if a small, localized tumor burden remains, it can be removed surgically, as is done with localized residual tumor in testicular cancer. Failure to adequately assess the presence of meningeal seeding by cytology and melography may make certain patients vulnerable to spinal recurrence of disease in the face of complete local remission

30

Management of pineal region tumours in children  

OpenAIRE

Pineal region tumors in children are rare. A wide diversity of lesion arises from the pineal gland or the surrounding tissues. Among them, germinomas, nongerminomatous germ cell tumors and pineoblastoma are the most common. These tumor do not have pathognomonic imaging findings. However, tumor markers evaluation may narrow the differential diagnosis. Symptoms are usually related to tumor size and location. Treatment depends on tumor type but still the standard m...

Alexiou, George A.

2012-01-01

31

Germinomas and other pineal tumors: Chemotherapeutic responses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results and potential future role of chemotherapy in the treatment of pineal region tumors are reviewed in this paper. To date only a small number of patients with pineal region tumors have been treated with chemotherapy and this has commonly been done in association with radiation therapy. Very few patients have had a chemotherapy-induced tumor response that can clearly be attributed to only that therapy. In this paper the authors review 5 patients from our series in whom a therapeutic response was observed that was clearly attributable to drug administration and nor surgery, radiotherapy, or adrenal corticosteroids. Four of these patients had tumors of germ cell origin. These observations added to a limited number of other case reports suggest a promising therapeutic role for chemotherapeutic agents in the management of pineal region tumors. In particular, germ cell tumors of the pinear region appear to be especially responsive to chemotherapeutic agents. The pattern and responses of the pineal region tumors suggest that an important factor in therapeutic effectiveness is the absence of the blood-brain barrier in this area, thereby permitting appropriate drug delivery. An exciting prospect is that the Japanese are currently conducting a national cooperative study on the use of chemotherapy in the treatment of pineal tumors. Because of the high incidence of these tumors in Japan, these studies will undoubtedly be of great value value

32

A role of trial radiation therapy in the pineal region tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the treatment results of 30 patients with pineal region tumors who were underwent radiation therapy under the diagnosis by either CT or MRI. There was no histological verification. We analyzed the prognostic factors that have a significant effect on the overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) rates. A total 30 patients with pineal region tumors were treated between March 1983 and August 1995. After a trial radiation therapy of 20 ? 30 Gy/2 ? 3 weeks, the patients were evaluated for their clinical response and radiological response by either CT or MRI and the final treatment direction was then decided. According to their response to the trial radiation therapy and the involved site, radiation treatment was given in various field i.e., local, ventricle, whole brain and craniospinal field. The radiation dose ranged from 40.8 to 59.4 Gy (Median 50.4 Gy). The median follow up was 36.5 months (4 ? 172 months). An improvement or stability in the clinical symptoms was observed in 28 patients (93.3%) after the trial RT. Nineteen patients (63.3%) showed a partial or complete response by CT or MRI. The two-year and five-year survival rates of the patients were 66.7% and 55.1%, respectively. No significant difference in the survival rates according to the degree of the radiological response was observed after the trial RT. The results of univariate analysis showed that age, the primary site, the performance stahe primary site, the performance status(KPS ? 70), the degree of response after completing RT and the RT field were significant prognostic factors affecting the survival and disease free survival rates (? < 0.05). The clinical and histological characteristics of pineal region tumors are quite complex and diverse. Therefore, it is difficult to predict the histological diagnosis and the possibility of radiocurability only with the initial response to RT. We think that the development of less invasive histological diagnostic techniques and tailored treatment to the histological type of each tumor are needed

33

Differentiation of germinomas from other tumors in the pineal region with CT and MR imaging, with special reference to extension patterns to the thalami  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) characteristics of pineal region germinomas, the author reviewed images from 40 patients with pineal region tumors. These tumors were divided into two groups: those with germinomas (n=17), and those with other tumors in the pineal region (5 with a germ cell tumor other than germinoma; 8, mixed germ cell tumor; 8, pineal parenchymal tumor; and 2, miscellaneous tumors; n=23). All cases were investigated with CT; 31 of the cases were also investigated with MR imaging. The following parameters comprised statistically significant differences between the two groups: maximum size of the tumor, tumor density of the precontrast CT, signal intensity of precontrast T1-weighted spin-echo images, and homogeneity of the tumor on both precontrast and postcontrast studies. This study found that extension patterns of pineal region tumors into the thalamus have significant implications in differentiating germinomas from other tumors of this region. Germinomas are characterized by thalamic extension without lateral displacement of the third ventricle walls due to direct compression by tumors (p=0.0034). The analysis of tumor extension patterns, combined with the parameters mentioned above, may provide a more accurate differential diagnosis in pineal region tumors, leading to prompt and appropriate treatment. (author)

34

Radiotherapy Results of pineal Tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective analysis was performed on 23 patients with pineal region tumors treated with radiation from 1979 through 1985 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Histologic confirmation was done in only one case by surgical removal, and in the remaining 22 patients, the diagnosis was based on clinical and radiological findings. The radiation volume was the primary tumor site in 1 case, whole brain in 14 cases, and the whole craniospinal axis in 8 cases. The overall 5 year survival was 71.5%. The 5 year survival was 69. 3% for whole brain treated group and 73.3% for craniospinal axis treated group. The survival for the two groups did not differ significantly. In two cases sites of recurrence were detected. One in supratentorial area, and the other in the lung. The results from this retrospective analysis and the review of other reports indicate that routine use of prophlatic spinal irradiation is not warranted in pineal region tumor, and the craniospinal irradiation is recommended in cases with high risk for subarachnoid seeding such as positive CSF cytology, surgical removal or biopsy

35

Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology  

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Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

Wang, Peng [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu (China); Mao, Qing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Liu, Yan-Hui, E-mail: liuyanhui9@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

2014-03-01

36

Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

37

Papillary tumor of pineal region: Prolonged control rate after gamma knife radiosurgery - A case report and review of literature  

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Full Text Available Papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPR are very rare. We describe the first report of a PTPR empirically managed with gamma knife radiosurgery. The patient was initially shunted and referred for empirical gamma knife radiosurgery. After initially showing some improvement, he had recurrence of tumor after 7 years. For recurrence he underwent a gross total resection and the biopsy established the diagnosis of PTPR. Further research needs to be done as to the efficacy of gamma knife surgery for PTPR. In addition, the role of stereotactic biopsy for eligible patients should be considered as the initial step to direct the treatment of choice.

Cardenas Raul

2010-01-01

38

Diagnostic radiology of pineal tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contrast enhanced CT scan of the head and full column myelography using a water-soluble agent (after controlling increased intracranial pressure) are the screening methods of choice in evaluating patients with tumors of the pineal region. Angiography retains an important role in these patients: to document the degree of vascularity of the mass seen on CT scan; to rule out the possibility that the enhancing mass is a benign vascular lesion such as vein of Galen aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, etc.; to provide the surgeon with a clear image of displaced normal arteries and veins prior to biopsy, and to show the position of cortical veins at the site of the planned surgical approach. Data now being accumulated regarding the use of CT-guided stereotaxic biopsy methods may demonstrate that needle biopsy of lesions of this area can be performed with much less risk to the patient than was the case with open biopsy methods. This new technique, along with microscopic surgical resection methods, may produce better treatment results than have been possible in the past

39

Increased mitotic and proliferative activity are associated with worse prognosis in papillary tumors of the pineal region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papillary tumors of the pineal region are rare glial tumors located in the vicinity of the third ventricle, the clinical behavior of which is often aggressive. Little is known about the prognostic markers that might aid to identify patients at increased risk for recurrence. Therefore, the prognostic value of histopathologic and clinical features was examined in a series of 21 patients. Median age of the 12 male and 9 female patients was 35 years (range, 10 to 56 y). On histopathologic examination, all tumors were characterized by loose papillary structures and tumor cells forming broad perivascular pseudorosettes showing cytokeratin expression. In addition, tumors showed increased cellularity (n=4; 19%), nuclear pleomorphism (n=4; 19%), solid growth (n=11; 52%), necrosis (n=8; 38%), increased mitotic activity (?3 mitoses per 10 high-power fields [n=10; 48%]), and increased proliferation (Ki67/MIB1 index ?10% [n=8/20; 40%]). Gross total resection could be achieved in 13/21 patients (62%). Postoperatively, 13 patients received radiotherapy and 4 patients chemotherapy. Median recurrence-free survival was 66 months in 19 patients, for whom detailed follow-up information was available. Twelve patients (63%) experienced tumor progression. Three patients (16%) died of disease. Among the clinical and histopathologic features examined, only increased mitotic activity (52 [8 to 96] vs. 68 [66 to 70] mo [median [95% confidence interval

Heim, Stephanie; Beschorner, Rudi; Mittelbronn, Michel; Keyvani, Kathy; Riemenschneider, Markus J; Vajtai, Istvan; Hartmann, Christian; Acker, Till; Blümcke, Ingmar; Paulus, Werner; Hasselblatt, Martin

2014-01-01

40

PINEAL GLAND TUMORS: EXPERIENCE FROM THE SEER DATABASE  

OpenAIRE

Pineal gland tumors are rare and account for less than 1% of all primary brain tumor diagnoses. Also, they are more commonly seen in pediatric patients than in adults. We analyzed the available SEER data on pineal gland tumors that were diagnosed during the period 1973–2005. The cohort was subdivided into groups on the basis of tumor histology: germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, gliomas, and other pineal tumors. Analyses of incidence, survival, factors influencing survival, and tr...

Al-hussaini, Maysa; Sultan, Iyad; Gajjar, Amar J.; Abuirmileh, Najyah; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim

2009-01-01

41

Primary Malignant Melanoma in the Pineal Region  

Science.gov (United States)

A 59-year-old male patient had 5-month history of gait disturbance and memory impairment. His initial brain computed tomography scan showed 3.5×2.8 cm sized mass with high density in the pineal region. The tumor was hypointense on T2 weighted magnetic resonance images and hyperintense on T1 weighted magnetic resonance images with heterogenous enhancement of central portion. The tumor was totally removed via the occipital transtentorial approach. Black mass was observed in the operation field, and after surgery, histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Whole spine magnetic resonance images and whole body 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography could not demonstrate the primary site of this melanoma. Scrupulous physical examination of his skin and mucosa was done and dark pigmented lesion on his left leg was found, but additional studies including magnetic resonance images and skin biopsy showed negative finding. As a result, final diagnosis of primary pineal malignant melanoma was made. He underwent treatment with the whole brain radiotherapy and extended local boost irradiation without chemotherapy. His preoperative symptoms were disappeared, and no other specific neurological deficits were founded. His follow-up image studies showed no recurrence or distant metastasis until 26 weeks after surgery. Primary pineal malignant melanomas are extremely rare intracranial tumors, and only 17 cases have been reported since 1899. The most recent case report showed favorable outcome by subtotal tumor resection followed by whole brain and extended local irradiation without chemotherapy. Our case is another result to prove that total tumor resection with radiotherapy can be the current optimal treatment for primary malignant melanoma in the pineal region. PMID:25628812

Hong, Yong-Kil

2014-01-01

42

Surgical therapy of benign pineal tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently, there is no way that the author knows to satisfactorily distinguish the benign lesions from their malignant cousins without a shadow of doubt. This includes preoperative evaluation of the clinical history, biological markers in serum and CSF, CT scans with and without contrast in various projections including the horizontal, coronal and sagittal cuts, and arteriography. Because the author has personally encountered difficulty in precisely diagnosing these tumors at routine light microscopy, especially when fragments are small, he has a personal aversion to the technique of diagnosis which enlists the use of a stereotactically placed biopsy needle. The author feels that virtually all of the pineal tumors require surgical exposure and sufficient tissue removal to ensure an accurate histological diagnosis. With experience, the author believes the surgeon can tell as he exposes the posterior and lateral aspects of these tumors whether or not they are encapsulated and therefore potentially resectable. This anatomical variation may be identified prior to operative intervention by an arteriogram especially with injection of large quantities of dye into the carotid system. With the advent of the CUSA (Cavitron Lasersonics, Cooper Medical Device Corporation, Stamford, CT), the author has used this instrument with increased facility and benefit in the removal of benign relatively avascular tumors of the pineal region. This instrument is ideal in coring out the interistrument is ideal in coring out the interior of the tumor while creating little displacement of the tumor capsule. Some of the benign tumors, especially the meningiomas may be partially or heavily calcified and this instrument exhibits particular usefulness in these cases

43

Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology / Cirurgia com gamma knife como tratamento experimental para tumores da região da pineal: uma estratégia alternativa quando os dados anatomopatológicos são negativos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Tumores da região da pineal (TRP) são pouco frequentes e as propostas de tratamento são bastante variadas. Os autores relatam sua experiência em cirurgias com uso gamma knife (CGK) como tratamento experimental inicial em séries de TRP que não têm diagnóstico anatomopatológico ou nos quais o diagnóst [...] ico não ficou claro. Foram estudados retrospectivamente 17 pacientes com TRP nestas condições e que foram submetidos a CGK. Destes, 9 pacientes foram submetidos posteriormente a radioterapia de todo o encéfalo e medula espinhal entre 6 e 9 meses depois da CGK. Dezesseis dos 17 pacientes foram acompanhados por um período médio de 33,3 meses. A taxa total de resposta nos pacientes foi de 75% e a taxa dos controles, 81,3%. Não houve nenhum déficit neurológico evidente que pudesse ser atribuído à CGK. A CGK como tratamento experimental pode ser uma estratégia alternativa no grupo específico de pacientes com TRP em que não há diagnóstico anatomopatológico, podendo ser obtida uma boa qualidade de vida com poucas complicações para esse grupo de pacientes. Abstract in english Objective : Pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method : Seventeen PRT patients with negative [...] pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6–9 months after GKS. Results : Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion : The findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications.

Peng, Wang; Qing, Mao; Wei, Wang; Liang-Xue, Zhou; Yan-Hui, Liu.

2014-02-01

44

Spontaneous pineal apoplexy in a pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation  

OpenAIRE

Pineal apoplexy is a rare clinical presentation of pineal parenchymal tumors. We report the curative treatment of a case of pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation with spontaneous apoplectic hemorrhage. This case is shown through computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and is confirmed via histopathological studies. Recurrent upward gaze paresis was observed after the stereotactic biopsy. The paresis required an expeditious tumor resection. The mecha...

Timothy Steel; Jennifer Turner; Ching-Chun Wang

2013-01-01

45

PTEN mutations and activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in papillary tumors of the pineal region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPR) are recognized as a distinct entity in the World Health Organization classification of CNS tumors. Papillary tumors of the pineal region frequently show loss of chromosome 10, but no studies have investigated possible target genes on this chromosome. Chromosome 10 harbors the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) gene, the inactivation of which, by mutation or epigenetic silencing, has been observed in different brain tumors, including high-grade gliomas. In this study, we investigated copy number changes by molecular inversion probe (MIP) analysis and the mutational status of PTEN in 13 PTPR by direct sequencing. MIP analysis of 5 PTPR showed chromosome 10 loss in all cases. In addition, there were losses of chromosomes 3, 14, 22, and X, and gains of whole chromosomes 8, 9, and 12 in more than 1 case. One case had a homozygous PTEN deletion; and 2 point mutations in exon 7 of PTEN (G251D and Q261stop) were found. Immunohistochemistry revealed decrease or loss of the PTEN protein and increased expression of p-Akt and p-S6. These results indicated that PTEN mutations and activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway may play a role in the biology of PTPR. This evidence may lead to the possible use of PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors in therapy for patients with PTPR. PMID:25003235

Goschzik, Tobias; Gessi, Marco; Denkhaus, Dorota; Pietsch, Torsten

2014-08-01

46

Multiple remote epidural hematomas following pineal gland tumor resection  

OpenAIRE

In cases of pineal tumor combined with obstructive hydrocephalus, preoperative ventriculostomy or ventriculoperitoneal shunting is typically required prior to tumor resection. The objectives of preoperative ventriculostomy are gradual reduction of intracranial pressure and consequent preoperative brain protection. Here we report a case of pineal tumor resection with preoperative ventriculostomy that was complicated by multiple epidural hematomas. While postoperative intracranial hemorrhage ma...

Lim Jeong-Wook; Yang Seung-Hwan; Lee Jong-Soo; Song Shi-Hun

2010-01-01

47

Pineal region masses--imaging findings and surgical approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anatomy of the pineal region is complex. Despite advances in surgical techniques since the first reported successful pineal region surgery in the early 20th century, pineal region surgery remains challenging owing to the proximity of deep cerebral veins and dorsal midbrain structures critical for vision. In this article, we review the relevant surgical anatomy of the pineal region and discuss historically important and current surgical approaches. We describe specific imaging features of pineal region masses that may affect surgical planning and review neoplastic and nonneoplastic masses that occur in the pineal region. PMID:25027864

Lensing, Forrester D; Abele, Travis A; Sivakumar, Walavan; Taussky, Philipp; Shah, Lubdha M; Salzman, Karen L

2015-01-01

48

Conservative management of pineal tumors - Mayo clinic experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The typical pineal tumor occurs in an adolescent boy with subacute increased intracranial pressure and Parinaud's syndrome. Diagnosis is confirmed by CT scanning, and long-term survival usually following shunting and radiation therapy. Direct surgical methods for successful treatment of suitable pineal tumors have evolved and may be utilized with relatively low risk in appropriate cases

49

Follow-up study with computerized tomography during and after irradiation in patients with pineal tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twelve cases of pineal tumors were studied by means of computerized tomography during and after radiation therapy. The patients were 9 cases of pineal germinoma, 2 cases of pineal teratoma with a component of embryonal carcinoma, and 1 case of ependymoma. In the follow-up CT studies, all the cases of pineal germinoma showed a remarkable response to irradiation with megavoltage x-ray (Linac). In 4 cases, the tumor size was shown to have decreased at the early stages (700-1000 rads) of the irradiation. At the termination of irradiation (4000-5000 rads), the enhancing tumor mass became unrecognizable, or only a dot-like calcification remained in the pineal region. In the 2 cases with pineal teratoma, the size of the tumor in the pineal region remained unchanged on CT scan, even with extensive irradiation schedules, while the simultaneous embryonal carcinoma within the teratoma grew rapidly in the other half of the brain. These metastatic lesions were highly enhanced and circumscribed, and were treated by means of operations and by chemotherapy, which were temporarily effective. The prognosis in both cases was poor. Regarding the case of ependymoma, the radiation therapies were not effective, and the tumor was found in follow-up CT scans to have increased continuously in size. The prognosis was poor in spite of surgical operations and chemotherapy. From these observations, it is concluded that a differential diagnosis between various kinds of pineal tumors might be difficous kinds of pineal tumors might be difficult on the basis of a single CT scan alone; however, it becomes possible when one takes into account the different responses to irradiation in the follow-up CT studies. (author)

50

Multiple remote epidural hematomas following pineal gland tumor resection  

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Full Text Available In cases of pineal tumor combined with obstructive hydrocephalus, preoperative ventriculostomy or ventriculoperitoneal shunting is typically required prior to tumor resection. The objectives of preoperative ventriculostomy are gradual reduction of intracranial pressure and consequent preoperative brain protection. Here we report a case of pineal tumor resection with preoperative ventriculostomy that was complicated by multiple epidural hematomas. While postoperative intracranial hemorrhage may occur at any site, it is rare in those areas remote from the operative field. In the present case, multiple remote sequential epidural hematomas developed following resection of a pineal gland tumor. We also discuss the pathophysiologic mechanisms and provide a literature review.

Lim Jeong-Wook

2010-01-01

51

Failure pattern of pineal and ectopic pineal germ cell tumor after gamma knife radiosurgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed to determine the optimal treatment volume of patients treating with radiation therapy for intracranial germ cell tumor. From 1993 to 1998, 19 patients with intracranial germ cell tumors treated by gamma knife radiosurgery were analyzed. The location of tumor was as follows; 9 cases on pineal region, 1 case on suprasellar region, and 9 cases of multiple lesion. 7 patients were pathologically verified; 5 cases of germ cell tumor and 2 cases of non germinomatous germ cell tumor. Tumor volume was ranged from 2.4 cm3 to 74 cm3. Irradiation dose was 10 Gy to 20 Gy with 50% isodose curve. Follow up period was 10 months to 54 months. Recurrences were observed in 14 cases among 19 (74%) patients. Complete remission and partial remission were achieved in 2 (11%) and 10 (53%) respectively. No response was observed in 7 (36%). 2 cases were recurred within original tumor bed. 6 cases were recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed. Bentricular relapses separated from pretreatment tumor bed were 3. Spinal recurrences were 4. Among 8 recurred cases of which tumor volume is smaller than 20 cm3, 2 were recurred within original tumor bed, 4 were recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed, and 1 spinal recurrence. Meanwhile, 6 cases of which tumor volume larger than 20 cm3, 1 case was recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed, 2 ventricular recurrences separated with original tumor bed, and 3 spinal recurrencoriginal tumor bed, and 3 spinal recurrences. 5 cases which did not show any recurrence sign show any recurrence sign showed characteristics of single lesion, tumor volume smaller than 20 cm3 and normal tumor marker. All of 4 cases of spinal recurrences happened in the case having ventricular invasion or lesion. Among 9 cases having multiple lesion, only 3 cases recurred within original tumor bed or around tumor bed, the other 6 cases recurred separated from pretreatment tumor bed. Gamma knife radiosurgery is not recommended for the treatment of intracranial germ cell tumor. It is because of small treatment volume and inadequate radiation dose that are characteristics of gamma knife radiosurgery. Tumor volume, ventricular lesion or invasion, and normal tumor marker are ideal indications for small involved field radiation therapy. Prophylactic spinal irradiation seems to be necessary when there is ventricular lesion, ventricular invasion, and multiple lesions. When the tumor volume is larger than 20 cm3, multiple lesions, abnormal tumor marker, and whole ventricular irradiation or partial brain irradiation would be possible and neoadjuvant chemotherapy would be most beneficial in these group

52

Tumours of the pineal region in childhood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

36 patients with tumours in the pineal region were treated between 1980 and 1986, 19 of whom were under 20 years of age. Diagnosis was based on cranial CT, supplemented to by MRI as from 1986. Preoperative angiography was peformed on all patients to demonstrate tumour vascularization and type of vascular supply. Stereotactic biopsies were complemented by intraoperative ventriculography. Stereotactic biopsy only was performed in 13 patients out of the total group to verify tumour histology. 23 patients were directly operated on primarily. 3 of these died postoperative. In cases of germ-cell tumours and pineal blastomas the total brain and the vertebral canal were irradiated. (orig./MG)

53

Afferent pupillary defect in pineal region tumour.  

OpenAIRE

A patient is described in whom an afferent pupillary defect was an early sign of a tumour in the pineal region. It is suggested that this was due to involvement of the pupillary afferent fibres between the optic tract and pretectal nucleus contralateral to the affected pupil.

Ellis, C. J.

1984-01-01

54

A case of teratoma which developed 5 years after radiotherapy for pineal tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of pineal teratoma which developed 5 years after radiotherapy for a pineal tumor at 9 years of age was presented. The patient had been admitted with increased intracranial pressure at 9 years of age. Computerized tomography (CT) scans at that time showed pineal and suprasellar tumors with ventricular dissemination. From the CT scan findings, germinoma was diagnosed and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt followed by radiotherapy was performed. 5550 rads for the brain and 1300 rads for the spinal axis were given. The tumors seemed to have almost disappeared after this therapy, and the patient continued to do well until he complained of severe headache and general fatigue in September 1984. CT scans after infusion of contrast media showed a ringed enhanced tumor at the pineal region with extension to the left thalamus. With a preoperative diagnosis of teratoma, he was operated for the subtotal removal of the tumor and was discharged with slight mental dullness two months post-operatively. Histological diagnosis of the specimen was a mature teratoma. From the response of the tumor to radiotherapy in the first admission and from the histological findings, the tumor was thought to be a mixed germ cell tumor. The authors summarized the characteristic findings of mixed germ cell tumor on CT scan and discussed the treatment for pineal tumor. (author)

55

Radiotherapy for tumours of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas (by Glanzmann and Seelentag)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this letter to the editor the authors agree with Glanzmann and Seelentag that, for tumors of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas, empirical radiotherapy after ventriculoperitoneal shunting can give gratifying results, particularly in patients under the age of 30. On the other hand they strongly recommend an aggressive surgical approach as the initial therapeutic manoever for pineal tumors. The authors further clearly indicate in which cases radiotherapy or chemotherapy is recommended as the next therapeutic option. (author). 4 refs

56

Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples Magnetic resonance study of the pineal region: normal pineal gland, simple cysts  

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Full Text Available Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4% e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu maior diâmetro. Os cistos simples da pineal aparecem com frequência de 2,6% em relação a toda a série (762 casos elevando-se essa frequência para 6,1% se forem consideradas somente as pineais visiblizadas (329 casos. Os cistos simples não se correlacionam nem com a idade nem com o sexo e os cistos sintomáticos são raros. Os critérios para diagnóstico diferencial dos cistos simples versus tumores da região da pineal são: dimensões menores ou iguais a 20 milímetros; espessura da parede abaixo de 2 milímetros; ausência de efeito expansivo; sinal igual ao líquido cefalorraquidiano e ausência de crescimento dos cistos.A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study of the normal pineal gland and pineal simple cysts was performed in 762 cases. A fine section technique (maximum 3 millimeters enabled most of the times the identifying of a normal pineal in addition to demonstrating that a pineal without any cyst shows an isointense signal in Tl and T2 which, in turn, is enhanced following gadolinium. The measure of the normal pineal was of about 6.1 millimeters in its diameter length. Pineal simple cysts were observed in a 2.6% frequency in relation to the whole series (762 cases; however reaches 6.1% when only the visualized pineals were considered (329 cases. Also, it was found out that simple cysts were not correlated to age or gender. Simple cysts characteristics are: dimension less or equal to 20 millimeters; absence of expansive effect; similar signal to that of the cerebrospinal fluid; absence of cyst growth.

JOSÉ GUILHERME CALDAS

1998-06-01

57

Pineal yolk sac tumor: correlation between neuroimaging and pathological findings Tumor do seio endodérmico da pineal: correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 17-year-old boy presented with somnolence and mental confusion. Physical examination demonstrated motor disturbances. Laboratorial investigation showed elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The CT scan revealed a heterogeneous mass at the pineal region. At the MRI, this lesion was hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, enhancing after contrast administration. The patient underwent a surgical biopsy, which defined the diagnosis of yolk sac tumor. We emphasize the correlation of neuroimaging and pathological findings of this rare pineal region tumor.Um menino de 17 anos de idade apresentou-se com sonolência e confusão mental. O exame físico demonstrou distúrbios motores. A investigação laboratorial revelou aumento dos níveis de alfafetoproteína no soro e no líquor. A TC de crânio revelou massa heterogênea na região pineal. À RM, a lesão era hipointensa em T1 e hiperintensa em T2, com realce após a administração de contraste. O paciente foi submetido a biópsia cirúrgica, a qual definiu o diagnóstico de tumor do seio endodérmico. Enfatizamos a correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem deste raro tumor da região pineal.

Taísa Davaus

2007-06-01

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Malignant pineal germ-cell tumors: An analysis of cases from three tumor registries  

OpenAIRE

The exact incidence of pineal germ-cell tumors is largely unknown. The tumors are rare, and the number of patients with these tumors, as reported in clinical series, has been limited. The goal of this study was to describe pineal germ-cell tumors in a large number of patients, using data from available brain tumor databases. Three different databases were used: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1973–2001); Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS;...

Villano, J. Lee; Propp, Jennifer M.; Porter, Kimberly R.; Stewart, Andrew K.; Valyi-nagy, Tibor; Li, Xinyu; Engelhard, Herbert H.; Mccarthy, Bridget J.

2008-01-01

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[Otoneurological symptoms and their changes after removal of pineal tumors].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors analyze otoneurological symptoms in 120 patients with pineal tumors. A marked cochleovestibular syndrome was found characterized by bilateral neurosensory hypoacusis with vocal-tonal dissociation, head noises, vertigo, multiple spontaneous nystagmus including a converging one, impaired optokinetic nystagmus, enhanced vestibulovegetative reactions. 39 cases are reported with pineal tumors removed microsurgically. Otoneurological symptoms were followed up in 32 patients early after surgery (within 20 postoperative days) and in 6 patients 1 to 5 years after radiotherapy. As evident from otoneurological examination, electronystagmography, tonal and speech audiometry, positive postoperative changes in auditory and vestibular functions occurred in most of the patients. The response persisted long in 5 patients. PMID:9229914

Blagoveshchenskaia, N S; Kapitanov, D N

1997-01-01

60

Radiation therapy for pineal tumors: 30-year experience at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighteen tumors of the pineal region were treated at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital since 1957. Preoperative evaluation included CT scan in 11 patients and cerebrospinal fluid cytology in four. Histologic diagnosis was obtained in nine patients. Diagnosis in two other patients was based on CT scan response at 2,000 cGY. Fifteen patients received whole-brain irradiation with a boost, one each with limited-field and whole-brain irradiation only. One patient with melanoma received craniospinal irradiation. Median pineal dose was 55 Gy; range, 50-60 Gy. Five treatment failures occurred, four local and one distant. Actuarial survival was 80%, 70%, and 65% at 5, 10, and 20 years. Median follow-up was 8.8 years. Cranial radiotherapy alone appears to control the majority of pineal tumors

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Radiation Therapy of Midline Pineal Tumors and Suprasellar Germinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

20 cases of midline pineal tumors and 3 suprasellar germinomas received radiation therapy at Yonsei University Medical College, Severance hospital from 1971 to 1982 were reviewed. 12 cases were pathologically proved; 10 germinomas, 1 pineoblastoma, and 1 pineocytoma. 11 cases received radiotherapy without biopsy confirmation. Although treatment fields varied from small field to whole brain irradiation, but not to the spinal cord, most patients received 4000-5000 rads irradiation to the primary tumor site. 17 patients are alive without evidence of disease and 5 year actuarial NED survival is 73.2%. 9 of 10 biopsy proved germinomas and all 6 presumed germinomas are alive and well. Optimum radiation dose, adequate irradiation field, tumor response to radiation observed in serial CT scan and role of radiation therapy in the management of pineal tumors are also discussed

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Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe CT and MR findings in a 23-month-old infant with a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal gland. The tumour has been stereotactically biopsied and surgically resected. The pathological diagnosis was made on the resected piece. Embryology of the pineal gland and the histology of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy are discussed. (orig.)

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RAdiotherapy for tumours of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 1960 and 1985, 42 patinets with pineal region tumors and two patients with suprasellar germinomas were treated by irradiation after shuntin gwith biopsy in five cases and subtotal resection in three cases. Ten year survival rates are: 79% in patients less than 31 years old and unbiopsied tumours, 25% in patients older than 30 years and unbiopsied tumours, 3/4 in patients with germinomas. Target volumes varied, but only three cases had craniospinal irradiation. Cumulative risk of spinal seeding in patients with germinomas and unbiolsied tumors is about 6% after cranal radiotherapy. The low risk of spinal seeding in patients with pineal tumours of unknown histology or germinomas without signs of dissemination in the CT/MR, myelography, examination of the CSF (cytology and markers) do not justify prophylactic spinal irradiation. Our data do not show a clear association between cranial target volume (whole brain or local fields) and recurrence rate 41 of 44 cases had target doses higher than 4400 cGy. There is a small but definite risk of major complications after a dose of about 5500 cGy with conventional fractionation. (author). 27 refs.; 5 figs

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Patofysiologiske mekanismer bag øjensymptomer ved primaere tumorer i corpus pineale.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Primary tumors of the pineal body can produce dyscoordinative movements of the eye, pupillary dilatation, paralysis of adduction during convergence and nystagmus. Obstruction of the aqueduct can cause hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure and papilledema. Diabetes insipidus may be a presenting symptom. Pinealocytes and the photoreceptors of the eye contain several autoantigens. In man, the best known is the S-antigen. This antigen can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with primary tumors of the pineal body. The S-antigen, and possibly other related autoantigens, can elicit an autoimmune mediated reaction causing inflammatory eye symptoms. This recently described paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome shares properties in common with other known cancer-associated ophthalmologic syndromes characterised by rapid development of eye symptoms, rapid loss of sight and by eye manifestations prior to evident appearance of symptoms related to primary tumor growth. A primary tumor of the pineal body should be considered in patients where a monosymptomatic uveoretinitis presents without associated provoking factors. Furthermore, analyses of S-antigen in the spinal fluid can be useful in the clinical diagnosis of the same primary tumors.

Illum, N O; MØller, M

1993-01-01

65

Adult supratentorial extra-pineal primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors.  

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Primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (PNET) are rare malignant brain tumors, mostly undifferentiated, that tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Extra-pineal supratentorial PNET in adults are very rare. Published guidelines for adult PNET were not available until 2011, and at our institute surgeons and oncologists did not have consensus on imaging evaluation or treatment protocols between 1994 to 2008. Twenty-two consecutive adult patients with extra-pineal supratentorial PNET from this period were reviewed in this retrospective study. Their clinical profiles and radiologic images were evaluated. A pathological review based on the 2007 World Health Organization criteria was also conducted. Prognostic factors were analyzed. The 1 and 3 year overall survival rates were 64% and 32% for adult extra-pineal supratentorial PNET, respectively. Limited by the small number of tumors in this series, we suggest that negative prognostic factors are multiplicity at onset, initial CSF seeding, and tumor differentiation. Although age of onset, extent of resection, radiation and chemotherapy were assumed to be good prognostic factors, the analysis did not reveal strong significance for overall survival with univariate and multivariate analysis. We believe more detailed investigations on the genetic/molecular basis of supratentorial PNET and their clinical outcomes are warranted. PMID:24461541

Zheng, Yun-Cong; Jung, Shih-Ming; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Chang, Chen-Nen; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Hsu, Yung-Hsin; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Liao, Cheng-Chih; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lu, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yin-Cheng

2014-05-01

66

Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery of pineal and related tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of gamma radiosurgery as an additional therapy after conventional treatments for pineal and related tumors was studied in 30 out of 33 cases with a mean follow-up of 23.3 months. Overall results showed that complete response (CR) was obtained in 8 cases (26.7%) and response rate was 73.3%. However, enlargement of the tumors was noted in 8 cases, of which 7 (23.3%) died of tumor progression (PG). Germinomas and pineocytomas showed higher response and control rates of 100%, and no tumor enlargement or death occurred after gamma knife treatment. In germinoma with STGC (syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell) which has been thought to have intermediate prognosis, two cases showed partial response (PR), but another died from progression of the disease. Malignant germ cell tumors and pineoblastomas showed unfavorable response and prognosis; the response and progression rates were 50%. However, complete response was obtained in 3 cases (25%) after gamma radiosurgery. Gamma knife was the initial treatment in three cases without pathological diagnosis in which one obtained CR and two showed partial response (PR). Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery is expected to be an effective and novel treatment for pineal and related tumors not only as an adjuvant, but also as an initial therapy. (author)

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Intracranial germinomas with simultaneous lesions at pineal and suprasellar regions: diagnostics and therapeutics considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germinomas are the most common intracranial germ cell tumor. Germinomas comprise 65% of this type of tumor and represent a less malignant form. This neoplasm constitutes approximately 0.1% to 3.4% of all intracranial tumors. The embryologic origin remains a mystery. Ninety-five percent of germinomas arise in the region of the third ventricle, along an axis from the suprasellar cistern (48%) to the pineal region (37%, involvement of both sites, either sequentially or simultaneously, ocurred rarely (6%). Clinical presentation depends on tumor location and may involve endocrine, hypothalamic, visual and cognitive dysfunction. We report two cases of patients with germinomas with simultaneous lesions in both the suprasellar and pineal regions and review on the clinical presentation, means of diagnosis, treatment using radiotherapy and outcome of this rate treatable neoplasm. (The author)

68

Nonsurgical pineal tumor therapy - The Japanese experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biological characteristics of intracranial germ cell tumors have gradually been clarified in recent years. Germ cell tumors are divided into three major histological types; radiation sensitive germinoma, radiation resistant mature teratoma, and malignant teratoma. Radiation, surgery, or chemotherapy as the principal therapeutic procedure for each type is selected based on the tumor's biological nature. Mature teratomas are surgically treated. Most germinomas can usually be treated by simple radiation even though a shunting procedure is sometimes required. Since malignant teratomas often produce HCG or AFP, these tumors can be diagnosed by the presence of such tumor markers in the serum without histological verification. Patients having functioning germ cell tumors can not be completely cured today by surgery alone and/or by simple radiation; they definitely require adjuvant chemotherapy or immunotherapy. In this paper, the statistical analysis of germ cell tumors in Japan and the results of treatment mainly by radiotherapy for germinoma and functioning germ cell tumors treated in the authors' clinic are summarized

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Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the pineal region: cytopathological features and differential diagnostic considerations by intraoperative smear preparation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified type of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) with shorter progression-free and overall survival, higher rate of recurrence, and higher risk of leptomeningeal spread compared to pilocytic tumors (WHO grade 2 designation). A case is presented here in which intraoperative imprint smears of a pineal region tumor in a 14-year-old girl revealed cytologic monomorphism, elongated cells with bland nuclei embedded in a myxoid background. The tumor cells possessed uniformly round nuclei with a smooth nuclear outline, fine granular chromatin, and small nucleoli. Slender cytoplasmic fibrillary processes and angiocentric arrangement were observed but Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies were absent. A cytologic diagnosis of PMA of the pineal region was suggested by intraoperative smear preparation. Histology and immunohistochemical results confirmed the final diagnosis. This report shows that smear preparation can be trustworthy for the intraoperative diagnosis of PMA, helping to determine the appropriate neurosurgical procedure and therapeutic implications. PMID:24578310

Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Haba, Reiji; Kushida, Yoshio; Katsuki, Naomi; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Kadota, Kyuichi; Matsunaga, Toru; Miyake, Keisuke; Tamiya, Takashi

2015-02-01

70

Masses in the pineal region - MRI with Gd-DTPA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results obtained from contrast-enhanced MRI in 21 patients with masses in the pineal region are reported. The use of gadolinium-DTPA results in intensive contrast uptake by the tumour; this produces better definition of the tumour and more exact delineation from neighbouring structures. This is of importance in judging resectability and in choosing the operative approach. During chemotherapy or radiotherapy, it provides reliable demonstration of the success of treatment and accurately demonstrates the size of the tumour and the presence of necrosis. On the other hand, histologic classification of pineal tumours is possible only occasionally. (orig.)

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Correlación cito-histológica del tumor papilar de la glándula pineal. Presentación de un caso / Papillary pineal tumor: cyto-histological correlation. Case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En la última revisión de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en relación a los tumores del sistema nervioso central (SNC), se describieron nuevas entidades, como el Tumor Papilar de la Glándula Pineal. Esta lesión de rara aparición, se ha identificado en adultos jóvenes. El diagnóstico de esto [...] s tumores es complejo ya que depende de su ubicación, edad de aparición y el aspecto histológico; éste último tiene similitudes con otras lesiones como el ependimoma papilar o el papiloma/carcinoma de plexos coroides. Citológicamente presentan características claras que pueden ayudar al diagnóstico a través de la impronta en el estudio intraoperatorio; reconocer ciertos criterios con éste importante y sencillo método diagnóstico ha sido la motivación principal para el estudio de entidades poco frecuentes del SNC, además de corroborar el necesario trabajo de un equipo multidisciplinar. Abstract in english In the latest revision of the central nervous system tumors (CNS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), new entities has been described, as papillary tumor of the pineal region. This rare lesion has been identified in young adults. The diagnosis of these tumors is complex, depends on the location, [...] age of onset and histological appearance. Histological characteristics have similarities with other lesions such as papillary ependymoma, papiloma / choroid plexus carcinoma. Cytologically have clear characteristics that can aid in the diagnosis through the smears on the intraoperative study. Certain criteria for recognize this important and simple diagnostic method has been the main motivation for the study of CNS rare entities, as our case, in addition to corroborating the necessary work of a multidisciplinary team.

Rosa A, Barbella-Aponte; Nohelia, Rojas-Ferrer; JP, García de la Torre; Roberto, Vera-Berón.

2014-01-01

72

Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples Magnetic resonance study of the pineal region: normal pineal gland, simple cysts  

OpenAIRE

Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo) identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4%) e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu maior diâmetro. Os ...

