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Sample records for pineal region tumors

  1. Papillary tumor of the pineal region

    OpenAIRE

    Vandergriff, Clayton; Opatowsky, Michael; O Rourke, Brian; Layton, Kennith

    2012-01-01

    Presented is a patient with papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR), an uncommon and recently recognized neoplasm. As its name implies, PTPR does not arise from the pineal gland itself. The cell of origin is thought to be the specialized ependymocytes of the subcommissural organ. Primary tumors of the pineal region include pineal parenchymal neoplasms, germ cell neoplasms, and tumors arising from adjacent structures, including meningiomas, astrocytomas, and ependymomas. Like other masses ...

  2. Fully Endoscopic Resection of Pineal Region Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Shahinian, Hrayr; Ra, Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Surgical treatment for pineal tumors is technically challenging—weighing the risks and benefits of microsurgical resection for the patient with a pineal tumor versus settling for an endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy is sometimes difficult. Traditional microsurgical resection for pineal region tumors has typically required large open craniotomies and involvement or retraction of neural tissue with significant mortality and morbidity. With the advancement of...

  3. The challenge of pineal region tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These preceding case studies serve to emphasize various facets of pineal region tumors. The first case highlights the possible effect of such tumors on pineal physiology. A clear relationship between pineal function and diurnal rhythms is noted. While the pineal gland has been studied extensively in various mammals, basic investigation in man is somewhat lacking. However, with the development of an accurate, sensitive, and specific melatonin assay, more can be learned in the clinical setting. Application of this basic work is seen in the second case. Another aspect of clinical investigation focuses on the immunopathology of pineal tumors. Tumors of the pineal region can be ''benign'' and/or radio-insensitive. Some require surgical treatment, others do not. Lipomas may well be diagnosed radiographically and do not necessarily require surgical intervention, while meningiomas can often be surgically cured

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of pineal region tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this volume is to review the pertinent literature dealing with pineal tumors and thus aid in the handling of these rather uncommon lesions. After the first, introductory, chapter, three chapters treat the pathology and diagnosis of pineal tumors. There is also one chapter on intracranial germ cell tumors (natural history and pathogenesis) and one on the normal function of the pineal gland. With the exception of the chapter on diagnostic radiology of pineal tumors, which seems somewhat superficial, these five chapters summarize current knowledge about the nature of these complex lesions and their symptomatology very well. The next nine chapters deal with biopsy and surgery of these tumors and how to manage the patient. The first of these gives a historical review of the development of surgical techniques - from the first attempt by Horsley in 1905 to the microsurgical techniques of today. It is followed by a very important and detailed description of the microsurgical anatomy of the pineal region

  5. Fully endoscopic resection of pineal region tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinian, Hrayr; Ra, Yoon

    2013-06-01

    Background and Objective Surgical treatment for pineal tumors is technically challenging-weighing the risks and benefits of microsurgical resection for the patient with a pineal tumor versus settling for an endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy is sometimes difficult. Traditional microsurgical resection for pineal region tumors has typically required large open craniotomies and involvement or retraction of neural tissue with significant mortality and morbidity. With the advancement of high-resolution fiber optics, a fully endoscopic, supracerebellar, infratentorial approach, without any cerebellar retraction or manipulation of neural tissue, is introduced for the gross total resection of pineal region tumors. Conclusion As an endoscopic modification of the open craniotomy procedure, this technique combines the advantages and benefits of both open microsurgical resection and minimally invasive endoscopic surgeries. PMID:24436899

  6. Tumors of the pineal region: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To consider the different radiological findings that, together with age, sex, clinical picture and serum markers, indicate a presumed or even definitive diagnosis in tumors of the pineal region. We reviewed retrospectively 18 patients diagnosed as having pineal region tumors. The lesions in this series consisted of seven germinoma, three meningiomas, one pineoblastoma. two ependymomas, one teratoma, two glial cysts, and arachnoid cyst and a lipoma. All but the arachnoid cysts and the lipoma were confirmed histologically. We took into account mainly the epidemiological data, tumor markers and CT and MR features. The germinoma was the most common lesions, representing 38.8% of the tumors in our series. All developed in men (mean age: 21 years). Small non tumoral calcifications were present in pineal gland in six of these cases. This tumor usually invades adjacent structures and produces metastatic seeding in CSF. The pineoblastoma contained prominent tumor calcifications. Meningiomas were detected only in middle-aged women. In addition to the fact that the behavior of these lesions was typical of that meningiomas in other locations, meningeal enhancement in the vicinity of the extraaxial tumor aided in the diagnosis. The teratoma showed variable attenuation, ranging from a fatty substance to calcium, and elevated fetoprotein levels. The glial cyst is a cyst lesion that does not be-have exactly like the CSF, while the arachnoid cyst was isointense with respect to the CSFyst was isointense with respect to the CSF in all sequences. Enhancement was observed in the glial cysts, one peripheral and the other nodular. The assessment of age, sex, clinical picture and tumor markers, together with the features observed in CT an MR images are suggestive of the histological diagnosis of pineal region tumors. We recommend the use of CT because of its availability and its ability detect calcifications, thus indicating a specific histological type, and of MR because of its greater anatomical definition and its, ability to determine the degree of tumor extension or invasion. (Author) 19 refs

  7. Transcallosal approach to pineal tumors and the hospital for sick children series of pineal region tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct surgery on a pineal region mass can be carried out safely and is justified in that the pineal region harbors many benin tumors which would not benefit from radiotherapy. Furthermore, this region contains some highly malignant tumors that need more than just local radiotherapy. In order to discern between these various groups of tumors, histologic proof of the nature of the entire tumor is necessary. The author has found the posterior transcallosal approach to the pineal region a safe and satisfactory approach to tumors in this region and also found this approach particularly advantageous when the tumor extends upwards and forwards into the third ventricle. Direct surgery on pineal tumors can now be carried out confidently and safely and in many cases, radical if not total removal of the neoplasm can be achieved

  8. Pineal region tumors: Clinical symptoms and syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselle, C; des Portes, V; Berlier, P; Mottolese, C

    2015-01-01

    The present paper investigates the clinical picture and the different clinical signs that reveal pineal region tumors or appear during the course of the follow-up. Biological malignancy and tumor extension determine the semiology and its setting up mode. Typical endocrine signs, dominated by abnormal puberty development, are frequently a part of the clinical scene. Bifocal or ectopic localization in the hypothalamic-pituitary region is accompanied by other endocrine signs such as ante- or post-pituitary insufficiencies which occur several months or even years after the first neurological signs appear. Due to a mass syndrome and obstructive hydrocephalus, intracranial hypertension signs are frequent but unspecific. A careful ophthalmologic examination is essential to search upward gaze paralysis and other signs of the Parinaud's tetrad or pentad. Midbrain dysfunction, including extrinsic aqueduct stenosis, are also prevalent. Except for abnormal pubertal signs, hyper-melatoninemia (secretory tumors) or a-hypo-melatoninemia (tumors destructing pineal) generally remains dormant. Some patients present sleep problems such as narcolepsy or sleepiness during the daytime as well as behavioral problems. This suggests a hypothalamic extension rather than a true consequence of melatonin secretion anomalies. Similarly, some patients may present signs of a "pinealectomized" syndrome, including (cluster) headaches, tiredness, eventually responsive to melatonin. PMID:24439798

  9. Pineal region tumors: computed tomographic-pathologic spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While several computed tomographic (CT) studies of posterior third ventricular neoplasms have included descriptions of pineal tumors, few reports have concentrated on these uncommon lesions. Some authors have asserted that the CT appearance of many pineal tumors is virtually pathognomonic. A series of nine biopsy-proved pineal gland and eight other presumed tumors is presented that illustrates their remarkable heterogeneity in both histopathologic and CT appearance. These tumors included germinomas, teratocarcinomas, hamartomas, and other varieties. They had variable margination, attentuation, calcification, and suprasellar extension. Germinomas have the best response to radiation therapy. Biopsy of pineal region tumors is now feasible and is recommended for treatment planning

  10. Imagery of pineal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, G; Mottolese, C; Hermier, M; Louis-Tisserand, G; Berthezene, Y

    2015-01-01

    Pineal tumors are rare and include a large variety of entities. Germ cell tumors are relatively frequent and often secreting lesions. Pineal parenchymal tumors include pineocytomas, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, pineoblastomas and papillary tumors of the pineal region. Other lesions including astrocytomas and meningiomas as well as congenital malformations i.e. benign cysts, lipomas, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, which can also arise from the pineal region. Imagery is often non-specific but detailed analysis of the images compared with the hormone profile can narrow the spectrum of possible diagnosis. PMID:25676911

  11. MR imaging in tumors of the pineal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten patients with tumors of the pineal region underwent CT and MRI investigations. There were 3 germinomas, 3 teratomas and 1 of each of the following: Pineocytoma, PNET, ependymoma and meningioma. Not only were tumor size and growth compared to CT, but an attempt was made to obtain knowledge of the histology of the tumor by special T2 calculations. The investigations did not lead to an improvement in type specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. MR imaging in tumors of the pineal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Forell, W.; Schroth, G.; Egan, P.J.

    1988-06-01

    Ten patients with tumors of the pineal region underwent CT and MRI investigations. There were 3 germinomas, 3 teratomas and 1 of each of the following: Pineocytoma, PNET, ependymoma and meningioma. Not only were tumor size and growth compared to CT, but an attempt was made to obtain knowledge of the histology of the tumor by special T/sub 2/ calculations. The investigations did not lead to an improvement in type specific diagnosis.

  13. History of the pineal region tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottolese, C; Szathmari, A

    2015-01-01

    The pineal gland has interested humans from millenniums. In this paper we review back in the history and the evolution of the pineal gland surgery. Originally, this surgery used to carry a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Nowadays the development of the anesthetic, radiological, surgical and intensive care techniques have been responsible of an improvement of the surgical results and better quality of life. It is always interesting to know from where we come. PMID:25016433

  14. Diagnostic radiation and its prognosis of pineal region tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    20 Gy of local irradiation was performed for the patients with pineal region tumor. We evaluated the tumor volume on X-CT in the pre-radiation and 20 Gy of post-radiation state. If tumor is sensitive enough to radiation therapy, we add 40 Gy of whole brain and 30 to 40 Gy of whole spine irradiation. If not, we transfer patients to neurosurgeons for the purpose of tumor ressection. We call this procedure ''Diagnostic Radiation.'' We proposed the concept of TRR (Tumor Regression Ratio) in order to evaluate our protocol more objctively. TRR is as follows: TRR (%) = [1-Total Tumor Volume (at each dose) / Total Tumor Volume (at o Gy)] x 100 (%) Total Tumor Volume(mm3) = slice thickness(mm) x siguma HDA (mm2) on each slice: where HDA is high density area on enhanced CT. Eleven patients were studied and TRR of each patients was calculated. The relations between TRR, tumor markers, CSF seeding and prognoiss was discussed. From our study, (1) TRR at 20Gy was important and might predict approximate prognosis of each cae case. A) TRR = 100 ? very good B) TRR < 20 ? poor C) 20 <= TRR < 100 ? high possibility (2) Majority of TRR < 100 cases have turned out to be histologically in teratoma category. (3) Good correlation between the level of tumor markers and prognosis was observed. Cases with elevated level of AFP and/or HCG were radio- resistant and had poor prognosis. (4) Distant metastasis must also be kept in mind in the treatment of pineal region tuin the treatment of pineal region tumor. (author)

  15. Radiotherapy of pineal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy has universally been used in the treatment of pineal tumors and suprasellar germinomas. Recently however, major technical advances related to the use of the operating microscope and development of microsurgical techniques have prompted a renewed interest in the direct surgical approach for biopsy and/or excision. This interest has resulted in a controversy regarding the role of surgery prior to radiotherapy. Because of the heterogeneity of tumors occurring in the pineal region (i.e., germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, glial tumors, and cysts) and their differing biological behavior, controversy also surrounds aspects of radiotherapy such as: the optimal radiation dose, the volume to be irradiated, and indications for prophylactic spinal irradiation. A review of the available data is presented in an attempt to answer these questions

  16. Lung carcinoma metastasis presenting as a pineal region tumor / Metástasis del carcinoma de pulmón que se presenta como tumor de la región pineal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y., Samanci; C., Iplikcioglu; E., Ozek; D., Ozcan; B., Marangozoglu.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La región pineal es un sitio inusual para el depósito de metástasis y la mayoría de las metástasis pineales son asintomáticas. Un hombre de 53 años debutó con una cefalea intensa, limitación en la supraversión y diplopia. La exploración neurológica fue irrelevante. La resonancia magnética (RM) cereb [...] ral demostró una lesión solitaria de 1,5 x 2 cm bien delimitada, en la región pineal con hidrocefalia. Fue intervenido quirúrgicamente siendo el diagnóstico anatomopatológico de adenocarcinoma. Un estudio sistémico descubrió un adenocarcinoma de pulmón como tumor primario. Aunque muy raramente, las metástasis deben considerarse en el diagnóstico diferencial de tumores de la región pineal. Abstract in english The pineal region is an unusual site for brain metastasis and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. A 53 year-old man presented with severe headache, limitation of upward gaze and diplopia. The patient's neurological examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of [...] the brain demonstrated a 1,5 x 2 cm well demarcated solitary mass in the pineal region with hydrocephalus. Surgery was performed and adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. A systemic investigation revealed adenocarcinoma of the lung as primary lesion. Although rare, metastatic tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors.

  17. Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors - quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our study aimed to elucidate the imaging features for the differentiation of pineal germinoma and other pineal region tumors. Image data sets of computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 93 pineal region tumors including 33 germinomas, 30 nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), and 10 miscellaneous tumors of pineal region were reviewed. Imaging features on CT and MRI were qualitatively assessed by three readers. To know the reasons for morphological differences between germinomas and NGGCTs, histological investigation was done. Localized calcification was seen in more than 70 % of germ cells tumors (GCTs: germinomas and NGGCTs) while it was scattered in more than half of PPTs. Cystic components in tumors were most frequent in NGGCTs (62 %). Multiplicity of lesion was restricted to GCTs: 39.4 % in germinoma and 10.0 % in NGGCTs. Thick peritumoral edema was more frequent in germinoma than in NGGCT: 40.6 vs. 14.8 % (p = 0.0433, Fisher's test). Bithalamic extension of tumor was seen in 78.8 % of germinomas. It was significantly rare in other groups of tumors (p < 0.0001, Fisher's test). The relative collagen amount per unit area was significantly lower in germinoma than in NGGCTs. By paying attention to characteristic features as bithalamic extension, thick peritumoral edema, calcification pattern, multiplicity, and their combination, the preoperative differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma will become more accurate. (orig.)

  18. Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors - quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awa, Ryuji; Campos, Francia; Arita, Kazunori; Karki, Prasanna; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Oyoshi, Tatsuki; Hirano, Hirofumi [Kagoshima University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuhiko [Hiroshima University, Department of Clinical Oncology and Neuro-oncology Program, Hiroshima (Japan); Tominaga, Atsushi; Kurisu, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki [Hiroshima University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Fukukura, Yoshihiko [Kagoshima University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Fujii, Yukihiko [Niigata University, Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Our study aimed to elucidate the imaging features for the differentiation of pineal germinoma and other pineal region tumors. Image data sets of computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 93 pineal region tumors including 33 germinomas, 30 nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), and 10 miscellaneous tumors of pineal region were reviewed. Imaging features on CT and MRI were qualitatively assessed by three readers. To know the reasons for morphological differences between germinomas and NGGCTs, histological investigation was done. Localized calcification was seen in more than 70 % of germ cells tumors (GCTs: germinomas and NGGCTs) while it was scattered in more than half of PPTs. Cystic components in tumors were most frequent in NGGCTs (62 %). Multiplicity of lesion was restricted to GCTs: 39.4 % in germinoma and 10.0 % in NGGCTs. Thick peritumoral edema was more frequent in germinoma than in NGGCT: 40.6 vs. 14.8 % (p = 0.0433, Fisher's test). Bithalamic extension of tumor was seen in 78.8 % of germinomas. It was significantly rare in other groups of tumors (p < 0.0001, Fisher's test). The relative collagen amount per unit area was significantly lower in germinoma than in NGGCTs. By paying attention to characteristic features as bithalamic extension, thick peritumoral edema, calcification pattern, multiplicity, and their combination, the preoperative differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma will become more accurate. (orig.)

  19. Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor located in the pineal region following prophylactic irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare entity. In the central nervous system, AT/RT generally arises from the posterior fossa of infants and behaves aggressively. AT/RT is reported to arise from the infratentorial region (63%) and other sites, such as the suprasellar region, cerebellopontine angle, and spinal cord. The pineal region is rare (6%) as a site of origin. Radiation-induced brain tumors are well known. In this report, we present a case of a pineal region tumor causing acute hydrocephalus that could be pathologically diagnosed as AT/RT following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (author)

  20. Tumores da região pineal: considerações sobre 12 casos / Tumours of the pineal region: comments on 12 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rolando, Tenuto; Horacio M., Canelas; José, Zaclis; Julinho, Aisen; Waldir A., Tognola.

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram revistos 12 casos de tumores da região pineal, sob os aspectos clínico, laboratorial e neurorradiológico. Em 6 doentes o diagnóstico baseou-se apenas nos dados clínicos e neurorradiológicos (particularmente ventriculográficos) e, nos restantes 6 casos, foi confirmado por exame histopatológico. [...] A sobrevida de 3 a 9 anos, verificada em 4 casos submetidos a tratamento conservador mediante operações de derivação seguidas de irradiação pela bomba de cobalto, constitui índice em favor da conduta adotada. Abstract in english Twelve cases of tumours of the pineal region were analysed under the clinical, laboratorial and radiological viewpoints. In 6 cases the diagnosis was based only on the clinical and radiological (particularly ventriculogramortem examination. The survival from 3 to 9 years, in 4 cases submitted to the [...] conservative treatment including intra or extracranial shunts follow by cobalto-therapy, supports the indication of the procedure adopted.

  1. Radiotherapy of Pineal and Ectopic Pineal Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From December 1984 to February 1990, 16 patients with tumors of pineal and suprasellar location were treated with radiation therapy. Tissue diagnoses were obtained before radiation therapy in 5 patients and 11 were irradiated without histologic confirmation. Initial treatments for these patients were craniospinal plus boost primary irradiation(six), whole brain plus boost primary irradiation(nine), primary tumor site irradiation(one). The 5 year actuarial survival rate is 71%. Three cases with elevated beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) responded favorably to radiation, but pineal tumors with elevated alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) did not respond well. Spinal metastasis developed in 2 cases (2/15) with elevated AFP : one received prophylactic spinal irradiation, another did not. Our studies suggest that more aggressive treatment would be necessary in patient with elevated AFP and in this patient, radiation therapy may be initiate without pathologic confirmation. From the result of our study, routine use of prophylactic spinal irradiation for all patients with pineal region tumor is not indicated and use of prophylactic spinal irradiation is considered for the patients with positive craniospinal fluid cytology, meningeal seeding, disease extension along the ventricular wall and biopsy proven germinoma

  2. Pineal region tumors: results of radiation therapy and indications for elective spinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen patients with pineal region tumors seen from November 1960 to November 1978 were reviewed. Thirteen patients treated with radiation therapy received tumor doses in the 4000 to 5500 rad range. The five year survival and five year disease-free survival were 73 and 63% respectively. Spinal cord metastasis occurred in 2 of 13 (15%) patients. Attempts at salvage radiotherapy for these patients were unsuccessful. Computerized tomography (CT) scan provides an excellent method of evaluating the response of pineal region tumors to radiation. Rapid regression of the tumor mass on CT scan reflects the highly radioresponsive nature of germinomas, the tumor type most likely to disseminate throughout the neuraxis. This principle can be exploited to select unbiopsied patients with a high risk of spinal cord metastasis for prophylactic spinal radiation at an early stage of treatment

  3. Stereotactic techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of pineal region tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The marked diversity of pathological lesions arising in the pineal region supports the increasing need to obtain a definitive tissue diagnosis. In the pre-CT era, radiographic studies rarely allowed for anything more than the outlining of a mass lesion. Contrast ventriculography could not distinguish between a non-neoplastic cyst and an astrocytoma. This limitation illustrates the difficulty of interpreting the results of previous retrospective series in which the majority of patients treated had neither a tissue diagnosis nor a CT scan to confirm the clinical impression of a pineal region tumor. Computerized tomography now offers a much improved definition of the pathological process. The utilization of computerized tomography, angiography, biochemical markers, and the clinical presentation all contribute to the establishment of the correct diagnosis. Prior to the widespread application of microsurgical techniques, exploration of the pineal region had proved hazardous even in the best of hands. More recently, several experienced neurosurgeons have reported satisfactory results in the microsurgical exploration of the pineal region. Stereotactic needle biopsy has been used predominantly in European centers as an alternative to either open surgical exploration or blind radiation therapy. Their published series have demonstrated both a high degree of efficacy in establishing the diagnosis while avoiding some of the risk associated with direct surgical visualization of thd with direct surgical visualization of the pineal region. In this chapter the author describe the technique of CT/stereotactic biopsy at the M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute and review the results obtained at several major centers. The use of, and indications for, stereotactic radiosurgery and interstitial brachytherapy is discussed

  4. An Unusual Variant of Anlage Tumor of Pineal Region in an Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Kanchan; Goel, Naina; Mahore, Amit

    2015-01-01

    A 9-month-old male child was brought with complaints of increasing head size for 2 months, increasing lethargy and vomiting for the last 2 days. Radiology revealed a heterogeneously enhancing, globular lesion in the pineal region with hydrocephalus. Near total excision of the tumor was carried out. The histopathological examination of the lesion showed heterogenous elements in the form of mature neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal tissue. The pathology and radiology of this unusual lesion is discussed with relevant review of literature.

  5. Papillary tumor of the pineal region with synchronous suprasellar focus and novel cytogenetic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Bret C; Kumar, Manoj; Sanger, Warren G; Nelson, Marilu; Nickols, Hilary H; Chambless, Lola B; Gokden, Murat

    2015-08-01

    Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is an uncommon neoplasm with variable biologic behavior. Cytogenetic and molecular diagnostic studies are rare, yielding no definitive genetic signature. We report a case of PTPR with a multicentric presentation and unusual cytogenetic features. A 25-year-old man presented with headache, disconjugate gaze, and confusion. Mass lesions in the pineal and suprasellar regions, with identical imaging characteristics, were identified. The former extended partially into the fourth ventricle. It showed typical PTPR histology and losses of chromosomes 3, 7, 10, 14, 18, and Y with gains of chromosomes 3, 8, and 9. Seventeen months postsurgery, the patient is stable without disease progression after radiation therapy. Synchronous mass lesions at presentation and losses of chromosomes 3, 7, 14, 18, and Y are unusual features, adding to the available data and underscoring the biologic and genetic variability associated with these neoplasms. PMID:26068071

  6. Pre- and postoperative management of pineal region tumors and the occipital transtentorial approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the use of the operating microscope, a variety of malignant as well as benign lesions of the pineal region can be excised safely. In cases in which complete excision is impossible, obtaining tissue for a histological diagnosis has been extremely helpful in planning appropriate postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Reducing tumor bulk may also be beneficial, as has been shown to be the case in medulloblastoma. As adjunctive modes of therapy for malignant pineal tumors become available, such as chemotherapy and possibly immunotherapy, the authors believe that the burden will be on the neurosurgeon to provide a tissue diagnosis. Complete myelography should be considered preoperatively or postoperatively to detect asymptomatic meningeal implants. The presence of such metastases makes postoperative craniospinal irradiation essential. The authors advocate liberal dosages of corticosteroids (i.e. 10-20 mg dexamethasone/day) for 24-48 hr prior to surgery. The authors recommend postoperative radiotherapy in all patients with malignant pineal region lesions regardless of whether or not complete excision was possible. The lowest incidence of recurrence in the literature seems to occur following 5,000-5,500 rads. In the face of negative myelography and CSF cytology, there is controversy regarding prophylactic spinal axis irradiation. The use of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy is probably the initial therapy of choice in such a patient. Following this, if a small, loca patient. Following this, if a small, localized tumor burden remains, it can be removed surgically, as is done with localized residual tumor in testicular cancer. Failure to adequately assess the presence of meningeal seeding by cytology and melography may make certain patients vulnerable to spinal recurrence of disease in the face of complete local remission

  7. An unusual variant of anlage tumor of pineal region in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdasi, Raghvendra; Kothari, Kanchan; Goel, Naina; Mahore, Amit

    2015-04-01

    A 9-month-old male child was brought with complaints of increasing head size for 2 months, increasing lethargy and vomiting for the last 2 days. Radiology revealed a heterogeneously enhancing, globular lesion in the pineal region with hydrocephalus. Near total excision of the tumor was carried out. The histopathological examination of the lesion showed heterogenous elements in the form of mature neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal tissue. The pathology and radiology of this unusual lesion is discussed with relevant review of literature. PMID:25977909

  8. Germinomas and other pineal tumors: Chemotherapeutic responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results and potential future role of chemotherapy in the treatment of pineal region tumors are reviewed in this paper. To date only a small number of patients with pineal region tumors have been treated with chemotherapy and this has commonly been done in association with radiation therapy. Very few patients have had a chemotherapy-induced tumor response that can clearly be attributed to only that therapy. In this paper the authors review 5 patients from our series in whom a therapeutic response was observed that was clearly attributable to drug administration and nor surgery, radiotherapy, or adrenal corticosteroids. Four of these patients had tumors of germ cell origin. These observations added to a limited number of other case reports suggest a promising therapeutic role for chemotherapeutic agents in the management of pineal region tumors. In particular, germ cell tumors of the pinear region appear to be especially responsive to chemotherapeutic agents. The pattern and responses of the pineal region tumors suggest that an important factor in therapeutic effectiveness is the absence of the blood-brain barrier in this area, thereby permitting appropriate drug delivery. An exciting prospect is that the Japanese are currently conducting a national cooperative study on the use of chemotherapy in the treatment of pineal tumors. Because of the high incidence of these tumors in Japan, these studies will undoubtedly be of great value value

  9. Spontaneous pineal apoplexy in a pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation

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    Timothy Steel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pineal apoplexy is a rare clinical presentation of pineal parenchymal tumors. We report the curative treatment of a case of pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation with spontaneous apoplectic hemorrhage. This case is shown through computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and is confirmed via histopathological studies. Recurrent upward gaze paresis was observed after the stereotactic biopsy. The paresis required an expeditious tumor resection. The mechanism of the pineal apoplectic hemorrhage remains unclear although it has been observed in different pineal region lesions. Clinical and radiological evidence of the cure 5 years post-surgery is available.

  10. Differentiation of germinomas from other tumors in the pineal region with CT and MR imaging, with special reference to extension patterns to the thalami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) characteristics of pineal region germinomas, the author reviewed images from 40 patients with pineal region tumors. These tumors were divided into two groups: those with germinomas (n=17), and those with other tumors in the pineal region (5 with a germ cell tumor other than germinoma; 8, mixed germ cell tumor; 8, pineal parenchymal tumor; and 2, miscellaneous tumors; n=23). All cases were investigated with CT; 31 of the cases were also investigated with MR imaging. The following parameters comprised statistically significant differences between the two groups: maximum size of the tumor, tumor density of the precontrast CT, signal intensity of precontrast T1-weighted spin-echo images, and homogeneity of the tumor on both precontrast and postcontrast studies. This study found that extension patterns of pineal region tumors into the thalamus have significant implications in differentiating germinomas from other tumors of this region. Germinomas are characterized by thalamic extension without lateral displacement of the third ventricle walls due to direct compression by tumors (p=0.0034). The analysis of tumor extension patterns, combined with the parameters mentioned above, may provide a more accurate differential diagnosis in pineal region tumors, leading to prompt and appropriate treatment. (author)

  11. Radiotherapy Results of pineal Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective analysis was performed on 23 patients with pineal region tumors treated with radiation from 1979 through 1985 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Histologic confirmation was done in only one case by surgical removal, and in the remaining 22 patients, the diagnosis was based on clinical and radiological findings. The radiation volume was the primary tumor site in 1 case, whole brain in 14 cases, and the whole craniospinal axis in 8 cases. The overall 5 year survival was 71.5%. The 5 year survival was 69. 3% for whole brain treated group and 73.3% for craniospinal axis treated group. The survival for the two groups did not differ significantly. In two cases sites of recurrence were detected. One in supratentorial area, and the other in the lung. The results from this retrospective analysis and the review of other reports indicate that routine use of prophlatic spinal irradiation is not warranted in pineal region tumor, and the craniospinal irradiation is recommended in cases with high risk for subarachnoid seeding such as positive CSF cytology, surgical removal or biopsy

  12. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

  13. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu (China); Mao, Qing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Liu, Yan-Hui, E-mail: liuyanhui9@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2014-03-01

    Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

  14. Papillary tumor of pineal region: Prolonged control rate after gamma knife radiosurgery - A case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas Raul; Javalkar Vijayakumar; Haydel Justin; Wadhwa Rishi; Fowler Marjorie; Scheithauer Bernd; Nanda Anil

    2010-01-01

    Papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPR) are very rare. We describe the first report of a PTPR empirically managed with gamma knife radiosurgery. The patient was initially shunted and referred for empirical gamma knife radiosurgery. After initially showing some improvement, he had recurrence of tumor after 7 years. For recurrence he underwent a gross total resection and the biopsy established the diagnosis of PTPR. Further research needs to be done as to the efficacy of gamma knife surger...

  15. Pineal gland tumors: experience from the SEER database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, Maysa; Sultan, Iyad; Abuirmileh, Najyah; Jaradat, Imad; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim

    2009-09-01

    Pineal gland tumors are rare and account for less than 1% of all primary brain tumor diagnoses. They are more commonly seen in pediatric patients than in adults. We analyzed the available SEER data on pineal gland tumors that were diagnosed during the period 1973-2005. The cohort was subdivided into groups on the basis of tumor histology: germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, gliomas, and other pineal tumors. Analyses of incidence, survival, factors influencing survival, and treatment modalities are provided. Among the 633 patients with pineal tumors, male sex was predominant, i.e., sex ratio was 3:1 for the whole group and 11.8:1 for those with germ cell tumors. The 5-year overall survival (OS) for the cohort was 65% +/- 2.1%. Those with germ cell tumors experienced the best survival (OS = 78.9% +/- 2.3%), followed by those with gliomas (OS = 61% +/- 9.3%), and those with pineal parenchymal tumors (OS = 47.2% +/- 4.2%). Non-germ cell tumors, absence of radiotherapy from treatment regimen, and diagnosis before 1993 were the only factors associated with a negative impact on survival. The extent of surgical tumor resection did not affect survival in any histologic subgroup. We conclude that, although pineal tumors are histologically diverse, they share some similarities due to their unique location. An aggressive surgical approach should be considered with caution in this region. Further studies on different pineal tumors subtypes are needed. PMID:19373436

  16. Papillary tumor of pineal region: Prolonged control rate after gamma knife radiosurgery - A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardenas Raul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPR are very rare. We describe the first report of a PTPR empirically managed with gamma knife radiosurgery. The patient was initially shunted and referred for empirical gamma knife radiosurgery. After initially showing some improvement, he had recurrence of tumor after 7 years. For recurrence he underwent a gross total resection and the biopsy established the diagnosis of PTPR. Further research needs to be done as to the efficacy of gamma knife surgery for PTPR. In addition, the role of stereotactic biopsy for eligible patients should be considered as the initial step to direct the treatment of choice.

  17. Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report Glioblastoma multiforme de região pineal: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson Leandro Gasparetto; Danny Warszawiak; Guilherme Pradi Adam; Luiz Fernando Bleggi-Torres; Arnolfo de Carvalho Neto

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only few cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized ...

  18. Radiation therapy in pediatric pineal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claude, L; Faure-Conter, C; Frappaz, D; Mottolèse, C; Carrie, C

    2015-01-01

    Pineal tumor management in pediatric patients must be based on close co-operation between oncologists, surgeons, radiation oncologists, neurologists, ophthalmologists, and endocrinologists. Radiation therapy (RT) remains critical in most situations and should be assessed as soon as the diagnosis is made, in order to optimize the radiation technique. This paper will focus on RT modalities, indications, as well as modalities in main pediatric pineal tumors (germ cell tumors and pineal parenchyma tumors). RT modalities are presently being debated and new RT techniques (intensity-modulated RT, proton therapy etc.) that are now available for pineal lesions need to be evaluated. Radiation strategies are also controversial for germ cell tumors: cranio-spinal radiation versus chemotherapy followed by focal radiation, which also requires discussion. PMID:25612810

  19. PINEAL GLAND TUMORS: EXPERIENCE FROM THE SEER DATABASE

    OpenAIRE

    Al-hussaini, Maysa; Sultan, Iyad; Gajjar, Amar J.; Abuirmileh, Najyah; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Pineal gland tumors are rare and account for less than 1% of all primary brain tumor diagnoses. Also, they are more commonly seen in pediatric patients than in adults. We analyzed the available SEER data on pineal gland tumors that were diagnosed during the period 1973–2005. The cohort was subdivided into groups on the basis of tumor histology: germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, gliomas, and other pineal tumors. Analyses of incidence, survival, factors influencing survival, and tr...

  20. Massa expansiva da região posterior do terceiro ventrículo (tumores da região da pineal) / Expansive mass lesion in the posterior region of the third ventricle (tumours of the pineal reffion)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Ronaldo, Spotti; Eduardo Carlos da, Silva.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumores da região da pineal não são comuns. São descritos aspectos clínicos, tomográficos e dos resultados terapêuticos em 12 casos observados num período de 5 anos (1979-1984). Os autores consideram que a via de acesso supracerebelar infratentorial, descrita por Krause em 1926 e reintroduzida por S [...] tein em 1971, é a melhor para a abordagem cirúrgica desse tipo de tumor. Abstract in english Tumours of the pineal region are rare. Clinical and CT aspects, and results of the treatment of 12 cases observed in a 5 years period (1979-1984) are described. The authors consider the supracerebellar infratentorial approach, formerly described by Krause in 1926 and reintroduced by Stein in 1971, t [...] he best for the surgical management of these tumours.

  1. Massa expansiva da região posterior do terceiro ventrículo (tumores da região da pineal Expansive mass lesion in the posterior region of the third ventricle (tumours of the pineal reffion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ronaldo Spotti

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumores da região da pineal não são comuns. São descritos aspectos clínicos, tomográficos e dos resultados terapêuticos em 12 casos observados num período de 5 anos (1979-1984. Os autores consideram que a via de acesso supracerebelar infratentorial, descrita por Krause em 1926 e reintroduzida por Stein em 1971, é a melhor para a abordagem cirúrgica desse tipo de tumor.Tumours of the pineal region are rare. Clinical and CT aspects, and results of the treatment of 12 cases observed in a 5 years period (1979-1984 are described. The authors consider the supracerebellar infratentorial approach, formerly described by Krause in 1926 and reintroduced by Stein in 1971, the best for the surgical management of these tumours.

  2. Surgical therapy of benign pineal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, there is no way that the author knows to satisfactorily distinguish the benign lesions from their malignant cousins without a shadow of doubt. This includes preoperative evaluation of the clinical history, biological markers in serum and CSF, CT scans with and without contrast in various projections including the horizontal, coronal and sagittal cuts, and arteriography. Because the author has personally encountered difficulty in precisely diagnosing these tumors at routine light microscopy, especially when fragments are small, he has a personal aversion to the technique of diagnosis which enlists the use of a stereotactically placed biopsy needle. The author feels that virtually all of the pineal tumors require surgical exposure and sufficient tissue removal to ensure an accurate histological diagnosis. With experience, the author believes the surgeon can tell as he exposes the posterior and lateral aspects of these tumors whether or not they are encapsulated and therefore potentially resectable. This anatomical variation may be identified prior to operative intervention by an arteriogram especially with injection of large quantities of dye into the carotid system. With the advent of the CUSA (Cavitron Lasersonics, Cooper Medical Device Corporation, Stamford, CT), the author has used this instrument with increased facility and benefit in the removal of benign relatively avascular tumors of the pineal region. This instrument is ideal in coring out the interistrument is ideal in coring out the interior of the tumor while creating little displacement of the tumor capsule. Some of the benign tumors, especially the meningiomas may be partially or heavily calcified and this instrument exhibits particular usefulness in these cases

  3. Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report / Glioblastoma multiforme de região pineal: relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emerson Leandro, Gasparetto; Danny, Warszawiak; Guilherme Pradi, Adam; Luiz Fernando, Bleggi-Torres; Arnolfo de, Carvalho Neto.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os tumores da região pineal são incomuns e podem ser divididos em três categorias de acordo com a sua origem: células germinativas, células do parênquima e células gliais. Em sua maioria, os gliomas de pineal são astrocitomas de baixo grau, sendo que o seu correspondente maligno, glioblast [...] oma multiforme, é o mais comum e agressivo tumor encefálico e é extremamente raro nesta localização, com apenas alguns casos relatados na literatura. CASO: Mulher com 29 anos apresentando há 2 meses cefaléia, nucalgia, febre, náuseas e crises convulsivas. O exame físico mostrou rigidez de nuca, hipotonia, hipotrofia e hiperreflexia generalizadas, sinal de Babinski e paralisia do VI nervo craniano. A tomografia computadorizada revelou lesão hipodensa mal delimitada na topografia de pineal, com captação heterogênea de contraste. A ressonância magnética demonstrou lesão na região pineal com infiltração de tálamo à direita. A paciente foi submetida a craniotomia direita com ressecção parcial do tumor. O exame histológico definiu o diagnóstico de glioblastoma multiforme. No pós-operatório foi indicada radioterapia, mas a paciente recusou o tratamento e morreu dois meses depois. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de raro nesta topografia, os glioblastomas multiformes devem ser considerados no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões agressivas localizadas na glândula pineal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only f [...] ew cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized hypotony, hypotrophy and hyper-reflexia, Babinski sign and left VI cranial par palsy. CT scan examination revealed a ill-defined hypodense lesion at the pineal region with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. MRI showed a lesion at the pineal region infiltrating the right thalamic region. The patient underwent a right craniotomy with partial resection of the mass. The histological examination of paraffin-embedded material defined the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. Post-operative radiotherapy was indicated but the patient refused the treatment and died two months afterwards. CONCLUSION: in spite of its rarity at this location, glioblastoma multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aggressive lesions at the pineal region.

  4. Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report Glioblastoma multiforme de região pineal: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Leandro Gasparetto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only few cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized hypotony, hypotrophy and hyper-reflexia, Babinski sign and left VI cranial par palsy. CT scan examination revealed a ill-defined hypodense lesion at the pineal region with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. MRI showed a lesion at the pineal region infiltrating the right thalamic region. The patient underwent a right craniotomy with partial resection of the mass. The histological examination of paraffin-embedded material defined the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. Post-operative radiotherapy was indicated but the patient refused the treatment and died two months afterwards. CONCLUSION: in spite of its rarity at this location, glioblastoma multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aggressive lesions at the pineal region.OBJETIVO: Os tumores da região pineal são incomuns e podem ser divididos em três categorias de acordo com a sua origem: células germinativas, células do parênquima e células gliais. Em sua maioria, os gliomas de pineal são astrocitomas de baixo grau, sendo que o seu correspondente maligno, glioblastoma multiforme, é o mais comum e agressivo tumor encefálico e é extremamente raro nesta localização, com apenas alguns casos relatados na literatura. CASO: Mulher com 29 anos apresentando há 2 meses cefaléia, nucalgia, febre, náuseas e crises convulsivas. O exame físico mostrou rigidez de nuca, hipotonia, hipotrofia e hiperreflexia generalizadas, sinal de Babinski e paralisia do VI nervo craniano. A tomografia computadorizada revelou lesão hipodensa mal delimitada na topografia de pineal, com captação heterogênea de contraste. A ressonância magnética demonstrou lesão na região pineal com infiltração de tálamo à direita. A paciente foi submetida a craniotomia direita com ressecção parcial do tumor. O exame histológico definiu o diagnóstico de glioblastoma multiforme. No pós-operatório foi indicada radioterapia, mas a paciente recusou o tratamento e morreu dois meses depois. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de raro nesta topografia, os glioblastomas multiformes devem ser considerados no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões agressivas localizadas na glândula pineal.

  5. Meningiomas of pineal region in children / Meningiomas da região da pineal em crianças

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hamilton, Matushita; Fernando Campos, Pinto; José Píndaro Pereira, Plese.

    1000-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas são tumores poucos frequentes em crianças, e mais raramente encontrados na região da pineal. Relatamos dois casos de meningioma da região da pineal em crianças, uma menina de cinco anos e um menino de um ano de idade. Não foi identificada nenhuma forma de apresentação clinica ou caracter [...] istica tomográfica, antes do tratamento, que sugerisse o diagnóstico de meningioma. As características clinicas e laboratoriais encontradas foram similares às de tumores mais frequentes da região da pineal. Ambos os pacientes foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico e a remoção completa foi obtida por abordagem suboccipital transtentorial. Durante o seguimento, um dos pacientes foi reoperado por recorrencia do tumor seis anos após o tratamento inicial. Atualmente, os pacientes encontram-se livres de recorrência tumoral. Abstract in english Meningiomas are uncommon tumors in children and either more rarely encountered in the pineal region. We report two cases of meningioma of the pineal region in children. One of these cases was a five years-old girl and the other a one year-old boy. No specific clinical presentation or tomographic exa [...] minations findings was identified before treatment, suggestive of a diagnosis of menigioma. The clinical and laboratory features were very similar to the most common tumors of the pineal region. Prior to the surgery, the histology of these tumors was not suspected. Both patients underwent direct surgery and complete removal was achieved by a suboccipital transtentorial approach. The tumors originated from velum interpositum in both cases. At the follow up, one case presented with recurrence six years later, and she underwent a reoperation with total resection without morbidity. Long-term follow up presented no other recurrences.

  6. Meningiomas of pineal region in children Meningiomas da região da pineal em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Matushita

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are uncommon tumors in children and either more rarely encountered in the pineal region. We report two cases of meningioma of the pineal region in children. One of these cases was a five years-old girl and the other a one year-old boy. No specific clinical presentation or tomographic examinations findings was identified before treatment, suggestive of a diagnosis of menigioma. The clinical and laboratory features were very similar to the most common tumors of the pineal region. Prior to the surgery, the histology of these tumors was not suspected. Both patients underwent direct surgery and complete removal was achieved by a suboccipital transtentorial approach. The tumors originated from velum interpositum in both cases. At the follow up, one case presented with recurrence six years later, and she underwent a reoperation with total resection without morbidity. Long-term follow up presented no other recurrences.Meningiomas são tumores poucos frequentes em crianças, e mais raramente encontrados na região da pineal. Relatamos dois casos de meningioma da região da pineal em crianças, uma menina de cinco anos e um menino de um ano de idade. Não foi identificada nenhuma forma de apresentação clinica ou caracteristica tomográfica, antes do tratamento, que sugerisse o diagnóstico de meningioma. As características clinicas e laboratoriais encontradas foram similares às de tumores mais frequentes da região da pineal. Ambos os pacientes foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico e a remoção completa foi obtida por abordagem suboccipital transtentorial. Durante o seguimento, um dos pacientes foi reoperado por recorrencia do tumor seis anos após o tratamento inicial. Atualmente, os pacientes encontram-se livres de recorrência tumoral.

  7. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology / Cirurgia com gamma knife como tratamento experimental para tumores da região da pineal: uma estratégia alternativa quando os dados anatomopatológicos são negativos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Peng, Wang; Qing, Mao; Wei, Wang; Liang-Xue, Zhou; Yan-Hui, Liu.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumores da região da pineal (TRP) são pouco frequentes e as propostas de tratamento são bastante variadas. Os autores relatam sua experiência em cirurgias com uso gamma knife (CGK) como tratamento experimental inicial em séries de TRP que não têm diagnóstico anatomopatológico ou nos quais o diagnóst [...] ico não ficou claro. Foram estudados retrospectivamente 17 pacientes com TRP nestas condições e que foram submetidos a CGK. Destes, 9 pacientes foram submetidos posteriormente a radioterapia de todo o encéfalo e medula espinhal entre 6 e 9 meses depois da CGK. Dezesseis dos 17 pacientes foram acompanhados por um período médio de 33,3 meses. A taxa total de resposta nos pacientes foi de 75% e a taxa dos controles, 81,3%. Não houve nenhum déficit neurológico evidente que pudesse ser atribuído à CGK. A CGK como tratamento experimental pode ser uma estratégia alternativa no grupo específico de pacientes com TRP em que não há diagnóstico anatomopatológico, podendo ser obtida uma boa qualidade de vida com poucas complicações para esse grupo de pacientes. Abstract in english Objective : Pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method : Seventeen PRT patients with negative [...] pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6–9 months after GKS. Results : Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion : The findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications.

  8. Spontaneous pineal apoplexy in a pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Steel; Jennifer Turner; Ching-Chun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Pineal apoplexy is a rare clinical presentation of pineal parenchymal tumors. We report the curative treatment of a case of pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation with spontaneous apoplectic hemorrhage. This case is shown through computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and is confirmed via histopathological studies. Recurrent upward gaze paresis was observed after the stereotactic biopsy. The paresis required an expeditious tumor resection. The mecha...

  9. Ganglioglioma da região da pineal: relato de caso Ganglioglioma of the pineal region: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter José Fagundes-Pereyra

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Os gangliogliomas são neoplasias mistas, compostas de elementos gliais e neuronais, extremamente raros na região da glândula pineal. Na presente revisão da literatura foram encontrados oito casos publicados. Apresentamos o caso de paciente de 14 anos, masculino, com ganglioglioma da região da pineal, tratado cirurgicamente, com exérese total da lesão por via suboccipital transtentorial. O estudo histológico mostrou tratar-se de ganglioglioma grau I, confirmado por imuno-histoquímica. Conclui-se que tais tumores são raros e que se deve optar pela cirurgia, objetivando a exérese total. Quando isso não for possível, ou no caso de recorrência, o paciente deve ser acompanhado clínica e radiograficamente, considerando-se a radioterapia como tratamento complementar.Ganglioglioma are tumors presenting neoplastic glial cells and nerve cells, very rarely found in the pineal region. Only eight cases have been previously published in the literature. We present the case of a 14 years-old male patient with a ganglioglioma of the pineal region. The patient was treated surgically by a suboccipital transtentorial approach with complete removal. Histopathologic specimens with immunostainning revealed a ganglioglioma grade I. We conclude that these tumors are rare and should be treated surgically aiming total remove. If it is not possible or in case of recorrence the patient should be followed and radiotheraphy could be considered.