JOSÉ GUILHERME CALDAS; DOMINIQUE DOYON; HENRIQUE LEDERMAN; ROBERT CARLIER

1998-01-01

73

The unilateral occipital transtentorial approach for pineal region meningiomas: a report of 15 cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the current study, we reviewed and re-evaluated the experiences of microsurgical management for pineal region meningiomas via the unilateral occipital transtentorial approach (Poppen's approach). Clinical data were obtained on 15 meningiomas of the pineal region, which underwent microsurgery via unilateral Poppen's approach from March 2009 to June 2012. These patients were hospitalized in our department; their data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The tumors were removed via the right Poppen's approach in 12 cases and left Poppen's approach in 3 cases, and intraoperative external ventricular drainage was performed for hydrocephalus in 3 cases. As a result, gross total resection was achieved in 11 cases, near total resection in 3 cases and subtotal resection in 1 case. All resected tumors were pathologically confirmed. The postoperative complications included two cases of homonymous hemianopia, and deteriorated Parinaud syndrome and diplopia in one case. Ten cases were followed up (range 1-4 years) and no death occurred. On the basis of the existing literature and our experiences, the unilateral Poppen's approach is appropriate for most meningiomas of the pineal region that are small or intermediate in size. However, gross total resection might be difficult via the unilateral Poppen's approach for large-sized meningiomas with much contralateral infratentorial extension due to limited exposure. For these cases, combined supra-infratentorial or bilateral Poppen's approaches are recommended. Preoperative or intraoperative external ventricular drainage can increase tumor exposure and improve microsurgical effects. PMID:24397496

Qiu, Bo; Wang, Yong; Ou, Shaowu; Guo, Zongze; Wang, Yunjie

2014-10-01

74

Isodense epidermoid cyst in the pineal region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 69-year-old male was admitted complaining of gait disturbances and diplopia, 2.5 years after an episode of serous meningitis. Neurological examination on admission disclosed Parinaud's sign, unsteady gait and dysdiadochokinesis on the left side. A striking finding on the computerized tomography (CT) was the left to right shift of the posterior portion of the third ventricle without visualization of the quadrigeminal and ambient cisterns, which were almost completely occupied by an isodense mass accompanied by high dense flecks and a low dense part. Enhanced CT showed positive enhancement in the vicinity of the pineal calcification. By the suboccipital supracerebellar approach, an encapsulated mass containing brownish yellow fluid was subtotally removed and a histological examination of it revealed epidermoid tissue and hemosiderin deposits in the solid portion. Few reports of isodense epidermoid cysts have so far been found in the literature giving a full explanation for this unusual CT attenuation value. Based on the clinical course and histology of this case, the pathogenesis of the unusual density is discussed along the following lines: The mixture of the low dense factor due to cholesterin and the high dense factor due to prior bleeding is believed to result in the isodense attenuation value in the liquid portion. Also, in the solid part, a microscopically mixed texture of deposited hemosiderin and cholesterin clefts in the inflammatory granulomatous tissue coulthe inflammatory granulomatous tissue could explain its density on the CT scan. (author)

75

The role of computed tomography in the management of pineal area tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eleven patients with pathology-proven pineal area tumors were evaluated by computed tomography before and after treatment. There were 3 germinomas, 3 gliomas, 2 metastases, and 1 each of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, epidermoid tumor, and neuroblastoma. An accurate CT diagnosis was made in 9 of the 11 cases. Although CT findings are not pathognomonic, an accurate diagnosis is possible in most cases if the CT information is combined with the age, sex, clinical findings, and, in some patients, tumor response to irradiation. CT, a noninvasive procedure, can help in evaluating the effects of various treatment modalities on pineal tumors

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Germinomas cerebrais (teratomas atípicos da pineal Cerebral germinomas (atipical teratomas of the pineal region  

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Full Text Available São estudados três casos de germinomas cerebrais, sendo um tópico, da região pineal, e dois ectópicos, chamados germinomas supra-selares ou quiasmáticos. Estes últimos parecem ser mais agressivos que os seus congeneres tópicos, pois alem de se disseminarem pelas cisternas basais, costumam infiltrar as paredes do III ventrículo, fórnix, hipotálamo, nervos e quiasma ópticos. Caracteristicamente produzem um enorme aumento das proteínas liquóricas, desacompanhado de uma pleocitose proporcional. As proteínas liquóricas aumentadas sao globulinas cujas reações mostram-se fortemente positivas, possivelmente produzidas pelas celulas de aspecto linfocitario que constituem parte desta neoplasia. O aumento das proteinas liquoricas e tao acentuado que em presenca de uma crianca ou adolescente com sindrome de hipertensão intracraniana, hiperproteinoraquia sem pleocitose e sinais clínicos ou radiológicos sugestivos de localização na base do crânio a possibilidade de um germinoma quiasmático deve ser seriamente considerada, pois o quadro e muito sugestivo.Three cases of Cerebral Germinomas, one of them situated in the pineal region (topical and two ectopical of the so called suprasellar or chiasmal Germinomas are studied. These last ones may be more aggressive than the congeneral topical ones, since besides it's dissemination throughout the basal cisternas they usually infilstrate into de walls of the III Ventricle, Fornix, Hypothalamus, Chiasma and Optic nervs. A high level of proteins in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells is characteristic. Globulins are the predominant fraction of the increased spinal fluid proteins, as indicated by the highly positive laboratory test. These globulins are possibly produced by the lymphocytes which are part of this neoplasm. The high level of protein in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells, in the presence of intracranial syndrome in a child or adolescent, with anatomical signs of basal localization make the possibility of a Chiasmal Germinona highly probable.

Alexandre Alencar

1981-12-01

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[The dynamics of the vestibulocochlear syndrome after the removal of tumors in the pineal area].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents the follow-up data on 39 patients who underwent microsurgical removal of pineal tumors. Computerized and magnetic resonance tomographies were performed prior to and following the removal of pineal tumor. Otoneurological symptoms were analyzed in their dynamics in 32 patients in the early postoperative period (up to 20 days) and in 6 patients in the late period (1 to 5 years) after radiation therapy. Seven patients died from intracranial complications in the early postoperative period. Acoustic and vestibular functions were evaluated from otoneurological, electronystagmographic, pure-tone and verbal audiometric findings. The postoperative positive dynamics of acoustic and vestibular functions was observed in most patients. A steady-state positive effect also remained in 5 patients in the long-term period. The paper gives 2 cases with clear-cut positive cochlear dynamics after removing pineal tumors. PMID:8771759

Blagoveshchenskaia, N S; Tissen, T P; Kapitanov, D N

1996-01-01

78

Cystic lesions of the pineal region - MRI and pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal lesions are rare. Tumours in this location comprise 0.4-1% of intracranial tumours. They grow mainly as solid-mass lesions, and cystic tumours are not common. On MRI, a cystic configuration is associated usually with non-neoplastic pineal lesions rather than with a tumour, but analysis does not allow cystic pineal tumours to be distinguished from glial cysts with certainty. We compared neuroradiological and pathological data from 13 cystic pineal lesions, analysing preoperative MRI. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens were stained routinely and immunocytochemically, using the streptavidin-biotin-complex method. Histology revealed six pineocytomas, four glial cysts, an arachnoid cyst, a low-grade astrocytoma and a teratoma. Signal characteristics of pineocytomas were similar in many respects to those of glial pineal cysts. Histomorphological analysis allowed unambiguous discrimination between pineocytomas and glial pineal cysts. (orig.)

79

MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma: focus on differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the characteristic MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma, and differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors. MR images of patients with histopathologically proven pineal germinoma(n=3D14) and other pineal germ cell tumors(n=3D10) were retrospectively analyzed with regard to size, signal intensity and homogeneity, enhancing features, cyst formation, and multiplicity of lesions. Other pineal germ cell tumors were the mixed germ cell tumors (n=3D4), malignant teratomas (n=3D3), choriocarcinoma(n=3D1), embryonal carcinoma(n=3D1), and endodermal sinus tumor(n=3D1). Tumor markers were evaluated. On T1-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(86%) or iso signal intensity (93%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or iso signal intensity(70%). On T2-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(64%) or iso signal intensity(57%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or high signal intensity(80%). On Gd-DTPA enhanced images, germinomas showed homogeneous (93%) or strong enhancement (64%), while other germ cell tumors showed homogeneous(60%) or strong enhancement (70%). Cyst formation was noted in ten Patients (71%) with germinoma and in six (60%) with other germ cell tumors. Invasion on surrounding structures was seen in 11 patients (79%) with germinoma and in five (50%) with other germ cell tumors. Lesions were multiple in three patients(21%) with germinoma. Thirteen of 14 patients with germinoma had normal serum patients with germinoma had normal serum ?-FP(tetoprotein) and ?-HCG(human chononic gonafotrophin) levels. Two of four patients with mixed germ cell tumors had elevated serum ?-FP and ?-HCG levels; in the ther two, elevated serum ?-FP or ?-HCG levels were noted. In the malignant teratoma and embryonal carcinoma patients, serum ?-FP and ?-HCG levels were normal. The patient with choriocarcinoma had an elevated serum ?-HCG level. On T1W1, the only significant differential point (p<0.01) between germinomas and other germ cell tumors was homogeneity. Germinomas were frequently homogeneous, and iso signal intensity on T1WI and T2WI, strong enhancement, and the formation of small cysts(<3mm) was noted. This MR imaging finding, combined with assay for tumor markers, is helpful for the differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma and other germ cell tumors.=20

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Successful Treatment by Chemotherapy of Pineal Parenchymal Tumor with Intermediate Differentiation: A Case Report  

OpenAIRE

A 37-year-old male presented with a mass measuring 2.5 cm in size in the midbrain and obstructive hydrocephalus, which had manifested as a headache and dizziness. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain showed intermediate enhancement on T1-weighted MR imaging and a high intensity of enhancement on T2-weighted MR. Neurosurgeons performed an occipital craniotomy with partial removal of the tumor and the postoperative diagnosis was a pineal parenchymal tumor with intermediate differentiati...

Yi, Ji-won; Kim, Hyo-jeong; Choi, Young-jin; Seol, Young-mi; Kahng, Dong-hwahn; Choi, Yu-yi; Park, Eun-kyoung

2013-01-01

81

Intracranial germinoma in the pineal region arising after subtotal resection of epidermoid cyst: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an unusual case of a germinoma of the pineal region arising adjacent to an epidermoid cyst in a 16-year-old male. Initial imaging findings were classic for epidermoid cyst. The patient underwent two partial resections at an outside institution, each specimen demonstrating pure epidermoid cyst. Follow-up imaging over a period of 24 months showed an area of progressive contrast enhancement adjacent to the initial lesion, suggesting the development of a neoplasm. Given the area of contrast enhancement in addition to worsening headaches and visual changes, he underwent a third and final resection at our institution. Pathology revealed a mixed germ cell tumor with prominent germinoma component in addition to a well-differentiated epidermoid cyst. Details of his imaging and pathologic findings are presented, and possible explanations for these findings are explored, the most likely of which is lack of complete resection at the onset failed to identify the whole of the neoplasm. We conclude that pediatric epidermoid cysts of the pineal region should always receive close follow-up, particularly when total resection is not performed. PMID:24221216

Walker, Amanda J; Huynh-Le, Minh-Phuong; Nauen, David; Malayeri, Ashkan A; Jallo, George; Terezakis, Stephanie A

2014-05-01

82

Pineal germinoma with extracranial metastases: case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal germinoma is the commonest pineal region tumor of childhood and adolescence. Metastatic germinoma most commonly occurs via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and it is usually limited to the cerebrospinal axis. ExtacraniaI hematogenous metastasis is known to be very rare. We report here on a case of pineal germinoma with gradual extracranial metastases that occurred both through the CSF pathway and by hematogenous spread. The patient had multifocal CSF seeding after his surgery for pineal germinoma, and the left iliac metastasis and lung metastasis then occurred

83

Pineal gland in rats with 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene-induced mammary tumors subjected to manipulations known as enhancers of pineal actions  

OpenAIRE

The ultrastructure of pinealocytes was studied in rats with 7,17-dimethylbenz (a) anthraceneinduced manimary tumors which were subjected to experimental manipulations known as enhancers of pineal actions (anosmia, underfeeding or cold exposure). In these aniinals we found: (1) - more nuclei with deep nuclear invaginations; (11) - a large number of cytoplasmic organelles, including lipid droplets. myeloid bodies, synaptic ribbons and lysosomes; (111) - numer...

Cos, S.; Bardasano, J. L.; Mediavilla, M. D.; Sa?nchez Barcelo?, E. J.

1989-01-01

84

Primary glioblastoma in the pineal region: a case report and review of the literature  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Introduction Glioblastoma in the pineal region is extremely rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. Case presentation A 68-year-old man presented with a sudden deterioration manifesting as a headache, vomiting and gait disturbance. A magnetic resonance imaging study revealed a heterogeneously ring-enhanced mass in the pineal region. The mass was subtotally removed through the occipital transtentorial approach, and diagnosed as a glioblastoma. Conclusion We discuss the ...

Moon Kyung-Sub; Jung Shin; Jung Tae-Young; Kim In-Young; Lee Min-Cheol; Lee Kyung-Hwa

2008-01-01

85

Significant anti-tumor effect of bevacizumab in treatment of pineal gland glioblastoma multiforme.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive subtype of malignant gliomas. Current standard treatment for GBM involves a combination of cytoreduction through surgical resection, followed by radiation with concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy (temozolomide). The role of bevacizumab in the treatment of GBM continues to be a topic of ongoing research and debate. Despite aggressive treatment, these tumors remain undoubtedly fatal, especially in the elderly. Furthermore, tumors present in the pineal gland are extremely rare, accounting for only 0.1-0.4 % of all adult brain tumors, with this location adding to the complexity of treatment. We present a case of GBM, at the rare location of pineal gland, in an elderly patient who was refractory to initial standard of care treatment with radiation and concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide, but who developed a significant response to anti-angiogenic therapy using bevacizumab. PMID:24998223

Mansour, Joshua; Fields, Braxton; Macomson, Samuel; Rixe, Olivier

2014-12-01

86

Pineal region tumours treated with interstitial brachytherapy with low activity sources (192-iridium)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three patients with tumours of the pineal region underwent interstitial Ir-192 brachytherapy. Histological diagnoses were obtained in all patients, by stereotactic biopsy and included one germinoma, one mixed pineoblastomapincocytoma, and one astrocytoma grade III. Our approach to pineal region neoplasms is first to decide whether sterotactic biopsy or surgery should be performed. When a pineal lesion is thought to be benign on the basis of imaging, such as benign teratoma, surgery is performed to resect the entire lesion. When a definitive diagnosis is not possible, stereotactic biopsy is performed to obtain a histological diagnosis for treatment planning, using a Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) stereotactic apparatus with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). When a lesion is malignant and localized, stereotactic implantation of catheters for interstitial brachytherapy is performed simultaneously. Radioactive Ir-192 seeds are inserted into the catheters and maintained for 5-10 days to give 36 Gy of irradiation at the tumour periphery. Sequential CT scans and MRI after treatment revealed tumour disappearance in two patients with germinoma and high grade astrocytoma and tumour reduction in the patient with mixed pineoblastoma/pineocytoma. No significant morbidity or mortality occurred in any of these patients after stereotactic biopsy and brachytherapy. The technique and the advantages of this therapeutic approach to selected pineal region tumours arroach to selected pineal region tumours are described and discussed. (author)

87

The management of pineal tumors as a model for a multidisciplinary approach in neuro-oncology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The management of pineal tumors is a model for multidisciplinarity. Apart from an emergency situation that requires immediate shunting of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the initial discussion should involve at least a radiologist, a surgeon, a neurologist and an oncologist. The initial decision is whether obtaining a histological proof is obligatory. It depends on age and ethnicity, site (mono- or bifocality), presence of markers in serum as well as CSF, and/or of malignant cells in the CSF. In cases of marker elevation indicating a germ cell tumor, front line chemotherapy can avoid dangerous immediate surgery. When histological proof is required, the extent of surgery should be discussed, aiming either only at obtaining tissue or removal. If a germ cell tumor is detected, treatment will include a cisplatin-containing chemotherapy followed by focal or ventricular irradiation. Tumors of the pineal parenchyma will be treated according to grade, either by surgery alone (pinealocytoma) or chemo-radiotherapy (pinealoblastomas). Similarly, gliomas will be treated depending on their grade with several different possible lines in low grade, and usually radio-chemotherapy in high grade. A careful balance between improved survival rates and decreased long-term side effects will guide the decisions of all these specialists. PMID:24863688

Frappaz, D; Conter, C Faure; Szathmari, A; Valsijevic, A; Mottolese, C

2014-05-23

88

Tumor cells forming sinusoids connected to vasculature are involved in hemorrhage of pineal choriocarcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intratumor hemorrhage is a poor prognostic factor in pineal choriocarcinoma (PCCC). The aim of this study was to understand the relationship of tumor cells to the blood vessels to gain insights into the formation of intratumor hemorrhage in PCCC. The clinical data indicated that total tumor removal by surgical procedures followed immediately by radiotherapy and chemotherapy improved the prognosis in PCCC. The PCCC tissues removed from the patients were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that the tumor stroma mainly consists of hemorrhagic tissues with tumor cells scattered inside. The pattern of distribution suggests that the tumor cells were possibly flushed and compressed by the bleeding. The tumor cells tended to form sinusoids that lacked CD34, but laminin expression provided evidence of vasculogenic mimicry. Interestingly, CD34-positive blood vessels were found connected to these sinusoids, suggesting that blood may flow from the tumor vasculature to the sinusoids. This may subsequently cause the enlargement of the sinusoids, blood clotting, the widening of the blood lakes, and eventually extensive hemorrhagic necrosis. Our study identified the key features of the PCCC vasculature. The findings add to the previous understanding of the formation of vascular channels, blood lakes, and extensive hemorrhagic necrosis. The intimate connections between the tumor-formed sinusoids and the blood vessels might be a major cause of severe hemorrhage in PCCC. The new information may be useful for the development of treatment strategies for managing PCCC. PMID:24847965

Qi, Song-tao; Zhang, Hui; Song, Ye; Zhang, Jia-lin

2014-08-01

89

MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs

90

MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Satoh, H. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Uozumi, T. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Arita, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Sumida, M. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

1995-11-01

91

Clinical experience with a high definition exoscope system for surgery of pineal region lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

VITOM-90 (Karl Storz Endoscopy, Tuttlingen, Germany) is a new technology that can be used as an alternative to the operating microscope. We have found that this device substantially improves surgeon comfort during infra-tentorial supracerebellar approaches to pineal region masses, and now report our experiences. The VITOM-90 is a specially designed scope that is attached to a high definition (HD) digital camera and displayed on a HD video monitor. This system was utilized in five patients undergoing infratentorial supracerebellar approaches for pineal region lesions. Surgical outcomes and pathologies are described. The device was used by three surgeons during five procedures. Three patients underwent surgery in the sitting position and two in the modified prone (Concorde) position. Pathologies included pineocytoma, lipoma, and germinoma. Total resection was achieved in three patients and subtotal in two patients. Surgeon assessment was positive; surgeons indicated that surgery with the VITOM-90 was more comfortable than with the operating microscope. Lack of stereopsis was considered a minor drawback. The VITOM-90 permitted a natural head and neck position. Operating room personnel and residents reported improved visualization of the anatomy. Using the VITOM-90 benefited surgeons during pineal region surgery by reducing strain and allowing the surgeon to operate from a comfortable position without increased operative time or complications. The improved comfort levels may translate into safer, more accurate surgeries in this complex area. PMID:24534630

Birch, Kurtis; Drazin, Doniel; Black, Keith L; Williams, James; Berci, George; Mamelak, Adam N

2014-07-01

92

Assessing therapy response of secreting pineal germ cell tumor on simultaneous 18F-choline PET/MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

An 18-year-old man presented with 6 weeks' history of diplopia, early morning headaches, and blurred vision; on ophthalmologic examination, Parinaud syndrome was revealed. Brain MRI scan showed a calcified pineal mass. Brain simultaneous PET/MRI with 18F-choline showed an avid enhancing mass occupying the pineal region with restricted diffusion. A second examination after chemotherapy demonstrated reduction in both size and radiotracer activity of the mass. Our study emphasizes the potential of simultaneous 18F-choline PET/MRI being a useful tool for contribution in the diagnosis and treatment assessment in a convenient way with minimal radiation exposure and reduced throughput patient time. PMID:24217533

Panagiotidis, Emmanouil; Shankar, Ananth; Afaq, Asim; Bomanji, Jamshed

2014-09-01

93

Combination chemotherapy (cisplatin, vinblastin) and low-dose irradiation in the treatment of pineal parenchymal cell tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal parenchymal cell tumors (PPCTs) with or without metastasis into the lumbar region by way of the cerebrospinal fluid were treated successfully with combination chemotherapy using cisplatin, vinblastin, and bleomycin (PVB) or cisplatin and vinblastin (PV) and low-dose irradiation (25 approximately 30 Gy). Our series included a case of pineoblastoma, two cases of mixed pinocytoma/pineoblastoma, and a case of pineocytoma, compared to which the data held by the All Japan Brain Tumor Registry (AJBTR) included information on 47 cases pineocytoma and 20 of pineoblastoma. All our patients have survived, with scores of 90% or over on Karnofsky's performance scale, for 2-12 years of follow-up so far; however, the 5-year survival rates of the patients recorded by AJBTR were 83% for pineocytoma treated with radiation and 43% without radiation; and 42% for pineoblastoma treated with radiation and 50% without radiation. Incomplete or varied chemotherapeutic regimens used in different medical centers to treat PPCTs precluded an evaluation such as was made by AJBTR. Our results suggested that combination chemotherapy with low-dose back-up radiotherapy may be the treatment of choice for primary or recurrent disease with or without dissemination in PPCTs. PMID:9840380

Kurisaka, M; Arisawa, M; Mori, T; Sakamoto, T; Seike, M; Mori, K; Okada, T; Wakiguchi, H; Kurashige, T

1998-10-01

94

Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor in the pineal gland and the third ventricle: a case with radiological and clinical implications  

OpenAIRE

A 39-year-old man presented with more than 20 years history of episodic headache and one year history of dizziness, impaired vision and memory disorders. Computed tomography and Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic mass involving the pineal gland, tectum and the third ventricle and obstruction of the aqueduct. Interestingly, the fourth ventricle was not involved in this case. The pathological diagnosis was rosette forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT). These lesions are considered low-gra...

Xu, Junqing; Yang, Yong; Liu, Ying; Wei, Mengqi; Ren, Jing; Chang, Yingjuan; Huan, Yi; Yin, Hong; Xue, Yan

2012-01-01

95

Pineal and Pituitary Glands  

Science.gov (United States)

... Casefinding Anticipated Impact on Registries Review Brain & CNS Tumors Signs & Symptoms Anatomy Neurons & Glial Cells Brain Meninges Spinal Cord Cranial Nerves Pineal and Pituitary Glands Abstracting, Coding, & Staging Topographic Sites Histological Types ...

96

[The comparative characteristics of the otoneurological disorders and of the computed and magnetic resonance tomographic data in tumors of the pineal area].  

Science.gov (United States)

A hundred and twenty patients with pineal tumors were examined and analyzed. All the patients underwent detailed otoneurological examination supplemented by vocal and tone audiometry, electronystagmography. Computerized tomography (CT) with contrast reinforcement was made in all the patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted in 43 patients. Based on the findings, otoneurological symptomatology and CT and MRI data were compared. All the patients were divided into 4 groups by the size of a tumor and by the magnitude of its impact, as evidenced by CT and MRI. Comparing the findings, it can be concluded that with larger pineal tumors and the increased decompensation of a process there is a steady rise in the incidence of some otoneurological symptoms. Nevertheless, there is a clear relationship of otoneurological manifestations to the predominant growth of pineal tumors into the diencephalic area or into the posterior cranial fossa, by affecting truncal cochleovestibular formations and tumor sizes. PMID:9235826

Blagoveshchenskaia, N S; Tissen, T P; Kapitanov, D N

1997-01-01

97

Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantitative values of CT attenuation, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standardized uptake value (SUV) were investigated for differentiation between pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and germinomas. Differences in age, sex, and calcification pattern were also evaluated. Twenty-three patients with PPTs and germinomas in 20 years were retrospectively enrolled under the approval of the institutional review board. CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV (20, 13, and 10 patients, respectively) were statistically compared between the two tumors. Differences in sex and patterns of calcification (''exploded'' or ''engulfed'') were also examined. Mean patient ages were compared among three groups of pineoblastoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, (PPTID) and pineocytoma and germinoma. None of the quantitative values of CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p >.05). However, there was a significant difference in age (p <.05) among the three groups of pineoblastoma (mean age ± standard deviation 7.0 ± 8.7 years), PPTID, and pineocytoma (53.7 ± 11.4 years) and germinoma (19.1 ± 8.1 years). Sex also showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p =.039). Exploded pattern of calcification was found in 9 of 11 PPT patients and engulfed pattern in 7 of 9 patients with germinomas. No reverse pattern was observed, and the patterns of calcification were considered highly specific of tumor types. None of the quantitative imaging values could differentiate PPTs from germinomas. Age, sex, and calcification patterns were confirmed useful in differentiating these tumors to some degree. (orig.)

98

Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantitative values of CT attenuation, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standardized uptake value (SUV) were investigated for differentiation between pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and germinomas. Differences in age, sex, and calcification pattern were also evaluated. Twenty-three patients with PPTs and germinomas in 20 years were retrospectively enrolled under the approval of the institutional review board. CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV (20, 13, and 10 patients, respectively) were statistically compared between the two tumors. Differences in sex and patterns of calcification (''exploded'' or ''engulfed'') were also examined. Mean patient ages were compared among three groups of pineoblastoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, (PPTID) and pineocytoma and germinoma. None of the quantitative values of CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p >.05). However, there was a significant difference in age (p <.05) among the three groups of pineoblastoma (mean age ± standard deviation 7.0 ± 8.7 years), PPTID, and pineocytoma (53.7 ± 11.4 years) and germinoma (19.1 ± 8.1 years). Sex also showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p =.039). Exploded pattern of calcification was found in 9 of 11 PPT patients and engulfed pattern in 7 of 9 patients with germinomas. No reverse pattern was observed, and the patterns of calcification were considered highly specific of tumor types. None of the quantitative imaging values could differentiate PPTs from germinomas. Age, sex, and calcification patterns were confirmed useful in differentiating these tumors to some degree. (orig.)

Kakigi, Takahide; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Ryo; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C. [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto (Japan); Mikami, Yoshiki [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Kyoto (Japan); Shimono, Taro [Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

2014-04-15

99

Radiation Is an Important Component of Multimodality Therapy for Pediatric Non-Pineal Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To review a historical cohort of pediatric patients with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET), to clarify the role of radiation in the treatment of these tumors. Patients and Methods: Fifteen children aged <18 years with non-pineal sPNETs diagnosed between 1992 and 2006 were identified. Initial therapy consisted of surgical resection and chemotherapy in all patients and up-front radiotherapy (RT) in 5 patients. Five patients had RT at the time of progression, and 5 received no RT whatever. Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival were then calculated. Results: The median follow-up from diagnosis for all patients was 31 months (range, 0.5-165 months) and for surviving patients was 49 months (range, 10-165). Of the 5 patients who received up-front RT, all were alive without evidence of disease at a median follow-up of 50 months (range, 25-165 months). Only 5 of the 10 patients who did not receive up-front RT were alive at last follow-up. There was a statistically significant difference in overall survival between the patient group that received up-front RT and the group that did not (p = 0.048). In addition, we found a trend toward a statistically significant improvement in overall survival for those patients who received gross total resections (p = 0.10). Conclusions: Up-front RT and gross total resection may confer a survival benefit in patients with sPNET. Local failure was the dominant pattern of recurrence. Efforts should be made to def recurrence. Efforts should be made to determine patients most likely to have local failure exclusively or as a first recurrence, in order to delay or eliminate craniospinal irradiation

100

MR imaging of pineal cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer ml or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors

101

Probing Pineal-specific Gene Expression with Transgenic Zebrafish†  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland of zebrafish (Danio rerio) contains lightsensitive photoreceptor cells and plays an important role in the neuroendocrine system. The zebrafish exorhodopsin gene encodes a pineal-specific photoreceptive protein, whose promoter region harbors a cis-acting element, pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), directing pineal-specific gene expression. For in vivo genetic studies on PIPE-binding proteins and their regulatory mechanisms, we generated a transgenic zebrafish line, Tg...

Kojima, Daisuke; Dowling, John E.; Fukada, Yoshitaka

2008-01-01

102

Pineal lesions: a multidisciplinary challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal region is a complex anatomical compartment, harbouring the pineal gland surrounded by the quadrigeminal plate and the confluents of the internal cerebral veins to form the vein of Galen. The complexity of lesions in that region, however, goes far beyond the pineal parenchyma proper. Originating in the pineal gland, there are not only benign cysts but also numerous different tumour types. In addition, lesions such as tectal gliomas, tentorial meningiomas and choroid plexus papillomas arise from the surrounding structures, occupying that regions. Furthermore, the area has an affinity for metastatic lesions. Vascular lesions complete the spectrum mainly as small tectal arteriovenous malformations or cavernous haemangiomas.Taken together, there is a wide spectrum of lesions, many unique to that region, which call for a multidisciplinary approach. The limited access and anatomical complexity have generated a spectrum of anatomical approaches and raised the interest for neuroendoscopic approaches. Equally complex is the spectrum of treatment modalities such as microsurgery as the main option but stereotactic radiosurgery as an alternative or adjuvant to surgery for selected cases, radiation as for germinoma (see below) and or combinatorial chemotherapy, which may need to precede any other ablative technique as constituents.In this context, we review the current literature and our own series to obtain a snapshot sentiment of how to approach pineal lesions, how to interrelate alternative/competing concepts and review the recent technological advances. PMID:25411146

Westphal, Manfred; Emami, Pedram

2015-01-01

103

Incidence of pineal tumours. A review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

The knowledge of the incidence of pineal tumours is important not only for diagnostic care but also for its therapeutic programme. We reviewed the incidence of pineal tumours reported in literature in an attempt to establish if a difference existed between pineal gland tumours and the pineal region tumours as different authors use both expressions to indicate the same thing. The rate of frequency of these tumours is useful to guide the therapeutic choice for patients as the decisional tree is completely different for either germ cell tumours, pineal gland tumours or pineal gliomas and eventually papillary tumours of the pineal region. According to the French Register of pineal tumours, true pineal tumours represent: 27% pineal parenchymal tumours (PPT), 27% germ cell tumours, 17% gliomas, 8% papillary tumours. True pineal gland tumours are represented by: pineocytomas - (13%), pineal parenchymal tumours with intermediary differentiation PTT-ID - (66%) and pinealoblastomas - (21%). There was no statistical difference found between the French register and the Lyon series concerning histological diagnosis. It seemed to us important to discover its true incidence by comparing the data published in the literature and to stress the utility of the French Register for these uncommon tumours not only for recording new histological cases but also to document clinical symptomatology, therapeutic programmes, length of follow-up and clinical results for each patient treated. A better understanding of their natural history and improved evaluation of different treatments and their complications should contribute to improve clinical results. PMID:25113513

Mottolese, C; Szathmari, A; Beuriat, P-A

2014-08-01

104

Comparison of Three Methods for the Estimation of Pineal Gland Volume Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

OpenAIRE

Pineal gland is a very important neuroendocrine organ with many physiological functions such as regulating circadian rhythm. Radiologically, the pineal gland volume is clinically important because it is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although many studies have estimated the pineal gland volume using different techniques, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no stereological work done on this subject. The objective of t...

Acer, Niyazi; Il?ca, Ahmet Turan; Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; O?zc?elik, O?zlem; Y?ld?r?m, Birdal; Turgut, Mehmet

2012-01-01

105

Space-occupying lesions in the pineal gland region in MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preoperative CT and MRI studies of 24 patients with space occupying lesions of the pinealis region were analysed. MRI demonstrated all 24 lesions, whereas CT could detect only 20 out of 24. MRI was superior to CT in assessment of size, localisation and relation to adjacent structures. No significant difference was found between CT and MRI in preoperative prediction of tumour histology. (orig.)

106

Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histologi...

Levidou Georgia; Korkolopoulou Penelope; Agrogiannis George; Paidakakos Nikolaos; Bouramas Dimos; Patsouris Efstratios

2010-01-01

107

Elements in the human pineal body  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

100 human pineal bodies (=epiphyses, =pineal glands) were examined by neutron activation analysis for the concentration of Ca, K, Na, Rb, Fe, Co, Se and Zn. Comparing the results with the values from other brain areas, the Ca-content was 90 times higher, Co-content was double and Zn-concentration three times as high as those in the brain. The K, Na, Rb, Fe and Se values were found to be similar to those of other brain regions. Element concentration and age gave no significant correlation for the elements investigated. The K-content was taken as a parameter for cellular vitality and the pineal bodies were grouped into three classes of vitality. The normal K and Na, and the varying trace element concentrations refer to some specific biochemical and physiological functions of the organ. (author)

108

Pineal germinoma in a child with interferon-? receptor 1 deficiency. case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interferon-? receptor 1 (IFN-?R1) deficiency is one of the primary immunodeficiencies conferring Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD). Some cases of neoplasms have been recently reported in patients with MSMD, underlying the already known link between immunodeficiency and carcinogenesis. We report the first case of intracranial tumour, i.e. pineal germinoma, in a 11-year-old patient with complete IFN-?R1 deficiency. The first clinical presentation of the genetic immunodeficiency dates back to when the child was aged 2 y and 10 mo, when he presented a multi-focal osteomyelitis caused by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. The diagnosis of IFN-?R1 deficiency (523delT/523delT in IFNGR1 gene) was subsequently made. The child responded to antibiotic therapy and remained in stable clinical condition until the age of 11 years, when he started complaining of frontal, chronic headache. MRI revealed a solid pineal region mass lesion measuring 20 × 29 × 36 mm. Histological findings revealed a diagnosis of pineal germinoma. The patient received chemotherapy followed by local whole ventricular irradiation with boost on pineal site, experiencing complete remission, and to date he is tumor-free at four years follow-up. Four other cases of tumors have been reported in patients affected by MSMD in our knowledge: a case of Kaposi sarcoma, a case of B-cell lymphoma, a case of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and a case of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In conclusion, in patients with MSMD, not only the surveillance of infectious diseases, but also that of tumors is important. PMID:25216720

Taramasso, L; Boisson-Dupuis, S; Garrè, M L; Bondi, E; Cama, A; Nozza, P; Morana, G; Casanova, J L; Marazzi, M G

2014-11-01

109

Biosynthesis of taurine by rat pineals in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal glands from adult, male rats were incubated in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer buffer containing 14C-cystine. After three hours the incubation media and pineal gland extracts were placed separately on Dowex AG W50-X-4 columns. In the elution volume where 14C-labeled taurine is found a labeled peak was recovered. However, when subjected to one or two dimensional paper chromatography especially the eluants from pineal gland extracts yielded two 14C-labeled substances one located in the region where unlabeled taurine is detected by ortho-phthalaldehyde reagent. These results were confirmed utilizing a method developed in our laboratory based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pineals, as well as their respective incubation medium, were shown to contain radioactive taurine. These results demonstrate that rat pineal glands are capable of taurine synthesis. Also a high degree of labeling was associated with an area on paper chromatograms, migrating more rapidly than the standards, using acidic solvent systems. If represented by a single pineal compound, the substance must be rapidly synthesized from 14C-cystine to account for the radioactivity observed. Future studies of sulfur metabolism within the pineal gland could be of significant interest. (author)

110

Pineal calcification on computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal gland visible in plain skull radiography when calcified had been an important indicator for evaluation of any space, occupying lesion within cranium according to displacement of it from normal midline position. Since the pineal gland is more frequently demonstrated on CT scan than plain skull radiography, it seems helpful to define the incidence and localization of pineal gland. 324 patients, performed head CT scan are analyzed incidence and localization of calcified pineal gland. The results were as follows: 1. The overall incidence of pineal calcification was 51%. 2. The male and female ratio in pineal calcification was 56% to 43%. 3. 1) In the AP localization of pineal gland, the ratio of distance from anterior inner table of the skull to the pineal gland and that from pineal gland to the posterior inner table was 1.46 ± 0.20. 2) In the lateral localization of pineal gland, according to 'Lateral Percentage Shift' by Hahn and Rim (1976), the result was 0.98% shift in 80 normal cases, but 2.20% shift in 38 cases with S.O.L

111

Pinealitis accompanying equine recurrent uveitis.  

OpenAIRE

There is no direct verification of pineal gland involvement in human uveitis. Specimens of pineal tissue are not available during active uveitis in human patients. Naturally occurring uveitis in horses gives us an opportunity to examine tissues during active ocular inflammation. We examined the pineal gland of a horse that was killed because it had become blind during an episode of uveitis. The clinical history and histopathology of the eyes were consistent with post-leptospiral equine recurr...

Kalsow, C. M.; Dwyer, A. E.; Smith, A. W.; Nifong, T. P.

1993-01-01

112

Primary pineal malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare entity, with only thirteen cases reported in the world literature to date. We report a case of a 70-year-old man, who consulted with gait disturbance of six months duration, associated in the last month with dizziness, visual abnormalities and diplopia. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. The magnetic resonance showed a 25 mm expansive mass in the pineal gland that was associated with hydrocephaly, ventricular and transependimary oedema. The lesion was partially excised by a supracerebellar infratentorial approach. The histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient received radiation therapy, but died of disease 16 weeks later. We herein review the literature on this rare tumour and comment on its clinical, radiological and histopathological features and differential diagnosis.

Cesar La Cruz Pelea

2011-05-01

113

Structure and ultrastructure of the pigmented cells in the adult dog pineal gland.  

OpenAIRE

The light and electron microscopic features of pigmented cells in the adult dog pineal gland have been described. The presence of pigmented cells was a constant characteristic of the dog pineal gland, though wide variations in the amount of pigment could be found among different animals. Conversely, the localisation of pigmented cells was very constant on the basal surface of the proximal region of the pineal gland. Frequently, clusters of pigmented cells were seen in the posterior commissure...

Calvo, J.; Boya, J.; Garcia-maurin?o, J. E.; Lopez-carbonell, A.

1988-01-01

114

Histology and ultrastructure of the pineal organ in the domestic goose  

OpenAIRE

The pineal organs of 14-week-old domestic geese were investigated with light and electron microscopy. The pineals consisted of a wide distal part and a narrow middle-proximal one. The glands were attached to the intercommissural region via the choroid plexus. The pineal parenchyma was formed by round or elongated follicles. The follicular wall was composed predominantly by cells immunoreactive with antibodies against hydroxyindolo-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) or...

Prusik, M.; Lewczuk, B.; Nowicki, M.; Przybylska-gornowicz, B.

2006-01-01

115

Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demon...

Kazuyoshi Tsutsui

2014-01-01

116

The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk are also reduced in size. Although the brains of neonatal Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice appear normal, severe hydrocephalus develops in about 70 % of the Lhx9 (-/-) mice at 5-8 weeks of age; these observations are the first to document that deletion of Lhx9 results in hydrocephalus and as such indicate that Lhx9 contributes to the maintenance of normal brain structure. Whereas hydrocephalus is absent in neonatal Lhx9 (-/-)mutant mice, the neonatal pineal gland in these animals is hypoplastic. Accordingly, it appears that Lhx9 is essential for early development of the mammalian pineal gland and that this effect is not secondary to hydrocephalus.

Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; MØller, Morten

2014-01-01

117

Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity. PMID:25487536

Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

2014-12-01

118

A case of pineal teratoma with intraventricular free fat on CT scan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detection of an intraventricular or intratumoral fat-fluid level on the plain craniograms has been known as a characteristic sign indicating the presence of intracranial teratomatous tumors. On CT scans, however, only thirteen cases have been previously reported to be found an intraventricular and/or subarachnoid free fat associated with spontaneous ruptures of these tumors. We reported a case of pineal teratoma with intraventricular free-fat seen on CT scans. A nine-year-old male with precocious puberty was admitted to our hospital complaining a moderate nonpulsatile headache. Neurological examinations were normal without signs of meningeal irritation. The serum and CSF titer of HCG were raised markedly. The laboratory data of the CSF were normal and there were no pathological cells in the CSF. The CT scans revealed a large heterogeneous mass containing multiple areas of negative density in the pineal region. There were negative density droplets in the bilateral frontal horn on the same CT scans indicating a presence of free fats. At surgery, an yellowish oily material was drained from the tumor, but there was no sign of meningitis over the cortical surface of the occipital lobe. An intraventricular free fat on CT scan have been reported in fourteen cases including ours following the first case described by Fawcitt in 1976. Although most of the cases presented headache, only two cases was diagnosed clinically as chemical meningitis. Pathological changes indicating grngitis. Pathological changes indicating granulomatous meningitis, however, were noted in five cases, all of them presenting seizure attacks. (author)

119

Primary pineal melanoma presenting with leptomeningeal spreading in a 22-year-old woman: a case report  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Introduction Primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region is exceedingly rare. We report a case of primary pineal malignant melanoma and review the literature. Case presentation Our patient was a 22-year-old Iranian woman without any significant past medical history, who was referred to our center with a four-week history of headache and gait disturbance. A magnetic resonance imaging study showed a solid mass in the pineal region causing obstructive hydrocephalus. A brain biopsy w...

Azimi Parisa; Mohmmadi Hassan; Refiezadeh Mitra

2012-01-01

120

Morphological findings relating to the problem of cortex and medulla in the pineal glands of rat and hamster.  

OpenAIRE

Because, in previous investigations on the rat pineal gland, karyometric studies of pinealocytes from cortical and medullary regions had yielded contradictory results, experiments were carried out to resolve this problem. In immersion-fixed, paraffin-embedded pineal glands, nuclear size of cortical regions was invariably larger than that in the medulla, the nuclear size clearly depending on the plane of sectioning. The differences between cortex and medulla were abolished in (a) pineal glands...

Heidbu?chel, U.; Vollrath, L.

1983-01-01

121

Comparative histology of pineal calcification  

OpenAIRE

The pineal organ (pineal gland, epiphysis cerebri) contains several calcified concretions called "brain sand7' or acervuli (corpora arenacea). These concretions are conspicuous with imaging techniques and provide a useful landmark for orientation in the diagnosis of intracranial diseases. Predominantly composed of calcium and magnesium salts, corpora arenacea are numerous in old patients. In smaller number they can be present in children as well. The degree...

Vigh, B.; Sze?l, A.; Debreceni, K.; Feje?r, Z.; Manzano E Silva, M. J.; Vigh-teichmann, I.

1998-01-01

122

General Information About Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

... germ cell tumors to form is near the pineal gland and in an area of the brain ... of the inside of the brain, showing the pineal and pituitary glands, optic nerve, ventricles (with cerebrospinal ...

123

A pineal regulatory element (PIRE) mediates transactivation by the pineal/retina-specific transcription factor CRX  

OpenAIRE

The circadian hormone melatonin is synthesized predominantly in the pineal gland by the actions of two pineal-specific enzymes: serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT). Pineal night-specific ATPase (PINA), another pineal- and night-specific protein we recently identified, is produced as a truncated form of the Wilson disease gene (Atp7b) product. To identify the regulatory elements required for pineal-specific gene expression, we isolated sequences up...

Li, Xiaodong; Chen, Shiming; Wang, Qingliang; Zack, Donald J.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Borjigin, Jimo

1998-01-01

124

Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland.

Levidou Georgia

2010-09-01

125

Trace element concentrations in the human pineal body  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One hundred human pineal bodies obtained from 56 males and 44 females were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis for trace element concentrations of cobalt, iron, rubidium, selenium and zinc. The results indicated that the measured element concentrations were not related to body surface, age or fresh weight. Moreover, the mean absolute cobalt value from 97 pineal bodies was elevated by a factor of 1.43 over the mean absolute concentration value of 257 other brain areas. The mean zinc content was found to be 3.7-fold higher than the mean zinc value from 269 other brain samples. The iron values from various brain areas did not differ from those of the pineal body. Whereas pineal selenium was slightly higher, rubidium was lower than in other brain regions. By correlating the different element concentrations with each other, a positive correlation was found for selenium and rubidium and a negative correlation for cobalt and zinc. The present data suggest that the measured trace elements are somehow related to specific roles in the physiology and biochemistry of the pineal body. This is supported by the constancy of element concentration over a wide range of increasing fresh weights of the organ. It is suggested that the measured trace elements zinc, cobalt and iron are involved as constituents of enzymes in the betabolism of amino acids, peptides and proteins of the pineal body. Moreover, the conspicuously high zinc content of this organ may be relhigh zinc content of this organ may be related to a so-far undetected neurotransmitter. (author)

126

Tumors in the region of the sella turcica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tumors of the pituitary gland can lead to limitation of hypophysis function (hypophysis insufficiency) or hypersecretion of different hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, prolactinoma, TSH-secreting adenoma). The optic chiasma lies in close proximity to the pituitary gland and can be compressed by tumors leading to visual disturbances (bilateral hemianopsia). Tumors can be separated into hormone secreting and hormone inactive tumors, as well as into microadenoma with a diameter 10 mm. A rare group of tumors of the hypophysis region are craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germinomas, gliomas, metastases and granulomotous inflammations, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. (orig.)

127

Autoradiographic demonstration of target cells for the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in the rat pineal gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Male rats received [3H]aldosterone 30 min before sacrifice. Autoradiograms were prepared from brain and pineal gland by a thaw-mount technique. Grain counting revealed that the pineal retained 4 times as much radioactivity as brain regions with tight capillaries. Using an appropriate method of quantitative autoradiogram evaluation, it was shown that in adrenalectomized animals, but not after shamoperiation, 28% of the pinealocytes concentrated the steroid in their nuclei. This is the first demonstration of saturable mineralocorticoid binding in the pineal gland. (author)

128

Imaging appearance of bone tumors of the maxillofacial region  

OpenAIRE

This paper reviews the imaging appearance of benign and malignant bone tumors of the maxillofacial region. A benign bone tumor commonly appears as a well circumscribed lesion. The matrix of the tumor may be calcified or sclerotic. Malignancies often display aggressive characteristics such as cortical breakthrough, bone destruction, a permeative pattern and associated soft-tissue masses. Computed tomography scan is an excellent imaging modality for accurate localization of the lesion, characte...

Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel Razek

2011-01-01

129

Characterization of rodent pineal astrocytes by immunofluorescence microscopy using a monoclonal antibody (J1-31).  

Science.gov (United States)

In previous studies pineal astrocytes have been characterized immunohistochemically mainly by use of antisera to glial fibrillary acidic protein. Because of the recent demonstration of this protein in non-astrocytic cells the question of its specificity as an astrocytic marker has been raised. A possible alternative tool for characterizing pineal astrocytes is the J1-31 monoclonal antibody, which is directed against a 30,000 dalton astrocytic protein clearly distinguishable from glial fibrillary acidic protein. Immunofluorescence microscopy of this antibody in the pineal gland of rat and guinea-pig revealed a staining pattern similar to that obtained by glial acidic fibrillary protein antisera. In the rat, J1-31-immunoreactive cells and processes were concentrated in the transitional region between the superficial pineal gland and pineal stalk. Fibrillar J1-31-immunoreactive structures were seen in the most proximal part of the guinea-pig pineal gland. The J1-31 monoclonal antibody therefore appears to be a useful tool for the demonstration of pineal astrocytes; it avoids the specificity problems of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemistry. PMID:3300995

Schröder, H; Malhotra, S K

1987-06-01

130

The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk are also reduced in size. Although the brains of neonatal Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice appear normal, severe hydrocephalus develops in about 70 % of the Lhx9 (-/-) mice at 5-8 weeks of age; these observations are the first to document that deletion of Lhx9 results in hydrocephalus and as such indicate that Lhx9 contributes to the maintenance of normal brain structure. Whereas hydrocephalus is absent in neonatal Lhx9 (-/-)mutant mice, the neonatal pineal gland in these animals is hypoplastic. Accordingly, it appears that Lhx9 is essential for early development of the mammalian pineal gland and that this effect is not secondary to hydrocephalus. PMID:24647753

Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten; Fu, Cong; Clokie, Samuel J; Zykovich, Artem; Coon, Steven L; Klein, David C; Rath, Martin F

2014-03-20

131

Long-term clinical outcome in patients with pineal germinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We retrospectively analyzed the long-term clinical course of 10 patients with pineal germinomas to determine the best treatment modality for achieving a good outcome. Subjects were treated at the Gunma University Hospital between 1980 and 1998, given a total dose of 40-50 Gy (mean: 49 Gy) delivered under a conventional fractionation schedule. Tumors had shrunk at 20 Gy in all 10 patients. Mean follow-up was 13.5 years (162 months, range, 59 to 268 months). Five-year survival for the group was 100%. None experienced intracranial disease recurrence. No new abnormalities in internal secretion considered to be due to radiotherapy were seen. Karnofsky performance scales (KPS) for 8 of the 10 were 100. KPS of the remaining 2 were 80, including easy fatiguability, mild ataxia, and recent memory disturbance. Administration of doses of 50 Gy for pineal germinoma is adequate for controlling the tumor over the long term but may reduce the patientis quality of life. Further study is therefore needed to determine the optimal dosage for pineal germinoma. (author)

132

Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor Arising on the Scapular Region  

Science.gov (United States)

Tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TSGCT) is a benign soft tissue tumor arising from the synovial membrane that composes the lining of joints, tendons and bursae. TSGCT is a common tumor occurring in the hands and fingers, and also consecutively in the knees, ankles, feet and hips. It is rarely found in the scapular region. To the best of our knowledge, only 2 cases arising on the upper back have been reported. This report presents the case of a 44-year-old Japanese female with a TSGCT arising on her right scapular region. PMID:24403889

Fukuda, Asako; Ueno, Takashi; Takayama, Ryoko; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Futagami, Ayako; Kawana, Seiji

2013-01-01

133

Circadian rhythms in the pineal organ persist in zebrafish larvae that lack ventral brain  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), located in the ventral hypothalamus, is a major regulator of circadian rhythms in mammals and birds. However, the role of the SCN in lower vertebrates remains poorly understood. Zebrafish cyclops (cyc) mutants lack ventral brain, including the region that gives rise to the SCN. We have used cyc embryos to define the function of the zebrafish SCN in regulating circadian rhythms in the developing pineal organ. The pineal organ is ...

Goldstein-Kral Lauren; Lu Po-Nien; Noche Ramil R; Glasgow Eric; Liang Jennifer O

2011-01-01

134

Transcriptome analysis of the zebrafish pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

The zebrafish pineal gland (epiphysis) is a site of melatonin production, contains photoreceptor cells, and functions as a circadian clock pace maker. Here we have used microarray technology to study the zebrafish pineal transcriptome. Analysis of gene expression at three larval and two adult stages revealed a highly dynamic transcriptional profile, revealing many genes that are highly expressed in the zebrafish pineal gland. Statistical analysis of the data based on Gene Ontology annotation ...

Toyama, Reiko; Chen, Xiongfong; Jhawar, Nupur; Aamar, Emil; Epstein, Jonathan; Reany, Nir; Alon, Shahar; Gothilf, Yoav; Klein, David; Dawid, Igor B.

2009-01-01

135

Circadian Regulation of Pineal Gland Rhythmicity  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (1) local control of serotonin and melatonin rhythms; (2) neurotransmitters involved in central control of melatonin; (3) plasticity o...

Borjigin, Jimo; Zhang, L. Samantha; Calinescu, Anda-alexandra

2011-01-01

136

Bistable UV pigment in the lamprey pineal  

OpenAIRE

Lower vertebrates can detect UV light with the pineal complex independently of eyes. Electrophysiological studies, together with chromophore extraction analysis, have suggested that the underlying pigment in the lamprey pineal exhibits a bistable nature, that is, reversible photoreaction by UV and visible light, which is never achieved by known UV pigments. Here we addressed the molecular identification of the pineal UV receptor. Our results showed that the long-hypothesized pigment is a lamp...

Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Kawano, Emi; Kinugawa, Yoshimi; Oishi, Tadashi; Shichida, Yoshinori; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Terakita, Akihisa

2004-01-01

137

Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome  

OpenAIRE

Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. Here, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse p...

Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M.; Rohde, Kristian; Coon, Steven L.; Litman, Thomas; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

2011-01-01

138

Chronic myelogenous leukemia following therapy for pineal germinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 13-year-old male was diagnosed as having pineal germinoma in July 1998. Since then, he had been treated with tumor excision, radiation and chemotherapy. In June 2002, he was diagnosed as having the chronic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and following treatment with interferon-?, he achieved hematological complete remission. Although CML is rare in secondary leukemia, the present case seemed therapy-related CML because of its clinical course, as the CML occurred after the period with radiation and chemotherapy. This is the first case of secondary CML following therapy for intracranial tumors. (author)

139

Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples  

OpenAIRE

Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo) identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4%) e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu maior diâmetro. Os ...

CALDAS JOSÉ GUILHERME; DOYON DOMINIQUE; LEDERMAN HENRIQUE; CARLIER ROBERT

1998-01-01

140

Tumor scintiscanning in patients with malignant tumors in the head and neck region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

149 whole-body and/or organ scans were carried out with different radioactive pharmaceuticals in 124 patients with malignant tumors in the head and neck region (107 squamous cell carcinomas, 22 sarcomas, 6 adenocystic carcinomas). A total of 234 findings were obtained for the primary tumor regions, the cervical lymph node region, and questionable distant metastases. The evaluation yielded 7 findings for the clinically important group of results (negative clinical findings, positive scintigraphic findings). Three of these 7 findings proved clinically to be false negatives. A clinically relevant statement was possible in only 3 of 234 scintigraphic findings (1.3%). The elaborate examination procedure of tumor scintigraphy therefore does not seem justified for malignant tumors of the head and neck. (orig.)

141

Intracranial germ cell tumor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Germ cell tumours represent about 3 to 8% of pediatric brain tumours. Occurrence of diabetes insipidus is common in the case of suprasellar germ cell tumors. The diagnosis may be advanced by MRI owing to the location and relatively univocal characteristics of the lesion signal. The existence of a bifocal mass developed in both suprasellar region and pineal zone is highly suggestive of a germinoma. The most important notion is to recognize that at the time of diabetes insipidus diagnosis in a child, the cerebral mass might be too small to be identified by MRI. In such patients, repeating imaging study should be obtained. PMID:20957891

Kreutz, J; Rausin, L; Weerts, E; Tebache, M; Born, J; Hoyoux, C

2010-01-01

142

Collision tumors of the paranasal region: presentation of two cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Collision tumors in the paranasal region are extremely rare with limited literature data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of associations of squamous cell carcinoma-esthesioneuroblastoma and lymphoma-hemangiopericytoma in the paranasal region. Preoperatively, radiological and clinical findings should be evaluated carefully for the diagnosis and two or more biopsy specimens should be taken from different morphological parts of the lesions. Adjuvant therapy should be planned according to two different histologies and special importance should be given to the tumor which indicates the prognosis of the patient. A multidisciplinary approach is required for the management of synchronous malignancies. PMID:24835907

Göde, Sercan; Midilli, Ra?it; Ceylan, Naim; Akal?n, Taner; Veral, Ali; Var??, Ahmet; Karc?, Bülent

2014-01-01

143

Malignant small cell tumor of the thoracopulmonary region(Askin tumor)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of malignant small cell tumors primarily involve the soft tissue of the chest wall and lung was described by Askin in 1970. This rate tumor has a neuroepithelial origin and affects children and young adult, characteristically. Histologic overlap between other small cell neoplasms usually makes differentiation difficult, and immunochemical and electron microscopic features play a role in differentiation. Radiologic appearance was chest wall or pleural based mass with or without rib destruction and/or pleural change. Authors experienced two cases of malignant small cell tumor of the thoracopulmonary region, and report with review of literatures

144

[Lombardy regional project: prevention of occupational tumors].  

Science.gov (United States)

In Lombardy, the regional project "Prevention of occupational cancers" is ongoing. The main objectives of this project are to identify work environments in which there might be a possible exposure to carcinogenic substances and to elaborate preventive measures. A casual sample of 250 working settings representing the different economic activities has been selected and evaluated. The 10% of the examined workplaces showed a possible exposure to chemical carcinogens. The most common carcinogens were trichloroethylene, preparation of plastics materials containing acrylonitrile-butadiene-stirene, formaldehyde, wood dust, hexavalent chromium, silica and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Galvanic industries, Bitumen production and placing companies and Plastics processing plants will be studied for environmental and biological monitoring and for the development of preventive measures. PMID:14979116

Carrer, P; Aiani, R; Ariano, E; Braidi; Castoldi, M R; Cavallo, D; Cirla, P; Filipponi, A; Fustinoni, S; Gervasio, A; Mondini, D; Pellicanò, P; Santucciu, P; Scarpa, M; Settimi, L; Tiso, C; Zito, F; Carreri, V; Foà, V

2003-01-01

145

[MRI of the pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists. New studies suggest a correlation between CP-morphology and melatonin secretion as well as a connection between melatonin, disturbed circadian rhythm, and the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, underlining the need for a standardized approach to CP on MRI. PMID:25394927

Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Siebner, Hartwig; Garde, Ellen

2014-11-10

146

Supratentorial tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

147

Pineal thyroid relationship in psychic stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal hormone and thyroid functions, were studied simultaneously in rats after the induction of acute psychic stress as well as exogenous administration of melatonin, thyroxine and also after thyroidectomy. A gradual increase in 131I uptake, serum PBI and melatonin levels were observed in blood, reaching maximum on 8th day of psychic stress. Melatonin administration resulted in hypothyroidism whereas thyroxine increased the activity of pineal qland. Thyroidectomy revealed a gradual decrease in melatonin content of pineal gland whereas supplementation with thyroxine resulted in a melatonin content similar to that observed in sham operated (control) group. (author)

148

Malignant tumors arising in the maxillary region after radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although radiotherapy has proven of great therapeutic value in the treatment of malignant tumors, it should also be borne in mind that radiation has a serious potential risk of giving rise to a secondary malignancy. We recently experienced 2 cases each of carcinoma and sarcoma arising in the irradiated areas long after radiation therapy for malignant tumors. In these 4 cases, 2 males and 2 females, the primary neoplastic diseases were squamous cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, carcinoma of unknown pathology and malignant lymphoma, and the secondary tumors were epidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, respectively. The sites of occurrence of these malignancies were invariably in the maxillary region; the mean latent period was 15 years, aside from an infantile case with a latent period of 5 years. In view of the primary diseases being malignant tumors the following criteria were set up for the diagnosis of radiation-induced malignancies: (1) the site of occurrence is within the confines of a previously irradiated area, (2) the latent period is prolonged and (3) the malignancy occurs as a double tumor. Therapy was primarily by operation. The prognosis was exceedingly ominous, the average survival time being 22 months. This was probably and mainly because of rapidity of tumor growth. Thus, the secondary tumors had already spread back to inward by the time they were first discovered. This should be kept in mind during a long-term should be kept in mind during a long-term follow-up of patients receiving radiotherapy for malignancy. (author)

149

NeuroD1: developmental expression and regulated genes in the rodent pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

NeuroD1/BETA2, a member of the bHLH transcription factor family, is known to influence the fate of specific neuronal, endocrine and retinal cells. We report here that NeuroD1 mRNA is highly abundant in the developing and adult rat pineal gland. Pineal expression begins in the 17-day embryo at which time it is also detectable in other brain regions. Expression in the pineal gland increases during the embryonic period and is maintained thereafter at levels equivalent to those found in the cerebellum and retina. In contrast, NeuroD1 mRNA decreases markedly in non-cerebellar brain regions during development. Pineal NeuroD1 levels are similar during the day and night, and do not appear to be influenced by sympathetic neural input. Gene expression analysis of the pineal glands from neonatal NeuroD1 knockout mice identifies 127 transcripts that are down-regulated (>twofold, p twofold, p <0.05). According to quantitative RT-PCR, the most dramatically down-regulated gene is kinesin family member 5C ( approximately 100-fold) and the most dramatically up-regulated gene is glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 ( approximately fourfold). Other impacted transcripts encode proteins involved in differentiation, development, signal transduction and trafficking. These findings represent the first step toward elucidating the role of NeuroD1 in the rodent pinealocyte.

Muñoz, Estela M; Bailey, Michael J

2007-01-01

150

CT and MRI findings in patients with suprasellar germ cell tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a retrospective analysis of CT and MRI findings in suprasellar germ cell tumors. The study population was comprised of 6 patients with germinomas, one with embryonal carcinoma, and one with mature teratoma. Suprasellar germinoma tended to have intratumoral low density on CT or intensity area on MRI, indicating tumor necrosis or occasionally cyst formation. Germinoma tissue may extend into the pituitary fossa. Sagittal MRI revealed that the extension was limited to the posterior part of the pituitary gland. MRI of the teratoma did not demonstrate extension of the tumor into the pituitary fossa. No germ cell tumor in this region was seen as calcification. Germinoma in this region did not always show marked homogeneous enhancement. These neuroradiological findings failed to determine subtypes of germ cell tumors. Two patients had germinomas in both the pineal and suprasellar areas. Two years after the total removal of pineal teratoma, it recurred in the suprasellar region that was not seen on the first MRI. In these two patients, germinomas called 'double midline tumors' seemed to have originated by CSF dissemination or subependymal seeding, which was not demonstrated on neuroradiological images. The teratoma case was thought to be one form of double midline tumor, because the first tumor tissue in the pineal region had been totally and extracapsulary removed two years earlier and the suprasellar lesion could not be demonstrated on sagittal MRI or CT scans. In costrated on sagittal MRI or CT scans. In conclusion, not only neuroradiological findings but also clinical findings such as tumor markers may be required in preoperative diagnosis of suprasellar germ cell tumors. (N.K.)

151

Postnatal development of the dog pineal gland. Light microscopy  

OpenAIRE

The light microscopical morphology of the dog pineal gland from the first postnatal day to maturity is described. In the first postnatal week, the pineal parenchyma shows immature cells and many mitotic figures. In this week, pigmented cells are obsemed for the first time, both in the pineal gland and in extrapineal nodules. Throughout the second week, the pineal parenchyma shows a cordonal pattern that disappears progressively in the following stages. From the...

Calvo, J. L.; Boya, J.; Garci?a-maurin?o, A.; Lo?pez Carbonell, A.

1990-01-01

152

Pineal Proteins Upregulate Specific Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Brain  

OpenAIRE

The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL), the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins (PP) on the antioxidant defense sys...

Bharti, Vijay K.; Srivastava, R. S.

2009-01-01

153

Pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), a cis-acting element, directs pineal-specific gene expression in zebrafish  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland, sharing morphological and biochemical similarities with the retina, plays a unique and central role in the photoneuroendocrine system. The unique development of the pineal gland is directed by a specific combination of the expressed genes, but little is known about the regulatory mechanism underlying the pineal-specific gene expression. We isolated a 1.1-kbp fragment upstream of the zebrafish exo-rhodopsin (exorh) gene, which is expressed specifically in the pineal gland. Tr...

Asaoka, Yoichi; Mano, Hiroaki; Kojima, Daisuke; Fukada, Yoshitaka

2002-01-01

154

Pineal control of aging: effect of melatonin and pineal grafting on aging mice.  

OpenAIRE

Dark-cycle, night administration of the pineal hormone melatonin in drinking water to aging mice (15 months of age) prolongs survival of BALB/c females from 23.8 to 28.1 months and preserves aspects of their youthful state. Similar results were seen in New Zealand Black females beginning at 5 months and C57BL/6 males beginning at 19 months. As melatonin is produced in circadian fashion from the pineal, we grafted pineals from young 3- to 4-month-old donors into the thymus of 20-month-old syng...

Pierpaoli, W.; Regelson, W.

1994-01-01

155

Pineal cyst: study with magnetic resonance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of magnetic resonance (MR) as a diagnostic technique in central nervous system pathology has made possible the detection of structures that are hard to view with other diagnostic methods. In 21 patients in whom the existence of pineal cyst was detected by chance, we describe the study technique employed and present the MR characterization. In the absence of specific clinical symptoms and sings, the differential diagnosis of this pathology, with respect to other neoplastic formations located in the pineal gland, is based on its typical location behind the third ventricle, its size, which does not vary in the different serial studies, and its signal intensity. (author)

156

Comparison of some peptidic and proteic ovine pineal fractions with a bovine pineal E5 fraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using rather simple and mild extraction and separation methods, three ovine pineal fractions (XM 300R - PP 7.2, PP 7.2' and PP 7.2S) were obtained, which contain peptidic/proteic substances and which show fluorescence characteristics of indoles. The ovine fractions were compared with the bovine pineal E5-fraction. The ovine fractions are chemically sensitive to normal laboratory light and stable in red light (#betta# > 600 nm). Immunologically, these fractions and the bovine E5 fraction are stable. From the results of radioimmunological experiments it was concluded that the bovine pineal E5 fraction as well as the ovine pineal fraction XM 300R - PP 7.2 and PP 7.2S may contain (a) peptide(s) ending by the same carboxy terminal tripeptide Pro-Arg-Gly(NH2). (Author)

157

Peripheral autonomic nerves of human pineal organ terminate on vessels, their supposed role in the periodic secretion of pineal melatonin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonvisual pineal and retinal photoreceptors are synchronizing circadian and circannual periodicity to the environmental light periods in the function of various organs. Melatonin of the pineal organ is secreted at night and represents an important factor of this periodic regulation. Night illumination suppressing melatonin secretion may result in pathological events like breast and colorectal cancer. Experimental works demonstrated the role of autonomic nerves in the pineal melatonin secretion. It was supposed that mammalian pineals have lost their photoreceptor capacity that is present in submammalians, and sympathetic fibers would mediate light information from the retina to regulate melatonin secretion. Retinal afferentation may reach the organ by central nerve fibers via the pineal habenulae as well. In our earlier works we have found that the pineal organ developing from lobular evaginations of the epithalamus differs from peripheral endocrine glands and is composed of a retina-like central nervous tissue that is comprised of cone-like pinealocytes, secondary pineal neurons and glial cells. Their autonomic nerves in submammalians as well as in mammalian animals do not terminate on pineal cells, rather, they run in the meningeal septa among pineal lobules and form vasomotor nerve endings. Concerning the adult human pineal there are no detailed fine structural data about the termination of autonomic fibers, therefore, in the present work we investigated the ultrastructure of the human pineal peripheral autonomic nerve fibers. It was found, that similarly to other parts of the brain, autonomic nerves do not enter the human pineal nervous tissue itself but separated by glial limiting membranes take their course in the meningeal septa of the organ and terminate on vessels by vasomotor endings. We suppose that these autonomic vasomotor nerves serve the regulation of the pineal blood supply according to the circadian and circannual changes of the metabolic activity of the organ and support by this effect the secretion of pineal neurohormones including melatonin. PMID:22779685

Manzano E Silva, Maria Joao; Singh, Royana; Haldar, Chandana; Vigh, Béla; Szél, Ágoston

2012-08-01

158

Automatic extraction of tumor region on x-ray image of animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diagnosis by CT images is increasing. But we often use X-ray images because of scanning time and scan cost. It is difficult to extract tumor region of X-ray images, and pathologists have to diagnose many images of tumor. Therefore, demand for the development of CAD system is increasing to support pathologists. Images that we use are dog images. Many people research human Images, but animal images are not researched well. In this paper, automatic extraction of tumor region is studied. We used operation of normalized correlation. Template of this filter looks like mountain. We also used Quoit-filter, that detected region that had possibility of tumor. We calculated edge of tumor to see easily tumors. Our method detected some tumor candidate edge. As future work, we should extract bone region, and some fixed value, including filter size should be automatically determined. (author)

159

Regional measurements of 14Cmisonidazole distribution and blood flow in subcutaneous RT-9 experimental tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regional [14C]misonidazole-derived radioactivity (MISO*) was measured by quantitative autoradiography in s.c. RT-9 experimental tumors 0.5, 2, and 4 h after an i.v. bolus (25 mg) and constant infusion (10 mg/h) in rats. Misonidazole (MISO) concentration in plasma, tumor, and other tissues was also measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The distribution of MISO* in the tumors always resulted in a characteristic pattern with high peripheral and low central values. The high-activity regions in the tumor rim achieved tissue: plasma MISO* activity ratios of 0.97 and 2.2 by 0.5 and 4 h, respectively; for central tumor regions, this ratio was 0.20 and 0.32 for the same periods, respectively. The limited distribution of MISO* to central tumor regions could be correlated to low values of blood flow (measured with [131I]iodoantipyrine) and to diffusion from peripheral tumor regions. Low blood flow in the central regions of these tumors will significantly limit the distribution of MISO and other drugs to viable-appearing cells in these areas and could account in part for the failures of chemotherapy in certain solid tumors. Pharmacokinetic modeling indicates that 1 to 9 h may be necessary for MISO concentrations in some tumor regions to reach 50% of that in plasma

160

MR imaging of pineal cyst. Gd-DTPA wall enhancement pattern  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigated the characteristic diagnostic imaging features of pineal cysts in 14 patients. Periodic MR images were obtained on all of them during the follow-up period of more than one year. Neurological deficits attributable to a pineal cyst were observed in only one patient, who had a convergence disturbance. the T1-and T2-weighted images were studied in all 14 cases, and to enhance contrast, Gd-DTPA was administered to all patients. The cysts had homogenous low intensity signals in T1-weighted images and there were homogenous high intensity regions in T2-weighted images. The margins were clear with little mass effect on the surrounding brain tissues. The results of Gd-DTPA enhancement of the cyst wall revealed the existence of three distinct patterns. They were: 1) A ring-like enhancement pattern seen in four cases, 2) an arcuate (partial) enhancement pattern observed in five patients, and 3) no enhancement, found in another five cases. The degree of enhancement was influenced by the relationship between thickness of the cyst wall and the spatial resolution of the MRI image. During the follow-up period no increase in the size of a given cyst was evident. These studies emphasize that follow-up MR imaging is necessary for determining changes in pineal cysts over time. Moreover, sagittal MR images are particularly useful for diagnosing pineal cysts and for understanding the relationship between the cyst and the surroundinonship between the cyst and the surrounding tissues. (author)

161

Induction of photosensitivity in neonatal rat pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

Pineal glands removed from neonatal rats at 5, 7, and 9 days of age and explanted into short-term culture, synthesized melatonin when stimulated with norepinephrine (NE); their melatonin synthesis could not be suppressed with bright white light. Dispersed pineal cell cultures or pineal explants prepared from 1-day-old neonates and held in culture for 7 or 9 days also synthesized melatonin when stimulated with NE, but in these cases melatonin synthesis was significantly...

Tosini, Gianluca; Doyle, Susan; Geusz, Mike; Menaker, Michael

2000-01-01

162

The reno-pineal axis: A novel role for melatonin  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland is a tiny endocrine gland whose physiologic role has been the focus of much research and much more speculation over the past century. This mini-review discusses recent findings which correlate melatonin and renal physiology, and postulates the presence of a “reno-pineal axis.” Drawing lessons from comparative endocrinology, while quoting human data, it advocates the need to study the “reno-pineal axis” in greater detail.

Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Swati; Sahay, Manisha

2012-01-01

163

Possible role of pineal allopregnanolone in Purkinje cell survival  

OpenAIRE

It is believed that neurosteroids are produced in the brain and other nervous systems. Here, we show that allopregnanolone (ALLO), a neurosteroid, is exceedingly produced in the pineal gland compared with the brain and that pineal ALLO acts on the Purkinje cell, a principal cerebellar neuron, to prevent apoptosis in the juvenile quail. We first demonstrated that the pineal gland is a major organ of neurosteroidogenesis. A series of experiments using molecular and biochemical techniques has fu...

Haraguchi, Shogo; Hara, Sakurako; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Mita, Masatoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

2012-01-01

164

Tumor blood volume assays using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: regional heterogeneity and postmortem artifacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumor blood volume (BV), subject to both morphologic and physiologic influences, can be measured using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aims of this study were to determine whether MRI enhanced with a macromolecular contrast medium (MMCM) could resolve differences in BV between different tumor types, between different regions within tumors, and within the same tumor in life and after death. Tumor BV estimates were based on the MRI signal intensity responses in the tumors and in reference venous blood following enhancement with a blood pool MMCM using two mammary adenocarcinoma models. Estimates of BV were made before and immediately following death. An in vitro measurement of tumor gadolinium concentration following death was correlated with MRI enhancement. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed in MRI-estimated tumor BV between tumor subtypes, between in vivo and postmortem measurements, and between the tumor periphery and tumor centers. MRI assays enhanced with a macromolecular contrast agent can resolve blood volume differences between tumor types, between regions within the same tumor, and between vital and postmortem states. PMID:10331764

Okuhata, Y; Brasch, R C; Pham, C D; Daldrup, H; Wendland, M F; Shames, D M; Roberts, T P

1999-05-01

165

[Intracranial germ cell tumors: the point of view of the endocrinologist].  

Science.gov (United States)

Extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare neoplasms most commonly diagnosed in the first and second decades of life. Intracranially they tend to arise in the midline in the pineal and hypothalamic/intrasellar regions. The clinical presentation in the central nervous system depends on the patient's age, tumor location, and tumor size. Because of the proximity of these tumors to the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, their presence often results in the development of various hormonal abnormalities. Patients most often present with diabetes insipidus, growth hormone insufficiency and precocious puberty. Early diagnosis of germ cell tumors is of the utmost importance as they are highly radiosensitive, although the correct diagnosis may be sometimes difficult to achieve. In this paper, we review different aspects of pathology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of intracranial germ cell tumors. Particular attention is paid to the endocrine aspects of these tumors. PMID:24697039

Krysiak, Robert

2013-01-01

166

[Participation of pineal gland in antistressor activity of adaptogenic drugs].  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic stress produces some morphological changes in rats, including thymus weight reduction, adrenal hypertrophy, and peptic ulcers in stomach. Repeated administration of phytoadaptogenic drugs (ginseng and bilobil) decreased these stress-induced disorders. The antistressor activity of drugs was attenuated upon by removal of the pineal gland. Histochemical and morphometric investigation of pineal tissues in stressed animals showed that that the pharmacological effect was accompanied by increasing functional activity of the pineal gland. It is suggested that pineal mobilization may participate in antistressor activity of phytoadaptogenic drugs. PMID:25826867

2015-01-01

167

The megachiropteran pineal organ: a comparative morphological and volumetric investigation with special emphasis on the remarkably large pineal of Dobsonia praedatrix.  

OpenAIRE

This investigation is based upon the pineal organs of 92 specimens of 36 species of the family Pteropodidae (Mammalia, Chiroptera). The size of the megachiropteran pineal correlates well with body size (r = 0.864), confirming the former conclusions that generally larger bodied bats have larger pineals. The range of the pineal size index in 36 megachiropteran species is from 33 to 4393. In most species the pineal organs are small, deeply recessed under the cerebral hemispheres and of Type A (e...

Bhatnagar, K. P.; Frahm, H. D.; Stephan, H.

1990-01-01

168

Pineal Function: Impact of Microarray Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-hour schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity to the retina and has provided reason to explore new avenues of study including intracellular signaling, signal transduction, transcriptional cascades, thyroid/retinoic acid hormone signaling, metal biology...

Klein, David C.; Bailey, Michael J.; Carter, David A.; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Ho, Anthony; Chik, Constance; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G.; Munson, Peter J.

2009-01-01

169

Nitric oxide synthase in the pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

The recent discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as a biological messenger molecule with unique characteristics has opened a new field in pineal research. This free radical gas is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. The activation of adrenoreceptors in the membrane of the pinealocytes mediates the increase in NO through a mechanism that involves G proteins. In the pinealocyte, NO stimulates guanylyl cyclase resulting in an increased ...

Lopez-figueroa, M. O.; Moller, M.

1996-01-01

170

Oxytalan fibres in the rat pineal gland.  

OpenAIRE

The present study shows the existence of oxytalan fibres in the connective tissue spaces of the rat pineal gland. The identification of these fibres with light microscopy is based on their ability to stain with aldehyde-fuchsin and orcein after oxidation with peracetic acid. Using the electron microscope, oxytalan fibres appear as bundles of fibrils of 12-15 nm without transverse striation. Oxytalan fibres increase with age, being most abundant in the old rat.

Calvo, J.; Boya, J.

1983-01-01

171

Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

172

Morphological studies of the pineal gland in the common gull (Larus canus) reveal uncommon features of pinealocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The avian pineal is a directly photosensory organ taking part in the organization of the circadian and seasonal rhythms. It plays an important role in regulation of many behavior and physiological phenomena including migration. The aim of the study was to investigate morphology of the pineal organ in the common gull (Larus canus). The light and electron microscopic studies were performed on the pineals of juvenile birds living in natural conditions of the Baltic Sea coast, which have been untreatably injured during strong storms in autumn and qualified for euthanasia. The investigated pineals consisted of a wide, triangular, superficially localized distal part and a narrow, elongated proximal part, attached via the choroid plexus to the intercommissural region of the diencephalon. The accessory pineal tissue was localized caudally to the choroid plexus. Based on the histological criteria, the organ was classified as the solid-follicular type. Two types of cells of fotoreceptory line were distinguished: rudimentary-receptor pinealocytes and secretory pinealocytes. Both types of cells were characterized by unusual features, which have been not previously described in avian pinealocytes: the presence of paracrystalline structures in the basal processes and their endings, the storage of glycogen in the form of large accumulations and the arrangement of mitochondria in clusters. Further studies on other species of wild water birds dwelling in condition of cold seas are necessary to explain if the described features of pinealocytes are specific for genus Larus, family Laridae or a larger group of water birds living in similar environmental conditions. PMID:22262668

Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara; Lewçzuk, Bogdan; Prusik, Magdalena; Kalicki, Miroslaw; Zió?kowska, Natalia

2012-04-01

173

Malignant giant cell tumor of soft parts in lumbosacral region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Giant cell tumor of soft parts is a rare neoplasm that mainly affects adulst and the elderly and is usually located in the extremities. Here we report a child with giant cell tumor of soft tissue, which is a very rare condition in childhood. Clinical presentation : A 5 year old girl presented with a 5 month history of left lower extremity pain. She had developed paraplegia before admission. On examination, mild left lumbosacral swelling and tenderness was found. Abdominal and pelvic CT-Scan revealed an expansile lytic lesion of the left side of sacrum with significant soft tissue component extending toward the left iliac bone. Lumbar MRI revealed a space occupying lesion originating from posterior L5 elements, projecting toward the L1. Intervention : The patient underwent surgery. A firm epidural hemorrhagic tumor of L5, S1, and S2 with no spinal cord involvement was found. Partial tumor resection (measuring 3*1*0.5 cm in maximal diameter and laminectomy was done. Conclusion : Primary giant cell tumors of soft tissue are distinctive, rare neoplasms that exhibit a wide clinicopathologic spectrum similar to osseous GCTs and need to be differentiated from other giant cell rich soft tissue tumors. Recognition of this tumor is important due to its behavior as a low grade malignancy, but this cannot be predicted and metastasis does occur rarely

Jadali F

2008-04-01

174

Glia-Pinealocyte Network: The Paracrine Modulation of Melatonin Synthesis by Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland, a circumventricular organ, plays an integrative role in defense responses. The injury-induced suppression of the pineal gland hormone, melatonin, which is triggered by darkness, allows the mounting of innate immune responses. We have previously shown that cultured pineal glands, which express toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), produce TNF when challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here our aim was to evaluate which cells present in ...

Da Silveira Cruz-machado, Sanseray; Pinato, Luciana; Tamura, Eduardo Koji; Carvalho-sousa, Cla?udia Emanuele; Markus, Regina P.

2012-01-01

175

Malignant giant cell tumor of soft parts in lumbosacral region  

OpenAIRE

Background: Giant cell tumor of soft parts is a rare neoplasm that mainly affects adulst and the elderly and is usually located in the extremities. Here we report a child with giant cell tumor of soft tissue, which is a very rare condition in childhood. Clinical presentation : A 5 year old girl presented with a 5 month history of left lower extremity pain. She had developed paraplegia before admission. On examination, mild left lumbosacral swelling and tenderness was foun...

Jadali F; Almasi A; Gharib A

2008-01-01

176

Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.  

Science.gov (United States)

As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis. PMID:24692343

Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

2014-11-01

177

Tumor odontógeno adenomatoide en región mandibular / Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in mandibular region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El tumor odontogénico adenomatoide es un tumor poco frecuente derivado del epitelio odontontogénico, que contiene estructuras canaliculares con modificaciones inductivas de intensidad variable en el tejido conjuntivo. Es una lesión de crecimiento lento y poco invasiva pero que se puede asemejar a ot [...] ras lesiones odontógenas de mayor agresividad como el quiste dentígero y el ameloblastoma entre otros. Su localización clásica (área de caninos superiores) nos orienta al diagnóstico y su patrón histológico ductiforme es muy propio de este tumor. Otros tumores que se encuentran dentro de este grupo son el fibroma ameloblástico, el odontoameloblastoma, el quiste odontógeno calcificante y los odontomas compuesto y complejo. Este grupo de lesiones puede o no tener formaciones de tejido duro dental dentro de ellos. Por esta razón, se presenta un paciente con este tipo de tumor, al que se le realizó estudio histopatológico, se revisó la literatura acerca de este tumor odontogénico benigno y sus características clínicas, radiográficas, tratamiento, así como los diagnósticos diferenciales que se deben tener en cuenta. Abstract in english The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon neoplasm derivative of the odontogenic epithelium containing canalicular structures with inductor modifications of variable intensity in the conjunctival tissue. It is a slow growth lesion and no much invasive but that may to be similar to other odont [...] ogenic lesions more aggressive including the dentigerous cyst and the ameloblastoma among others. Its classical location (upper canine area) guides us to diagnosis and its duct histological pattern is very typical of this tumor. Other tumors included in this group are the ameloblastic fibroma, the ameloblastic odontoma, the calcified odontogenic cyst and composed and complex odontomas. This group of lesions may or not to have formations of hard tissue inside. Thus, authors present the case of a patient presenting with this type of tumor making a histopathology study, a literature review on this benign odontogenic tumor and its clinical radiographic features, treatment, as well as the differential diagnoses to be into account.

Ernesto, Sánchez Cabrales; Dadonim, Vila Morales; Ángel Mario, Felipe Garmendia; Alain, Serra Ortega; Alma, Torres Gómez de Cádiz.

2010-12-01

178

Evolution of photosensory pineal organs in new light: the fate of neuroendocrine photoreceptors.  

OpenAIRE

Pineal evolution is envisaged as a gradual transformation of pinealocytes (a gradual regression of pinealocyte sensory capacity within a particular cell line), the so-called sensory cell line of the pineal organ. In most non-mammals the pineal organ is a directly photosensory organ, while the pineal organ of mammals (epiphysis cerebri) is a non-sensory neuroendocrine organ under photoperiod control. The phylogenetic transformation of the pineal organ is reflected in the morphology and physiol...

Ekstro?m, Peter; Meissl, Hilmar

2003-01-01

179

Circadian rhythms in the pineal organ persist in zebrafish larvae that lack ventral brain  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, located in the ventral hypothalamus, is a major regulator of circadian rhythms in mammals and birds. However, the role of the SCN in lower vertebrates remains poorly understood. Zebrafish cyclops (cyc mutants lack ventral brain, including the region that gives rise to the SCN. We have used cyc embryos to define the function of the zebrafish SCN in regulating circadian rhythms in the developing pineal organ. The pineal organ is the major source of the circadian hormone melatonin, which regulates rhythms such as daily rest/activity cycles. Mammalian pineal rhythms are controlled almost exclusively by the SCN. In zebrafish and many other lower vertebrates, the pineal has an endogenous clock that is responsible in part for cyclic melatonin biosynthesis and gene expression. Results We find that pineal rhythms are present in cyc mutants despite the absence of an SCN. The arginine vasopressin-like protein (Avpl, formerly called Vasotocin is a peptide hormone expressed in and around the SCN. We find avpl mRNA is absent in cyc mutants, supporting previous work suggesting the SCN is missing. In contrast, expression of the putative circadian clock genes, cryptochrome 1b (cry1b and cryptochrome 3 (cry3, in the brain of the developing fish is unaltered. Expression of two pineal rhythmic genes, exo-rhodopsin (exorh and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (aanat2, involved in photoreception and melatonin synthesis, respectively, is also similar between cyc embryos and their wildtype (WT siblings. The timing of the peaks and troughs of expression are the same, although the amplitude of expression is slightly decreased in the mutants. Cyclic gene expression persists for two days in cyc embryos transferred to constant light or constant dark, suggesting a circadian clock is driving the rhythms. However, the amplitude of rhythms in cyc mutants kept in constant conditions decreased more quickly than in their WT siblings. Conclusion Our data suggests that circadian rhythms can be initiated and maintained in the absence of SCN and other tissues in the ventral brain. However, the SCN may have a role in regulating the amplitude of rhythms when environmental cues are absent. This provides some of the first evidence that the SCN of teleosts is not essential for establishing circadian rhythms during development. Several SCN-independent circadian rhythms have also been found in mammalian species. Thus, zebrafish may serve as a model system for understanding how vertebrate embryos coordinate rhythms that are controlled by different circadian clocks.

Goldstein-Kral Lauren

2011-01-01

180

Stereoscopic virtual reality models for planning tumor resection in the sellar region  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background It is difficult for neurosurgeons to perceive the complex three-dimensional anatomical relationships in the sellar region. Methods To investigate the value of using a virtual reality system for planning resection of sellar region tumors. The study included 60 patients with sellar tumors. All patients underwent computed tomography angiography, MRI-T1W1, and contrast enhanced MRI-T1W1 image sequence scanning. The CT and MRI scanning data were collected and then imported into...

Wang Shou-sen; Zhang Shang-ming; Jing Jun-jie

2012-01-01

181

Analysis of MRI appearance of aggressive soft tissue tumor in hip joint region: compared with pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To analyze the MRI appearance of soft tissue tumor in hip joint region, and compare it with pathological features. Methods: MR appearance of 19 soft tissue tumor in hip joint region were retrospectively analyzed, including 12 male and 7 female, 45.2 years averaged. All patients had taken common MR scanning and Gd-DTPA contrast scanning. Results: There was 5 aggressive fibromatosis, 5 malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 2 synovial sarcoma, 4 liposarcoma, 1 lymphoma, 1 primitive neuroectodermal tumor and 1 metastatic tumor. Of 19 cases, 13 with hemorrhage and necrosis, 14 with peripheral edema, nerve and vessel involved in 11. Aggressive fibromatosis appeared as isointensity or hypointensity on T1WI, and moderate hyperintensity on T2WI with low signal inside. Malignant tumor were mostly ill-defined. After contrast scanning, tumors enhanced apparently. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma showed isointensity and heter-hypointensity on T1WI, and heter-hypointensity on T2WI. Necrosis and hemorrhage occurred. All cases showed strong enhancement, except for the areas of necrosis. Edema around tumor can be seen in most cases. Conclusion: MRI can demonstrate the from and internal and peripheral structure of soft tissue tumor in hip joint region, and can contribute to the diagnosis before operation. (authors)

182

Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

MØller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri

2014-01-01

183

Liver Tumor Segmentation Using Level Sets and Region Growing  

OpenAIRE

Medical imaging is an important tool for diagnosis and treatment planning today. However as the demand for efficiency increases at the same time as the data volumes grow immensely, the need for computer assisted analysis, such as image segmentation, to help and guide the practitioner increases. Medical image segmentation could be used for various different tasks, the localization and delineation of pathologies such as cancer tumors is just one example. Numerous problems with noise and image a...