  10. Ganglioglioma da região da pineal: relato de caso / Ganglioglioma of the pineal region: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter José, Fagundes-Pereyra; Larissa de, Sousa; Gervásio Teles de Cardoso, Carvalho; Atos Alves de, Sousa.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Os gangliogliomas são neoplasias mistas, compostas de elementos gliais e neuronais, extremamente raros na região da glândula pineal. Na presente revisão da literatura foram encontrados oito casos publicados. Apresentamos o caso de paciente de 14 anos, masculino, com ganglioglioma da região da pineal [...] , tratado cirurgicamente, com exérese total da lesão por via suboccipital transtentorial. O estudo histológico mostrou tratar-se de ganglioglioma grau I, confirmado por imuno-histoquímica. Conclui-se que tais tumores são raros e que se deve optar pela cirurgia, objetivando a exérese total. Quando isso não for possível, ou no caso de recorrência, o paciente deve ser acompanhado clínica e radiograficamente, considerando-se a radioterapia como tratamento complementar. Abstract in english Ganglioglioma are tumors presenting neoplastic glial cells and nerve cells, very rarely found in the pineal region. Only eight cases have been previously published in the literature. We present the case of a 14 years-old male patient with a ganglioglioma of the pineal region. The patient was treated [...] surgically by a suboccipital transtentorial approach with complete removal. Histopathologic specimens with immunostainning revealed a ganglioglioma grade I. We conclude that these tumors are rare and should be treated surgically aiming total remove. If it is not possible or in case of recorrence the patient should be followed and radiotheraphy could be considered.

  11. Multiple remote epidural hematomas following pineal gland tumor resection

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Jeong-Wook; Yang Seung-Hwan; Lee Jong-Soo; Song Shi-Hun

    2010-01-01

    In cases of pineal tumor combined with obstructive hydrocephalus, preoperative ventriculostomy or ventriculoperitoneal shunting is typically required prior to tumor resection. The objectives of preoperative ventriculostomy are gradual reduction of intracranial pressure and consequent preoperative brain protection. Here we report a case of pineal tumor resection with preoperative ventriculostomy that was complicated by multiple epidural hematomas. While postoperative intracranial hemorrhage ma...

  12. Conservative management of pineal tumors - Mayo clinic experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The typical pineal tumor occurs in an adolescent boy with subacute increased intracranial pressure and Parinaud's syndrome. Diagnosis is confirmed by CT scanning, and long-term survival usually following shunting and radiation therapy. Direct surgical methods for successful treatment of suitable pineal tumors have evolved and may be utilized with relatively low risk in appropriate cases

  13. Follow-up study with computerized tomography during and after irradiation in patients with pineal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve cases of pineal tumors were studied by means of computerized tomography during and after radiation therapy. The patients were 9 cases of pineal germinoma, 2 cases of pineal teratoma with a component of embryonal carcinoma, and 1 case of ependymoma. In the follow-up CT studies, all the cases of pineal germinoma showed a remarkable response to irradiation with megavoltage x-ray (Linac). In 4 cases, the tumor size was shown to have decreased at the early stages (700-1000 rads) of the irradiation. At the termination of irradiation (4000-5000 rads), the enhancing tumor mass became unrecognizable, or only a dot-like calcification remained in the pineal region. In the 2 cases with pineal teratoma, the size of the tumor in the pineal region remained unchanged on CT scan, even with extensive irradiation schedules, while the simultaneous embryonal carcinoma within the teratoma grew rapidly in the other half of the brain. These metastatic lesions were highly enhanced and circumscribed, and were treated by means of operations and by chemotherapy, which were temporarily effective. The prognosis in both cases was poor. Regarding the case of ependymoma, the radiation therapies were not effective, and the tumor was found in follow-up CT scans to have increased continuously in size. The prognosis was poor in spite of surgical operations and chemotherapy. From these observations, it is concluded that a differential diagnosis between various kinds of pineal tumors might be difficous kinds of pineal tumors might be difficult on the basis of a single CT scan alone; however, it becomes possible when one takes into account the different responses to irradiation in the follow-up CT studies. (author)

  14. Failure pattern of pineal and ectopic pineal germ cell tumor after gamma knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to determine the optimal treatment volume of patients treating with radiation therapy for intracranial germ cell tumor. From 1993 to 1998, 19 patients with intracranial germ cell tumors treated by gamma knife radiosurgery were analyzed. The location of tumor was as follows; 9 cases on pineal region, 1 case on suprasellar region, and 9 cases of multiple lesion. 7 patients were pathologically verified; 5 cases of germ cell tumor and 2 cases of non germinomatous germ cell tumor. Tumor volume was ranged from 2.4 cm3 to 74 cm3. Irradiation dose was 10 Gy to 20 Gy with 50% isodose curve. Follow up period was 10 months to 54 months. Recurrences were observed in 14 cases among 19 (74%) patients. Complete remission and partial remission were achieved in 2 (11%) and 10 (53%) respectively. No response was observed in 7 (36%). 2 cases were recurred within original tumor bed. 6 cases were recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed. Bentricular relapses separated from pretreatment tumor bed were 3. Spinal recurrences were 4. Among 8 recurred cases of which tumor volume is smaller than 20 cm3, 2 were recurred within original tumor bed, 4 were recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed, and 1 spinal recurrence. Meanwhile, 6 cases of which tumor volume larger than 20 cm3, 1 case was recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed, 2 ventricular recurrences separated with original tumor bed, and 3 spinal recurrencoriginal tumor bed, and 3 spinal recurrences. 5 cases which did not show any recurrence sign show any recurrence sign showed characteristics of single lesion, tumor volume smaller than 20 cm3 and normal tumor marker. All of 4 cases of spinal recurrences happened in the case having ventricular invasion or lesion. Among 9 cases having multiple lesion, only 3 cases recurred within original tumor bed or around tumor bed, the other 6 cases recurred separated from pretreatment tumor bed. Gamma knife radiosurgery is not recommended for the treatment of intracranial germ cell tumor. It is because of small treatment volume and inadequate radiation dose that are characteristics of gamma knife radiosurgery. Tumor volume, ventricular lesion or invasion, and normal tumor marker are ideal indications for small involved field radiation therapy. Prophylactic spinal irradiation seems to be necessary when there is ventricular lesion, ventricular invasion, and multiple lesions. When the tumor volume is larger than 20 cm3, multiple lesions, abnormal tumor marker, and whole ventricular irradiation or partial brain irradiation would be possible and neoadjuvant chemotherapy would be most beneficial in these group

  15. A case of teratoma which developed 5 years after radiotherapy for pineal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of pineal teratoma which developed 5 years after radiotherapy for a pineal tumor at 9 years of age was presented. The patient had been admitted with increased intracranial pressure at 9 years of age. Computerized tomography (CT) scans at that time showed pineal and suprasellar tumors with ventricular dissemination. From the CT scan findings, germinoma was diagnosed and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt followed by radiotherapy was performed. 5550 rads for the brain and 1300 rads for the spinal axis were given. The tumors seemed to have almost disappeared after this therapy, and the patient continued to do well until he complained of severe headache and general fatigue in September 1984. CT scans after infusion of contrast media showed a ringed enhanced tumor at the pineal region with extension to the left thalamus. With a preoperative diagnosis of teratoma, he was operated for the subtotal removal of the tumor and was discharged with slight mental dullness two months post-operatively. Histological diagnosis of the specimen was a mature teratoma. From the response of the tumor to radiotherapy in the first admission and from the histological findings, the tumor was thought to be a mixed germ cell tumor. The authors summarized the characteristic findings of mixed germ cell tumor on CT scan and discussed the treatment for pineal tumor. (author)

  16. Afferent pupillary defect in pineal region tumour.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    A patient is described in whom an afferent pupillary defect was an early sign of a tumour in the pineal region. It is suggested that this was due to involvement of the pupillary afferent fibres between the optic tract and pretectal nucleus contralateral to the affected pupil.

  17. Radiotherapy for tumours of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas (by Glanzmann and Seelentag)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter to the editor the authors agree with Glanzmann and Seelentag that, for tumors of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas, empirical radiotherapy after ventriculoperitoneal shunting can give gratifying results, particularly in patients under the age of 30. On the other hand they strongly recommend an aggressive surgical approach as the initial therapeutic manoever for pineal tumors. The authors further clearly indicate in which cases radiotherapy or chemotherapy is recommended as the next therapeutic option. (author). 4 refs

  18. Pineal yolk sac tumor: correlation between neuroimaging and pathological findings / Tumor do seio endodérmico da pineal: correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Taísa, Davaus; Emerson L., Gasparetto; Arnolfo de, Carvalho Neto; Juliana Elizabeth, Jung; Luiz Fernando, Bleggi-Torres.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Um menino de 17 anos de idade apresentou-se com sonolência e confusão mental. O exame físico demonstrou distúrbios motores. A investigação laboratorial revelou aumento dos níveis de alfafetoproteína no soro e no líquor. A TC de crânio revelou massa heterogênea na região pineal. À RM, a lesão era hip [...] ointensa em T1 e hiperintensa em T2, com realce após a administração de contraste. O paciente foi submetido a biópsia cirúrgica, a qual definiu o diagnóstico de tumor do seio endodérmico. Enfatizamos a correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem deste raro tumor da região pineal. Abstract in english A 17-year-old boy presented with somnolence and mental confusion. Physical examination demonstrated motor disturbances. Laboratorial investigation showed elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The CT scan revealed a heterogeneous mass at the pineal region. At the MRI, [...] this lesion was hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, enhancing after contrast administration. The patient underwent a surgical biopsy, which defined the diagnosis of yolk sac tumor. We emphasize the correlation of neuroimaging and pathological findings of this rare pineal region tumor.

  19. Pineal yolk sac tumor: correlation between neuroimaging and pathological findings Tumor do seio endodérmico da pineal: correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taísa Davaus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old boy presented with somnolence and mental confusion. Physical examination demonstrated motor disturbances. Laboratorial investigation showed elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The CT scan revealed a heterogeneous mass at the pineal region. At the MRI, this lesion was hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, enhancing after contrast administration. The patient underwent a surgical biopsy, which defined the diagnosis of yolk sac tumor. We emphasize the correlation of neuroimaging and pathological findings of this rare pineal region tumor.Um menino de 17 anos de idade apresentou-se com sonolência e confusão mental. O exame físico demonstrou distúrbios motores. A investigação laboratorial revelou aumento dos níveis de alfafetoproteína no soro e no líquor. A TC de crânio revelou massa heterogênea na região pineal. À RM, a lesão era hipointensa em T1 e hiperintensa em T2, com realce após a administração de contraste. O paciente foi submetido a biópsia cirúrgica, a qual definiu o diagnóstico de tumor do seio endodérmico. Enfatizamos a correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem deste raro tumor da região pineal.

  20. Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples / Magnetic resonance study of the pineal region: normal pineal gland, simple cysts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JOSÉ GUILHERME, CALDAS; DOMINIQUE, DOYON; HENRIQUE, LEDERMAN; ROBERT, CARLIER.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo) identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4%) [...] e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu maior diâmetro. Os cistos simples da pineal aparecem com frequência de 2,6% em relação a toda a série (762 casos) elevando-se essa frequência para 6,1% se forem consideradas somente as pineais visiblizadas (329 casos). Os cistos simples não se correlacionam nem com a idade nem com o sexo e os cistos sintomáticos são raros. Os critérios para diagnóstico diferencial dos cistos simples versus tumores da região da pineal são: dimensões menores ou iguais a 20 milímetros; espessura da parede abaixo de 2 milímetros; ausência de efeito expansivo; sinal igual ao líquido cefalorraquidiano e ausência de crescimento dos cistos. Abstract in english A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the normal pineal gland and pineal simple cysts was performed in 762 cases. A fine section technique (maximum 3 millimeters) enabled most of the times the identifying of a normal pineal in addition to demonstrating that a pineal without any cyst shows an i [...] sointense signal in Tl and T2 which, in turn, is enhanced following gadolinium. The measure of the normal pineal was of about 6.1 millimeters in its diameter length. Pineal simple cysts were observed in a 2.6% frequency in relation to the whole series (762 cases); however reaches 6.1% when only the visualized pineals were considered (329 cases). Also, it was found out that simple cysts were not correlated to age or gender. Simple cysts characteristics are: dimension less or equal to 20 millimeters; absence of expansive effect; similar signal to that of the cerebrospinal fluid; absence of cyst growth.

  1. Brain CT of non-pineal intracranial germ cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    19 cases of non-pineal intracranial germ cell tumors were reviewed retrospectively with both radiologic and clinical features. The results were as follows: 1. The age distribution was 8 to 32 year old (16 year old of mean age) and the sex distribution shows male predominance (15:4). 2. The histopathologic diagnosis includes 11 cases of germinoma, 2 case of mixed germ cell tumor, 1 case of embryonal cell carcinoma and 5 cases of unknown. 3. The location of tumors was the sarsaparilla region in 8 cases, the left basal ganglia and thalamus in 5 cases, and the right frontal lobe in 1 case. Among 11 cases of germinoma, 6 cases involve the sarsaparilla region and 3 cases the left basal ganglia and thalamus. 4. In clinical features, there were visual disturbance, diabetes indispose, increased ICP signs, motor weakness, hormonal disorders, and personal changes in order. 5. In tumor marker study of 6 cases of germinoma, 5 cases show increase in HCG titer, but all 6 cases were normal in AFP titer. 6. In brain CT, most of all revealed well-defined homogeneous high density with or without small central low density and homogeneous enhancement at solid portion, and there was calcification in only case with mixed germ cell tumor.

  2. Radiation therapy for pineal tumors: 30-year experience at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen tumors of the pineal region were treated at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital since 1957. Preoperative evaluation included CT scan in 11 patients and cerebrospinal fluid cytology in four. Histologic diagnosis was obtained in nine patients. Diagnosis in two other patients was based on CT scan response at 2,000 cGY. Fifteen patients received whole-brain irradiation with a boost, one each with limited-field and whole-brain irradiation only. One patient with melanoma received craniospinal irradiation. Median pineal dose was 55 Gy; range, 50-60 Gy. Five treatment failures occurred, four local and one distant. Actuarial survival was 80%, 70%, and 65% at 5, 10, and 20 years. Median follow-up was 8.8 years. Cranial radiotherapy alone appears to control the majority of pineal tumors

  3. Diagnosis and management challenge of a granular cell astrocytoma of the pineal region: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asri, Abad Cherif; Baallal, Hassan; Zoubeir, Youssef; Sinaa, Mohamed; Albouzidi, Abderrahman; Gazzaz, Miloudi; Akhaddar, Ali; Boucetta, Mohamed; El Mostarchid, Brahim

    2015-05-01

    Granular cell astrocytoma (GCA) is a rare type of infiltrative brain tumor with most reported cases occurring in the suprasellar region. A pineal localization is extremely rare, with only 4 previously reported cases in the literature. The authors describe the case of a 16-year-old boy who developed signs of increased intracranial pressure and Parinaud syndrome. Cranial CT and MRI revealed a well-demarcated and enhanced mass in the pineal region accompanied by obstructive hydrocephalus. Subtotal resection was performed via a subtemporal approach. A histological diagnosis of GCA was made. Three years after surgery, the patient was alive and well without adjuvant therapy, and serial MRI showed no signs of progression of a small residual tumor. After a thorough review of the different epidemiological, clinical, and imaging features; treatments; and prognoses of GCAs in other intracranial localizations, the authors analyzed features of this tumor in the pineal region. PMID:25700123

  4. Radiation Therapy of Midline Pineal Tumors and Suprasellar Germinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    20 cases of midline pineal tumors and 3 suprasellar germinomas received radiation therapy at Yonsei University Medical College, Severance hospital from 1971 to 1982 were reviewed. 12 cases were pathologically proved; 10 germinomas, 1 pineoblastoma, and 1 pineocytoma. 11 cases received radiotherapy without biopsy confirmation. Although treatment fields varied from small field to whole brain irradiation, but not to the spinal cord, most patients received 4000-5000 rads irradiation to the primary tumor site. 17 patients are alive without evidence of disease and 5 year actuarial NED survival is 73.2%. 9 of 10 biopsy proved germinomas and all 6 presumed germinomas are alive and well. Optimum radiation dose, adequate irradiation field, tumor response to radiation observed in serial CT scan and role of radiation therapy in the management of pineal tumors are also discussed

  5. Patofysiologiske mekanismer bag øjensymptomer ved primaere tumorer i corpus pineale.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illum, N O; MØller, M

    1993-01-01

    Primary tumors of the pineal body can produce dyscoordinative movements of the eye, pupillary dilatation, paralysis of adduction during convergence and nystagmus. Obstruction of the aqueduct can cause hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure and papilledema. Diabetes insipidus may be a presenting symptom. Pinealocytes and the photoreceptors of the eye contain several autoantigens. In man, the best known is the S-antigen. This antigen can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with primary tumors of the pineal body. The S-antigen, and possibly other related autoantigens, can elicit an autoimmune mediated reaction causing inflammatory eye symptoms. This recently described paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome shares properties in common with other known cancer-associated ophthalmologic syndromes characterised by rapid development of eye symptoms, rapid loss of sight and by eye manifestations prior to evident appearance of symptoms related to primary tumor growth. A primary tumor of the pineal body should be considered in patients where a monosymptomatic uveoretinitis presents without associated provoking factors. Furthermore, analyses of S-antigen in the spinal fluid can be useful in the clinical diagnosis of the same primary tumors.

  6. RAdiotherapy for tumours of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1960 and 1985, 42 patinets with pineal region tumors and two patients with suprasellar germinomas were treated by irradiation after shuntin gwith biopsy in five cases and subtotal resection in three cases. Ten year survival rates are: 79% in patients less than 31 years old and unbiopsied tumours, 25% in patients older than 30 years and unbiopsied tumours, 3/4 in patients with germinomas. Target volumes varied, but only three cases had craniospinal irradiation. Cumulative risk of spinal seeding in patients with germinomas and unbiolsied tumors is about 6% after cranal radiotherapy. The low risk of spinal seeding in patients with pineal tumours of unknown histology or germinomas without signs of dissemination in the CT/MR, myelography, examination of the CSF (cytology and markers) do not justify prophylactic spinal irradiation. Our data do not show a clear association between cranial target volume (whole brain or local fields) and recurrence rate 41 of 44 cases had target doses higher than 4400 cGy. There is a small but definite risk of major complications after a dose of about 5500 cGy with conventional fractionation. (author). 27 refs.; 5 figs

  7. RAdiotherapy for tumours of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanzmann, C. (Universitaetsspital Zuerich (Switzerland). Department Medizinische Radiologie, Klinik fuer Radio-Onkologie); Seelentag, W. (Kantonspital Sakt Gallen (Switzerland). Klinik fuer Radio-Onkologie)

    1989-09-01

    Between 1960 and 1985, 42 patinets with pineal region tumors and two patients with suprasellar germinomas were treated by irradiation after shuntin gwith biopsy in five cases and subtotal resection in three cases. Ten year survival rates are: 79% in patients less than 31 years old and unbiopsied tumours, 25% in patients older than 30 years and unbiopsied tumours, 3/4 in patients with germinomas. Target volumes varied, but only three cases had craniospinal irradiation. Cumulative risk of spinal seeding in patients with germinomas and unbiolsied tumors is about 6% after cranal radiotherapy. The low risk of spinal seeding in patients with pineal tumours of unknown histology or germinomas without signs of dissemination in the CT/MR, myelography, examination of the CSF (cytology and markers) do not justify prophylactic spinal irradiation. Our data do not show a clear association between cranial target volume (whole brain or local fields) and recurrence rate 41 of 44 cases had target doses higher than 4400 cGy. There is a small but definite risk of major complications after a dose of about 5500 cGy with conventional fractionation. (author). 27 refs.; 5 figs.

  8. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe CT and MR findings in a 23-month-old infant with a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal gland. The tumour has been stereotactically biopsied and surgically resected. The pathological diagnosis was made on the resected piece. Embryology of the pineal gland and the histology of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Radiotherapy for tumours of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas (by Glanzmann and Seelentag); Letter to the editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuwelt, E.A. (Oregon Univ., Portland, OR (USA). Div. of Neurosurgery)

    1989-09-01

    In this letter to the editor the authors agree with Glanzmann and Seelentag that, for tumors of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas, empirical radiotherapy after ventriculoperitoneal shunting can give gratifying results, particularly in patients under the age of 30. On the other hand they strongly recommend an aggressive surgical approach as the initial therapeutic manoever for pineal tumors. The authors further clearly indicate in which cases radiotherapy or chemotherapy is recommended as the next therapeutic option. (author). 4 refs.

  10. Moyamoya Syndrome: Post Cranial Irradiation of Pineal Gland Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Chiewvit, P.; Janyavanich, V.; Soonthonpong, N.; Churoj, A.; Chawalparit, O.; Suthipongchai, S.

    2001-01-01

    A right-handed eight-year-old boy, with headache, vomiting and positive parinaud (s sign was diagnosed as having a pineal gland tumor which histopathological section from surgical biopsy revealed to be a germinoma. The patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt for obstructive hydrocephalus. Thereafter; he received cranial irradiation as definitive treatment. He was well and went back to school until five years later he developed a transient ischemic attack. Cranial magnetic resonance imagi...

  11. Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery of pineal and related tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of gamma radiosurgery as an additional therapy after conventional treatments for pineal and related tumors was studied in 30 out of 33 cases with a mean follow-up of 23.3 months. Overall results showed that complete response (CR) was obtained in 8 cases (26.7%) and response rate was 73.3%. However, enlargement of the tumors was noted in 8 cases, of which 7 (23.3%) died of tumor progression (PG). Germinomas and pineocytomas showed higher response and control rates of 100%, and no tumor enlargement or death occurred after gamma knife treatment. In germinoma with STGC (syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell) which has been thought to have intermediate prognosis, two cases showed partial response (PR), but another died from progression of the disease. Malignant germ cell tumors and pineoblastomas showed unfavorable response and prognosis; the response and progression rates were 50%. However, complete response was obtained in 3 cases (25%) after gamma radiosurgery. Gamma knife was the initial treatment in three cases without pathological diagnosis in which one obtained CR and two showed partial response (PR). Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery is expected to be an effective and novel treatment for pineal and related tumors not only as an adjuvant, but also as an initial therapy. (author)

  12. Intracranial germinomas with simultaneous lesions at pineal and suprasellar regions: diagnostics and therapeutics considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germinomas are the most common intracranial germ cell tumor. Germinomas comprise 65% of this type of tumor and represent a less malignant form. This neoplasm constitutes approximately 0.1% to 3.4% of all intracranial tumors. The embryologic origin remains a mystery. Ninety-five percent of germinomas arise in the region of the third ventricle, along an axis from the suprasellar cistern (48%) to the pineal region (37%, involvement of both sites, either sequentially or simultaneously, ocurred rarely (6%). Clinical presentation depends on tumor location and may involve endocrine, hypothalamic, visual and cognitive dysfunction. We report two cases of patients with germinomas with simultaneous lesions in both the suprasellar and pineal regions and review on the clinical presentation, means of diagnosis, treatment using radiotherapy and outcome of this rate treatable neoplasm. (The author)

  13. Nonsurgical pineal tumor therapy - The Japanese experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological characteristics of intracranial germ cell tumors have gradually been clarified in recent years. Germ cell tumors are divided into three major histological types; radiation sensitive germinoma, radiation resistant mature teratoma, and malignant teratoma. Radiation, surgery, or chemotherapy as the principal therapeutic procedure for each type is selected based on the tumor's biological nature. Mature teratomas are surgically treated. Most germinomas can usually be treated by simple radiation even though a shunting procedure is sometimes required. Since malignant teratomas often produce HCG or AFP, these tumors can be diagnosed by the presence of such tumor markers in the serum without histological verification. Patients having functioning germ cell tumors can not be completely cured today by surgery alone and/or by simple radiation; they definitely require adjuvant chemotherapy or immunotherapy. In this paper, the statistical analysis of germ cell tumors in Japan and the results of treatment mainly by radiotherapy for germinoma and functioning germ cell tumors treated in the authors' clinic are summarized

  14. CRX is a Diagnostic Marker of Retinal and Pineal Lineage Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Idbaih, Ahmed; Geffers, Lars; Correll, Mick; Holton, Kristina; Santagata, Sandro; Maire, Cecile; Quackenbush, John; Ligon, Keith Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    Background: CRX is a homeobox transcription factor whose expression and function is critical to maintain retinal and pineal lineage cells and their progenitors. To determine the biologic and diagnostic potential of CRX in human tumors of the retina and pineal, we examined its expression in multiple settings. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we show that Crx RNA and protein expression are exquisitely lineage restricted to retinal and pineal cell...

  15. Correlación cito-histológica del tumor papilar de la glándula pineal. Presentación de un caso / Papillary pineal tumor: cyto-histological correlation. Case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosa A, Barbella-Aponte; Nohelia, Rojas-Ferrer; JP, García de la Torre; Roberto, Vera-Berón.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la última revisión de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en relación a los tumores del sistema nervioso central (SNC), se describieron nuevas entidades, como el Tumor Papilar de la Glándula Pineal. Esta lesión de rara aparición, se ha identificado en adultos jóvenes. El diagnóstico de esto [...] s tumores es complejo ya que depende de su ubicación, edad de aparición y el aspecto histológico; éste último tiene similitudes con otras lesiones como el ependimoma papilar o el papiloma/carcinoma de plexos coroides. Citológicamente presentan características claras que pueden ayudar al diagnóstico a través de la impronta en el estudio intraoperatorio; reconocer ciertos criterios con éste importante y sencillo método diagnóstico ha sido la motivación principal para el estudio de entidades poco frecuentes del SNC, además de corroborar el necesario trabajo de un equipo multidisciplinar. Abstract in english In the latest revision of the central nervous system tumors (CNS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), new entities has been described, as papillary tumor of the pineal region. This rare lesion has been identified in young adults. The diagnosis of these tumors is complex, depends on the location, [...] age of onset and histological appearance. Histological characteristics have similarities with other lesions such as papillary ependymoma, papiloma / choroid plexus carcinoma. Cytologically have clear characteristics that can aid in the diagnosis through the smears on the intraoperative study. Certain criteria for recognize this important and simple diagnostic method has been the main motivation for the study of CNS rare entities, as our case, in addition to corroborating the necessary work of a multidisciplinary team.

  16. Masses in the pineal region - MRI with Gd-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained from contrast-enhanced MRI in 21 patients with masses in the pineal region are reported. The use of gadolinium-DTPA results in intensive contrast uptake by the tumour; this produces better definition of the tumour and more exact delineation from neighbouring structures. This is of importance in judging resectability and in choosing the operative approach. During chemotherapy or radiotherapy, it provides reliable demonstration of the success of treatment and accurately demonstrates the size of the tumour and the presence of necrosis. On the other hand, histologic classification of pineal tumours is possible only occasionally. (orig.)

  17. Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples Magnetic resonance study of the pineal region: normal pineal gland, simple cysts

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ GUILHERME CALDAS; DOMINIQUE DOYON; HENRIQUE LEDERMAN; ROBERT CARLIER

    1998-01-01

    Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo) identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4%) e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu maior diâmetro. Os ...

  18. Germinomas cerebrais (teratomas atípicos da pineal) / Cerebral germinomas (atipical teratomas of the pineal region)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre, Alencar.

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available São estudados três casos de germinomas cerebrais, sendo um tópico, da região pineal, e dois ectópicos, chamados germinomas supra-selares ou quiasmáticos. Estes últimos parecem ser mais agressivos que os seus congeneres tópicos, pois alem de se disseminarem pelas cisternas basais, costumam infiltrar [...] as paredes do III ventrículo, fórnix, hipotálamo, nervos e quiasma ópticos. Caracteristicamente produzem um enorme aumento das proteínas liquóricas, desacompanhado de uma pleocitose proporcional. As proteínas liquóricas aumentadas sao globulinas cujas reações mostram-se fortemente positivas, possivelmente produzidas pelas celulas de aspecto linfocitario que constituem parte desta neoplasia. O aumento das proteinas liquoricas e tao acentuado que em presenca de uma crianca ou adolescente com sindrome de hipertensão intracraniana, hiperproteinoraquia sem pleocitose e sinais clínicos ou radiológicos sugestivos de localização na base do crânio a possibilidade de um germinoma quiasmático deve ser seriamente considerada, pois o quadro e muito sugestivo. Abstract in english Three cases of Cerebral Germinomas, one of them situated in the pineal region (topical) and two ectopical of the so called suprasellar or chiasmal Germinomas are studied. These last ones may be more aggressive than the congeneral topical ones, since besides it's dissemination throughout the basal ci [...] sternas they usually infilstrate into de walls of the III Ventricle, Fornix, Hypothalamus, Chiasma and Optic nervs. A high level of proteins in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells is characteristic. Globulins are the predominant fraction of the increased spinal fluid proteins, as indicated by the highly positive laboratory test. These globulins are possibly produced by the lymphocytes which are part of this neoplasm. The high level of protein in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells, in the presence of intracranial syndrome in a child or adolescent, with anatomical signs of basal localization make the possibility of a Chiasmal Germinona highly probable.

  19. Germinomas cerebrais (teratomas atípicos da pineal Cerebral germinomas (atipical teratomas of the pineal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Alencar

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available São estudados três casos de germinomas cerebrais, sendo um tópico, da região pineal, e dois ectópicos, chamados germinomas supra-selares ou quiasmáticos. Estes últimos parecem ser mais agressivos que os seus congeneres tópicos, pois alem de se disseminarem pelas cisternas basais, costumam infiltrar as paredes do III ventrículo, fórnix, hipotálamo, nervos e quiasma ópticos. Caracteristicamente produzem um enorme aumento das proteínas liquóricas, desacompanhado de uma pleocitose proporcional. As proteínas liquóricas aumentadas sao globulinas cujas reações mostram-se fortemente positivas, possivelmente produzidas pelas celulas de aspecto linfocitario que constituem parte desta neoplasia. O aumento das proteinas liquoricas e tao acentuado que em presenca de uma crianca ou adolescente com sindrome de hipertensão intracraniana, hiperproteinoraquia sem pleocitose e sinais clínicos ou radiológicos sugestivos de localização na base do crânio a possibilidade de um germinoma quiasmático deve ser seriamente considerada, pois o quadro e muito sugestivo.Three cases of Cerebral Germinomas, one of them situated in the pineal region (topical and two ectopical of the so called suprasellar or chiasmal Germinomas are studied. These last ones may be more aggressive than the congeneral topical ones, since besides it's dissemination throughout the basal cisternas they usually infilstrate into de walls of the III Ventricle, Fornix, Hypothalamus, Chiasma and Optic nervs. A high level of proteins in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells is characteristic. Globulins are the predominant fraction of the increased spinal fluid proteins, as indicated by the highly positive laboratory test. These globulins are possibly produced by the lymphocytes which are part of this neoplasm. The high level of protein in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells, in the presence of intracranial syndrome in a child or adolescent, with anatomical signs of basal localization make the possibility of a Chiasmal Germinona highly probable.

  20. Cystic lesions of the pineal region - MRI and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineal lesions are rare. Tumours in this location comprise 0.4-1% of intracranial tumours. They grow mainly as solid-mass lesions, and cystic tumours are not common. On MRI, a cystic configuration is associated usually with non-neoplastic pineal lesions rather than with a tumour, but analysis does not allow cystic pineal tumours to be distinguished from glial cysts with certainty. We compared neuroradiological and pathological data from 13 cystic pineal lesions, analysing preoperative MRI. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens were stained routinely and immunocytochemically, using the streptavidin-biotin-complex method. Histology revealed six pineocytomas, four glial cysts, an arachnoid cyst, a low-grade astrocytoma and a teratoma. Signal characteristics of pineocytomas were similar in many respects to those of glial pineal cysts. Histomorphological analysis allowed unambiguous discrimination between pineocytomas and glial pineal cysts. (orig.)

  1. MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma: focus on differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the characteristic MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma, and differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors. MR images of patients with histopathologically proven pineal germinoma(n=3D14) and other pineal germ cell tumors(n=3D10) were retrospectively analyzed with regard to size, signal intensity and homogeneity, enhancing features, cyst formation, and multiplicity of lesions. Other pineal germ cell tumors were the mixed germ cell tumors (n=3D4), malignant teratomas (n=3D3), choriocarcinoma(n=3D1), embryonal carcinoma(n=3D1), and endodermal sinus tumor(n=3D1). Tumor markers were evaluated. On T1-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(86%) or iso signal intensity (93%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or iso signal intensity(70%). On T2-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(64%) or iso signal intensity(57%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or high signal intensity(80%). On Gd-DTPA enhanced images, germinomas showed homogeneous (93%) or strong enhancement (64%), while other germ cell tumors showed homogeneous(60%) or strong enhancement (70%). Cyst formation was noted in ten Patients (71%) with germinoma and in six (60%) with other germ cell tumors. Invasion on surrounding structures was seen in 11 patients (79%) with germinoma and in five (50%) with other germ cell tumors. Lesions were multiple in three patients(21%) with germinoma. Thirteen of 14 patients with germinoma had normal serum patients with germinoma had normal serum ?-FP(tetoprotein) and ?-HCG(human chononic gonafotrophin) levels. Two of four patients with mixed germ cell tumors had elevated serum ?-FP and ?-HCG levels; in the ther two, elevated serum ?-FP or ?-HCG levels were noted. In the malignant teratoma and embryonal carcinoma patients, serum ?-FP and ?-HCG levels were normal. The patient with choriocarcinoma had an elevated serum ?-HCG level. On T1W1, the only significant differential point (p<0.01) between germinomas and other germ cell tumors was homogeneity. Germinomas were frequently homogeneous, and iso signal intensity on T1WI and T2WI, strong enhancement, and the formation of small cysts(<3mm) was noted. This MR imaging finding, combined with assay for tumor markers, is helpful for the differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma and other germ cell tumors.=20

  2. Precocious Puberty due to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin-Secreting Pineal Tumor

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    Ho-Chang Kuo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a 9-year-old boy with central precocious puberty and hydrocephalus causedby a human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG secreting pineal tumor. High levels of ?-hCGin the serum and cerebrospinal fluid were observed in this patient. The patient receivedradiotherapy and chemotherapy without surgical intervention. Subsequently, significanttumor regression was observed and the serum ?-hCG level normalized. There was no evidenceof tumor recurrence at follow-up one year after treatment. The role of tissue biopsy toestablish a diagnosis in pineal germ cell tumors remains controversial because it can be adifficult procedure and may be dangerous, causing severe complications. In this patient, theelevated ?-hCG level indicated the presence of a tumor and was considered sufficient evidenceto warrant initiating treatment.

  3. Successful Treatment by Chemotherapy of Pineal Parenchymal Tumor with Intermediate Differentiation: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyo-jeong; Choi, Young-jin; Seol, Young-mi; Kahng, Dong-hwahn; Choi, Yu-yi; Park, Eun-kyoung

    2013-01-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with a mass measuring 2.5 cm in size in the midbrain and obstructive hydrocephalus, which had manifested as a headache and dizziness. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain showed intermediate enhancement on T1-weighted MR imaging and a high intensity of enhancement on T2-weighted MR. Neurosurgeons performed an occipital craniotomy with partial removal of the tumor and the postoperative diagnosis was a pineal parenchymal tumor with intermediate differentiati...

  4. Significant anti-tumor effect of bevacizumab in treatment of pineal gland glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Joshua; Fields, Braxton; Macomson, Samuel; Rixe, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive subtype of malignant gliomas. Current standard treatment for GBM involves a combination of cytoreduction through surgical resection, followed by radiation with concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy (temozolomide). The role of bevacizumab in the treatment of GBM continues to be a topic of ongoing research and debate. Despite aggressive treatment, these tumors remain undoubtedly fatal, especially in the elderly. Furthermore, tumors present in the pineal gland are extremely rare, accounting for only 0.1-0.4 % of all adult brain tumors, with this location adding to the complexity of treatment. We present a case of GBM, at the rare location of pineal gland, in an elderly patient who was refractory to initial standard of care treatment with radiation and concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide, but who developed a significant response to anti-angiogenic therapy using bevacizumab. PMID:24998223

  5. Pineal gland in rats with 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene-induced mammary tumors subjected to manipulations known as enhancers of pineal actions

    OpenAIRE

    Cos, S.; Bardasano, J. L.; Mediavilla, M. D.; Sa?nchez Barcelo?, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of pinealocytes was studied in rats with 7,17-dimethylbenz (a) anthraceneinduced manimary tumors which were subjected to experimental manipulations known as enhancers of pineal actions (anosmia, underfeeding or cold exposure). In these aniinals we found: (1) - more nuclei with deep nuclear invaginations; (11) - a large number of cytoplasmic organelles, including lipid droplets. myeloid bodies, synaptic ribbons and lysosomes; (111) - numer...

  6. Pineal germinoma with extracranial metastases: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineal germinoma is the commonest pineal region tumor of childhood and adolescence. Metastatic germinoma most commonly occurs via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and it is usually limited to the cerebrospinal axis. ExtacraniaI hematogenous metastasis is known to be very rare. We report here on a case of pineal germinoma with gradual extracranial metastases that occurred both through the CSF pathway and by hematogenous spread. The patient had multifocal CSF seeding after his surgery for pineal germinoma, and the left iliac metastasis and lung metastasis then occurred

  7. Evaluation of pineal calcification in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study cases were 804 patients who had received either CT or plain radiographs for some reasons. Their ages ranged from newborn to 15 years old. Twenty four patients had the pineal calcification, in which one patient had the pineal region tumor and 4 patients had precocious puberty. The incidence of the pineal calcification was observed on CT as 0.2, 5.8, and 14 % in their age of 0 to 5, 6 to 10, and 11 to 15 years old, respectively. On the other hand, this finding was detected only in 0, 1.1, and 1.2 % on plain radiographs. In conclusion, pineal calcification on CT may suggest the pathological state in children. Although it is observed in a minority of normal children, such a calcification could be looked upon as not only pineal region tumor but precocious puberty and other intracranial disorders with suspicion. (author)

  8. Pineal region tumours treated with interstitial brachytherapy with low activity sources (192-iridium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three patients with tumours of the pineal region underwent interstitial Ir-192 brachytherapy. Histological diagnoses were obtained in all patients, by stereotactic biopsy and included one germinoma, one mixed pineoblastomapincocytoma, and one astrocytoma grade III. Our approach to pineal region neoplasms is first to decide whether sterotactic biopsy or surgery should be performed. When a pineal lesion is thought to be benign on the basis of imaging, such as benign teratoma, surgery is performed to resect the entire lesion. When a definitive diagnosis is not possible, stereotactic biopsy is performed to obtain a histological diagnosis for treatment planning, using a Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) stereotactic apparatus with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). When a lesion is malignant and localized, stereotactic implantation of catheters for interstitial brachytherapy is performed simultaneously. Radioactive Ir-192 seeds are inserted into the catheters and maintained for 5-10 days to give 36 Gy of irradiation at the tumour periphery. Sequential CT scans and MRI after treatment revealed tumour disappearance in two patients with germinoma and high grade astrocytoma and tumour reduction in the patient with mixed pineoblastoma/pineocytoma. No significant morbidity or mortality occurred in any of these patients after stereotactic biopsy and brachytherapy. The technique and the advantages of this therapeutic approach to selected pineal region tumours arroach to selected pineal region tumours are described and discussed. (author)

  9. The management of pineal tumors as a model for a multidisciplinary approach in neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappaz, D; Conter, C Faure; Szathmari, A; Valsijevic, A; Mottolese, C

    2015-01-01

    The management of pineal tumors is a model for multidisciplinarity. Apart from an emergency situation that requires immediate shunting of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the initial discussion should involve at least a radiologist, a surgeon, a neurologist and an oncologist. The initial decision is whether obtaining a histological proof is obligatory. It depends on age and ethnicity, site (mono- or bifocality), presence of markers in serum as well as CSF, and/or of malignant cells in the CSF. In cases of marker elevation indicating a germ cell tumor, front line chemotherapy can avoid dangerous immediate surgery. When histological proof is required, the extent of surgery should be discussed, aiming either only at obtaining tissue or removal. If a germ cell tumor is detected, treatment will include a cisplatin-containing chemotherapy followed by focal or ventricular irradiation. Tumors of the pineal parenchyma will be treated according to grade, either by surgery alone (pinealocytoma) or chemo-radiotherapy (pinealoblastomas). Similarly, gliomas will be treated depending on their grade with several different possible lines in low grade, and usually radio-chemotherapy in high grade. A careful balance between improved survival rates and decreased long-term side effects will guide the decisions of all these specialists. PMID:24863688

  10. Use of 3D-computed tomography angiography for planning the surgical removal of pineal region meningiomas using Poppen's approach: a report of ten cases and a literature review

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    Li Ye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several treatment approaches for pineal region meningiomas, such as Poppen's approach, Krause's approach and combinations of the two approaches. We present our experience with the use of 3D-computed tomography angiography for planning the surgical removal of pineal region meningiomas using a suboccipital transtentorial approach (Poppen's approach and evaluate the role of Poppen's approach. Methods During the period from January 2005 to June 2010, ten patients presented to us with pineal region meningioma. MRI was routinely used to define the tumor size, position, and its relevant complications while 3D-CTA was applied to define the blood supply of the tumor and the venous complex (VC shift before operations. Most of the meningiomas had developed at both sides of the tentorial plane and extended laterally with typical characteristics of a pineal region tumor. Results All tumors were completely removed surgically without any injury to the VC. Postoperative intracranial infection occurred in one case who recovered after antibiotics were given. Postoperative intraventricular hemorrhage and pneumocephalus were found in one case, but fully recovered after conservative treatment. In the nine cases of concurrent hydrocephalus, this was gradually relieved in eight patients and the single case that became aggravated was successfully treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Moreover, the follow-up MRI examinations did not indicate any recurrence of the meningiomas. Conclusion We found that the use of Poppen's approach is strongly supported for the successful removal of pineal region meningiomas without serious complications.

  11. Analysis of clinical features and treatment in mature teratomas at pineal region

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    QI Gui-jun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment through occipital tentorium of cerebellum approach was performed in nine cases of mature teratoma at the pineal region. Diagnosis was confirmed by postoperative pathological examination. No perioperative death occurred. Surgery-related complications (visual difficulties, visual field defects, seizures were seen in 4 cases. All cases were followed for 3 months-7 years (mean 3.70 years. The mature teratoma at the pineal region are more common in male children. The main clinical manifestations are intracranial hypertension and ataxia. Neurosurgical treatment may provide satisfactory outcome.

  12. MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Successful treatment by chemotherapy of pineal parenchymal tumor with intermediate differentiation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Choi, Young-Jin; Seol, Young-Mi; Kahng, Dong-Hwahn; Choi, Yu-Yi; Park, Eun-Kyoung

    2013-09-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with a mass measuring 2.5 cm in size in the midbrain and obstructive hydrocephalus, which had manifested as a headache and dizziness. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain showed intermediate enhancement on T1-weighted MR imaging and a high intensity of enhancement on T2-weighted MR. Neurosurgeons performed an occipital craniotomy with partial removal of the tumor and the postoperative diagnosis was a pineal parenchymal tumor with intermediate differentiation. He had undergone irradiation with 54 Gy of radiation on 27 fractions for removal of the remaining tumor approximately one month after surgery. However, in follow-up imaging performed four months after radiotherapy, a remnant mass in the superoposterior aspect of the midbrain was found to have extended to the hypothalamus and the third ventricle. He was treated with six cycles of procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine chemotherapy. At five months since the completion of chemotherapy, the brain MR imaging showed no evidence of any remaining tumor and he no longer displayed any of his initial symptoms. PMID:24155685

  14. Malformación cavernosa de la región pineal: Caso clínico y revisión de la literatura / Cavernous malformation of the pineal region: Case report and review of the literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Chamadoira; A., Cerejo; A., Vilarinho; L., Castro; R., Vaz.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Las malformaciones cavernosas de la región pineal son raras, con solamente 21 casos publicados hasta el momento en la literatura. A pesar de la dificultad de su diagnóstico debido a su extrema rareza, la presencia de esta lesión puede ser sospechada basándonos en sus características radiológicas. Pr [...] esentamos el caso de una paciente de 57 años de edad, con un cuadro clínico de instauración aguda de desorientación, somnolencia y diplopia. La TC cerebral mostró una hemorragia aguda en la región pineal e hidrocefalia triventricular asociada y la RM cerebral fue sugestiva de que se tratase de una malformación cavernosa. La paciente fue operada con escisión total de la lesión y el estudio histológico confirmó el diagnóstico de angioma cavernoso. Concluimos que la cirugía para extracción total de la lesión es el tratamiento de elección cuando, basados en la imagen, sospechamos un angioma cavernoso de la región pineal. Abstract in english Cavernous malformations rarely occur in the pineal region with only 21 reported to date. Although its diagnosis is not easy because of the extreme rareness of this condition, the presence of this lesion can be suspected based on its typical radiological findings. We report the case of a 57-year-old [...] woman presented with desorientation, somnolence and diplopy. The CT-scan showed an acute hemorrhage in the pineal region and triventricular hydrocephalus. An MRI suggested a cavernous malformation. The patient was operated with total en-bloc removal of the lesion. We conclude that surgical exploration and total resection is the treatment of choice when the diagnosis of cavernous angioma is suspected of the basis of neuroimaging.

  15. Incidence of calcification in the pineal gland, habenular commissure and choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT scans of 3,000 consecutive normal persons were examined to verify the incidence of calcification in the pineal body, the habenular commissure, and the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle. In people over 10 years old, pineal calcification was found in 83% (male 83%, female 81%), habenular calcification in 18% (male 22%, female 60%). In people over 30 years of age, pineal calcification was found in 86%, habenular calcification in 20%, and choroid plexus calcification in 69%. There was a preponderance of male cases in almost all decades. There were four types of calcification patterns in the pineal region, including the pineal body and the habenular commissure: 1) The first type was the P type, in which the pineal body only was calcified. This type was the most frequent one. 2) The second type was the hP type. Both the habenular commissure and the pineal body were calcified, but the latter was larger. 3) The third type was the Hp type. Both the habenular commissure and the pineal body were calcified, but the former was larger. 4) The fourth type was the HP conjugated type. The calcifications of the habenular commissure and the pineal body were fused, in contrast to the three above-mentioned types, in which the two calcifications were separated. The fourth type was then classified into four subtypes. The size and shape of the calcification in the pineal region were examined in 29 pineal-region tumors and other germinoma cases. There were no specific differences in es. There were no specific differences in calcification between normal persons and the pineal region tumor cases. However, there was a tendency for the pineal body calcification in the pineal teratoma to deviate unilaterally. (author)

  16. Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor in the pineal gland and the third ventricle: a case with radiological and clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Junqing; Yang, Yong; Liu, Ying; Wei, Mengqi; Ren, Jing; Chang, Yingjuan; Huan, Yi; Yin, Hong; Xue, Yan

    2012-01-01

    A 39-year-old man presented with more than 20 years history of episodic headache and one year history of dizziness, impaired vision and memory disorders. Computed tomography and Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic mass involving the pineal gland, tectum and the third ventricle and obstruction of the aqueduct. Interestingly, the fourth ventricle was not involved in this case. The pathological diagnosis was rosette forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT). These lesions are considered low-gra...

  17. Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative values of CT attenuation, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standardized uptake value (SUV) were investigated for differentiation between pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and germinomas. Differences in age, sex, and calcification pattern were also evaluated. Twenty-three patients with PPTs and germinomas in 20 years were retrospectively enrolled under the approval of the institutional review board. CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV (20, 13, and 10 patients, respectively) were statistically compared between the two tumors. Differences in sex and patterns of calcification (''exploded'' or ''engulfed'') were also examined. Mean patient ages were compared among three groups of pineoblastoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, (PPTID) and pineocytoma and germinoma. None of the quantitative values of CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p >.05). However, there was a significant difference in age (p <.05) among the three groups of pineoblastoma (mean age ± standard deviation 7.0 ± 8.7 years), PPTID, and pineocytoma (53.7 ± 11.4 years) and germinoma (19.1 ± 8.1 years). Sex also showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p =.039). Exploded pattern of calcification was found in 9 of 11 PPT patients and engulfed pattern in 7 of 9 patients with germinomas. No reverse pattern was observed, and the patterns of calcification were considered highly specific of tumor types. None of the quantitative imaging values could differentiate PPTs from germinomas. Age, sex, and calcification patterns were confirmed useful in differentiating these tumors to some degree. (orig.)