Thomasson, Viola

2011-01-01

184

FULLY AUTOMATED APPROACH TO IDENTIFY BRAIN TUMORS USING DYNAMIC REGION MERGING  

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Full Text Available : Image segmentation is a fundamental task of computer vision application. In this paper address the automatic image segmentation algorithum, which exploit the information obtain from deducting tumor in brain MRI. Many segmentation technic are used to deduct the tumor portion like Thresholding technic, Hybrid technic , Boundary based technic, and Region based technic but in this all technic should deducted the initial tumor tissue but when the secondary tumor present or more than one tumor are present in same brain image it is difficult to deducted the irregular tissue from the regular surrounding tissue to get real identification of involved and non involved area which help the surgeon to distinguish the total effected area covered by (primary & secondary tumor portion. The proposed method is DRM(dynamic region growingto deducted the tumor boundary in region merging style .In this paper two essential issue in a region merging algorithms : order of merging and stopping criteria.in the proposed method this two issued are solved by a novel predicates ,which is defined by a sequential probability ratio test (SPRTand minimum cost criterion. We also proved that the producedsegmentation satisfied certain global properties

ASHWINI JANGDE, NAVNEET SAHU

2013-08-01

185

Dynamic studies of positron-emitting putative tumor marker 132Cs in mice show differential tumor and regional uptake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Positron-emitting 132Cs (t1/2 = 6.47 days) was generated from stable 133CsCl via the 133Cs (p,pn) 132Cs reaction. BALB/c mice, bearing implanted MT296 mammary tumors, were given 4.6 mEq kg-1 of 132CsCl via a single intraperitoneal injection. Postinjection uptake of 132Cs into body regions was monitored in vivo with external detectors. Positron emission from the tumor region was continuously greater than that from the head, the numerical ratio of mean emission intensities being fourfold at 10 min postinjection. Tissues excised from these mice postmortem showed sequence of relative tissue cesium uptake rates to be kidney 1.8, small intestine 1.7, tumor 1.0, skin 0.75, liver 0.75, skeletal muscle 0.4, and brain 0.28. Comparative studies with multiple injections of stable cesium and rubidium showed this sequence to be ion-specific. These observations suggest that positron-emitting isotopes of cesium could provide useful markers for tumors of several tissues

186

Brain tumors in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brain tumors are common in children; in Germany approximately 400 children are diagnosed every year. In the posterior fossa, cerebellar neoplasms outnumber brainstem gliomas. In contrast to their rarity in adults, brainstem gliomas are not uncommon in children. Supratentorial tumors can be subdivided by location into neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres, suprasellar and pineal tumors. Astrocytoma is the most common pediatric brain tumor followed by medulloblastoma, ependymoma and craniopharyngeoma. The combination of imaging morphology, tumor localisation and patient age at manifestation form the basis of the neuroradiological differential diagnosis. (orig.)

187

Vascularization of the pineal gland in the crow.  

Science.gov (United States)

The blood vascularization in the pineal gland of the crow was investigated in detail using a vascular corrosion cast technique and by scanning electron microscopy. The pineal gland received two afferent arteries on either side, each artery arising from the A. cerebralis caudalis (CC) which supplied its branches to the hemisphere. The pineal gland of the crow was so highly vascularized as to be suggestive of its high metabolic and endocrine activities. The efferent veins drained into the Sinus occipitalis and the Sinus sagittalis dorsalis. There was a direct vascular connection between capillaries of the stalk of the gland and those of the Plexus choroideus. PMID:7696416

Nasu, T; Nakai, M; Murakami, N

1994-12-01

188

Pineal gland calcification and defective sense of direction.  

OpenAIRE

Calcification of the pineal gland is shown to be closely related to defective sense of direction. In a tricentre prospective study of 750 patients lateral skull radiographs showed that 394 had calcified pineal glands. Sense of direction was assessed by subjective questioning and objective testing and the results noted on a scale of 0-10 (where 10 equals perfect sense of direction). The average score for the 394 patients with pineal gland calcification was 3.7 (range 0-8), whereas the 356 pati...

Bayliss, C. R.; Bishop, N. L.; Fowler, R. C.

1985-01-01

189

Segmental duplications and evolutionary plasticity at tumor chromosome break-prone regions  

OpenAIRE

We have previously found that the borders of evolutionarily conserved chromosomal regions often coincide with tumor-associated deletion breakpoints within human 3p12-p22. Moreover, a detailed analysis of a frequently deleted region at 3p21.3 (CER1) showed associations between tumor breaks and gene duplications. We now report on the analysis of 54 chromosome 3 breaks by multipoint FISH (mpFISH) in 10 carcinoma-derived cell lines. The centromeric region was broken in five lines. In lines with h...

Darai-ramqvist, Eva; Sandlund, Agneta; Mu?ller, Stefan; Klein, George; Imreh, Stefan; Kost-alimova, Maria

2008-01-01

190

Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI  

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Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 {+-} 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

Whitehead, Matthew T. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Oh, Christopher C. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Choudhri, Asim F. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States)

2013-12-15

191

Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 ± 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

192

Conservatively managed pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated patient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a case of pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated and hypertensive 56-year-old Hispanic male. At presentation, the patient's international normalized ratio (INR) was 10.51 and his blood pressure was 200/130 mmHg. His presenting symptoms included acute onset of headache, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and visual disturbance. Neuroimaging demonstrated hemorrhage into a morphologically normal pineal gland. Under conservative management, the patient experienced gradual resolution of all symptoms excluding the disturbance of upward gaze

193

Diencephalic origin of the pineal gland of the chicken embryo  

OpenAIRE

In the present paper, the diencephalic origin of the chick pineal gland was analyzed by a series of experiments: prosencephalic substitution; in vitro culture of isolated diencephalons; and total or partial excission of the diencephalic roof. The results indicate that the differentiation of the chick pineal gland in the rooof of the third ventricle is not influenced by the neighbouring brain vesicles and is of diencephalic origin. Moreover, in order to obtain c...

Aige-gil, Vicente; Murillo-ferrol, Narciso

1991-01-01

194

Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland  

OpenAIRE

Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passag...

Xf Ller, Morten M.; Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito; Corin Badiu

2014-01-01

195

Global daily dynamics of the pineal transcriptome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transcriptome profiling of the pineal gland has revealed night/day differences in the expression of a major fraction of the genes active in this tissue, with two-thirds of these being nocturnal increases. A set of over 600 transcripts exhibit two-fold to >100-fold daily differences in abundance. These changes appear to be primarily attributable to adrenergic-cyclic-AMP-dependent mechanisms, which are controlled via a neural pathway that includes the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master circadian oscillator. In addition to melatonin synthesis, night/day differences in gene expression impact genes associated with several specialized functions, including the immune/inflammation response, photo-transduction, and thyroid hormone/retinoic acid biology. The following nonspecialized cellular features are also affected: adhesion, cell cycle/cell death, cytoskeleton, DNA modification, endothelium, growth, RNA modification, small molecule biology, transcription factors, vesicle biology, signaling involving Ca(2+), cyclicnucleotides, phospholipids, mitogen-activated protein kinases, the Wnt signaling pathway, and protein phosphorylation.

Bustos, Diego M; Bailey, Michael J

2011-01-01

196

Recurrent giant cell tumor of bone with simultaneous regional lymph node and pulmonary metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Giant cell tumors of bone are known for their unpredictable behavior characterized occasionally even by metastases. Most metastases lodge in the lungs but other rare sites are regional lymph nodes, mediastinum, skin, scalp and the pelvis. In this case report we document a case of giant cell tumor of the patella in which, associated with local recurrence, there were simultaneous metastases to lymph nodes and lungs. (orig.)

197

Leptomeningite e tumor da região optoquiasmática Meningitis and tumor of the opto-chiasmatic region. Report of two cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available São registrados dois casos de tumores situados no assoalho da fossa craniana média (carcinoma sólido da hipófise e craniofaringeoma acompanhados de leptomeningite de etiologia não determinada. Especialmente no segundo caso esta se caracterizava pela ocorrência de repetidos surtos de exacerbação. Em ambos o diagnóstico inicial foi de leptomeningite, tendo sido o insucesso das medidas terapêuticas adotadas que levou a estudos radiológicos, na tentativa de evidenciar focos que pudessem estar mantendo a infecção. Em ambos os casos o exame radiológico forneceu dados que permitiram orientar o diagnóstico de tumor do assoalho da fossa craniana média. As condições clínicas, no entanto, impediram que fossem adotadas em tempo útil medidas terapêuticas que visassem diretamente o tumor, vindo os pacientes a falecer. A possibilidade da ocorrência de meningites em tumores dessa região é discutida, bem como a natureza séptica ou asséptica da reação inflamatória. Os casos apresentados permitem concluir que, em processos meningíticos de evolução longa, acompanhados de surtos de agudização, nos quais nem mesmo durante os surtos agudos é encontrado o agente etiológico no LCR, a possibilidade da ocorrência de tumores do assoalho da fossa média do crânio deve ser estudada. O estudo deve ser feito precocemente, para permitir a adoção de medidas terapêuticas adequadas, visando diretamente o tumor, em tempo hábil, na tentativa de evitar que os surtos meningíticos venham a comprometer a vida do paciente.A study was made of a patient with carcinoma of the hypophisis which invaded the sphenoid bone and made protrusion under the nasopharyngeal mucosa, and that of a patient with craniopharyngeoma. The patients had no symptoms proper to the tumors but presented several episodes of meningitis. The presence of the tumor, in both cases, was evidenced lately, when the failure of the antibiotic therapy became patent leading to the search of intracranial focuses of infection through radiologic examinations. The nature of the leptomeningitic episodes is discussed. Their relation to possible communications between the oropharyngeal cavity and the subarachnoid space, secundary to the changes in the anatomic structures of the region provoked by the tumors, is emphasized since these communications make possible the invasion of the subarachnoid space by bacteria. Although this opinion is acceptable in respect to the cases related, it is not possible to exclude the aseptic nature of meningitic episodes observed as no pathogenic micro-organism was isolated from the CSF samples studied and the necroscopic examination showed no septation in the leptomeningeal structures that surrounded the tumor or no obvious focus of infection related to them. Considering the cases reported the authors point out that radiologic and neuro-radiologic examinations must be indicated, as soon as possible, in order to exclude such tumors in patients suffering from meningitis of obscure origin, specially when its course is delayed and/or marked by acute episodes or re-exacerbation.

J. A. Gonçalves da Silva

1967-03-01

198

Leptomeningite e tumor da região optoquiasmática / Meningitis and tumor of the opto-chiasmatic region. Report of two cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available São registrados dois casos de tumores situados no assoalho da fossa craniana média (carcinoma sólido da hipófise e craniofaringeoma) acompanhados de leptomeningite de etiologia não determinada. Especialmente no segundo caso esta se caracterizava pela ocorrência de repetidos surtos de exacerbação. Em [...] ambos o diagnóstico inicial foi de leptomeningite, tendo sido o insucesso das medidas terapêuticas adotadas que levou a estudos radiológicos, na tentativa de evidenciar focos que pudessem estar mantendo a infecção. Em ambos os casos o exame radiológico forneceu dados que permitiram orientar o diagnóstico de tumor do assoalho da fossa craniana média. As condições clínicas, no entanto, impediram que fossem adotadas em tempo útil medidas terapêuticas que visassem diretamente o tumor, vindo os pacientes a falecer. A possibilidade da ocorrência de meningites em tumores dessa região é discutida, bem como a natureza séptica ou asséptica da reação inflamatória. Os casos apresentados permitem concluir que, em processos meningíticos de evolução longa, acompanhados de surtos de agudização, nos quais nem mesmo durante os surtos agudos é encontrado o agente etiológico no LCR, a possibilidade da ocorrência de tumores do assoalho da fossa média do crânio deve ser estudada. O estudo deve ser feito precocemente, para permitir a adoção de medidas terapêuticas adequadas, visando diretamente o tumor, em tempo hábil, na tentativa de evitar que os surtos meningíticos venham a comprometer a vida do paciente. Abstract in english A study was made of a patient with carcinoma of the hypophisis which invaded the sphenoid bone and made protrusion under the nasopharyngeal mucosa, and that of a patient with craniopharyngeoma. The patients had no symptoms proper to the tumors but presented several episodes of meningitis. The presen [...] ce of the tumor, in both cases, was evidenced lately, when the failure of the antibiotic therapy became patent leading to the search of intracranial focuses of infection through radiologic examinations. The nature of the leptomeningitic episodes is discussed. Their relation to possible communications between the oropharyngeal cavity and the subarachnoid space, secundary to the changes in the anatomic structures of the region provoked by the tumors, is emphasized since these communications make possible the invasion of the subarachnoid space by bacteria. Although this opinion is acceptable in respect to the cases related, it is not possible to exclude the aseptic nature of meningitic episodes observed as no pathogenic micro-organism was isolated from the CSF samples studied and the necroscopic examination showed no septation in the leptomeningeal structures that surrounded the tumor or no obvious focus of infection related to them. Considering the cases reported the authors point out that radiologic and neuro-radiologic examinations must be indicated, as soon as possible, in order to exclude such tumors in patients suffering from meningitis of obscure origin, specially when its course is delayed and/or marked by acute episodes or re-exacerbation.

J. A. Gonçalves da, Silva; Sylvio, Saraiva; A., Spina-França.

1967-03-01

199

Is a neuronal chain between the pineal body and the retina in rats and hamsters? Transneural tracing studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuronal chains between the retina and the pineal body were investigated. Transneuronal tracers, retrograde spreading pseudorabies virus (labeled with green fluorescent protein, memGreen-RV) and virus spreading in both ante- and retrograde directions (labeled with red fluorescent protein, Ka-VHS-mCherry-A-RV) were injected into the right eye of vitreous body of intact or bilaterally sympathectomized Wistar male rats. Intact golden hamsters also received memGreen-RV into the eye and Ka-VHS-mCherry-A-RV into the pineal body. Four-five days later the animals were sacrificed. Frozen sections were prepared from the removed structures. In intact rats memGreen-RV resulted in green fluorescent labeling in the trigeminal and the superior cervical ganglia, the lateral horn of the spinal cord, the paraventricular and the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the perifornical region, the ventrolateral medulla, the locus ceruleus, and the raphe nuclei. In sympathectomized rats the labeling was missing from the brainstem but further existed in the hypothalamus. This observation indicates that the hypothalamic labeling is not mediated by the sympathetic system. One labeled neuron in the pineal body was only observed in 2/13 rats. It was independent from the sympathectomy. When the animals received Ka-VHS-mCherry-A-RV the distribution of the labeling was very similar to that of the intact group receiving retrograde virus. In golden hamsters the memGreen-RV labeled structures were seen in similar places as in rats, but virus labeled nerve cell bodies were always seen in the pineal body. Injection of Ka-VHS-mCherry-A-RV into the pineal body of hamsters resulted in labeling of the retina at both sides. It was concluded that the retinopetal neuronal chain in golden hamsters is always present but in rats it is stochastic. PMID:25543029

Csáki, Ágnes; Vígh, Béla; Boldogk?i, Zsolt; Vereczki, Viktoria; Szél, Ágoston; Köves, Katalin

2015-02-19

200

Characterization of Tumor Region Using SOM and Neuro Fuzzy Techniques in Digital Mammography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays the most common type of cancer in women is breast cancer. This is the second main cause of cancer deaths in women. Digital mammography is the technique which is used to examine the breast.This is very much useful for the detection of breast diseases in women. The automatic detection of tumor or some type of deformity in the medical imaging is done by many researchers to develop somealgorithms and methods. In this paper we are using SOM and Fuzzy c-means clustering techniques for tumor detection in digital mammography images. We then further calculate the statistical features of tumor like location of tumor, area, energy, entropy, idm, mean, contrast, mean and standard deviation which helps the radiologist to study the statistical information regarding breast cancer, so that the doctors can give better treatment to patients. For calculating these statistical properties we use regiongrowing and region merging techniques.

Anamika Ahirwar

2011-02-01

201

Age-related incidence of pineal calcification detected by computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The age-related incidence of detectable pineal calcification in 725 patients (age range, newborn-20 yrs) suggests that there is a relationship between calcification and the hormonal role played by the pineal gland in the regulation of sexual development. Pineal calcification (demonstrated by computed tomography [CT] on 8-mm-thick sections) in patients less than 6 years old should be looked upon with suspicion, and follow-up CT should be considered to exclude the possible development of a pineal neoplasm

202

Prognostic Significance of P53 Protein, Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in Pineal Parenchymal Tumours  

OpenAIRE

Pineal parenchymal tumours are very rare consisting less than 0.1% of all central nervous system tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of Ki-67, cyclin D1 and p53 protein expressions in pineal parenchymal tumours. Ten pineal parenchymal tumours were investigated: 2 pineocytomas, 5 pineal parenchymal tumour of intermediate differentiation and 3 pineoblastomas . Immunohistochemical staining was performed using avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The number o...

Yalcin, Nagihan; Baltalarli, Bahar; Ersahin, Yusuf; Demirtas, Eren

2009-01-01

203

Homeobox genes in the rodent pineal gland: roles in development and phenotype maintenance  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene e...

Rath, Martin F.; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C.; Møller, Morten

2012-01-01

204

Sudden death due to a glial cyst of the pineal gland.  

OpenAIRE

Asymptomatic cysts of the pineal gland are found frequently by radiological examination of the brain or at postmortem examination. Symptomatic cysts are rare, and may require surgical intervention. Sudden death due to a cystic lesion of the pineal gland is very rare. A case of a 22 year old man who collapsed and died unexpectedly is reported. Postmortem examination revealed a glial cyst of the pineal gland and evidence of chronic obstructive hydrocephalus. Deaths from colloid cysts and pineal...

Milroy, C. M.; Smith, C. L.

1996-01-01

205

One millisecond of light suffices to suppress nighttime pineal melatonin synthesis in rats  

OpenAIRE

The effcct of a single high-intensity light pulse with a duration of 1 ms on nighttime pineal activity of male Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. 10 minutes after light exposure pineal N-actyltransferase activity and melatonin content were significantly reduced. These results show that the rat pineal is capable of responding to very short light flashes of high intensity.

Vollrath, Lutz; Seidel, A.; Huesgen, A.; Manz, B.; Pollow, Kunhard; Leiderer, Paul

1989-01-01

206

Pineal melatonin synthesis in Syrian hamsters: A summary  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past decade there has been ample documentation of the proposition that the pineal gland mediates photoperiodic influences upon reproductive behavior of hamsters. It is commonly hypothesized that the pineal gland expresses its activity by transformation of photoperiodic information into an hormonal output, that hormone being melatonin. If this hypothesis is correct, there must be some essential diffrence in melatonin's output when hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic environments. The experiments summarized in this communication analyze pineal melatonin contents in Syrian hamsters maintained in a variety of photoperiodic conditions during different physiological states. The results demonstrate that adult hamsters have a daily surge in pineal melatonin content throughout their lifetime when exposed to simulated annual photoperiodic cycles. There is some fluctuation in the amount of pineal melatonin produced during different physiological states and photoperiodic environments, but these fluctuations seem small when compared to those normally found for other regulatory hormones. When hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic regimens, the daily melatonin surge maintains a relatively constant phase relationship with respect to the onset of daily activity. There is a concomitant change in its phase relationship with respect to light-dark transitions.

Rollag, M. D.

1982-12-01

207

Epigenetic changes within the promoter region of the HLA-G gene in ovarian tumors  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous findings have suggested that epigenetic-mediated HLA-G expression in tumor cells may be associated with resistance to host immunosurveillance. To explore the potential role of DNA methylation on HLA-G expression in ovarian cancer, we correlated differences in HLA-G expression with methylation changes within the HLA-G regulatory region in an ovarian cancer cell line treated with 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC and in malignant and benign ovarian tumor samples and ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE isolated from patients with normal ovaries. Results A region containing an intact hypoxia response element (HRE remained completely methylated in the cell line after treatment with 5-aza-dC and was completely methylated in all of the ovarian tumor (malignant and benign samples examined, but only variably methylated in normal OSE samples. HLA-G expression was significantly increased in the 5-aza-dC treated cell line but no significant difference was detected between the tumor and OSE samples examined. Conclusion Since HRE is the binding site of a known repressor of HLA-G expression (HIF-1, we hypothesize that methylation of the region surrounding the HRE may help maintain the potential for expression of HLA-G in ovarian tumors. The fact that no correlation exists between methylation and HLA-G gene expression between ovarian tumor samples and OSE, suggests that changes in methylation may be necessary but not sufficient for HLA-G expression in ovarian cancer.

Matyunina Lilya V

2008-05-01

208

A case report of Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor in the mandibular anterior region  

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Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a tumor of odontogenic epithelium with varying degrees of inductive changes in the connective tissue. The common radiographic appearance of AOT is a unilocular radiolucency associated with an unerupted tooth. Detectable radiopacities are reported in many cases. We present a case of AOT in a 9-year old-female patient. Cystic lesion with numerous, punctuate radiopaque foci was seen on the anterior region of the mandible. These radiopacities mostly were situated on the buccal side of impacted tooth on the multiplanar images of cone beam computed tomograph. Characteristic duct like structures and amyloid like material were observed on histopathologic finding.

Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Paeng, Jun Young [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Department of Pathology, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-06-15

209

A new common integration region (int-3) for mouse mammary tumor virus on mouse chromosome 17.  

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Mus musculus subsp. musculus (Czech II) mammary tumor DNA frequently contains an integrated proviral genome of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) within a specific 0.5-kilobase-pair region of the cellular genome (designated int-3). Viral integration at this site results in activation of expression of an adjacent cellular gene. We mapped int-3 to mouse chromosome 17 by analysis of PstI-restricted cellular DNAs from mouse-hamster somatic cell hybrids. Restriction analysis of cellular DNA from...

Gallahan, D.; Kozak, C.; Callahan, R.

1987-01-01

210

The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

211

Symptomatic intracystic hemorrhage in pineal cysts. Report of 3 cases.  

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Pineal cysts are benign and often asymptomatic intracranial entities. Occasionally they can lead to neurological symptoms through growth or due to intracystic hemorrhage. The purpose of the current report is to describe their clinical characteristics and treatment options. In the current study, the authors illustrate the course of disease in 3 patients who developed neurological symptoms due to hemorrhage into a pineal cyst. Two of their patients had additional cerebral disease, and regular MR imaging examinations were conducted. This circumstance allowed documentation of growth and intracystic hemorrhage. After the occurrence of new neurological symptoms with severe headache, MR images showed a fluid-fluid interface due to intracystic hemorrhage. The third patient presented with acute triventricular hydrocephalus and papilledema due to aqueductal stenosis caused by intracystic hemorrhage. In all 3 cases, excision of the pineal cysts via an infratentorial/supracerebellar approach was performed. Histological examination revealed the characteristic structure of pineal cyst in all cases, with hemorrhagic residues in the form of hemosiderin deposits. All patients recovered fully after surgical removal of the cysts. Furthermore, resolution of occlusive hydrocephalus could be demonstrated in those cases with ventricular enlargement. Pineal cysts without neurological symptoms are often discovered as incidental findings on cranial MR images. In contrast, neurological symptoms such as severe headache, diplopia, or Parinaud syndrome, may occur as a result of pineal apoplexy due to intracystic hemorrhage. The authors' cases confirm that MR imaging can identify intracystic hemorrhage by a characteristic fluid-fluid interface. Their experience suggests that microsurgical resection of cysts may be an effective and curative treatment option. PMID:19645546

Sarikaya-Seiwert, Sevgi; Turowski, Bernd; Hänggi, Daniel; Janssen, Giesela; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Stummer, Walter

2009-08-01

212

In vitro uptake of benzodiazepines by rat pineal gland.  

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As a part of a study aiming to characterize the physiological and pharmacological significance of the high affinity pineal benzodiazepine (BZP) binding sites reported previously, we examined the uptake of the BZP derivative 3H-flunitrazepam (FNZP) by rat pineal glands in vitro. At 37 degrees C, 3H-radioactivity was taken up by tissue up to a pineal/medium concentration of about 12, while at 0 degrees C the uptake amounted to only one-third that at 37 degrees C. Reciprocal of uptake analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated apparent Km's of 1.74 and 1.45 microM, and Vmax's of 1.32 and 1.04 pmol per min per mg tissue, for control and superior cervical ganglionectomized rats, respectively, suggesting that the neural compartment does not participate significantly in 3H-FNZP uptake. Cerebral cortex explants of similar size and weight as the pineal ones took up 3H-FNZP to a maximum tissue/medium concentration of about 2. Neither pineal nor cerebral cortex 3H-radioactivity uptake exhibited significant changes as a function of time of day. A number of agents, including several BZP analogues, cocaine, desipramine, melatonin, fluoxetine, nomifensine, and dipiridamol, as well as changes in the ionic environment or metabolic inhibitors, did not affect 3H-FNZP uptake significantly. Other tissues, such as liver, muscle, kidney, adrenal gland, or anterior pituitary, took up 3H-radioactivity to tissue concentrations slightly lower than those of the cerebral cortex, suggesting that drug liposolubility accounted only to a limited extent for the high in vitro uptake detected in incubated pineals. PMID:6100721

Lowenstein, P R; González Solveyra, C; Cardinali, D P

1984-01-01

213

LHRH incorporation in normal and denervated pineal gland, and in pineal gland of rats with constant estrous-anovulatory syndrome: a preliminary study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal gland and superior sympathetic cervical ganglia accumulated intravenously injected 3H-LHRH in an amount significantly higher than anterior and posterior hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and pituitary gland, the latter a specific target for LHRH. The prior administration of unlabelled LHRH significantly decreased the 3H-LHRH incorporation only in pineal and pituitary gland. Autoradiography showed that the radiolabel was localized at the level of the pinealocytes, with a seemingly, prevalent distribution of grains on the cellular contours. Pineal incorporation of LHRH was not significantly modified by either acute or chronic bilateral cervical ganglionectomy, although acute ganglioectomy resulted in a slight decrease in LHRH accumulation by pineal gland. Constant estrous anovulatory syndromes induced by either frontal hypothalamic deafferentation, or continuous illumination or neonatal androgenization did not appear to modify the LHRH incorporation in either pineal gland or cervical ganglia. Basing on these results, the pineal gland is supposed to be a target organ for LHRH. (author)

214

Tumors in the region of the sella turcica; Tumoren der Sellaregion  

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Tumors of the pituitary gland can lead to limitation of hypophysis function (hypophysis insufficiency) or hypersecretion of different hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, prolactinoma, TSH-secreting adenoma). The optic chiasma lies in close proximity to the pituitary gland and can be compressed by tumors leading to visual disturbances (bilateral hemianopsia). Tumors can be separated into hormone secreting and hormone inactive tumors, as well as into microadenoma with a diameter <10 mm and macroadenomas >10 mm. A rare group of tumors of the hypophysis region are craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germinomas, gliomas, metastases and granulomotous inflammations, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. (orig.) [German] Bei Tumoren der Hypophysenregion kann es zu einer Einschraenkung der Hypophysenfunktion (Hypophyseninsuffizienz) kommen, aber auch zu einem Hypersekretionssyndrom (Akromegalie, Cushing-Syndrom, Prolaktinom, TSH-sezernierendes Adenom). Unmittelbar ueber der Hypophysenregion liegt das Chiasma opticum, wodurch es bei Tumoren der Hypophysenregion zur Beeintraechtigung des Sehens kommen kann, meist als Verschlechterung des Sehfeldes beider Augen nach lateral (bitemporale Hemianopsie). Man unterscheidet hormonaktive und -inaktive Tumoren. Es werden Mikroadenome mit einem Durchmesser bis 10 mm und Makroadenome, die groesser als 10 mm sind, unterschieden. Eine seltenere Gruppe von Tumoren der Hypophysenregion sind die Kraniopharyngeome, Meningeome, Germinome, Gliome, Metastasen und granulomatoese Entzuendungen (Sarkoidose, Tuberkulose). (orig.)

Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostischeund Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

2009-07-15

215

Sympathetic neural control of indoleamine metabolism in the rat pineal gland  

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The mechanisms responsible for the acceleration in rat pineal biosynthetic activity in response to prolonged exposure to darkness or to immobilization were investigated in animals whose pineals were surgically denervated. Some animals were adrenalectomized to remove one potential source of circulating catecholamines, and some were subjected to a partial chemical sympathectomy accomplished by a series of intravenous injections of 6-hydroxydopamine. Results suggest that N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity can be enhanced either by release of norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals within the pineal or from sympathetic nerve terminals elsewhere. The stress of immobilization stimulates the pineal by increasing circulating catecholamines. Photic control of pineal function requires intact pineal sympathetic innervation, since the onset of darkness apparently does not cause a sufficient rise in circulating catecholamines to stimulate the pineal. The present studies suggest that nonspecific stress triggers increased biosynthesis and secretion of melatonin; it is possible that this hormone may participate in mechanisms of adaptation.

Lynch, H. J.; Hsuan, M.; Wurtman, R. J.

1975-01-01

216

Megaendoprosthesis in the treatment of bone tumors in the knee and hip region  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. For almost two decades extremity amputation has not been the only viable option for patients with from bone cancer in the region of the hip and knee. Remarkable advances in implant technology, surgical reconstructive technique and adoption of new chemotherapy protocols provide a new option for surgeons who diagnose and treat bone tumors. Megaendoprosthesis has become widely accepted alternative in limb salvage surgery of the extremities. The aim of this study was to present an outcome of the treatment of bone tumors in the knee and hip region by the use of custom made megaendoprothesis. Methods. In the period 2006-2008 we adopted new clinical practice protocols for preoperative management in candidates for tumor megaprostheses of the hip and knee including: surgical tumor staging, histopathological verification, determinants of anatomical-mechanical defect, status of soft tissues, CT evaluation of the referent measures of pelvis, femur and tibia necessary for creation of custom made endoprosthesis and surgery plan, as well as modern, less invasive surgical approach. The patients were monitored during ? 24 months after the surgery for detecting possible complications. Results. All procedures were performed without complications during and immediately after the surgery. During the follow-up period not less than 24 months we failed to record any significant complications. Conclusion. Custom made megaendoprosthesis are the method of choice in the treatment of bone tumors in the region of the hip and knee at the Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. The greatest challenge - ensuring longevity of a prosthesis can be achieved not only by prevention of common complications of arthroplasty procedures but, certainly, with the introduction of new methods for preoperative planning - computer-assisted technique of measuring referent sizes and software solutions for the selection and design of custom-made components of an endoprosthesis.

Barjaktarovi? Radoslav

2011-01-01

217

Controladores del Tiempo y el Envejecimiento: Núcleo Supraquiasmático y Glándula Pineal / Aging Process Entrainment: Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Pineal Gland  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El núcleo supraquiasmático (NSQ) es el principal reloj biológico de los mamíferos y sincroniza la actividad de la glándula pineal al ciclo luz-oscuridad a través de una vía polisináptica. El efecto de asa de retroalimentación neuroendocrina se lleva a cabo por la melatonina. El presente trabajo pret [...] ende demostrar que la glándula pineal modula la sensibilidad a la luz en el NSQ. Se utilizaron ratas Wistar, y se asignaron a 3 grupos: grupo A (falsa pinealectomía -sham-, sin luz), grupo B (falsa pinealectomía -sham- + luz) y grupo C al cual se le realizó la pinealectomía + luz, después de la manipulación se sacrifican para realizar inmunohistoquímica para c-Fos y al final conteo celular por técnica de estereología. Se obtuvo una reducción del 46,8% del promedio de células inmunorreactivas a c-Fos en el grupo C en comparación del grupo B. Este trabajo muestra que la sensibilidad a la luz está modulada por la actividad de la glándula pineal. Abstract in english The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the main and major biological clock in mammals and is responsible for the synchronization of the pineal gland to the light/darkness cycle through a polysynaptic pathway. The neuroendocrine feedback loop effect is carried out by melatonin. This study was carried o [...] ut to demonstrate that the pineal gland adjusts the sensibility to light in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Wistar rats were allocated in 3 groups: Group A (sham pinalectomy, without light), group B (sham pinealectomy + light) and group C which underwent real pinalectomy + light. After the intervention the animals were slain to perform immunohistochemistry for c-Fos and cell counting by stereology technique. A 46.8% average reduction in c-Fos immunoreactive cells was achieved in-group C as compared with group B. The present work shows that sensibility to the light is modulate by the activity of the pineal gland.

Parménides, Guadarrama-Ortiz; Ricardo, Ramírez-Aguilar; Alejandro, Madrid-Sánchez; Carlos, Castillo-Rangel; Diana, Carrasco-Alcántara; Raúl, Aguilar-Roblero.

2014-06-01

218

A novel gene therapy-based approach that selectively targets hypoxic regions within solid tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is compelling evidence that malignant cells present within the hypoxic regions that are commonly found within solid tumors contribute significantly to local recurrence following radiation therapy. We describe now a novel strategy designed to target such cells that exploits the differential production within hypoxic regions of the pro-angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF). Specifically, we have generated cDNA constructs that encode two distinct chimeric cell surface proteins that incorporate, respectively, the extracellular domains of the VEGF receptors Flk-1 or Flt-1, fused in frame to the membrane spanning and cytoplasmic domains of the pro-apoptotic protein Fas. Both chimeric proteins (Flk/Fas and Flt/Fas) appear stable and can be readily detected on the surface of transfected cells by Western blot and/or FACS analysis. Importantly, tumor cells expressing the chimeric proteins were rapidly killed in a dose-dependent fashion upon the addition of exogenous recombinant VEGF. Adenoviral vectors encoding Flk/Fas have been generated and shown to induce tumor cells to undergo apoptosis upon transfer to hypoxic conditions in vitro. This activity is dependent upon the endogenous production of VEGF. Studies are currently underway to test the ability of adenoviral Flk/Fas (Ad.Flk/Fas) to reduce tumor recurrence in vivo when used as an adjuvant therapy in conjunction with clinically relevant doses of ionizing radiationonizing radiation

219

Correlative study of squash smear cytology with histopathology in a rare case of anaplastic giant cell ependymoma of the pineal.  

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Anaplastic giant cell ependymoma (AGCE) is a very rare neoplasm. Its cytological features, helpful for the intraoperative diagnosis, have been reported only once. AGCE is characterized by giant cells with intranuclear inclusions, besides other findings, observable in ependymal neoplasms, such as intracytoplasmic vacuoles, epithelial and glial features of the tumor cells and ependymal pseudorosettes. These findings can be detected also in intraoperative squash smear. Herein we describe a pineal AGCE, highlighting the cytological and histological correlations and underlining some useful diagnostic clues of this unusual entity. PMID:24570332

Toscano, Marzia; Butorano, Marie Aimée Gloria Munezero; Cerase, Alfonso; Miracco, Clelia

2014-08-01

220

Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physical properties of charged particles such as protons are uniquely suited to target the radiation dose precisely in the tumor. In proton therapy, the Bragg peak is spread out by modulating or degrading the energy of the particles to cover a well defined target volume at a given depth. Due to heterogeneity in the various tumors and end-points as well as in the physical properties of the beams considered, it is difficult to fit the various results into a clear general description of the biological effect of proton in tumor therapy. Tumor hypoxia is a main obstacle to radiotherapy, including gamma-ray. Survived tumor cells under hypoxic region are resistant to radiation and more aggressive to be metastasized. To investigate the dose of proton beam to induce cell death of various tumor cells and hypoxic tumor cells at the Bragg peak in vitro, we used 3 kinds of tumor cells, lung cancer, leukemia and hepatoma cells. Proton beam induces apoptosis in Lewis lung carcinoma cells dose dependently and, slightly in leukemia but not in hepatoma cells at all. Above 1000 gray of proton beam, 60% of cells died even the hypoxic cells in Lewis lung carcinoma cells. But the Molt-4 leukemia cells showed milder effect, 20% cell death by the above 1000 Gray of proton beam and typical resistant pattern (5-10%) of hypoxia in desferrioxamine treated cells. Hepatoma cells (HepG2) were not responsive to proton beam even in rather higher dose (4000G). However, by the gamma-irradiation, Molt-4 was more sensitive than hepatoma or lung cancer cells, but still showed hypoxic resistance. The cell death by proton beam in Lewis lung carcinoma cells was confirmed by PARP cleavage and may be mediated by increased p53. Pro-caspases were also activated and cleaved by the proton beam irradiations for lung cancer cell death. In conclusion, high dose of proton beam (above 1000 gray) may be a good therapeutic radiation even in hypoxic region at the Bragg peak, but further investigations about the cancer cell specificity and the mechanism of resistance as well as in vivo study should be performed

221

Glucocorticoid regulation of mouse mammary tumor virus: identification of a short essential DNA region.  

OpenAIRE

Transcription of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) DNA is stimulated by steroid hormones. To determine the DNA sequences involved in this regulation, we constructed a plasmid containing the MMTV long terminal repeat (LTR) in front of the coding region of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene, from which the promoter had been removed. Portions of the LTR were removed by the nuclease Ba/31, and the deleted molecules were recloned and tested for transcriptional activity in transfections of Ltk...

Buetti, E.; Diggelmann, H.

1983-01-01

222

Correlación topográfica y anatomopatológica en los tumores de la región selar Topographic and anatomopathological correlation in the sellar region tumors  

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Full Text Available La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realizaci??n de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fundamental fue demostrar el valor de la tomografía computadorizada en el diagnóstico presuntivo de la variedad histológica de los macroadenomas hipofisarios así como de otros tumores menos frecuentes de la región selar, teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes operados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomográfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar. Se registró la edad, sexo, clínica, signos tomográficos, resultados anatomopatológicos posquirúrgicos. Se observó mayor incidencia de los adenomas hipofisarios (110, con predominio de los no secretores (41,1 %. El grueso de los pacientes se ubicó en las edades entre 30 y 50 años. El sexo femenino prevaleció en los adenomas adrenocorticotrópicos y los meningiomas, y el masculino en los productores de gonadotropina y prolactina. Dentro de los signos tomográficos, la erosión de las clinoides y el dorso selar, así como la hidrocefalia predominaron en los adenomas no secretores y los tumores no adenohipofisarios. Los adenomas productores de gonadotropina se destacaron en la erosión del piso y en el balonamiento selar al igual que los adrenocorticotrópicos. Las calcificaciones fueron frecuentes en los teratomas y craneofaringiomas, al igual que la captación no homogénea del contraste, la cual fue característica en estos casos como en los quistes de la bolsa de Rathke. La TC demostró ser de gran valor diagnóstico en los macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico del paciente.The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas worlwide motivated us to carry out this research, whose fundamental aim was to demonstrate the value of CT in the presumptive diagnosis of the histological variety of hypophyseal macroadenomas, as well as of other less frequent tumours of the sellar region, considering the clinical picture. To this end, 124 patients operated on with a clinical and tomographic diagnosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumours were studied. Age, sex, hospital stay, tomographic signs, and postsurgical anatomopathological results were registered. The highest incidence was found in the hypophyseal adenomas (110, with predominance of the non-secreting adenomas (41.1 %. Most of the patients were 30-50. The female sex prevailed in the adrenocorticotropic adenomas and meningiomas, and the male sex in gonadotropin and prolactin-producing adenomas. Within the tomographic signs the erosion of the clinoid and sellar dorsum, and hydrocephalus, predominated in the non-secreting adenomas and in the non-adenohypohyseal tumours. The gonadotropin-producing adenomas stood out in the erosion of the floor and in sellar ballooning as well as the adrenocorticotropic adenomas. The calcifications were more common in teratomas and craniopharyngiomas, as well as and the non-homogenous capture of the contrast agent, which was characteristic in these cases, as in Rathke's pouch cysts. CT showed its great diagnostic value in hypophyseal macroadenomas, and other tumours of the sellar region, taking into account the patient's clinical picture.

Tania Garcia Moreira

2008-09-01

223

Oncolytic effects of adenovirus mutant capable of replicating in hypoxic and normoxic regions of solid tumor.  

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Solid tumors contain normoxic and hypoxic regions depending on the distance from the capillary. Normal cells may also be exposed to hypoxia under certain physiological conditions. Tumor hypoxia has been shown to associate strongly with tumor propagation and malignant progression. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha is stable under hypoxia and induces transcription of target genes by binding to the hypoxia-response element (HRE). Here we investigated the oncolytic effects of a novel adenovirus mutant with a deleted E1B55 gene (Ad.Delta55.HRE), in which the expression of E1A, which is essential for adenoviral replication, is regulated under the control of an HRE-expression system. Ad.Delta55.HRE expressed E1A under normoxia and more E1A under hypoxia and exhibited oncolytic effects on various cultured tumor cells, but its cytotoxic effect is relatively attenuated in normal fibroblast cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Ad.Delta55.HRE lysed Huh-7 hepatoma cells stably expressing HIF-1alpha more effectively compared to parental cells. Ad.Delta55.HRE treatment exhibited significant antitumor activity in PC-3 prostate- and MDA-MB-435 breast tumor-bearing nude mice in which HIF-1alpha protein was immunohistochemically detected. The E1A and hexon proteins of adenovirus were immunostained in MDA-MB-435 xenografts after Ad.Delta55.HRE treatment, suggestive of viral replication. Our results suggest that Ad.Delta55.HRE may be useful for the treatment of solid tumors. PMID:15509511

Cho, Won-Kyung; Seong, Young Rim; Lee, Yeune Hee; Kim, Min Ji; Hwang, Kyung-Sun; Yoo, Jinsang; Choi, Seeyoung; Jung, Cho-Rok; Im, Dong-Soo

2004-11-01

224

Testicular seminoma in a patient with pineal germinoma.  

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A case is reported of a 30 year old man with a testicular seminoma. He had presented 16 years previously with a pineal germinoma, followed two years later by intracranial metastases. This is an unusual occurrence of double pathology in the germ cell line.

Peat, D. S.; Trowell, J. E.

1994-01-01

225

3H-retinol derived photopigment in chick pineal membranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal glands display a day-night rhythm in the synthesis and secretion of melatonin. Dispersed chick pinealocytes retain their ability to respond to light in vitro for at least a week. Pinealocytes incubated overnight with 3H-retinol in the dark incorporate radioactivity predominantly into retinyl esters. To identify the chick pineal photopigment, SDS-PAGE was performed on radiolabelled preparations of pinealocytes and (intraocularly injected) rat retina. When intact cells or membrane preparations of cultured cells were incubated with NaCNBH3, in the dark, a single radioactive peak with an apparent molecular weight of 32,000 daltons was observed. Rat retina preparations revealed a major peak at approximately 40,000 daltons. Protease inhibitors were present in the workup, and radioactivity corresponding to the smaller peak from pineal was not observed in retina. There was no radioactive peak when NaCNBH3 was omitted. When samples were boiled in SDS the radioactivity shifted to the origin. These data suggest a protein in pinealocyte membranes which binds retinoid via a Schiff's base. Exposure to light of deoxycholate solubilized pineal membranes reduced the radioactivity associated with the protein. These findings raise the possibility that this protein is the pinealocyte's photopigment. Photopigments smaller than those observed in mammals have been reported in invertebrates

226

Major chromosomal breakpoint intervals in breast cancer tumors co-localize with differentially methylated regions.  