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Brain Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment for more information about medulloblastomas in children. Pineal Parenchymal Tumors A pineal parenchymal tumor forms in ... trials is available from the NCI Web site . Pineal Astrocytic Tumors Treatment of pineal astrocytic tumors may ...

  19. Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakigi, Takahide; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Ryo; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C. [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto (Japan); Mikami, Yoshiki [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Kyoto (Japan); Shimono, Taro [Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Quantitative values of CT attenuation, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standardized uptake value (SUV) were investigated for differentiation between pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and germinomas. Differences in age, sex, and calcification pattern were also evaluated. Twenty-three patients with PPTs and germinomas in 20 years were retrospectively enrolled under the approval of the institutional review board. CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV (20, 13, and 10 patients, respectively) were statistically compared between the two tumors. Differences in sex and patterns of calcification (''exploded'' or ''engulfed'') were also examined. Mean patient ages were compared among three groups of pineoblastoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, (PPTID) and pineocytoma and germinoma. None of the quantitative values of CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p >.05). However, there was a significant difference in age (p <.05) among the three groups of pineoblastoma (mean age ± standard deviation 7.0 ± 8.7 years), PPTID, and pineocytoma (53.7 ± 11.4 years) and germinoma (19.1 ± 8.1 years). Sex also showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p =.039). Exploded pattern of calcification was found in 9 of 11 PPT patients and engulfed pattern in 7 of 9 patients with germinomas. No reverse pattern was observed, and the patterns of calcification were considered highly specific of tumor types. None of the quantitative imaging values could differentiate PPTs from germinomas. Age, sex, and calcification patterns were confirmed useful in differentiating these tumors to some degree. (orig.)

  20. Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  1. Stages of Adult Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pineal astrocytic tumor forms in tissue around the pineal gland and may be any grade. The pineal gland is a tiny organ in the brain that ... the cells that make up most of the pineal gland. These tumors are different from pineal astrocytic tumors. ...

  2. Radiation Is an Important Component of Multimodality Therapy for Pediatric Non-Pineal Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To review a historical cohort of pediatric patients with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET), to clarify the role of radiation in the treatment of these tumors. Patients and Methods: Fifteen children aged <18 years with non-pineal sPNETs diagnosed between 1992 and 2006 were identified. Initial therapy consisted of surgical resection and chemotherapy in all patients and up-front radiotherapy (RT) in 5 patients. Five patients had RT at the time of progression, and 5 received no RT whatever. Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival were then calculated. Results: The median follow-up from diagnosis for all patients was 31 months (range, 0.5-165 months) and for surviving patients was 49 months (range, 10-165). Of the 5 patients who received up-front RT, all were alive without evidence of disease at a median follow-up of 50 months (range, 25-165 months). Only 5 of the 10 patients who did not receive up-front RT were alive at last follow-up. There was a statistically significant difference in overall survival between the patient group that received up-front RT and the group that did not (p = 0.048). In addition, we found a trend toward a statistically significant improvement in overall survival for those patients who received gross total resections (p = 0.10). Conclusions: Up-front RT and gross total resection may confer a survival benefit in patients with sPNET. Local failure was the dominant pattern of recurrence. Efforts should be made to def recurrence. Efforts should be made to determine patients most likely to have local failure exclusively or as a first recurrence, in order to delay or eliminate craniospinal irradiation

  3. Pineal metastasis as first clinical manifestation of colorectal adenocarcinoma: case report / Metástase pineal como primeira manifestação clinica de adenocarcinoma colorretal: relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RICARDO, RAMINA; MAURÍCIO, COELHO NETO; WAGNER M., MARIUSHI; WALTER O., ARRUDA.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Metástases cerebrais derivadas de adenocarcinomas colorretais ocorrem em 8% dos casos. Geralmente a doença primária e as metástases em outros órgãos já são conhecidas quando do momento das manifestações neurológicas. Descrevemos um caso de metástase única na região pineal que promoveu a primeira man [...] ifestação clínica de adenocarcinoma colorretal. Uma mulher de 48 anos de idade apresentava há quinze dias de sua admissão ao nosso serviço diplopia e síndrome de Parinaud . O exame de ressonância magnética revelou lesão heterogênea localizada na região pineal. O tumor foi completamente retirado por acesso infratentorial/supracerebelar. O exame histológico revelou tumor metastático indiferenciado e o exame imuno-histoquímico demostrou adenocarcinoma do trato gastrointestinal moderadamente diferenciado. Metástases para a região pineal são extremamente raras e devem ser consideradas no diagnóstico diferencial de tumores nesta região. Abstract in english Cerebral metastases from colorectal adenocarcinomas occur in 8% of the cases. Diagnosis is usually made when primary disease and widespread metastases are already known. We report the case of a patient with single metastases in the pineal region as the first clinical manifestation of a colorectal ad [...] enocarcinoma. A 48-year-old female with Parinaud's syndrome for 15 days prior her admission was evaluated in our clinic. She had no symptoms or signs of colorectal disease. MRI examination revealed an heterogeneous lesion with peritumoral gadolinium enhancement, located in the pineal region. The tumor was radically resected through an infratentorial/supracerebellar approach. Histology showed metastatic carcinoma and immunohistochemical examination showed gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinoma. Metastases to the pineal region are extremely rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors of this region.

  4. Pineal metastasis as first clinical manifestation of colorectal adenocarcinoma: case report Metástase pineal como primeira manifestação clinica de adenocarcinoma colorretal: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO RAMINA

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metastases from colorectal adenocarcinomas occur in 8% of the cases. Diagnosis is usually made when primary disease and widespread metastases are already known. We report the case of a patient with single metastases in the pineal region as the first clinical manifestation of a colorectal adenocarcinoma. A 48-year-old female with Parinaud's syndrome for 15 days prior her admission was evaluated in our clinic. She had no symptoms or signs of colorectal disease. MRI examination revealed an heterogeneous lesion with peritumoral gadolinium enhancement, located in the pineal region. The tumor was radically resected through an infratentorial/supracerebellar approach. Histology showed metastatic carcinoma and immunohistochemical examination showed gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinoma. Metastases to the pineal region are extremely rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors of this region.Metástases cerebrais derivadas de adenocarcinomas colorretais ocorrem em 8% dos casos. Geralmente a doença primária e as metástases em outros órgãos já são conhecidas quando do momento das manifestações neurológicas. Descrevemos um caso de metástase única na região pineal que promoveu a primeira manifestação clínica de adenocarcinoma colorretal. Uma mulher de 48 anos de idade apresentava há quinze dias de sua admissão ao nosso serviço diplopia e síndrome de Parinaud . O exame de ressonância magnética revelou lesão heterogênea localizada na região pineal. O tumor foi completamente retirado por acesso infratentorial/supracerebelar. O exame histológico revelou tumor metastático indiferenciado e o exame imuno-histoquímico demostrou adenocarcinoma do trato gastrointestinal moderadamente diferenciado. Metástases para a região pineal são extremamente raras e devem ser consideradas no diagnóstico diferencial de tumores nesta região.

  5. General Information about Adult Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pineal astrocytic tumor forms in tissue around the pineal gland and may be any grade. The pineal gland is a tiny organ in the brain that ... the cells that make up most of the pineal gland. These tumors are different from pineal astrocytic tumors. ...

  6. Brain and Spinal Tumors: Hope through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the center of the brain, near the pineal gland, and can spread elsewhere in the brain and ... meningiomas. Pineal Tumors Tumors that form in the pineal gland, a small structure located between the cerebellum and ...

  7. MR imaging of pineal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer ml or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors

  8. Probing Pineal-specific Gene Expression with Transgenic Zebrafish†

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Daisuke; Dowling, John E.; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2008-01-01

    The pineal gland of zebrafish (Danio rerio) contains lightsensitive photoreceptor cells and plays an important role in the neuroendocrine system. The zebrafish exorhodopsin gene encodes a pineal-specific photoreceptive protein, whose promoter region harbors a cis-acting element, pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), directing pineal-specific gene expression. For in vivo genetic studies on PIPE-binding proteins and their regulatory mechanisms, we generated a transgenic zebrafish line, Tg...

  9. Pineal lesions: a multidisciplinary challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Manfred; Emami, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    The pineal region is a complex anatomical compartment, harbouring the pineal gland surrounded by the quadrigeminal plate and the confluents of the internal cerebral veins to form the vein of Galen. The complexity of lesions in that region, however, goes far beyond the pineal parenchyma proper. Originating in the pineal gland, there are not only benign cysts but also numerous different tumour types. In addition, lesions such as tectal gliomas, tentorial meningiomas and choroid plexus papillomas arise from the surrounding structures, occupying that regions. Furthermore, the area has an affinity for metastatic lesions. Vascular lesions complete the spectrum mainly as small tectal arteriovenous malformations or cavernous haemangiomas.Taken together, there is a wide spectrum of lesions, many unique to that region, which call for a multidisciplinary approach. The limited access and anatomical complexity have generated a spectrum of anatomical approaches and raised the interest for neuroendoscopic approaches. Equally complex is the spectrum of treatment modalities such as microsurgery as the main option but stereotactic radiosurgery as an alternative or adjuvant to surgery for selected cases, radiation as for germinoma (see below) and or combinatorial chemotherapy, which may need to precede any other ablative technique as constituents.In this context, we review the current literature and our own series to obtain a snapshot sentiment of how to approach pineal lesions, how to interrelate alternative/competing concepts and review the recent technological advances. PMID:25411146

  10. Comparison of Three Methods for the Estimation of Pineal Gland Volume Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Acer, Niyazi; Il?ca, Ahmet Turan; Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; O?zc?elik, O?zlem; Y?ld?r?m, Birdal; Turgut, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Pineal gland is a very important neuroendocrine organ with many physiological functions such as regulating circadian rhythm. Radiologically, the pineal gland volume is clinically important because it is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although many studies have estimated the pineal gland volume using different techniques, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no stereological work done on this subject. The objective of t...

  11. Space-occupying lesions in the pineal gland region in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative CT and MRI studies of 24 patients with space occupying lesions of the pinealis region were analysed. MRI demonstrated all 24 lesions, whereas CT could detect only 20 out of 24. MRI was superior to CT in assessment of size, localisation and relation to adjacent structures. No significant difference was found between CT and MRI in preoperative prediction of tumour histology. (orig.)

  12. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Levidou Georgia; Korkolopoulou Penelope; Agrogiannis George; Paidakakos Nikolaos; Bouramas Dimos; Patsouris Efstratios

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histologi...

  13. What Are Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to take hormones to make up for this. Pineal gland: The pineal gland is not really part of the brain. ... in light. The most common tumors of the pineal gland are called pineoblastomas . Blood-brain barrier: The ...

  14. Primary pineal melanoma presenting with leptomeningeal spreading in a 22-year-old woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimi Parisa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region is exceedingly rare. We report a case of primary pineal malignant melanoma and review the literature. Case presentation Our patient was a 22-year-old Iranian woman without any significant past medical history, who was referred to our center with a four-week history of headache and gait disturbance. A magnetic resonance imaging study showed a solid mass in the pineal region causing obstructive hydrocephalus. A brain biopsy was performed and the histological examination indicated melanoma. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. Our patient underwent gross total resection. At the time of discharge she had fully recovered without any neurological deficits. Three weeks after discharge, she was readmitted to hospital with the diagnosis of distal deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism; 12 weeks after the onset of her illness she died of cardiopulmonary arrest. Conclusion We have presented here a rare tumor, a primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second-youngest patient with such a tumor reported in the literature.

  15. Recently established entities of central nervous system tumors: review of radiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Shiori; Shibahara, Junji; Aoki, Shigeki; Takao, Hidemasa; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2008-01-01

    Several new entities of central nervous system tumors have been established in the past decade. By reviewing our cases and previous reports, we describe 4 neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors (papillary glioneuronal tumor, extraventricular neurocytoma, rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle, and glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands), angiocentric glioma and papillary tumor of the pineal region, with an attempt to explain the pathological basis of the imaging features. PMID:18379318

  16. Elements in the human pineal body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    100 human pineal bodies (=epiphyses, =pineal glands) were examined by neutron activation analysis for the concentration of Ca, K, Na, Rb, Fe, Co, Se and Zn. Comparing the results with the values from other brain areas, the Ca-content was 90 times higher, Co-content was double and Zn-concentration three times as high as those in the brain. The K, Na, Rb, Fe and Se values were found to be similar to those of other brain regions. Element concentration and age gave no significant correlation for the elements investigated. The K-content was taken as a parameter for cellular vitality and the pineal bodies were grouped into three classes of vitality. The normal K and Na, and the varying trace element concentrations refer to some specific biochemical and physiological functions of the organ. (author)

  17. Pineal germinoma in a child with interferon-? receptor 1 deficiency. case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramasso, L; Boisson-Dupuis, S; Garrè, M L; Bondi, E; Cama, A; Nozza, P; Morana, G; Casanova, J L; Marazzi, M G

    2014-11-01

    Interferon-? receptor 1 (IFN-?R1) deficiency is one of the primary immunodeficiencies conferring Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD). Some cases of neoplasms have been recently reported in patients with MSMD, underlying the already known link between immunodeficiency and carcinogenesis. We report the first case of intracranial tumour, i.e. pineal germinoma, in a 11-year-old patient with complete IFN-?R1 deficiency. The first clinical presentation of the genetic immunodeficiency dates back to when the child was aged 2 y and 10 mo, when he presented a multi-focal osteomyelitis caused by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. The diagnosis of IFN-?R1 deficiency (523delT/523delT in IFNGR1 gene) was subsequently made. The child responded to antibiotic therapy and remained in stable clinical condition until the age of 11 years, when he started complaining of frontal, chronic headache. MRI revealed a solid pineal region mass lesion measuring 20 × 29 × 36 mm. Histological findings revealed a diagnosis of pineal germinoma. The patient received chemotherapy followed by local whole ventricular irradiation with boost on pineal site, experiencing complete remission, and to date he is tumor-free at four years follow-up. Four other cases of tumors have been reported in patients affected by MSMD in our knowledge: a case of Kaposi sarcoma, a case of B-cell lymphoma, a case of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and a case of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In conclusion, in patients with MSMD, not only the surveillance of infectious diseases, but also that of tumors is important. PMID:25216720

  18. Biosynthesis of taurine by rat pineals in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineal glands from adult, male rats were incubated in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer buffer containing 14C-cystine. After three hours the incubation media and pineal gland extracts were placed separately on Dowex AG W50-X-4 columns. In the elution volume where 14C-labeled taurine is found a labeled peak was recovered. However, when subjected to one or two dimensional paper chromatography especially the eluants from pineal gland extracts yielded two 14C-labeled substances one located in the region where unlabeled taurine is detected by ortho-phthalaldehyde reagent. These results were confirmed utilizing a method developed in our laboratory based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pineals, as well as their respective incubation medium, were shown to contain radioactive taurine. These results demonstrate that rat pineal glands are capable of taurine synthesis. Also a high degree of labeling was associated with an area on paper chromatograms, migrating more rapidly than the standards, using acidic solvent systems. If represented by a single pineal compound, the substance must be rapidly synthesized from 14C-cystine to account for the radioactivity observed. Future studies of sulfur metabolism within the pineal gland could be of significant interest. (author)

  19. Pineal calcification on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineal gland visible in plain skull radiography when calcified had been an important indicator for evaluation of any space, occupying lesion within cranium according to displacement of it from normal midline position. Since the pineal gland is more frequently demonstrated on CT scan than plain skull radiography, it seems helpful to define the incidence and localization of pineal gland. 324 patients, performed head CT scan are analyzed incidence and localization of calcified pineal gland. The results were as follows: 1. The overall incidence of pineal calcification was 51%. 2. The male and female ratio in pineal calcification was 56% to 43%. 3. 1) In the AP localization of pineal gland, the ratio of distance from anterior inner table of the skull to the pineal gland and that from pineal gland to the posterior inner table was 1.46 ± 0.20. 2) In the lateral localization of pineal gland, according to 'Lateral Percentage Shift' by Hahn and Rim (1976), the result was 0.98% shift in 80 normal cases, but 2.20% shift in 38 cases with S.O.L

  20. Pinealitis accompanying equine recurrent uveitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kalsow, C. M.; Dwyer, A. E.; Smith, A. W.; Nifong, T. P.

    1993-01-01

    There is no direct verification of pineal gland involvement in human uveitis. Specimens of pineal tissue are not available during active uveitis in human patients. Naturally occurring uveitis in horses gives us an opportunity to examine tissues during active ocular inflammation. We examined the pineal gland of a horse that was killed because it had become blind during an episode of uveitis. The clinical history and histopathology of the eyes were consistent with post-leptospiral equine recurr...

  1. Structure and ultrastructure of the pigmented cells in the adult dog pineal gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, J.; Boya, J.; Garcia-maurin?o, J. E.; Lopez-carbonell, A.

    1988-01-01

    The light and electron microscopic features of pigmented cells in the adult dog pineal gland have been described. The presence of pigmented cells was a constant characteristic of the dog pineal gland, though wide variations in the amount of pigment could be found among different animals. Conversely, the localisation of pigmented cells was very constant on the basal surface of the proximal region of the pineal gland. Frequently, clusters of pigmented cells were seen in the posterior commissure...

  2. Prognostic Significance of P53 Protein, Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in Pineal Parenchymal Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagihan YALCIN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pineal parenchymal tumours are very rare consisting less than 0.1% of all central nervous system tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of Ki-67, cyclin D1 and p53 protein expressions in pineal parenchymal tumours. Ten pineal parenchymal tumours were investigated: 2 pineocytomas, 5 pineal parenchymal tumour of intermediate differentiation and 3 pineoblastomas . Immunohistochemical staining was performed using avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The number of mitoses ranged from 0-25 in pineal parenchymal tumour of intermediate differentiation and 2-30 in pineoblastomas. In general, Ki-67 was found between 0-53.5 %, cyclin D1 was found between 0-40%, p53 was found between 0-4% in pineal parenchymal tumors. In pineal parenchymal tumour of intermediate differentiation, positive staining rates for Ki-67, cyclin D1 and p53 were found as 4-17.5%, 2-30% and 0-4%, respectively. In pineoblastomas, Ki-67, cyclin D1 and p53 were found as 9.2-53.5%, 5-40% and 1-2%, respectively. The number of mitoses was not significant for the prognosis in pineal parenchymal tumors. The very low level of p53 protein made us think that it does not play an active role in the development of these tumours

  3. Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuyoshi Tsutsui

    2014-01-01

    The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demon...

  4. The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; MØller, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk are also reduced in size. Although the brains of neonatal Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice appear normal, severe hydrocephalus develops in about 70 % of the Lhx9 (-/-) mice at 5-8 weeks of age; these observations are the first to document that deletion of Lhx9 results in hydrocephalus and as such indicate that Lhx9 contributes to the maintenance of normal brain structure. Whereas hydrocephalus is absent in neonatal Lhx9 (-/-)mutant mice, the neonatal pineal gland in these animals is hypoplastic. Accordingly, it appears that Lhx9 is essential for early development of the mammalian pineal gland and that this effect is not secondary to hydrocephalus.

  5. A case of pineal teratoma with intraventricular free fat on CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of an intraventricular or intratumoral fat-fluid level on the plain craniograms has been known as a characteristic sign indicating the presence of intracranial teratomatous tumors. On CT scans, however, only thirteen cases have been previously reported to be found an intraventricular and/or subarachnoid free fat associated with spontaneous ruptures of these tumors. We reported a case of pineal teratoma with intraventricular free-fat seen on CT scans. A nine-year-old male with precocious puberty was admitted to our hospital complaining a moderate nonpulsatile headache. Neurological examinations were normal without signs of meningeal irritation. The serum and CSF titer of HCG were raised markedly. The laboratory data of the CSF were normal and there were no pathological cells in the CSF. The CT scans revealed a large heterogeneous mass containing multiple areas of negative density in the pineal region. There were negative density droplets in the bilateral frontal horn on the same CT scans indicating a presence of free fats. At surgery, an yellowish oily material was drained from the tumor, but there was no sign of meningitis over the cortical surface of the occipital lobe. An intraventricular free fat on CT scan have been reported in fourteen cases including ours following the first case described by Fawcitt in 1976. Although most of the cases presented headache, only two cases was diagnosed clinically as chemical meningitis. Pathological changes indicating grngitis. Pathological changes indicating granulomatous meningitis, however, were noted in five cases, all of them presenting seizure attacks. (author)

  6. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2014-12-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity. PMID:25487536

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined on seventeen patients with brain tumors. Ring type single photon emission CT (SPECT) was used following intravenous injection of 133Xe. Case materials included eleven meningiomas and six malignant gliomas. Evaluation was performed with emphasis on the following points; 1. Correlation of the flow data within tumors to the angiographic tumor stains, 2. Influence of tumors on the cerebral blood flow of the normal brain tissue, 3. Correlation between degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemispheres. There was significant correlation between flow data within tumors and angiographic tumor stains in meningiomas. Influence of tumors on cerebral blood flow of the normal tissue was greater in meningiomas than in gliomas. There was negative correlation between the degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemisphere. It has been concluded that the measurement of CBF in brain tumors is a valuable method in evaluation of brain tumors. (author)

  8. Morphological findings relating to the problem of cortex and medulla in the pineal glands of rat and hamster.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidbu?chel, U.; Vollrath, L.

    1983-01-01

    Because, in previous investigations on the rat pineal gland, karyometric studies of pinealocytes from cortical and medullary regions had yielded contradictory results, experiments were carried out to resolve this problem. In immersion-fixed, paraffin-embedded pineal glands, nuclear size of cortical regions was invariably larger than that in the medulla, the nuclear size clearly depending on the plane of sectioning. The differences between cortex and medulla were abolished in (a) pineal glands...

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow in various types of brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 23 patients with brain tumors using the 133Xe intra-carotid injection method and a 254 channel gamma camera. The glioblastomas (4) and astrocytomas (4) all showed hyperemia in the tumor and tumor-near region. This was also seen in several meningiomas (4 of 7 cases) in which most of the tumor itself did not recieve any isotope. Brain metastases (6) usually had a low flow in the tumor and the tumor-near region. The glioblastomas tended to show markedly bending 133Xe wash-out curves pointing to pronounced heterogeneity of blood flow. Most of the flow maps, regardless of of the tumor types, showed widespread abnormalities of rCBF not only in the tumor region but also in the region remote from the tumor. It is concluded that measurement of rCBF cannot yield accurate differential diagnostic information, but that the widespread derangement of the brain tissue function can be revealed even in the case of fairly small size tumors. (author)

  10. General Information About Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... germ cell tumors to form is near the pineal gland and in an area of the brain ... of the inside of the brain, showing the pineal and pituitary glands, optic nerve, ventricles (with cerebrospinal ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... germ cell tumors to form is near the pineal gland and in an area of the brain ... of the inside of the brain, showing the pineal and pituitary glands, optic nerve, ventricles (with cerebrospinal ...

  12. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in mandibular region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon neoplasm derivative of the odontogenic epithelium containing canalicular structures with inductor modifications of variable intensity in the conjunctival tissue. It is a slow growth lesion and no much invasive but that may to be similar to other odontogenic lesions more aggressive including the dentigerous cyst and the ameloblastoma among others. Its classical location (upper canine area) guides us to diagnosis and its duct histological pattern is very typical of this tumor. Other tumors included in this group are the ameloblastic fibroma, the ameloblastic odontoma, the calcified odontogenic cyst and composed and complex odontomas. This group of lesions may or not to have formations of hard tissue inside. Thus, authors present the case of a patient presenting with this type of tumor making a histopathology study, a literature review on this benign odontogenic tumor and its clinical radiographic features, treatment, as well as the differential diagnoses to be into account. (author)

  13. Tumors in the region of the sella turcica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumors of the pituitary gland can lead to limitation of hypophysis function (hypophysis insufficiency) or hypersecretion of different hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, prolactinoma, TSH-secreting adenoma). The optic chiasma lies in close proximity to the pituitary gland and can be compressed by tumors leading to visual disturbances (bilateral hemianopsia). Tumors can be separated into hormone secreting and hormone inactive tumors, as well as into microadenoma with a diameter 10 mm. A rare group of tumors of the hypophysis region are craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germinomas, gliomas, metastases and granulomotous inflammations, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. (orig.)

  14. The effects of lesions of the thalamic intergeniculate leaflet on the pineal metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla-Neto, J; Bartol, I; Seraphim, P M; Afeche, S C; Scialfa, J H; Peraçoli, A M

    1995-09-11

    The aim of the present work was to study, in rats, the effects of lesions of the thalamic intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) and the deep pineal/lamina intercalaris region (DP) on the diurnal profile of N-acetylserotonin (NAS) and on the nocturnal pineal reactivity to acute retinal light stimulation (1 or 15 min). The 24-h experiment shows that there is no phase-shifting on the diurnal NAS curve of groups of rats with bilateral IGL lesion compared to the controls. On the other hand there is a significant reduction on the amplitude of pineal NAS content observed in every nocturnal point of the curve. The pineal glands of IGL-lesioned rats, after 1 min of retinal light stimulation, keep their NAS content equal to the lesioned dark-killed rats. Nonetheless, after 15 min of photostimulation, the pineal NAS content is reduced to nearly zero equally to the control animals. DP lesion does not modify the content of NAS in the pineal gland of rats killed in the dark. However, the pineal photo-inhibition process induced by 1 min of light exposure is impaired. These results suggest that: (1) the intergeniculate leaflet has a role in regulating the amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of pineal NAS production rather than its phase entrainment to light-dark cycle. This effect is not dependent on the direct geniculo-pineal connections. (2) The nocturnal pineal photo-inhibition phenomenon could be decomposed in two processes. One, triggered by short pulses of light and totally dependent on the IGL and partially dependent on the direct monosynaptic pathway between this structure and the pineal gland.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8590045

  15. Regional cerebral blood volume of intracranial tumors determined by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to characterize intracranial tumors based on MR measurements of regional cerebral blood volume. In 8 patients without intracranial pathology and 42 patients with intracranial tumors a T2'-weighted image series was acquired during bolus injection of gadolinium-DTPA, and regional cerebral blood volume maps were calculated. The regional cerebral blood volume index (rCBVi) of vital tumor was expressed in percent of the value measured in contralateral gray matter. In extra-axial tumors (meningiomas) rCBVi was higher (124 ± 110%), and in low-grade intra axial tumors rCBVi was lower (79 ± 65%), than in contralateral cortex. In malignant intra-axial tumors the distribution of rCBV was heterogeneous: high in vital tumor (glioblastomas: rCBVi = 165 ± 85%; metastases: rCBVi = 106 ± 79%), but low in necrosis (rCBVi = 33% of contralateral white matter) and edema (rCBVi = 53% of contralateral white matter). rCBVi was highest in arteriovenous malformations (1053 ± 584% of contralateral gray matter). We conclude that regional cerebral blood volume and the degree of heterogeneity of blood volume distribution is useful to characterize intracranial tumors, although the large biological variability of individual tumor entities indicates limitations. (orig.)

  16. A pineal regulatory element (PIRE) mediates transactivation by the pineal/retina-specific transcription factor CRX

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaodong; Chen, Shiming; Wang, Qingliang; Zack, Donald J.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Borjigin, Jimo

    1998-01-01

    The circadian hormone melatonin is synthesized predominantly in the pineal gland by the actions of two pineal-specific enzymes: serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT). Pineal night-specific ATPase (PINA), another pineal- and night-specific protein we recently identified, is produced as a truncated form of the Wilson disease gene (Atp7b) product. To identify the regulatory elements required for pineal-specific gene expression, we isolated sequences up...

  17. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levidou Georgia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland.

  18. Trace element concentrations in the human pineal body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred human pineal bodies obtained from 56 males and 44 females were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis for trace element concentrations of cobalt, iron, rubidium, selenium and zinc. The results indicated that the measured element concentrations were not related to body surface, age or fresh weight. Moreover, the mean absolute cobalt value from 97 pineal bodies was elevated by a factor of 1.43 over the mean absolute concentration value of 257 other brain areas. The mean zinc content was found to be 3.7-fold higher than the mean zinc value from 269 other brain samples. The iron values from various brain areas did not differ from those of the pineal body. Whereas pineal selenium was slightly higher, rubidium was lower than in other brain regions. By correlating the different element concentrations with each other, a positive correlation was found for selenium and rubidium and a negative correlation for cobalt and zinc. The present data suggest that the measured trace elements are somehow related to specific roles in the physiology and biochemistry of the pineal body. This is supported by the constancy of element concentration over a wide range of increasing fresh weights of the organ. It is suggested that the measured trace elements zinc, cobalt and iron are involved as constituents of enzymes in the betabolism of amino acids, peptides and proteins of the pineal body. Moreover, the conspicuously high zinc content of this organ may be relhigh zinc content of this organ may be related to a so-far undetected neurotransmitter. (author)

  19. Autoradiographic demonstration of target cells for the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in the rat pineal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male rats received [3H]aldosterone 30 min before sacrifice. Autoradiograms were prepared from brain and pineal gland by a thaw-mount technique. Grain counting revealed that the pineal retained 4 times as much radioactivity as brain regions with tight capillaries. Using an appropriate method of quantitative autoradiogram evaluation, it was shown that in adrenalectomized animals, but not after shamoperiation, 28% of the pinealocytes concentrated the steroid in their nuclei. This is the first demonstration of saturable mineralocorticoid binding in the pineal gland. (author)

  20. Tumores não hipofisários da região selar Nonpituitary tumors of the sellar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro A. Czepielewski

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A hipófise, a sela túrcica e a região peri-selar podem ser acometidas por uma série de lesões, incluindo tumores benignos e malignos, bem como uma ampla variedade de doenças não neoplásicas. Os aspectos clínicos e radiológicos podem auxiliar no diagnóstico diferencial destas lesões. Porém, em muitos casos, somente a análise histopatológica pode estabelecer o diagnóstico definitivo. Neste artigo, revisamos principais tumores não hipofisários da região selar e peri-selar, ressaltando seus aspectos endócrinos mais relevantes.The pituitary gland, sella turcica and the parasellar region can be involved by a wide variety of lesions, including benign and malignant neoplasms as well as a wide variety of non neoplastic tumor-like lesions. Clinical and radiological aspects could help in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. Nevertheless, in many cases only the histopathological analysis could establish the definitive diagnosis. In this paper, we review the nonpituitary tumors of the sellar region emphasizing the associated hormonal disturbances.

  1. Long-term clinical outcome in patients with pineal germinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively analyzed the long-term clinical course of 10 patients with pineal germinomas to determine the best treatment modality for achieving a good outcome. Subjects were treated at the Gunma University Hospital between 1980 and 1998, given a total dose of 40-50 Gy (mean: 49 Gy) delivered under a conventional fractionation schedule. Tumors had shrunk at 20 Gy in all 10 patients. Mean follow-up was 13.5 years (162 months, range, 59 to 268 months). Five-year survival for the group was 100%. None experienced intracranial disease recurrence. No new abnormalities in internal secretion considered to be due to radiotherapy were seen. Karnofsky performance scales (KPS) for 8 of the 10 were 100. KPS of the remaining 2 were 80, including easy fatiguability, mild ataxia, and recent memory disturbance. Administration of doses of 50 Gy for pineal germinoma is adequate for controlling the tumor over the long term but may reduce the patientis quality of life. Further study is therefore needed to determine the optimal dosage for pineal germinoma. (author)

  2. The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten; Fu, Cong; Clokie, Samuel J; Zykovich, Artem; Coon, Steven L; Klein, David C; Rath, Martin F

    2015-05-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk are also reduced in size. Although the brains of neonatal Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice appear normal, severe hydrocephalus develops in about 70 % of the Lhx9 (-/-) mice at 5-8 weeks of age; these observations are the first to document that deletion of Lhx9 results in hydrocephalus and as such indicate that Lhx9 contributes to the maintenance of normal brain structure. Whereas hydrocephalus is absent in neonatal Lhx9 (-/-)mutant mice, the neonatal pineal gland in these animals is hypoplastic. Accordingly, it appears that Lhx9 is essential for early development of the mammalian pineal gland and that this effect is not secondary to hydrocephalus. PMID:24647753

  3. Bistable UV pigment in the lamprey pineal

    OpenAIRE

    Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Kawano, Emi; Kinugawa, Yoshimi; Oishi, Tadashi; Shichida, Yoshinori; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Terakita, Akihisa

    2004-01-01

    Lower vertebrates can detect UV light with the pineal complex independently of eyes. Electrophysiological studies, together with chromophore extraction analysis, have suggested that the underlying pigment in the lamprey pineal exhibits a bistable nature, that is, reversible photoreaction by UV and visible light, which is never achieved by known UV pigments. Here we addressed the molecular identification of the pineal UV receptor. Our results showed that the long-hypothesized pigment is a lamp...

  4. Circadian Regulation of Pineal Gland Rhythmicity

    OpenAIRE

    Borjigin, Jimo; Zhang, L. Samantha; Calinescu, Anda-alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (1) local control of serotonin and melatonin rhythms; (2) neurotransmitters involved in central control of melatonin; (3) plasticity o...

  5. Transcriptome analysis of the zebrafish pineal gland

    OpenAIRE

    Toyama, Reiko; Chen, Xiongfong; Jhawar, Nupur; Aamar, Emil; Epstein, Jonathan; Reany, Nir; Alon, Shahar; Gothilf, Yoav; Klein, David; Dawid, Igor B.

    2009-01-01

    The zebrafish pineal gland (epiphysis) is a site of melatonin production, contains photoreceptor cells, and functions as a circadian clock pace maker. Here we have used microarray technology to study the zebrafish pineal transcriptome. Analysis of gene expression at three larval and two adult stages revealed a highly dynamic transcriptional profile, revealing many genes that are highly expressed in the zebrafish pineal gland. Statistical analysis of the data based on Gene Ontology annotation ...

  6. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M.; Rohde, Kristian; Coon, Steven L.; Litman, Thomas; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. Here, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse p...

  7. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a > 2-fold down-regulation of 543 genes and a > 2-fold up-regulation of 745 genes (p < 0.05). Of these, one of the most highly up-regulated (18-fold) was Hoxc4, a member of the Hox gene family, members of which are known to control gene expression cascades. During a 24-h period, a set of 51 genes exhibited differential day/night expression in pineal glands of wild-type animals; only eight of these were also day/night expressed in the Crx-/- pineal gland. However, in the Crx-/- pineal gland 41 genes exhibited differential night/day expression that was not seen in wild-type animals. These findings indicate that Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome and also influences differential night/day gene expression in this tissue. Some effects of Crx deletion on the pineal transcriptome might be mediated by Hoxc4 up-regulation.

  8. Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples

    OpenAIRE

    CALDAS JOSÉ GUILHERME; DOYON DOMINIQUE; LEDERMAN HENRIQUE; CARLIER ROBERT

    1998-01-01

    Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo) identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4%) e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu maior diâmetro. Os ...

  9. DETECTION OF TUMOR REGION USING FAST FUZZY CLUSTERING ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms.A.Dhivya (ME

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is a medical imaging technique for measuring the anatomy and functions of the body in detail to providing information of the brain and the brain stem. To understand the complex segmentation among the brain regions we propose a fuzzy clustering algorithm. The algorithm starts with globally denoising the brain images using Kernel algorithm. Next, region will be segmented using the FFC (Fast Fuzzy Clustering algorithms and detecting the tumor region and type of disease will be detected.. The results suggest that the proposed algorithms provide improved performance and segmentation accuracy compared to the existing algorithms.

  10. Endoscopically Assisted Removal of Tumors in the Frontal Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Tzung Chen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advancements in endoscopic surgery, due in part to patient demands and inpart to provision of superior medical care by surgeons, have significantlycontributed to improvements in patients' quality of life. An endoscopic operationis minimally invasive, associated with faster recovery, and producesless postoperative morbidity. It is a well-accepted procedure in the field ofplastic surgery. By applying the principle of endoscopic surgery used infacelift operations, we performed tumor excision in the forehead region.Methods: Two 1.5-cm slit incisions were made in the anterior hairline. One incisionwas to allow access for the 4.0-mm, 30° endoscope, and the other was forsurgical instrumentation. These incisions, determined by the plane of dissection,were more superficial and below the subgaleal layer for soft tissuetumors and deeper into the subperiosteal layer for bone tumors. With goodillumination and magnified monitor viewing, the tumors could clearly bevisualized and were completely excised.Results: Seven patients with either dermoid cysts (3, osteomas (2, or lipomas (2underwent endoscopically assisted procedures. In all cases, tumors were successfullyexcised with no acute or chronic complications. The average postoperativefollow-up period was 7 months. No incidence of tumor recurrencewas reported. All patients were satisfied with the resultant forehead contourand surgical scars.Conclusions: The main advantage of this procedure is the fact that it is minimally invasive,thus reducing the incidence of injury to the neurovascular structures of theforehead as well as minimization of scar visibility. In conclusion, an endoscope-assisted approach is a good alternative method for managing benignsoft-tissue and bone tumors in the forehead and brow region.

  11. Malignant tumors arising in the maxillary region after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although radiotherapy has proven of great therapeutic value in the treatment of malignant tumors, it should also be borne in mind that radiation has a serious potential risk of giving rise to a secondary malignancy. We recently experienced 2 cases each of carcinoma and sarcoma arising in the irradiated areas long after radiation therapy for malignant tumors. In these 4 cases, 2 males and 2 females, the primary neoplastic diseases were squamous cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, carcinoma of unknown pathology and malignant lymphoma, and the secondary tumors were epidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, respectively. The sites of occurrence of these malignancies were invariably in the maxillary region; the mean latent period was 15 years, aside from an infantile case with a latent period of 5 years. In view of the primary diseases being malignant tumors the following criteria were set up for the diagnosis of radiation-induced malignancies: (1) the site of occurrence is within the confines of a previously irradiated area, (2) the latent period is prolonged and (3) the malignancy occurs as a double tumor. Therapy was primarily by operation. The prognosis was exceedingly ominous, the average survival time being 22 months. This was probably and mainly because of rapidity of tumor growth. Thus, the secondary tumors had already spread back to inward by the time they were first discovered. This should be kept in mind during a long-term should be kept in mind during a long-term follow-up of patients receiving radiotherapy for malignancy. (author)

  12. Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tsutsui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demonstrated the biological action of pineal allopregnanolone on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum during development in juvenile birds. Pinealectomy (Px induces apoptosis of Purkinje cells, whereas allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks prevents cell death. Furthermore, Px increases the number of Purkinje cells that express active caspase-3, a crucial mediator of apoptosis, and allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks decreases the number of Purkinje cells expressing active caspase-3. It thus appears that pineal allopregnanolone prevents cell death of Purkinje cells by suppressing the activity of caspase-3 during development. This paper highlights new aspects of the biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone.

  13. Tumores não hipofisários da região selar / Nonpituitary tumors of the sellar region

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauro A., Czepielewski; Guilherme A.F.S., Rollin; Alessandra, Casagrande; Marcelo Paglioli, Ferreira; Nelson P., Ferreira.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A hipófise, a sela túrcica e a região peri-selar podem ser acometidas por uma série de lesões, incluindo tumores benignos e malignos, bem como uma ampla variedade de doenças não neoplásicas. Os aspectos clínicos e radiológicos podem auxiliar no diagnóstico diferencial destas lesões. Porém, em muitos [...] casos, somente a análise histopatológica pode estabelecer o diagnóstico definitivo. Neste artigo, revisamos principais tumores não hipofisários da região selar e peri-selar, ressaltando seus aspectos endócrinos mais relevantes. Abstract in english The pituitary gland, sella turcica and the parasellar region can be involved by a wide variety of lesions, including benign and malignant neoplasms as well as a wide variety of non neoplastic tumor-like lesions. Clinical and radiological aspects could help in the differential diagnosis of these lesi [...] ons. Nevertheless, in many cases only the histopathological analysis could establish the definitive diagnosis. In this paper, we review the nonpituitary tumors of the sellar region emphasizing the associated hormonal disturbances.

  14. Corpus pineale og MR billeddiagnostik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla GØbel

    2014-01-01

    The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists. New studies suggest a correlation between CP-morphology and melatonin secretion as well as a connection between melatonin, disturbed circadian rhythm, and the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, underlining the need for a standardized approach to CP on MRI.

  15. [MRI of the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Siebner, Hartwig; Garde, Ellen

    2014-11-10

    The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists. New studies suggest a correlation between CP-morphology and melatonin secretion as well as a connection between melatonin, disturbed circadian rhythm, and the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, underlining the need for a standardized approach to CP on MRI. PMID:25394927

  16. CT and MRI findings in patients with suprasellar germ cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a retrospective analysis of CT and MRI findings in suprasellar germ cell tumors. The study population was comprised of 6 patients with germinomas, one with embryonal carcinoma, and one with mature teratoma. Suprasellar germinoma tended to have intratumoral low density on CT or intensity area on MRI, indicating tumor necrosis or occasionally cyst formation. Germinoma tissue may extend into the pituitary fossa. Sagittal MRI revealed that the extension was limited to the posterior part of the pituitary gland. MRI of the teratoma did not demonstrate extension of the tumor into the pituitary fossa. No germ cell tumor in this region was seen as calcification. Germinoma in this region did not always show marked homogeneous enhancement. These neuroradiological findings failed to determine subtypes of germ cell tumors. Two patients had germinomas in both the pineal and suprasellar areas. Two years after the total removal of pineal teratoma, it recurred in the suprasellar region that was not seen on the first MRI. In these two patients, germinomas called 'double midline tumors' seemed to have originated by CSF dissemination or subependymal seeding, which was not demonstrated on neuroradiological images. The teratoma case was thought to be one form of double midline tumor, because the first tumor tissue in the pineal region had been totally and extracapsulary removed two years earlier and the suprasellar lesion could not be demonstrated on sagittal MRI or CT scans. In costrated on sagittal MRI or CT scans. In conclusion, not only neuroradiological findings but also clinical findings such as tumor markers may be required in preoperative diagnosis of suprasellar germ cell tumors. (N.K.)

  17. Pineal thyroid relationship in psychic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineal hormone and thyroid functions, were studied simultaneously in rats after the induction of acute psychic stress as well as exogenous administration of melatonin, thyroxine and also after thyroidectomy. A gradual increase in 131I uptake, serum PBI and melatonin levels were observed in blood, reaching maximum on 8th day of psychic stress. Melatonin administration resulted in hypothyroidism whereas thyroxine increased the activity of pineal qland. Thyroidectomy revealed a gradual decrease in melatonin content of pineal gland whereas supplementation with thyroxine resulted in a melatonin content similar to that observed in sham operated (control) group. (author)

  18. NeuroD1: developmental expression and regulated genes in the rodent pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Estela M; Bailey, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    NeuroD1/BETA2, a member of the bHLH transcription factor family, is known to influence the fate of specific neuronal, endocrine and retinal cells. We report here that NeuroD1 mRNA is highly abundant in the developing and adult rat pineal gland. Pineal expression begins in the 17-day embryo at which time it is also detectable in other brain regions. Expression in the pineal gland increases during the embryonic period and is maintained thereafter at levels equivalent to those found in the cerebellum and retina. In contrast, NeuroD1 mRNA decreases markedly in non-cerebellar brain regions during development. Pineal NeuroD1 levels are similar during the day and night, and do not appear to be influenced by sympathetic neural input. Gene expression analysis of the pineal glands from neonatal NeuroD1 knockout mice identifies 127 transcripts that are down-regulated (>twofold, p twofold, p <0.05). According to quantitative RT-PCR, the most dramatically down-regulated gene is kinesin family member 5C ( approximately 100-fold) and the most dramatically up-regulated gene is glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 ( approximately fourfold). Other impacted transcripts encode proteins involved in differentiation, development, signal transduction and trafficking. These findings represent the first step toward elucidating the role of NeuroD1 in the rodent pinealocyte.

  19. Postnatal development of the dog pineal gland. Light microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, J. L.; Boya, J.; Garci?a-maurin?o, A.; Lo?pez Carbonell, A.

    1990-01-01

    The light microscopical morphology of the dog pineal gland from the first postnatal day to maturity is described. In the first postnatal week, the pineal parenchyma shows immature cells and many mitotic figures. In this week, pigmented cells are obsemed for the first time, both in the pineal gland and in extrapineal nodules. Throughout the second week, the pineal parenchyma shows a cordonal pattern that disappears progressively in the following stages. From the...

  20. Pineal proteins upregulate specific antioxidant defense systems in the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti, Vijay K.; Srivastava, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL), the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins (PP) on the antioxidant defense sys...

  1. Pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), a cis-acting element, directs pineal-specific gene expression in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Asaoka, Yoichi; Mano, Hiroaki; Kojima, Daisuke; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2002-01-01

    The pineal gland, sharing morphological and biochemical similarities with the retina, plays a unique and central role in the photoneuroendocrine system. The unique development of the pineal gland is directed by a specific combination of the expressed genes, but little is known about the regulatory mechanism underlying the pineal-specific gene expression. We isolated a 1.1-kbp fragment upstream of the zebrafish exo-rhodopsin (exorh) gene, which is expressed specifically in the pineal gland. Tr...

  2. Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin F; Muñoz, Estela

    2006-01-01

    Otx2 is a vertebrate homeobox gene, which has been found to be essential for the development of rostral brain regions and appears to play a role in the development of retinal photoreceptor cells and pinealocytes. In this study, the temporal expression pattern of Otx2 was revealed in the rat brain, with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages. Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland. Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression pattern similar to that of Otx2, although there was a distinct lag in time of onset. Otx2 protein was identified in pineal extracts and found to be localized in pinealocytes. Total pineal Otx2 mRNA did not show day-night variation, nor was it influenced by removal of the sympathetic input, indicating that the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland. Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes associated with phototransduction and melatonin synthesis.

  3. Pineal control of aging: effect of melatonin and pineal grafting on aging mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierpaoli, W.; Regelson, W.

    1994-01-01

    Dark-cycle, night administration of the pineal hormone melatonin in drinking water to aging mice (15 months of age) prolongs survival of BALB/c females from 23.8 to 28.1 months and preserves aspects of their youthful state. Similar results were seen in New Zealand Black females beginning at 5 months and C57BL/6 males beginning at 19 months. As melatonin is produced in circadian fashion from the pineal, we grafted pineals from young 3- to 4-month-old donors into the thymus of 20-month-old syng...

  4. Pineal cyst: study with magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of magnetic resonance (MR) as a diagnostic technique in central nervous system pathology has made possible the detection of structures that are hard to view with other diagnostic methods. In 21 patients in whom the existence of pineal cyst was detected by chance, we describe the study technique employed and present the MR characterization. In the absence of specific clinical symptoms and sings, the differential diagnosis of this pathology, with respect to other neoplastic formations located in the pineal gland, is based on its typical location behind the third ventricle, its size, which does not vary in the different serial studies, and its signal intensity. (author)

  5. Comparison of some peptidic and proteic ovine pineal fractions with a bovine pineal E5 fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using rather simple and mild extraction and separation methods, three ovine pineal fractions (XM 300R - PP 7.2, PP 7.2' and PP 7.2S) were obtained, which contain peptidic/proteic substances and which show fluorescence characteristics of indoles. The ovine fractions were compared with the bovine pineal E5-fraction. The ovine fractions are chemically sensitive to normal laboratory light and stable in red light (#betta# > 600 nm). Immunologically, these fractions and the bovine E5 fraction are stable. From the results of radioimmunological experiments it was concluded that the bovine pineal E5 fraction as well as the ovine pineal fraction XM 300R - PP 7.2 and PP 7.2S may contain (a) peptide(s) ending by the same carboxy terminal tripeptide Pro-Arg-Gly(NH2). (Author)

  6. The embryonic pineal body as a multipotent organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Araki, M; Iwasaki, H

    1992-05-01

    The repertoire of differentiating potency of mammalian and avian pineal cells has been examined utilizing cell culture technique. Skeletal muscle fibers are differentiated from pineal cells of the rat under the usual culture condition and from those of quail under hypertonic conditions. Myogenesis of pineal cells may be explained from the ontogeny of the pineal body. Anlagen of a pineal body are situated in bilateral cephalic neural folds, which also supply multipotent neural crest cells. In some conditions, almost all quail pineal cells are able to differentiate into pigmented epithelial cells and/or lens cells. Opsin containing cells found in culture of rat pineal cells may be in a similar category reflecting the "third eye": the phylogenetic ancestor of the pineal body of avian and mammalian species. Neuron-like cells have also been reported and neuronal morphology has been intensified under the effect of testicular hyaluronidase. The cytodifferentiation described above is suggested to be different expressions of a single type of progenitor cells in the pineal body. In relation to multipotentiality of pineal cells, the original differentiating state of pineal cells is interesting; it has been found that tyrosinase is expressed from the beginning of pineal formation and that its expression is stage-specific (during embryonic period) and site-specific (predominance in the dorsal half of the pineal body and in the apical cytoplasm of the pineal cell). In the 8 day quail embryo used for culture studies, three differentiating states as to tyrosinase are noticed. However, the distinction may be apparent, as even the cells negative in tyrosinase in this stage are still ready to express tyrosinase in the suitable culture condition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1606317

  7. Malignant giant cell tumor of soft parts in lumbosacral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadali F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Giant cell tumor of soft parts is a rare neoplasm that mainly affects adulst and the elderly and is usually located in the extremities. Here we report a child with giant cell tumor of soft tissue, which is a very rare condition in childhood. Clinical presentation : A 5 year old girl presented with a 5 month history of left lower extremity pain. She had developed paraplegia before admission. On examination, mild left lumbosacral swelling and tenderness was found. Abdominal and pelvic CT-Scan revealed an expansile lytic lesion of the left side of sacrum with significant soft tissue component extending toward the left iliac bone. Lumbar MRI revealed a space occupying lesion originating from posterior L5 elements, projecting toward the L1. Intervention : The patient underwent surgery. A firm epidural hemorrhagic tumor of L5, S1, and S2 with no spinal cord involvement was found. Partial tumor resection (measuring 3*1*0.5 cm in maximal diameter and laminectomy was done. Conclusion : Primary giant cell tumors of soft tissue are distinctive, rare neoplasms that exhibit a wide clinicopathologic spectrum similar to osseous GCTs and need to be differentiated from other giant cell rich soft tissue tumors. Recognition of this tumor is important due to its behavior as a low grade malignancy, but this cannot be predicted and metastasis does occur rarely

  8. Tumor odontógeno adenomatoide en región mandibular / Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in mandibular region

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernesto, Sánchez Cabrales; Dadonim, Vila Morales; Ángel Mario, Felipe Garmendia; Alain, Serra Ortega; Alma, Torres Gómez de Cádiz.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El tumor odontogénico adenomatoide es un tumor poco frecuente derivado del epitelio odontontogénico, que contiene estructuras canaliculares con modificaciones inductivas de intensidad variable en el tejido conjuntivo. Es una lesión de crecimiento lento y poco invasiva pero que se puede asemejar a ot [...] ras lesiones odontógenas de mayor agresividad como el quiste dentígero y el ameloblastoma entre otros. Su localización clásica (área de caninos superiores) nos orienta al diagnóstico y su patrón histológico ductiforme es muy propio de este tumor. Otros tumores que se encuentran dentro de este grupo son el fibroma ameloblástico, el odontoameloblastoma, el quiste odontógeno calcificante y los odontomas compuesto y complejo. Este grupo de lesiones puede o no tener formaciones de tejido duro dental dentro de ellos. Por esta razón, se presenta un paciente con este tipo de tumor, al que se le realizó estudio histopatológico, se revisó la literatura acerca de este tumor odontogénico benigno y sus características clínicas, radiográficas, tratamiento, así como los diagnósticos diferenciales que se deben tener en cuenta. Abstract in english The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon neoplasm derivative of the odontogenic epithelium containing canalicular structures with inductor modifications of variable intensity in the conjunctival tissue. It is a slow growth lesion and no much invasive but that may to be similar to other odont [...] ogenic lesions more aggressive including the dentigerous cyst and the ameloblastoma among others. Its classical location (upper canine area) guides us to diagnosis and its duct histological pattern is very typical of this tumor. Other tumors included in this group are the ameloblastic fibroma, the ameloblastic odontoma, the calcified odontogenic cyst and composed and complex odontomas. This group of lesions may or not to have formations of hard tissue inside. Thus, authors present the case of a patient presenting with this type of tumor making a histopathology study, a literature review on this benign odontogenic tumor and its clinical radiographic features, treatment, as well as the differential diagnoses to be into account.

  9. Malignant giant cell tumor of soft parts in lumbosacral region

    OpenAIRE

    Jadali F; Almasi A; Gharib A

    2008-01-01

    Background: Giant cell tumor of soft parts is a rare neoplasm that mainly affects adulst and the elderly and is usually located in the extremities. Here we report a child with giant cell tumor of soft tissue, which is a very rare condition in childhood. Clinical presentation : A 5 year old girl presented with a 5 month history of left lower extremity pain. She had developed paraplegia before admission. On examination, mild left lumbosacral swelling and tenderness was foun...

  10. MR imaging of pineal cyst. Gd-DTPA wall enhancement pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the characteristic diagnostic imaging features of pineal cysts in 14 patients. Periodic MR images were obtained on all of them during the follow-up period of more than one year. Neurological deficits attributable to a pineal cyst were observed in only one patient, who had a convergence disturbance. the T1-and T2-weighted images were studied in all 14 cases, and to enhance contrast, Gd-DTPA was administered to all patients. The cysts had homogenous low intensity signals in T1-weighted images and there were homogenous high intensity regions in T2-weighted images. The margins were clear with little mass effect on the surrounding brain tissues. The results of Gd-DTPA enhancement of the cyst wall revealed the existence of three distinct patterns. They were: 1) A ring-like enhancement pattern seen in four cases, 2) an arcuate (partial) enhancement pattern observed in five patients, and 3) no enhancement, found in another five cases. The degree of enhancement was influenced by the relationship between thickness of the cyst wall and the spatial resolution of the MRI image. During the follow-up period no increase in the size of a given cyst was evident. These studies emphasize that follow-up MR imaging is necessary for determining changes in pineal cysts over time. Moreover, sagittal MR images are particularly useful for diagnosing pineal cysts and for understanding the relationship between the cyst and the surroundinonship between the cyst and the surrounding tissues. (author)

  11. Glia-Pinealocyte Network: The Paracrine Modulation of Melatonin Synthesis by Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silveira Cruz-machado, Sanseray; Pinato, Luciana; Tamura, Eduardo Koji; Carvalho-sousa, Cla?udia Emanuele; Markus, Regina P.

    2012-01-01

    The pineal gland, a circumventricular organ, plays an integrative role in defense responses. The injury-induced suppression of the pineal gland hormone, melatonin, which is triggered by darkness, allows the mounting of innate immune responses. We have previously shown that cultured pineal glands, which express toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), produce TNF when challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here our aim was to evaluate which cells present in ...

  12. Possible role of pineal allopregnanolone in Purkinje cell survival

    OpenAIRE

    Haraguchi, Shogo; Hara, Sakurako; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Mita, Masatoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    It is believed that neurosteroids are produced in the brain and other nervous systems. Here, we show that allopregnanolone (ALLO), a neurosteroid, is exceedingly produced in the pineal gland compared with the brain and that pineal ALLO acts on the Purkinje cell, a principal cerebellar neuron, to prevent apoptosis in the juvenile quail. We first demonstrated that the pineal gland is a major organ of neurosteroidogenesis. A series of experiments using molecular and biochemical techniques has fu...

  13. The reno-pineal axis: A novel role for melatonin

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Swati; Sahay, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    The pineal gland is a tiny endocrine gland whose physiologic role has been the focus of much research and much more speculation over the past century. This mini-review discusses recent findings which correlate melatonin and renal physiology, and postulates the presence of a “reno-pineal axis.” Drawing lessons from comparative endocrinology, while quoting human data, it advocates the need to study the “reno-pineal axis” in greater detail.

  14. Tumors of organs of oral cavity and maxillofacial region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods and radiation technique, dosimetry and tactics of radiotherapy of different types of tongue cancer as well as the cancer of the mucous membrane of maxillary sinuses, of the fundus of the oral cavity, of a cheek, of an alveolar process of the upper and mandible jows, tumors of lesser salivary glands of the hard palate, malignant tumors of salivary glands, stomatopharynx, rhinopharynx cancer, juvenile angiofibromas of the base of the skull are considered. Preparation of patients to radiotherapy, peculiarities of nursing, radiation reactions and complications are also described

  15. The megachiropteran pineal organ: a comparative morphological and volumetric investigation with special emphasis on the remarkably large pineal of Dobsonia praedatrix.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatnagar, K. P.; Frahm, H. D.; Stephan, H.

    1990-01-01

    This investigation is based upon the pineal organs of 92 specimens of 36 species of the family Pteropodidae (Mammalia, Chiroptera). The size of the megachiropteran pineal correlates well with body size (r = 0.864), confirming the former conclusions that generally larger bodied bats have larger pineals. The range of the pineal size index in 36 megachiropteran species is from 33 to 4393. In most species the pineal organs are small, deeply recessed under the cerebral hemispheres and of Type A (e...

  16. [Participation of pineal gland in antistressor activity of adaptogenic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arushanian, É B; Be?er, É V

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress produces some morphological changes in rats, including thymus weight reduction, adrenal hypertrophy, and peptic ulcers in stomach. Repeated administration of phytoadaptogenic drugs (ginseng and bilobil) decreased these stress-induced disorders. The antistressor activity of drugs was attenuated upon by removal of the pineal gland. Histochemical and morphometric investigation of pineal tissues in stressed animals showed that that the pharmacological effect was accompanied by increasing functional activity of the pineal gland. It is suggested that pineal mobilization may participate in antistressor activity of phytoadaptogenic drugs. PMID:25826867

  17. Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  18. Nitric oxide synthase in the pineal gland

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-figueroa, M. O.; Moller, M.

    1996-01-01

    The recent discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as a biological messenger molecule with unique characteristics has opened a new field in pineal research. This free radical gas is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. The activation of adrenoreceptors in the membrane of the pinealocytes mediates the increase in NO through a mechanism that involves G proteins. In the pinealocyte, NO stimulates guanylyl cyclase resulting in an increased ...

  19. Pineal Function: Impact of Microarray Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, David C.; Bailey, Michael J.; Carter, David A.; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Ho, Anthony; Chik, Constance; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G.; Munson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-hour schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity to the retina and has provided reason to explore new avenues of study including intracellular signaling, signal transduction, transcriptional cascades, thyroid/retinoic acid hormone signaling, metal biology...

  20. Oxytalan fibres in the rat pineal gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, J.; Boya, J.

    1983-01-01

    The present study shows the existence of oxytalan fibres in the connective tissue spaces of the rat pineal gland. The identification of these fibres with light microscopy is based on their ability to stain with aldehyde-fuchsin and orcein after oxidation with peracetic acid. Using the electron microscope, oxytalan fibres appear as bundles of fibrils of 12-15 nm without transverse striation. Oxytalan fibres increase with age, being most abundant in the old rat.

  1. Brain tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain tumors are common in children; in Germany approximately 400 children are diagnosed every year. In the posterior fossa, cerebellar neoplasms outnumber brainstem gliomas. In contrast to their rarity in adults, brainstem gliomas are not uncommon in children. Supratentorial tumors can be subdivided by location into neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres, suprasellar and pineal tumors. Astrocytoma is the most common pediatric brain tumor followed by medulloblastoma, ependymoma and craniopharyngeoma. The combination of imaging morphology, tumor localisation and patient age at manifestation form the basis of the neuroradiological differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Automated lung tumor segmentation for whole body PET volume based on novel downhill region growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballangan, Cherry; Wang, Xiuying; Eberl, Stefan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan

    2010-03-01

    We propose an automated lung tumor segmentation method for whole body PET images based on a novel downhill region growing (DRG) technique, which regards homogeneous tumor hotspots as 3D monotonically decreasing functions. The method has three major steps: thoracic slice extraction with K-means clustering of the slice features; hotspot segmentation with DRG; and decision tree analysis based hotspot classification. To overcome the common problem of leakage into adjacent hotspots in automated lung tumor segmentation, DRG employs the tumors' SUV monotonicity features. DRG also uses gradient magnitude of tumors' SUV to improve tumor boundary definition. We used 14 PET volumes from patients with primary NSCLC for validation. The thoracic region extraction step achieved good and consistent results for all patients despite marked differences in size and shape of the lungs and the presence of large tumors. The DRG technique was able to avoid the problem of leakage into adjacent hotspots and produced a volumetric overlap fraction of 0.61 +/- 0.13 which outperformed four other methods where the overlap fraction varied from 0.40 +/- 0.24 to 0.59 +/- 0.14. Of the 18 tumors in 14 NSCLC studies, 15 lesions were classified correctly, 2 were false negative and 15 were false positive.

  3. Human chorionic gonadotrophin secreting pineal germinoma and precocious puberty.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S. R.; Shalet, S. M.; Price, D. A.; Pearson, D.

    1983-01-01

    A 10 1/2 year old boy presented with raised intracranial pressure and precocious puberty caused by a human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) secreting pineal germinoma. After craniospinal irradiation he improved clinically and his HCG concentration fell to an undetectable value. Two years later he remains well. Pineal germinomas are highly radiosensitive obviating the need for difficult surgery associated with high mortality.

  4. Segmental duplications and evolutionary plasticity at tumor chromosome break-prone regions

    OpenAIRE

    Darai-ramqvist, Eva; Sandlund, Agneta; Mu?ller, Stefan; Klein, George; Imreh, Stefan; Kost-alimova, Maria

    2008-01-01

    We have previously found that the borders of evolutionarily conserved chromosomal regions often coincide with tumor-associated deletion breakpoints within human 3p12-p22. Moreover, a detailed analysis of a frequently deleted region at 3p21.3 (CER1) showed associations between tumor breaks and gene duplications. We now report on the analysis of 54 chromosome 3 breaks by multipoint FISH (mpFISH) in 10 carcinoma-derived cell lines. The centromeric region was broken in five lines. In lines with h...

  5. Angiomyxoid tumor with an intermediate feature between cellular angiofibroma and angiomyofibroblastoma in the male inguinal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Noboru; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Koike, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Kota

    2005-08-01

    Angiomyofibroblastoma (AMFB) and cellular angiofibroma (CA) are angiomyxoid tumors which infrequently arise in the female vulvovagina and each has been proposed to be a distinct clinicopathological entity. The former in male genitalia is exceedingly rare and has been described as its male analog or under the name of male AMFB-like tumor, while the latter in men has not been reported. We describe an angiomyxoid tumor which appeared in the inguinal region of 72-year-old man. The present case had a histopathological characteristic and immunophenotype intermediate between AMFB and CA. Male genital angiomyxoid tumors share many immunopathological features with their female counterparts, suggesting that they are male homologs rather than analogs. Immature mesenchymal cells with a potential of the multilineage differentiation might be promoted toward neoplastic myoblasts, fibroblasts and adipocytes, resulting in genital angiomyxoid tumors showing a broad spectrum in the immunopathological phenotype. PMID:16174055

  6. Morfología de la Glándula Pineal: Revisión de la Literatura / Pineal Gland Morphology: A Literature Review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ignacio, Roa; Mariano, del Sol.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La glándula pineal es una pequeña estructura ubicada en el techo del diencéfalo, su principal función es la de regular los ritmos circadianos, tales como sueño-vigilia, secretar melatonina, hormona con fuerte efecto sobre la acción gonadal, además de oncostática, geroprotectora y antioxidante. La pr [...] esente revisión tiene por objetivo conocer los aspectos morfológicos de la glándula pineal, desde su desarrollo a nivel embriológico como su descripción anatómica e histológica con el fin de comprender su función desde un punto de vista integral. Abstract in english Pineal gland is a small structure located on the roof of the diencephalon, and its principal function is to play an important role in circadian rhythm regulation, such as sleep/wake, besides secreting melatonin, a hormone with a strong effect on gonadal action, and playing oncostatic, geroprotector [...] and antioxidant roles. This review aims to know the morphological aspects of the pineal gland, from its embryological development, its anatomic and histological description, in order to understand its function from an integral view.

  7. Demonstration of an orexinergic central innervation of the pineal gland of the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabris, Chiara; Cozzi, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    Orexins/hypocretins, two isoforms of the same prepropeptide, are widely distributed throughout the brain and are involved in several physiological and neuroendocrine regulatory patterns, mostly related to feeding, sleep, arousal, and cyclic sleep-wake behaviors. Orexin-A and orexin-B bind with different affinities to two G-protein-coupled transmembrane receptors, orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptors (OR-R1 and OR-R2, respectively). Because of the similarities between the human and the swine brain, we have studied the pig to investigate the orexinergic system in the diencephalon, with special emphasis on the neuroanatomical projections to the epithalamic region. By using antibodies against orexin-A and orexin-B, immunoreactive large multipolar perikarya were detected in the hypothalamic periventricular and perifornical areas at the light and electron microscopic levels. In the region of the paraventricular nucleus, the orexinergic neurons extended all the way to the lateral hypothalamic area. Immunoreactive nerve fibers, often endowed with large varicosities, were found throughout the hypothalamus and the epithalamus. Some periventricular immunoreactive nerve fibers entered the epithalamic region and continued into the pineal stalk and parenchyma to disperse among the pinealocytes. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of orexinergic nerve fibers in the pig pineal gland. After extraction of total mRNA from the hypothalamus and pineal gland, we performed RT-PCR and nested PCR using primers specific for porcine orexin receptors. PCR products were sequenced, verifying the presence of both OR-R1 and OR-R2 in the tissues investigated. These findings, supported by previous studies on rodents, suggest a hypothalamic regulation of the pineal gland via central orexinergic nervous inputs.

  8. Role of the pineal gland in the development of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, G M; Kerenyi, N A

    1989-01-01

    The pineal gland produces many neurohormones that affect the function of the brain. One of these hormones, melatonin among other functions, shows oncostatic properties against some malignant tumors. Our investigations confirmed the oncostatic effect of this compound based on (a) the measurements of melatonin in the serum of melanoma patients, (b) 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activity in the pineal of patients with malignant tumors, and (c) the detection of neuromelanin pigment in pineal bodies related to malignancy. Using a radioimmunoassay we have found that blood melatonin content is 4-5-fold increased in patients with the active phase of malignant melanoma. In healthy control subjects of both sexes (n = 6) between the ages 30-35 years at 10:00 a.m. serum melatonin varies between 0.47-0.65 nmol/l serum or 1.44-2.14 pg/mg serum protein. In contrast, in melanoma patients (n = 16) serum melatonin ranges from 2.07 to 6.20 nmol/l serum or 9.70-20.86 pg/mg serum protein. In another study in normal subjects (n = 24) serum melatonin level shows variations between 0.40 and 0.57 nmol/l serum or 1.75 and 2.32 pg/mg serum protein. Melanoma patients (n = 100) generally had an increased serum melatonin level ranging between 1.55 and 2.18 nmol/l serum or between 9.37 and 14.86 pg/mg serum protein. Twenty-four melanoma patients were tested several times during the duration of the disease and showed that surgical removal of the tumor resulted in a reduction of the serum melatonin level in 5 cases, remission was associated with an increase in 17 cases and in 2 cases treatment caused no change. Measurement of 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activity in post mortem pineal glands revealed that it was significantly greater in cancer patients (n = 110) as compared to other diseases (n = 30); carcinoma of the esophagus, 12.75 +/- 2.38 nmol/h/mg protein; stomach, 9.74 +/- 1.62; colon, 14.84 +/- 3.97; lung, 9.28 +/- 1.58; kidney, 7.35 +/- 0.96; prostate, 6.02 +/- 0.93; soft palate, 0.62 +/- 0.18; leukemias, 10.96 +/- 2.80; lymphomas, 10.96 +/- 2.80; glioblastoma multiforme, 11.87 +/- 3.15; multiple myeloma, 1.46 +/- 0.42 and cardiovascular disease, 0.95 +/- 0.21. Post mortem histological examinations of isolated pineal bodies have shown that several glands contained a pigment, neuromelanin. A comprehensive study on pineals from a variety of diseases (n = 120) revealed that the pineal pigment content showed an inverse relation with the prevalence of malignancy. PMID:20504427

  9. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis. PMID:24692343

  10. Epigenetic changes within the promoter region of the HLA-G gene in ovarian tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Laura; Walker, L DeEtte; Matyunina, Lilya V; Totten, Kimberly A; Benigno, Benedict B; McDonald, John F

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous findings have suggested that epigenetic-mediated HLA-G expression in tumor cells may be associated with resistance to host immunosurveillance. To explore the potential role of DNA methylation on HLA-G expression in ovarian cancer, we correlated differences in HLA-G expression with methylation changes within the HLA-G regulatory region in an ovarian cancer cell line treated with 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and in malignant and benign ovarian tumor samples and ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE) isolated from patients with normal ovaries. Results A region containing an intact hypoxia response element (HRE) remained completely methylated in the cell line after treatment with 5-aza-dC and was completely methylated in all of the ovarian tumor (malignant and benign) samples examined, but only variably methylated in normal OSE samples. HLA-G expression was significantly increased in the 5-aza-dC treated cell line but no significant difference was detected between the tumor and OSE samples examined. Conclusion Since HRE is the binding site of a known repressor of HLA-G expression (HIF-1), we hypothesize that methylation of the region surrounding the HRE may help maintain the potential for expression of HLA-G in ovarian tumors. The fact that no correlation exists between methylation and HLA-G gene expression between ovarian tumor samples and OSE, suggests that changes in methylation may be necessary but not sufficient for HLA-G expression in ovarian cancer. PMID:18498645

  11. Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... generally very good. But a benign tumor can cause severe problems, such as in the brain. If the tumor is cancerous, the outcome depends on the type and stage of the tumor at diagnosis. Some cancers can be cured. Some that are not curable ...

  12. Leptomeningite e tumor da região optoquiasmática Meningitis and tumor of the opto-chiasmatic region. Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Gonçalves da Silva

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available São registrados dois casos de tumores situados no assoalho da fossa craniana média (carcinoma sólido da hipófise e craniofaringeoma acompanhados de leptomeningite de etiologia não determinada. Especialmente no segundo caso esta se caracterizava pela ocorrência de repetidos surtos de exacerbação. Em ambos o diagnóstico inicial foi de leptomeningite, tendo sido o insucesso das medidas terapêuticas adotadas que levou a estudos radiológicos, na tentativa de evidenciar focos que pudessem estar mantendo a infecção. Em ambos os casos o exame radiológico forneceu dados que permitiram orientar o diagnóstico de tumor do assoalho da fossa craniana média. As condições clínicas, no entanto, impediram que fossem adotadas em tempo útil medidas terapêuticas que visassem diretamente o tumor, vindo os pacientes a falecer. A possibilidade da ocorrência de meningites em tumores dessa região é discutida, bem como a natureza séptica ou asséptica da reação inflamatória. Os casos apresentados permitem concluir que, em processos meningíticos de evolução longa, acompanhados de surtos de agudização, nos quais nem mesmo durante os surtos agudos é encontrado o agente etiológico no LCR, a possibilidade da ocorrência de tumores do assoalho da fossa média do crânio deve ser estudada. O estudo deve ser feito precocemente, para permitir a adoção de medidas terapêuticas adequadas, visando diretamente o tumor, em tempo hábil, na tentativa de evitar que os surtos meningíticos venham a comprometer a vida do paciente.A study was made of a patient with carcinoma of the hypophisis which invaded the sphenoid bone and made protrusion under the nasopharyngeal mucosa, and that of a patient with craniopharyngeoma. The patients had no symptoms proper to the tumors but presented several episodes of meningitis. The presence of the tumor, in both cases, was evidenced lately, when the failure of the antibiotic therapy became patent leading to the search of intracranial focuses of infection through radiologic examinations. The nature of the leptomeningitic episodes is discussed. Their relation to possible communications between the oropharyngeal cavity and the subarachnoid space, secundary to the changes in the anatomic structures of the region provoked by the tumors, is emphasized since these communications make possible the invasion of the subarachnoid space by bacteria. Although this opinion is acceptable in respect to the cases related, it is not possible to exclude the aseptic nature of meningitic episodes observed as no pathogenic micro-organism was isolated from the CSF samples studied and the necroscopic examination showed no septation in the leptomeningeal structures that surrounded the tumor or no obvious focus of infection related to them. Considering the cases reported the authors point out that radiologic and neuro-radiologic examinations must be indicated, as soon as possible, in order to exclude such tumors in patients suffering from meningitis of obscure origin, specially when its course is delayed and/or marked by acute episodes or re-exacerbation.

  13. Evolution of photosensory pineal organs in new light: the fate of neuroendocrine photoreceptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstro?m, Peter; Meissl, Hilmar

    2003-01-01

    Pineal evolution is envisaged as a gradual transformation of pinealocytes (a gradual regression of pinealocyte sensory capacity within a particular cell line), the so-called sensory cell line of the pineal organ. In most non-mammals the pineal organ is a directly photosensory organ, while the pineal organ of mammals (epiphysis cerebri) is a non-sensory neuroendocrine organ under photoperiod control. The phylogenetic transformation of the pineal organ is reflected in the morphology and physiol...

  14. Stereoscopic virtual reality models for planning tumor resection in the sellar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shou-sen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is difficult for neurosurgeons to perceive the complex three-dimensional anatomical relationships in the sellar region. Methods To investigate the value of using a virtual reality system for planning resection of sellar region tumors. The study included 60 patients with sellar tumors. All patients underwent computed tomography angiography, MRI-T1W1, and contrast enhanced MRI-T1W1 image sequence scanning. The CT and MRI scanning data were collected and then imported into a Dextroscope imaging workstation, a virtual reality system that allows structures to be viewed stereoscopically. During preoperative assessment, typical images for each patient were chosen and printed out for use by the surgeons as references during surgery. Results All sellar tumor models clearly displayed bone, the internal carotid artery, circle of Willis and its branches, the optic nerve and chiasm, ventricular system, tumor, brain, soft tissue and adjacent structures. Depending on the location of the tumors, we simulated the transmononasal sphenoid sinus approach, transpterional approach, and other approaches. Eleven surgeons who used virtual reality models completed a survey questionnaire. Nine of the participants said that the virtual reality images were superior to other images but that other images needed to be used in combination with the virtual reality images. Conclusions The three-dimensional virtual reality models were helpful for individualized planning of surgery in the sellar region. Virtual reality appears to be promising as a valuable tool for sellar region surgery in the future.

  15. Diagnosis of tumors of the pituitary region by two-plane CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty five cases of tumors in the pituitary region were analysed by two-plane CT (ordinary sections and reverse sections) in order to obtain a more accurate image of the tumor and thus establish an appropriate indication for the subnasal transsphenoidal approach. The tumors of pituitary region were classified into six groups (types I-VI) according to their degree of extension and direction of growth. Small tumors such as types I and II were detected more clearly by the reverse section than by the ordinary section. In cases of large tumors (types III-VI) relation of the tumor to the surrounding structures such as the sphenoid sinus, third ventricle, lateral ventricule, middle fossa and brain stem was accurately demonstrated by the reverse section. In the differential diagnosis of tumors in the pituitary regions, tumors showing mixed density or slightly high density and widening of the anteroposterior diameter of the sella in the precontrast reverse section and homogeneous enhancement by infusion were likely to be pituitary adenomas. One third of the pituitary adenomas showed ring-like high density in the post-contrast reverse section. Calcification was not seen in the pituitary adenomas by CT scans. All craniopharyngiomas belonged to types III-VI. Craniopharyngiomas showed high and/or low density, and various degrees of calcification in plain CT scans. Ring-like high density was seen in two thirds of the craniopharyngiomas. About one third of the craniopharyngiomas shout one third of the craniopharyngiomas showed widening of the antero-posterior diameter of the sella. (J.P.N.)

  16. Tumor extragonadal de células germinales en mediastino: aportación de un caso / Extragonadal germ cell tumor in mediastinum: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Zavala Elizondo; R., Martínez Montelongo; J.E., González.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores de células germinales de origen extragonadal son descritos infrecuentemente en la literatura, siendo menos de 1.000 casos. Los sitios de origen por orden de frecuencia son mediastino, retroperitoneo, región sacro coccígea y glándula pineal. Este caso es de un germinoma primario en medias [...] tino en un paciente de 27 años de edad. En los estudios de imagen se demostró una masa mediastinal, se tomo una biopsia para llegar al diagnóstico. Marcadores tumorales normales, el ultrasonido testicular reportó la presencia de microlitiasis bilateral. El paciente fue tratado con poliquimioterapia y resección de masa residual. La evolución fue satisfactoria con respuesta completa. Abstract in english The Germ Cell tumors of extragonadal origin are infrequent cases being described in literature less than 1000 cases. The frequent origin sites are mediastinum, retroperitoneum, sacrococcygeal region, and the pineal gland. There was a primary case of germinoma in mediastinum in a 27 years patient. In [...] the image studies a mediastinal mass was demonstrated, a biopsy was taken arriving at the diagnosis. Normal tumor markers, testicular ultrasonography reported the presence of bilateral microlitiasis. It was treating with polychemotherapy and later residual mass was dried. The evolution was satisfactory with complete answer.

  17. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  18. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PINEAL ACERVULI DURING THE HUMAN AGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Zdravkovic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Acervuli of 30 human pineal gland, were investigated during our research. They were collected during the autopsies at the Institut for forensic medicine of the Faculty of Medicine in Niš. Pineal tissue was processed with standard histologic procedure. Then, it was cut into 10 mm thick sections which were stained with HE, PAS, AB PAS and Mallory’s trichrome connective tissue stain. After that they were analyzed with light microscope. Morphometric analysis was performed by astereologic method. The B100 double square lattice test system was used. Average area, average perimeter, average diameter and contour index were calculated for the pineal acervuli of each age group. Obtained morphometric parameters were statisticaly analyzed. Acervuli were colored blue on HE stained sections. They were PAS and AB PAS positive structures which had red colored center and blue colored periphery on Mallory’s trichrome stained sections. Laminate structure was present, but it was not so concentric as it was in pineal capsula acervuli. Acervuli of the first age group had regular shape. They were localized at the pineal gland periphery. Acervuli of the second and the third age group obtained larger dimensions and more irregular shape, which finally led to mulberry structures formation in the core of the pineal gland. They were probably the result of the conglomeration of just formed with already formed ones. The increase of the average area, average parimeter, average diameter and contour index confirmed the increase of pineal acervuli dimensions and their shape irregularity during the aging process.Therefore, pineal acervuli show the increase of dimensions and shape irregularity. Finally, the process of conglomeration leads to mulberry like structures formation, in the second and the third age group which dominate pineal tissue in these age groups.

  19. Pineal gland calcification and defective sense of direction.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayliss, C. R.; Bishop, N. L.; Fowler, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Calcification of the pineal gland is shown to be closely related to defective sense of direction. In a tricentre prospective study of 750 patients lateral skull radiographs showed that 394 had calcified pineal glands. Sense of direction was assessed by subjective questioning and objective testing and the results noted on a scale of 0-10 (where 10 equals perfect sense of direction). The average score for the 394 patients with pineal gland calcification was 3.7 (range 0-8), whereas the 356 pati...

  20. Intracranial tumors: response and resistance to therapeutic endeavors, 1970-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response and resistance of various kinds of intracranial tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy is discussed. Such tumors as germinomas in the pineal and suprasellar regions are very radiosensitive and highly curable. Medulloblastomas are also very radiosensitive, but the presence of local residual resistant tumor has restricted cure rates to approximately 40%. High grade astrocytomas remain resistant to radiotherapy and virtually incurable. Inoperable deep gliomas vary widely in the response to irradiation. In addition to tumor response to treatment, consideration must also be given to reaction of normal tissue to irradiation, to chemotherapy, and to a combination of these modalities: these may produce late effects leading to disturbance of neurological and endocrine function and of intellectual and emotion disorders

  1. A rule-based model for local and regional tumor spread.

    OpenAIRE

    Kalet, Ira J.; Whipple, Mark; Pessah, Silvia; Barker, Jerry; Austin-seymour, Marry M.; Shapiro, Linda G.

    2002-01-01

    Prediction of microscopic spread of tumor cells is becoming critically important in the decision making process in planning radiation therapy for cancer. Until recently, radiation treatment of head and neck cancer has been conservative, treating large regions to insure eradication of disease. However, if it is known that regional spread is confined, a more focused treatment can be considered, with the payoff of reducing or eliminating morbidity due to irradiating healthy tissue in the vicinit...

  2. The dielectric properties of human pineal gland tissue and RF absorption due to wireless communication devices in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human pineal gland, the dielectric properties of a sample of 20 freshly removed pineal glands were measured less than 20 h after death. Furthermore, a corresponding high resolution numerical model of the brain region surrounding the pineal gland was developed, based on a real human tissue sample. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices, the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland when compared to SAR limits according to international safety standards. The highest absorption was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case the RF power absorbed inside the pineal gland (organ mass 96 mg) was as low as 11 ?W, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland were found to be lower by a factor of 4.2 and 36, respectively. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the pineal gland induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mob the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices are unlikely

  3. Asymptomatic intraventricular lipid leak from a primary pineal teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of pineal teratoma in a symptomatically stable 6-year-old child in which MRI revealed intraventricular lipid accumulation in the absence of any primary tumour growth, metastatic disease or tumour degeneration. (orig.)

  4. Epigenetic changes within the promoter region of the HLA-G gene in ovarian tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyunina Lilya V

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous findings have suggested that epigenetic-mediated HLA-G expression in tumor cells may be associated with resistance to host immunosurveillance. To explore the potential role of DNA methylation on HLA-G expression in ovarian cancer, we correlated differences in HLA-G expression with methylation changes within the HLA-G regulatory region in an ovarian cancer cell line treated with 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC and in malignant and benign ovarian tumor samples and ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE isolated from patients with normal ovaries. Results A region containing an intact hypoxia response element (HRE remained completely methylated in the cell line after treatment with 5-aza-dC and was completely methylated in all of the ovarian tumor (malignant and benign samples examined, but only variably methylated in normal OSE samples. HLA-G expression was significantly increased in the 5-aza-dC treated cell line but no significant difference was detected between the tumor and OSE samples examined. Conclusion Since HRE is the binding site of a known repressor of HLA-G expression (HIF-1, we hypothesize that methylation of the region surrounding the HRE may help maintain the potential for expression of HLA-G in ovarian tumors. The fact that no correlation exists between methylation and HLA-G gene expression between ovarian tumor samples and OSE, suggests that changes in methylation may be necessary but not sufficient for HLA-G expression in ovarian cancer.

  5. Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Oh, Christopher C. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Choudhri, Asim F. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 {+-} 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

  6. Conservatively managed pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated and hypertensive 56-year-old Hispanic male. At presentation, the patient's international normalized ratio (INR) was 10.51 and his blood pressure was 200/130 mmHg. His presenting symptoms included acute onset of headache, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and visual disturbance. Neuroimaging demonstrated hemorrhage into a morphologically normal pineal gland. Under conservative management, the patient experienced gradual resolution of all symptoms excluding the disturbance of upward gaze

  7. Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 ± 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

  8. Diencephalic origin of the pineal gland of the chicken embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Aige-gil, Vicente; Murillo-ferrol, Narciso

    1991-01-01

    In the present paper, the diencephalic origin of the chick pineal gland was analyzed by a series of experiments: prosencephalic substitution; in vitro culture of isolated diencephalons; and total or partial excission of the diencephalic roof. The results indicate that the differentiation of the chick pineal gland in the rooof of the third ventricle is not influenced by the neighbouring brain vesicles and is of diencephalic origin. Moreover, in order to obtain c...

  9. Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Xf Ller, Morten M.; Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito; Corin Badiu

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passag...

  10. Global daily dynamics of the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bustos, Diego M; Bailey, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome profiling of the pineal gland has revealed night/day differences in the expression of a major fraction of the genes active in this tissue, with two-thirds of these being nocturnal increases. A set of over 600 transcripts exhibit two-fold to >100-fold daily differences in abundance. These changes appear to be primarily attributable to adrenergic-cyclic-AMP-dependent mechanisms, which are controlled via a neural pathway that includes the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master circadian oscillator. In addition to melatonin synthesis, night/day differences in gene expression impact genes associated with several specialized functions, including the immune/inflammation response, photo-transduction, and thyroid hormone/retinoic acid biology. The following nonspecialized cellular features are also affected: adhesion, cell cycle/cell death, cytoskeleton, DNA modification, endothelium, growth, RNA modification, small molecule biology, transcription factors, vesicle biology, signaling involving Ca(2+), cyclicnucleotides, phospholipids, mitogen-activated protein kinases, the Wnt signaling pathway, and protein phosphorylation.

  11. An historical view of the pineal gland and mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, F; Molina, J D; Rubio, G; Alamo, C

    2011-08-01

    Since Classical Antiquity numerous authors have linked the origin of some mental disorders to physical and functional changes in the pineal gland because of its attributed role in humans as the connection between the material and the spiritual world. The pineal organ was seen as a valve-like structure that regulated the flow of animal spirits through the ventricular system, a hypothesis that took on more vigour during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The framework for this theory was "the three cells of the brain", in which the pineal gland was even called the "appendix of thought". The pineal gland could also be associated with the boom, during this period, of certain legends about the "stone of folly". But the most relevant psychopathological role of this organ arrived with Descartes, who proposed that it was the seat of the human soul and controlled communications between the physical body and its surroundings, including emotions. After a period of decline during which it was considered as a mere vestigial remnant of evolution, the link between the pineal gland and psychiatric disorders was definitively highlighted in the 20th century, first with the use of glandular extracts in patients with mental deficiency, and finally with the discovery of melatonin in 1958. The physiological properties of melatonin reawakened interest in the relationship between the pineal gland and mental disorders, fundamentally the affective and sleep disorders, which culminated in the development of new pharmacological agents acting through melatonergic receptors (ramelteon and agomelatine). PMID:21715172

  12. Retinal differentiation from multipotential pineal cells of the embryonic quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, M; Kodama, R; Eguchi, G; Yasujima, M; Orii, H; Watanabe, K

    1993-10-01

    Pineal cells of the embryonic quail are multipotent stem cells which are able to differentiate in vitro into pigmented epithelial cells, lens cells and skeletal muscle fibers. Neuronal expression was added in this study in the repertory of differentiating potency of pineal cells. We used immunohistochemical methods to characterize neuronal properties with antibodies against serotonin, GABA, tyrosine hydroxylase and neuron-specific antigen (HPC-1) in addition to the enzyme histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase activity. Cells in the culture were found to be positively stained with these methods, suggesting that embryonic pineal cells are neuropotent to differentiate various types of neuronal cells. We have studied the culture conditions which favor increment of neuronal cells with extension of neuritic processes, and we have found that neuronal cells are maintained for quite a long period under suppressive conditions of DNA synthesis and under the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Suppression of DNA synthesis was achieved by the addition of aphidicolin, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha, in the medium. Time lapse videograph revealed two different cell types participated in neurogenesis; a minor population of small round cells and a major one of flat epithelial cells. Since embryonic quail pineal cells have been shown to differentiate into two types of photoreceptors, the present results show wider retinal potency of cell differentiation by embryonic pineal cells. The cessation of DNA synthesis as well as growth factor(s) may be positively involved in the mechanisms of determination and differentiation of pineal neurons. PMID:8134021

  13. Regional coupling of blood flow and methionine uptake in an experimental tumor assessed with autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional distribution of L-[methyl-14C] methionine (14C-MET) and 4-[18F] fluoro-antipyrine (18FAP) was compared using experimental rat tumors (AH109A) and a computerized autoradiogram image processor. Tissue distributions of the two tracers were found to be inhomogeneous in the tumor with nearly identical image patterns. Analysis of tissue radioactivities revealed that 82% of 14C-MET was derived from the acid insoluble fraction at 60 min after injection. The present study showed that 14C-MET uptake closely relates to tissue blood flow and may depend on its blood to tissue transport. Rapid incorporation of MET in the acid insoluble fraction implies that it is rapidly metabolized after transport into tumor tissue. (orig.)

  14. Tumors in the region of the sella turcica; Tumoren der Sellaregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostischeund Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Tumors of the pituitary gland can lead to limitation of hypophysis function (hypophysis insufficiency) or hypersecretion of different hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, prolactinoma, TSH-secreting adenoma). The optic chiasma lies in close proximity to the pituitary gland and can be compressed by tumors leading to visual disturbances (bilateral hemianopsia). Tumors can be separated into hormone secreting and hormone inactive tumors, as well as into microadenoma with a diameter <10 mm and macroadenomas >10 mm. A rare group of tumors of the hypophysis region are craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germinomas, gliomas, metastases and granulomotous inflammations, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. (orig.) [German] Bei Tumoren der Hypophysenregion kann es zu einer Einschraenkung der Hypophysenfunktion (Hypophyseninsuffizienz) kommen, aber auch zu einem Hypersekretionssyndrom (Akromegalie, Cushing-Syndrom, Prolaktinom, TSH-sezernierendes Adenom). Unmittelbar ueber der Hypophysenregion liegt das Chiasma opticum, wodurch es bei Tumoren der Hypophysenregion zur Beeintraechtigung des Sehens kommen kann, meist als Verschlechterung des Sehfeldes beider Augen nach lateral (bitemporale Hemianopsie). Man unterscheidet hormonaktive und -inaktive Tumoren. Es werden Mikroadenome mit einem Durchmesser bis 10 mm und Makroadenome, die groesser als 10 mm sind, unterschieden. Eine seltenere Gruppe von Tumoren der Hypophysenregion sind die Kraniopharyngeome, Meningeome, Germinome, Gliome, Metastasen und granulomatoese Entzuendungen (Sarkoidose, Tuberkulose). (orig.)

  15. Megaendoprosthesis in the treatment of bone tumors in the knee and hip region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barjaktarovi? Radoslav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. For almost two decades extremity amputation has not been the only viable option for patients with from bone cancer in the region of the hip and knee. Remarkable advances in implant technology, surgical reconstructive technique and adoption of new chemotherapy protocols provide a new option for surgeons who diagnose and treat bone tumors. Megaendoprosthesis has become widely accepted alternative in limb salvage surgery of the extremities. The aim of this study was to present an outcome of the treatment of bone tumors in the knee and hip region by the use of custom made megaendoprothesis. Methods. In the period 2006-2008 we adopted new clinical practice protocols for preoperative management in candidates for tumor megaprostheses of the hip and knee including: surgical tumor staging, histopathological verification, determinants of anatomical-mechanical defect, status of soft tissues, CT evaluation of the referent measures of pelvis, femur and tibia necessary for creation of custom made endoprosthesis and surgery plan, as well as modern, less invasive surgical approach. The patients were monitored during ? 24 months after the surgery for detecting possible complications. Results. All procedures were performed without complications during and immediately after the surgery. During the follow-up period not less than 24 months we failed to record any significant complications. Conclusion. Custom made megaendoprosthesis are the method of choice in the treatment of bone tumors in the region of the hip and knee at the Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. The greatest challenge - ensuring longevity of a prosthesis can be achieved not only by prevention of common complications of arthroplasty procedures but, certainly, with the introduction of new methods for preoperative planning - computer-assisted technique of measuring referent sizes and software solutions for the selection and design of custom-made components of an endoprosthesis.

  16. Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical properties of charged particles such as protons are uniquely suited to target the radiation dose precisely in the tumor. In proton therapy, the Bragg peak is spread out by modulating or degrading the energy of the particles to cover a well defined target volume at a given depth. Due to heterogeneity in the various tumors and end-points as well as in the physical properties of the beams considered, it is difficult to fit the various results into a clear general description of the biological effect of proton in tumor therapy. Tumor hypoxia is a main obstacle to radiotherapy, including gamma-ray. Survived tumor cells under hypoxic region are resistant to radiation and more aggressive to be metastasized. To investigate the dose of proton beam to induce cell death of various tumor cells and hypoxic tumor cells at the Bragg peak in vitro, we used 3 kinds of tumor cells, lung cancer, leukemia and hepatoma cells. Proton beam induces apoptosis in Lewis lung carcinoma cells dose dependently and, slightly in leukemia but not in hepatoma cells at all. Above 1000 gray of proton beam, 60% of cells died even the hypoxic cells in Lewis lung carcinoma cells. But the Molt-4 leukemia cells showed milder effect, 20% cell death by the above 1000 Gray of proton beam and typical resistant pattern (5-10%) of hypoxia in desferrioxamine treated cells. Hepatoma cells (HepG2) were not responsive to proton beam even in rather higher dose (4000G). However, by the gamma-irradiation, Molt-4 was more sensitive than hepatoma or lung cancer cells, but still showed hypoxic resistance. The cell death by proton beam in Lewis lung carcinoma cells was confirmed by PARP cleavage and may be mediated by increased p53. Pro-caspases were also activated and cleaved by the proton beam irradiations for lung cancer cell death. In conclusion, high dose of proton beam (above 1000 gray) may be a good therapeutic radiation even in hypoxic region at the Bragg peak, but further investigations about the cancer cell specificity and the mechanism of resistance as well as in vivo study should be performed

  17. Morphologic study of the pineal gland of the dog/ Estudo morfológico da glândula pineal do cão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Xavier Hernandez Blazquez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of the melatonin by Lerner et al. (1958, new research and perspectives were developed in order to improve the knowledge regarding the pineal gland. This hormone is not only related to the circadian control but also influences other behavioral functions such as the reproductive cycle and thermoregulation. In this study the morphology of the pineal gland (epiphysis cerebri from 20 dogs were analyzed by means of macroscopic and microscopic evaluation. The shape of the gland ranged from conic to “tongue-like shape” (in relation to human tongue. The gland color ranged from beige to gray-brownish and it had a gelatinous consistency. The width and length of the glands ranged from 1.38 to 2.39 mm and 1.53 to 2.96 mm, respectively. Capsule, septa, pinealocytes, glial cells and pigment granules were microscopically found in all glands. No calcareous concretions were observed.Após a descoberta da melatonina por Lerner et al. (1958, novas pesquisas e perspectivas surgiram tornando a pineal uma estrutura mais estudada. Além disso, sabe-se que este hormônio está relacionado com o controle circadiano e outras funções comportamentais fisiológicas como o ciclo reprodutivo e termorregulação. Neste trabalho, foram utilizados 20 cães e estudamos a morfologia das glândulas, empregando uma análise macroscópica e microscópica. O formato das pineais variou de cônico a glossóide (em relação à língua humana; cor entre bege e marrom-acinzentado e apresentaram consistência gelatinosa. A largura e o comprimento das glândulas variaram respectivamente de 1,38 a 2,39 mm e de 1,53 a 2,96 mm. Quanto à microscopia, utilizamos coloração de eosina-hematoxilina (HE, e em todas as pineais observamos a presença dos seguintes componentes: cápsula; septos ou trabéculas pinealócitos; células da glia; grânulos de pigmentos, e não foram notadas concreções calcáreas.