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Full Text Available Solid tumors exhibit chromosomal rearrangements resulting in gain or loss of multiple loci (copy number variation and translocations that occasionally result in the creation of novel chimeric genes. In the case of breast cancer, although most individual tumors each have unique CNV landscape the breakpoints, as measured over large datasets, appear to be non-randomly distributed in the genome. Breakpoints show a significant regional concentration at genomic loci spanning perhaps several megabases. The proximal cause of these breakpoint concentrations is a subject of speculation but is, as yet, largely unknown. To shed light on this issue, we have performed a bio-statistical analysis on our previously published data for a set of 119 breast tumors and normal controls, where each sample has both high resolution CNV and methylation data. The method examined the distribution of closeness of breakpoint regions with differentially methylated regions, coupled with additional genomic parameters, such as repeat elements and designated fragile sites in the reference genome. Through this analysis, we have identified a set of 91 regional loci called breakpoint enriched differentially methylated regions (BEDMRs characterized by altered DNA methylation in cancer compared to normal cells that are associated with frequent breakpoint concentrations within a distance of 1Mb. BEDMR loci are further associated with local hypomethylation (66% concentrations of the Alu SINE repeats within 3Mb and tend to occur near a number of cancer related genes such as the protocadherins, AKT1, DUB3, GAB2. BEDMRs seem to deregulate members of the histone gene family and chromatin remodeling factors e.g JMJD1B which might affect the chromatin structure and disrupt coordinate signaling and repair. From this analysis we propose that preference for chromosomal breakpoints is related to genome structure coupled with alterations in DNA methylation and hence chromatin structure associated with tumorigenesis.

Man-Hung EricTang

2012-12-01

227

Regional cerebral blood flow in brain tumors analyzed by N-isopropyl-(123I)-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

N-Isopropyl-(123I)-p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP), a newly developed tracer for regional cerebral blood flow, was applied to 18 patients with brain tumors. The static scan images were obtained by a single photon emission CT 20 minutes after IMP injection, and revealed decreased IMP uptake in the tumor region in 17 out of 18 patients. This result suggests the lack of an IMP-trapping mechanism in the tumor. In dynamic scan images, which were taken every 2 minutes just after IMP injection, IMP uptake in the tumor was intermediate between that of contralateral white matter and gray matter, and it increased momentarily in accordance with that of the gray and white matter. This finding indicates that the IMP uptake in a dynamic scan would express the regional tissue blood flow in the tumor. (author)

228

Correlación topográfica y anatomopatológica en los tumores de la región selar / Topographic and anatomopathological correlation in the sellar region tumors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realización de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fundamental fue demostrar el valor de la tomografía computadorizada en el diagnóstico presuntivo de la variedad histológica de los macroadenomas hipofisarios así como de otros [...] tumores menos frecuentes de la región selar, teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes operados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomográfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar. Se registró la edad, sexo, clínica, signos tomográficos, resultados anatomopatológicos posquirúrgicos. Se observó mayor incidencia de los adenomas hipofisarios (110), con predominio de los no secretores (41,1 %). El grueso de los pacientes se ubicó en las edades entre 30 y 50 años. El sexo femenino prevaleció en los adenomas adrenocorticotrópicos y los meningiomas, y el masculino en los productores de gonadotropina y prolactina. Dentro de los signos tomográficos, la erosión de las clinoides y el dorso selar, así como la hidrocefalia predominaron en los adenomas no secretores y los tumores no adenohipofisarios. Los adenomas productores de gonadotropina se destacaron en la erosión del piso y en el balonamiento selar al igual que los adrenocorticotrópicos. Las calcificaciones fueron frecuentes en los teratomas y craneofaringiomas, al igual que la captación no homogénea del contraste, la cual fue característica en estos casos como en los quistes de la bolsa de Rathke. La TC demostró ser de gran valor diagnóstico en los macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico del paciente. Abstract in english The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas worlwide motivated us to carry out this research, whose fundamental aim was to demonstrate the value of CT in the presumptive diagnosis of the histological variety of hypophyseal macroadenomas, as well as of other less frequent tumours of the sellar r [...] egion, considering the clinical picture. To this end, 124 patients operated on with a clinical and tomographic diagnosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumours were studied. Age, sex, hospital stay, tomographic signs, and postsurgical anatomopathological results were registered. The highest incidence was found in the hypophyseal adenomas (110), with predominance of the non-secreting adenomas (41.1 %). Most of the patients were 30-50. The female sex prevailed in the adrenocorticotropic adenomas and meningiomas, and the male sex in gonadotropin and prolactin-producing adenomas. Within the tomographic signs the erosion of the clinoid and sellar dorsum, and hydrocephalus, predominated in the non-secreting adenomas and in the non-adenohypohyseal tumours. The gonadotropin-producing adenomas stood out in the erosion of the floor and in sellar ballooning as well as the adrenocorticotropic adenomas. The calcifications were more common in teratomas and craniopharyngiomas, as well as and the non-homogenous capture of the contrast agent, which was characteristic in these cases, as in Rathke's pouch cysts. CT showed its great diagnostic value in hypophyseal macroadenomas, and other tumours of the sellar region, taking into account the patient's clinical picture.

Tania, Garcia Moreira; Fernando, Piedra Chávez; Omar, López Arbolay; Luis, Garcia Ferrer; Dénise, Delgado Gutiérrez; Hilca, Navarro Miranda.

2008-09-01

229

The pineal gland: a comparative MR imaging study in children and adults with respect to normal anatomical variations and pineal cysts  

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This study was undertaken to evaluate the variations in appearance of the normal pineal gland. The findings of 1000 consecutive MR imaging examinations obtained at 0.5 T were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 1 day to 83 years, and findings in children and adults were compared. In all age groups the pineal gland appeared mainly in three forms: (1) nodule-like, (2) crescent-like and (3) ring-like. Overall prevalences of these forms were 52 %, 26 % and 22 %, respectively. Apparent differences in frequencies were evident in children and adults with respect to the crescent-and ring-like types. Cystiform pineal lesions 5 mm or larger in one diameter (anteroposterior, sagittal or transverse) were taken to be true pineal cysts, when compared with the gland`s ring-like appearance (less than 5 mm). Pineal cysts had a prevalence of 0.6 % in children and 2.6 % in adults. No symptomatic pineal cyst with mass effect on the lamina tecti was detected in the series. Besides identifying the three anatomical types of the pineal gland as seen on MR imaging and addressing the potential significance of differences in their frequencies in children and adults, the author tries to explain the previous discrepancy between the MR imaging and autopsy series findings with respect to frequencies of the pineal cysts. (orig.)

Sener, R.N. [Dept. of Radiology, Ege Univ. Hospital, Izmir (Turkey)

1995-06-01

230

The pineal gland: a comparative MR imaging study in children and adults with respect to normal anatomical variations and pineal cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was undertaken to evaluate the variations in appearance of the normal pineal gland. The findings of 1000 consecutive MR imaging examinations obtained at 0.5 T were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 1 day to 83 years, and findings in children and adults were compared. In all age groups the pineal gland appeared mainly in three forms: (1) nodule-like, (2) crescent-like and (3) ring-like. Overall prevalences of these forms were 52 %, 26 % and 22 %, respectively. Apparent differences in frequencies were evident in children and adults with respect to the crescent-and ring-like types. Cystiform pineal lesions 5 mm or larger in one diameter (anteroposterior, sagittal or transverse) were taken to be true pineal cysts, when compared with the gland's ring-like appearance (less than 5 mm). Pineal cysts had a prevalence of 0.6 % in children and 2.6 % in adults. No symptomatic pineal cyst with mass effect on the lamina tecti was detected in the series. Besides identifying the three anatomical types of the pineal gland as seen on MR imaging and addressing the potential significance of differences in their frequencies in children and adults, the author tries to explain the previous discrepancy between the MR imaging and autopsy series findings with respect to frequencies of the pineal cysts. (orig.)

231

Hypofractionation Results in Reduced Tumor Cell Kill Compared to Conventional Fractionation for Tumors With Regions of Hypoxia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Tumor hypoxia has been observed in many human cancers and is associated with treatment failure in radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of different radiation fractionation schemes on tumor cell killing, assuming a realistic distribution of tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: A probability density function for the partial pressure of oxygen in a tumor cell population is quantified as a function of radial distance from the capillary wall. Corresponding hypoxia reduction factors for cell killing are determined. The surviving fraction of a tumor consisting of maximally resistant cells, cells at intermediate levels of hypoxia, and normoxic cells is calculated as a function of dose per fraction for an equivalent tumor biological effective dose under normoxic conditions. Results: Increasing hypoxia as a function of distance from blood vessels results in a decrease in tumor cell killing for a typical radiotherapy fractionation scheme by a factor of 105 over a distance of 130 ?m. For head-and-neck cancer and prostate cancer, the fraction of tumor clonogens killed over a full treatment course decreases by up to a factor of ?103 as the dose per fraction is increased from 2 to 24 Gy and from 2 to 18 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: Hypofractionation of a radiotherapy regimen can result in a significant decrease in tumor cell killing compared to standard fractionation as a result of tumor hypoxia. There is a pa result of tumor hypoxia. There is a potential for large errors when calculating alternate fractionations using formalisms that do not account for tumor hypoxia.

232

The CI findings of 6 cases of the pineal cyst. Consideration on neuroradiological images and the mechanism of occurrence of pineal cysts in childhood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In comparison to adult individuals over the age of 50, pineal cysts do rarely occur in children and adolescents. Here we report on four young patients who had pineal cysts in combination with hypophyseal dwarfism. We studied an 8-year-old girl with chiasmal germinoma, an 8-year-old boy with epilepsy, a 17-year-old male with spontaneous hypophyseal dwarfism and a 11-year-old female with craniopharyngioma. We also investigated a 29-year-old man with pontine glioma and a 48-year-old women with prolactinoma. The comparison of neuroimaging the pineal cysts in children and adults revealed the characteristics of their location in the pineal gland and the presence of residual normal gland. The etiology of pineal cysts in combination with pituitary dwarfism is unclear. However, our cases would suggest that they may be related to endocrinological disorders of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (author)

233

Malignant small Cell Tumor of the Thoracopulmonary Region-Report of One Case and a Review of the Literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The malignant small round cell tumor of the thoracopulmonary region was described by Askin in 1979 and called as Askin Tumor. The Askin tumor is a rare, arises from the soft tissues of the chest wall or peripheral lung which is predominantly in younger generation. Clinical and pathologic appearance were very similar to Ewing's sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma but when examined it by electron microscopy, there was some different in morphology. The tumor tended to recur locally and did not seem to disseminated widely but the median survival was only 8 months

234

Depression of nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in castrate male rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity was examined in intact rats, castrated rats, and in rats that had been castrated and had received testosterone proprionate. Castration resulted in significantly depressing nocturnal levels of pineal NAT (p<0.05) when compared to enzyme activity in intact rats. Testosterone proprionate administration restored plasma LH levels to normal values in castrate rats but did not induce nocturnal pineal enzyme activity to levels seen in the pineal glands of intact rats. The data substantiate the existence of a feedback control of pineal biosynthetic activity by the hypophyseal-gonadal system, but the identity of the hormone(s) responsible for regulation of pineal NAT activity is not known. (author)

235

An autopsy case of sudden unexpected death due to a glial cyst of the pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal cysts are usually asymptomatic; however, they may rarely cause symptoms such as chronic headache, paroxysmal headache with gaze paresis, postural syncope, loss of consciousness, and sudden death. A 30-year-old woman with no specific medical history except chronic headache was found collapsed in a public toilet per se. Postmortem examination revealed no external injuries or internal diseases except a cystic lesion of the pineal gland. Histologic examination showed an internal cyst surrounded by glial tissues and pineal parenchyma that was diagnosed as a glial cyst of the pineal gland. Although the pineal cyst cannot be confirmed as the cause of death, it was considered, as no other cause was evident. Herein, we report a pineal cyst considered as an assumed cause of death. PMID:25062343

Na, Joo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Park, Jong-Tae

2014-09-01

236

Sagittal MR images of normal pineal glands after Gd-DTPA injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated normal pineal glands on Gd-DTPA enhanced MR images on a 1.5 Tesla superconducting unit. On enhanced sagittal MR images with a 3-mm slice thickness, pineal glands were identified as solid or cystic structures. The solid and cystic pineal glands were divided into two subgroups according to the degree of enhancement. The solid pineal glands showed diffuse or subtle enhancement and cystic ones showed peripheral enhancement either completely or incompletely. Of the 50 patients, 19 (38%) had solid pineal glands and 31 (62%) had cystic ones. In male, 7 out of 12 (63%) showed solid pineal glands and in female, 27 out of 39 (70%) showed cystic ones. (author)

237

Nuances in the Treatment of Malignant Tumors of the Clival and Petroclival Region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction Malignancies of the clivus and petroclival region are mainly chordomas and chondrosarcomas. Although a spectrum of malignancies may present in this area, a finite group of commonly encountered malignant pathologies will be the focus of this review, as they are recognized to be formida [...] ble pathologies due to adjacent critical neurovascular structures and challenging surgical approaches. Objectives The objective is to review the literature regarding medical and surgical management of malignant tumors of the clival and petroclival region with a focus on clinical presentation, diagnostic identification, and associated adjuvant therapies. We will also discuss our current treatment paradigm using endoscopic, open, and combined approaches to the skull base. Data Synthesis A literature review was conducted, searching for basic science and clinical evidence from PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Database. The selection criteria encompassed original articles including data from both basic science and clinical literature, case series, case reports, and review articles on the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and management of skull base malignancies in the clival and petroclival region. Conclusions The management of petroclival malignancies requires a multidisciplinary team to deliver the most complete surgical resection, with minimal morbidity, followed by appropriate adjuvant therapy. We advocate the combination of endoscopic and open approaches (traditional or minimally invasive) as required by the particular tumor followed by radiation therapy to optimize oncologic outcomes.

Ahmed, Mohyeldin; Daniel M., Prevedello; Ali O., Jamshidi; Leo F.S. Ditzel, Filho; Ricardo L., Carrau.

238

New crystal in the pineal gland : characterization and potential role in electromechano-transduction  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine transducer secreting melatonin, responsible for the physiological circadian rhythm control. A new form of biomineralization has been studied in the human pineal gland. It consists of small crystals that are less than 20 µm in length. These crystals could be responsible for an electromechanical biological transduction mechanism in the pineal gland due to their structure and piezoelectric properties. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispe...

Baconnier, Simon; Lang, Sidney B.; Seze, Rene?

2002-01-01

239

Pineal Photoreceptor Cells Are Required for Maintaining the Circadian Rhythms of Behavioral Visual Sensitivity in Zebrafish  

OpenAIRE

In non-mammalian vertebrates, the pineal gland functions as the central pacemaker that regulates the circadian rhythms of animal behavior and physiology. We generated a transgenic zebrafish line [Tg(Gnat2:gal4-VP16/UAS:nfsB-mCherry)] in which the E. coli nitroreductase is expressed in pineal photoreceptor cells. In developing embryos and young adults, the transgene is expressed in both retinal and pineal photoreceptor cells. During aging, the expression of the transgene in retinal photorecept...

Li, Xinle; Montgomery, Jake; Cheng, Wesley; Noh, Jung Hyun; Hyde, David R.; Li, Lei

2012-01-01

240

Pineal concretions in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) as a result of collagen-mediated calcification  

OpenAIRE

The intra-pineal calcification is a well-known phenomenon in mammals, however it is almost completely unknown in birds. The aim of the present work was to analyze morphology and genesis of the pineal concretions in the turkey. The studies were performed on the pineals collected from one-year-old turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). In addition to standard morphological methods, the alizarin red S and potassium pyroantimonate methods were employed for localization of calci...

Przybylska-gornowicz, B.; Lewczuk, B.; Prusik, M.; Bulc, M.

2009-01-01

241

Radiologic and laboratory diagnosis of the pineal gland state in some neuroendocrinal syndromes in women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiological and functional examinations of the pineal gland state and changes of bones of the vault and base of the skull are performed in 114 women. The data on melatonin excretion, calcification frequency of the pineal gland in different syndromes, signs of endocrinopathy, endocraniosis, intracranial hypertension in the observed persons of all groups are given. It is suggested that the retardation of calcification of the pineal gland is connected with humoral and hormonal status disorder

242

Ultrahard longitudinal pendulum irradiation of tumors in the region of the visceral cranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of 71 patients with malignant, mostly extended tumors in the region of the visceral cranium is made, and the irradiation technique as well as the results of a longitudinal pendulum irradiation with high-energy ultrahard X-rays are reported. The advantages in comparison with rays of another quality and with other techniques of irradiation consist in a very small radiation exposure of the skin and in a homogeneous distribution of the dose in the target volume as well as a sparing of the contralateral eye. The adjustment is simple and easy to reproduce, the acute side-effects are small and reversible, the cosmetic result is very good. (orig.)

243

THE REGIONAL METASTATIC TUMORS IN THE MALIGNANT MELANOMA OF THE NAIL  

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The malignant melanoma of the nail is relatively rare and the regional metastatic tumors appear even with less frequency. The paper relates the case of an old patient female, 67-year-old diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the left index nail in 1994. No secondary tumour has been diagnosed at that moment and transmetacarpal amputation of the second finger has been done. The patient followed a complete therapy with interferon and was re-examined each month, three six and then twelve month. In...

Camelia Tamas; Doinita Radulescu; Popa, L.; Cristina Stanescu; Stamate, T.; Nita, R.; Mihaela Pertea (1,2),(2,3),(1; Shaukat Sherjeel

2006-01-01

244

Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamic nucleus paraventricularis mimics the effects of light on pineal melatonin synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an attempt to clarify further the role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in the control of pineal function, the effects of 2 min electrical stimulation of these nuclei were investigated in acutely blinded, adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Pineal serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, melatonin content and catecholamine levels were measured by means of radio-enzymatic, radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid-chromatography methods, respectively. All three pineal parameters underwent significant declines following brief PVN stimulation during the night time. These observations lend credence to the view that the neural pathways transmitting light information to the sympathetic innervation controlling pineal melatonin synthesis. 22 references, 1 figure

245

Leptin Modulates Norepinephrine-Mediated Melatonin Synthesis in Cultured Rat Pineal Gland  

OpenAIRE

Pineal melatonin synthesis can be modulated by many peptides, including insulin. Because melatonin appears to alter leptin synthesis, in this work we aimed to investigate whether leptin would have a role on norepinephrine- (NE-)mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal glands. According to our data, cultured rat pineal glands express leptin receptor isoform b (Ob-Rb). Pineal expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was also observed in vivo. Administration of leptin (1?nM) associated with NE (1?...

Carla Roberta de Oliveira Carvalho; José Cipolla-Neto; Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari-Garcia; Amp Xe Ssica Andrade-silva, J.

2013-01-01

246

Development and regeneration of the pineal region of the diencephalon  

OpenAIRE

Organizer is a group of cells that induces and patterns surrounding tissues during embryo development. Previous studies of organizers were mainly based on transplantation of various pieces of tissues. This project first aimed to find out putative organizers using a novel method, which was to characterize organizers based on patterns of syn-expression genes. The differential microarray assays selected a list of gene that are enriched or depleted in three known organizers (Hensen’s node, noto...

Liu, J.

2014-01-01

247

The relation of CT-determined tumor parameters and local and regional outcome of tonsillar cancer after definitive radiation treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To investigate the value of CT-derived tumor parameters as predictor of local and regional outcome of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma treated by definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The pretreatment CT studies of 112 patients with tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma were reviewed. After redigitizing the films, primary and nodal tumor volume was calculated with the summation-of-areas technique. The nodal CT aspect was graded using a 3-point scale (homogenous, inhomogeneous, and necrotic). Mean follow-up time was 33 months. Actuarial statistical analysis of local and regional outcome was done for each of the covariates; multivariate analysis was performed using Cox's proportional hazards model. Results: In the actuarial analysis, CT-determined primary tumor volume was significantly correlated with local recurrence rate (p<0.05) when all patients were considered, but primary tumor volume did not predict local control within the T2, T3, and T4 category. CT-determined nodal volume was significantly related to regional outcome (p<0.01), but nodal density was not. Total tumor volume was not significantly related to locoregional outcome (p=0.1). In the multivariate analysis, the T and N categories were the independent predictors of local and regional outcomes, respectively. Conclusion: Compared to other head-and-neck sites, primary and nodal tumor volume have only marginal predictive value regarding local and regional outcome after radiation therapy iregional outcome after radiation therapy in tonsillar cancer

248

Ultrastructure of the pineal gland in the adult rat.  

OpenAIRE

The ultrastructure of the rat pineal gland was studied from 75 days until 10 months of age. Type I pinealocytes of young adults showed nuclei with dispersed chromatin, numerous infoldings of the nuclear envelope and well developed nucleoli. The cytoplasm displayed many mitochondria and clusters of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. With increasing age, there was a clear increase in the number of dense bodies or lysosomes in the Type I pinealocyte. The changes in the Type II pinealocytes with age w...

Calvo, J.; Boya, J.

1984-01-01

249

Postnatal evolution of the rat pineal gland: light microscopy.  

OpenAIRE

The postnatal development and morphology of the adult albino rat pineal gland was studied from one day up to ten months of age. During postnatal life there was a marked increase in gland and pinealocyte volume, more intense during the first 45 days. After ten days, the differences in nuclear morphology of parenchymal cells showed two different types of pinealocyte. The characteristic adult arrangement of pinealocytes in cords and pseudo-rosettes was observed after 15-20 days. After 75 days th...

Calvo, J.; Boya, J.

1984-01-01

250

The pineal gland - Its possible roles in human reproduction  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses the role of the pineal gland in controlling mammalian reproduction, with particular attention given to the role of melatonin in polyestrus mammals, like humans and laboratory rodents. Evidence is cited indicating the influence of melatonin production and blood content on the age of puberty, the timing of the ovulatory cycle, gonadal steriodogenesis, and patterns of reproductive behavior. It is suggested that abnormal patterns of melatonin might be associated with amenorrhea, anovulation, unexplained infertility, premature menopause, and habitual abortions.

Brzezinski, Amnon; Wurtman, Richard J.

1988-01-01

251

Critical scaffolding regions of the tumor suppressor Axin1 are natively unfolded.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Wnt pathway tumor-suppressor protein Axin coordinates the formation of a critical multiprotein destruction complex that serves to downregulate ?-catenin protein levels, thereby preventing target gene activation. Given the lack of structural information on some of the major functional parts of Axin, it remains unresolved how the recruitment and positioning of Wnt pathway kinases, such as glycogen synthase kinase 3?, are coordinated to bring about ?-catenin phosphorylation. Using various biochemical and biophysical methods, we demonstrate here that the central region of Axin that is implicated in binding glycogen synthase kinase 3? and ?-catenin is natively unfolded. Our results support a model in which the unfolded nature of these critical scaffolding regions in Axin facilitates dynamic interactions with a kinase and its substrate, which in turn act upon each other. PMID:21087614

Noutsou, Maria; Duarte, Afonso M S; Anvarian, Zeinab; Didenko, Tatiana; Minde, David P; Kuper, Ineke; de Ridder, Isabel; Oikonomou, Christina; Friedler, Assaf; Boelens, Rolf; Rüdiger, Stefan G D; Maurice, Madelon M

2011-01-21

252

Immunohistochemical assessment of melatonin binding in the pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin binding in the pineal gland of albino rats is estimated using an immunohistochemical procedure. Binding is saturable, has relatively high affinity (Apparent KD = 2.7 nM), and competition studies indicate binding of indoleamines possessing an N-acetyl group on the terminus of the side chain (N-acetylserotonin and melatonin). These data are consistent with the interpretation that immunohistochemically determined melatonin in unfixed pineal tissue is assessing binding of N-acetylated indolealkylamines to pineal cell components. In albino rats maintained on 12-hour light: 12-hour dark cycles, melatonin binding exhibits a diurnal rhythm with low levels of saturation (30%) early in the light and saturation by endogenous melatonin near the onset of darkness. An annual rhythm of melatonin binding was observed in albino rats with low levels during the summer and high levels during the winter. Other rats were maintained on 12-hour light:dark cycles and fed for 2 hours either early in the light period or early in the dark period. For both morning- and evening-fed animals, melatonin binding was high prior to feeding and dropped immediately after feeding. Changes in melatonin binding that occur in response to alterations of feeding and time of year suggest the possibility that this binding reflects a functional site for melatonin. PMID:3913762

Holloway, W R; Grota, L J; Brown, G M

1985-01-01

253

Regulation of period 1 expression in cultured rat pineal  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro expression of Period 1 (Per1), Period 2 (Per2) and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) genes in the rat pineal gland to understand the mechanism(s) regulating the expression of these genes in this organ. Pineals, when maintained in vitro for 5 days, did not show circadian rhythmicity in the expression of any of the three genes monitored. Norepinephrine (NE) induced AA-NAT and Per1, whereas its effect on Per2 was negligible. Contrary to what was observed in other systems, NE stimulation did not induce circadian expression of Per1. The effect of NE on Per1 level was dose- and receptor subtype-dependent, and both cAMP and cGMP induced Per1. Per1 was not induced by repeated NE - or forskolin - stimulation. Protein synthesis was not necessary for NE-induced Per1, but it was for reduction of Per1 following NE stimulation. Per1 transcription in pinealocytes was activated by BMAL1/CLOCK. Our results indicate that important differences are present in the regulation of these genes in the mammalian pineal. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Fukuhara, Chiaki; Dirden, James C.; Tosini, Gianluca

2002-01-01

254

A Two Dimensional Infinite Element Model to Study Temperature Distribution in Human Dermal Regions due to Tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, a two dimensional infinite element model has been developed to study thermal effect in human dermal regions due to tumors. This model incorporates the effect of blood mass flow rate, metabolic heat generation and thermal conductivity of the tissues.The dermal region is divided into three natural layers, namely, epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues. A uniformly perfused tumor is assumed to be present in the dermis. The domain is assumed to be finite along the depth and infinite along the breadth. The whole dermis region involving tumor is modelled with the help of triangular finite elements to incorporate the geometry of the region. These elements are surrounded by infinite domain elements along the breadth. Appropriate boundary conditions has been incorporated. A computer program has been developed to obtain the numerical results.

K. R. pardasani

2005-01-01

255

Content of microelements in the rat pineal gland at different ages and the effects of selenium supplementation  

OpenAIRE

The mammalian pineal gland regulates a number of important physiological processes. In this paper we report changes in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) in the male rat pineal glands at 4, 5, 8, and 12 months of age. The effect of Se supplementation in drinking water on the content of pineal gland microelements was also studied. Selenium (Se)-dependent changes in pineal gland reported in this study suggest novel physicochemical and biochemical properties of S...

Demajo M.; Jozanov-Stankov Olga; ?uji? Ivana

2006-01-01

256

Brain tumors in children; Hirntumoren beim Kind  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brain tumors are common in children; in Germany approximately 400 children are diagnosed every year. In the posterior fossa, cerebellar neoplasms outnumber brainstem gliomas. In contrast to their rarity in adults, brainstem gliomas are not uncommon in children. Supratentorial tumors can be subdivided by location into neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres, suprasellar and pineal tumors. Astrocytoma is the most common pediatric brain tumor followed by medulloblastoma, ependymoma and craniopharyngeoma. The combination of imaging morphology, tumor localisation and patient age at manifestation form the basis of the neuroradiological differential diagnosis. (orig.)

Harting, I.; Seitz, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

2009-06-15

257

Two Synchronous and Different Salivary Gland Tumors Located in the Parotid Gland and Parapharyngeal Region: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The majority of salivary gland tumors presents as a single mass in one gland. The occurrence of synchronous distinct tumors in salivary glands is rare. We report a case of two distinct salivary gland tumors localized in the parotid gland and parapharyngeal area. The first mass was in the left parapharyngeal region and the second was partially embedded in the caudal region of the left parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration was done for the parotid gland mass and cytological findings were consistent with Warthin's tumor. The parapharyngeal mass was excised and pleomorphic adenoma was diagnosed histopathologically. In this paper, cytological and histological findings of this rare patient are presented, and the literature is reviewed.

Mehmet KEFEL?

2009-06-01

258

Primary (Poorly Differentiated Sclerosing Liposarcoma of Temporal Region. An Uncommon Tumor in a Rare Site: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Liposarcoma (LS in the head and neck region is a rare tumor. The sclerosing variant of LS is a subtype of well-differentiated LS characterized by areas of conventional LS admixed with hypocellular areas of stromal sclerosis that show atypical lipomatous cells. The (poorly differentiated sclerosing LS, on the other hand, is more cellular with atypical, pleomorphic and often bizarre giant tumor cells admixed with atypical lipoblasts. We report a case of poorly differentiated sclerosing LS of temporal region in a 49-year-old man. Radiologically, the tumor was dumbbell shaped with intra and extra cranial extension. In this case, we discuss the clinico-radiological and pathological findings of an unusual tumor in a rare location. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(1.000: 33-35

Anuradha CK Rao

2015-02-01

259

Radiation-induced vasculopathy implicated by depressed blood flow and metabolism in a pineal glioma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of radiation-induced vasculopathy of a pineal glioma was presented with haemodynamic and metabolic changes before and after radiotherapy. After radiation of 60 Gy with conventional fractionation (1.8-2.0 Gy daily, 5 days per week), regional blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction, metabolic rate of oxygen, kinetic metabolic rate of glucose and the rate constants (K2, K3) were markedly depressed (20% or greater) compared with the pre-irradiated study. 7 months after radiotherapy, the patient developed transient episodes of both right and left upper limb convulsion, terminating in generalized convulsion. When she developed status epilepticus, computed tomography showed extensive low density areas in the territory supplied by the right middle cerebral and the right posterior cerebral arteries. (author)

260

Structural and Functional Characterization of the Acidic Region from the RIZ Tumor Suppressor.  

Science.gov (United States)

RIZ (retinoblastoma protein-interacting zinc finger protein), also denoted PRDM2, is a transcriptional regulator and tumor suppressor. It was initially identified because of its ability to interact with another well-established tumor suppressor, the retinoblastoma protein (Rb). A short motif, IRCDE, in the acidic region (AR) of RIZ was reported to play an important role in the interaction with the pocket domain of Rb. The IRCDE motif is similar to a consensus Rb-binding sequence LXCXE (where X denotes any amino acid) that is found in several viral Rb-inactivating oncoproteins. To improve our understanding of the molecular basis of binding of Rb to RIZ, we investigated the interaction between purified recombinant AR and the pocket domain of Rb using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and fluorescence anisotropy experiments. We show that AR is intrinsically disordered and that it binds the pocket domain with submicromolar affinity. We also demonstrate that the interaction between AR and the pocket domain is mediated primarily by the short stretch of residues containing the IRCDE motif and that the contribution of other parts of AR to the interaction with the pocket domain is minimal. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that RIZ is one of the few cellular proteins that can interact directly with the LXCXE-binding cleft on Rb. PMID:25640033

Sun, Yizhi; Stine, Jessica M; Atwater, Daniel Z; Sharmin, Ayesha; Ross, J B Alexander; Briknarová, Klára

2015-02-17

261

Radiation-induced deletion of chromosomal regions containing tumor suppressor genes in human bronchial epithelial cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While several specific genetic alterations have been associated with malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells, they are not all present in every tumor and there is reason to believe that additional genes important for loss of replication control in these cells remain to be identified. In an effort to develop a human bronchial epithelial cell model suitable for identification and functional analysis of genes involved in loss of replication control, and for studying the genetic basis of the multi-stage phenotypic changes associated with tumorigenesis, we treated multiple independent populations of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D with ionizing radiation. Following irradiation, cell lines representing the radiated populations were established from single soft agar-selected colonies. The data confirm that ionizing radiation induces many large chromosomal alterations including chromosomal loss, translocation and deletion and that following radiation it is possible to isolate immortalized nontumorigenic cell lines monosomic for regions known or suspected to contain tumor suppressor genes. (Author)

262

Experiment K-7-19: Pineal Physiology After Spaceflight: Relation to Rat Gonadal Function  

Science.gov (United States)

The function of pineal exposed to microgravity and spaceflight is studied. It is found that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanisms of the response noted.

Holley, D. C.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

1994-01-01

263

Contrast enhancement and morphological findings of hematopoietic regions of bone marrow on MR imaging. Comparative study with spondylitis and vertebral tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The enhanced MR findings of hematopoietic regions in aplastic anemia were compared with those of spondylitis, metastatic vertebral tumors and hematologic neoplasms. The enhanced MR images showed hematopoietic regions to homogeneously enhance and occupy the margin of vertebral bodies, while spondylitis and metastatic tumors appeared as round, inhomogeneously enhancing lesions. MR images of leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome showed homogeneous enhancement at the margins of vertebrae that was difficult to differentiate from hematopoietic regions. Enhanced MR images were useful in detecting the hematopoietic areas in marrow and differentiating them from spondylitis and metastatic tumors, although further experience is needed to distinguish between tumorous hyperplastic regions and benign hematopoietic regions in marrow. (author).

Amano, Yasuo; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Matsuura, Maki; Watari, Jun; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

1995-06-01

264

Effect of low dose radiation on cell cycle of pineal gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: In the present study the authors observed the effect of low dose radiation (LDR) on cell cycle of pineal gland in mice. Methods: The distribution in the phase of the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry after staining of pineal gland with prospidium iodine (PI) after WBI with 75 mGy X-rays. Results: It was shown that the percentage of G0/G1 phase and G2 + M phase of pineal gland cells decreased after irradiation (P < 0.05), and meanwhile the percentage of S-phase of pineal gland cells increased after irradiation (P < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicated that WBI with LDR could promote DNA synthesis of pineal gland cells in mice

265

Experiment K-6-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. It was recognized as early as 1685 (cited in Kitay and Altschule, 1954) that the pineal of humans calcified with age. However, little can be found in the literature relating calcification and pineal function. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, researchers examined pineal calcium content following the spaceflight. Researchers concluded that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanism of the responses noted.

Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Kaddis, F.; Markley, C.; Krasnov, I.

1990-01-01

266

Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effect upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity

267

Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proton beam has been applied to treat various tumor patients in clinical studies. However, it is still undefined whether proton radiation can inhibit the blood vessel formation and induce the cell death in vascular endothelial cells in growing organs. The aim of this study are first, to develop an optimal animal model for the observation of blood vessel development with low dose of proton beam and second, to investigate the effect of low dose proton beam on the inhibition of blood vessel formation induced by hypoxic conditions. In this study, flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos were used to directly visualize and determine the inhibition of blood vessels by low dose (1, 2, 5 Gy) of proton beam with spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). And we observed cell death by acridine orange staining at 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) stage of embryos after proton irradiation. We also compared the effects of proton beam with those of gamma-ray. An antioxidant, N-acetyl cystein (NAC) was used to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the cell deaths induced by proton irradiation. Irradiated flk-1-GFP transgenic embryos with proton beam irradiation (35 MeV, spread out Bragg peak, SOBP) demonstrated a marked inhibition of embryonic growth and an altered fluorescent blood vessel development in the trunk region. When the cells with DNA damage in the irradiated zebrafish were stained with acridine orange, green fluorescent cell death spots were increased in trunk regions compared to non-irradiated control embryos. Proton beam also significantly increased the cell death rate in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but pretreatment of N-acetyl cystein (NAC), an antioxidant, recovered the proton-induced cell death rate (p<0.01). Moreover, pretreatment of NAC abrogated the effect of proton beam on the inhibition of trunk vessel development and malformation of trunk truncation. From this study, we found that proton radiation therapy can inhibit the blood vessel growth which is probably induced in hypoxic region in vivo in zebrafish embryos. The inhibition of blood vessel formation by proton beam might be caused by vascular cell death through the increased ROS generation. Therefore, proton therapy can be applied to treat tumor angiogenesis as well as abnormal vessel formation developing in hypoxic region

268

Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proton beam has been applied to treat various tumor patients in clinical studies. However, it is still undefined whether proton radiation can inhibit the blood vessel formation and induce the cell death in vascular endothelial cells in growing organs. The aim of this study are first, to develop an optimal animal model for the observation of blood vessel development with low dose of proton beam and second, to investigate the effect of low dose proton beam on the inhibition of blood vessel formation induced by hypoxic conditions. In this study, flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos were used to directly visualize and determine the inhibition of blood vessels by low dose (1, 2, 5 Gy) of proton beam with spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). And we observed cell death by acridine orange staining at 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) stage of embryos after proton irradiation. We also compared the effects of proton beam with those of gamma-ray. An antioxidant, N-acetyl cystein (NAC) was used to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the cell deaths induced by proton irradiation. Irradiated flk-1-GFP transgenic embryos with proton beam irradiation (35 MeV, spread out Bragg peak, SOBP) demonstrated a marked inhibition of embryonic growth and an altered fluorescent blood vessel development in the trunk region. When the cells with DNA damage in the irradiated zebrafish were stained with acridine orange, green fluorescent cell death spots were increased in trunk regions compared to non-irradiated control embryos. Proton beam also significantly increased the cell death rate in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but pretreatment of N-acetyl cystein (NAC), an antioxidant, recovered the proton-induced cell death rate (p<0.01). Moreover, pretreatment of NAC abrogated the effect of proton beam on the inhibition of trunk vessel development and malformation of trunk truncation. From this study, we found that proton radiation therapy can inhibit the blood vessel growth which is probably induced in hypoxic region in vivo in zebrafish embryos. The inhibition of blood vessel formation by proton beam might be caused by vascular cell death through the increased ROS generation. Therefore, proton therapy can be applied to treat tumor angiogenesis as well as abnormal vessel formation developing in hypoxic region

Lee, Y. M.; Heo, T. R.; Lee, K. B.; Jang, K. H.; Kim, H. N.; Lee, S. H.; Jeong, M. H. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2008-04-15

269

Análisis epidemiológico de la mortalidad por tumores sólidos en la Región Metropolitana, Chile, 1999 / Mortality caused by solid tumors in the Metropolitan Region, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Chronic diseases are the leading cause of mortality in Chile and, among these, tumors are the second most frequent cause of death. The langest number of deaths occur in the Metropolitan Region. Aim: To describe the rates of mortality caused by solid tumors in the Metropolitan Region. Mat [...] erial and methods: Analysis of deaths that occurred in 1999 in the Metropolitan Region. Data from death certificates, gathered by the Ministry of Health, were used. Crude mortality rates and Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL) caused by solid tumors were calculated. Results: Among men, gastric cancer accounts for the higher rate of mortality, followed by lung cancer. Among women, gallbladder cancer is the most frequent cause of death, followed by breast cancer. Gastric cancer also accounts for the higher amount of PYLL among men, but among women, breast cancer outweighs gallbladder cancer in this parameter. Conclusions: Gastric cancer continues to be an important cause of mortality in Chile and there is a worrysome increase in the mortality caused by gallbladder cancer (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 641-9)

Jorge, Szot M.

2003-06-01

270

Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

2012-09-28

271

The distal region of the long arm of human chromosome 1 carries tumor suppressor activity for a human fibrosarcoma line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Loss or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes has been implicated by indirect methods in the etiology of most human cancers. In the functional studies presented here, tumor suppressors on human chromosome 1 were investigated using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. Translocated chromosomes from normal human cells representing most of 1q, or all of 1p and a small portion of 1q translocated onto the region of the X chromosome encoding HPRT, were transferred into human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080. Analysis of HT1080 microcell hybrids showed a tumor suppressor activity associated with 1q. All HT1080 cells carrying transferred 1q in a ratio of 1:1 with the HT1080 genome showed a more flattened morphology and a reduced ability to form tumors in nude mice compared to parental HT1080 cells. Diploid HT1080 cells carrying a single extra 1q also had a longer population doubling time and showed a loss of ability to clone in soft agar. Tumors arose from 1q-containing clones with a longer latency period, and a large majority of the cells comprising these tumors had lost the transferred chromosome. These results indicate the presence on chromosome 1q23-qter of a tumor suppressor gene or genes that can act to suppress transformation of a human fibrosarcoma cell line. PMID:8174085

Klein, K G; Bouck, N P

1994-04-01

272

Circadian changes in long noncoding RNAs in the pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a broad range of biological roles, including regulation of expression of genes and chromosomes. Here, we present evidence that lncRNAs are involved in vertebrate circadian biology. Differential night/day expression of 112 lncRNAs (0.3 to >50 kb) occurs in the rat pineal gland, which is the source of melatonin, the hormone of the night. Approximately one-half of these changes reflect nocturnal increases. Studies of eight lncRNAs with 2- to >100-fold daily rhy...

Coon, Steven L.; Munson, Peter J.; Cherukuri, Praveen F.; Sugden, David; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Clokie, Samuel J. H.; Fu, Cong; Olanich, Mary E.; Rangel, Zoila; Werner, Thomas; Mullikin, James C.; Klein, David C.; Benjamin, Betty; Blakesley, Robert

2012-01-01

273

Postnatal development of cell types in the rat pineal gland.  

OpenAIRE

The morphological development of the rat pineal gland has been studied from 1 to 60 days of age. During the first days, undifferentiated cells (pinealoblasts) with scanty cytoplasm and frequent mitotic figures were observed. The differentiation of cell types (Types I and II pinealocytes) began on the third day after birth and was completed by days 15-20. At 3 days of age, nerve fibres were first observed, both in the connective spaces and in the parenchyma. After 5 days, an important hypertro...

Calvo, J.; Boya, J.

1983-01-01

274

A case of hemorrhagic pineal cyst: MR/CT correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 30-year-old male had headache pain for one month and was evaluated with both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR). These scans demonstrated an obstructing pineal cyst containing layered acute and subacute blood products by MR criteria. The concurrent scans allowed correlation between CT and MR findings in this rare complication of an unusual entity, explained his headache (and the development of later upward gaze paresis), provided a precise surgical/anatomic approach, and gave a good final clinical result. The report illustrates appropriate CT and MR images and pathological specimen. (orig.)