  18. Prognostic Significance of P53 Protein, Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in Pineal Parenchymal Tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin, Nagihan; Baltalarli, Bahar; Ersahin, Yusuf; Demirtas, Eren

    2009-01-01

    Pineal parenchymal tumours are very rare consisting less than 0.1% of all central nervous system tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of Ki-67, cyclin D1 and p53 protein expressions in pineal parenchymal tumours. Ten pineal parenchymal tumours were investigated: 2 pineocytomas, 5 pineal parenchymal tumour of intermediate differentiation and 3 pineoblastomas . Immunohistochemical staining was performed using avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The number o...

  19. Sudden death due to a glial cyst of the pineal gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Milroy, C. M.; Smith, C. L.

    1996-01-01

    Asymptomatic cysts of the pineal gland are found frequently by radiological examination of the brain or at postmortem examination. Symptomatic cysts are rare, and may require surgical intervention. Sudden death due to a cystic lesion of the pineal gland is very rare. A case of a 22 year old man who collapsed and died unexpectedly is reported. Postmortem examination revealed a glial cyst of the pineal gland and evidence of chronic obstructive hydrocephalus. Deaths from colloid cysts and pineal...

  20. Age-related incidence of pineal calcification detected by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age-related incidence of detectable pineal calcification in 725 patients (age range, newborn-20 yrs) suggests that there is a relationship between calcification and the hormonal role played by the pineal gland in the regulation of sexual development. Pineal calcification (demonstrated by computed tomography [CT] on 8-mm-thick sections) in patients less than 6 years old should be looked upon with suspicion, and follow-up CT should be considered to exclude the possible development of a pineal neoplasm

  1. Homeobox genes in the rodent pineal gland: roles in development and phenotype maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, Martin F.; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C.; Møller, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene e...

  2. Intracranial tumors in children less than 2 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed the characteristic CT findings in twelve cases of intracranial tumors in children under 2 years of age. The histological classification of them was as follows: 2 were teratomas, 3 ependymoma and ependymoblastomas, 2 medulloblastomas, 2 craniopharyngiomas, and 3 were other gliomas, including a pontine glioma. 1. Ten cases were located along the central neural axis. The supratentorial/infratentorial ratio became nearly equal at each age before and after the first year. 2. With regard to tumor size, approximately 70 % out of the brain tumors were more than 5 cm in diameter; especially, four cases had diameters of more than 7 cm. In the case of the teratomas, the cranial cavity was filled with several nodular tumors of varying densities. On admission, an ependymoblastoma in the posterior fossa had already invaded the pineal region. 3. Hydrocephalus was a frequent finding except for the two craniopharyngiomas and the pontine glioma. Some demonstrated an eminent ventricular collapse and a displacement of the midline structures because of the large size of the tumor masses. 4. The malignant gliomas had less peritumoral edemas in proportion to the large sizes of the tumor masses. The prognosis of some brain tumors in our cases less than 2 years of age was extremely poor, but an aggressive approach to them with surgical treatment, irradiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy may improve their chances of survival. (author)

  3. Correlación topográfica y anatomopatológica en los tumores de la región selar Topographic and anatomopathological correlation in the sellar region tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Garcia Moreira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realizaci??n de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fundamental fue demostrar el valor de la tomografía computadorizada en el diagnóstico presuntivo de la variedad histológica de los macroadenomas hipofisarios así como de otros tumores menos frecuentes de la región selar, teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes operados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomográfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar. Se registró la edad, sexo, clínica, signos tomográficos, resultados anatomopatológicos posquirúrgicos. Se observó mayor incidencia de los adenomas hipofisarios (110, con predominio de los no secretores (41,1 %. El grueso de los pacientes se ubicó en las edades entre 30 y 50 años. El sexo femenino prevaleció en los adenomas adrenocorticotrópicos y los meningiomas, y el masculino en los productores de gonadotropina y prolactina. Dentro de los signos tomográficos, la erosión de las clinoides y el dorso selar, así como la hidrocefalia predominaron en los adenomas no secretores y los tumores no adenohipofisarios. Los adenomas productores de gonadotropina se destacaron en la erosión del piso y en el balonamiento selar al igual que los adrenocorticotrópicos. Las calcificaciones fueron frecuentes en los teratomas y craneofaringiomas, al igual que la captación no homogénea del contraste, la cual fue característica en estos casos como en los quistes de la bolsa de Rathke. La TC demostró ser de gran valor diagnóstico en los macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico del paciente.The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas worlwide motivated us to carry out this research, whose fundamental aim was to demonstrate the value of CT in the presumptive diagnosis of the histological variety of hypophyseal macroadenomas, as well as of other less frequent tumours of the sellar region, considering the clinical picture. To this end, 124 patients operated on with a clinical and tomographic diagnosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumours were studied. Age, sex, hospital stay, tomographic signs, and postsurgical anatomopathological results were registered. The highest incidence was found in the hypophyseal adenomas (110, with predominance of the non-secreting adenomas (41.1 %. Most of the patients were 30-50. The female sex prevailed in the adrenocorticotropic adenomas and meningiomas, and the male sex in gonadotropin and prolactin-producing adenomas. Within the tomographic signs the erosion of the clinoid and sellar dorsum, and hydrocephalus, predominated in the non-secreting adenomas and in the non-adenohypohyseal tumours. The gonadotropin-producing adenomas stood out in the erosion of the floor and in sellar ballooning as well as the adrenocorticotropic adenomas. The calcifications were more common in teratomas and craniopharyngiomas, as well as and the non-homogenous capture of the contrast agent, which was characteristic in these cases, as in Rathke's pouch cysts. CT showed its great diagnostic value in hypophyseal macroadenomas, and other tumours of the sellar region, taking into account the patient's clinical picture.

  4. Clinical usefulness of computed tomography for evaluation of the effectiveness of radiation therapy of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of radiation therapy for brain tumor, CT findings before, during, and after radiation therapy were studied in 48 patients with brain tumor (12 glioblastomas, 5 craniopharyngiomas, 4 pituitary adenomas, 2 medulloblastomas, 2 reticulum cell sarcomas, ependymoblastoma, oligodendroglioma, germinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, teratocarcinoma, meningioma, chordoma, 6 metastatic tumors, and 10 unbiopsied tumors). CT findings such as tumor size, mass effect, central lucency, and peripheral low density decreased in 69%, 63%, 65%, and 47%, respectively, after irradiation. Changes in tumor size correlated with clinical course in about 90% of the patients. Radiosensitivity of the brain tumors was assessed from the degree of decrease in tumor size demonstrated on CT. Radiosensitive tumors such as germinoma of pineal and suprasellar region could be diagnosed clinically without surgical biopsy since marked response to radiation was observed on serial CT scans during the course of radiation therapy. Thus, CT scan study can be considered to be highly useful for evaluating the effectiveness of radiation therapy for brain tumors. (author)

  5. One millisecond of light suffices to suppress nighttime pineal melatonin synthesis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vollrath, Lutz; Seidel, A.; Huesgen, A.; Manz, B.; Pollow, Kunhard; Leiderer, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The effcct of a single high-intensity light pulse with a duration of 1 ms on nighttime pineal activity of male Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. 10 minutes after light exposure pineal N-actyltransferase activity and melatonin content were significantly reduced. These results show that the rat pineal is capable of responding to very short light flashes of high intensity.

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow in brain tumors analyzed by N-isopropyl-(123I)-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-Isopropyl-(123I)-p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP), a newly developed tracer for regional cerebral blood flow, was applied to 18 patients with brain tumors. The static scan images were obtained by a single photon emission CT 20 minutes after IMP injection, and revealed decreased IMP uptake in the tumor region in 17 out of 18 patients. This result suggests the lack of an IMP-trapping mechanism in the tumor. In dynamic scan images, which were taken every 2 minutes just after IMP injection, IMP uptake in the tumor was intermediate between that of contralateral white matter and gray matter, and it increased momentarily in accordance with that of the gray and white matter. This finding indicates that the IMP uptake in a dynamic scan would express the regional tissue blood flow in the tumor. (author)

  7. Major chromosomal breakpoint intervals in breast cancer tumors co-localize with differentially methylated regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Hung EricTang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid tumors exhibit chromosomal rearrangements resulting in gain or loss of multiple loci (copy number variation and translocations that occasionally result in the creation of novel chimeric genes. In the case of breast cancer, although most individual tumors each have unique CNV landscape the breakpoints, as measured over large datasets, appear to be non-randomly distributed in the genome. Breakpoints show a significant regional concentration at genomic loci spanning perhaps several megabases. The proximal cause of these breakpoint concentrations is a subject of speculation but is, as yet, largely unknown. To shed light on this issue, we have performed a bio-statistical analysis on our previously published data for a set of 119 breast tumors and normal controls, where each sample has both high resolution CNV and methylation data. The method examined the distribution of closeness of breakpoint regions with differentially methylated regions, coupled with additional genomic parameters, such as repeat elements and designated fragile sites in the reference genome. Through this analysis, we have identified a set of 91 regional loci called breakpoint enriched differentially methylated regions (BEDMRs characterized by altered DNA methylation in cancer compared to normal cells that are associated with frequent breakpoint concentrations within a distance of 1Mb. BEDMR loci are further associated with local hypomethylation (66% concentrations of the Alu SINE repeats within 3Mb and tend to occur near a number of cancer related genes such as the protocadherins, AKT1, DUB3, GAB2. BEDMRs seem to deregulate members of the histone gene family and chromatin remodeling factors e.g JMJD1B which might affect the chromatin structure and disrupt coordinate signaling and repair. From this analysis we propose that preference for chromosomal breakpoints is related to genome structure coupled with alterations in DNA methylation and hence chromatin structure associated with tumorigenesis.

  8. Pineal melatonin synthesis in Syrian hamsters: A summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollag, M. D.

    1982-12-01

    During the past decade there has been ample documentation of the proposition that the pineal gland mediates photoperiodic influences upon reproductive behavior of hamsters. It is commonly hypothesized that the pineal gland expresses its activity by transformation of photoperiodic information into an hormonal output, that hormone being melatonin. If this hypothesis is correct, there must be some essential diffrence in melatonin's output when hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic environments. The experiments summarized in this communication analyze pineal melatonin contents in Syrian hamsters maintained in a variety of photoperiodic conditions during different physiological states. The results demonstrate that adult hamsters have a daily surge in pineal melatonin content throughout their lifetime when exposed to simulated annual photoperiodic cycles. There is some fluctuation in the amount of pineal melatonin produced during different physiological states and photoperiodic environments, but these fluctuations seem small when compared to those normally found for other regulatory hormones. When hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic regimens, the daily melatonin surge maintains a relatively constant phase relationship with respect to the onset of daily activity. There is a concomitant change in its phase relationship with respect to light-dark transitions.

  9. The pineal gland: its physiological and pharmacological role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V

    1989-01-01

    Our perception of pineal gland function has attained new dimensions during the last decade. The gland is active throughout the life of an individual and secretes melatonin, the major pineal hormone, and many indoles and polypeptides. The secretion of pineal gland is regulated not only by sympathetic nerve fibers but by other central pinealopetal projections also. Many neurotransmitter-receptor sites have been identified recently in the pineal gland. The gland plays an established role in controlling reproduction and is involved in the control of sexual maturation. It has a major influence on the circadian organization of vertebrates including human beings. The hormone melatonin has a potential therapeutic valve in treating disorders that are associated with biological rhythm disturbances like sleep disorders, "jet lag" phenomena and affective disorders. The gland is actively involved in the mechanisms controlling sleep-wakefulness cycle and human mood disorders. It actively participates in the neuroendocrine mechanism controlling stress and acts even as an oncostatic gland. The pineal gland may be considered an "equilibrating-tranquilizing gland" contributing to longevity. PMID:2695464

  10. Correlación topográfica y anatomopatológica en los tumores de la región selar / Topographic and anatomopathological correlation in the sellar region tumors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tania, Garcia Moreira; Fernando, Piedra Chávez; Omar, López Arbolay; Luis, Garcia Ferrer; Dénise, Delgado Gutiérrez; Hilca, Navarro Miranda.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realización de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fundamental fue demostrar el valor de la tomografía computadorizada en el diagnóstico presuntivo de la variedad histológica de los macroadenomas hipofisarios así como de otros [...] tumores menos frecuentes de la región selar, teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes operados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomográfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar. Se registró la edad, sexo, clínica, signos tomográficos, resultados anatomopatológicos posquirúrgicos. Se observó mayor incidencia de los adenomas hipofisarios (110), con predominio de los no secretores (41,1 %). El grueso de los pacientes se ubicó en las edades entre 30 y 50 años. El sexo femenino prevaleció en los adenomas adrenocorticotrópicos y los meningiomas, y el masculino en los productores de gonadotropina y prolactina. Dentro de los signos tomográficos, la erosión de las clinoides y el dorso selar, así como la hidrocefalia predominaron en los adenomas no secretores y los tumores no adenohipofisarios. Los adenomas productores de gonadotropina se destacaron en la erosión del piso y en el balonamiento selar al igual que los adrenocorticotrópicos. Las calcificaciones fueron frecuentes en los teratomas y craneofaringiomas, al igual que la captación no homogénea del contraste, la cual fue característica en estos casos como en los quistes de la bolsa de Rathke. La TC demostró ser de gran valor diagnóstico en los macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico del paciente. Abstract in english The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas worlwide motivated us to carry out this research, whose fundamental aim was to demonstrate the value of CT in the presumptive diagnosis of the histological variety of hypophyseal macroadenomas, as well as of other less frequent tumours of the sellar r [...] egion, considering the clinical picture. To this end, 124 patients operated on with a clinical and tomographic diagnosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumours were studied. Age, sex, hospital stay, tomographic signs, and postsurgical anatomopathological results were registered. The highest incidence was found in the hypophyseal adenomas (110), with predominance of the non-secreting adenomas (41.1 %). Most of the patients were 30-50. The female sex prevailed in the adrenocorticotropic adenomas and meningiomas, and the male sex in gonadotropin and prolactin-producing adenomas. Within the tomographic signs the erosion of the clinoid and sellar dorsum, and hydrocephalus, predominated in the non-secreting adenomas and in the non-adenohypohyseal tumours. The gonadotropin-producing adenomas stood out in the erosion of the floor and in sellar ballooning as well as the adrenocorticotropic adenomas. The calcifications were more common in teratomas and craniopharyngiomas, as well as and the non-homogenous capture of the contrast agent, which was characteristic in these cases, as in Rathke's pouch cysts. CT showed its great diagnostic value in hypophyseal macroadenomas, and other tumours of the sellar region, taking into account the patient's clinical picture.

  11. Hypofractionation Results in Reduced Tumor Cell Kill Compared to Conventional Fractionation for Tumors With Regions of Hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Tumor hypoxia has been observed in many human cancers and is associated with treatment failure in radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of different radiation fractionation schemes on tumor cell killing, assuming a realistic distribution of tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: A probability density function for the partial pressure of oxygen in a tumor cell population is quantified as a function of radial distance from the capillary wall. Corresponding hypoxia reduction factors for cell killing are determined. The surviving fraction of a tumor consisting of maximally resistant cells, cells at intermediate levels of hypoxia, and normoxic cells is calculated as a function of dose per fraction for an equivalent tumor biological effective dose under normoxic conditions. Results: Increasing hypoxia as a function of distance from blood vessels results in a decrease in tumor cell killing for a typical radiotherapy fractionation scheme by a factor of 105 over a distance of 130 ?m. For head-and-neck cancer and prostate cancer, the fraction of tumor clonogens killed over a full treatment course decreases by up to a factor of ?103 as the dose per fraction is increased from 2 to 24 Gy and from 2 to 18 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: Hypofractionation of a radiotherapy regimen can result in a significant decrease in tumor cell killing compared to standard fractionation as a result of tumor hypoxia. There is a pa result of tumor hypoxia. There is a potential for large errors when calculating alternate fractionations using formalisms that do not account for tumor hypoxia.

  12. Combined rigid and flexible endoscopy for tumors in the posterior third ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jonathan; Constantini, Shlomi

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Tumors leading to occlusion of the sylvian aqueduct include those of pineal, thalamic, and tectal origins. These tumors cause obstructive hydrocephalus and thus necessitate a CSF diversion procedure such as an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), often coupled with an endoscopic biopsy (EBX). Lesions located posterior to the massa intermedia pose a technical challenge, as the use of a rigid endoscope for performing both an ETV and EBX is limited. The authors describe their experience using a combined rigid and flexible endoscopic procedure through a single bur hole for both procedures in patients with posterior third ventricular tumors. METHODS Since January 2012, patients with posterior third ventricular tumors causing hydrocephalus underwent dual ETV and EBX procedures using the combined rigid-flexible endoscopic technique. Following institutional review board approval, data from clinical, radiological, surgical, and pathological records were retrospectively collected. RESULTS Six patients 3.5-53 years of age were included. Lesion locations included pineal (n = 3), fourth ventricle (n = 1), aqueduct (n = 1), and tectum (n = 1). The ETV and EBX were successful in all cases. Pathologies included pilocytic astrocytoma, pineoblastoma, ependymoma Grade II, germinoma, low-grade glioneural tumor, and atypical choroid plexus papilloma. One patient experienced an immediate postoperative intraventricular hemorrhage necessitating evacuation of the clots and resection of the tumor, eventually leading to the patient's death. CONCLUSIONS The authors recommend using a combined rigid-flexible endoscope for endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy to approach posterior third ventricular tumors (behind the massa intermedia). This technique overcomes the limitations of using a rigid endoscope by reaching 2 distant regions. PMID:25816082

  13. Immunoreactive opsin in the pineal organ of reptiles and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigh, B; Vigh-Teichmann, I; Röhlich, P; Aros, B

    1982-01-01

    The presence of opsin was investigated with light microscopic immunocytochemistry in pinealocytes of reptiles and birds (Emys orbicularis, Pseudemys scripta elegans, Lacerta agilis et viridis, Gallus domesticus, Columba livia, Melopsittacus undulatus, Serinus canaria, Taeniopyga punctate). The outer segments of pinealocytes selectively bound antiopsin antibody as revealed by indirect immunocytochemical techniques, indicating the occurrence of a rhodopsin-like photopigment in these structures. The results were compared with those obtained in retinal photoreceptors of the same species as well as in the pineal organ of fishes and amphibians (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Rana esculenta). Corresponding to immunoreactive structures seen in the light microscope, we found typical outer segments on a large number of pinealocytes in most of the reptiles and birds studied. The presence of opsin in the numerous well developed pineal outer segments of these reptilian and avian species contradicts the earlier hypothesis on the gradual regression of pineal sensitive structures in the avian line of evolution. PMID:6213109

  14. The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

  15. LHRH incorporation in normal and denervated pineal gland, and in pineal gland of rats with constant estrous-anovulatory syndrome: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineal gland and superior sympathetic cervical ganglia accumulated intravenously injected 3H-LHRH in an amount significantly higher than anterior and posterior hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and pituitary gland, the latter a specific target for LHRH. The prior administration of unlabelled LHRH significantly decreased the 3H-LHRH incorporation only in pineal and pituitary gland. Autoradiography showed that the radiolabel was localized at the level of the pinealocytes, with a seemingly, prevalent distribution of grains on the cellular contours. Pineal incorporation of LHRH was not significantly modified by either acute or chronic bilateral cervical ganglionectomy, although acute ganglioectomy resulted in a slight decrease in LHRH accumulation by pineal gland. Constant estrous anovulatory syndromes induced by either frontal hypothalamic deafferentation, or continuous illumination or neonatal androgenization did not appear to modify the LHRH incorporation in either pineal gland or cervical ganglia. Basing on these results, the pineal gland is supposed to be a target organ for LHRH. (author)

  16. Presence of P2-purinoceptors in the rat pineal gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Z. S.; Cipolla-neto, J.; Markus, R. P.

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of noradrenaline, ATP, adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), adenosine, alpha,beta-methylene-ATP and the P2-purinoceptor antagonist, suramin on N'-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine production were studied in cultured denervated rat pineal glands. 2. Noradrenaline (3 nM-1 microM) increased N'-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine production as measured both in the gland and the culture medium. 3. In noradrenaline (10 nM)-stimulated pineal glands, ATP (0.03 nM-1 mM) or AMP-PNP (0.1 microM-1 mM) inc...

  17. [Morphofunctional changes in the pineal gland during adaptation to hypothermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, L A; Gubina-Vakulik, G I

    2001-12-01

    The influence of hypothermal stress (+4 degrees during 3 h) on the ways of serotonin metabolism in pineal gland and its structure has been studied in dynamics on adult male Wistar rats. It has been revealed that melatonin-producing epiphyseal function suffers from phase changes in dynamics of adaptation--significant rising during 15 min. after beginning of the experiment, rehabilitation up to normal--in 30 min, and fast suppressing--in 3 hrs. Suppressing of the functional pineal activity is not due to switched serotonin metabolism with melatonin and new indoles release, but to a partial pinealocytes breaking from their active function. PMID:11840967

  18. Conservatively managed pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werder, Gabriel M. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology, 3600 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, MI 48073 (United States); St Christopher Iba Mar Diop College of Medicine, Luton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gabriel_werder@yahoo.com; Razdan, Rahul S.; Gagliardi, Joseph A.; Chaddha, Shashi K.B. [St Vincent' s Medical Center, Bridgeport, CT (United States)

    2008-02-15

    We present a case of pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated and hypertensive 56-year-old Hispanic male. At presentation, the patient's international normalized ratio (INR) was 10.51 and his blood pressure was 200/130 mmHg. His presenting symptoms included acute onset of headache, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and visual disturbance. Neuroimaging demonstrated hemorrhage into a morphologically normal pineal gland. Under conservative management, the patient experienced gradual resolution of all symptoms excluding the disturbance of upward gaze.

  19. Minimally Invasive-Endoscopic Intraventricular Neurosurgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taking out tumors such as colloid cysts, pineal region tumors. And then lastly we're now exploring ... about removal of brain tumors in the pineal region, or colloid system, the third ventricle. Without question, ...

  20. Emerging tumor entities and variants of CNS neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenacchi, Giovanna; Giangaspero, Felice

    2004-03-01

    Since the appearance in 2000 of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms, numerous descriptions of new entities or variants have appeared in the literature. In the group of neuronal and mixed glioneuronal neoplasms are lesions with distinctive morphological features that are still not included in a precise classification, including extraventricular neurocytoma, papillary glioneuronal tumor, rosette-forming glioneuronal of the fourth ventricle, glioneuronal with neuropil-like rosette, and DNT-like tumor of the septum pellucidum. The glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like rosette and oligodendroglioma with neurocytic differentiation represent morphological variants of genetically proven diffuse gliomas. The lipoastrocytoma and the pilomixoid astrocytoma enlarge the group of astrocytic lesions. Rare, low-grade gliomas of the spinal cord with extensive leptomeningeal dissemination associated with unusual neuroimaging are described. The chordoid glioma of the third ventricle and the papillary tumor of the pineal region seem to be correlated by a common histogenesis from the specialized ependyma of the subcommissural organ. An embryonal tumor with neuropil and true rosettes combining features of neuroblastoma and ependymoblastoma is discussed. These new, recently described lesions indicate that the complex morphologic spectrum of CNS tumors is far from being completely delineated. PMID:15055442

  1. Sympathetic neural control of indoleamine metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, H. J.; Hsuan, M.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the acceleration in rat pineal biosynthetic activity in response to prolonged exposure to darkness or to immobilization were investigated in animals whose pineals were surgically denervated. Some animals were adrenalectomized to remove one potential source of circulating catecholamines, and some were subjected to a partial chemical sympathectomy accomplished by a series of intravenous injections of 6-hydroxydopamine. Results suggest that N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity can be enhanced either by release of norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals within the pineal or from sympathetic nerve terminals elsewhere. The stress of immobilization stimulates the pineal by increasing circulating catecholamines. Photic control of pineal function requires intact pineal sympathetic innervation, since the onset of darkness apparently does not cause a sufficient rise in circulating catecholamines to stimulate the pineal. The present studies suggest that nonspecific stress triggers increased biosynthesis and secretion of melatonin; it is possible that this hormone may participate in mechanisms of adaptation.

  2. Nuances in the Treatment of Malignant Tumors of the Clival and Petroclival Region

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ahmed, Mohyeldin; Daniel M., Prevedello; Ali O., Jamshidi; Leo F.S. Ditzel, Filho; Ricardo L., Carrau.

    Full Text Available Introduction Malignancies of the clivus and petroclival region are mainly chordomas and chondrosarcomas. Although a spectrum of malignancies may present in this area, a finite group of commonly encountered malignant pathologies will be the focus of this review, as they are recognized to be formida [...] ble pathologies due to adjacent critical neurovascular structures and challenging surgical approaches. Objectives The objective is to review the literature regarding medical and surgical management of malignant tumors of the clival and petroclival region with a focus on clinical presentation, diagnostic identification, and associated adjuvant therapies. We will also discuss our current treatment paradigm using endoscopic, open, and combined approaches to the skull base. Data Synthesis A literature review was conducted, searching for basic science and clinical evidence from PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Database. The selection criteria encompassed original articles including data from both basic science and clinical literature, case series, case reports, and review articles on the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and management of skull base malignancies in the clival and petroclival region. Conclusions The management of petroclival malignancies requires a multidisciplinary team to deliver the most complete surgical resection, with minimal morbidity, followed by appropriate adjuvant therapy. We advocate the combination of endoscopic and open approaches (traditional or minimally invasive) as required by the particular tumor followed by radiation therapy to optimize oncologic outcomes.

  3. Controladores del Tiempo y el Envejecimiento: Núcleo Supraquiasmático y Glándula Pineal / Aging Process Entrainment: Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Pineal Gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Parménides, Guadarrama-Ortiz; Ricardo, Ramírez-Aguilar; Alejandro, Madrid-Sánchez; Carlos, Castillo-Rangel; Diana, Carrasco-Alcántara; Raúl, Aguilar-Roblero.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El núcleo supraquiasmático (NSQ) es el principal reloj biológico de los mamíferos y sincroniza la actividad de la glándula pineal al ciclo luz-oscuridad a través de una vía polisináptica. El efecto de asa de retroalimentación neuroendocrina se lleva a cabo por la melatonina. El presente trabajo pret [...] ende demostrar que la glándula pineal modula la sensibilidad a la luz en el NSQ. Se utilizaron ratas Wistar, y se asignaron a 3 grupos: grupo A (falsa pinealectomía -sham-, sin luz), grupo B (falsa pinealectomía -sham- + luz) y grupo C al cual se le realizó la pinealectomía + luz, después de la manipulación se sacrifican para realizar inmunohistoquímica para c-Fos y al final conteo celular por técnica de estereología. Se obtuvo una reducción del 46,8% del promedio de células inmunorreactivas a c-Fos en el grupo C en comparación del grupo B. Este trabajo muestra que la sensibilidad a la luz está modulada por la actividad de la glándula pineal. Abstract in english The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the main and major biological clock in mammals and is responsible for the synchronization of the pineal gland to the light/darkness cycle through a polysynaptic pathway. The neuroendocrine feedback loop effect is carried out by melatonin. This study was carried o [...] ut to demonstrate that the pineal gland adjusts the sensibility to light in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Wistar rats were allocated in 3 groups: Group A (sham pinalectomy, without light), group B (sham pinealectomy + light) and group C which underwent real pinalectomy + light. After the intervention the animals were slain to perform immunohistochemistry for c-Fos and cell counting by stereology technique. A 46.8% average reduction in c-Fos immunoreactive cells was achieved in-group C as compared with group B. The present work shows that sensibility to the light is modulate by the activity of the pineal gland.

  4. The relation of CT-determined tumor parameters and local and regional outcome of tonsillar cancer after definitive radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the value of CT-derived tumor parameters as predictor of local and regional outcome of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma treated by definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The pretreatment CT studies of 112 patients with tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma were reviewed. After redigitizing the films, primary and nodal tumor volume was calculated with the summation-of-areas technique. The nodal CT aspect was graded using a 3-point scale (homogenous, inhomogeneous, and necrotic). Mean follow-up time was 33 months. Actuarial statistical analysis of local and regional outcome was done for each of the covariates; multivariate analysis was performed using Cox's proportional hazards model. Results: In the actuarial analysis, CT-determined primary tumor volume was significantly correlated with local recurrence rate (p<0.05) when all patients were considered, but primary tumor volume did not predict local control within the T2, T3, and T4 category. CT-determined nodal volume was significantly related to regional outcome (p<0.01), but nodal density was not. Total tumor volume was not significantly related to locoregional outcome (p=0.1). In the multivariate analysis, the T and N categories were the independent predictors of local and regional outcomes, respectively. Conclusion: Compared to other head-and-neck sites, primary and nodal tumor volume have only marginal predictive value regarding local and regional outcome after radiation therapy iregional outcome after radiation therapy in tonsillar cancer

  5. Subtemporal transtentorial approach for excision of tumors in mid-superior petroclival region: a report of 43 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-min XING

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the surgical technique for excision of mid-superior petroclival region tumor through subtemporal transtentorial approach.Methods Forty-three patients with tumor at superior-middle petroclival region hospitalized from Jun.20003 to Apr.2010 were involved in present study,and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.Of the 43 patients,19 were male and 24 were female,age ranged from 23 to 64 years(with mean of 42 years,disease duration ranged from 2 months to 3 years(with average of 14 months.All the patients underwent tumor resection via subtemporal transtentorial approach.The relationship between tumors and adjacent superior-middle petroclival structures was evaluated,and then the adhesion between tumor and tentorium cerebelli or petroclival meninges was separated,the tumor was resected piecemeal from closest area to distant part.The arachnoidal planes between tumor and brain stem,hypothalamus,or cavernous was dissected to enlarge the gap between the tumor and brain tissue,at the same time avoiding irritation to the above important structures.The therapeutic effects and postoperative complications were recorded.Results Total resection was achieved in 31 cases(72.1%,subtotal resection in 7 cases(16.2%,and partial resection in 5 cases(11.6%.One patient died(3.3%.Twenty-three patients developed new postoperative neurological deficits.The patients were followed up for 3 to 48 months,and the neurological functions were found to recover in varying degrees.Conclusion Subtemporal transtentorial approach for excision of tumors at superior-middle petroclival region has advantages of shorter approach and easy to expose.The key of the operative procedure is to reduce the tumor volume and enlarge the operative space.

  6. Testicular seminoma in a patient with pineal germinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Peat, D. S.; Trowell, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    A case is reported of a 30 year old man with a testicular seminoma. He had presented 16 years previously with a pineal germinoma, followed two years later by intracranial metastases. This is an unusual occurrence of double pathology in the germ cell line.

  7. 3H-retinol derived photopigment in chick pineal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineal glands display a day-night rhythm in the synthesis and secretion of melatonin. Dispersed chick pinealocytes retain their ability to respond to light in vitro for at least a week. Pinealocytes incubated overnight with 3H-retinol in the dark incorporate radioactivity predominantly into retinyl esters. To identify the chick pineal photopigment, SDS-PAGE was performed on radiolabelled preparations of pinealocytes and (intraocularly injected) rat retina. When intact cells or membrane preparations of cultured cells were incubated with NaCNBH3, in the dark, a single radioactive peak with an apparent molecular weight of 32,000 daltons was observed. Rat retina preparations revealed a major peak at approximately 40,000 daltons. Protease inhibitors were present in the workup, and radioactivity corresponding to the smaller peak from pineal was not observed in retina. There was no radioactive peak when NaCNBH3 was omitted. When samples were boiled in SDS the radioactivity shifted to the origin. These data suggest a protein in pinealocyte membranes which binds retinoid via a Schiff's base. Exposure to light of deoxycholate solubilized pineal membranes reduced the radioactivity associated with the protein. These findings raise the possibility that this protein is the pinealocyte's photopigment. Photopigments smaller than those observed in mammals have been reported in invertebrates

  8. Tumor Teratóide Rabdóide Atípico Num Adulto / Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor in an Adult

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia, Caeiro; Isabel, Augusto; Teresa, Jaraquemada; Cristina, Sarmento; Margarida, Damasceno.

    Full Text Available O tumor teratóide rabdóide atípico (TTRA) é uma neoplasia rara e agressiva, mais comum na infância e de mau prognóstico. Apenas 23 casos foram descritos em adultos. Permanece por estabelecer uma estratégia terapêutica, mas com ressecção macroscopicamente completa (RMC), radioterapia (RT) e quimioter [...] apia baseada em platinos e agentes alquilantes parecem obter-se os melhores resultados. Descreve-se o caso de uma mulher de 39 anos que iniciou um quadro de cefaleias, vertigens, perturbações visuais e ataxia. A RMN mostrou hidrocefalia relacionada com uma massa na região pineal. O tratamento consistiu em RMC, RT e 3 ciclos do esquema ICE. A doente permanece sem evidência de doença 30 meses após o diagnóstico. A propósito deste caso, procedeu-se a uma revisão da literatura. Abstract in english Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare and aggressive malignancy, which is more common in early childhood and carries a poor prognosis. Only 23 cases have been described in adults. A treatment strategy is yet to be established but gross total resection (GTR), early radiotherapy (RT) and [...] platinum and alkylator-based chemotherapy seem to be associated with better outcome. We report on a 39 year-old female who presented with headache, vertigo, blurry vision and ataxia. The MRI revealed hydrocephalus related to a mass at the pineal region. The treatment consisted of GTR, RT and 3 cycles of an outpatient-based ICE regimen. The patient remains disease-free 30 months after diagnosis. Following this case, a review of the literature is undertaken.

  9. A Two Dimensional Infinite Element Model to Study Temperature Distribution in Human Dermal Regions due to Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. pardasani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a two dimensional infinite element model has been developed to study thermal effect in human dermal regions due to tumors. This model incorporates the effect of blood mass flow rate, metabolic heat generation and thermal conductivity of the tissues.The dermal region is divided into three natural layers, namely, epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues. A uniformly perfused tumor is assumed to be present in the dermis. The domain is assumed to be finite along the depth and infinite along the breadth. The whole dermis region involving tumor is modelled with the help of triangular finite elements to incorporate the geometry of the region. These elements are surrounded by infinite domain elements along the breadth. Appropriate boundary conditions has been incorporated. A computer program has been developed to obtain the numerical results.

  10. Primary (Poorly Differentiated Sclerosing Liposarcoma of Temporal Region. An Uncommon Tumor in a Rare Site: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha CK Rao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Liposarcoma (LS in the head and neck region is a rare tumor. The sclerosing variant of LS is a subtype of well-differentiated LS characterized by areas of conventional LS admixed with hypocellular areas of stromal sclerosis that show atypical lipomatous cells. The (poorly differentiated sclerosing LS, on the other hand, is more cellular with atypical, pleomorphic and often bizarre giant tumor cells admixed with atypical lipoblasts. We report a case of poorly differentiated sclerosing LS of temporal region in a 49-year-old man. Radiologically, the tumor was dumbbell shaped with intra and extra cranial extension. In this case, we discuss the clinico-radiological and pathological findings of an unusual tumor in a rare location. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(1.000: 33-35

  11. Two Synchronous and Different Salivary Gland Tumors Located in the Parotid Gland and Parapharyngeal Region: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KEFEL?

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The majority of salivary gland tumors presents as a single mass in one gland. The occurrence of synchronous distinct tumors in salivary glands is rare. We report a case of two distinct salivary gland tumors localized in the parotid gland and parapharyngeal area. The first mass was in the left parapharyngeal region and the second was partially embedded in the caudal region of the left parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration was done for the parotid gland mass and cytological findings were consistent with Warthin's tumor. The parapharyngeal mass was excised and pleomorphic adenoma was diagnosed histopathologically. In this paper, cytological and histological findings of this rare patient are presented, and the literature is reviewed.

  12. Brain tumors in children; Hirntumoren beim Kind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harting, I.; Seitz, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

    2009-06-15

    Brain tumors are common in children; in Germany approximately 400 children are diagnosed every year. In the posterior fossa, cerebellar neoplasms outnumber brainstem gliomas. In contrast to their rarity in adults, brainstem gliomas are not uncommon in children. Supratentorial tumors can be subdivided by location into neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres, suprasellar and pineal tumors. Astrocytoma is the most common pediatric brain tumor followed by medulloblastoma, ependymoma and craniopharyngeoma. The combination of imaging morphology, tumor localisation and patient age at manifestation form the basis of the neuroradiological differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. The pineal gland: a comparative MR imaging study in children and adults with respect to normal anatomical variations and pineal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the variations in appearance of the normal pineal gland. The findings of 1000 consecutive MR imaging examinations obtained at 0.5 T were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 1 day to 83 years, and findings in children and adults were compared. In all age groups the pineal gland appeared mainly in three forms: (1) nodule-like, (2) crescent-like and (3) ring-like. Overall prevalences of these forms were 52 %, 26 % and 22 %, respectively. Apparent differences in frequencies were evident in children and adults with respect to the crescent-and ring-like types. Cystiform pineal lesions 5 mm or larger in one diameter (anteroposterior, sagittal or transverse) were taken to be true pineal cysts, when compared with the gland's ring-like appearance (less than 5 mm). Pineal cysts had a prevalence of 0.6 % in children and 2.6 % in adults. No symptomatic pineal cyst with mass effect on the lamina tecti was detected in the series. Besides identifying the three anatomical types of the pineal gland as seen on MR imaging and addressing the potential significance of differences in their frequencies in children and adults, the author tries to explain the previous discrepancy between the MR imaging and autopsy series findings with respect to frequencies of the pineal cysts. (orig.)

  14. Cloning, Sequencing and Analysis of Melatonin Receptor Subtype MT1 in Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis and Pineal of Female Bactrian Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hairong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that melatonin is a coordinating signal for mammalian reproduction. In order to confirm the presence of melatonin receptors in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and pineal of female Bactrian camel, the researchers used a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR procedure to examine receptor MT1 expression. The length of MT1 gene was 452 bp. RT-PCR assaying revealed the presence of the mt1 (Mel1a melatonin receptor subtype in reproduction axis and pineal which were obtained from the slaughterhouse in the Ningxia Autonomous Region, China. Sequence has been confirmed a high identity (above 85% with melatonin receptor MT1 of other mammal known in GenBank. Comparing with other tissue’s sequences, one base substitution changed the 108th TTC codon (encoding Phenylalanine to TAC (Tyrosine on hypothalamus. Although, there are base substitutions in pineal’s gene, encoded amino acid are coincident with pituitary and ovary. The current results, the expression of MT1 receptor mRNA in brain and ovary, suggest that melatonin regulate reproduction function through not only neuroendocrine but also directly acting on the ovary in Bactrian camel.

  15. Contrast enhancement and morphological findings of hematopoietic regions of bone marrow on MR imaging. Comparative study with spondylitis and vertebral tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Matsuura, Maki; Watari, Jun; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The enhanced MR findings of hematopoietic regions in aplastic anemia were compared with those of spondylitis, metastatic vertebral tumors and hematologic neoplasms. The enhanced MR images showed hematopoietic regions to homogeneously enhance and occupy the margin of vertebral bodies, while spondylitis and metastatic tumors appeared as round, inhomogeneously enhancing lesions. MR images of leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome showed homogeneous enhancement at the margins of vertebrae that was difficult to differentiate from hematopoietic regions. Enhanced MR images were useful in detecting the hematopoietic areas in marrow and differentiating them from spondylitis and metastatic tumors, although further experience is needed to distinguish between tumorous hyperplastic regions and benign hematopoietic regions in marrow. (author).

  16. Contrast enhancement and morphological findings of hematopoietic regions of bone marrow on MR imaging. Comparative study with spondylitis and vertebral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enhanced MR findings of hematopoietic regions in aplastic anemia were compared with those of spondylitis, metastatic vertebral tumors and hematologic neoplasms. The enhanced MR images showed hematopoietic regions to homogeneously enhance and occupy the margin of vertebral bodies, while spondylitis and metastatic tumors appeared as round, inhomogeneously enhancing lesions. MR images of leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome showed homogeneous enhancement at the margins of vertebrae that was difficult to differentiate from hematopoietic regions. Enhanced MR images were useful in detecting the hematopoietic areas in marrow and differentiating them from spondylitis and metastatic tumors, although further experience is needed to distinguish between tumorous hyperplastic regions and benign hematopoietic regions in marrow. (author)

  17. The CI findings of 6 cases of the pineal cyst. Consideration on neuroradiological images and the mechanism of occurrence of pineal cysts in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In comparison to adult individuals over the age of 50, pineal cysts do rarely occur in children and adolescents. Here we report on four young patients who had pineal cysts in combination with hypophyseal dwarfism. We studied an 8-year-old girl with chiasmal germinoma, an 8-year-old boy with epilepsy, a 17-year-old male with spontaneous hypophyseal dwarfism and a 11-year-old female with craniopharyngioma. We also investigated a 29-year-old man with pontine glioma and a 48-year-old women with prolactinoma. The comparison of neuroimaging the pineal cysts in children and adults revealed the characteristics of their location in the pineal gland and the presence of residual normal gland. The etiology of pineal cysts in combination with pituitary dwarfism is unclear. However, our cases would suggest that they may be related to endocrinological disorders of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (author)

  18. Sagittal MR images of normal pineal glands after Gd-DTPA injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated normal pineal glands on Gd-DTPA enhanced MR images on a 1.5 Tesla superconducting unit. On enhanced sagittal MR images with a 3-mm slice thickness, pineal glands were identified as solid or cystic structures. The solid and cystic pineal glands were divided into two subgroups according to the degree of enhancement. The solid pineal glands showed diffuse or subtle enhancement and cystic ones showed peripheral enhancement either completely or incompletely. Of the 50 patients, 19 (38%) had solid pineal glands and 31 (62%) had cystic ones. In male, 7 out of 12 (63%) showed solid pineal glands and in female, 27 out of 39 (70%) showed cystic ones. (author)

  19. Depression of nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in castrate male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity was examined in intact rats, castrated rats, and in rats that had been castrated and had received testosterone proprionate. Castration resulted in significantly depressing nocturnal levels of pineal NAT (p<0.05) when compared to enzyme activity in intact rats. Testosterone proprionate administration restored plasma LH levels to normal values in castrate rats but did not induce nocturnal pineal enzyme activity to levels seen in the pineal glands of intact rats. The data substantiate the existence of a feedback control of pineal biosynthetic activity by the hypophyseal-gonadal system, but the identity of the hormone(s) responsible for regulation of pineal NAT activity is not known. (author)

  20. Delayed intra-tumoural haemorrhage in pineal germinoma: Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Colditz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Intraparenchymal haemorrhage in a pineal germinoma is a very rare, though clinically significant event. We report the first case of a significantly delayed intraparenchymal haemorrhage in a pineal germinoma, 14 days after endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV, causing precipitous patient deterioration. We discuss potential contributing pathophysiological factors, and seek to illustrate that knowledge of its occurrence, and associated morbidity, is clinically significant in managing pineal germinoma patients with acute deterioration post obstructive hydrocephalus CSF diversion.

  1. Pineal concretions in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) as a result of collagen-mediated calcification

    OpenAIRE

    Przybylska-Gornowicz, B.; Lewczuk, B.; Prusik, M.; Bulc, M.

    2009-01-01

    The intra-pineal calcification is a well-known phenomenon in mammals, however it is almost completely unknown in birds. The aim of the present work was to analyze morphology and genesis of the pineal concretions in the turkey. The studies were performed on the pineals collected from one-year-old turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). In addition to standard morphological methods, the alizarin red S and potassium pyroantimonate methods were employed for localization of calci...

  2. Cell proliferation in the developing rat pineal gland.A bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, J. L.; Boya, J.; Carbonell, A. L.; Garci?a-maurin?o, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    The immunohistochemical detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to study the cell proliferation in the developing rat pineal gland, from the appearance of pineal primordium in the embryonic day 15 (E15) until 30 days after birth. The results showed three different proliferative phases. From E15 to E21, the pineal gland shows a phase of rapid proliferation. The second phase corresponds to the first postnatal week, in which the number of labeled cells per ...

  3. Radiologic and laboratory diagnosis of the pineal gland state in some neuroendocrinal syndromes in women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological and functional examinations of the pineal gland state and changes of bones of the vault and base of the skull are performed in 114 women. The data on melatonin excretion, calcification frequency of the pineal gland in different syndromes, signs of endocrinopathy, endocraniosis, intracranial hypertension in the observed persons of all groups are given. It is suggested that the retardation of calcification of the pineal gland is connected with humoral and hormonal status disorder

  4. New crystal in the pineal gland : characterization and potential role in electromechano-transduction

    OpenAIRE

    Baconnier, Simon; Lang, Sidney B.; Seze, Rene?

    2002-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine transducer secreting melatonin, responsible for the physiological circadian rhythm control. A new form of biomineralization has been studied in the human pineal gland. It consists of small crystals that are less than 20 µm in length. These crystals could be responsible for an electromechanical biological transduction mechanism in the pineal gland due to their structure and piezoelectric properties. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispe...

  5. Pineal Photoreceptor Cells Are Required for Maintaining the Circadian Rhythms of Behavioral Visual Sensitivity in Zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinle; Montgomery, Jake; Cheng, Wesley; Noh, Jung Hyun; Hyde, David R.; Li, Lei

    2012-01-01

    In non-mammalian vertebrates, the pineal gland functions as the central pacemaker that regulates the circadian rhythms of animal behavior and physiology. We generated a transgenic zebrafish line [Tg(Gnat2:gal4-VP16/UAS:nfsB-mCherry)] in which the E. coli nitroreductase is expressed in pineal photoreceptor cells. In developing embryos and young adults, the transgene is expressed in both retinal and pineal photoreceptor cells. During aging, the expression of the transgene in retinal photorecept...

  6. Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton beam has been applied to treat various tumor patients in clinical studies. However, it is still undefined whether proton radiation can inhibit the blood vessel formation and induce the cell death in vascular endothelial cells in growing organs. The aim of this study are first, to develop an optimal animal model for the observation of blood vessel development with low dose of proton beam and second, to investigate the effect of low dose proton beam on the inhibition of blood vessel formation induced by hypoxic conditions. In this study, flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos were used to directly visualize and determine the inhibition of blood vessels by low dose (1, 2, 5 Gy) of proton beam with spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). And we observed cell death by acridine orange staining at 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) stage of embryos after proton irradiation. We also compared the effects of proton beam with those of gamma-ray. An antioxidant, N-acetyl cystein (NAC) was used to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the cell deaths induced by proton irradiation. Irradiated flk-1-GFP transgenic embryos with proton beam irradiation (35 MeV, spread out Bragg peak, SOBP) demonstrated a marked inhibition of embryonic growth and an altered fluorescent blood vessel development in the trunk region. When the cells with DNA damage in the irradiated zebrafish were stained with acridine orange, green fluorescent cell death spots were increased in trunk regions compared to non-irradiated control embryos. Proton beam also significantly increased the cell death rate in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but pretreatment of N-acetyl cystein (NAC), an antioxidant, recovered the proton-induced cell death rate (p<0.01). Moreover, pretreatment of NAC abrogated the effect of proton beam on the inhibition of trunk vessel development and malformation of trunk truncation. From this study, we found that proton radiation therapy can inhibit the blood vessel growth which is probably induced in hypoxic region in vivo in zebrafish embryos. The inhibition of blood vessel formation by proton beam might be caused by vascular cell death through the increased ROS generation. Therefore, proton therapy can be applied to treat tumor angiogenesis as well as abnormal vessel formation developing in hypoxic region

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow in various types of brain tumor. Effect of the space-occupying lesion on blood flow in brain tissue close to and remote from tumor site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, K; SkyhØj Olsen, T

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 23 patients with brain tumors using the 133Xe intra-carotid injection method and a 254 channel gamma camera. The glioblastomas (4) and astrocytomas (4) all showed hyperemia in the tumor and tumor-near region. This was also seen in several meningiomas (4 of 7 cases) in which most of the tumor itself did not receive any isotope. Brain metastases (6) usually had a low flow in the tumor and tumor-near region. The glioblastomas tended to show markedly bending 133Xe wash-out curves pointing to pronounced heterogeneity of blood flow. Most of the flow maps, regardless of the tumor types, showed widespread abnormalities of rCBF not only in the tumor region but also in the region remote from the tumor. It is concluded that measurement of rCBF cannot yield accurate differential diagnostic information, but that the widespread derangement of the brain tissue function can be revealed even in the case of fairly small size tumors.

  8. Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamic nucleus paraventricularis mimics the effects of light on pineal melatonin synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to clarify further the role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in the control of pineal function, the effects of 2 min electrical stimulation of these nuclei were investigated in acutely blinded, adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Pineal serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, melatonin content and catecholamine levels were measured by means of radio-enzymatic, radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid-chromatography methods, respectively. All three pineal parameters underwent significant declines following brief PVN stimulation during the night time. These observations lend credence to the view that the neural pathways transmitting light information to the sympathetic innervation controlling pineal melatonin synthesis. 22 references, 1 figure

  9. Leptin Modulates Norepinephrine-Mediated Melatonin Synthesis in Cultured Rat Pineal Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Roberta de Oliveira Carvalho; José Cipolla-Neto; Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari-Garcia; Amp Xe Ssica Andrade-silva, J.

    2013-01-01

    Pineal melatonin synthesis can be modulated by many peptides, including insulin. Because melatonin appears to alter leptin synthesis, in this work we aimed to investigate whether leptin would have a role on norepinephrine- (NE-)mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal glands. According to our data, cultured rat pineal glands express leptin receptor isoform b (Ob-Rb). Pineal expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was also observed in vivo. Administration of leptin (1?nM) associated with NE (1?...

  10. Development and regeneration of the pineal region of the diencephalon

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J.

    2014-01-01

    Organizer is a group of cells that induces and patterns surrounding tissues during embryo development. Previous studies of organizers were mainly based on transplantation of various pieces of tissues. This project first aimed to find out putative organizers using a novel method, which was to characterize organizers based on patterns of syn-expression genes. The differential microarray assays selected a list of gene that are enriched or depleted in three known organizers (Hensen’s node, noto...

  11. A glândula pineal e o metabolismo de carboidratos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Monteiro, Seraphim; Doris Hissako, Sumida; Fabiana Tumi, Nishide; Fábio Bessa, Lima; José, Cipolla Neto; Ubiratan Fabres, Machado.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A influência da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos vem sendo investigada há décadas. Entretanto, resultados contraditórios não esclarecem, até o momento, o verdadeiro papel da melatonina sobre a homeostasia dos carboidratos. Através de estudos recentes, contribuímos de maneira ineqü [...] ívoca para a caracterização do papel da glândula pineal como moduladora do metabolismo de carboidratos. Além disso, à luz dos conhecimentos atuais, demonstramos quais passos do mecanismo de ação da insulina estão envolvidos nessa modulação. Nossos estudos revelaram que a pinealectomia promove um quadro de resistência à insulina, sem obesidade. A captação máxima de 2-deoxi-glicose, estimulada por insulina, em adipócitos isolados está diminuída, sem entretanto modificar a capacidade da insulina ligar-se ao seu receptor e estimular a fosforilação dos substratos intracelulares representados pela pp 185. Por outro lado, em vários tecidos sensíveis à insulina, observou-se uma diminuição no conteúdo da proteína transportadora de glicose GLUT4, mas diminuição no mRNA do GLUT4 apenas em alguns desses tecidos, sugerindo uma regulação tecido-específica. Adicionalmente, foi demonstrado que a regulação da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos é mediado pela melatonina: o hormônio aumentou a sensibilidade à insulina de adipócitos isolados e o tratamento de reposição com melatonina restaurou o conteúdo de GLUT4 no tecido adiposo branco. Em síntese, os estudos aqui relatados evidenciam um importante papel da glândula pineal na modulação da homeostasia de carboidratos. Essa regulação é dependente da melatonina e pode ser resumida, até o presente momento, como um aumento da sensibilidade tecidual à insulina, que envolve alterações na expressão gênica do GLUT4. Abstract in english For decades, the influence of the pineal gland on carbohydrate metabolism has been investigated. However, contradictory results have not yet elucidated the role played by melatonin in carbohydrate homeostasis. In our recent studies, we have contributed to characterize the role of the pineal gland as [...] a modulator of carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, based on present-day knowledge, we have demonstrated the steps of insulin action mechanism involved in this modulation. Our studies reveal that pinealectomy causes a condition of obesity-free insulin resistance. The maximum uptake of 2-deoxi-glucose prompted by insulin in isolated adipocytes is diminished, without however changing the insulin capacity to bind to its receptor, and to stimulate the phosphorilation of intracellular substrates represented by pp 185. Conversely, in several insulin-sensitive tissues, our studies detected a decrease in the amount of glucose transporter protein GLUT4, and a decrease in GLUT4 mRNA in only some of these tissues, suggesting a tissue-specific regulation. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the pineal gland regulation influences carbohydrate metabolism through melatonin, by our demonstration that the hormone increased insulin sensitivity of isolated adipocytes, and that melatonin replacement therapy restored the amount of GLUT4 in white adipose tissue. In summary, the studies reported here evidence an important role played by the pineal gland in the modulation of carbohydrate homeostasis. This regulation seems to be melatonin-dependent and can be described, so far, as an increase in tissue sensitivity to insulin, which involves changes in GLUT4 gene expression.

  12. The pineal neurohormone melatonin and its physiologic opiatergic immunoregulatory role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges J. M. Maestroni

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland functions as a neuroendocrine transducer that coordinate the organism response to changing environmental stimuli such as light and temperature. The main and best known pineal neurohormone is melatonin that is synthesized and released in a circadian fashion with a peak during the night darkness hours. We have recently reported that melatonin exerts important immuno regulatory functions. Here we describe the astonishing property of exogenous melatonin which is able to counteract completely the depressive effect of anxiety-restraint stress and/or of corticosterone on thymus weight, andibody production and antiviral responses. This effect seems to be mediated by antigen-activated T cells via an opiatergic mechanism.

  13. A glândula pineal e o metabolismo de carboidratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Monteiro Seraphim

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A influência da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos vem sendo investigada há décadas. Entretanto, resultados contraditórios não esclarecem, até o momento, o verdadeiro papel da melatonina sobre a homeostasia dos carboidratos. Através de estudos recentes, contribuímos de maneira ineqüívoca para a caracterização do papel da glândula pineal como moduladora do metabolismo de carboidratos. Além disso, à luz dos conhecimentos atuais, demonstramos quais passos do mecanismo de ação da insulina estão envolvidos nessa modulação. Nossos estudos revelaram que a pinealectomia promove um quadro de resistência à insulina, sem obesidade. A captação máxima de 2-deoxi-glicose, estimulada por insulina, em adipócitos isolados está diminuída, sem entretanto modificar a capacidade da insulina ligar-se ao seu receptor e estimular a fosforilação dos substratos intracelulares representados pela pp 185. Por outro lado, em vários tecidos sensíveis à insulina, observou-se uma diminuição no conteúdo da proteína transportadora de glicose GLUT4, mas diminuição no mRNA do GLUT4 apenas em alguns desses tecidos, sugerindo uma regulação tecido-específica. Adicionalmente, foi demonstrado que a regulação da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos é mediado pela melatonina: o hormônio aumentou a sensibilidade à insulina de adipócitos isolados e o tratamento de reposição com melatonina restaurou o conteúdo de GLUT4 no tecido adiposo branco. Em síntese, os estudos aqui relatados evidenciam um importante papel da glândula pineal na modulação da homeostasia de carboidratos. Essa regulação é dependente da melatonina e pode ser resumida, até o presente momento, como um aumento da sensibilidade tecidual à insulina, que envolve alterações na expressão gênica do GLUT4.For decades, the influence of the pineal gland on carbohydrate metabolism has been investigated. However, contradictory results have not yet elucidated the role played by melatonin in carbohydrate homeostasis. In our recent studies, we have contributed to characterize the role of the pineal gland as a modulator of carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, based on present-day knowledge, we have demonstrated the steps of insulin action mechanism involved in this modulation. Our studies reveal that pinealectomy causes a condition of obesity-free insulin resistance. The maximum uptake of 2-deoxi-glucose prompted by insulin in isolated adipocytes is diminished, without however changing the insulin capacity to bind to its receptor, and to stimulate the phosphorilation of intracellular substrates represented by pp 185. Conversely, in several insulin-sensitive tissues, our studies detected a decrease in the amount of glucose transporter protein GLUT4, and a decrease in GLUT4 mRNA in only some of these tissues, suggesting a tissue-specific regulation. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the pineal gland regulation influences carbohydrate metabolism through melatonin, by our demonstration that the hormone increased insulin sensitivity of isolated adipocytes, and that melatonin replacement therapy restored the amount of GLUT4 in white adipose tissue. In summary, the studies reported here evidence an important role played by the pineal gland in the modulation of carbohydrate homeostasis. This regulation seems to be melatonin-dependent and can be described, so far, as an increase in tissue sensitivity to insulin, which involves changes in GLUT4 gene expression.

  14. The pineal neurohormone melatonin and its physiologic opiatergic immunoregulatory role

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Georges J. M., Maestroni; Ario, Conti; Walter, Pierpaoli.

    Full Text Available The pineal gland functions as a neuroendocrine transducer that coordinate the organism response to changing environmental stimuli such as light and temperature. The main and best known pineal neurohormone is melatonin that is synthesized and released in a circadian fashion with a peak during the nig [...] ht darkness hours. We have recently reported that melatonin exerts important immuno regulatory functions. Here we describe the astonishing property of exogenous melatonin which is able to counteract completely the depressive effect of anxiety-restraint stress and/or of corticosterone on thymus weight, andibody production and antiviral responses. This effect seems to be mediated by antigen-activated T cells via an opiatergic mechanism.

  15. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  16. Postnatal evolution of the rat pineal gland: light microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, J.; Boya, J.

    1984-01-01

    The postnatal development and morphology of the adult albino rat pineal gland was studied from one day up to ten months of age. During postnatal life there was a marked increase in gland and pinealocyte volume, more intense during the first 45 days. After ten days, the differences in nuclear morphology of parenchymal cells showed two different types of pinealocyte. The characteristic adult arrangement of pinealocytes in cords and pseudo-rosettes was observed after 15-20 days. After 75 days th...

  17. The pineal gland - Its possible roles in human reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Amnon; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the pineal gland in controlling mammalian reproduction, with particular attention given to the role of melatonin in polyestrus mammals, like humans and laboratory rodents. Evidence is cited indicating the influence of melatonin production and blood content on the age of puberty, the timing of the ovulatory cycle, gonadal steriodogenesis, and patterns of reproductive behavior. It is suggested that abnormal patterns of melatonin might be associated with amenorrhea, anovulation, unexplained infertility, premature menopause, and habitual abortions.

  18. Cellular proliferation in the rat pineal gland during postnatal development

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal, J. C.; Carbajo, S.; Go?mez Esteban, M. B.; Alvarez-morujo Sua?rez, A. J.; Mun?oz Barragan, L.

    1998-01-01

    To establish a possible correlation between the rate of cellular proliferation and already documented functional and morphological characteristics of the rat pineal gland during postnatal development, the bromodeoxyuridine labelling method was used to evaluate the fraction of cells at the S phase of the cell cycle in paraffin sections from I-, 7-, 14- and 28-day-old rats. Numerical density, taken as an indirect measure of cell hypertrophy, was also evaluated. D...

  19. Ultrastructure of the pineal gland in the adult rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, J.; Boya, J.

    1984-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the rat pineal gland was studied from 75 days until 10 months of age. Type I pinealocytes of young adults showed nuclei with dispersed chromatin, numerous infoldings of the nuclear envelope and well developed nucleoli. The cytoplasm displayed many mitochondria and clusters of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. With increasing age, there was a clear increase in the number of dense bodies or lysosomes in the Type I pinealocyte. The changes in the Type II pinealocytes with age w...

  20. Cell loss from viable and necrotic tumor regions after local gamma irradiation measured by 125I-UdR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a tracer technique, loss of cells from perivascular and average tumor cells of the syngenic mammary adenocarcinoma EO 771 in male C57 BL/6J mice may be measured in the living animal, by the use of 125-labelled 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (125I-UdR). It was the purpose of this paper to compare measurements in vivo with those made in vitro following local 60Co-gamma irradiation in the absorbed dose range from 10 to 27.5 Gy, incorporation of radioactivity into DNA of tumor cells and activity loss from labelled tumor cells were measured externally by a special scintillation counter device. In addition, by injecting the vital dye 'light green' into the mice the I-125-activity of the stained viable and unstained necrotic regions were separately measured for loss of activity following gamma irradiation. A comparison was made between radiation induced growth delay and the depression of 125I-UdR incorporation into DNA of the proliferating tumor cells. After local tumor irradiation with a dose of 27.5 Gy 60Co gamma rays an enhancement of the activity loss by 0.5% per hour was externally observed for the perivascular tumor cell population. A lower enhancement of 0.4% per hour was externally registered in the average tumor cell population. Both values were evaluated relative to sham-irradiated control tumors. The measurements on isolated tumors were in comparatively good agreement with the external values. The activity loss rate from trnal values. The activity loss rate from the viable, euoxic tissue increased by 0.4% per hour after 27.5 Gy 60Co gamma rays and by 0.3% per hour in the average cell population, the latter representing a mixture of euoxic and hypoxic cells. The results demonstrate, that the external measurements are a good indicator for radiation effects under in vivo-conditions. (orig.)

  1. Regulation of period 1 expression in cultured rat pineal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Chiaki; Dirden, James C.; Tosini, Gianluca

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro expression of Period 1 (Per1), Period 2 (Per2) and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) genes in the rat pineal gland to understand the mechanism(s) regulating the expression of these genes in this organ. Pineals, when maintained in vitro for 5 days, did not show circadian rhythmicity in the expression of any of the three genes monitored. Norepinephrine (NE) induced AA-NAT and Per1, whereas its effect on Per2 was negligible. Contrary to what was observed in other systems, NE stimulation did not induce circadian expression of Per1. The effect of NE on Per1 level was dose- and receptor subtype-dependent, and both cAMP and cGMP induced Per1. Per1 was not induced by repeated NE - or forskolin - stimulation. Protein synthesis was not necessary for NE-induced Per1, but it was for reduction of Per1 following NE stimulation. Per1 transcription in pinealocytes was activated by BMAL1/CLOCK. Our results indicate that important differences are present in the regulation of these genes in the mammalian pineal. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Content of microelements in the rat pineal gland at different ages and the effects of selenium supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Demajo M.; Jozanov-Stankov Olga; ?uji? Ivana

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian pineal gland regulates a number of important physiological processes. In this paper we report changes in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) in the male rat pineal glands at 4, 5, 8, and 12 months of age. The effect of Se supplementation in drinking water on the content of pineal gland microelements was also studied. Selenium (Se)-dependent changes in pineal gland reported in this study suggest novel physicochemical and biochemical properties of S...

  3. Interactive method to extract tumor regions from chest X-ray CT images and its application to the benign/malignant discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a new interactive method of extracting lung tumor regions of precisely peripheral shape, using chest X-ray CT images. Although methods have been proposed for extracting the rough shape of the tumor, the general aim of these methods has been to use for screening. Rough shapes of tumors as determined using these methods are not sufficient for use in benign/malignant discrimination, because the precise shapes of the tumors themselves are used as the regions to calculate features in the discrimination. The method proposed in this paper was applied in 78 cases of thin-slice chest X-ray CT images. Results confirmed that appropriate tumor regions were extracted in 67 cases. Furthermore, an increased correct discrimination rate was achieved in benign/malignant discrimination using tumor regions obtained by the proposed method. (author)

  4. Assessing tumor response after loco-regional liver cancer therapies: the role of 3D MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapiro, Julius; Lin, MingDe; Duran, Rafael; Schernthaner, Rüdiger E; Geschwind, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the tumor response of liver cancer lesions after intraarterial therapies is of major clinical interest. Over the last two decades, tumor response criteria have come a long way from purely size-based, anatomic methods such as the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors towards more functional, enhancement- and diffusion-based parameters with a strong emphasis on MRI as the ultimate imaging modality. However, the relatively low reproducibility of those one- and 2D techniques (modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors and the European Association for the Study of the Liver criteria) provided the rationale for the development of new, 3D quantitative assessment techniques. This review will summarize and compare the existing methodologies used for 3D quantitative tumor analysis and provide an overview of the published clinical evidence for the benefits of 3D quantitative tumor response assessment techniques. PMID:25371052

  5. Assessing tumor response after loco-regional liver cancer therapies: the role of 3D MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapiro, Julius; Lin, MingDe; Duran, Rafael; Schernthaner, Rüdiger E; Geschwind, Jean-François

    2015-02-01

    Assessing the tumor response of liver cancer lesions after intraarterial therapies is of major clinical interest. Over the last two decades, tumor response criteria have come a long way from purely size-based, anatomic methods such as the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors towards more functional, enhancement- and diffusion-based parameters with a strong emphasis on MRI as the ultimate imaging modality. However, the relatively low reproducibility of those one- and 2D techniques (modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors and the European Association for the Study of the Liver criteria) provided the rationale for the development of new, 3D quantitative assessment techniques. This review will summarize and compare the existing methodologies used for 3D quantitative tumor analysis and provide an overview of the published clinical evidence for the benefits of 3D quantitative tumor response assessment techniques. PMID:25371052

  6. Correlación tomográfica y anatomopatológica en los tumores de la región selar / Tomographic and anatomopathological correlation in sellar region tumors Ischemic stroke

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tania, García Moreira; Fernando, Piedra Chávez; Omar, López Arbolay; Luis, García Ferrer; Hilca, Navarro Miranda; Denise, Delgado Gutiérrez.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realización de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fundamental fue demostrar el valor de la tomografía computadorizada en el diagnóstico presuntivo de la variedad histológica de los macroadenomas hipofisarios así como de otros [...] tumores menos frecuentes de la región selar, teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes operados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomográfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar. Se registró la edad, sexo, clínica, signos tomográficos, resultados anatomopatológicos posquirúrgicos. Se observó mayor incidencia de los adenomas hipofisarios (110); los no secretores resultaron los predominantes (41,1 %). La mayoría de los pacientes se ubicó en las edades entre 30 y 50 años. El sexo femenino prevaleció en los adenomas adrenocorticotrópicos y los meningiomas; el masculino, en los productores de GH y de prolactina. Dentro de los signos tomográficos, la erosión de las clinoides y el dorso selar, así como la hidrocefalia predominó en los adenomas no secretores y los tumores no adenohipofisarios. Los adenomas (GH) se destacaron en la erosión del piso y en el balonamiento selar al igual que los de ACTH. Las calcificaciones fueron frecuentes en los teratomas y craneofaringiomas, al igual que la captación no homogénea del contraste, la cual fue característica en estos casos como en los quistes de la bolsa de Rathke. La tomografía computadorizada demostró ser de gran valor diagnóstico en los macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico del paciente. Abstract in english The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas in the world motivated the conduction of this research, whose main objective was to show the value of computerized tomography in the presumptive diagnosis of the histological variety of hypophyseal macroadenomas, as well as of other less common tumors [...] of the sellar region, taking into account the clinical picture.To this end, 124 patients operated on with the clinical and tomographic diagnosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumors of the sellar region, were studied. Age, sex, clinic, tomographic signs, and anatomopathological results were registered. It was observed a higher incidence of the hypophyseal adenomas (110). The non-secreting adenomas proved to be the predominant (41.1 %). Most of the patients were 30-50 years old. The female sex prevailed in the adrenocorticotropic adenomas and meningiomas, whereas males predominated in the GH and prolactin-producing adenomas. Within the tomographic signs, the erosion of the clinoids and the dorsum sellae, as well as hydrocephalus predominated in the non-secreting adenomas and the non-adenohypophyseal tumors. The adenomas (GH) stood out in the erosion of the floor and in the sellar ballooning, the same as the ACTH. The calcifications were frequent in the teratomas and craniopharyngiomas, as well as the non-homogenous capture of contrast, which was characteristic in these cases, as in Rathke's pouch cysts. Computarized tomography proved to have a great diagnostic value in the hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumors of the sellar region, taking into consideration the clinical picture of the patient.

  7. Experiment K-7-19: Pineal Physiology After Spaceflight: Relation to Rat Gonadal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, D. C.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

    1994-01-01

    The function of pineal exposed to microgravity and spaceflight is studied. It is found that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanisms of the response noted.

  8. Predominant melanogenesis and lentoidogenesis in vitro from multipotent pineal cells by dimethyl sulfoxide and hexamethylene bisacetamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orii, H; Hyuga, M; Mochii, M; Kosaka, J; Eguchi, G; Watanabe, K

    1994-06-01

    Pineal cells of the 8-day embryonic quail are multipotent cells which differentiate in vitro into skeletal muscle fibers, pigmented epithelial cells (PECs), lens cells and neurons. However, it was not yet clear whether precursor cells which gave such a wide repertoire of differentiation were single type or not. The present culture studies revealed that pineal cells were exclusively directed to ocular differentiation pathways by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA), suggesting a single type of precursor cell in the pineal body. DMSO directed pineal cells to differentiate into PECs. Co-administration of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) with DMSO partially inhibited PEC differentiation and promoted lens cell differentiation. Northern blot analysis using cDNAs specific to PEC and lens cell confirmed this morphological observation. HMBA completely inhibited pigmentation of cultured pineal cells and markedly promoted lens cell differentiation. Ocular differentiation of pineal cells was accompanied with the loss of myogenicity. We discuss three possible pathways of lens cell differentiation from pineal cells. The agents which affect pineal cell differentiation seemed to modulate the cell-substrate interaction. And the interaction was suggested to be one of the environmental cues in the differentiation. PMID:7981050

  9. The modulatory effect of substance P on rat pineal norepinephrine release and melatonin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukda, Sujira; MØller, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Secretion of melatonin by the mammalian pineal gland is primarily regulated by the release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerve terminals that originate from the superior cervical ganglia. Peptidergic nerves that originate in the perikarya located in the sensory trigeminal ganglia also innervate the pineal gland. Some of these peptidergic nerve fibers contain substance P. Previously, we have characterized neurokinin 1 type substance P receptors in the pineal gland. However, the function of this receptor in the pineal gland remains unclear. Here, we examined the modulatory effect of substance P on rat pineal NE transmission. We show that at the presynaptic level, substance P stimulates the KCl-induced [(3)H]NE release from the pineal nerve ending. However, we found that substance P did not affect the basal levels of either arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity or melatonin secretion in rat pineal organ cultures. However, in the presence of NE, substance P inhibited the NE-induced increase in AANAT activity and melatonin secretion. This is the first time that a function for substance P in the mammalian pineal gland has been demonstrated.

  10. Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland : Roles in Development and Phenotype Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function. A working model is proposed for understanding the sequential action of homeobox genes in controlling development and mature circadian function of the mammalian pinealocyte based on knowledge from detailed developmental and daily gene expression analyses in rats, the pineal phenotypes of homebox gene-deficient mice and studies on development of the retinal photoreceptor; the pinealocyte and retinal photoreceptor share features not seen in other tissues and are likely to have evolved from the same ancestral photodetector cell.

  11. Tumores de células germinativas intracranianos na infância: avaliação de 14 casos / Primary intracranial germ cell tumors in children: evaluation of fourteen cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Imperatriz Porto, Rondinelli; Carlos Alberto Martinez, Osório; Luís Fernando, Lopes.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia o diagnóstico, a terapia e a sobrevida de 14 pacientes com tumor de células germinativas intracraniano durante o período entre 1991 e 2001. Onze pacientes eram do sexo masculino e três do feminino. A média de idade do grupo foi 12,5 anos (20 dias-18 anos). Na admissão, os mais com [...] uns sintomas foram cefaléia (10/14), vômitos (6/14) e visuais (6/14). Os tumores estavam localizados em região hipotalâmica/hipofisária em 10 casos, suprasselar em 3 casos e intraparenquimatosa em 1 caso. Histologicamente, havia 1 caso de carcinoma embrionário, 5 de germinomas, 2 de teratoma maduro, 1 de teratoma imaturo e 5 de tumores mistos. O tratamento foi variável, dependendo da histologia da lesão. Três pacientes morreram após a progressão tumoral ou recidiva e um paciente morreu devido causa não relacionada ao tumor. Os demais estão vivos e sem doença. Abstract in english This study evaluates the diagnosis, therapy and survival of 14 patients with primary intracranial germ cell tumors during the period from 1991 to 2001. There were 11 males and 3 females. Mean age was 12.2 years old (20 days-18 years). On admission, the most common symptoms were headache (10/14), vom [...] iting (6/14) and visual (6/14). The tumor was in pineal and hypothalamic region in 10 cases, suprasellar in 3 cases, and in the cerebral parenchyma in 1 case. Histologically there were 1 embryonal carcinoma, 5 germinomas, 2 mature teratomas, 1 immature teratoma and 5 mixed germ cell tumors. Treatment differed among the patients according to the type of tumor. Three patients died after tumor progression or relapse and one patient died from another condition. The remaining patients are alive and without disease.

  12. Experiment K-6-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Kaddis, F.; Markley, C.; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. It was recognized as early as 1685 (cited in Kitay and Altschule, 1954) that the pineal of humans calcified with age. However, little can be found in the literature relating calcification and pineal function. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, researchers examined pineal calcium content following the spaceflight. Researchers concluded that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanism of the responses noted.

  13. Distinct effects of the serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors milnacipran and venlafaxine on rat pineal monoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kuwagata, Makiko; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-06-17

    Monoamine systems are involved in the pathology and therapeutic mechanism of depression. The pineal gland contains large amounts of serotonin as a precursor for melatonin, and its activity is controlled by noradrenergic sympathetic nerves. Pineal diurnal activity and its release of melatonin are relevant to aberrant states observed in depression. We investigated the effects on pineal monoamines of serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, which are widely used antidepressants. Four days of milnacipran treatment led to an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin levels, whereas 4 days of venlafaxine treatment reduced 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels; both agents induced an increase in dopamine levels. Our data suggest that milnacipran increases levels of the precursor for melatonin synthesis by facilitating the noradrenergic regulation of pineal activity and that venlafaxine inhibits serotonin reuptake into noradrenergic terminals on the pineal gland. PMID:26016648

  14. Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effect upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity

  15. Effect of low dose radiation on cell cycle of pineal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: In the present study the authors observed the effect of low dose radiation (LDR) on cell cycle of pineal gland in mice. Methods: The distribution in the phase of the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry after staining of pineal gland with prospidium iodine (PI) after WBI with 75 mGy X-rays. Results: It was shown that the percentage of G0/G1 phase and G2 + M phase of pineal gland cells decreased after irradiation (P < 0.05), and meanwhile the percentage of S-phase of pineal gland cells increased after irradiation (P < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicated that WBI with LDR could promote DNA synthesis of pineal gland cells in mice

  16. 123I-IMP SPECT in patients with brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    123I-IMP SPECT was studied in 20 patients with brain tumor (metastasis, 4; low grade astrocytoma, 6; high grade astrocytoma, 3; pineal tumor, 3; pituitary tumor, 3; meningioma, 1). Each case was intravenously injected 1 mCi of IMP. SPECT data were collected for 1,000 k counts 20 min. after injection, using a circular detector array emission tomograph system (SET 020, Shimadzu and ECLIPSE S-120, Japan Datageneral). Low activity areas on IMP SPECT image was observed in the area of the tumor and its surrounding edema in 13 cases with metastasis, astrocytoma, and meningioma. In 3 cases with pituitary adenoma and 1 case with pineal tumor, no defect was observed. In 2 cases with pineal tumor, low activity areas were observed in the limited area of tumor. T/N ratio (activity ratio of diseased area to the opposite normal area) was calculated in each case. T/N ratios were ranged from 44 % to 96 %, and had no tumor specificity. Moderate correlation was observed between T/N ratios of IMP and those of rCBF obtained by 133Xe inhalation method in 18 cases without meningioma (r = 0.76). In a case with meningioma, the discrepancy of T/N ratio between IMP and 133Xe was observed, which showed high rCBF and low activity on IMP image. (author)

  17. Morphologic Changes in Rat's Pineal Gland After Eliminating Retinal Photic Stimulation Cambios Morfológicos en la Glándula Pineal de Ratas Luego de la Eliminación de la Estimulación Fótica Retiniana

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Roa Henriquez; Iván Suazo Galdames; Mario Cantín López; Daniela Zavando Matamata

    2008-01-01

    Melatonin secretion from mammalian pineal glands is regulated by light stimulation by means of a complex neuroanatomical pathway that includes the retina, hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, intermediolateral nucleus of the thoracic spinal cord, and finally, the superior cervical ganglia. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in the pinealocytes and the blood vessel density of the pineal gland after eliminating photic stimulation in rats. Thirteen adult Sprague-Dawley rats we...

  18. [Gender assessment of signs of malignant tumors of the maxillofacial area residents in Ivano-Frankivsk region during 2000-2010 yy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavan, Ia R; Levandovski?, R A; Kostishin, I D; Romanchuk, V R

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the incidence of malignant tumors of the maxillofacial region in the Ivano-Frankivsk region, based on a retrospective analysis of the record charts of patients from 2000 to 2010. The study investigated the dynamics of indicators of malignant tumors of the maxillofacial region according to the Ivano-Frankivsk Clinical Oncology Center on the basis of a retrospective analysis of 417 patients with registration cards. The characteristic of the prevalence of malignant tumors of the maxillofacial area of the region by gender and localization of the pathological process. PMID:24423674

  19. Survival of oxygenated and hypoxic tumor cells in the extended-peak regions of heavy charged-particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survival of oxygenated and hypoxic cells of the R-1 rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumor line in suspension culture has been measured at several positions in the plateau and the extended peak regions of carbon-, neon-, and argon-ion beams. Both the carbon and neon beams had 14- and 23-cm ranges in water; the argon beam has a 13-cm range. Peak regions extended to both 4 and 10 cm were studied for each ion species. In the 10-cm extended peak, OER values were close to 2.0 for the carbon-ion beam, 1.9-1.5 for the neon beam, and 1.4-1.2 for neutrons, while the argon OER in the extended peak is lower than that for neutrons. The RBE values increased through the carbon peak region, were large and relatively constant through the neon peak region, and decreased through the argon peak region, thus reflecting the changing effective LET that results from the changing energies and the different charges of the particles. An analysis of the effectiveness of the different ion beams for killing hypoxic cells in the peak relative to killing oxygenated cells in the plateau implies that, for single-port irradiations, carbon ions may be the most advantageous charged-particle species for the treatment of deep-seated hypoxic tumors. However, for tumors at shallow depths, the present results indicate that carbon and neon ions are similar in their effectiveness. Argon ions may be superior for the treatment of poorly oxygenated tumors close to the body surfacee

  20. The role of miR-182 in regulating pineal CLOCK expression after hypoxia-ischemia brain injury in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xin; Sun, Bin; Huang, Jian; Xu, Lixiao; Pan, Jian; Fang, Chen; Tao, Yanfang; Hu, Shukun; Li, Ronghu; Han, Xing; Miao, Po; Wang, Ying; Yu, Jian; Feng, Xing

    2015-03-30

    Circadian rhythm disorder is a common neurological deficit caused by neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). However, little is known about its underlying mechanisms. Our previous studies revealed a significant elevation of clock genes at the protein, but not mRNA, levels in the pineal gland after neonatal HIBD. To investigate the mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation on clock genes, we screened changes of miRNA levels in the pineal gland after neonatal HIBD using high-throughput arrays. Within the miRNAs whose expression was significantly down-regulated, we identified one miRNA (miR182) that targeted the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Clock, a key component of clock genes, and played a crucial role in regulating CLOCK expression after oxygen-glucose deprivation in primarily cultured pinealocytes. Our findings therefore provide new insight on studies of therapeutic targets for circadian rhythm disturbance after neonatal HIBD. PMID:25684245

  1. Minimally Invasive-Endoscopic Intraventricular Neurosurgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for taking out tumors such as colloid cysts, pineal region tumors. And then lastly we're now ... about the seed of the soul being the pineal gland. And Dr. Souweidane is always lucky enough ...

  2. Postnatal development of cell types in the rat pineal gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, J.; Boya, J.

    1983-01-01

    The morphological development of the rat pineal gland has been studied from 1 to 60 days of age. During the first days, undifferentiated cells (pinealoblasts) with scanty cytoplasm and frequent mitotic figures were observed. The differentiation of cell types (Types I and II pinealocytes) began on the third day after birth and was completed by days 15-20. At 3 days of age, nerve fibres were first observed, both in the connective spaces and in the parenchyma. After 5 days, an important hypertro...

  3. A case of hemorrhagic pineal cyst: MR/CT correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 30-year-old male had headache pain for one month and was evaluated with both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR). These scans demonstrated an obstructing pineal cyst containing layered acute and subacute blood products by MR criteria. The concurrent scans allowed correlation between CT and MR findings in this rare complication of an unusual entity, explained his headache (and the development of later upward gaze paresis), provided a precise surgical/anatomic approach, and gave a good final clinical result. The report illustrates appropriate CT and MR images and pathological specimen. (orig.)

  4. Automatic Diagnosis of Abnormal Tumor Region from Brain Computed Tomography Images Using Wavelet Based Statistical Texture Features

    CERN Document Server

    Padma, A

    2011-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper is to achieve the tissue classification and automatically diagnosis the abnormal tumor region present in Computed Tomography (CT) images using the wavelet based statistical texture analysis method. Comparative studies of texture analysis method are performed for the proposed wavelet based texture analysis method and Spatial Gray Level Dependence Method (SGLDM). Our proposed system consists of four phases i) Discrete Wavelet Decomposition (ii) Feature extraction (iii) Feature selection (iv) Analysis of extracted texture features by classifier. A wavelet based statistical texture feature set is derived from normal and tumor regions. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to select the optimal texture features from the set of extracted texture features. We construct the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifier and evaluate the performance of classifier by comparing the classification results of the SVM based classifier with the Back Propagation Neural network classifier(BPN...

  5. Regional variation in histopathologic features of tumor specimens from treatment-naive glioblastoma correlates with anatomic and physiologic MR Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Phillips, Joanna J.; Parvataneni, Rupa; Molinaro, Annette; Essock-Burns, Emma; Bourne, Gabriela; Parsa, Andrew T.; Aghi, Manish K.; McDermott, Michael W; Berger, Mitchel S.; Cha, Soonmee; Chang, Susan M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Histopathologic evaluation of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) at initial diagnosis is typically performed on tissue obtained from regions of contrast enhancement (CE) as depicted on gadolinium-enhanced, T1-weighted images. The non-enhancing (NE) portion of the lesion, which contains both reactive edema and infiltrative tumor, is only partially removed due to concerns about damaging functioning brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate histopathologic and physiologic MRI features of image...

  6. Solitary fibrous tumor of the central nervous system: report of 2 cases and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ge; Li, Meifang; Xu, Lijun; Hu, Peiqian; Liao, Xin; Lin, Chuang; Zhao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) rarely occur in the central nervous system (CNS). Involvement of the brainstem and pineal gland is rarely recorded. Herein, we represent 2 cases of SFTs and firstly report SFT of the pineal gland. Cranial MR imaging showed isointense to hypointense signal intensity, and marked enhancement. Microscopically, the tumors showed characteristic “patternless-pattern” architecture. Elongated tumour cells formed fascicles alternating with hypocellular densely collagenous stroma. Immunohistochemistry for CD34, BCL2, and CD99 favors the definitive diagnosis of SFT. It is difficult to predict prognosis in patients with intraventricular SFT. In general, complete surgical resection may offer the best chance of a favorable clinical outcome. PMID:25031774

  7. A radiologic study by CT scan of pineal size in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterations in size of the pineal body and melatonin secretion have been observed in cancer patients. The present study was carried out to evaluate pineal dimension in a group of cancer patients and their relation to melatonin blood levels. The study included 70 oncologic patients. As controls, 41 patients with acute or chronic disease other than cancer entered the study. Melatonin serum levels were measured by radioimmunoassay on venous blood samples collected at 9:00 a.m. Pineal size was determined by brain CT scan, by considering the product of the two longest perpendicular diameters, multiplied by the thickness of the stratum. The volume of the pineal body was found to be enlarged in 12/70 (17%) cancer patients, and its mean value was significantly higher than that observed in controls. Melatonin levels were also significantly higher in oncologic patients than in controls. However, there was no correlation between melatonin levels and pineal size in cancer patients. Finally, cancer patients did not show a higher degree of pineal calcifications than controls. The clinical significance of pineal enlargement in cancer patients remains to be understood

  8. The frequency of pineal calcification during the first 18 years of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are sparse or contradictory data on frequency and pathological significance of pineal calcifications in childhood. This is particularly so for children younger than 6 years of age. We therefore looked for pineal gland calcifications in 1044 consecutive a.p. and lateral skull films. Pineal calcification was diagnosed, if accepted by both authors, and if the calcified spot fitted into at least 2 of 4 localisation methods. 80 patients with pineal calcifications were detected using this method. In 40 of these patients CCT confirmed the calcification. The frequency of pineal calcification was 3% in the first 12 months of life rising gradually to 7.1% in children of 10 years of age. From 10 years onwards, there is a marked increase of frequency of calcifications of the pineal gland up to 33% in the group of children of 18 years of age. In contrast to some statements in literature, pineal calcifications seem to be physiological in a limited percentage even below the age of 6 years. (orig.)

  9. Comparative expressed sequence hybridization to chromosomes for tumor classification and identification of genomic regions of differential gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong-Jie; Williamson, Daniel; Clark, Jeremy; Wang, Rubin; Tiffin, Nicki; Skelton, Lorraine; Gordon, Tony; Williams, Richard; Allan, Barry; Jackman, Ann; Cooper, Colin; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Shipley, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Altered expression of genes can have phenotypic consequences in cancer development and treatment, developmental abnormalities, and differentiation processes. Here we describe a rapid approach, termed comparative expressed sequence hybridization (CESH), which gives a genome-wide view of relative expression patterns within tissues according to chromosomal location. No prior knowledge of genes or cloning is required, and minimal amounts of tissue can be used. Expression profiles are achieved in a manner similar to the identification of chromosomal imbalances by comparative genomic hybridization analysis. The approach is demonstrated to indicate a chromosomal region that harbors overexpressed genes that may be associated with a drug-resistant phenotype. In addition, known and new regions of differential gene expression in both normal tissues and tumor samples from the soft tissue sarcoma group of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are indicated. These regions included 2p24; overexpression of MYCN at 2p24 was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription–PCR for all of the alveolar RMS cases and did not necessarily correspond to genomic amplification. Evidence including region specific microarray analysis indicated that overexpression of several genes from a region may be required for detection by CESH. This evidence is consistent with clusters of functionally related genes and mechanisms that affect the expression of a number of genes at a particular genomic location. The distinctive CESH profiles demonstrated in different subtypes of RMS show potential for tumor classification. PMID:11481483

  10. Tachykinins and tachykinin-receptors in the rat pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukda, S; Chetsawang, B

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography of extracts of rat pineal glands, followed by radio immunological analysis with antibodies against tachykinins, demonstrated the presence of substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B in the superficial rat pineal gland. Immunohistochemistry on perfusion-fixed rat brain sections showed substance P and neurokinin A to be present in nerve fibers located both in the perivascular spaces as well as intraparenchymally between the pinealocytes. After extracting total RNA, followed by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers specific for NK1-, NK2- and NK3-receptors, agarose gel analysis of the reaction products showed the presence of mRNA encoding all three neurokinin receptors. Immunohistochemical analysis showed NK1 receptor to be located in the interstitial cells of the gland. This location was confirmed by use of in situ hybridization using radioactively labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Double immunohistochemical stainings showed that the NK1-immunoreactive cells were not a part of the macrophages or antigen-presenting cells of the gland. Our study suggests that tachykinins, after release from intrapineal nerve fibers, are involved in an up to now unknown function, different from that of melatonin synthesis.

  11. The projection of the calcified pineal gland on slightly rotated AP films as a reliable landmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The projection of the pineal gland between the two outer tables of the skull in the AP film has been reconstructed on the basis of the CT print of the head, with and without lateral rotation. In this experimental approach it is proven that rotation up to 50 does not influence the position of the pineal gland on the AP film. The range of the normal position of the pineal in the frontal plane is defined and the normal distribution is given. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MB

  12. Effect of low dose radiation on cGMP levels of pineal gland in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change of cGMP of pineal gland in mice were observed with low dose radiation (LDR). The time-course changes of cGMP were detected by radioimmunoassay after WBI with 75 mGy X rays. It was shown that the levels of cGMP of pineal gland in mice began to decrease and reached its lowest peak at 18 h (p < 0.01) after WBI. And began to increase at 24 h and reached its highest peak at 72 h (p < 0.05). These results indicated that WBI with LDR could reduce to the cGMP levels of pineal gland cells in mice

  13. Sex-related differences in the nuclear population of postpubertal rat pineal gland. A quantitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Lo?pez Mun?oz, F.; Boya, J.; Calvo, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    Male and female parenchymal pineal cell types have been studied throughout postpubertal development to determine the existence of sex-related differences on a time basis. Six age groups (2, 3,4, 8, 15 and 24 months) of eight rats (4 males and 4 females) were used in this study. Nuclei of both parenchymal pineal cell types were counted in 5 areas of 26.377 pm' per pineal gland on semithin sections. Nonparametric statistics of our results (Mann-Whitney U-test and...

  14. p18Ink4cand p53 act as tumor suppressors in Cyclin D1-driven primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Saab, Raya; Rodriguez-galindo, Carlos; Matmati, Kelly; Rehg, Jerold E.; Baumer, Shannon H.; Khoury, Joseph D.; Billups, Catherine; Neale, Geoffrey; Helton, Kathleen J.; Skapek, Stephen X.

    2009-01-01

    The RB tumor suppressor pathway is likely important in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the brain. In fact, 10-15% of children born with RB mutations develop brain PNETs, commonly in the pineal gland. Cyclin D1, which in association with Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) 4 and 6 phosphorylates and inactivates the RB protein, is expressed in 40% of sporadic medulloblastoma, a PNET of the cerebellum. To understand tumorigenic events cooperating with RB pathway disruption in brain PNET, w...

  15. SU-C-9A-01: Parameter Optimization in Adaptive Region-Growing for Tumor Segmentation in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To design a reliable method to determine the optimal parameter in the adaptive region-growing (ARG) algorithm for tumor segmentation in PET. Methods: The ARG uses an adaptive similarity criterion m - f? ? I-PET ? m + f?, so that a neighboring voxel is appended to the region based on its similarity to the current region. When increasing the relaxing factor f (f ? 0), the resulting volumes monotonically increased with a sharp increase when the region just grew into the background. The optimal f that separates the tumor from the background is defined as the first point with the local maximum curvature on an Error function fitted to the f-volume curve. The ARG was tested on a tumor segmentation Benchmark that includes ten lung cancer patients with 3D pathologic tumor volume as ground truth. For comparison, the widely used 42% and 50% SUVmax thresholding, Otsu optimal thresholding, Active Contours (AC), Geodesic Active Contours (GAC), and Graph Cuts (GC) methods were tested. The dice similarity index (DSI), volume error (VE), and maximum axis length error (MALE) were calculated to evaluate the segmentation accuracy. Results: The ARG provided the highest accuracy among all tested methods. Specifically, the ARG has an average DSI, VE, and MALE of 0.71, 0.29, and 0.16, respectively, better than the absolute 42% thresholding (DSI=0.67, VE= 0.57, and MALE=0.23), the relative 42% thresholding (DSI=0.62, VE= 0.41, and MALE=0.23), the absolute 50% thresholding (DSI=0.62, VE=0.48, and MALE=0.21), the relative 50% thresholding (DSI=0.48, VE=0.54, and MALE=0.26), OTSU (DSI=0.44, VE=0.63, and MALE=0.30), AC (DSI=0.46, VE= 0.85, and MALE=0.47), GAC (DSI=0.40, VE= 0.85, and MALE=0.46) and GC (DSI=0.66, VE= 0.54, and MALE=0.21) methods. Conclusions: The results suggest that the proposed method reliably identified the optimal relaxing factor in ARG for tumor segmentation in PET. This work was supported in part by National Cancer Institute Grant R01 CA172638; The dataset is provided by AAPM TG211

  16. COSMOS 2044. Experiment K-7-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

    1989-01-01

    It is now known that the pineal organ can interact with many endocrine and nonendocrine tissues in a regulatory fashion. Given its key role in the regulation of melatonin synthesis, its high concentration, and that its levels may persist longer than the more rapidly changing melatonin, it was felt that serotonin might give a more accurate assessment of the effects of microgravity on pineal function following recovery of animals from flight. Five-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), a major metabolite of serotonin metabolism, was also measured. One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, pineal calcium content was examined following spaceflight.