275

The role of miR-182 in regulating pineal CLOCK expression after hypoxia-ischemia brain injury in neonatal rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Circadian rhythm disorder is a common neurological deficit caused by neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). However, little is known about its underlying mechanisms. Our previous studies revealed a significant elevation of clock genes at the protein, but not mRNA, levels in the pineal gland after neonatal HIBD. To investigate the mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation on clock genes, we screened changes of miRNA levels in the pineal gland after neonatal HIBD using high-throughput arrays. Within the miRNAs whose expression was significantly down-regulated, we identified one miRNA (miR182) that targeted the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Clock, a key component of clock genes, and played a crucial role in regulating CLOCK expression after oxygen-glucose deprivation in primarily cultured pinealocytes. Our findings therefore provide new insight on studies of therapeutic targets for circadian rhythm disturbance after neonatal HIBD. PMID:25684245

Ding, Xin; Sun, Bin; Huang, Jian; Xu, Lixiao; Pan, Jian; Fang, Chen; Tao, Yanfang; Hu, Shukun; Li, Ronghu; Han, Xing; Miao, Po; Wang, Ying; Yu, Jian; Feng, Xing

2015-03-30

276

Cell loss from viable and necrotic tumor regions after local gamma irradiation measured by 125I-UdR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a tracer technique, loss of cells from perivascular and average tumor cells of the syngeneic mammary adenocarcinoma EO 771 in male C57Bl/6J mice may be measured in the living animal, by the use of 125-labelled 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (125I-UdR). It was the purpose of this paper to compare measurements in vivo with those made in vitro following local 60Co-gamma irradiation in the absorbed dose range from 10 to 27.5 Gy, incorporation of radioactivity into DNA of tumor cells and activity loss from labelled tumor cells were measured externally by a special scintillation counter device. In addition, by injecting the vital dye "light green" into the mice the I-125-activity of the stained viable and unstained necrotic regions were separately measured for loss of activity following gamma irradiation. A comparison was made between radiation induced growth delay and the depression of 125I-UdR incorporation into DNA of the proliferating tumor cells. After local tumor irradiation with a dose of 27.5 Gy 60Co gamma rays an enhancement of the activity loss by 0.5% per hour was externally observed for the perivascular tumor cell population. A lower enhancement of 0.4% per hour was externally registered in the average tumor cell population. Both values were evaluated relative to sham-irradiated control tumors. The measurements on isolated tumors were in comparatively good agreement with the external values. The activity loss rate from the viable, euoxic tissue increased by 0.4% per hour after 27.5 Gy 60Co gamma rays and by 0.3% per hour in the average cell population, the latter representing a mixture of euoxic and hypoxic cells. The results demonstrate, that the external measurements are a good indicator for radiation effects under in vivo-conditions. PMID:3563871

Bornschein, R; Porschen, R; Porschen, W; Mühlensiepen, H; Feinendegen, L E

1987-02-01

277

Cell loss from viable and necrotic tumor regions after local gamma irradiation measured by 125I-UdR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a tracer technique, loss of cells from perivascular and average tumor cells of the syngenic mammary adenocarcinoma EO 771 in male C57 BL/6J mice may be measured in the living animal, by the use of 125-labelled 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (125I-UdR). It was the purpose of this paper to compare measurements in vivo with those made in vitro following local 60Co-gamma irradiation in the absorbed dose range from 10 to 27.5 Gy, incorporation of radioactivity into DNA of tumor cells and activity loss from labelled tumor cells were measured externally by a special scintillation counter device. In addition, by injecting the vital dye 'light green' into the mice the I-125-activity of the stained viable and unstained necrotic regions were separately measured for loss of activity following gamma irradiation. A comparison was made between radiation induced growth delay and the depression of 125I-UdR incorporation into DNA of the proliferating tumor cells. After local tumor irradiation with a dose of 27.5 Gy 60Co gamma rays an enhancement of the activity loss by 0.5% per hour was externally observed for the perivascular tumor cell population. A lower enhancement of 0.4% per hour was externally registered in the average tumor cell population. Both values were evaluated relative to sham-irradiated control tumors. The measurements on isolated tumors were in comparatively good agreement with the external values. The activity loss rate from trnal values. The activity loss rate from the viable, euoxic tissue increased by 0.4% per hour after 27.5 Gy 60Co gamma rays and by 0.3% per hour in the average cell population, the latter representing a mixture of euoxic and hypoxic cells. The results demonstrate, that the external measurements are a good indicator for radiation effects under in vivo-conditions. (orig.)

278

Induction of gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia in rats exposed to localized X-irradiation of the gastric region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The induction of gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia was examined in 8-week-old male JCL/SD rats exposed to localized X-irradiation of the gastric region. The animals were each given two 20 Gy fractions of X-rays, with a one-week interval between fractions (total, 40 Gy). Nine atypical hyperplasias (20 %) and 13 adenocarcinomas (28 %) in the pyloric mucosa of the glandular stomach were found in 46 animals with X-irradiation. The incidence of intestinal metaplasia was 93 % in the pyloric mucosa, 50 % in the fundic mucosa and 96 % in both the pyloric and fundic mucosa. Type B metaplasia (intestinal metaplasia without Paneth cells) was most common and type C (intestinal metaplasia with Paneth cells) was less frequent. No gastric tumor or intestinal metaplasia appeared in non-irradiated control rats. This study shows that local X-irradiation of the gastric region induced both gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia independently. (author)

279

The frequency of pineal calcification during the first 18 years of life  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are sparse or contradictory data on frequency and pathological significance of pineal calcifications in childhood. This is particularly so for children younger than 6 years of age. We therefore looked for pineal gland calcifications in 1044 consecutive a.p. and lateral skull films. Pineal calcification was diagnosed, if accepted by both authors, and if the calcified spot fitted into at least 2 of 4 localisation methods. 80 patients with pineal calcifications were detected using this method. In 40 of these patients CCT confirmed the calcification. The frequency of pineal calcification was 3% in the first 12 months of life rising gradually to 7.1% in children of 10 years of age. From 10 years onwards, there is a marked increase of frequency of calcifications of the pineal gland up to 33% in the group of children of 18 years of age. In contrast to some statements in literature, pineal calcifications seem to be physiological in a limited percentage even below the age of 6 years. (orig.)

280

A radiologic study by CT scan of pineal size in cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alterations in size of the pineal body and melatonin secretion have been observed in cancer patients. The present study was carried out to evaluate pineal dimension in a group of cancer patients and their relation to melatonin blood levels. The study included 70 oncologic patients. As controls, 41 patients with acute or chronic disease other than cancer entered the study. Melatonin serum levels were measured by radioimmunoassay on venous blood samples collected at 9:00 a.m. Pineal size was determined by brain CT scan, by considering the product of the two longest perpendicular diameters, multiplied by the thickness of the stratum. The volume of the pineal body was found to be enlarged in 12/70 (17%) cancer patients, and its mean value was significantly higher than that observed in controls. Melatonin levels were also significantly higher in oncologic patients than in controls. However, there was no correlation between melatonin levels and pineal size in cancer patients. Finally, cancer patients did not show a higher degree of pineal calcifications than controls. The clinical significance of pineal enlargement in cancer patients remains to be understood

281

Reactivity of axillary lymph-nodes draining invasive breast carcinomas - immunohistochemical evidence of tumor-associated reactions of B-region and T-region.  

Science.gov (United States)

The B and T regions in 495 axillary lymph nodes (TU-LN) draining 104 invasive breast carcinomas and 34 non-tumor-draining axillary/cervical lymph nodes (R-LN) were investigated immunohistochernically in frozen sections. The extents of the B regions and T regions were evaluated by staining with TO15 (CD22) and Leu-1 (CD5), respectively. Staining with Ki-M4, which specifically recognizes follicular dendritic cells, enabled determination of the number of lymphatic follicles. The germinal-center index (GCI), the numerical ratio of primary to secondary follicles, was determined to quantify the reactivity of the B regions. The number of Ki-67+ proliferating lymphoid cells per 0.5 mm(2) T region (PCT) was assessed as an index of the reactivity of the T regions. (i) In the TU-LN, the median GCI and PCT (0.1 and 18, respectively) were significantly lower than in the R-LN (0.6 and 26, respectively; both p<0.01). (ii) Greater TU-LN volumes were found to be associated with predominance of the T regions, high GCIs, and high PCTs. (iii) Higher GCIs and PCTs were associated with predominance of the T regions in TU-LN in general, but TU-LN partially destroyed by tumor metastases exhibited higher GCIs and PCTs when there was predominance of the B regions. The findings of the study show that LN draining breast carcinomas and reactive LN with signs of chronic nonspecific lymphadenitis exhibit significant immunohistochemical differences but it remains open to speculation whether the malignant tumor exerts suppressive effects on the lymphoreticular tissue or whether its antigenicity is low, particularly when compared with common, mostly infectious stimuli leading to chronic lymphadenitis. PMID:21607369

Horny, H; Horst, H

1994-03-01

282

[A connective tissue tumor in the mussel Mytilus trossulus from a polluted region of Nakhodka Bay, the Sea of Japan].  

Science.gov (United States)

A tumor was found for the first time in a mussel Mytilus trossulus from a heavily polluted area of Nakhodka Bay, Sea of Japan. Tumor cells were found in the connective tissue of different organs and also in gill vessels and hemal sinuses of the visceral mass. They were both attached and diffuse. The tumor was at an advanced stage, replacing the normal connective tissue cells, and formed nodes. The tumor cells were polymorphic, with a high nucleocytoplasmic ratio, and had a prominent nucleolus. The size of their nuclei was three to five times that of the nuclei of agranular hemocytes. The mitotic activity of the tumor cells was more than an order of magnitude higher than in the normal cells: the mean mitotic index was 1.4 +/- 0.5%, ranging from 0.97 to 2.3% in different organs. The mitotic indices in the connective tissue cells of three normal mussels were 0, 0, and 0.12%. A significant proportion (up to 78%) of the mitotic cells were at metaphase. The frequency of abnormal mitoses was 17%. Metaphases with displaced (often multiple) chromosomes constituted 71% of abnormal mitoses; anaphases, 8%; and tri- and tetrapolar mitoses, 11%. The tumor described is similar to diffuse sarcomatoid diseases of mussels from other geographical regions. PMID:10732366

Usheva, L N; Frolova, L T

2000-01-01

283

The projection of the calcified pineal gland on slightly rotated AP films as a reliable landmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The projection of the pineal gland between the two outer tables of the skull in the AP film has been reconstructed on the basis of the CT print of the head, with and without lateral rotation. In this experimental approach it is proven that rotation up to 50 does not influence the position of the pineal gland on the AP film. The range of the normal position of the pineal in the frontal plane is defined and the normal distribution is given. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MB

284

Effect of low dose radiation on cGMP levels of pineal gland in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The change of cGMP of pineal gland in mice were observed with low dose radiation (LDR). The time-course changes of cGMP were detected by radioimmunoassay after WBI with 75 mGy X rays. It was shown that the levels of cGMP of pineal gland in mice began to decrease and reached its lowest peak at 18 h (p < 0.01) after WBI. And began to increase at 24 h and reached its highest peak at 72 h (p < 0.05). These results indicated that WBI with LDR could reduce to the cGMP levels of pineal gland cells in mice

285

Sex-related differences in the nuclear population of postpubertal rat pineal gland. A quantitative study  

OpenAIRE

Male and female parenchymal pineal cell types have been studied throughout postpubertal development to determine the existence of sex-related differences on a time basis. Six age groups (2, 3,4, 8, 15 and 24 months) of eight rats (4 males and 4 females) were used in this study. Nuclei of both parenchymal pineal cell types were counted in 5 areas of 26.377 pm' per pineal gland on semithin sections. Nonparametric statistics of our results (Mann-Whitney U-test and...

Lo?pez Mun?oz, F.; Boya, J.; Calvo, J. L.

1991-01-01

286

Correlación tomográfica y anatomopatológica en los tumores de la región selar / Tomographic and anatomopathological correlation in sellar region tumors Ischemic stroke  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realización de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fundamental fue demostrar el valor de la tomografía computadorizada en el diagnóstico presuntivo de la variedad histológica de los macroadenomas hipofisarios así como de otros [...] tumores menos frecuentes de la región selar, teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes operados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomográfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar. Se registró la edad, sexo, clínica, signos tomográficos, resultados anatomopatológicos posquirúrgicos. Se observó mayor incidencia de los adenomas hipofisarios (110); los no secretores resultaron los predominantes (41,1 %). La mayoría de los pacientes se ubicó en las edades entre 30 y 50 años. El sexo femenino prevaleció en los adenomas adrenocorticotrópicos y los meningiomas; el masculino, en los productores de GH y de prolactina. Dentro de los signos tomográficos, la erosión de las clinoides y el dorso selar, así como la hidrocefalia predominó en los adenomas no secretores y los tumores no adenohipofisarios. Los adenomas (GH) se destacaron en la erosión del piso y en el balonamiento selar al igual que los de ACTH. Las calcificaciones fueron frecuentes en los teratomas y craneofaringiomas, al igual que la captación no homogénea del contraste, la cual fue característica en estos casos como en los quistes de la bolsa de Rathke. La tomografía computadorizada demostró ser de gran valor diagnóstico en los macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico del paciente. Abstract in english The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas in the world motivated the conduction of this research, whose main objective was to show the value of computerized tomography in the presumptive diagnosis of the histological variety of hypophyseal macroadenomas, as well as of other less common tumors [...] of the sellar region, taking into account the clinical picture.To this end, 124 patients operated on with the clinical and tomographic diagnosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumors of the sellar region, were studied. Age, sex, clinic, tomographic signs, and anatomopathological results were registered. It was observed a higher incidence of the hypophyseal adenomas (110). The non-secreting adenomas proved to be the predominant (41.1 %). Most of the patients were 30-50 years old. The female sex prevailed in the adrenocorticotropic adenomas and meningiomas, whereas males predominated in the GH and prolactin-producing adenomas. Within the tomographic signs, the erosion of the clinoids and the dorsum sellae, as well as hydrocephalus predominated in the non-secreting adenomas and the non-adenohypophyseal tumors. The adenomas (GH) stood out in the erosion of the floor and in the sellar ballooning, the same as the ACTH. The calcifications were frequent in the teratomas and craniopharyngiomas, as well as the non-homogenous capture of contrast, which was characteristic in these cases, as in Rathke's pouch cysts. Computarized tomography proved to have a great diagnostic value in the hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumors of the sellar region, taking into consideration the clinical picture of the patient.

Tania, García Moreira; Fernando, Piedra Chávez; Omar, López Arbolay; Luis, García Ferrer; Hilca, Navarro Miranda; Denise, Delgado Gutiérrez.

2007-12-01

287

Minimally Invasive-Endoscopic Intraventricular Neurosurgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... for taking out tumors such as colloid cysts, pineal region tumors. And then lastly we're now ... about the seed of the soul being the pineal gland. And Dr. Souweidane is always lucky enough ...

288

Ultrastructure of the pineal gland of the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The ultrastructure of the pineal gland of the wild-captured eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) was examined. A homogenous population of pinealocytes was the characteristic cellular element of the chipmunk pineal gland. Often, pinealocytes showed a folliclelike arrangement. Mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, granular endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, centrioles, dense-core vesicles, clear vesicles, glycogen particles, and microtubules were consistent components of the pinealocyte cytoplasm. The extraordinary ultrastructural feature of the chipmunk pinealocyte was the presence of extremely large numbers of "synaptic" ribbons. The number of "synaptic" ribbons in this species exceeded by a factor of five to 30 times that found in any species previously reported. In addition to pinealocytes, the pineal parenchyma contained glial cells (oligodendrocytes and fibrous astrocytes). Capillaries of the pineal gland of the chipmunk consisted of a fenestrated endothelium. Adrenergic nerve terminals were relatively sparse. PMID:7108968

Karasek, M; King, T S; Hansen, J T; Reiter, R J

1982-07-01

289

The perivascular phagocyte of the mouse pineal gland: An antigen-presenting cell  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The perivascular space of the rat pineal gland is known to contain phagocytic cells that are immunoreactive for leukocyte antigens, and thus they appear to belong to the macrophage/microglial cell line. These cells also contain MHC class II proteins. We investigated this cell type in the pineal gland of mice. Actively phagocytosing cells with a prominent lysosomal system were found in the pericapillary spaces of the mouse pineal gland following intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase. The cells also exhibited strong acid phosphatase activity. Perivascular cells were immunopositive for MHC class II protein and for CD68, a marker of monocytes/phagocytes. This study verifies that perivascular phagocytes with antigen-presenting properties are present in the mouse pineal gland.

MØller, Morten; Rath, Martin F

2006-01-01

290

COSMOS 2044. Experiment K-7-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function  

Science.gov (United States)

It is now known that the pineal organ can interact with many endocrine and nonendocrine tissues in a regulatory fashion. Given its key role in the regulation of melatonin synthesis, its high concentration, and that its levels may persist longer than the more rapidly changing melatonin, it was felt that serotonin might give a more accurate assessment of the effects of microgravity on pineal function following recovery of animals from flight. Five-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), a major metabolite of serotonin metabolism, was also measured. One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, pineal calcium content was examined following spaceflight.

Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

1989-01-01

291

Effects of low dose irradiation on cAMP levels of pineal gland in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To observe the effects of low dose radiation on cAMP levels of pineal gland. The authors examined the cAMP contents of pineal gland after whole-body irradiation with 50, 75, 100, 200, 500 mGy X-ray on Kunming male mice. The results showed that the cAMP levels of pineal gland after WBI with 50?100 mGy X-ray in mice was higher than sham irradiation mice, especially, 75 mGy group was marked higher than that of sham irradiation group (p<0.001). Whereas, high dose radiation may reduced to the cAMP levels of pineal gland in mice, among 2, 4 Gy groups was lower than that of sham irradiation group

292

Effect of noradrenaline on production of methoxyindoles by rat pineal gland in organ culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report examined the effect of noradrenaline on production of methoxyindoles by the pineal gland in organ culture. Pineal glands were incubated in pairs in 95?l culture medium containing 5-hydroxy [2-14C]tryptamine creatinine sulphate (0,1 mM) and noradrenaline (NA) (0,5-100 ?M). The results indicated that noradrenaline appeared to have a characteristic action on pineal metabolism. An increase in production of both N-acetylserotonin and melatonin by the pineal after noradrenaline treatment was observed. The overall production of methoxyindoles followed a very similar trend to that of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin, which suggests some degree of noradrenergic control over HIOMT levels

293

[Biologically active thymic factors and melatonin-producing pineal function in mice in aging].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aging peculiarities of thymic factors influence on pineal gland function in CBA mice were investigated. It was shown that in serum of the adult mice (3-4 m) melatonin level increased significantly in 3 h after one injection of thymic preparation "thymaline". The activating influence ofthymaline depended on season and linked with increased level of thymic serum factor (FTS). Thymic stroma supernatant of adult mice with high FTS level increased melatonin-producing pineal function in vitro. There was no activating influence of thymic factors on pineal function of old mice (23-24 mo) in vivo and in vitro as well as the pineal seasonal reaction on the administration of thymaline. The importance of thymic factors influence on melatonine level for the immune system rhythmic functioning was discussed. PMID:17333624

Labunets', I F

2006-01-01

294

Survival of oxygenated and hypoxic tumor cells in the extended-peak regions of heavy charged-particle beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The survival of oxygenated and hypoxic cells of the R-1 rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumor line in suspension culture has been measured at several positions in the plateau and the extended peak regions of carbon-, neon-, and argon-ion beams. Both the carbon and neon beams had 14- and 23-cm ranges in water; the argon beam has a 13-cm range. Peak regions extended to both 4 and 10 cm were studied for each ion species. In the 10-cm extended peak, OER values were close to 2.0 for the carbon-ion beam, 1.9-1.5 for the neon beam, and 1.4-1.2 for neutrons, while the argon OER in the extended peak is lower than that for neutrons. The RBE values increased through the carbon peak region, were large and relatively constant through the neon peak region, and decreased through the argon peak region, thus reflecting the changing effective LET that results from the changing energies and the different charges of the particles. An analysis of the effectiveness of the different ion beams for killing hypoxic cells in the peak relative to killing oxygenated cells in the plateau implies that, for single-port irradiations, carbon ions may be the most advantageous charged-particle species for the treatment of deep-seated hypoxic tumors. However, for tumors at shallow depths, the present results indicate that carbon and neon ions are similar in their effectiveness. Argon ions may be superior for the treatment of poorly oxygenated tumors close to the body surfacee

295

Putative tumor-suppressor gene regions responsible for radiation lymphomagenesis in F1 mice with different p53 status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regions of allelic loss on chromosomes in many tumors of human and some experimental animals are generally considered to harbor tumor-suppressor genes involved in tumorigenesis. Allelotype analyses have greatly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanism of radiation lymphomagenesis. Previously, we and others found frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosomes 4, 11, 12, 16 and 19 in radiation-induced lymphomas from several F1 hybrid mice. To examine possible contributions of individual tumor-suppressor genes to tumorigenesis in p53 heterozygous deficiency, we investigated the genome-wide distribution and status of LOH in radiation-induced lymphomas from F1 mice with different p53 status. In this study, we found frequent LOH (more than 20%) on chromosomes 4 and 12 and on chromosomes 11, 12, 16 and 19 in radiation-induced lymphomas from (STS/A X MSM/Ms)F1 mice and (STS/A X MSM/Ms)F1-p53KO/+ mice, respectively. Low incidences of LOH (10-20%) were also observed on chromosomes 11 in mice with wild-type p53, and chromosomes 1, 2, 9, 17 and X in p53 heterozygous-deficient mice. The frequency of LOH on chromosomes 9 and 11 increased in the (STS/A X MSM/Ms)F1-p53KO/+ mice. Preferential losses of the STS-derived allele on chromosome 9 and wild-type p53 allele on chromosome 11 were also found in the p53 heterozygous-deficient mice. Thus, the putative tumor-suppressor gene regions respotative tumor-suppressor gene regions responsible for lymphomaganesis might considerably differ due to the p53 status. (author)

296

RGS2 is a feedback inhibitor of melatonin production in the pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

The 24-h rhythmic production of melatonin by the pineal gland is essential for coordinating circadian physiology. Melatonin production increases at night in response to the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve processes which innervate the pineal gland. This signal is transduced through G-protein-coupled adrenergic receptors. Here, we found that the abundance of regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) increases at night, that expression is increased by norepinephrine and that th...

Matsuo, Masahiro; Coon, Steven L.; Klein, David C.

2013-01-01

297

Comparative histomorphological study of the pineal gland in human and fowl  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: Comparative histological studies of pineal gland of man and fowl has been made to observe structural differences if any between these two species. Background: Some works have been done sporadically on laboratory animals and on birds and also in human correlating with other parameters. In this investigation an approach has been made to observe the cellular organization of the pineal gland parenchyma in these two vertebrates, having different physiological aspects. Methods: Some spe...

Pal, B.; Ghosal, A. K.; Minj, A. P.; Ghosh, R. K.

2013-01-01

298

Bioelectric Activity in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus—Pineal Gland System in Children with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this work is to identify a role of the pineal gland/suprachiasmatic nucleus system in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) aetiology and pathogenesis. To analyze electroencephalograms of 292 children with AIS and in 46 healthy subjects, a processing method was used to assess three-dimensional coordinates of electric equivalent dipole sources (EEDSs) within the brain. Amounts of EEDSs in the pineal gland and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) area were assessed in different age grou...

Pinchuk, Dmitry Yu; Bekshaev, Sergey S.; Bumakova, Svetlana A.; Dudin, Mikhail G.; Pinchuk, Olga D.

2012-01-01

299

Modified forms of vasopressin and oxytocin in a bovine pineal preparation  

OpenAIRE

A bovine pineal acid extract displays a vasotocin-like bioactivity in several bioassays, and is recognized by antibodies against the Pro-Arg-Gly-amide ending common to vasopressin and vasotocin. By using molecular sieve filtration and reversed-phase HPLC, a vasopressin- and oxytocin-like peptide was isolated from this pineal preparation, while no evidence for a vasotocin-like peptide was obtained. The isolated neuropeptides contain a modified amino acid at position 2. This structural differen...

Noteborn, H. P. J. M.; Burbach, J. P. H.; Ebels, I.

1987-01-01

300

Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Changes Related To Methylphenidate In Rat Pituitary and Pineal Glands  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The presence of a dopaminergic function in pituitary and pineal glands is well known. Methylphenidate (MPH), a widely prescribed psychostimulant for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, is an indirect dopamine agonist which could have the capacity of influencing the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system with the pineal gland. Our aim is to investigate dose-dependent immunohistochemical dopamine 2 expression, possible cell apoptosis and ultrastructural changes of the rat pituitar...

Elmas, C?ig?dem; Bahceliog?lu, Meltem; Erdog?an, Deniz; Go?zi?l, Rabet; Take, Gu?lnur; C?algu?ner, Engin; S?ener, Dila

2012-01-01

301

Ultrastructural changes in the rat pineal gland after sympathetic denervation. Quantitative study  

OpenAIRE

Ultrastructural changes in the rat pineal gland were studied quantitatively 7 and 60 days after the sympathetic denervation by bilateral excission or decentralization of superior cervical ganglia. The surface occupied by pineal parenchymal cells decreased in rats of experimental groups with respect to the control group. Furthermore, profile areas of the cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus of the pinealocytes were also diminished. Cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the ...

Calvo, J. L.; Boya, J.; Garci?a-maurin?o, J. E.

1990-01-01

302

Circadian and seasonal variations in pineal gland intercellular canaliculi in the white rat  

OpenAIRE

Seventy Wistar rats are used to study the changes in pineal intercellular canaliculi over a 21-hour period and for two different photoperiods (pre-autumn, first week of September, and winter, first week of February). The study considers these changes at pineal body, cortical and medullar level separately, and compares the values obtained. The results show variations in canalicular surface at different point times (10:00, 14:00,18:00) and for both photoperiods. ...

Marti?nez Soriano, F.; Cimas Garci?a, C.; Rui?z Torner, A.

1991-01-01

303

Rax: Developmental and Daily Expression Patterns in the Rat Pineal Gland and Retina  

OpenAIRE

Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day (E) 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until E20. In both tissues, Rax is e...

Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C.; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F.

2011-01-01

304

Melatonin-like immunoreactivity in the pineal gland of the cow: an immunohistochemical study  

OpenAIRE

With a view to checking the presence of melatonin in the pineal gland of the cow, in the present work we used six adult animals, ranging in age from one to six years, which were sacrificed at dawn. Sections of 6 µm thickness of Bouin-fixed and paraffin-embedded pineal glands were incubated in an anti-melatonin serum, which was provided by the Institute for Molecular and Cellular Recognition, Gunma University, Maebshi, Japan. After incubation and successive was...

Carvajal, J. C.; Go?mez Esteban, M. B.; Carbajo, S.; Mun?oz Barragan, L.

2004-01-01

305

Cell populations in the pineal gland of the viscacha (Lagostomus maximus). Seasonal variations  

OpenAIRE

Pineal samples of the viscacha, which were taken in winter and in summer, were analysed using both light and electron microscopy. The differences found between the two seasons were few in number but significant. The parenchyma showed two main cell populations. Type I cells occupied the largest volume of the pineal and showed the characteristics of typical pinealocytes. Many processes, some of which were filled with vesicles, could be seen in intimate contact wi...

Cernuda-cernuda, R.; Piezzi, R. S.; Domi?nguez, S.; Alvarez-uri?a, M.

2003-01-01

306

Circadian and seasonal changes of synaptic bodies in different parts of the rabbit pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

In the mammalian pineal gland, synaptic bodies (SBs) are poorly understood organelles. Previous studies in rabbits have shown that the organelles are rather heterogeneous in shape, are few in number during the day and increase in number at night. No studies are currently available on seasonal changes in this species and it is unknown whether the biological rhythms are identical in the proximal, intermediate and distal parts of the elongated pineal. To this end,...

Marti?nez Soriano, F.; Hernandez-gil Tejadal, T.; Lopez Bigorra, M.; Ballester Carmona, S.; Vollrath, L.

1999-01-01

307

On the participation of the pineal gland in the response of rat testes to ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was aimed to determine influence of pineal stimulation by light restriction on the response of rat testes to single, locally administered exposure dose of 7.79x10-2 C/kg of X-rays. Different arrangements of light-dark cycles before and after irradiation were used. It was found that stimulation of the pineal by light deprivation before and after irradiation may be accelerated by displacing the animals after irradiation to normal conditions. (author)

308

Circadian rhythm of pineal uptake of 32P in domestic fowl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of radioactive phosphorus by the pineal gland in White Leghorn cockerels (Gallus domesticus) showed a diurnal variation with maxima in the light phase and minima in the dark phase of the light: dark cycle. Constant light caused the rhythm to disappear while constant dark had no effect other than lowering the amplitude of the variations. These data indicate that the rhythm in pineal uptake of 32P is circadian. (author)

309

Rhodopsin Kinase Activity in the Mammalian Pineal Gland and Other Tissues  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhodopsin kinase, an enzyme involved in photochemical transduction in the retina, has been found in the mammalian pineal gland in amounts equal to those in the retina; other tissues had 7 percent of this amount, or less. This finding suggests that, in mammals, rhodopsin kinase functions in the pineal gland and other tissues to phosphorylate rhodopsin-like integral membrane receptors and is thereby involved in signal transduction.

Somers, Robert L.; Klein, David C.

1984-10-01

310

The effect of chronic antidepressant administration on ?-adrenoceptor function of the rat pineal  

OpenAIRE

1 The ?-adrenoceptor agonist, isoprenaline (1.5-3.0 mg kg-1 intravenously), produced a dose-related increase in rat pineal melatonin content. This increase was prevented by pretreatment with the selective ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist, atenolol (2 mg kg-1), but not by the ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist, butoxamine (2 mg kg-1). The ?2-adrenoceptor agonist, terbutaline (5.0 mg kg-1), produced a moderate increase in pineal melatonin content.

Cowen, P. J.; Fraser, Sheila; Grahame-smith, D. G.; Green, A. R.; Stanford, Clare

1983-01-01

311

Circadian regulation of bird song, call, and locomotor behavior by pineal melatonin in the zebra finch.  

Science.gov (United States)

As both a photoreceptor and pacemaker in the avian circadian clock system, the pineal gland is crucial for maintaining and synchronizing overt circadian rhythms in processes such as locomotor activity and body temperature through its circadian secretion of the pineal hormone melatonin. In addition to receptor presence in circadian and visual system structures, high-affinity melatonin binding and receptor mRNA are present in the song control system of male oscine passeriform birds. The present study explores the role of pineal melatonin in circadian organization of singing and calling behavior in comparison to locomotor activity under different lighting conditions. Similar to locomotor activity, both singing and calling behavior were regulated on a circadian basis by the central clock system through pineal melatonin, since these behaviors free-ran with a circadian period and since pinealectomy abolished them in constant environmental conditions. Further, rhythmic melatonin administration restored their rhythmicity. However, the rates by which these behaviors became arrhythmic and the rates of their entrainment to rhythmic melatonin administration differed among locomotor activity, singing and calling under constant dim light and constant bright light. Overall, the study demonstrates a role for pineal melatonin in regulating circadian oscillations of avian vocalizations in addition to locomotor activity. It is suggested that these behaviors might be controlled by separable circadian clockworks and that pineal melatonin entrains them all through a circadian clock. PMID:22476775

Wang, Gang; Harpole, Clifford E; Trivedi, Amit K; Cassone, Vincent M

2012-04-01

312

Gross and microscopic anatomy of the pineal gland in Nasua nasua--coati (Linnaeus, 1766).  

Science.gov (United States)

Nasua nasua, coati, is a mammal of the Carnivora order and Procyonidae family. It lives in bands composed of females and young males. The pineal gland or epiphysis of brain is endocrine, producing the melatonin. Its function is the control of the cycle of light environment, characteristic of day and night. For this research, five adult coatis were used, originating from CECRIMPAS-UNIfeob (Proc. IBAMA 02027.003731/04-76), Brazil. The animals were killed and perfusion-fixed in 10% formaldehyde. Pineals were measured and a medium size was found to be 2.3-mm-long and 1.3-mm-wide. Pineal gland was located in the habenular commissure in the most caudal portion of the third ventricular roof, lying in a dorso-caudal position from the base to the apex. Pinealocytes were predominantly found in the glandular parenchyma. Distinct and heterogeneous arrangements of these cells throughout the three pineal portions were observed as follows: linear cords at the apex, circular cords at the base of the gland, whereas at the body a transition arrangement was found. Calcareous concretions could be observed in the apex. The pineal gland was classified as subcallosal type [Rec. Méd. Vét.1, 36 (1956)] and as AB type [Prog. Brain Res. 42, 25 (1979); The Pineal Organ, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag (1981)]. PMID:18803633

Favaron, P O; Mançanares, C A F; De Carvalho, A F; Ambrósio, C E; Leiser, R; Miglino, M A

2008-12-01

313

The pineal complex in the cichlid Cichlasoma dimerus: effect of different photoperiods on its cell morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research describes the pineal complex histology in juvenile and adult Cichlasoma dimerus, and the effect of different photoperiods on its cell morphology. In both juveniles and adults, the pineal complex of C. dimerus has three components: the pineal organ, consisting of a pineal vesicle (PV) and a pineal stalk, the parapineal organ and the dorsal sac. Although a strong morphological resemblance exists between the two stages, different synthesis patterns of cone and rod opsins were detected in the two life stages. An effect of the photoperiod length was observed on putative pinealocytes' activity from the PV, measured indirectly through nuclear area morphometry. Individuals exposed to a natural photoperiod (14L:10D) had smaller nuclear areas (mean?±?s.e. = 13·82?±?1·52 µm(2) ) than those exposed to a short photoperiod (8:16) (21·45?±?2·67 µm(2) ; P?pineal complex of juvenile and adult teleost and suggests potential approaches for the study of melatonin synthesis in fish larvae or small adult fishes. PMID:24976599

Birba, A; Ramallo, M R; Morandini, L; Villafañe, V; Tubert, C; Guimarães Moreira, R; Pandolfi, M

2014-09-01

314

Involvement of the pineal body in the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test.  

Science.gov (United States)

As an interesting exception to the general clinical application of the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT), the test could not be performed successfully in diagnosing a patient who suffered from cancer of the pineal body. The following examinations were attempted using the BDORT: 1) The thymus representation area, 2) the distal forearm during compression of the upper arm, 3) surface representations of diseased areas that had previously been identified by the indirect method with slide preparations of pineal body or lung cancer tissue, 4) holding of oncogene c-fos Ab2 and integrin alpha 5 beta 1. Results suggest that the failure of the BDORT might be due to the absence of pineal body function. It is suggested that the sensor for the BDORT might exist in the pineal body since 1) BDORT cannot be successfully performed when the eyes are closed, and the pineal body is sensitive to light; 2) electromagnetic resonance might stimulate this sensor; and 3) N-acetyltransferase, the enzyme that converts serotonin to methylserotonin in the pineal body, might be inhibited by activation of this sensor. As a result, serotonin levels might be increased by activation of this sensor, which might then inhibit finger flexor muscle contraction needed to maintain an O-ring in BDORT. PMID:7625244

Takeshige, C; Nakajima, H; Iwata, T; Yamamoto, T; Yamamoto, M

1994-01-01

315

Automatic Diagnosis of Abnormal Tumor Region from Brain Computed Tomography Images Using Wavelet Based Statistical Texture Features  

CERN Document Server

The research work presented in this paper is to achieve the tissue classification and automatically diagnosis the abnormal tumor region present in Computed Tomography (CT) images using the wavelet based statistical texture analysis method. Comparative studies of texture analysis method are performed for the proposed wavelet based texture analysis method and Spatial Gray Level Dependence Method (SGLDM). Our proposed system consists of four phases i) Discrete Wavelet Decomposition (ii) Feature extraction (iii) Feature selection (iv) Analysis of extracted texture features by classifier. A wavelet based statistical texture feature set is derived from normal and tumor regions. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to select the optimal texture features from the set of extracted texture features. We construct the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifier and evaluate the performance of classifier by comparing the classification results of the SVM based classifier with the Back Propagation Neural network classifier(BPN...

Padma, A

2011-01-01

316

Night/Day Changes in Pineal Expression of >600 Genes: CENTRAL ROLE OF ADRENERGIC/cAMP SIGNALING*S?  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland plays an essential role in vertebrate chronobiology by converting time into a hormonal signal, melatonin, which is always elevated at night. Here we have analyzed the rodent pineal transcriptome using Affymetrix GeneChip® technology to obtain a more complete description of pineal cell biology. The effort revealed that 604 genes (1,268 probe sets) with Entrez Gene identifiers are differentially expressed greater than 2-fold between midnight and mid-day...

Bailey, Michael J.; Coon, Steven L.; Carter, David A.; Humphries, Ann; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Hogenesch, John B.; Weller, Joan L.; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Baler, Ruben; Sugden, David

2009-01-01

317

Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a precursor for melatonin production, is produced abundantly in the pineal gland of all vertebrate animals. The synthesis of 5-HT in the pineal gland is rate limited by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) whose activity displays a twofold increase at night. Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrate that pineal 5-HT secretion exhibits dynamic circadian rhythms with elevated levels during the early night, and that the increase is controlled by adrenergic...

Huang, Zheping; Liu, Tiecheng; Chattoraj, Asamanja; Ahmed, Samreen; Wang, Michael M.; Deng, Jie; Sun, Xing; Borjigin, Jimo

2008-01-01

318

Differential effect of benserazide (Ro4-4602) on the concentration of indoleamines in rat pineal and hypothalamus.  

OpenAIRE

1 Low doses (50 and 80 mg/kg) of benserazide (Ro4-4602), an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, markedly reduced 5-hydroxytryptamine and melatonin in the rat pineal gland without affecting hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine. 2 This differential effect shows that inhibition of the pineal gland decarboxylase activity is possible, and confirms that the rat pineal gland is accessible to peripherally acting agents.

Arendt, J.; Ho, A. K.; Laud, C.; Marston, A.; Nohria, V.; Smith, J. A.; Symons, A. M.

1981-01-01

319

Correlación tomográfica y clínica, pre y posquirúrgica en los tumores de la región selar / Pre- and postsurgical tomographic and clinical correlation in the tumors of the sellar region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realización de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fue demostrar el valor diagnóstico de la tomografía computadorizada y su utilidad para definir la técnica quirúrgica en estos casos. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes oper [...] ados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomográfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar menos frecuentes. El 100 % de los tumores con crecimiento C-E y C-D se abordaron por vía transcraneal y el 99 restante con crecimiento A, B ó C se utilizó la vía transesfenoidal. Las complicaciones tomográficas y clínicas fueron superiores en la primera vía y se destacaron los restos tumorales (40 %), las recidivas (28 %) y daño de los nervios craneales (28 %). La mejoría clínica posoperatoria alcanzada fue ostensible al igual que el grado de control de los adenomas, lo cual demostró el alto valor diagnóstico de la tomografía computadorizada y su utilidad para trazar la estrategia quirúrgica correcta, esto muestra una alta sensibilidad en la detección de algunas complicaciones posoperatorias que se pueden valorar con este método. Abstract in english The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas in the world motivated us to conduct this research aimed at demonstrating the value of computerized tomography and its usefulness to define the surgical technique in these cases. To this end, 124 patients operated on with the clinical tomographic diag [...] nosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumors of the sellar region that were less common were studied. 100 % of the tumors with C-E and C-D growth were approached by transcranial route, whereas in the other 99 with A, B or C growth, it was used the transsphenoidal route. The tomographic and clinical complications were higher in the first route, and the tumor debris (40 %), the relapses (28 %) and the damage of the cranial nerves (28 %) stood out. The postoperative clinical improvement attained was significant the same as the degree of control of the adenomas, which showed the high diagnostic value of computerized tomography and its usefulness to establish the suitable surgical strategy. This shows a high sensitivity in the detection of some postoperative complications that may be assessed by using this method.

Tania, García Moreira; Fernando, Piedra Chávez; Omar, López Arbolay; Luis, García Ferrer; Hilca, Navarro Miranda; Denise, Delgado Gutiérrez.

2008-03-01

320

Brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism involving craniomaxillofacial region: a rare case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign, non-odontogenic bone lesion of jaw. The condition is relatively infrequent and affects mainly children and young adults with a certain predominance among females and exhibits variable aggressiveness. Giant cell lesion associated with hyperparathyroidism is known as Brown tumor. Brown tumor is one of the bony complications of hyperparathyroidism. It is a giant cell granuloma which occurs in osteitis fibrosis cystica. It represents the terminal stage of the bone remodelling processes occurring as a result of peritrabecular fibrosis and osteoclastic activity. The mandible is the predominantly affected site in the maxillofacial area. Maxillary involvement is rare. The incidence of Brown tumor associated with hyperparathyroidism is rare (0.1%). Here, an extremely rare case of a 20 year old female patient with Brown tumor in her maxilla and mandible associated with primary hyperparathyroidism was presented. A thorough diagnostic work up showed presence of tumor mass in mandible and maxilla and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and parathormone level and the patient was treated for both hyperparathyroidism and Brown tumor were discussed. The importance of different radiological evaluation methods and the consultation between the oral and maxillofacial surgeons, dentists, endocrinologists and radiologists were emphasized. PMID:24126600

Chowdhury, S; Aggarwal, A; Mittal, N; Shah, A

2013-09-01

321

Cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes of healthy and thyroid tumor-affected children from the Gomel region (Belarus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1994, 19 thyroid tumor-affected children and 17 healthy children from the Gomel region, one of the areas most polluted by the Chernobyl fallout, were analysed for (1) the presence of in their urine and (2) chromosome aberrations (CA) in circulating lymphocytes. They were compared with 35 healthy children from Pisa, Italy. Tumor-affected children showed significantly (p<0.05) higher levels in their urine as compared to healthy controls from the Gomel region. No radioactivity was found in urine from the Pisa controls. CA frequency was significantly higher in tumor-affected children compared to the Gomel controls, but was not significantly different between Gomel and Pisa controls. However, dicentric chromosomes were found in a significantly (p<0.01) greater proportion in both affected and healthy Gomel children (3.4 and 1.3/1000 cells, respectively) as compared to the Pisa controls (0.4/1000 cells). Multiple regression analysis showed that the proportion of cells with acentric fragments, dicentric and ring chromosomes was significantly correlated (p<0.05) with the amount of excreted in their urine. These findings suggest that children from the Gomel region were still being exposed to radionuclides, which makes it possible to study a dose-effect relationship

322

Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery of brain tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One thousand cases with various head and neck diseases have been treated by gamma radiosurgery at Komaki City Hospital since May 1991. Five hundred and sixty-eight out of 1,000 cases were neoplastic lesions which consisted of 173 cases of neurinoma, 108 of metastatic tumors, 103 of meningioma, 69 of gliomas, 27 of pituitary adenoma, 26 of craniopharyngioma, 13 of pineal tumors, 11 of chordoma, 6 of malignant lymphoma, 5 of hemangioblastoma and so on. The most effective result has been shown in metastatic brain tumors. The complete response (disappearance of the lesion) was obtained in more than 50% of the treated lesions, and the control rate of 85% was maintained for more than 12 months. Next effective results were shown in craniopharyngioma, malignant pineal tumors and malignant lymphoma. There was a group which showed moderate response but no tumor disappearance. Those were pituitary adenoma, acoustic neurinoma, meningioma and chordoma. Gliomas showed less response and even progression of tumor at relatively higher rate. It has been found that malignant gliomas showed difficult control of the tumor and progression rate of 70%, while benign gliomas showed the control rate of more than 90%. Besides intracranial lesions, malignant skull base tumors such as chordoma, naso-pharyngeal cancer, adenoid cystic cancer showed better response to gamma radiosurgery and higher control rate for longer period of time with high QOL compaired to conventional irradiation. (author)d to conventional irradiation. (author)

323

Tumor-specific binding of radiolabeled G-22 monoclonal antibody in glioma patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine-131-labeled G-22 monoclonal antibody F(ab')2 fragment reacting specifically with a glioma-associated surface glycoprotein was administered to 12 glioma patients to investigate its use in radioimaging of intracranial gliomas. No immediate or delayed side effects were attributable to antibody injection. Nine patients received the radiolabeled complex intravenously. The images of low-grade gliomas were generally poor and disappeared within 4 days. High-contrast images were obtained beyond the 7th day in high-grade gliomas except one case in the pineal region. Three patients received intraventricular or intratumoral administration. Clear images of all tumors were demonstrated from the 2nd until later than the 7th day. One patient with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination of brainstem glioma demonstrated negative CSF cytology after intraventricular administration. (author)

324

p18Ink4cand p53 act as tumor suppressors in Cyclin D1-driven primitive neuroectodermal tumor  

OpenAIRE

The RB tumor suppressor pathway is likely important in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the brain. In fact, 10-15% of children born with RB mutations develop brain PNETs, commonly in the pineal gland. Cyclin D1, which in association with Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) 4 and 6 phosphorylates and inactivates the RB protein, is expressed in 40% of sporadic medulloblastoma, a PNET of the cerebellum. To understand tumorigenic events cooperating with RB pathway disruption in brain PNET, w...

Saab, Raya; Rodriguez-galindo, Carlos; Matmati, Kelly; Rehg, Jerold E.; Baumer, Shannon H.; Khoury, Joseph D.; Billups, Catherine; Neale, Geoffrey; Helton, Kathleen J.; Skapek, Stephen X.

2009-01-01

325

Radiation changes in the regional lymph nodes and their influence o tumor cell migration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments on rabbits have shown that morphological changes in lymph nodes developing during endolymphatic administration of colloidal 198Au bring about a decrease in the retention of tumor cells by lymph nodes. They precipitate mainly in the lymphatic ways with the disordered lymph outflow. The sorption capacity of lymph nodes increases at the expense of the enhanced function of the preserved lymphoid tissue on the 40th and 60th day. Increased penetration of tumor cells into the thoracic duct is observed on the 60th day

326

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Primary, Recurrent, and Metastatic Tumors in the Head-and-Neck Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), also known as radiosurgery, in patients with head-and-neck cancers. Methods and Materials: Patients with pathologically proven malignant lesions in the head-and-neck region were treated using single-dose SBRT (S-SBRT) or fractionated SBRT (F-SBRT). Radiation doses were either single-fraction 13-18 Gy for S-SBRT or 36-48 Gy in five to eight fractions for F-SBRT. Response evaluation was based on clinical examinations and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging scans. Pre- and post-SBRT tumor dimensions were measured in three axes, and tumor volumes were calculated. Response evaluation also was performed using World Health Organization criteria. Results: Fifty-five lesions were treated in 44 patients (25 men, 19 women). There were three groups of patients: those with primary (n = 10), recurrent (n = 21), and metastatic tumors (n = 13). The predominant histologic type was squamous cell carcinoma (n = 33). The majority of lesions were treated using F-SBRT (n = 37). Based on radiographic and clinical assessment, a 77% (complete + partial response) response rate was noted. Percentage of reduction in tumor volume was 52% ± 38% based on follow-up scans in 24 patients. Tumor control rates at 1 year were 83.3% and 60.6% in the primary and recurrent groups, respectively. Median overall survival was 28.7, 6.7, and 5.6 months for the primary, recurrent, and metastatic r the primary, recurrent, and metastatic groups, respectively. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 1-2 mucositis was noted in all patients treated for oropharyngeal or laryngeal lesions. Conclusions: The SBRT in single or fractionated doses offers a viable treatment option for selected patients with primary, recurrent, and metastatic head-and-neck cancers with functional preservation.

327

Analysis of canine transmissible veneral tumor genotypes using the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is the only neoplasm that can be spread among dogs through cell transplantation. Therefore, this tumor does not originate from host cell transformation. Although CTVT has a monophyletic origin, several studies have shown the presence of genetic diversity which was probably acquired after the development of its original clone. To investigate the genetic diversity of CTVT in Mexico and its relation with CTVTs disseminated worldwide, we sequenced a fragment of mitochondrial DNA in 50 tumor samples and matched blood samples from dog hosts from Mexico. We found ten new haplotypes in tumor samples, which were all distinct from their matched host. The TVT1 haplotype was the most frequent in our samples, suggesting that it could be the origin of the others. We found that haplotypes in Mexico and other countries are distributed in two well-defined clusters. Our data also suggest a close relationship among American haplotypes (Mexico, USA, Chile and Brazil). Interestingly, these American haplotypes were also closely related to Asian haplotypes. Taking into account the estimated timing of the origin of CTVT, we propose that CTVT might have originated in Asia; consequently, haplotypes currently present in America could descend from Asiatic lineages. PMID:22362033

Bautista-Gómez, Linda G; Martínez-Castañeda, Simón; Córdova-Alarcón, Emilio; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos

2011-01-01

328

Sonographic follow-up after tumor mastectomy: Improved detection and differentiation of local/regional recurrences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 284 patients were examined using 5-MHz real-time US during their routine clinical follow-up after mastectomy. Of these, 191 patients had normal (group A), 25 equivocal (group B), and 68 suspicious (group C) clinical findings. US results were the following: group A: 180 true negative (TN), nine true positive (TP), two false negative (FN); group B:15 TN, eight TP, equivocal in two benign cases; and group C:19 TN, 38 TP, five FN, one false positive, and five equivocal. They indicate that (1) clinical examination leads to overstaging, (2) US detects nonpalpable tumor recurrences within deeper tissue layers, (3) US provides additional information about tumor extent, (4) US tends to miss small superficial recurrences, and (5) US can prevent unnecessary biopsies. Sono-histomorphologic correlation demonstrates that well-defined tumor margins do not exclude diffuse tumor infiltration or lymphangiosis carcinomatosa. Fat-tissue necrosis, foreign-body granuloma, and inflammatory lymph node can lead to false-positive diagnosis

329

FDG uptake and glut-1 expression in primary tumors and loco-regional lymph nodes in non-small-cell lung cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

FDG uptake level by primary tumors in NSCLC may affect the likelihood of malignant involvement in loco-regional lymph nodes (LNs). FDG uptake in tumors has been reported to be mediated by glucose transporter type 1 (Glut-I). Here, we investigated the correlations between primary tumors and loco-regional LNs in NSCLC regarding FDG uptake and Glut-1 expression. 126 NSCLC patients (M: F=103: 23, age=659.7y) who underwent curative resection and loco-regional LN dissection within 4 week period after FDG-PET study were enrolled. Maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV) by PET and %Glut-1 expression by immunostaining were compared between primary tumors and FDG uptake positive loco-regional LNs. Significant correlations were found between 52 malignant LNs and 37 primary tumors in terms of maxSUV (r=0.6451, p<0.0001) and %Glut-1 expression (r=0.8341, p<0.0001). Linear regression of the relation between maxSUVs of malignant LNs (Y) and maxSUVs of primary tumors (X) yielded the expression Y = 0.5938 + 0.4808 X with an r2 value of 0.4162. On the other hand, no significant correlation was observed between 144 benign LNs and 75 primary tumors in terms of maxSUVs (r= -0.0125, p 0.8831). Moreover, %Glut-1 expressions of pathologically proven benign LNs and primary tumors were found to be correlated (r=0.3863, p=0.0004), but r2 value was low at 0.1492. High correlations were found between primary tumors and loco-regional metastatic LNs in NSCLC regarding FDG uptake and Glut-1 expreSCLC regarding FDG uptake and Glut-1 expression. Mediastinal LN staging of NSCLC by FDG-PET may be improved by considering the linear correlation between FDG uptakes of metastatic LNs and primary tumors

330

FDG uptake and glut-1 expression in primary tumors and loco-regional lymph nodes in non-small-cell lung cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

FDG uptake level by primary tumors in NSCLC may affect the likelihood of malignant involvement in loco-regional lymph nodes (LNs). FDG uptake in tumors has been reported to be mediated by glucose transporter type 1 (Glut-I). Here, we investigated the correlations between primary tumors and loco-regional LNs in NSCLC regarding FDG uptake and Glut-1 expression. 126 NSCLC patients (M: F=103: 23, age=659.7y) who underwent curative resection and loco-regional LN dissection within 4 week period after FDG-PET study were enrolled. Maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV) by PET and %Glut-1 expression by immunostaining were compared between primary tumors and FDG uptake positive loco-regional LNs. Significant correlations were found between 52 malignant LNs and 37 primary tumors in terms of maxSUV (r=0.6451, p<0.0001) and %Glut-1 expression (r=0.8341, p<0.0001). Linear regression of the relation between maxSUVs of malignant LNs (Y) and maxSUVs of primary tumors (X) yielded the expression Y = 0.5938 + 0.4808 X with an r2 value of 0.4162. On the other hand, no significant correlation was observed between 144 benign LNs and 75 primary tumors in terms of maxSUVs (r= -0.0125, p 0.8831). Moreover, %Glut-1 expressions of pathologically proven benign LNs and primary tumors were found to be correlated (r=0.3863, p=0.0004), but r2 value was low at 0.1492. High correlations were found between primary tumors and loco-regional metastatic LNs in NSCLC regarding FDG uptake and Glut-1 expression. Mediastinal LN staging of NSCLC by FDG-PET may be improved by considering the linear correlation between FDG uptakes of metastatic LNs and primary tumors.

Lee, Won Woo; Nguyen, Xuan Canh; Chung, Jin Haeng; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Songnam (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

331

Paragangliomas of the head and neck region (''glomus tumors''); Paragangliome der Kopf-Hals-Region (''Glomustumoren'')  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paragangliomas of the head and neck region - often incorrectly termed ''glomus tumors'' in everyday practice - are rare neoplasms that allow a radiologic diagnosis at first glance. They are found at four predilection sites; In the carotid bifurcation, at the parapharyngeal course of the vagal nerve, around the jugular foramen and in the tympanic cavity. Depending on their location and clinical manifestation they are diagnosed early or late. Therefore, their size may vary between few millimeters and several centimeters. Special problems arise when the tumors occur at multiple locations in the setting of genetic disease. Imaging is essential for establishing a diagnosis, for the description of their extension and for follow-up. Because of their high degree of vascularisation especially vagal and jugular paragangliomas are a challenge not only to the surgeon but also to the interventional neuroradiologist. Super-selective preoperative embolization can decide whether a tumor is operable or not. In individual cases infiltration of the carotid necessitates a temporary balloon test occlusion. (orig.)

Hofmann, Erich [Klinikum Fulda gAG (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Arps, Hartmut [Klinikum Fulda gAG (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Schwager, Konrad [Klinikum Fulda gAG (Germany). Klinik fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohrenkrankheiten, Kopf-, Hals- und Plastische Gesichtschirurgie und Kommunikationsstoerungen

2009-12-15

332

Catecholamine, indolealkylamine and calcium levels of human pineal glands in various clinical conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and forty-four human pineal glands obtained at necropsy were analysed for their content of catecholamines, indolealkylamines and calcium and the findings related to sex, age, terminal illness and medication. A preliminary study of 45 pineal organs revealed no significant differences in amine pattern in glands removed 6-48 hours post mortem. A statistically significant difference of pineal weight, calcium and amine content could not be detected in glands of age-matched groups of male and female patients who died suddenly without apparent clinical illness. A highly significant correlation between pineal weight and calcium content was established in patients older than 60 years. Considerable variability of amine levels existed in all groups of patients. Adrenaline as well as noradrenaline were detected in most glands. This finding was corroborated by the formation of radioactively labelled adrenaline from noradrenaline and 14C-S-adenosylmethionine by extracts from human pineals. Dopamine was most abundant in glands from patients dying of malignant tumours. The content of the indolealkylamines (5-hydroxytryptamine and melatonine) varied between a few nanograms to 21 mug/g tissue. The highest mean calcium content was detected in glands of patients who died of renal disease associated with hypertension. PMID:1004948

Hinterberger, H; Pickering, J

1976-07-01

333

Labelling of the pineal gland with 99mTc-glucose-6-phosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lately, the pineal body has been the subject of a large variety of studies. Only recently it has been understood the role played by this endocrine gland to maintain the balance of the human body and also in animal models. Although small in dimensions, the pineal body is a very active organ, able to transmit precise temporal information. It probably participates in the synchronization of several organic functions. The present work aims to study a possible use of 99mTc-glucose-6-P as a tracer for the pineal gland. Histoautoradiographic studies have been performed in Wistar rats. Tomoscintigraphic studies were acquired in patients and in albine rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus hyplus). The labelling efficiency and the radiochemical purity of the labelled products have always been tested. Animal and human SPECT exams, show an activity focus projected over the area corresponding to the pineal body localization. Autoradiographic studies using [1-14C]-glucose-6-P did not reveal a more relevant activity at the pineal level, probably due to its hepatic conversion to 14C-glucose. (author)

334

Characterization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-immunoreactive protein in the rat pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to characterize GnRH-like substance(s) in the rat pineal gland using a monoclonal antibody, LRH13, as a probe. The epitope of LRH13 is between 2nd and 5th amino acid residues of the mammalian GnRH, and its immunological characters were previously defined by us. LRH13 could show strong immunological signal on the rat pineal gland. Immunoblot after SDS-PAGE of the pineal gland preparations showed a LRH13 immunoreactive band with apparent mol wt 52 kilo-Dalton (kD), which is much bigger than that of hypothalamic GnRH precursor (10 kD). The 52 kD protein, however, was detected from insoluble fraction of the pineal homogenate and liberated from the fraction by Triton X-100 (2%) treatment. On the other hand, NaCl (140 mM and 500 mM) or EDTA (10 mM) treatment failed to liberate. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that the 52 kD protein is a mixture of two proteins with different isoelectric points (pI approximately 6.8 and 7.0). Both proteins showed identical patterns of peptide mapping by V8 protease digestion, and they might be originated from the same peptide. These results suggest that the rat pineal GnRH-immunoreactive substance has a unique property as a membrane associate protein. PMID:7563231

Park, M K; Kogo, H; Kawashima, S; Wakabayashi, K

1995-06-15

335

Comparison of calcification of pineal, habenular commissure and choroid plexus on plain films and computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skull radiographs and CT scans of 1,000 consecutive patients were examined for evidence of calcification in the pineal gland, habenular commissure and choroid plexuses. Plain film results were in agreement with previous surveys suggesting that the CT scan results may be accepted as general findings. Pineal calcification was seen on films in 61% and on CT scans in 83% of those over 30. On both films and CT scans calcification was 10% higher in males. Only 1% had a pineal 12 mm or larger on films. In at least 5% it was impossible to separate the habenula from the pineal by CT: including these, 5% had pineals larger than the accepted upper limit of normal. Measurements from males were 0.4 mm larger than for females on films and 0.2 mm larger on CT scans. Habenular commissure calcification was seen on films in 13% and on CT in 15% of those over 30, being 10% higher in males. Bilateral choroid plexus calcification was seen on frontal films in 15% and on CT in 77% of those over 30. On skull films the frequency of calcification was 2%-3% higher for adult males than females and on CT 7% higher. Calcification was seen on the lateral but not the frontal film in 128 patients. One choroid plexus only was seen on 14/ frontal films and on 49 CT scans. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO

336

Wilms tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 20 children with Wilms tumor who also underwent US and enhanced CT. Of these, seven underwent primary resection and seven underwent nephrectomy following chemotherapy. MR imaging and pathologic mapping was performed in four freshly resected tumor specimens. MR imaging best defined tumor margins, lymphadenopathy (seven patients), perinephric extension (11 patients), liver invasion (three patients), inferior vena cava (IVC) involvement (four patients), and bilateral tumor (four patients). After chemotherapy, regression of primary tumor, lymphadenopathy, and IVC invasion was best shown with MR imaging. Focal high signal on short repetition time, short echo time sequences developed in 11 tumors after chemotherapy and corresponded to regions of necrosis on the resected specimens. Initial results suggest that MR imaging is the method of choice in Wilms tumor and that T1 shortening may be a useful marker for tumor lysis following chemotherapy

337

Control of pineal indole biosynthesis by changes in sympathetic tone caused by factors other than environmental lighting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Description of experimental investigations showing that, in addition to environmental lighting, other manipulations known to modify sympathetic tone can also modify pineal indole biosynthesis. Comparable alterations in sympathetic tone that occur in response to activity or feeding cycles may be instrumental in generating the pineal rhythms that persist in the absence of light-dark cycle.

Lynch, H. J.; Eng, J. P.; Wurtman, R. J.

1973-01-01

338

Influence of low-dose x-rays on the ways of biosynthesis and indole metabolism in pineal gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pineal gland is a radiosensitive organ which reacts even to low doses of radiation. Having gone through the stages of activating, normalizing and exhausting indoles biosynthesis suffers from different changes in the pineal gland in response to the influence of ionizing radiation in low doses

339

Wound healing and the effect of pineal gland and melatonin  

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Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex phenomenon that is controlled by local and general regulatory mechanisms. The aim of the paper is to analyze recently-published data devoted to the regulation of wound repair by melatonin. The effect of melatonin has been reported in different wound types healed with various mechanisms. The action of the pineal indoleamine is dependent on the used dose, time of application and target organ. Moreover, melatonin influences different phases of wound repair such as inflammation, by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators, cell proliferation and migration, by influencing angiogenesis, and the proliferation of fibroblasts, as well as the synthesis phase, by regulating collagen and glycosaminoglycan accumulation in the wounded milieu. Thus, healing of the skin wound, myocardial infarction, bone fractures and gastric ulcer is influenced by melatonin. In patients with low levels of melatonin (elderly or ?-blocker treated patients, its regulatory effects are expected to be impaired. Thus, the need for melatonin supplementation in those patients is postulated in the study. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 3-14

Jacek Drobnik

2012-02-01

340

Complex NF-kappaB interactions at the distal tumor necrosis factor promoter region in human monocytes.  

OpenAIRE

We describe a dense cluster of DNA-protein interactions located 600 nucleotides upstream of the transcriptional start site of the human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene. This area was identified as being of potential importance for lipopolysaccharide-inducible TNF expression in the human monocyte cell line Mono Mac 6, based on reporter gene analysis of point mutations at a number of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB)-like motifs within the human TNF promoter region. The area contains two NF-ka...

Udalova, Ia; Knight, JC; Vidal, V.; Nedospasov, Sa; Kwiatkowski, D.

1998-01-01

341

Value of the region of interest technique in the scintigraphic diagnosis of primary bone tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Employing ROI-technique, a ratio Q was obtained from relating accumulation of 99sup(m)Tc-MDP at the site of the bone lesion (n = 150) with that of contralateral non-involved osseous areas. Values of Q were correlated with histologic tumor diagnosis, its dignity and frequency. Values of Q of greater than 3.0 were found in 95% of all sarcomas, in 100% of the osteosarcomas but in only 3.8% of all benign bone tumors. Values ranging from 1.0 to 1.2 were exclusively measured in benign tumors (e.g., in 52% of juvenile bone cysts and in 67% of non-ossifing fibromas). Since the threshold - separating benign from malignant lesions - at Q = 3.0 was blurred by tumorlike lesions, metastases and especially by Paget's disease, this method does not precisely predict dignity. However, this method may complement radiographic evaluation with low values supporting the diagnosis of a benign lesion. The combined findings of radiography and these rations gained by nuclear imaging may help determine the pathway of a patient through further diagnosis and treatment. (orig.)

342

Uptake and metabolism of indole compounds by the goldfish pineal organ  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indole metabolism was studied in the pineal organ of the goldfish by radioautography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The rate of uptake of tritiated serotonin was rapid in vitro with dense labeling over the photoreceptor cells. Tritiated tryptophan was taken up at a slower rate and the label was distributed evenly over the epithelium. Continual light caused a reduction in the concentration of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) compared to groups exposed to constant darkness both in vivo and in explants, suggesting that these effects are not derived from photoreceptors outside the pineal organ. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that indole metabolism is functionally linked to phototransduction events in the pineal organ of lower vertebrates

343

Purification of a low molecular weight calf pineal peptide controlling DNA transcription in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

A low molecular factor showing high specific activity in the control DNA of transcription in vitro was isolated from aqueous ultrafiltered calf pineal gland extracts. The active factor was purified by means of Gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 and G-10, thin layer chromatography on aluminum sheet cellulose and high performance liquid chromatography using a Supelcosil LC 318 reverse phase column. The purified pineal factor was characterized as a peptide of low molecular weight (of about 1200 Dalton) containing glutamic acid, leucine, glycine, threonine and alanine in their approximate molar ratio, referred to glycine taken as 1: glycine 1, threonine 1, leucine 1, alanine 6, glutamic acid 2. Studies of the aminoacid sequence by N-terminal analysis using the automated Edman degradation procedure, were unsuccessful, suggesting the presence of a blocked NH2 group. The purified peptide appears to be different from peptide factors till now isolated from pineal gland. PMID:1379997

Petrelli, C; Moretti, P; Petrelli, F; Barra, D

1992-01-01

344

Automatic region-of-interest segmentation and registration of dynamic contrast-enhanced images of colorectal tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) images can be acquired at multiple time points and multiple slice locations of a tumor. Image segmentation and registration are important preprocessing steps that can improve subsequent analysis of DCE images by kinetic modeling. An automatic system for region-of-interest segmentation and registration of DCE images is presented. Tissue segmentation is performed using a combination of thresholding and morphological operations, and further refined using shape information from consecutive images. The segmented regions are subsequently registered based on a mutual information method that accounts for possible tissue movement between slices. The proposed segmentation and registration methods are applied on actual DCE CT datasets to illustrate feasibility of practical implementation in the clinic. PMID:25386716

Hou, Zujun; Wang, Yue; Thng, Choon Hua; Ng, Quan-Sing; Goh, Vicky; San Koh, Tong

2014-12-01

345

Photoreceptor-like outer segments in the pineal organ of the lovebird, Uroloncha domestica (Aves: passeriformes). A scanning electron microscopic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the pineal organ of the lovebird, Uroloncha domestica, bulbous, cup-shaped and elongated outer segments of photoreceptor-like pinealocytes are demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. These scarce outer segments, 4-11 micron in length, extend into the pineal lumen. The present structural observations speak in favor of photosensitive pinealocytes in the pineal organ of Uroloncha domestica. The relation of the photoreceptor-like pinealocytes to acetylcholinesterase-positive nerve cells and a nervous connection between the pineal and the brain indicate that the pineal organ of this passeriform species may be the site of neuroendocrine and photoreceptive functions. PMID:884725

Ueck, M; Ohnishi, R; Wake, K

1977-07-26

346

Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences designated to be on...

Ed Smith; Chong, Nelson W.; Tuoyu Geng; Jessica Wynn; Stefanie Hartman; Greg Touchton

2005-01-01

347

A clinicopathologic analysis of primary orbital yolk sac tumor  

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Full Text Available Objective On rare occasions, yolk sac tumor may arise from extragonadal sites. Orbit is an unusual location for the primary development of this tumor. The presence of intracranial yolk sac tumor on biopsy always makes the diagnosis challenge for pathologists. Herein we report a case of intracranial primary yolk sac tumor in left orbital apex. The clinicopathology of this tumor and its differential diagnosis are discussed. Methods The clinical manifestation of a patient with primary yolk sac tumor occurring in left orbital apex was presented retrospectively. Resected orbital mass was routinely paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dako Envision immunohistochemical staining system was used to detect the tumor antigen expressions, including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, cytokeratin, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP, CD30, CD34, CD45, CD99, CD117, synaptophysin (Syn and chromogranin A (CgA. Results A 2-year-old boy presented with 3-month history of ptosis of eyelid and exophthalmos on left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan revealed a lesion occupied the left orbital apex with infiltration of surrounding normal structure, including left posterior ethmoid sinus, the wall of left maxillary sinus and sphenoid. However, there was no evidence of tumor infiltrating in brain parenchyma. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was removed by en bloc resection. Grossly, the biopsy specimen received in small pieces was 1.20 cm × 1.00 cm × 1.00 cm when aggregated. No fibrous capsule, necrosis, haemorrhage and gross calcification were found in the tissue fragments. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was arranged in a reticular pattern. The cells were relatively large with a clear cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei. Scattered mitotic figures were noted. Schiller-Duval bodies and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS positive (eosinophilic bodies were evident in the tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor cells were diffusely positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and focal positive for AFP, CD99 and CD117, but negative for PLAP, CD30, S-100, CD45 and CD34. There was no evidence of mixture of other germ cell tumor component in this tumor by serial sections. Based on clinical presentation and histological findings, a final histological diagnosis of pure primary orbital yolk sac tumor, WHO grade ?, was made according to the criteria of WHO classification. The patient has not received chemotherapy and attended follow-up for 3 months, without any neurological deficit or signs of recurrence. Conclusion Despite the lower incidence, intracranial yolk sac tumors usually develop in the midline at the pineal or suprasellar regions occurring in children with distinctive histological features and immunohistochemical phenotypes. In general, intracranial yolk sac tumors are known to entail poor prognosis even after multidisciplinary treatment of operation, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. It is noted that intracranial yolk sac tumor should be differentiated histologically from other types of germ cell tumors and mixed germ cell tumor.

PENG Ji-ying

2012-02-01

348

Radiation Treatment for Malignant Small Cell Tumor of the Thoracopulmonary Region Primitive Pluripotent Histogenesis and Differential Diagnosis-A Case Report and Review of Literatures-  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malignant small round cell tumor (SRCT) of the thoracopulmonary region appears to originate in the soft tissues of the chest wall or the peripheral lung. A differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated small round cell tumors which include Ewing's sarcoma of bone and soft tissue, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, Askin tumor, neuroblastoma, peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, small cell osteogenic sarcoma and lymphoma are after difficult by light microscopy alone. In recent, by the extensive studies electron microscopic examination, histochemical study, immunochemical study, cytogenetics and gene analysis, these tumors may be derived from the primitive and pluripotential cells, differentiating into mesenchymal, epithelial and neural features in variable proportions. Treatment for SRCT of thoracopulmonary regin is not determined because of massive involvement of the lung, pleura or soft tissues of the chest wall resulted in a dismal outcome despite aggressive surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy

349

Pineal nitric oxide synthase, but not heme oxygenase, mRNA is suppressed by continuous exposure to light.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously shown that exposure of rats to constant light (LL) induced a decrease in NO synthase (NOS) activity in the pineal gland. We report here that the use of the sensitive technique of RT-PCR has demonstrated that mRNA for neuronal NOS is present in the pineal, and that it is photoneurally regulated. There was a marked decrease in pineal neuronal NOS mRNA levels in continuous light conditions, similar to the changes seen in NOS enzyme activity. Inducible NOS was not present in the pineal, and there was evidence that the photoregulatable form was not endothelial NOS. The mRNA for two isoforms of heme oxygenase, the enzyme responsible for the generation of the putative neuromodulator carbon monoxide, was also present in the pineal, but neither isoform was photoregulated. Using immunodetection, it was not possible to identify the presence of NOS protein, other than to a minimal extent, even though NOS activity was clearly present. NADPH-diaphorase staining and in situ hybridization were carried out in an attempt to identify the precise location of neuronal NOS message. A strong NADPH-diaphorase reaction was present in sympathetic nerve fibers of the pineal, but pinealocytes showed no or only very weak labelling. In situ hybridization was also unable to identify neuronal NOS message in pinealocytes. These data thus also suggest the possible presence of a pineal-specific NOS isoenzyme. PMID:10407174

Jacobs, R A; Schaad, N C; Vanecek, J; Leaver, S; Aubry, J M; Korf, H W; Dahia, P L; Chew, S L; Grossman, A B

1999-07-01

350

Caracterización de las regiones organizadoras nucleolares en las células del tumor venéreo transmisible en caninos: Estudio histoquímico / Characterization of nucleolar organizer regions in cells of transmissible venereal tumor in canine: Histochemical study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue visualizar y caracterizar las Regiones Organizadoras Nucleolares Argénticas (AgNORs) en células neoplásicas del tumor venéreo transmisible (TVT) de caninos a través de la impregnación con nitrato de plata. Se trabajó con una muestra tomada al azar de tejido paraf [...] inado de 30 caninos diagnosticados histológicamente (con coloración de Hematoxilina y Eosina) como TVT canino entre el 2000 al 2006. En 100 células por muestra se visualizó la presencia y ubicación de los AgNORs en las células neoplásicas. Se encontró un número medio de AgNORs por célula de 1.53, por núcleo de 0.91 y por nucléolo de 0.62. La distribución de los AgNORs en el total de células evaluadas fue de 60.7% (1821/3000) en el núcleo, 34.3% (1029/3000) en el nucléolo y 5% (150/3000) en ambas estructuras. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to visualize and characterize the Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNORs) in Cells of Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT) in the canine through the impregnation with silver nitrate. One sample was collected at random from paraffin tissue of 30 canine tissue samples [...] that were histological diagnosed (using Hematoxylin and Eosin stain) as TVT during the period of 2000-2006. The AgNORs were visualized and localized in 100 cells per sample. The average number of AgNORs per cell was 1.53, per cell nucleus was 90.91 and per nucleolus was 0.62. The distribution of AgNORs in the total number of cells was 60.7% (1821/ 3000) in the nucleus, 34.3% (1029/ 3000) in the nucleolus, and 5% (150/3000) in both structures.

Luis, Rodríguez I.; Rosa, Perales C.; Alfonso, Chavera C.; César, Gavidia Ch.; Diego, Díaz C..

351

Regulation of tumor suppressor gene FUS1 expression by the untranslated regions of mRNA in human lung cancer cells  

OpenAIRE

FUS1, also known as tumor suppressor candidate 2 (TUSC2), is a tumor suppressor gene located in the human chromosome 3p21.3 region. FUS1 mRNA transcripts could be detected on Northern blots in both normal lung and some lung cancer cell lines, but no endogenous FUS1 protein could be detected in a majority of lung cancer cell lines and small cell and non-small cell lung tumor tissues. However, mechanisms regulating FUS1 protein expression and its inactivation in primary lung cancer cells are la...

Lin, Jing; Xu, Kai; Gitanjali, Jayachandran; Roth, Jack A.; Ji, Lin

2011-01-01

352

A Common Region of Deletion on Chromosome 17q in Both Sporadic and Familial Epithelial Ovarian Tumors Distal to BRCA1  

OpenAIRE

Linkage analysis in familial breast and ovarian cancer and studies of allelic deletion in sporadic ovarian tumors have identified a region on chromosome 17q containing a candidate tumor-suppressor gene (referred to as BRCA1) of likely importance in ovarian carcinogenesis. We have examined normal and tumor DNA samples from 32 patients with sporadic and 8 patients with familial forms of the disease, for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 21 loci on chromosome 17 (7 on 17p and 14 on 17q). LOH on 17...

Godwin, Andrew K.; Vanderveer, Lisa; Schultz, David C.; Lynch, Henry T.; Altomare, Deborah A.; Buetow, Kenneth H.; Daly, Mary; Getts, Lori A.; Masny, Agnes; Rosenblum, Norman; Hogan, Michael; Ozols, Robert F.; Hamilton, Thomas C.

1994-01-01

353

Neural networks combined with region growing techniques for tumor detection in [18F]-fluorothymidine dynamic positron emission tomography breast cancer studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Early detection and precise localization of malignant tumors has been a primary challenge in medical imaging in recent years. Functional modalities play a continuously increasing role in these efforts. Image segmentation algorithms which enable automatic, accurate tumor visualization and quantification on noisy positron emission tomography (PET) images would significantly improve the quality of treatment planning processes and in turn, the success of treatments. In this work a novel multistep method has been applied in order to identify tumor regions in 4D dynamic [18F] fluorothymidine (FLT) PET studies of patients with locally advanced breast cancer. In order to eliminate the effect of inherently detectable high inhomogeneity inside tumors, specific voxel-kinetic classes were initially introduced by finding characteristic FLT-uptake curves with K-means algorithm on a set of voxels collected from each tumor. Image voxel sets were then split based on voxel time-activity curve (TAC) similarities, and models were generated separately on each voxel set. At first, artificial neural networks, in comparison with linear classification algorithms were applied to distinguish tumor and healthy regions relying on the characteristics of TACs of the individual voxels. The outputs of the best model with very high specificity were then used as input seeds for region shrinking and growing techniques, the application of which considerably enhanced the sensitivity and specificity (78.65% +/- 0.65% and 98.98% +/- 0.03%, respectively) of the final image segmentation model.

Cseh, Zoltan; Kenny, Laura; Swingland, James; Bose, Subrata; Turheimer, Federico E.

2013-03-01

354

[Huge tumor resection defects on the parotid region repaired by lateral thoracic flap: a case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

Lateral thoracic flap is a free flap for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects and has been previously used in oral and maxillofacial surgeries. We reported a case involving a huge soft tissue defect on the parotid region caused by the resection of parotid epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma. We discussed the anatomy and application of the lateral thoracic flap. PMID:25665434

Haibin, Sun; Bo, Li; Chunjie, Li; Yi, Men; Hui, Xia; Longliang, Li

2014-12-01

355

Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical characterization of interstitial cells in pre- and postnatal developing sheep pineal gland  

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Full Text Available Pineal gland interstitial cells from 32 sheep embryos (from day 54 of gestation until birth and 18 sheep (from 1 month to >2 years were analysed using ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. From day 98 of gestation and throughout postnatal development, a second cell type was observed in addition to pinealocytes; these cells displayed uniform ultrastructural features similar to those of CNS astrocytes. Ultrastructural homogeneity was not matched by the results of histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. Expression of phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin indicates that the second cell population in the developing ovine pineal gland is, in fact, a combination of glial-astrocyte cells at varying stages of maturity. Pineal interstitial cells started to show signs of functional activity evident in vascular tropism; such activity, evident from around day 98 of gestation, appeared to relate to the exchange of substances between the pineal parenchyma and blood vessels and, though it continued throughout postnatal development, was most evident in animals slaughtered between 9 months and 2 years of age (group II. Morphologically, functional activi- ty in interstitial cells in this age-group was apparent in: 1, formation of specific contact sites between interstitial cells and nerve fibres in the perivascular space; and 2, the presence of numerous gap junctions between the bulbous endings of cytoplasmic processes.

E Redondo

2009-12-01

356

Insulin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland  

Science.gov (United States)

The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes melatonin in a circadian manner, peaking during the dark phase. This synthesis is primarily regulated by sympathetic innervations via noradrenergic fibers, but is also modulated by many peptidergic and hormonal systems. A growing number of studies reveal a comp...

357

Simple sensitive rat pineal gland organ culture technique for monitoring indole metabolism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pineal gland has received considerable attention in recent years and has been implicated as affecting and being influenced by physiological and endocrine processes. To determine indole metabolism in the pineal a technique is required which will enable sensitive monitoring of all metabolites while allowing for biochemical or pharmacological manipulations. Because the rat pineal gland is small and readily accessible it makes intact organ culture suitable for such purposes. A technique was sought in which indole metabolism could be monitored with relative simplicity while allowing sensitivity and reproducibility using single rat pineal glands. A technique was chosen where 14C and 3H-serotonin were used in organ culture. The results obtained from this technique indicated that the radioactivity recorded for the various metabolites of serotonin using both isotopes did not differ greatly and that the sensitivity of both methods is similar. The fewer manipulations needed using 3H-serotonin made this method faster and more accurate than using 14C-serotonin and it is thus to be recommended

358

Pineal physiology in microgravity - Relation to rat gonadal function aboard Cosmos 1887  

Science.gov (United States)

Results are reported from an analysis of pineal glands obtained for five male rats flown aboard an orbiting satellite for their melatonin, serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIA), and calcium content. Plasma 5-HT and 5-HIAA were measured. These parameters were compared to indicators of gonadal function: plasma testosterone concentration and spermatogonia development. Plasma melotonin was found to be low at the time of euthanasia and was not different among the experimental groups. Pineal calcium of flight animals was not different from ground controls. Pineal 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the flight group were significantly higher than those in ground controls. These findings suggest a possible increase in pineal 5-HT turnover in flight animals which may result in increased melatonin secretion. It is argued that the alteration of pinal 5-HT turnover and its expected effects on melatonin secretion may partially explain the lower plasma testosterone levels and 4-11 percent fewer spermatogonia cells observed in flight animals.

Holley, Daniel C.; Markley, Carol L.; Soliman, Magdi R. I.; Kaddis, Farida; Krasnov, Igor'

1991-01-01

359

Incidence of malignant tumors in children living in the Tula Region 10 years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possible effects of the Chernobyl accident on oncological disease incidence of the children in Tula region ten years later is studied. Analysis of Oncological register data for Tula region for the periods of 1979-1985 and 1986-1997 are analysed. It is shown that the first ranks (as in Russia) in the children cancer incidence structure belongs to lymphomas and leukemias, then central nervous system, bones and soft tissues, kidney tumors follows. Thyroid cancer incidence in 1986-1989 was 0.07 per 100000 child population. Kidney cancer incidence increases by 65% and became 0.74 per 100000 children. Tendency for growth of the rate was detected for bones and soft tissues in 5-14 age-group from 0.62 to 1.1 per 100000 children. In the areas where contamination density was 3.0 Ci/km2 and above in 1995-1997 the increase of cancer incidence (all sites and acute leukemias) was not significant. Five-year cancer survival in all group was 65.4±1.8%. Structure of children cancer incidence in Tula region is the same as in Russia in the whole. Thyroid incidence rate significant increases. No association between leukemias and ionizing radiation was shown

360

Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions  

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Full Text Available The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure–function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

Alexander Opitz

2014-01-01

361

Prevention and treatment of the effects of radiation treatment of tumors in the oral and maxillo-facial regions; Prophylaxe und Therapie der Folgen therapeutischer Tumor-Bestrahlung im Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtsbereich  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The headings of this book are: Indications for and therapeutic value of radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy of head and neck tumors; literature review of radiation injuries and side effects of radiotherapy in the orofacial region; peri-radiotherapeutic regimen; radiation induced caries; radiation induced xerostomia; radiation induced changes of the jaw and osteoradionecrosis.

Groetz, K.A.

2001-07-01

362

Regional Normal Lung Tissue Density Changes in Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To describe regional lung tissue density changes in normal lung tissue of patients with primary and metastatic lung tumors who received stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 179 post-SBRT follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans of 62 patients who received SBRT between 2003 and 2009 were studied. Median prescription dose was 54 Gy (range, 30-60 Gy) in 3 to 5 fractions. SBRT-induced lung density changes on post-SBRT follow-up CT were evaluated at approximately 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after treatment. Dose-response curves (DRC) were generated for SBRT-induced lung damage by averaging CT number (HU) changes for regions of the lungs receiving the same dose at 5-Gy intervals. Results: For all follow-up interval periods, CT numbers linearly increased with dose until 35 Gy and were constant thereafter. For 3, 18, 24, and 30 months, the rate of relative electron density increase with dose was approximately 0.24% per Gy. At 6 months, the rate was also similar below 20 Gy but then rose to 0.6% per Gy above this threshold. After 6 months, DRCs were mostly time-independent. When split between patients treated with 3 fractions of 12 to 20 Gy (median, 20 Gy; average tumor volume, 12 ± 16 cm3) and with >3 fractions of 6 to 12.5 Gy (median, 9 Gy; average tumor volume, 30 ± 40 cm3), DRCs differed significantly. In both cases, CT changes at 3, 18, 24, and 30 months were identical to those of the populationere identical to those of the population DRC; however, patients who received >3 fractions showed 6-month CT changes that were more than twice those for the group that received 3 fractions. Conclusions: This analysis of SBRT-induced normal lung density changes indicates that lung normal tissue has more pronounced self-limited acute effects than late effects. Differences in acute CT changes following treatments in 3 fractions were considerably less than for treatments in >3 fractions.

363

Regional Normal Lung Tissue Density Changes in Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To describe regional lung tissue density changes in normal lung tissue of patients with primary and metastatic lung tumors who received stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 179 post-SBRT follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans of 62 patients who received SBRT between 2003 and 2009 were studied. Median prescription dose was 54 Gy (range, 30-60 Gy) in 3 to 5 fractions. SBRT-induced lung density changes on post-SBRT follow-up CT were evaluated at approximately 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after treatment. Dose-response curves (DRC) were generated for SBRT-induced lung damage by averaging CT number (HU) changes for regions of the lungs receiving the same dose at 5-Gy intervals. Results: For all follow-up interval periods, CT numbers linearly increased with dose until 35 Gy and were constant thereafter. For 3, 18, 24, and 30 months, the rate of relative electron density increase with dose was approximately 0.24% per Gy. At 6 months, the rate was also similar below 20 Gy but then rose to 0.6% per Gy above this threshold. After 6 months, DRCs were mostly time-independent. When split between patients treated with 3 fractions of 12 to 20 Gy (median, 20 Gy; average tumor volume, 12 {+-} 16 cm{sup 3}) and with >3 fractions of 6 to 12.5 Gy (median, 9 Gy; average tumor volume, 30 {+-} 40 cm{sup 3}), DRCs differed significantly. In both cases, CT changes at 3, 18, 24, and 30 months were identical to those of the population DRC; however, patients who received >3 fractions showed 6-month CT changes that were more than twice those for the group that received 3 fractions. Conclusions: This analysis of SBRT-induced normal lung density changes indicates that lung normal tissue has more pronounced self-limited acute effects than late effects. Differences in acute CT changes following treatments in 3 fractions were considerably less than for treatments in >3 fractions.

Diot, Quentin, E-mail: quentin.diot@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Kavanagh, Brian; Schefter, Tracey; Gaspar, Laurie; Stuhr, Kelly; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

2012-11-15

364

Aluminum and Glyphosate Can Synergistically Induce Pineal Gland Pathology: Connection to Gut Dysbiosis and Neurological Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many neurological diseases, including autism, depression, dementia, anxiety disorder and Parkinson’s disease, are associated with abnormal sleep patterns, which are directly linked to pineal gland dysfunction. The pineal gland is highly susceptible to environmental toxicants. Two pervasive substances in modern industrialized nations are aluminum and glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup?. In this paper, we show how these two toxicants work synergistically to induce neurological damage. Glyphosate disrupts gut bacteria, leading to an overgrowth of Clostridium difficile. Its toxic product, p-cresol, is linked to autism in both human and mouse models. p-Cresol enhances uptake of aluminum via transferrin. Anemia, a result of both aluminum disruption of heme and impaired heme synthesis by glyphosate, leads to hypoxia, which induces increased pineal gland transferrin synthesis. Premature birth is associated with hypoxic stress and with substantial increased risk to the subsequent development of autism, linking hypoxia to autism. Glyphosate chelates aluminum, allowing ingested aluminum to bypass the gut barrier. This leads to anemia-induced hypoxia, promoting neurotoxicity and damaging the pineal gland. Both glyphosate and aluminum disrupt cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved in melatonin metabolism. Furthermore, melatonin is derived from tryptophan, whose synthesis in plants and microbes is blocked by glyphosate. We also demonstrate a plausible role for vitamin D3 dysbiosis in impaired gut function and impaired serotonin synthesis. This paper proposes that impaired sulfate supply to the brain mediates the damage induced by the synergistic action of aluminum and glyphosate on the pineal gland and related midbrain nuclei.