  17. Effects of low dose irradiation on cAMP levels of pineal gland in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the effects of low dose radiation on cAMP levels of pineal gland. The authors examined the cAMP contents of pineal gland after whole-body irradiation with 50, 75, 100, 200, 500 mGy X-ray on Kunming male mice. The results showed that the cAMP levels of pineal gland after WBI with 50?100 mGy X-ray in mice was higher than sham irradiation mice, especially, 75 mGy group was marked higher than that of sham irradiation group (p<0.001). Whereas, high dose radiation may reduced to the cAMP levels of pineal gland in mice, among 2, 4 Gy groups was lower than that of sham irradiation group

  18. Effect of noradrenaline on production of methoxyindoles by rat pineal gland in organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examined the effect of noradrenaline on production of methoxyindoles by the pineal gland in organ culture. Pineal glands were incubated in pairs in 95?l culture medium containing 5-hydroxy [2-14C]tryptamine creatinine sulphate (0,1 mM) and noradrenaline (NA) (0,5-100 ?M). The results indicated that noradrenaline appeared to have a characteristic action on pineal metabolism. An increase in production of both N-acetylserotonin and melatonin by the pineal after noradrenaline treatment was observed. The overall production of methoxyindoles followed a very similar trend to that of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin, which suggests some degree of noradrenergic control over HIOMT levels

  19. The perivascular phagocyte of the mouse pineal gland: An antigen-presenting cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Morten; Rath, Martin F

    2006-01-01

    The perivascular space of the rat pineal gland is known to contain phagocytic cells that are immunoreactive for leukocyte antigens, and thus they appear to belong to the macrophage/microglial cell line. These cells also contain MHC class II proteins. We investigated this cell type in the pineal gland of mice. Actively phagocytosing cells with a prominent lysosomal system were found in the pericapillary spaces of the mouse pineal gland following intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase. The cells also exhibited strong acid phosphatase activity. Perivascular cells were immunopositive for MHC class II protein and for CD68, a marker of monocytes/phagocytes. This study verifies that perivascular phagocytes with antigen-presenting properties are present in the mouse pineal gland.

  20. Paragangliomas of the head and neck region (''glomus tumors''); Paragangliome der Kopf-Hals-Region (''Glomustumoren'')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Erich [Klinikum Fulda gAG (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Arps, Hartmut [Klinikum Fulda gAG (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Schwager, Konrad [Klinikum Fulda gAG (Germany). Klinik fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohrenkrankheiten, Kopf-, Hals- und Plastische Gesichtschirurgie und Kommunikationsstoerungen

    2009-12-15

    Paragangliomas of the head and neck region - often incorrectly termed ''glomus tumors'' in everyday practice - are rare neoplasms that allow a radiologic diagnosis at first glance. They are found at four predilection sites; In the carotid bifurcation, at the parapharyngeal course of the vagal nerve, around the jugular foramen and in the tympanic cavity. Depending on their location and clinical manifestation they are diagnosed early or late. Therefore, their size may vary between few millimeters and several centimeters. Special problems arise when the tumors occur at multiple locations in the setting of genetic disease. Imaging is essential for establishing a diagnosis, for the description of their extension and for follow-up. Because of their high degree of vascularisation especially vagal and jugular paragangliomas are a challenge not only to the surgeon but also to the interventional neuroradiologist. Super-selective preoperative embolization can decide whether a tumor is operable or not. In individual cases infiltration of the carotid necessitates a temporary balloon test occlusion. (orig.)

  1. The pineal organ of bats: a comparative morphological and volumetric investigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatnagar, K. P.; Frahm, H. D.; Stephan, H.

    1986-01-01

    Bats are seasonal breeders and roost under a wide range of lighting conditions, from broad daylight to the total darkness of subterranean passageways and caves. Some are true hibernators. These characteristics and the paucity of information on their pineal organ prompted this investigation, which is based upon the pineals of 191 specimens of 88 species and 12 families of bats. Comparative morphological and volumetric observations have been made on serially sectioned brains of each species. Da...

  2. The effect of chronic antidepressant administration on ?-adrenoceptor function of the rat pineal

    OpenAIRE

    Cowen, P. J.; Fraser, Sheila; Grahame-smith, D. G.; Green, A. R.; Stanford, Clare

    1983-01-01

    1 The ?-adrenoceptor agonist, isoprenaline (1.5-3.0 mg kg-1 intravenously), produced a dose-related increase in rat pineal melatonin content. This increase was prevented by pretreatment with the selective ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist, atenolol (2 mg kg-1), but not by the ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist, butoxamine (2 mg kg-1). The ?2-adrenoceptor agonist, terbutaline (5.0 mg kg-1), produced a moderate increase in pineal melatonin content.

  3. [Long round-the-clock illumination as a factor of accelerated ageing of pineal gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubina-Vakulik, G I; Bondarenko, L A; Sotnik, N N

    2007-01-01

    On sexually matured male rabbits of Shinhilla breed kept in round-the-clock illumination within 5 months, dynamic of changes of structure of pineal gland was investigated. It was found the gradual, progressing in time loss of pinealocytes amount, arising due to their apoptosis, which points out hypolinealism development. Round-the-clock illumination should be considered as the factor promoting accelerated aging of pineal gland. PMID:17969592

  4. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library

    OpenAIRE

    Ed Smith; Chong, Nelson W.; Tuoyu Geng; Jessica Wynn; Stefanie Hartman; Greg Touchton

    2006-01-01

    The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences d...

  5. Ultrastructural changes in the rat pineal gland after sympathetic denervation. Quantitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, J. L.; Boya, J.; Garci?a-maurin?o, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes in the rat pineal gland were studied quantitatively 7 and 60 days after the sympathetic denervation by bilateral excission or decentralization of superior cervical ganglia. The surface occupied by pineal parenchymal cells decreased in rats of experimental groups with respect to the control group. Furthermore, profile areas of the cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus of the pinealocytes were also diminished. Cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the ...

  6. Circadian and seasonal variations in pineal gland intercellular canaliculi in the white rat

    OpenAIRE

    Marti?nez Soriano, F.; Cimas Garci?a, C.; Rui?z Torner, A.

    1991-01-01

    Seventy Wistar rats are used to study the changes in pineal intercellular canaliculi over a 21-hour period and for two different photoperiods (pre-autumn, first week of September, and winter, first week of February). The study considers these changes at pineal body, cortical and medullar level separately, and compares the values obtained. The results show variations in canalicular surface at different point times (10:00, 14:00,18:00) and for both photoperiods. ...

  7. Circadian rhythm of pineal uptake of 32P in domestic fowl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of radioactive phosphorus by the pineal gland in White Leghorn cockerels (Gallus domesticus) showed a diurnal variation with maxima in the light phase and minima in the dark phase of the light: dark cycle. Constant light caused the rhythm to disappear while constant dark had no effect other than lowering the amplitude of the variations. These data indicate that the rhythm in pineal uptake of 32P is circadian. (author)

  8. Rax: Developmental and Daily Expression Patterns in the Rat Pineal Gland and Retina

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C.; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day (E) 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until E20. In both tissues, Rax is e...

  9. Bioelectric Activity in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus—Pineal Gland System in Children with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pinchuk, Dmitry Yu; Bekshaev, Sergey S.; Bumakova, Svetlana A.; Dudin, Mikhail G.; Pinchuk, Olga D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to identify a role of the pineal gland/suprachiasmatic nucleus system in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) aetiology and pathogenesis. To analyze electroencephalograms of 292 children with AIS and in 46 healthy subjects, a processing method was used to assess three-dimensional coordinates of electric equivalent dipole sources (EEDSs) within the brain. Amounts of EEDSs in the pineal gland and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) area were assessed in different age grou...

  10. On the participation of the pineal gland in the response of rat testes to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was aimed to determine influence of pineal stimulation by light restriction on the response of rat testes to single, locally administered exposure dose of 7.79x10-2 C/kg of X-rays. Different arrangements of light-dark cycles before and after irradiation were used. It was found that stimulation of the pineal by light deprivation before and after irradiation may be accelerated by displacing the animals after irradiation to normal conditions. (author)

  11. Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Changes Related To Methylphenidate In Rat Pituitary and Pineal Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Elmas, C?ig?dem; Bahceliog?lu, Meltem; Erdog?an, Deniz; Go?zi?l, Rabet; Take, Gu?lnur; C?algu?ner, Engin; S?ener, Dila

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The presence of a dopaminergic function in pituitary and pineal glands is well known. Methylphenidate (MPH), a widely prescribed psychostimulant for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, is an indirect dopamine agonist which could have the capacity of influencing the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system with the pineal gland. Our aim is to investigate dose-dependent immunohistochemical dopamine 2 expression, possible cell apoptosis and ultrastructural changes of the rat pituitar...

  12. Circadian and seasonal changes of synaptic bodies in different parts of the rabbit pineal gland

    OpenAIRE

    Marti?nez Soriano, F.; Hernandez-gil Tejadal, T.; Lopez Bigorra, M.; Ballester Carmona, S.; Vollrath, L.

    1999-01-01

    In the mammalian pineal gland, synaptic bodies (SBs) are poorly understood organelles. Previous studies in rabbits have shown that the organelles are rather heterogeneous in shape, are few in number during the day and increase in number at night. No studies are currently available on seasonal changes in this species and it is unknown whether the biological rhythms are identical in the proximal, intermediate and distal parts of the elongated pineal. To this end,...

  13. Effects of white light on the pineal gland of the chick embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Aige-gil, Vicente; Murillo-ferrol, Narciso

    1992-01-01

    Chick embryos were directly exposed to a source of white light during incubation and sacrificed before hatching. The light caused a number of teratological effects such as high mortality, delay in development, celosomy, hepatomegaly, auricular dilation and micrognatia. The pineal gland of the illuminated embryos showed an increase in number and size of the intracytoplasmic lipid droplets of the follicular pinealocytes. These findings suggest that the pineal...

  14. Rhodopsin Kinase Activity in the Mammalian Pineal Gland and Other Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Robert L.; Klein, David C.

    1984-10-01

    Rhodopsin kinase, an enzyme involved in photochemical transduction in the retina, has been found in the mammalian pineal gland in amounts equal to those in the retina; other tissues had 7 percent of this amount, or less. This finding suggests that, in mammals, rhodopsin kinase functions in the pineal gland and other tissues to phosphorylate rhodopsin-like integral membrane receptors and is thereby involved in signal transduction.

  15. RGS2 is a feedback inhibitor of melatonin production in the pineal gland

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Masahiro; Coon, Steven L.; Klein, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The 24-h rhythmic production of melatonin by the pineal gland is essential for coordinating circadian physiology. Melatonin production increases at night in response to the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve processes which innervate the pineal gland. This signal is transduced through G-protein-coupled adrenergic receptors. Here, we found that the abundance of regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) increases at night, that expression is increased by norepinephrine and that th...

  16. Comparative histomorphological study of the pineal gland in human and fowl

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, B.; Ghosal, A. K.; Minj, A. P.; Ghosh, R. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Comparative histological studies of pineal gland of man and fowl has been made to observe structural differences if any between these two species. Background: Some works have been done sporadically on laboratory animals and on birds and also in human correlating with other parameters. In this investigation an approach has been made to observe the cellular organization of the pineal gland parenchyma in these two vertebrates, having different physiological aspects. Methods: Some spe...

  17. Hand and Wrist Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the hand. They include lipomas (fatty tumors), neuromas (nerve tumors), nerve sheath tumors, fibromas, and glomus ... confirm the diagnosis before recommending definitive treatment. Often, surgery is done under a local or regional anesthesia ( ...

  18. Homeobox genes and melatonin synthesis : regulatory roles of the cone-rod homeobox transcription factor in the rodent pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Kristian; MØller, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a cAMP-based induction of Aanat transcription. However, additional transcriptional control mechanisms exist. Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processes, are also expressed in the mature rodent pineal gland. Among these, the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor is believed to control pineal-specific Aanat expression. Based on recent advances in our understanding of Crx in the rodent pineal gland, we here suggest that homeobox genes play a role in adult pineal physiology both by ensuring pineal-specific Aanat expression and by facilitating cAMP response element-based circadian melatonin production.

  19. Rax: Developmental and Daily Expression Patterns in the Rat Pineal Gland and Retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C

    2011-01-01

    Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day (E) 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until E20. In both tissues, Rax is expressed throughout postnatal development into adulthood. In the mature rat pineal gland, the abundance of Rax transcripts increases 2-fold during the light period with a peak occurring at dusk. These findings are consistent with the evidence that Rax is of functional importance in eye development and suggest a role of Rax in the developing pineal gland. In addition, it would appear possible that Rax contributes to phenotype maintenance in the mature retina and pineal gland and may facilitate 24-h changes in the pineal transcriptome.

  20. Tumoral mass presenting in the nasomalar region arising from the lateral nasal wall: pleomorphic adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U?uz, Mustafa Zafer; Onal, Kazim; Demiray, Utku; Ekinci, Ne?e

    2007-11-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign salivary gland tumor. Although the major salivary glands are the most common sites of its origin, it can also occur in the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity and rarely in the neck, ear, nasal cavity and larynx. We report a rare case of intranasal pleomorphic adenoma arising from lateral nasal wall and discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment approaches with the review of the literature. PMID:17549505

  1. A multi-region algorithm for markerless beam's-eye view lung tumor tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods that allow online lung tumor tracking during radiotherapy are desirable for a variety of applications that have the potential to vastly improve treatment accuracy, dose conformity and sparing of healthy tissue. Several publications have proposed the use of an on-board kV x-ray imager to assess the tumor location during treatment. However, there is some concern that this strategy may expose the patient to a significant amount of additional dose over the course of a typical radiotherapy treatment. In this paper we present an algorithm that utilizes the on-board portal imager of the treatment machine to track lung tumors. This does not expose the patient to additional dose, but is somewhat more challenging as the quality of portal images is inferior when compared to kV x-ray images. To quantify the performance of the proposed algorithm we retrospectively applied it to portal image sequences retrieved from a dynamic chest phantom study and an SBRT treatment performed at our institution. The results were compared to manual tracking by an expert. For the phantom data the tracking error was found to be smaller than 1 mm and for the patient data smaller than 2 mm, which was in the same range as the uncertainty of the gold standard.

  2. CpG methylation in the Fhit regulatory region: relation to Fhit expression in murine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuang-Yin; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Druck, Teresa; Guler, Gulnur; Grubbs, Clinton J; Pereira, Michael; Zhang, Zhongqiu; You, Ming; Lubet, Ronald A; Fong, Louise Y Y; Huebner, Kay

    2004-05-13

    To determine if: (1) 5' CpG island methylation is related to Fhit inactivation; (2) there are tumor or carcinogen-specific methylation patterns, we examined 35 CpG sites in the promoter, exon and intron 1 of the mouse Fhit gene. In primary tumors of lung, urinary bladder and tongue, induced by different carcinogens, 15-35% of sites were methylated, with specific methylation patterns associated with each cancer type, suggesting cancer- or tissue-specific methylation patterns. The methylation patterns were associated with reduced Fhit expression, as determined by immunohistochemical analyses. Methylation of rat Fhit 5' CpGs in mammary adenocarcinomas, detected by methylation specific PCR amplification, also correlated with reduced gene expression. Thus, there was an overall association between promoter/exon 1 methylation and decreased Fhit expression. In contrast, in cancer-derived cell lines 70-95% of the CpG sites were methylated. This is the first detailed study of the relationship between Fhit 5' CpG island methylation and Fhit expression in murine tumors, our main models for preclinical cancer studies, and provides evidence that loss of Fhit expression and methylation are correlated in these mouse models and these models will be useful to examine the complex relationships among gene expression, methylation patterns and organ specificity. PMID:15007387

  3. Value of the region of interest technique in the scintigraphic diagnosis of primary bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employing ROI-technique, a ratio Q was obtained from relating accumulation of 99sup(m)Tc-MDP at the site of the bone lesion (n = 150) with that of contralateral non-involved osseous areas. Values of Q were correlated with histologic tumor diagnosis, its dignity and frequency. Values of Q of greater than 3.0 were found in 95% of all sarcomas, in 100% of the osteosarcomas but in only 3.8% of all benign bone tumors. Values ranging from 1.0 to 1.2 were exclusively measured in benign tumors (e.g., in 52% of juvenile bone cysts and in 67% of non-ossifing fibromas). Since the threshold - separating benign from malignant lesions - at Q = 3.0 was blurred by tumorlike lesions, metastases and especially by Paget's disease, this method does not precisely predict dignity. However, this method may complement radiographic evaluation with low values supporting the diagnosis of a benign lesion. The combined findings of radiography and these rations gained by nuclear imaging may help determine the pathway of a patient through further diagnosis and treatment. (orig.)

  4. Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zheping; Liu, Tiecheng; Chattoraj, Asamanja; Ahmed, Samreen; Wang, Michael M.; Deng, Jie; Sun, Xing; Borjigin, Jimo

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a precursor for melatonin production, is produced abundantly in the pineal gland of all vertebrate animals. The synthesis of 5-HT in the pineal gland is rate limited by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) whose activity displays a twofold increase at night. Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrate that pineal 5-HT secretion exhibits dynamic circadian rhythms with elevated levels during the early night, and that the increase is controlled by adrenergic...

  5. The Effects of Constant Darkness and Constant Light on the Pineal Gland and Thymus Morphology in the Rats

    OpenAIRE

    I?c?ten, Nihal

    1998-01-01

    It is known that periods of constant darkness and constant light cause stim-ulation and inhibition of melatonin secretion from the pineal gland. It is also suggested that neuroendocrine responses to environmental stimuli, such as light, can influence immune responses through the pineal gland. For these reasons, in this study the effects of the alterations in the photoperiod rhythm on the pineal gland and thymus morphology were experimentally investigated. 30 Swiss albino rats, aged...

  6. Night/day changes in pineal expression of >600 genes: central role of adrenergic/cAMP signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Michael J; Coon, Steven L

    2009-01-01

    The pineal gland plays an essential role in vertebrate chronobiology by converting time into a hormonal signal, melatonin, which is always elevated at night. Here we have analyzed the rodent pineal transcriptome using Affymetrix GeneChip(R) technology to obtain a more complete description of pineal cell biology. The effort revealed that 604 genes (1,268 probe sets) with Entrez Gene identifiers are differentially expressed greater than 2-fold between midnight and mid-day (false discovery rate

  7. Night/Day Changes in Pineal Expression of >600 Genes: CENTRAL ROLE OF ADRENERGIC/cAMP SIGNALING*S?

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Michael J.; Coon, Steven L.; Carter, David A.; Humphries, Ann; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Hogenesch, John B.; Weller, Joan L.; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Baler, Ruben; Sugden, David

    2009-01-01

    The pineal gland plays an essential role in vertebrate chronobiology by converting time into a hormonal signal, melatonin, which is always elevated at night. Here we have analyzed the rodent pineal transcriptome using Affymetrix GeneChip® technology to obtain a more complete description of pineal cell biology. The effort revealed that 604 genes (1,268 probe sets) with Entrez Gene identifiers are differentially expressed greater than 2-fold between midnight and mid-day...

  8. Differential effect of benserazide (Ro4-4602) on the concentration of indoleamines in rat pineal and hypothalamus.

    OpenAIRE

    Arendt, J.; Ho, A. K.; Laud, C.; Marston, A.; Nohria, V.; Smith, J. A.; Symons, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    1 Low doses (50 and 80 mg/kg) of benserazide (Ro4-4602), an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, markedly reduced 5-hydroxytryptamine and melatonin in the rat pineal gland without affecting hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine. 2 This differential effect shows that inhibition of the pineal gland decarboxylase activity is possible, and confirms that the rat pineal gland is accessible to peripherally acting agents.

  9. Primary medulla oblongata germinoma--an unusual posterior fossa tumors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Jiro; Murakami, Mamoru; Fukami, Shinjiro; Ikeda, Yukio; Haraoka, Jo

    2009-05-01

    We encountered 2 patients with germinoma arising from the medulla oblongata in whom preoperative radiological diagnosis was difficult. A 30-year-old woman presented due to aspiration pneumonia caused by bilateral lower cranial nerve palsies, and a 24-year-old man presented with headache caused by obstructive hydrocephalus. In both patients, there was a midline tumor that extended from the lower part of the fourth ventricle to the C1 lamina level. It was well-demarcated and homogeneously enhanced tumor with a slightly high density on plain CT scan. The preoperative diagnosis for both patients was ependymoma. The former patient had persistent lower cranial nerve palsies due to brain stem injury after tumor resection. Both patients achieved complete remission with adjuvant therapy. Fewer than 10 cases of germinoma affecting the medulla oblongata have been reported. Radiological findings resembling those of the pineal region germinoma were observed in the two patients reported here. We would like to stress the importance of remembering germinoma when making a preoperative differential diagnosis of fourth ventricular tumors in young adults. PMID:19282178

  10. Staging Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more information. Pineoblastomas form in cells of the pineal gland. The pineal gland is a tiny organ in the center of ... sleep cycle. Pineoblastomas form in cells of the pineal gland and are usually malignant. Pineoblastomas are fast-growing ...

  11. Content of microelements in the rat pineal gland at different ages and the effects of selenium supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demajo M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian pineal gland regulates a number of important physiological processes. In this paper we report changes in the content of iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, and selenium (Se in the male rat pineal glands at 4, 5, 8, and 12 months of age. The effect of Se supplementation in drinking water on the content of pineal gland microelements was also studied. Selenium (Se-dependent changes in pineal gland reported in this study suggest novel physicochemical and biochemical properties of Se, an important element essential in the antioxidative processes, yet known to influence a number of endocrine processes.

  12. Role of magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of tumors in the cardiac region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminaga, T.; Takeshita, T.; Kimura, I. [Dept. of Radiology/Pathology, Teikyo Univ. Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review the role of MRI in the assessment of heart neoplasm, 25 cases with heart neoplasm (10 myxoma, 6 rhabdomyoma, 5 angiosarcoma, 2 mesothelioma, 1 lymphoma, and 1 fibroma) were examined with MRI and echocardiography. Multislice T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images and static gradient-echo images were taken in appropriate directions with electrocardiogram gating. Gadolinium enhancement was performed in 21 cases. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in all cases. Except for the 5 patients with rhabdomyoma, the pathological diagnosis was obtained. MRI proved to be useful for tissue characterization of myxoma, angiosarcoma, mesothelioma, and fibroma in cases with tuberous sclerosis. MRI also proved to be useful for detection of the tumor, depiction of contour, relation with other cardiac structures, in cases with myxoma, angiosarcoma, mesothelioma, lymphoma, and fibroma. In the differential diagnosis, MRI provided important information in cases with myxoma, rhabdomyoma, angiosarcoma, and fibroma. In cases with tumors expanding into the mediastinum, such as mesothelioma and fibroma in this report, MRI was useful in determining the location and border. In cases with tumors adjacent to pericardium, MRI was useful in detecting pericardial invasion. Gadolinium enhancement added useful information in cases with myxoma, rhabdomyoma, angiosarcoma, and mesothelioma. The role of MRI with and without Gd enhancement differs somewhat in individual types of heart neoplasm, and adaptation must be considered in each kind of neoplasm. On the other hand, MRI is an essential examination in all cases with a cardiac mass, which has not been diagnosed, since it may provide useful information for the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. A clinicopathologic analysis of primary orbital yolk sac tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG Ji-ying

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective On rare occasions, yolk sac tumor may arise from extragonadal sites. Orbit is an unusual location for the primary development of this tumor. The presence of intracranial yolk sac tumor on biopsy always makes the diagnosis challenge for pathologists. Herein we report a case of intracranial primary yolk sac tumor in left orbital apex. The clinicopathology of this tumor and its differential diagnosis are discussed. Methods The clinical manifestation of a patient with primary yolk sac tumor occurring in left orbital apex was presented retrospectively. Resected orbital mass was routinely paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dako Envision immunohistochemical staining system was used to detect the tumor antigen expressions, including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, cytokeratin, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP, CD30, CD34, CD45, CD99, CD117, synaptophysin (Syn and chromogranin A (CgA. Results A 2-year-old boy presented with 3-month history of ptosis of eyelid and exophthalmos on left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan revealed a lesion occupied the left orbital apex with infiltration of surrounding normal structure, including left posterior ethmoid sinus, the wall of left maxillary sinus and sphenoid. However, there was no evidence of tumor infiltrating in brain parenchyma. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was removed by en bloc resection. Grossly, the biopsy specimen received in small pieces was 1.20 cm × 1.00 cm × 1.00 cm when aggregated. No fibrous capsule, necrosis, haemorrhage and gross calcification were found in the tissue fragments. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was arranged in a reticular pattern. The cells were relatively large with a clear cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei. Scattered mitotic figures were noted. Schiller-Duval bodies and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS positive (eosinophilic bodies were evident in the tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor cells were diffusely positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and focal positive for AFP, CD99 and CD117, but negative for PLAP, CD30, S-100, CD45 and CD34. There was no evidence of mixture of other germ cell tumor component in this tumor by serial sections. Based on clinical presentation and histological findings, a final histological diagnosis of pure primary orbital yolk sac tumor, WHO grade ?, was made according to the criteria of WHO classification. The patient has not received chemotherapy and attended follow-up for 3 months, without any neurological deficit or signs of recurrence. Conclusion Despite the lower incidence, intracranial yolk sac tumors usually develop in the midline at the pineal or suprasellar regions occurring in children with distinctive histological features and immunohistochemical phenotypes. In general, intracranial yolk sac tumors are known to entail poor prognosis even after multidisciplinary treatment of operation, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. It is noted that intracranial yolk sac tumor should be differentiated histologically from other types of germ cell tumors and mixed germ cell tumor.

  14. Tumor exosomes induce tunneling nanotubes in lipid raft-enriched regions of human mesothelioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayanithy, Venugopal; Babatunde, Victor; Dickson, Elizabeth L; Wong, Phillip; Oh, Sanghoon; Ke, Xu; Barlas, Afsar; Fujisawa, Sho; Romin, Yevgeniy; Moreira, André L; Downey, Robert J; Steer, Clifford J; Subramanian, Subbaya; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Moore, Malcolm A S; Lou, Emil

    2014-04-15

    Tunneling nanotubes (TnTs) are long, non-adherent, actin-based cellular extensions that act as conduits for transport of cellular cargo between connected cells. The mechanisms of nanotube formation and the effects of the tumor microenvironment and cellular signals on TnT formation are unknown. In the present study, we explored exosomes as potential mediators of TnT formation in mesothelioma and the potential relationship of lipid rafts to TnT formation. Mesothelioma cells co-cultured with exogenous mesothelioma-derived exosomes formed more TnTs than cells cultured without exosomes within 24-48 h; and this effect was most prominent in media conditions (low-serum, hyperglycemic medium) that support TnT formation (1.3-1.9-fold difference). Fluorescence and electron microscopy confirmed the purity of isolated exosomes and revealed that they localized predominantly at the base of and within TnTs, in addition to the extracellular environment. Time-lapse microscopic imaging demonstrated uptake of tumor exosomes by TnTs, which facilitated intercellular transfer of these exosomes between connected cells. Mesothelioma cells connected via TnTs were also significantly enriched for lipid rafts at nearly a 2-fold higher number compared with cells not connected by TnTs. Our findings provide supportive evidence of exosomes as potential chemotactic stimuli for TnT formation, and also lipid raft formation as a potential biomarker for TnT-forming cells. PMID:24468420

  15. Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton beam induced apoptosis significantly in Lewis lung carcinoma cells and hepatoma HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but slightly in leukemia Molt-4 cells. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for death rate relative to gamma ray were ranged from 1.3 to 2.1 in LLC or HepG2 but 0.7 in Molt-4 cells at 72h after irradiation. The typical apoptosis was observed by nuclear DNA staining with DAPI. By FACS analysis after stained with PI, sub-G1 cell fraction was significantly increased but G2/M phase was not altered by proton beam irradiation measured at 24 h after irradiation. Proton beam-irradiated tumor cells induced cleavage of PARP-1 and procaspases (-3 and -9) and increased the level of p53 and p21. decreased pro-lamin B. Acitivity of caspases was significantly increased after proton beam irradiation. Furthermore, ROS were significantly increased and N-acetyl cystein (NAC) pretreatment restored the apoptotic cell death induced in proton beam-irradiated cells. In conclusion, single treatment of low energy proton beam with SOBP induced apoptosis of solid tumor cells via increased ROS, active caspase -3,-9 and p53, p2

  16. Deletion mapping of gliomas suggest the presence of two small regions for candidate tumor-suppressor genes in a 17-cM interval on chromosome 10q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarosa, R.; Colombo, B. M.; Roz, L.; Magnani, I.; Pollo, B.; Cirenei, N.; Giani, C.; Conti, A. M.; DiDonato, S.; Finocchiaro, G.

    1996-01-01

    The loss of genetic material on chromosome 10q is frequent in different tumors and particularly in malignant gliomas. We analyzed 90 of these tumors and found loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in >90% of the informative loci in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Initial studies restricted the common LOH region to 10q24-qter. Subsequently, the study of a pediatric GBM suggested D10S221 and D10S209, respectively, as centromeric and telomeric markers of a 4-cM LOH region. It is interesting to note that, in one subset of cells from this tumor, locus D10S209 seems involved in the allelic imbalance of a larger region, with D10S214 as telomeric marker. This 17-cM region contains the D10S587-D10S216 interval of common deletion recently defined on another set of gliomas. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8651304

  17. Reciprocal interdependence between pineal gland and avian immune system. NEL Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarlo-Sonta, Krystyna

    1999-01-01

    The immune system of mammals and birds exhibits the same basic anatomical and functional organization, including dichotomy into the cellular and humoral immune response. Specificities of avian immune system may be, however, very useful for understanding numerous phylogenetic and evolutionary mysteries. Similarities and differences between mammals and birds in terms of several pineal gland functions are well known, and they seem to include the immunomodulatory activity of melatonin (MEL) as well. Embryonic pinealectomy of the chicken demonstrated functional interrelationships between the development of the pineal gland, immune system and/or neuroendocrine network, and embryonic bursectomy influenced the diurnal rhythm of the pineal gland function and abolished the effect of immunization on serum MEL level. Also immunization with a thymo-dependent antigen (SRBC) evoked some changes in the chicken nocturnal pineal NAT activity. We have found that the pineal gland and MEL control the diurnal rhythm of immunity in the chicken, but we were not able to demonstrate any immunostimulatory and anti-glucocorticoid MEL effects, regardless of the chicken's age, sex, season, and hormone dose used. The existence of functional connections between the pineal gland and the immune system in chickens was, however, confirmed in other experimental approaches. Specific and reversible binding of 2-[125I]iodoMEL to the membrane preparations from lymphoid glands was demonstrated in several avian species. In vitro MEL diminished lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by the common T-cell mitogens, while alone failed to influence the blast formation. Reciprocal functional connections between the avian immune system and the pineal gland seem to be well documented, but the mechanism(s) involved have to be elucidated. PMID:11462106

  18. A clinico-histopathological study of appendageal skin tumors, affecting head and neck region in patients attending the dermatology OPD of a tertiary care centre in Eastern India

    OpenAIRE

    Saha Abanti; Das Nilay; Gharami Ramesh; Chowdhury Satyendra; Datta Pijush

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Appendageal skin tumors (ATs) are those neoplasms that differentiate toward/arise from pilosebaceous apparatus, apocrine, or eccrine sweat glands. Pilosebaceous apparatus are concentrated in head?neck area; thus it is expected that ATs would account for a major fraction of skin tumors over this site. Aims: This study aims at finding the clinico-histopathological correlation in cases ATs in head?neck region among attendees of dermatology OPD. Materials and Methods: Cr...

  19. Regulation of tumor suppressor gene FUS1 expression by the untranslated regions of mRNA in human lung cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jing; Xu, Kai; Gitanjali, Jayachandran; Roth, Jack A.; Ji, Lin

    2011-01-01

    FUS1, also known as tumor suppressor candidate 2 (TUSC2), is a tumor suppressor gene located in the human chromosome 3p21.3 region. FUS1 mRNA transcripts could be detected on Northern blots in both normal lung and some lung cancer cell lines, but no endogenous FUS1 protein could be detected in a majority of lung cancer cell lines and small cell and non-small cell lung tumor tissues. However, mechanisms regulating FUS1 protein expression and its inactivation in primary lung cancer cells are la...

  20. Caracterización de las regiones organizadoras nucleolares en las células del tumor venéreo transmisible en caninos: Estudio histoquímico / Characterization of nucleolar organizer regions in cells of transmissible venereal tumor in canine: Histochemical study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Rodríguez I.; Rosa, Perales C.; Alfonso, Chavera C.; César, Gavidia Ch.; Diego, Díaz C..

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue visualizar y caracterizar las Regiones Organizadoras Nucleolares Argénticas (AgNORs) en células neoplásicas del tumor venéreo transmisible (TVT) de caninos a través de la impregnación con nitrato de plata. Se trabajó con una muestra tomada al azar de tejido paraf [...] inado de 30 caninos diagnosticados histológicamente (con coloración de Hematoxilina y Eosina) como TVT canino entre el 2000 al 2006. En 100 células por muestra se visualizó la presencia y ubicación de los AgNORs en las células neoplásicas. Se encontró un número medio de AgNORs por célula de 1.53, por núcleo de 0.91 y por nucléolo de 0.62. La distribución de los AgNORs en el total de células evaluadas fue de 60.7% (1821/3000) en el núcleo, 34.3% (1029/3000) en el nucléolo y 5% (150/3000) en ambas estructuras. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to visualize and characterize the Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNORs) in Cells of Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT) in the canine through the impregnation with silver nitrate. One sample was collected at random from paraffin tissue of 30 canine tissue samples [...] that were histological diagnosed (using Hematoxylin and Eosin stain) as TVT during the period of 2000-2006. The AgNORs were visualized and localized in 100 cells per sample. The average number of AgNORs per cell was 1.53, per cell nucleus was 90.91 and per nucleolus was 0.62. The distribution of AgNORs in the total number of cells was 60.7% (1821/ 3000) in the nucleus, 34.3% (1029/ 3000) in the nucleolus, and 5% (150/3000) in both structures.

  1. Morphologic Changes in Rat's Pineal Gland After Eliminating Retinal Photic Stimulation Cambios Morfológicos en la Glándula Pineal de Ratas Luego de la Eliminación de la Estimulación Fótica Retiniana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Roa Henriquez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin secretion from mammalian pineal glands is regulated by light stimulation by means of a complex neuroanatomical pathway that includes the retina, hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, intermediolateral nucleus of the thoracic spinal cord, and finally, the superior cervical ganglia. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in the pinealocytes and the blood vessel density of the pineal gland after eliminating photic stimulation in rats. Thirteen adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups, Group I acted as control, and Group II was subjected to a retinal lesión, by means of alcohol injected bilaterally to both ocular bulbs. After 3 weeks, the glands of both groups were processed with hematoxilin-eosin (HE and observed with an optic microscope. Group II results presented higher valúes in the number of pinealocytes and in the blood vessels observed. The differences with Group I was significant at p La secreción de melatonina por parte de glándula pineal de los mamíferos es regulada por la estimulación luminosa mediante complejas vías neuro anatómicas que incluyen la retina, el núcleo supraquiasmático hipotalámico, el núcleo intermediolateral de la médula torácica y finalmente el ganglio cervical superior. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar los cambios en la densidad de pinealocitos y vasos sanguíneos de la glándula pineal, luego de eliminar la estimulación fótica en ratas. Se utilizaron 13 ratas adultas Sprague Dawley divididas en 2 grupos, Grupo I actuó como control, y el Grupo II fue sometido a una lesión retiniana, por medio de alcoholización bilateral de ambos bulbos oculares. Luego de tres semanas las glándulas de ambos grupos fueron procesadas para hematoxilina-eosina y observadas al microscopio óptico. El grupo II presentó valores mayores en el número de pinealocitos y de vasos sanguíneos observados, las diferencias con el Grupo I fueron significativas con p<0.01. Estos resultados entregan una evidencia indirecta del efecto que la supresión de la estimulación fótica tiene en la glándula pineal en ratas.

  2. Comparison of calcification of pineal, habenular commissure and choroid plexus on plain films and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skull radiographs and CT scans of 1,000 consecutive patients were examined for evidence of calcification in the pineal gland, habenular commissure and choroid plexuses. Plain film results were in agreement with previous surveys suggesting that the CT scan results may be accepted as general findings. Pineal calcification was seen on films in 61% and on CT scans in 83% of those over 30. On both films and CT scans calcification was 10% higher in males. Only 1% had a pineal 12 mm or larger on films. In at least 5% it was impossible to separate the habenula from the pineal by CT: including these, 5% had pineals larger than the accepted upper limit of normal. Measurements from males were 0.4 mm larger than for females on films and 0.2 mm larger on CT scans. Habenular commissure calcification was seen on films in 13% and on CT in 15% of those over 30, being 10% higher in males. Bilateral choroid plexus calcification was seen on frontal films in 15% and on CT in 77% of those over 30. On skull films the frequency of calcification was 2%-3% higher for adult males than females and on CT 7% higher. Calcification was seen on the lateral but not the frontal film in 128 patients. One choroid plexus only was seen on 14/ frontal films and on 49 CT scans. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO

  3. Labelling of the pineal gland with 99mTc-glucose-6-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lately, the pineal body has been the subject of a large variety of studies. Only recently it has been understood the role played by this endocrine gland to maintain the balance of the human body and also in animal models. Although small in dimensions, the pineal body is a very active organ, able to transmit precise temporal information. It probably participates in the synchronization of several organic functions. The present work aims to study a possible use of 99mTc-glucose-6-P as a tracer for the pineal gland. Histoautoradiographic studies have been performed in Wistar rats. Tomoscintigraphic studies were acquired in patients and in albine rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus hyplus). The labelling efficiency and the radiochemical purity of the labelled products have always been tested. Animal and human SPECT exams, show an activity focus projected over the area corresponding to the pineal body localization. Autoradiographic studies using [1-14C]-glucose-6-P did not reveal a more relevant activity at the pineal level, probably due to its hepatic conversion to 14C-glucose. (author)

  4. Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Changes Related To Methylphenidate In Rat Pituitary and Pineal Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çi?dem ELMAS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The presence of a dopaminergic function in pituitary and pineal glands is well known. Methylphenidate (MPH, a widely prescribed psychostimulant for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, is an indirect dopamine agonist which could have the capacity of influencing the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system with the pineal gland. Our aim is to investigate dose-dependent immunohistochemical dopamine 2 expression, possible cell apoptosis and ultrastructural changes of the rat pituitary and pineal gland tissue, to demonstrate possible toxicity of the chronic extended use of the MPH.Material and Methods: In this study, 27 female prepubertal Wistar albino rats, divided into three different dose groups (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, were treated orally with MPH dissolved in saline solution for 5 days per week during three months. At the end of the third month, after perfusion fixation, pituitary and pineal glands were removed and sections were collected for immunohistochemical, TUNEL assay and ultrastructural studies.Results: We observed that methylphenidate induced dose-related ultrastructural changes in pituitary and pineal glands.Conclusion: High dose administration of this drug could influence the functions of these glands. Thus, we suggest that the therapeutic dose of methylphenidate must be kept in minimum level.

  5. Control of pineal indole biosynthesis by changes in sympathetic tone caused by factors other than environmental lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, H. J.; Eng, J. P.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of experimental investigations showing that, in addition to environmental lighting, other manipulations known to modify sympathetic tone can also modify pineal indole biosynthesis. Comparable alterations in sympathetic tone that occur in response to activity or feeding cycles may be instrumental in generating the pineal rhythms that persist in the absence of light-dark cycle.

  6. Influence of low-dose x-rays on the ways of biosynthesis and indole metabolism in pineal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pineal gland is a radiosensitive organ which reacts even to low doses of radiation. Having gone through the stages of activating, normalizing and exhausting indoles biosynthesis suffers from different changes in the pineal gland in response to the influence of ionizing radiation in low doses

  7. Developmental and Diurnal Expression of the Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25 (Snap25) in the Rat Pineal Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Anna S; Rath, Martin Fredensborg

    2013-01-01

    Snap25 (synaptosomal-associated protein) is a 25 kDa protein, belonging to the SNARE-family (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) of proteins, essential for synaptic and secretory vesicle exocytosis. Snap25 has by immunohistochemistry been demonstrated in the rat pineal gland but the biological importance of this is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a high expression of mRNA encoding Snap25 in all parts of the rat pineal complex, the superficial-, and deep-pineal gland, as well as in the pineal stalk. Snap25 showed a low pineal expression during embryonic stages with a strong increase in expression levels just after birth. The expression showed no day/night variations. Neither removal of the sympathetic input to the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy nor bilateral decentralization of the superior cervical ganglia significantly affected the expression of Snap25 in the gland. The pineal expression levels of Snap25 were not changed following intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. The strong expression of Snap25 in the pineal gland suggests the presence of secretory granules and microvesicles in the rat pinealocyte supporting the concept of a vesicular release. At the transcriptional level, this Snap25-based release mechanism does not exhibit any diurnal rhythmicity and is regulated independently of the sympathetic nervous input to the gland.

  8. Incidence of malignant tumors in children living in the Tula Region 10 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible effects of the Chernobyl accident on oncological disease incidence of the children in Tula region ten years later is studied. Analysis of Oncological register data for Tula region for the periods of 1979-1985 and 1986-1997 are analysed. It is shown that the first ranks (as in Russia) in the children cancer incidence structure belongs to lymphomas and leukemias, then central nervous system, bones and soft tissues, kidney tumors follows. Thyroid cancer incidence in 1986-1989 was 0.07 per 100000 child population. Kidney cancer incidence increases by 65% and became 0.74 per 100000 children. Tendency for growth of the rate was detected for bones and soft tissues in 5-14 age-group from 0.62 to 1.1 per 100000 children. In the areas where contamination density was 3.0 Ci/km2 and above in 1995-1997 the increase of cancer incidence (all sites and acute leukemias) was not significant. Five-year cancer survival in all group was 65.4±1.8%. Structure of children cancer incidence in Tula region is the same as in Russia in the whole. Thyroid incidence rate significant increases. No association between leukemias and ionizing radiation was shown

  9. Circadian changes in long noncoding RNAs in the pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coon, Steven L; Munson, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a broad range of biological roles, including regulation of expression of genes and chromosomes. Here, we present evidence that lncRNAs are involved in vertebrate circadian biology. Differential night/day expression of 112 lncRNAs (0.3 to >50 kb) occurs in the rat pineal gland, which is the source of melatonin, the hormone of the night. Approximately one-half of these changes reflect nocturnal increases. Studies of eight lncRNAs with 2- to >100-fold daily rhythms indicate that, in most cases, the change results from neural stimulation from the central circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (doubling time = 0.5-1.3 h). Light exposure at night rapidly reverses (halving time = 9-32 min) levels of some of these lncRNAs. Organ culture studies indicate that expression of these lncRNAs is regulated by norepinephrine acting through cAMP. These findings point to a dynamic role of lncRNAs in the circadian system.

  10. Wound healing and the effect of pineal gland and melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Drobnik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex phenomenon that is controlled by local and general regulatory mechanisms. The aim of the paper is to analyze recently-published data devoted to the regulation of wound repair by melatonin. The effect of melatonin has been reported in different wound types healed with various mechanisms. The action of the pineal indoleamine is dependent on the used dose, time of application and target organ. Moreover, melatonin influences different phases of wound repair such as inflammation, by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators, cell proliferation and migration, by influencing angiogenesis, and the proliferation of fibroblasts, as well as the synthesis phase, by regulating collagen and glycosaminoglycan accumulation in the wounded milieu. Thus, healing of the skin wound, myocardial infarction, bone fractures and gastric ulcer is influenced by melatonin. In patients with low levels of melatonin (elderly or ?-blocker treated patients, its regulatory effects are expected to be impaired. Thus, the need for melatonin supplementation in those patients is postulated in the study. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 3-14

  11. Regional Lung Density Changes After Radiation Therapy for Tumors in and Around Thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the temporal nature of regional lung density changes and to assess whether the dose-dependent nature of these changes is associated with patient- and treatment-associated factors. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 118 patients with interpretable pre- and post-radiation therapy (RT) chest computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated. Changes in regional lung density were related to regional dose to define a dose-response curve (DRC) for RT-induced lung injury using three-dimensional planning tools and image fusion. Multiple post-RT follow-up CT scans were evaluated by fitting linear-quadratic models of density changes on dose with time as the covariate. Various patient- and treatment-related factors were examined as well. Results: There was a dose-dependent increase in regional lung density at nearly all post-RT follow-up intervals. The population volume-weighted changes evolved over the initial 6-month period after RT and reached a plateau thereafter (p < 0.001). On univariate analysis, patient age greater than 65 years (p = 0.003) and/or the use of pre-RT surgery (p < 0.001) were associated with significantly greater changes in CT density at both 6 and 12 months after RT, but the magnitude of this effect was modest. Conclusions: There appears to be a temporal nature for the dose-dependent increases in lung density. Nondosimetric clinical factors tend to have no, or a modest, impact on these changes.ges.

  12. Uptake and metabolism of indole compounds by the goldfish pineal organ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indole metabolism was studied in the pineal organ of the goldfish by radioautography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The rate of uptake of tritiated serotonin was rapid in vitro with dense labeling over the photoreceptor cells. Tritiated tryptophan was taken up at a slower rate and the label was distributed evenly over the epithelium. Continual light caused a reduction in the concentration of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) compared to groups exposed to constant darkness both in vivo and in explants, suggesting that these effects are not derived from photoreceptors outside the pineal organ. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that indole metabolism is functionally linked to phototransduction events in the pineal organ of lower vertebrates

  13. Comparative histomorphological study of the pineal gland in human and fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Comparative histological studies of pineal gland of man and fowl has been made to observe structural differences if any between these two species. Background: Some works have been done sporadically on laboratory animals and on birds and also in human correlating with other parameters. In this investigation an approach has been made to observe the cellular organization of the pineal gland parenchyma in these two vertebrates, having different physiological aspects. Methods: Some special stains were used to observe connective tissue elements (Reticulin,collagen and elastic fibers along with conventional H and E stains. Result and conclusion: The lobular character of the gland, connective tissue septa, shape and size of the pinealocytes were found to be almost common in both species. Major differences seen in fowl pineal gland are the presence of ependymal cells on the walls of the lumen of the lobules and absence of corpora arenacea.

  14. Romidepsin in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Somatostatinoma

  15. Ultrastructural and hormonal changes in the pineal-testicular axis following arecoline administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterji, Urmi; Chaudhuri-Sengupta, Santasri; Nag, Tapas C; Nag, Debabrata; Banerjee, Samir; Maiti, B R

    2007-04-01

    Arecoline is an alkaloid of betel nut of Areca catechu. Betel nut is chewed by millions of people in the world and it causes oral and hepatic cancers in human. It has therapeutic value for the treatment of Alzheimer and schizophrenia. Arecoline has immunosuppressive, mutagenic and genotoxic effects in laboratory animals. It also affects endocrine functions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of arecoline on pineal-testicular axis in rats. Since pineal activity is different between day and night, the current study is undertaken in both the photophase and scotophase. The findings were evaluated by ultrastructural and hormonal studies of pineal and testicular Leydig cells, with quantitations of fructose and sialic acid of sex accessories. Arecoline treatment (10 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days) caused suppression of pineal activity at ultrastructural level by showing dilatation of the cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), large autophagosome-like bodies with swollen mitochondrial cristae, numerous lysosomes, degenerated synaptic ribbons and reduced number of synaptic-like microvesicles. Moreover, pineal and serum N-acetylserotonin and melatonin levels were decreased with increased serotonin levels in both the gland and serum. In contrast, testicular Leydig cell activity was stimulated with abundance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), electron-dense core vesicles and vacuolated secretory vesicles, and increased testosterone level in the arecoline recipients. Consequently, the testosterone target, like prostate, was ultrastructurally stimulated with abundance of RER and accumulation of secretory vesicles. Fructose and sialic acid concentrations were also significantly increased respectively in the coagulating gland and seminal vesicle. These results were more significant in the scotophase than the photophase. The findings suggest that arecoline inhibits pineal activity, but stimulates testicular function (testosterone level) and its target organs presumably via muscarinic cholinergic receptor in rats. PMID:17436329

  16. Morphofunctional changes in the pineal gland during dynamic adaptation to hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, L A; Gubina-Vakulik, G I

    2003-05-01

    The effects of stress induced by hypothermia (+4 degrees C for 3 h) on the pathways of serotonin metabolism in the pineal gland and on its structure were studied in adult male Wistar rats. These experiments showed that the melatonin-forming function of the epiphysis undergoes phasic changes during adaptation: there was a significant increase during the first 15 min, which was followed by gradual inhibition (to initial by 30 min) and then sharp suppression (at 3 h). Suppression of the functional activity of the pineal gland occurred because of exclusion of a proportion of pinealocytes from the process of active functioning. PMID:12774844

  17. Time of origin of the rat pineal gland cells. A bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, J. L.; Boya, J.; Carbonell, A. L.; Garci?a-maurin?o, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    The immunohistochemical detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to study the time of origin of the cells in the pineal gland of the rat. A study was made involving 17 groups of 4 rats each, administered with a single dose of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 25 mg/kg) in 7 phases of the embryonic period (E15 to E21) and in 10 postnatal phases (between P0 and P30), followed by determination in each rat of the number of visible immune-labeled cells in the pineal ...