Stephanie Seneff

2015-01-01

365

Photoperiod: Its importance as an impeller of pineal and seasonal reproductive rhythms  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of long day breeding rodents depend on seasonal changes in photoperiodic length to synchronize their breeding seasons with the appropriate time of the year. These relationships are particularly conspicuous in the Syrian hamster where day length is vitally important in determining periods of sexual activity and inactivity. The organ in the body whose activity is most closely attuned to the photoperiodic environment is the pineal gland. During periods of darkness the biochemical and secretory activity of the pineal is enhanced with the resultant production of antigonadotrophic principles which are strongly suppressive to reproductive physiology. In this manner, decreasing day lengths of the fall are involved with suppressing sexual capability in male and female hamsters. Throughout the winter months darkness (because of the shorter day lengths and the fact that hamsters remain underground in lightless burrows) holds the gonads in an atrophic condition and thereby prevents hamsters from breeding. As spring approaches the neuroendocrine reproductive axis becomes refractory to the inhibitory effects of darkness and the pineal gland and, as a consequence, the gonads recrudesce allowing the animals to successfully reproduce. The long days of the spring and summer serve to interrupt the refractory period so that when winter approaches shortening day lengths will again, by way of the pineal gland, induce gonadalinvolution. In this scheme both light and darkness are critically important in synchronizing the phases of the annual reproductive cycle of the hamster with the appropriate season of the year. Melatonin may be the pineal hormone which mediates the effects of darkness on reproductive physiology.

Reiter, R. J.

1980-03-01

366

Construction of a 2.8-megabase yeast artificial chromosome contig and cloning of the human methylthioadenosine phosphorylase gene from the tumor suppressor region on 9p21.  

OpenAIRE

Many human malignant cells lack methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) enzyme activity. The gene (MTAP) encoding this enzyme was previously mapped to the short arm of chromosome 9, band p21-22, a region that is frequently deleted in multiple tumor types. To clone candidate tumor suppressor genes from the deleted region on 9p21-22, we have constructed a long-range physical map of 2.8 megabases for 9p21 by using overlapping yeast artificial chromosome and cosmid clones. This map includes the ...

Olopade, O. I.; Pomykala, H. M.; Hagos, F.; Sveen, L. W.; Espinosa, R.; Dreyling, M. H.; Gursky, S.; Stadler, W. M.; Le Beau, M. M.; Bohlander, S. K.

1995-01-01

367

18F-DOPA-PET in Finding Tumors in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Gliomas Undergoing Radiation Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

2014-12-17

368

New Variations in the Promoter Regions of Human DOCK4 and RAP1A Genes, and Coding Regions of RAP1A in Sporadic Breast Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in developed countries. The prevalence of the disease is increasing in the world. Its annual incidence among Iranian women is about 7000 cases. RAP1A, a tumor suppressor gene, is located at 1p13.3 and plays an important role in the cellular adhesion pathway and is involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. The DOCK4 gene, which is located at 7q31.1, specifically activates RAP1A gene. In the present study, DNA samples from 64 cases of sporadic breast tumors (referred to Mehrad Hospital in Tehran) were screened using PCR-SSCP method and the number of observed variations compared with the control group (100 normal women). Mutation detection for coding exons of RAP1A gene and the 500 bp upstream of transcription initiation site as promoters of both DOCK4 and RAP1A were carried out and compared with the control group. The promoter region of DOCK4 showed a heterozygous mutation with G>A transition at nucleotide ?303 in a fibroadenoma case. With regard to RAP1A we found a heterozygous mutation, G>A transition in an adenoid cystic carcinoma case, and another heterozygous mutation, G>T transversion in an intraductal papilloma case both at nucleotide +45. A homozygous variation, T>A transversion was also found at nucleotide +29 of a fibroadenoma case. The differences in the frequency of variations mentioned above were not statistically significant. However Fisher's exact showed significant difference for T>A transversion. Although, the higher frequency of these mutations and variations may be related to the disease, a larger sample size is needed for the confirmation of our findings. PMID:23407849

Jalali, Akram; Ebrahimi, Hassan; Ohadi, Mina; Karimloo, Masood; Shemirani, Atena Irani; Mohajer, Behrokh; Khorshid, Hamid Reza Khorram

2009-01-01

369

New Variations in the Promoter Regions of Human DOCK4 and RAP1A Genes, and Coding Regions of RAP1A in Sporadic Breast Tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in developed countries. The prevalence of the disease is increasing in the world. Its annual incidence among Iranian women is about 7000 cases. RAP1A, a tumor suppressor gene, is located at 1p13.3 and plays an important role in the cellular adhesion pathway and is involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. The DOCK4 gene, which is located at 7q31.1, specifically activates RAP1A gene. In the present study, DNA samples from 64 cases of sporadic breast tumors (referred to Mehrad Hospital in Tehran) were screened using PCR-SSCP method and the number of observed variations compared with the control group (100 normal women). Mutation detection for coding exons of RAP1A gene and the 500 bp upstream of transcription initiation site as promoters of both DOCK4 and RAP1A were carried out and compared with the control group. The promoter region of DOCK4 showed a heterozygous mutation with G>A transition at nucleotide -303 in a fibroadenoma case. With regard to RAP1A we found a heterozygous mutation, G>A transition in an adenoid cystic carcinoma case, and another heterozygous mutation, G>T transversion in an intraductal papilloma case both at nucleotide +45. A homozygous variation, T>A transversion was also found at nucleotide +29 of a fibroadenoma case. The differences in the frequency of variations mentioned above were not statistically significant. However Fisher's exact showed significant difference for T>A transversion. Although, the higher frequency of these mutations and variations may be related to the disease, a larger sample size is needed for the confirmation of our findings. PMID:23407849

Jalali, Akram; Ebrahimi, Hassan; Ohadi, Mina; Karimloo, Masood; Shemirani, Atena Irani; Mohajer, Behrokh; Khorshid, Hamid Reza Khorram

2009-07-01

370

Diagnostic study with CT and MR on the metastasis of malignant brain tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty cases of malignant brain tumors with metastasis which involved 14 malignant gliomas, 15 medulloblastomas and 11 germ cell tumors were studied on CT and MRI. In malignant glioma, transventricular metastasis was seen most frequently, estimating 8 cases (57%) of 14 malignant gliomas with metastasis and showing ependymal-subependymal enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT (CECT). Most of the medulloblastoma with metastasis demonstrated diffuse subarachnoid seeding in the craniospinal space and on image analysis diffuse sulcal-cisternal enhancement was characterized. Trans-ventricular metastasis in medulloblastoma was less than in malignant glioma showing 3 cases (20%) of 15 medulloblastomas, which in most cases showed a nodular tumor in the ventricular wall by metastasis. There were six patients who, on the first admission, were found to have germ cell tumors of the broad infiltrating type with multiple lesions. The tumor sites of metastasis were different from those with malignant gliomas, being frequently localized in the pineal and/or the suprasellar region, on the ventricular wall and in the basal ganglia. Metastasis to a remote area in germ cell tumors was to spinal cords, to the ventricular wall and basal cistern around the brain stem by CSF dissemination, to the lung by hematogenous metastasis and to the peritoneal wall or organs through V-P shunt tube. T1-weighted Gd-DTPA MRI was more useful and sensitive than CECT for diagnosis of the leptomeningealn CECT for diagnosis of the leptomeningeal metastasis, particularly for sulcal-cisternal and spinal metastasis. It will be used more often as the first choice for diagnosis of intrathecal metastasis in the future. (author)

371

Seasonal postembryonic maturation of the diurnal rhythm of serotonin in the chicken pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously, we have demonstrated the postembryonic development of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus L.) pineal gland functions expressed as changes in melatonin (MEL) biosynthesis. Pineal concentrations of MEL and its precursor serotonin (5-HT) were shown to increase between the 2nd and 16th day of life. We also found that levels of the mRNAs encoding the enzymes participating in the final two steps of MEL biosynthesis from 5-HT: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), as well as their enzymatic activities, were raised during postembryonic development. Moreover, the manner of these changes was season-of-hatch dependent, even in animals kept under constant laboratory conditions (L:D 12:12). The most pronounced changes were seen in the concentrations of 5-HT and MEL, as well as in Aanat mRNA level and its enzymatic activity. The high daily variability in 5-HT content suggested that season- and age-dependent changes in the activity of the chicken pineal gland might rely on the availability of 5-HT, i.e. it may be limited by changes in pineal tryptophan (TRP) and/or 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) levels as well as by the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC): two enzymes participating in the conversion of TRP to 5-HT. The present study was undertaken with the following objectives: (1) to examine whether the pineal concentration of the 5-HT precursors TRP and 5-HTP exhibit age- and season-related changes; (2) to look for season-related differences in the transcription of the Tph1 and Ddc genes encoding enzymes TPH and AADC; (3) to identify the step(s) in postembryonic development in which these season-related variations in pineal gland function are most pronounced. Male Hy-line chickens hatched in the summer or winter, from eggs laid by hens held in L:D 16:8 conditions were kept from the day of hatch in L:D 12:12 conditions. At the age of 2 or 9 days, animals were sacrificed every 2 or 4?h over a 24-h period and their pineal glands were isolated under dim red light and processed for the measurement of (i) the pineal content of TRP, 5-HTP and 5-HT, and (ii) the level of Tph1 and Ddc mRNAs. Circadian rhythmicity of all the measured parameters was evaluated by the cosinor method. The pineal levels of TRP and 5-HT as well as the Tph1 and Ddc transcripts changed during postembryonic development in a season-related way. Whereas, the 5-HTP concentration did not vary between animals from both age groups, regardless of the season. Circadian rhythmicity of all the measured parameters was dependent on both the age and the season of hatch, and was greatest in older animals in the summer. These findings indicated that the efficiency of season-related MEL biosynthesis, reported previously, is limited by 5-HT availability and this limitation depends on the transcription of both the Tph1 and Ddc genes. Moreover, Ddc mRNA level in 9-d-old birds changed rhythmically, even though this gene is generally considered to be arrhythmic. PMID:25222180

Piesiewicz, Aneta; Kedzierska, Urszula; Turkowska, Elzbieta; Adamska, Iwona; Majewski, Pawel M

2015-02-01

372

Quantifying regional hypoxia in human tumors with positron emission tomography of [18F]fluoromisonidazole: a pretherapy study of 37 patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess pretreatment hypoxia in a variety of tumors using positron emission tomography (PET) after injection of the hypoxia-binding radiopharmaceutical [18F]fluoromisonidazole ([18F]FMISO). Methods and Materials: Tumor fractional hypoxic volume (FHV) was determined in 21 nonsmall cell lung cancer patients, 7 head and neck cancer patients, 4 prostate cancer patients, and 5 patients with other malignancies by quantitative PET imaging after injection of [18F]FMISO (0.1 mCi/kg). The FHV was defined as the proportion of pixels in the imaged tumor volume with a tissue:blood [18F] activity ratio ? 1.4 at 120-160 min postinjection. A FHV gr 0 was taken as evidence for tumor hypoxia. Results: Hypoxia was observed in 36 of 37 tumors studied with FMISO PET imaging; FHVs ranged from 0 to 94.7%. In nonsmall cell lung cancers (n = 21), the median FHV was 47.6% and the range, 1.3 to 94.7%. There was no correlation between tumor size and FHV. In the seven head and neck carcinomas, the median FHV was 8.8%, with a range from 0.2 to 18.9%. In the group of four prostate cancers, the median and range were 18.2% and 0 to 93.9%, while in a group of five tumors of different types the median FHV was 55.2% (range: 21.4 to 85.8%). Conclusions: Hypoxia was present in 97% of the tumors studied and the extent of hypoxia varied markedly between tumors in the same site or of the same histology. Hypoxia also was distributed heterogeneously betwlso was distributed heterogeneously between regions within a single tumor. These results are consistent with O2 electrode measures with other types of human tumors. The intra- and intertumor variability indicate the importance of making oxygenation measures in individual tumors and the necessity to sample as much of the tumor volume as possible

373

Increased delta aminolevulinic acid and decreased pineal melatonin production. A common event in acute porphyria studies in the rat.  

OpenAIRE

Tryptophan (TRP) is the precursor of melatonin, the primary secretory product of the pineal gland. Hepatic heme deficiency decreases the activity of liver tryptophan pyrrolase, leading to increased plasma TRP and serotonin. As a paradox, patients with attacks of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), exhibit low nocturnal plasma melatonin levels. This study using a rat experimental model was designed to produce a pattern of TRP and melatonin production similar to that in AIP patients. Pineal mel...

Puy, H.; Deybach, J. C.; Bogdan, A.; Callebert, J.; Baumgartner, M.; Voisin, P.; Nordmann, Y.; Touitou, Y.

1996-01-01

374

The pineal gland of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.):a survey of seasonal melatonin production and gland ultrastructure  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland is part of the endocrine system involved with rhythmic activity in e.g. fish. The main product of the pineal gland is the indole hormone melatonin, synthesised from the amino acid tryptophan. Melatonin is mainly synthesized when it is dark, as light inhibit the production. For this reason melatonin is thought to be strongly involved in biological rhythms. Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a circumpolar species and anadromous in parts of its distribution area. Arctic charr ...

Musæus, Fredrikke Johansen

2009-01-01

375

Benign symptomatic glial cysts of the pineal gland: a report of seven cases and review of the literature.  

OpenAIRE

Seven cases of clinically symptomatic benign glial cyst of the pineal gland are reported. The cysts' size ranged from 1.0-4.5 cm in diameter. They were characterised by a golden or, less frequently, brown-reddish proteinaceous or haemorrhagic fluid content. The cyst wall, up to 2 mm thick, consisted of clusters of normal pineal parenchymal cells, often compressed and distorted, surrounded by reactive gliotic tissue which sometimes contained Rosenthal fibres. The presenting clinical features i...

Klein, P.; Rubinstein, L. J.

1989-01-01

376

The pineal gland of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.): a survey of seasonal melatonin production and gland ultrastructure  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland is part of the endocrine system involved with rhythmic activity in e.g. fish. The main product of the pineal gland is the indole hormone melatonin, synthesised from the amino acid tryptophan. Melatonin is mainly synthesized when it is dark, as light inhibit the production. For this reason melatonin is thought to be strongly involved in biological rhythms. Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a circumpolar species and anadromous in parts of its distribution area. Arctic charr ...

Musæus, Fredrikke Johansen

2009-01-01

377

Characterization of lymphocyte subsets over a 24-hour period in Pineal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (PALT) in the chicken  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Homeostatic trafficking of lymphocytes in the brain has important relevance to the understanding of CNS disease processes. The pineal gland of the chicken contains large accumulations of lymphocytes that suggest an important role related to homeostatic circadian neuro-immune interactions. The purpose of this initial study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in the pineal gland and quantitate the distribution and frequency of lymphocyte phenotypes at two time points ...

McNulty John A; Mosenson Jeffrey A

2006-01-01

378

Rat pineal alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes: studies using radioligand binding and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis.  

OpenAIRE

1. The pharmacological characteristics of alpha 1-adrenoceptor binding sites in rat pineal gland membranes, detected by use of a selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist ([125I]-iodo-2-[beta-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethylaminomethyl]tetralone, [125I]-HEAT), were investigated with the alkylating agent, chloroethylclonidine (CEC), and in competition experiments with a number of adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists. 2. Chloroethylclonidine (CEC) treatment (10 microM, 10 min) of rat pineal membranes i...

Sugden, D.; Anwar, N.; Klein, D. C.

1996-01-01

379

Clinical usefulness of color Doppler imaging in the management of the neck region vessels in patients with intraocular tumors - preliminary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the study was to assess the clinical usefulness of color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) examinations of the neck vessels in patients with intraocular tumors as well as to establish whether the changes in these vessels had an influence on further ophthalmologic procedures. Clinical ophthalmological examinations such as visual acuity, anterior segment and ocular fundus, as well as color Doppler ultrasonography of the bulbar and neck region vessels were performed on 38 patients, aged 44-70 years with eyeball tumors. Localization, size, vascularization of the intrabulbar tumors and big vessels of the neck region were analyzed. In 28 patients, choroidal melanoma was identified, and the vascularity of tumor mass was monitored in 10 patients after brachytherapy. Compression or infiltration of jugular veins or carotid artery were not observed. Severe internal carotid artery stenosis due to arteriosclerosis was detected in 5 patients, but no one was suggested to be operated on first in Vascular Surgery Department. Color Doppler ultrasonography should be the first choice technique in the neck vessels and intrabulbar tumors imaging. Visualization of the mass lesions vascularity and the evaluation of amplitude of blood flow velocity allows to monitor the effectiveness of their therapy. It was found that this technique is useful in deciding upon the method of treatment in patients should be the first choice technique in the neck vessels and intrabulbar tumors imagingeck vessels and intrabulbar tumors imaging. Visualization of the mass lesions vascularity and the evaluation of amplitude of blood flow velocity allows to monitor the effectiveness of their therapy. It was found that this technique is useful in deciding upon the method of treatment in patients with coexisting arteriosclerosis. (author)

380

Tumor hypoxia at the micro-regional level: clinical relevance and predictive value of exogenous and endogenous hypoxic cell markers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: Tumor oxygenation is recognized as an important determinant of the outcome of radiotherapy and possibly also of other treatment modalities in a number of tumor types and in particular in squamous cell carcinomas. The hypoxic status of various solid tumors has been related to a poor prognosis due to tumor progression towards a more malignant phenotype, with increased metastatic potential, and an increased resistance to treatment. It has been demonstrated in head and neck cancer that hypoxic radioresistance can be successfully counteracted by hypoxia modifying approaches. The microregional distribution and the level of tumor hypoxia depend on oxygen consumption and temporal and spatial variations in blood supply. It is unclear if severely hypoxic cells can resume clonogenicity when O2 and nutrients become available again as a result of (treatment related) changes in the tumor microenvironment. Non-terminally differentiated hypoxic cells that are capable of proliferation are important for outcome because of their resistance to radiotherapy and possibly other cytotoxic treatments. Various exogenous and endogenous markers for hypoxia are currently available and can be studied in relation to each other, the tumor architecture and the tumor microenvironment. Use of nitroimidazole markers with immunohistochemical detection allows studying tumor cell hypoxia at the microscopic level. Co-registration with other microenvironmental parameters, sith other microenvironmental parameters, such as vascular architecture (vascular density), blood perfusion, tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis, offers the possibility to obtain a comprehensive functional image of tumor patho-physiology and to study the effects of different modalities of cancer treatment. Conclusion: A number of functional microregional parameters have emerged that are good candidates for future use as indicators of tumor aggressiveness and treatment response. The key question is whether these parameters can be used as tools for selection of treatment strategies for individual patients. This requires testing of these markers in prospective randomized clinical trials comparing standard treatment against experimental treatments targeting the relevant microregional constituent

381

Photic entrainment of circannual rhythms in golden-mantled ground squirrels: role of the pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Entrainment of circannual rhythms of body mass and reproduction was monitored for 3 years in female golden-mantled ground squirrels maintained in a simulated natural photoperiod. Both pinealectomized and pineal-intact squirrels generated circannual rhythms of body mass and estrus, but only the intact animals entrained these rhythms to a period of 365 days. In the second and third years after treatment, the period of the body mass rhythm was significantly shorter than 365 days for pinealectomized squirrels, and variance in tau among these animals was significantly greater than for intact squirrels. A similar pattern was evident in the rhythm of reproduction, which was phase-disrupted in pinealectomized squirrels but entrained in intacts. Seasonal changes in duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion by the pineal appear to be necessary to produce phase-delays required to entrain the circannual clock to a period of 12 months. PMID:10762031

Hiebert, S M; Thomas, E M; Lee, T M; Pelz, K M; Yellon, S M; Zucker, I

2000-04-01

382

Effect of low dose radiation on pineal gland in regulation of serum testosterone level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: The effect of low dose radiation (LDR) on pineal gland in regulative function of testosterone (TS) in mice was determined in the study. Methods: The distribution of TS in the serum was analyzed by radioimmunoassay after WBI with 75 mGy X-rays. Results: Since 4 h after WBI the TS levels of serum in mice increased up to its highest peak at 8 h (P < 0.001), then returned to the sham-irradiation levels 12 h late, however, increased again after 24 h (P < 0.05), resulted in two peaks. Conclusion: The results indicated that whole-body low dose radiation might stimulate the regulative function of pineal gland and sex gland, increasing the level of TS

383

KDM4A lysine demethylase induces site-specific copy gain and rereplication of regions amplified in tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acquired chromosomal instability and copy number alterations are hallmarks of cancer. Enzymes capable of promoting site-specific copy number changes have yet to be identified. Here, we demonstrate that H3K9/36me3 lysine demethylase KDM4A/JMJD2A overexpression leads to localized copy gain of 1q12, 1q21, and Xq13.1 without global chromosome instability. KDM4A-amplified tumors have increased copy gains for these same regions. 1q12h copy gain occurs within a single cell cycle, requires S phase, and is not stable but is regenerated each cell division. Sites with increased copy number are rereplicated and have increased KDM4A, MCM, and DNA polymerase occupancy. Suv39h1/KMT1A or HP1? overexpression suppresses the copy gain, whereas H3K9/K36 methylation interference promotes gain. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of a chromatin modifier results in site-specific copy gains. This begins to establish how copy number changes could originate during tumorigenesis and demonstrates that transient overexpression of specific chromatin modulators could promote these events. PMID:23871696

Black, Joshua C; Manning, Amity L; Van Rechem, Capucine; Kim, Jaegil; Ladd, Brendon; Cho, Juok; Pineda, Cristiana M; Murphy, Nancy; Daniels, Danette L; Montagna, Cristina; Lewis, Peter W; Glass, Kimberly; Allis, C David; Dyson, Nicholas J; Getz, Gad; Whetstine, Johnathan R

2013-08-01

384

Küttner's tumor of the sub-mandibular gland associated with fibrosclerosis and follicular hyperplasia of regional lymph nodes: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Küttner's tumor is characterized through histology by peri-ductal fibrosis, dense lymphocytic infiltration with lymphoid follicles, loss of acini, and occasional marked sclerosis of the salivary gland. On occasion, Küttner's tumor can be difficult to distinguish from malignant neoplasm. Case presentation A 58-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital with a three-month history of a painless swollen mass in the right sub-mandibular region. Histological findings revealed both lymphoid follicles with reactive germinal centers and variously sized lymphoid follicle-like nodules without definitive germinal centers or mantle zones. B-cells of similar size and shape occupied the lymphoid follicle-like nodules and stained positive for B-cell lymphoma. These cells were detected in the polyclonal B-cells by flow cytometric analysis and tested negative for CD10. Unusual B-cell proliferation was observed, but as there was no definitive evidence of B-cell lymphoma, the lesion was diagnosed as Küttner's tumor. Conclusion We report on a rare case of Küttner's tumor associated with fibrosclerosis and atypical lymphoid hyperplasia in both the sub-mandibular gland and regional lymph nodes. Although more cases need to be investigated, our findings might be helpful to further studies seeking to clarify the etiology of idiopathic sclerosing lesions arising in the organs and regional lymph nodes.

Shimamoto Hiroaki

2011-03-01

385

Circadian genomics of the chick pineal gland in vitro  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Chick pinealocytes exhibit all the characteristics of a complete circadian system, comprising photoreceptive inputs, molecular clockworks and an easily measured rhythmic output, melatonin biosynthesis. These properties make the in vitro pineal a particularly useful model for exploring circadian control of gene transcription in a pacemaker tissue, as well as regulation of the transcriptome by primary inputs to the clock (both photic and noradrenergic). Results We used micro...

Thomas Terry L; Bailey Michael J; Beremand Phillip D; Kumar Vinod; Karaganis Stephen P; Cassone Vincent M

2008-01-01

386

Skeletal muscle in the pineal gland of the bat, Rhinopoma microphyllum: an ultrastructural investigation.  

OpenAIRE

The unusual occurrence of skeletal muscle in the pineal gland of the bat Rhinopoma microphyllum is described. Individual muscle fibres were centrally placed and were incompletely encapsulated by a labyrinthine network of widened spaces filled with electron-dense material. The 2.4 micron long sarcomeres consisted of well developed A, I, H, M, and Z bands. A few myofibrils were oriented transversely within the same fibre. T system components, mitochondria and glycogen appeared normally distribu...

Bhatnagar, K. P.

1994-01-01

387

Diurnal variation of the adenylyl cyclase type 1 in the rat pineal gland.  

OpenAIRE

Nocturnal melatonin production in the pineal gland is under the control of norepinephrine released from superior cervical ganglia afferents in a rhythmic manner, and of cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP increases the expression of serotonin N-acetyltransferase and of inducible cAMP early repressor that undergo circadian oscillations crucial for the maintenance and regulation of the biological clock. In the present study, we demonstrate a circadian pattern of expression of the calcium/calmodulin activate...

Tzavara, E. T.; Pouille, Y.; Defer, N.; Hanoune, J.

1996-01-01

388

Postnatal maturation of the parenchymal cell types in the rabbit pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

An ultrastructural study on the maturation of the parenchymal rabbit pineal cell types from the first postnatal day up to 120 days is presented. Two main cell types are distinguished from the first 24h of postnatal life. Pinealocytes of the types 1 and 11 display different developmental degrees. Both immature cell types are arranged in groups. In addition, type 11 pinealocytes form rosette-like structures. Both cell types progressively become isolated and displ...

Garci?a-maurin?o, J. E.; Boya, J.

1992-01-01

389

Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical characterization of interstitial cells in pre- and postnatal developing sheep pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

Pineal gland interstitial cells from 32 sheep embryos (from day 54 of gestation until birth ) and 18 sheep (from 1 month to >2 years) were analysed using ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. From day 98 of gestation and throughout postnatal development, a second cell type was observed in addition to pinealocytes; these cells displayed uniform ultrastructural features similar to those of CNS astrocytes. Ultrastructural homogeneity was not matched by the results of histochemical ...

Regodo?n, S.; Aj, Masot; Franco, A.; Redondo, E.

2009-01-01

390

Transducin Duplicates in the Zebrafish Retina and Pineal Complex: Differential Specialisation after the Teleost Tetraploidisation  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene duplications provide raw materials that can be selected for functional adaptations by evolutionary mechanisms. We describe here the results of 350 million years of evolution of three functionally related gene families: the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of transducins, the G protein involved in vision. Early vertebrate tetraploidisations resulted in separate transducin heterotrimers: gnat1/gnb1/gngt1 for rods, and gnat2/gnb3/gngt2 for cones. The teleost-specific tetraploidisation generated additional duplicates for gnb1, gnb3 and gngt2. We report here that the duplicates have undergone several types of subfunctionalisation or neofunctionalisation in the zebrafish. We have found that gnb1a and gnb1b are co-expressed at different levels in rods; gnb3a and gnb3b have undergone compartmentalisation restricting gnb3b to the dorsal and medial retina, however, gnb3a expression was detected only at very low levels in both larvae and adult retina; gngt2b expression is restricted to the dorsal and medial retina, whereas gngt2a is expressed ventrally. This dorsoventral distinction could be an adaptation to protect the lower part of the retina from intense light damage. The ontogenetic analysis shows earlier onset of expression in the pineal complex than in the retina, in accordance with its earlier maturation. Additionally, gnb1a but not gnb1b is expressed in the pineal complex, and gnb3b and gngt2b are transiently expressed in the pineal during ontogeny, thus showing partial temporal subfunctionalisation. These retina-pineal distinctions presumably reflect their distinct functional roles in vision and circadian rhythmicity. In summary, this study describes several functional differences between transducin gene duplicates resulting from the teleost-specific tetraploidisation. PMID:25806532

Lagman, David; Callado-Pérez, Amalia; Franzén, Ilkin E.

2015-01-01

391

Discovery of Transcription Factors and Regulatory Regions Driving In Vivo Tumor Development by ATAC-seq and FAIRE-seq Open Chromatin Profiling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genomic enhancers regulate spatio-temporal gene expression by recruiting specific combinations of transcription factors (TFs). When TFs are bound to active regulatory regions, they displace canonical nucleosomes, making these regions biochemically detectable as nucleosome-depleted regions or accessible/open chromatin. Here we ask whether open chromatin profiling can be used to identify the entire repertoire of active promoters and enhancers underlying tissue-specific gene expression during normal development and oncogenesis in vivo. To this end, we first compare two different approaches to detect open chromatin in vivo using the Drosophila eye primordium as a model system: FAIRE-seq, based on physical separation of open versus closed chromatin; and ATAC-seq, based on preferential integration of a transposon into open chromatin. We find that both methods reproducibly capture the tissue-specific chromatin activity of regulatory regions, including promoters, enhancers, and insulators. Using both techniques, we screened for regulatory regions that become ectopically active during Ras-dependent oncogenesis, and identified 3778 regions that become (over-)activated during tumor development. Next, we applied motif discovery to search for candidate transcription factors that could bind these regions and identified AP-1 and Stat92E as key regulators. We validated the importance of Stat92E in the development of the tumors by introducing a loss of function Stat92E mutant, which was sufficient to rescue the tumor phenotype. Additionally we tested if the predicted Stat92E responsive regulatory regions are genuine, using ectopic induction of JAK/STAT signaling in developing eye discs, and observed that similar chromatin changes indeed occurred. Finally, we determine that these are functionally significant regulatory changes, as nearby target genes are up- or down-regulated. In conclusion, we show that FAIRE-seq and ATAC-seq based open chromatin profiling, combined with motif discovery, is a straightforward approach to identify functional genomic regulatory regions, master regulators, and gene regulatory networks controlling complex in vivo processes. PMID:25679813

Davie, Kristofer; Jacobs, Jelle; Atkins, Mardelle; Potier, Delphine; Christiaens, Valerie; Halder, Georg; Aerts, Stein

2015-02-01

392

Neuronal regulation of photo-induced pineal photoreceptor proteins in carp Catla catla.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present in vitro study on the pineal in carp Catla catla, specific agonist and antagonists of receptors for different neuronal signals and regulators of intra-cellular Ca(++) and cAMP were used to gather basic information on the neuronal signal transduction cascade mechanisms in the photo-induced expression of rod-like opsin and alpha-transducin-like proteins in any fish pineal. Western-blot analysis followed by quantitative analysis of respective immunoblot data for both the proteins revealed that photo-induced expression of each protein was stimulated by cholinergic (both nicotinic and muscarinic) agonists and a dopaminergic antagonist, inhibited by both cholinergic antagonists and a dopaminergic agonist, but not affected by any agonists or antagonists of adrenergic (alpha(1), alpha(2) and beta(1)) receptors. Moreover, expression of each protein was stimulated by voltage gated L type calcium channel blocker, adenylate cyclase inhibitor and phosphodiesterase activator; but suppressed by the activators of both calcium channel and adenylate cyclase, and by phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Collectively, we report for the first time that both cholinergic and dopaminergic signals play an important, though antagonistic, role in the photo-induced expression of photoreceptor proteins in the fish pineal through activation of a signal transduction pathway in which both calcium and cAMP may act as the intracellular messengers. PMID:20524962

Seth, Mohua; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

2010-08-01

393

Daily Aa-nat gene expression in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is the rhythm-generating enzyme for the synthesis of pineal melatonin. Molecular investigations have revealed two biological models for the activation of AA-NAT. In rodent species, Aa-nat gene transcription is turned off during the daytime and markedly activated at night. In primates, sheep, and cows, the Aa-nat gene is constitutively transcripted with no visible daily variations. This inter-species difference in Aa-nat gene regulation leads to different daily profiles in melatonin synthesis and release. Thus, the nighttime onset of the rise in circulating melatonin is delayed and slow in rodents, whereas it is fast and sharp in sheep. In the camel (Camelus dromedarius), we have observed that circulating melatonin rises immediately after sunset, suggesting AA-NAT activity is regulated at the post-transcriptional level. In agreement with this hypothesis, we report herein the amount of Aa-nat mRNA in the camel pineal gland is high, during both the day and night with no daily variations, while melatonin concentration in the same pineal tissue is five times higher during the night than daytime. PMID:18780205

El Allali, Khalid; Sinitskaya, Natalia; Bothorel, Béatrice; Achaaban, Rachid; Pévet, Paul; Simonneaux, Valérie

2008-09-01

394

Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences designated to be on the Z_random, while one matched a W chromosome sequence and could be useful in cataloguing functionally important genes on this sex chromosome. Additionally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified and validated in 10 ESTs that showed 98% or higher sequence similarity to known chicken genes. Here, we have described resources that may be useful in comparative and functional genomic analysis of genes expressed in an important organ, the pineal gland, in a model and agriculturally important organism.

Ed Smith

2006-04-01

395

Complementation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing aux mutants by genes from the TR-region of the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we provide information indicating that the agropine-type root-inducing (Ri) plasmid pRi1855 of Agrobacterium rhizogenes contains functional genes for auxin production (aux) in the right transferred DNA (T-DNA) region (TR-region). These genes were cloned and introduced into the T-region of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids of mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying an aux mutation. Depending on the Ri aux gene present, the oncogenicity of the Ti aux-1 and/or aux-2 mutations ...

Offringa, I. A.; Melchers, L. S.; Regensburg-tuink, A. J. G.; Costantino, P.; Schilperoort, R. A.; Hooykaas, P. J. J.

1986-01-01

396

Synthesis and evaluation of 11C-amino acids for pancreatic imaging, tumor localization, and regional amino acid transport measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to synthesize (1-11C)-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, DL-valine-1-11C and related compounds, to evaluate these compounds and optical isomers as potential tumor or pancreatic scanning agents, and for measurement of tumor and other organ amino acid transport rates

397

Fluorine-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography for oral cancers: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of malignant tumors and normal structures in oral and maxillofacial regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to demonstrate the features of fluorine-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography ((18)F-BPA-PET) to reveal oral cancer, as well as normal structures in the oral and maxillofacial regions. We analyzed (18)F-BPA-PET findings from 8 patients with histologically confirmed recurrent and/or advanced oral cancer scheduled for boron neutron capture therapy. The capacity of (18)F-BPA-PET to delineate tumor and normal structures was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Tumors were easily identified as high uptake areas in all cases. Although the eyes, which were depicted as a low uptake area, and tongue musculature were readily identified, major vessels were not noted in any of the cases. Areas corresponding to the surface of the dorsum tongue to middle pharynx were expressed as high uptake areas in all of the cases. Quantitatively, tumors were expressed as the highest uptake area in 6 of the 8 cases, while the dorsum tongue had the highest uptake area in the remaining 2 cases. (18)F-BPA-PET is useful in demonstrating the presence of a tumor. Thus, it is crucial to note the presence of a high uptake area corresponding to the dorsum area of the tongue when diagnosing a tumor using this technique. PMID:22866098

Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Shimahara, Masashi; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Ito, Yuichi; Shimahara, Takeshi; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kawabata, Shinji

2011-05-01

398

Value of regional cerebral perfusion SPECT with N-isopropyl-(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in brain tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate early dynamics and late changes of IMP distribution in brain tumors and surrounding tissues, we performed serial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); eight 2-min scans (dynamic scan) immediately after IMP administration and two 30-min scans at 20 min (early scan) and 5 hr (late scan) after injection. We also measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 4 cases using positron emission tomography and 0 - 15 labeled carbon dioxide or water, and compared the distribution of IMP with CBF. Seven tumors out of 24 studies showed increased accumulation of IMP on the dynamic scan, indicating high blood flow, but the activity decreased rapidly in the tumor and all tumors showed decreased uptake on the late scan. The initial distribution of IMP in the tumor showed similar pattern as CBF measured by PET. In the early scan, decreased accumulation was observed in the more extended area than tumors visualized by XCT, probably including the area of perifocal edema. On the late scan, redistribution of the tracer was observed in the area of edema. In one case with right thalamic glioma, decreased uptake of the tracer was shown in the cortex of right cerebral hemisphere on the early scan, indicating transneuronal suppression, but no laterality was found on the late scan. There was no redistribution of the tracer in the tumor. In summary, only the initial distribution of IMP can show the blood flow in brain tumors, and routine SPECT with rotating gamma camera availableSPECT with rotating gamma camera available in most institutions may fail to detect it. Late scan may be useful for delineating the tumor extention. (author)

399

Day-night differences in the number of pineal "synaptic" ribbons in two diurnal rodents, the chipmunk (Tamias striatus) and the ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonii).  

Science.gov (United States)

Daytime numbers of pineal "synaptic" ribbons higher than reported in the pineal gland of any other mammalian species were observed in two diurnal rodents, the eastern chipmunk and Richardson's ground squirrel. The number of "synaptic" ribbons was lower during the daytime and higher at night in both of these species. PMID:6889463

Karasek, M; King, T S; Richardson, B A; Hurlbut, E C; Hansen, J T; Reiter, R J

1982-01-01

400

Alpha-2 adrenergic activity of bromocriptine and quinpirole in chicken pineal gland. Effects on melatonin synthesis and [3H]rauwolscine binding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the pineal gland and retina of chickens, serotonin N-acetyl-transferase (NAT) activity and melatonin content are modulated by different receptors, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland and D2-dopamine receptors in retina. The effect of two D2-dopamine receptor agonists, bromocriptine and quinpirole (LY 171555), on melatonin synthesis in these tissues was investigated. Systemic administrations of bromocriptine and quinpirole decreased nocturnal NAT activity and melatonin content of both pineal gland and retina. Bromocriptine was equipotent in the two tissues, whereas quinpirole was approximately 100-fold more potent in retina than in pineal gland. In pineal gland, the suppressive effects of bromocriptine and quinpirole on NAT activity were blocked by yohimbine, a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, but not by spiperone, a D2-dopamine receptor antagonist. In contrast, bromocriptine- and quinpirole-induced decreases of the enzyme activity in retina were antagonized by spiperone, and not affected by yohimbine. The nocturnal increase of NAT activity of pineal glands in vitro was inhibited with an order of potency clonidine greater than bromocriptine greater than quinpirole. Additionally, bromocriptine and quinpirole displaced the specific binding of [3H]rauwolscine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, to membranes from chicken pineal gland, with potencies comparable to those observed for inhibition of NAT activity in vitro. It is suggested th NAT activity in vitro. It is suggested that bromocriptine and quinpirole, in addition to their D2-dopaminergic activity, can stimulate alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland of chicken

401

Alpha-2 adrenergic activity of bromocriptine and quinpirole in chicken pineal gland. Effects on melatonin synthesis and ( sup 3 H)rauwolscine binding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the pineal gland and retina of chickens, serotonin N-acetyl-transferase (NAT) activity and melatonin content are modulated by different receptors, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland and D2-dopamine receptors in retina. The effect of two D2-dopamine receptor agonists, bromocriptine and quinpirole (LY 171555), on melatonin synthesis in these tissues was investigated. Systemic administrations of bromocriptine and quinpirole decreased nocturnal NAT activity and melatonin content of both pineal gland and retina. Bromocriptine was equipotent in the two tissues, whereas quinpirole was approximately 100-fold more potent in retina than in pineal gland. In pineal gland, the suppressive effects of bromocriptine and quinpirole on NAT activity were blocked by yohimbine, a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, but not by spiperone, a D2-dopamine receptor antagonist. In contrast, bromocriptine- and quinpirole-induced decreases of the enzyme activity in retina were antagonized by spiperone, and not affected by yohimbine. The nocturnal increase of NAT activity of pineal glands in vitro was inhibited with an order of potency clonidine greater than bromocriptine greater than quinpirole. Additionally, bromocriptine and quinpirole displaced the specific binding of (3H)rauwolscine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, to membranes from chicken pineal gland, with potencies comparable to those observed for inhibition of NAT activity in vitro. It is suggested that bromocriptine and quinpirole, in addition to their D2-dopaminergic activity, can stimulate alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland of chicken.

Zawilska, J.; Iuvone, P.M. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1990-12-01

402

Fluorine-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography for oral cancers: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of malignant tumors and normal structures in oral and maxillofacial regions  

OpenAIRE

The present study aimed to demonstrate the features of fluorine-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography (18F-BPA-PET) to reveal oral cancer, as well as normal structures in the oral and maxillofacial regions. We analyzed 18F-BPA-PET findings from 8 patients with histologically confirmed recurrent and/or advanced oral cancer scheduled for boron neutron capture therapy. The capacity of 18F-BPA-PET to delineate tumor and normal structures was assessed qualitatively and quanti...

Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Shimahara, Masashi; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Ito, Yuichi; Shimahara, Takeshi; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Kawabata, Shinji

2011-01-01

403

Construction of a 2.8-megabase yeast artificial chromosome contig and cloning of the human methylthioadenosine phosphorylase gene from the tumor suppressor region on 9p21  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many human malignant cells lack methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) enzyme activity. The gene (MTAP) encoding this enzyme was previously mapped to the short arm of chromosome 9, band p21-22, a region that is frequently deleted in multiple tumor types. To clone candidate tumor suppressor genes from the deleted region on 9p21-22, we have constructed a long-range physical map of 2.8 megabases for 9p21 by using overlapping yeast artificial chromosome and cosmid clones. This map includes the type I IFN gene cluster, the recently identified candidate tumor suppressor genes CDKN2 (p16{sup INK4A}) and CDKN2B (p15{sup INK4B}), and several CpG islands. In addition, we have identified other transcription units within the yeast artificial chromosome contig. Sequence analysis of a 2.5-kb cDNA clone isolated from a CpG island that maps between the IFN genes and CDKN2 reveals a predicted open reading frame of 283 amino acids followed by 1302 nucleotides of 3{prime} untranslated sequence. This gene is evolutionarily conserved and shows significant amino acid homologies to mouse and human purine nucleoside phosphorylases and to a hypothetical 25.8-kDa protein in the pet gene (coding for cytochrome bc{sub 1} complex) region of Rhodospirillum rubrum. The location, expression pattern, and nucleotide sequences of this gene suggest that it codes for the MTAP enzyme. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Olopade, O.I.; Pomykala, H.M.; Hagos, F. [Univ. of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, IL (United States)] [and others

1995-07-03