  18. Nucleolus-like bodies in the pineal gland of the adult yak (Bos grunniens)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zhaohui H., Xie; Ping, Gan.

    Full Text Available The pineal glands of adult yak were studied electron microscopically. Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) were found mostly in the pinealocytes and the interstitial cells of the pineal glands of the yak. The NLBs were electron-dense, round or ovoid bodies with a diameter of 50 nm -500 nm. Two types of gran [...] ules were identified as melanin. These may correspond to different stages of a progressive storage of melanin. Rough endoplasmic reticula with abundant ribosomes were observed. There was no correlation between the number of NLBs and the sex of the animals.

  19. 18F-DOPA-PET in Finding Tumors in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Gliomas Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-17

    Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  20. Abordaje endoscópico de los quistes gliales pineales sintomaticos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gloria, Villalba Martínez; Luis Alberto, Caral Pons; Bartolomeu, Fiol Busquets; Neus, Fabregas Juliá; Teresa, Ribalta Ribas; Teresa, Boget Prats; Antoni, Raspall Borell; Enric, Ferrer Rodríguez.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Los quistes gliales pineales (QGP) son infrecuentes. El manejo quirúrgico de estos quistes no está consensuado. En la literatura se recogen 18 casos tratados por vía endoscópica. El objetivo de este trabajo es contribuir con nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento endoscópico de los QGP. Mat [...] erial y método. Entre 1999 y 2004, cinco pacientes con QGP sintomáticos, con o sin hidrocefalia, se trataron mediante vintriculostomía premamilar endoscópica (VPE) y fenestración del quiste. Se utilizó un endoscopio rígido, con sistema de neuronavegación en los casos sin hidrocefalia. Resultados. En el período de seguimiento (de 6 meses a 4 años) se recoge una resolución clínica en 4 casos y una disminución del tamaño del quiste en todos los casos. Todas las VPE fueron permeables en el seguimiento. No hubo déficits clínicos permanentes en ningún caso. Discusión. No existe en la literatura un acuerdo en el mejor tratamiento quirúrgico de los QGP. A pesar de la gran aceptación de la vía endoscópica, un gran número de autores abogan por una cirugía abierta o por una cirugía extereotáxica como la mejor opción. Además, existen algunas diferencias en el manejo quirúrgico endoscópico según ofrece la literatura. Conclusión. La VPE con la fenestración del quiste es un tratamiento eficiente debido a la baja morbilidad y a la eficacia en la resolución clínica y radiológica de los QGP con o sin hidrocefalia. La cirugía abierta, especialmente con la ayuda endoscópica, podría ser un tratamietno de segunda elección, y la cirugía estereotáxica debería abandonarse en estos casos. Abstract in english Objetive. Sympotomatic glial pineal cyst (GPC) are unfrequent. Surgical management of these cysts is not consensed. In the literature there are 18 cases reported treated by endoscopic approach. The purpose of this study is to contribute with our experience to the endoscopic treatment of the GPC. Mat [...] erials and Methods. Between 1999 and 2004, five patients with GPC underwent an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and cyst fenestration. We have used a rigid endoscope, with neuronavegation system in the cases without hydrocephalus. Results. In the follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 4 tears we have reported: clinical resolution in four cases and cyst size decrease in all cases. All the ETV have been patent. There was not perman ent morbility and not surgery related death. Discussion. An agreement doesn't exist in the literature about the better treatment of the surgery or by stereotaxy as the best treatment. There are great differences in the surgical management between the 18 endoscopic cases reported in the literature, and also in relation with our cases. Conclusion. The ETV with endoscopic cyst fenestration is an efficient treatment due to the low morbidity and the effectiveness in the treatment of the GPC with or without hydrocephalus. The open surgery (specially with the endoscope assisting microneurosurgery) wolud be a second choice technique, and the stereotactic surgery must be abandoned.

  1. Morphologic Changes in Rat's Pineal Gland After Eliminating Retinal Photic Stimulation / Cambios Morfológicos en la Glándula Pineal de Ratas Luego de la Eliminación de la Estimulación Fótica Retiniana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ignacio, Roa Henriquez; Iván, Suazo Galdames; Mario, Cantín López; Daniela, Zavando Matamata.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La secreción de melatonina por parte de glándula pineal de los mamíferos es regulada por la estimulación luminosa mediante complejas vías neuro anatómicas que incluyen la retina, el núcleo supraquiasmático hipotalámico, el núcleo intermediolateral de la médula torácica y finalmente el ganglio cervic [...] al superior. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar los cambios en la densidad de pinealocitos y vasos sanguíneos de la glándula pineal, luego de eliminar la estimulación fótica en ratas. Se utilizaron 13 ratas adultas Sprague Dawley divididas en 2 grupos, Grupo I actuó como control, y el Grupo II fue sometido a una lesión retiniana, por medio de alcoholización bilateral de ambos bulbos oculares. Luego de tres semanas las glándulas de ambos grupos fueron procesadas para hematoxilina-eosina y observadas al microscopio óptico. El grupo II presentó valores mayores en el número de pinealocitos y de vasos sanguíneos observados, las diferencias con el Grupo I fueron significativas con p Abstract in english Melatonin secretion from mammalian pineal glands is regulated by light stimulation by means of a complex neuroanatomical pathway that includes the retina, hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, intermediolateral nucleus of the thoracic spinal cord, and finally, the superior cervical ganglia. The purp [...] ose of this study was to analyze the changes in the pinealocytes and the blood vessel density of the pineal gland after eliminating photic stimulation in rats. Thirteen adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups, Group I acted as control, and Group II was subjected to a retinal lesión, by means of alcohol injected bilaterally to both ocular bulbs. After 3 weeks, the glands of both groups were processed with hematoxilin-eosin (HE) and observed with an optic microscope. Group II results presented higher valúes in the number of pinealocytes and in the blood vessels observed. The differences with Group I was significant at p

  2. Clinical usefulness of color Doppler imaging in the management of the neck region vessels in patients with intraocular tumors - preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to assess the clinical usefulness of color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) examinations of the neck vessels in patients with intraocular tumors as well as to establish whether the changes in these vessels had an influence on further ophthalmologic procedures. Clinical ophthalmological examinations such as visual acuity, anterior segment and ocular fundus, as well as color Doppler ultrasonography of the bulbar and neck region vessels were performed on 38 patients, aged 44-70 years with eyeball tumors. Localization, size, vascularization of the intrabulbar tumors and big vessels of the neck region were analyzed. In 28 patients, choroidal melanoma was identified, and the vascularity of tumor mass was monitored in 10 patients after brachytherapy. Compression or infiltration of jugular veins or carotid artery were not observed. Severe internal carotid artery stenosis due to arteriosclerosis was detected in 5 patients, but no one was suggested to be operated on first in Vascular Surgery Department. Color Doppler ultrasonography should be the first choice technique in the neck vessels and intrabulbar tumors imaging. Visualization of the mass lesions vascularity and the evaluation of amplitude of blood flow velocity allows to monitor the effectiveness of their therapy. It was found that this technique is useful in deciding upon the method of treatment in patients should be the first choice technique in the neck vessels and intrabulbar tumors imagingeck vessels and intrabulbar tumors imaging. Visualization of the mass lesions vascularity and the evaluation of amplitude of blood flow velocity allows to monitor the effectiveness of their therapy. It was found that this technique is useful in deciding upon the method of treatment in patients with coexisting arteriosclerosis. (author)

  3. Regional delivery of mesothelin-targeted CAR T cell therapy generates potent and long-lasting CD4-dependent tumor immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Cherkassky, Leonid; Villena-Vargas, Jonathan; Colovos, Christos; Servais, Elliot; Plotkin, Jason; Jones, David R.; Sadelain, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Translating the recent success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for hematological malignancies to solid tumors will necessitate overcoming several obstacles, including inefficient T cell tumor infiltration and insufficient functional persistence. Taking advantage of an orthotopic model that faithfully mimics human pleural malignancy, we evaluated two routes of administration of mesothelin-targeted T cells using the M28z CAR. We found that intra-pleurally administered CAR T cells vastly out-performed systemically infused T cells, requiring 30-fold fewer M28z T cells to induce long-term complete remissions. Following intrapleural T cell administration, prompt in vivo antigen-induced T cell activation allowed robust CAR T cell expansion and effector differentiation, resulting in enhanced anti-tumor efficacy and functional T cell persistence for 200 days. Regional T cell administration also promoted efficient elimination of extrathoracic tumor sites. This therapeutic efficacy was dependent on early CD4+ T cell activation associated with a higher intra-tumoral CD4/CD8 cell ratios and CD28-dependent CD4+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, intravenously delivered CAR T cells, even when accumulated at equivalent numbers in the pleural tumor, did not achieve comparable activation, tumor eradication or persistence. The remarkable ability of intrapleurally administered T cells to circulate and persist supports the concept of delivering optimal CAR T cell therapy through “regional distribution centers.” Based on these results, we are opening a phase I clinical trial to evaluate the safety of intrapleural administration of mesothelin-targeted CAR T cells in patients with primary or secondary pleural malignancies. PMID:25378643

  4. Pineal physiology in microgravity - Relation to rat gonadal function aboard Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Markley, Carol L.; Soliman, Magdi R. I.; Kaddis, Farida; Krasnov, Igor'

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from an analysis of pineal glands obtained for five male rats flown aboard an orbiting satellite for their melatonin, serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIA), and calcium content. Plasma 5-HT and 5-HIAA were measured. These parameters were compared to indicators of gonadal function: plasma testosterone concentration and spermatogonia development. Plasma melotonin was found to be low at the time of euthanasia and was not different among the experimental groups. Pineal calcium of flight animals was not different from ground controls. Pineal 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the flight group were significantly higher than those in ground controls. These findings suggest a possible increase in pineal 5-HT turnover in flight animals which may result in increased melatonin secretion. It is argued that the alteration of pinal 5-HT turnover and its expected effects on melatonin secretion may partially explain the lower plasma testosterone levels and 4-11 percent fewer spermatogonia cells observed in flight animals.

  5. Simple sensitive rat pineal gland organ culture technique for monitoring indole metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pineal gland has received considerable attention in recent years and has been implicated as affecting and being influenced by physiological and endocrine processes. To determine indole metabolism in the pineal a technique is required which will enable sensitive monitoring of all metabolites while allowing for biochemical or pharmacological manipulations. Because the rat pineal gland is small and readily accessible it makes intact organ culture suitable for such purposes. A technique was sought in which indole metabolism could be monitored with relative simplicity while allowing sensitivity and reproducibility using single rat pineal glands. A technique was chosen where 14C and 3H-serotonin were used in organ culture. The results obtained from this technique indicated that the radioactivity recorded for the various metabolites of serotonin using both isotopes did not differ greatly and that the sensitivity of both methods is similar. The fewer manipulations needed using 3H-serotonin made this method faster and more accurate than using 14C-serotonin and it is thus to be recommended

  6. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical characterization of interstitial cells in pre- and postnatal developing sheep pineal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Redondo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pineal gland interstitial cells from 32 sheep embryos (from day 54 of gestation until birth and 18 sheep (from 1 month to >2 years were analysed using ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. From day 98 of gestation and throughout postnatal development, a second cell type was observed in addition to pinealocytes; these cells displayed uniform ultrastructural features similar to those of CNS astrocytes. Ultrastructural homogeneity was not matched by the results of histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. Expression of phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin indicates that the second cell population in the developing ovine pineal gland is, in fact, a combination of glial-astrocyte cells at varying stages of maturity. Pineal interstitial cells started to show signs of functional activity evident in vascular tropism; such activity, evident from around day 98 of gestation, appeared to relate to the exchange of substances between the pineal parenchyma and blood vessels and, though it continued throughout postnatal development, was most evident in animals slaughtered between 9 months and 2 years of age (group II. Morphologically, functional activi- ty in interstitial cells in this age-group was apparent in: 1, formation of specific contact sites between interstitial cells and nerve fibres in the perivascular space; and 2, the presence of numerous gap junctions between the bulbous endings of cytoplasmic processes.

  7. Alterações celulares na glândula pineal de ratas albinas: efeito da estimulação sonora diária

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Belarmino Alves de, Azevedo; Pedro, Fontana Junior.

    Full Text Available Foi observado haver uma relação entre o estímulo sonoro intenso e alterações morfológicas na glândula (g.l) pineal de ratas adultas. Estes animais foram estimulados por uma campainha elétrica, com nível de intensidade sonora em torno de 110 db, por 1, 2, 4 e 7 dias e como também por mais 10 estímulo [...] s sucessivos no sétimo dia. Foram observadas alterações celulares, tais como: núcleos picnóticos, vacuolizações e perda do aspecto lobular da distribuição dos pinealócitos, sendo que estas alterações se agravam com o aumento do número de estimulações. Abstract in english The authors studied the effect of noise (110 dB), delivered by an eletric bell, upon parenchima cells of pineal gland of albino female rats. Several experimental groups were previously formed and stimulated during, 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. In addition another group was formed and stimulated during 7 days [...] plus 10 additional stimulations of about 3 minutes each after the routine stimulations in the seventh day. The authors observed that a single stimulation of about 3 minutes was sufficient to determine alterations in the parenchima cells of the pineal of experimental animals; the changes were characterized by picnolisis in some groups, whereas in others groups picnolisis and interstitials vacuolizations were evidently increased directly with stimulation. The results suggest that the sound stimulation has a destructible effect upon the parenchima cells of the pineal gland of the female albino rats.

  8. Insulin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes melatonin in a circadian manner, peaking during the dark phase. This synthesis is primarily regulated by sympathetic innervations via noradrenergic fibers, but is also modulated by many peptidergic and hormonal systems. A growing number of studies reveal a comp...

  9. Characterization of lymphocyte subsets over a 24-hour period in Pineal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (PALT in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNulty John A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeostatic trafficking of lymphocytes in the brain has important relevance to the understanding of CNS disease processes. The pineal gland of the chicken contains large accumulations of lymphocytes that suggest an important role related to homeostatic circadian neuro-immune interactions. The purpose of this initial study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in the pineal gland and quantitate the distribution and frequency of lymphocyte phenotypes at two time points over the 24-hour light:dark cycle. Results PALT comprised approximately 10% of the total pineal area. Image analysis of immunocytochemically stained sections showed that the majority of lymphocytes were CD3+ (80% with the remaining 20% comprising B-cells and monocytes (Bu-1+, which tended to distribute along the periphery of the PALT. T-cell subsets in PALT included CD4+ (75–80%, CD8+ (20–25%, TCR??/V?1+ (60%, and TCR??+ (15%. All of the T-cell phenotypes were commonly found within the interfollicular septa and follicles of the pineal gland. However, the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCR??+/TCR??/V?1+ within the pineal tissue were each 1:1, in contrast to the PALT where the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCR??+/TCR??/V?1+ each approximated 1:4. Bu-1+ cells were only rarely seen in the pineal interstitial spaces, but ramified Bu-1+ microglia/macrophages were common in the pineal follicles. Effects of the 24-h light:dark cycle on these lymphocyte-pineal interactions were suggested by an increase in the area of PALT, a decline in the density of TCR??/V?1+ cells, and a decline in the area density of Bu-1+ microglia at the light:dark interphase (1900 h compared to the dark:light interphase (0700 h. Conclusion The degree of lymphocyte infiltration in the pineal suggests novel mechanisms of neuro-immune interactions in this part of the brain. Our results further suggest that these interactions have a temporal component related to the 24-hour light:dark cycle and that CD8+ and TCR??+ T-cells are preferentially recruited to the pineal follicles. Pineal microglia/macrophages were common and represent an important candidate for mediating these lymphocyte-pineal interactions via secretion of cytokines and chemokines.

  10. Local and regional spread of tumor cell-sized particles from a femur biopsy in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of various biopsy procedures on the spread of tumor cell-sized particles to the local tissue and regional lymph nodes. Adult mongrel dogs were anesthetized and the skin covering the distal one-third of the femur was opened from the vastus lateralis to expose the distal femur. A 6 mm diameter biopsy was made through the cortex. In one group, the cortical biopsy opening remained opened while in a separate group the biopsy opening was filled with methyl-methacrylate. A gelatin capsule containing 100,000 fifteen-micron radioactive microspheres was placed next to the biopsy site. A 5F Milar pressure-tipped catheter was placed near the cortical opening prior to closure of the soft tissue and used to monitor hematoma pressure. After the animals received a lethal drug injection, tissues were harvested from the skin and muscle surrounding the femur, from the regional lymph nodes, lung and kidney. The results suggested that hematoma pressure was greatest when the cortical biopsy opening was not plugged with methyl-methacrylate. Spread of the particles to the lymph nodes, lung, and kidney was minimal or nonexistent in both groups. Based on these results, it would appear that plugging the biopsy opening does not prevent the dissemination of cell-sized particles throughout the hematoma area once they have escaped the confines of the bone cortex. In addition, it appears that more than six hours are required for the particles to move rs are required for the particles to move to the lymph nodes

  11. Primary intracranial germ cell tumors: clinicopathologic review of 32 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, K L; Rojiani, A M; Buatti, J; Quisling, R G; Marcus, R B; Maria, B L; Mickle, J P; Kedar, A

    1997-01-01

    Primary intracranial germ cell neoplasms are rare tumors and constitute a heterogeneous group. We have reviewed 32 cases, over a 21-year period, from the University of Florida. The cases include 22 germinomas, 6 mixed germ cell tumors, and 4 teratomas. The clinical presentations in these cases were more closely related to the location of the tumor, that is, pineal or suprasellar, rather than the histologic subtype. Neuroimaging evaluation was useful in distinguishing between germinomas, teratomas, and other mixed germ cell tumors (MGCTs), primarily by evaluation of cystic versus solid lesions (teratoma versus germinoma), contents of cysts (teratoma versus MGCT), and infiltrative nature of the tumors (MGCT), although cytologic-histopathologic confirmation remains necessary. Germinomas responded favorably to radiation therapy with survival periods of over 16 years; MGCTs were treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation, with a markedly poorer prognosis. This study underlines the critical significance of histopathologic evaluation of the tumor in determining therapeutic interventions as well as prognosis. PMID:9267886

  12. Photoperiod: Its importance as an impeller of pineal and seasonal reproductive rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    A number of long day breeding rodents depend on seasonal changes in photoperiodic length to synchronize their breeding seasons with the appropriate time of the year. These relationships are particularly conspicuous in the Syrian hamster where day length is vitally important in determining periods of sexual activity and inactivity. The organ in the body whose activity is most closely attuned to the photoperiodic environment is the pineal gland. During periods of darkness the biochemical and secretory activity of the pineal is enhanced with the resultant production of antigonadotrophic principles which are strongly suppressive to reproductive physiology. In this manner, decreasing day lengths of the fall are involved with suppressing sexual capability in male and female hamsters. Throughout the winter months darkness (because of the shorter day lengths and the fact that hamsters remain underground in lightless burrows) holds the gonads in an atrophic condition and thereby prevents hamsters from breeding. As spring approaches the neuroendocrine reproductive axis becomes refractory to the inhibitory effects of darkness and the pineal gland and, as a consequence, the gonads recrudesce allowing the animals to successfully reproduce. The long days of the spring and summer serve to interrupt the refractory period so that when winter approaches shortening day lengths will again, by way of the pineal gland, induce gonadalinvolution. In this scheme both light and darkness are critically important in synchronizing the phases of the annual reproductive cycle of the hamster with the appropriate season of the year. Melatonin may be the pineal hormone which mediates the effects of darkness on reproductive physiology.

  13. Aluminum and Glyphosate Can Synergistically Induce Pineal Gland Pathology: Connection to Gut Dysbiosis and Neurological Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Seneff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many neurological diseases, including autism, depression, dementia, anxiety disorder and Parkinson’s disease, are associated with abnormal sleep patterns, which are directly linked to pineal gland dysfunction. The pineal gland is highly susceptible to environmental toxicants. Two pervasive substances in modern industrialized nations are aluminum and glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup?. In this paper, we show how these two toxicants work synergistically to induce neurological damage. Glyphosate disrupts gut bacteria, leading to an overgrowth of Clostridium difficile. Its toxic product, p-cresol, is linked to autism in both human and mouse models. p-Cresol enhances uptake of aluminum via transferrin. Anemia, a result of both aluminum disruption of heme and impaired heme synthesis by glyphosate, leads to hypoxia, which induces increased pineal gland transferrin synthesis. Premature birth is associated with hypoxic stress and with substantial increased risk to the subsequent development of autism, linking hypoxia to autism. Glyphosate chelates aluminum, allowing ingested aluminum to bypass the gut barrier. This leads to anemia-induced hypoxia, promoting neurotoxicity and damaging the pineal gland. Both glyphosate and aluminum disrupt cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved in melatonin metabolism. Furthermore, melatonin is derived from tryptophan, whose synthesis in plants and microbes is blocked by glyphosate. We also demonstrate a plausible role for vitamin D3 dysbiosis in impaired gut function and impaired serotonin synthesis. This paper proposes that impaired sulfate supply to the brain mediates the damage induced by the synergistic action of aluminum and glyphosate on the pineal gland and related midbrain nuclei.

  14. Complementation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing aux mutants by genes from the TR-region of the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Offringa, I. A.; Melchers, L S; Regensburg-Tuink, A. J. G.; Costantino, P.; Schilperoort, R. A.; Hooykaas, P.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper we provide information indicating that the agropine-type root-inducing (Ri) plasmid pRi1855 of Agrobacterium rhizogenes contains functional genes for auxin production (aux) in the right transferred DNA (T-DNA) region (TR-region). These genes were cloned and introduced into the T-region of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids of mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying an aux mutation. Depending on the Ri aux gene present, the oncogenicity of the Ti aux-1 and/or aux-2 mutations ...

  15. Genetic analysis of tumorigenesis: a conserved region in the human and Chinese hamster genomes contains genetically identified tumor-suppressor genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional chromosome homologies were found in a comparison of human 11p with Chinese hamster 3p. By use of probes that recognize six genes of human 11p (INS, CAT, HBBC, CALC, PTH, and HRAS), the corresponding genes were localized by in situ hybridization on Chinese hamster chromosome 3. INS and CAT were located close to the centromere on 3p, whereas HBBC, CALC, and PTH were at 3q3-4 and HRAS at 3q4. Extensive prior data from chromosome studies of tumorigenic and tumor-derived Chinese hamster cells have suggested the presence of a tumor-suppressor gene on 3p. Two tumor-suppressor genes have been described on human 11p, one linked to CAT and one to INS. The present study raises the possibility that the Chinese hamster suppressor may be closely linked to INS or CAT

  16. General Information about Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more information. Pineoblastomas form in cells of the pineal gland. The pineal gland is a tiny organ in the center of ... sleep cycle. Pineoblastomas form in cells of the pineal gland and are usually malignant. Pineoblastomas are fast-growing ...

  17. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Progressive Carcinoid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Atypical Carcinoid Tumor; Foregut Carcinoid Tumor; Hindgut Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Midgut Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Stage IIIA Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  18. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Progressive Carcinoid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-23

    Atypical Carcinoid Tumor; Foregut Carcinoid Tumor; Hindgut Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Midgut Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Stage IIIA Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  19. Seasonal postembryonic maturation of the diurnal rhythm of serotonin in the chicken pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesiewicz, Aneta; Kedzierska, Urszula; Turkowska, Elzbieta; Adamska, Iwona; Majewski, Pawel M

    2015-02-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated the postembryonic development of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus L.) pineal gland functions expressed as changes in melatonin (MEL) biosynthesis. Pineal concentrations of MEL and its precursor serotonin (5-HT) were shown to increase between the 2nd and 16th day of life. We also found that levels of the mRNAs encoding the enzymes participating in the final two steps of MEL biosynthesis from 5-HT: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), as well as their enzymatic activities, were raised during postembryonic development. Moreover, the manner of these changes was season-of-hatch dependent, even in animals kept under constant laboratory conditions (L:D 12:12). The most pronounced changes were seen in the concentrations of 5-HT and MEL, as well as in Aanat mRNA level and its enzymatic activity. The high daily variability in 5-HT content suggested that season- and age-dependent changes in the activity of the chicken pineal gland might rely on the availability of 5-HT, i.e. it may be limited by changes in pineal tryptophan (TRP) and/or 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) levels as well as by the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC): two enzymes participating in the conversion of TRP to 5-HT. The present study was undertaken with the following objectives: (1) to examine whether the pineal concentration of the 5-HT precursors TRP and 5-HTP exhibit age- and season-related changes; (2) to look for season-related differences in the transcription of the Tph1 and Ddc genes encoding enzymes TPH and AADC; (3) to identify the step(s) in postembryonic development in which these season-related variations in pineal gland function are most pronounced. Male Hy-line chickens hatched in the summer or winter, from eggs laid by hens held in L:D 16:8 conditions were kept from the day of hatch in L:D 12:12 conditions. At the age of 2 or 9 days, animals were sacrificed every 2 or 4?h over a 24-h period and their pineal glands were isolated under dim red light and processed for the measurement of (i) the pineal content of TRP, 5-HTP and 5-HT, and (ii) the level of Tph1 and Ddc mRNAs. Circadian rhythmicity of all the measured parameters was evaluated by the cosinor method. The pineal levels of TRP and 5-HT as well as the Tph1 and Ddc transcripts changed during postembryonic development in a season-related way. Whereas, the 5-HTP concentration did not vary between animals from both age groups, regardless of the season. Circadian rhythmicity of all the measured parameters was dependent on both the age and the season of hatch, and was greatest in older animals in the summer. These findings indicated that the efficiency of season-related MEL biosynthesis, reported previously, is limited by 5-HT availability and this limitation depends on the transcription of both the Tph1 and Ddc genes. Moreover, Ddc mRNA level in 9-d-old birds changed rhythmically, even though this gene is generally considered to be arrhythmic. PMID:25222180

  20. Differential enhancement of neural and photoreceptor cell differentiation of cultured pineal cells by FGF-1, IGF-1, and EGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Masasuke; Suzuki, Haruno; Layer, Paul

    2007-10-01

    There are several common features between the pineal organ and the lateral eye in their developmental and evolutionary aspects. The avian pineal is a photoendocrine organ that originates from the diencephalon roof and represents a transitional type between the photosensory organ of lower vertebrates and the endocrine gland of mammals. Previous cell culture studies have shown that embryonic avian pineal cells retain a wide spectrum of differentiative capacities, although little is known about the mechanisms involved in their fate determination. In the present study, we investigated the effects of various cell growth factors on the differentiation of photoreceptor and neural cell types using pineal cell cultures from quail embryos. The results show that IGF-1 promotes differentiation of rhodopsin-immunoreactive cells, but had no effect on neural cell differentiation. Simultaneous administration of EGF and IGF-1 further enhanced differentiation of rhodopsin-immunoreactive cells, although the mechanism of the synergistic effect is unknown. FGF-1 did not stimulate proliferation of neural progenitor cells, but intensively promoted and maintained expression of a neural cell phenotype. FGF-1 appeared to lead to the conversion from an epithelial (endocrinal) to a neuronal type. It also enhanced phenotypic expression of retinal ganglion cell markers but rather suppressed expression of an amacrine cell marker. These results indicate that growth factors are important regulatory cues for pineal cell differentiation and suggest that they play roles in determining the fate of the pineal organ and the eye. It can be speculated that the differences in environmental cues between the retina and pineal may result in the transition of the pineal primordium from a potentially ocular (retinal) organ to a photoendocrine organ. PMID:17577207

  1. The pineal gland of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.):a survey of seasonal melatonin production and gland ultrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Musæus, Fredrikke Johansen

    2009-01-01

    The pineal gland is part of the endocrine system involved with rhythmic activity in e.g. fish. The main product of the pineal gland is the indole hormone melatonin, synthesised from the amino acid tryptophan. Melatonin is mainly synthesized when it is dark, as light inhibit the production. For this reason melatonin is thought to be strongly involved in biological rhythms. Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a circumpolar species and anadromous in parts of its distribution area. Arctic charr ...

  2. Increased delta aminolevulinic acid and decreased pineal melatonin production. A common event in acute porphyria studies in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Puy, H.; Deybach, J. C.; Bogdan, A.; Callebert, J.; Baumgartner, M.; Voisin, P.; Nordmann, Y.; Touitou, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is the precursor of melatonin, the primary secretory product of the pineal gland. Hepatic heme deficiency decreases the activity of liver tryptophan pyrrolase, leading to increased plasma TRP and serotonin. As a paradox, patients with attacks of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), exhibit low nocturnal plasma melatonin levels. This study using a rat experimental model was designed to produce a pattern of TRP and melatonin production similar to that in AIP patients. Pineal mel...

  3. The pineal gland of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.): a survey of seasonal melatonin production and gland ultrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Musæus, Fredrikke Johansen

    2009-01-01

    The pineal gland is part of the endocrine system involved with rhythmic activity in e.g. fish. The main product of the pineal gland is the indole hormone melatonin, synthesised from the amino acid tryptophan. Melatonin is mainly synthesized when it is dark, as light inhibit the production. For this reason melatonin is thought to be strongly involved in biological rhythms. Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a circumpolar species and anadromous in parts of its distribution area. Arctic charr ...

  4. Postnatal development of female sheep pineal gland under natural inhibitory photoperiods: an immunocytochemical and physiological (melatonin concentration) study

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo, E.; Regodo?n, S.; Masot, A. J.; Ga?zquez, A.; Franco, A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine structural and immunocytochemical changes taking place during the day and at night in developing sheep pineal gland under natural non-stimulatory photoperiods (summer solstice). Additionally, the diurnal cycle of plasma melatonin levels was charted and differences between diurnal and nocturnal pineal melatonin concentrations were analyzed. 36 ewes of three different ages were examined: infants (1-6 months old), puberta...

  5. Benign symptomatic glial cysts of the pineal gland: a report of seven cases and review of the literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, P.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1989-01-01

    Seven cases of clinically symptomatic benign glial cyst of the pineal gland are reported. The cysts' size ranged from 1.0-4.5 cm in diameter. They were characterised by a golden or, less frequently, brown-reddish proteinaceous or haemorrhagic fluid content. The cyst wall, up to 2 mm thick, consisted of clusters of normal pineal parenchymal cells, often compressed and distorted, surrounded by reactive gliotic tissue which sometimes contained Rosenthal fibres. The presenting clinical features i...

  6. Value of regional cerebral perfusion SPECT with N-isopropyl-(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate early dynamics and late changes of IMP distribution in brain tumors and surrounding tissues, we performed serial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); eight 2-min scans (dynamic scan) immediately after IMP administration and two 30-min scans at 20 min (early scan) and 5 hr (late scan) after injection. We also measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 4 cases using positron emission tomography and 0 - 15 labeled carbon dioxide or water, and compared the distribution of IMP with CBF. Seven tumors out of 24 studies showed increased accumulation of IMP on the dynamic scan, indicating high blood flow, but the activity decreased rapidly in the tumor and all tumors showed decreased uptake on the late scan. The initial distribution of IMP in the tumor showed similar pattern as CBF measured by PET. In the early scan, decreased accumulation was observed in the more extended area than tumors visualized by XCT, probably including the area of perifocal edema. On the late scan, redistribution of the tracer was observed in the area of edema. In one case with right thalamic glioma, decreased uptake of the tracer was shown in the cortex of right cerebral hemisphere on the early scan, indicating transneuronal suppression, but no laterality was found on the late scan. There was no redistribution of the tracer in the tumor. In summary, only the initial distribution of IMP can show the blood flow in brain tumors, and routine SPECT with rotating gamma camera availableSPECT with rotating gamma camera available in most institutions may fail to detect it. Late scan may be useful for delineating the tumor extention. (author)

  7. Epidemiological study of primary intracranial tumors. A regional survey in Kumamoto prefecture in southern Japan. 20-year study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased use of neuro-imaging techniques, as well as various environmental factors, has been changing the incidence and the proportions of types of intracranial tumors. However, no accurate population-based epidemiological study of intracranial tumors in Japan has been reported. We evaluated recent trends in the occurrence of primary intracranial tumors among residents of Kumamoto prefecture, Japan. We surveyed 5,448 new cases of primary intracranial tumors that were diagnosed in Kumamoto prefecture between 1989 and 2008. The overall age-adjusted incidence rate was 14.09 (11.59 for males, 16.38 for females) per 100,000 population per year. The most common tumors were meningiomas (36.8%), followed by gliomas (19.5%), adenomas (17.8%), schwannomas (9.9%), and malignant lymphomas (3.6%). The number of cases of primary brain tumors, especially meningiomas and malignant gliomas, among the elderly has steadily increased and the incidence of asymptomatic intracranial tumors also increased. The number of asymptomatic meningiomas diagnosed per year was higher than that of symptomatic meningiomas in the years between 1997 and 2008. Furthermore, the incidence rate of brain lymphoma in Kumamoto prefecture is approaching that recorded in Western countries. On the other hand, the incidence rate of germ cell tumors is on the decline, approaching that recorded for children in Western countries. Even though we adjusted the population in Kumamoto prefecture based on the Japanese pumamoto prefecture based on the Japanese population, increasing rates of several types of intracranial tumors were observed. These incidence rates are approaching those in Western countries. (author)

  8. Pineal Gland Plays a Role in Gonadal Development after Eyelids Separation in Puppies / La Glándula Pineal Juega un Rol en el Desarrollo Gonadal Luego de la Separación de los Párpados en Cachorros

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Khalil, Abou-Easa; Mohammed Abu, El-Magd; Ehab, Tousson; Amin, Hassanin; Mustafa, Shukry; Mohammed, Salama.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios morfológicos y funcionales han sido realizados sobre la glándula pineal en distintas especies de mamíferos. Sin embargo, no hay informes publicados acerca del rol de la glándula pineal en el desarrollo gonadal antes y después de la separación de los párpados en cachorros. Este estu [...] dio tuvo como objetivo trazar los cambios histo-morfológicos postnatales en la glándula pineal y las gónadas de los cachorros antes (2, 10 y 11 días de edad) y después (25, 35 y 40 días de edad) de la separación de los párpados, en un intento por investigar el posible rol de la glándula pineal en el desarrollo gonadal. En general, la diferenciación de los pinealocitos, células intersticiales endocrinas de los testículos y las células estromales del ovario coincide con el inicio de la separación de los párpados en cachorros. El examen histológico de glándula pineal y los cortes gonadales de los cachorros, después de la separación de los párpados, reveló una notable diferenciación de los pinealocitos y las células intersticiales endocrinas testiculares, así como la posible evidencia de foliculogénesis en el ovario. Sorprendentemente, en el receptor de melatonina (MT1) los niveles de expresión de proteínas fueron significativamente superiores en los ovarios y los testículos de los cachorros después de la separación de los párpados. Además, el ARNm y la expresión de la proteína AANAT, una enzima limitante de la velocidad en la biosíntesis de la melatonina, aumentaron notablemente en la glándula pineal de los cachorros con los ojos abiertos. Nuestros resultados sugieren que existe un aumento de la producción de melatonina por parte de la glándula pineal en los cachorros con los ojos abiertos, lo que podría jugar un rol vital en los cambios evolutivos observados enlas gónadas de estos cachorros. Abstract in english Several functional and morphological studies have been conducted on the pineal gland in many mammalian species; however, no published reports are available on the role of pineal gland on the gonadal development before and after eyelids separation in puppies. Therefore, this study aimed to trace the [...] postnatal histo-morphological changes in the pineal gland and gonads of puppies before (2, 10 and 11 days old) and after (25, 35 and 40 days old) eyelids separation in an attempt to investigate the possible role of pineal gland on the gonadal development. In general, the differentiation of pineal cells, interstitial endocrine cells of testes and stromal ovarian cells coincides with the start of eyelids separation in puppies. Histological examination of stained pineal and gonadal slices of puppies after eyelids separation revealed a remarkable differentiation of pinealocytes and testicular interstitial endocrine cells, as well as presence of some evidence of folliculogenesis in ovary. Surprisingly, melatonin receptor (MT1) protein expression levels were significantly increased in the ovaries and testes of puppies after eyelids separation. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression of AANAT, a rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis, was notably increased in the pineal gland of opened eyes puppies. Our results suggest an increase of melatonin production from the pineal gland of opened eyes puppies and this could play a vital role in the developmental changes observed in the gonads of these puppies.

  9. Retrieval of Brain Tumors with Region-Specific Bag-of-Visual-Words Representations in Contrast-Enhanced MRI Images

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Yu, Mei; Lu, Zhentai; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2012-01-01

    A content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system is proposed for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images of brain tumors. In this CBIR system, spatial information in the bag-of-visual-words model and domain knowledge on the brain tumor images are considered for the representation of brain tumor images. A similarity metric is learned through a distance metric learning algorithm to reduce the gap between the visual features and the semantic concepts in an image. The lear...

  10. Circadian dynamics of the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor in the rat pineal gland and its role in regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Kristian; Rovsing, Louise

    2014-01-01

    The cone-rod homeobox (Crx) gene encodes a transcription factor in the retina and pineal gland. Crx deficiency influences the pineal transcriptome, including a reduced expression of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat), a key enzyme in nocturnal pineal melatonin production. However, previous functional studies on pineal Crx have been performed in melatonin-deficient mice. In this study, we have investigated the role of Crx in the melatonin-proficient rat pineal gland. The current study shows that pineal Crx transcript levels exhibit a circadian rhythm with a peak in the middle of the night, which is transferred into daily changes in CRX protein. The study further shows that the sympathetic innervation of the pineal gland controls the Crx rhythm. By use of adenovirus-mediated short hairpin RNA gene knockdown targeting Crx mRNA in primary rat pinealocyte cell culture, we here show that intact levels of Crx mRNA are required to obtain high levels of Aanat expression, whereas overexpression of Crx induces Aanat transcription in vitro. This regulatory function of Crx is further supported by circadian analysis of Aanat in the pineal gland of the Crx-knockout mouse. Our data indicate that the rhythmic nature of pineal CRX protein may directly modulate the daily profile of Aanat expression by inducing nighttime expression of this enzyme, thus facilitating nocturnal melatonin synthesis in addition to its role in ensuring a correct tissue distribution of Aanat expression.

  11. Circadian Dynamics of the Cone-Rod Homeobox (CRX) Transcription Factor in the Rat Pineal Gland and Its Role in Regulation of Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase (AANAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Kristian; Rovsing, Louise

    2014-01-01

    The cone-rod homeobox (Crx) gene encodes a transcription factor in the retina and pineal gland. Crx deficiency influences the pineal transcriptome, including a reduced expression of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat), a key enzyme in nocturnal pineal melatonin production. However, previous functional studies on pineal Crx have been performed in melatonin-deficient mice. In this study, we have investigated the role of Crx in the melatonin-proficient rat pineal gland. The current study shows that pineal Crx transcript levels exhibit a circadian rhythm with a peak in the middle of the night, which is transferred into daily changes in CRX protein. The study further shows that the sympathetic innervation of the pineal gland controls the Crx rhythm. By use of adenovirus-mediated short hairpin RNA gene knockdown targeting Crx mRNA in primary rat pinealocyte cell culture, we here show that intact levels of Crx mRNA are required to obtain high levels of Aanat expression, whereas overexpression of Crx induces Aanat transcription in vitro. This regulatory function of Crx is further supported by circadian analysis of Aanat in the pineal gland of the Crx-knockout mouse. Our data indicate that the rhythmic nature of pineal CRX protein may directly modulate the daily profile of Aanat expression by inducing nighttime expression of this enzyme, thus facilitating nocturnal melatonin synthesis in addition to its role in ensuring a correct tissue distribution of Aanat expression.

  12. The effects of postoperative irradiation on loco-regional tumor control and survival in patients with head and neck carcinomas by tumor subsites and relative risk factors for recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: This study reports on a unique experience in the management of patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in which, between 1982 and 1990, patients with varied risk for recurrence were either referred for immediate postoperative irradiation by one surgical group or offered radiotherapy after surgical failure by the other. We have previously demonstrated in patients with high risk for recurrence that combined surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (S/RT) resulted in improved loco-regional tumor control (LRC) and overall patient survival (OS) for the entire patient cohort. This updated and expanded analysis describes the benefit of postoperative irradiation for patients with HNSCC depending upon relative risk factors for recurrence and different subsites of primary tumors. Materials and Methods: Of 219 patients, 190 were evaluable because of tumor locations in the major subsites analyzed, i.e. oral cavity (OC), oropharynx (OP), hypopharynx (HP), and larynx (L). Depending upon the philosophy of the two surgical groups, 79 patients were treated with combined S/RT and 111 with S alone with a >90% compliance. Minimum 2-year follow-up applies to all data reported. The two patient groups were well balanced with respect to tumor stages (AJCC 1983) and other patient characteristics. Histopathological review revealed 88 cases with one risk factor for recurrence, 49 patients with positive resection margin (PRM) and 39 with extracapsulction margin (PRM) and 39 with extracapsular extension (ECE); an additional 22 patients presented with both risk factors and 80 patients were found to have no risk factors. S, consisting of wide local excisions or radical resections including neck dissections, and postoperative RT with doses between 50 and 70 Gy were similar for both groups. Statistical evaluations consisted of Kaplan-Meier analyses to calculate LRC and OS rates and of multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models to estimate significance of treatment effects including S vs. S/RT and the risk factors under investigation. Results: Initial analysis concentrated on two major risk groups consisting of patients with PRM +/- ECE or ECE +/- PRM as risk factors. The effects of these risk factors by treatment on LCR and OS were analyzed by tumor subsites of OC, OP, HP, and L. For all subsites, PRM +/- ECE revealed a significant improvement in LRC and OS, p=.0005 and .016, respectively, for S/RT vs. S. Even greater significance levels were found for the ECE +/- PRM cohort of patients. In patients with PRM S/RT conferred a significant LRC advantage for subsites of OC, OP, and HP (p=.011 - .063). While there was a significant survival advantage for the entire patient cohort only, OC and HP tumors showed a marginally significant OS benefit of p=.056 - .063, respectively. More detailed analyses divided the patients into four groups by relative risk factors, PRM-/ECE-, PRM+/ECE-, PRM-/ECE+, and PRM+/ECE+, and examined the effects of treatment by tumor subsite on LRC and OS. Combined S/RT demonstrates improvements in LRC, with different levels of significance, for all groups except PRM-/ECE-; this translated into an OS advantage for the PRM-/ECE+ HP and all subsites with findings of PRM+/ECE+, p=.039 and .003, respectively. This analysis also allowed to identify low, intermediate and high risk groups correlating with the need for and the benefit from postoperative radiotherapy. Conclusions: This expanded and updated outcome analysis of patients with HNSCC emphasizes the importance of immediate combined S/RT for tumors with risk features for recurrence, such as ECE and PRM, because of the benefit on LRC but also on OS in selected tumor subsites with intermediate risk for recurrence and all patients with high risk (ECE+/PRM+). The data presented provides detailed guidance regarding expected benefits from combined S/RT by tumor subsite and by relative risk factors

  13. SU-D-18A-01: Tumor Motion Tracking with a Regional Deformable Registration Model for Four Dimensional Radiation Treatment of Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, M; Lo, Y; Yuan, Y; Sheu, R; Rosenzweig, K [The Mount Sinai Medical Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a tumor motion model from four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) of thoracic patients and demonstrate its impact on 4D radiation therapy simulation. Methods: A regional deformable image registration algorithm was introduced to extract tumor motion out of patient's breathing cycle. The gross target volume (GTV) was manually delineated on a selected phase of 4DCT and a subregion with 10mm margin supplemented to the GTV was created on the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Together with 4DCT the structures were exported into an inhouse research platform. A free form B-Spline deformable registration was carried out to map the subregion to other respiratory phases. The displacement vector fields were employed to propagate GTV contours with which the center of mass (CoM) of the GTV was computed for each breathing phase of 4DCT. The resultant GTV motion and its volumetric shape are utilized to facilitate 4D treatment planning. Five lung cancer patients undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy were enrolled and their 4DCT sets were included in the study. Results: Application of the algorithm to five thoracic patients indicates that clinically satisfactory outcomes were achievable with a spatial accuracy better than 2mm for GTV contour propagation between adjacent phases, and 3mm between opposite phases. The GTV CoM was found to be in the range of 2.0mm through 2.5cm, depending upon the tumor location. Compared to the traditional whole image based registration, the computation of the regional model was found to be an order of magnitude more efficient. Conclusion: A regional deformable registration model was implemented to extract tumor motion. It will have widespread application in 4D radiation treatment planning in the future to maximally utilize the available spatial-tempo information.

  14. Effect of low dose radiation on pineal gland in regulation of serum testosterone level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The effect of low dose radiation (LDR) on pineal gland in regulative function of testosterone (TS) in mice was determined in the study. Methods: The distribution of TS in the serum was analyzed by radioimmunoassay after WBI with 75 mGy X-rays. Results: Since 4 h after WBI the TS levels of serum in mice increased up to its highest peak at 8 h (P < 0.001), then returned to the sham-irradiation levels 12 h late, however, increased again after 24 h (P < 0.05), resulted in two peaks. Conclusion: The results indicated that whole-body low dose radiation might stimulate the regulative function of pineal gland and sex gland, increasing the level of TS

  15. Diurnal rhythms of pinealocyte ultrastructure, pineal serotonin content and plasma melatonin level in the domestic pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Nowicki

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate diurnal changes in pinealocyte ultrastructure, pineal serotonin content and plasma melatonin concentration in the domestic pig. The immature pigs (n=24 were kept under a cycle of 12 h light : 12 h dark, with a photophase between 0800 and 2000. During the photophase the animals were exposed to direct sunlight. After four weeks the gilts were slaughtered at 0900, 1400, 2100 and 0200. The pineals were removed and divided into two parts - one for quantitative ultrastructural study (by a point count method and one for serotonin assay. Simultaneously, blood samples were taken for melatonin assay. The relative volume of mitochondria in pinealocyte perikarya was significantly higher at 1400 than at 0200 and 0900 as well as at 2100 than at 0200. The relative volume of Golgi apparatus was higher at 0900 and 1400 than at 0200. The relative volume of dense bodies of the MBB-1 type in pinealocyte perikarya was significantly lower at 1400 and 2100 than at 0900. In contrast, the relative volume of MBB-2 was higher at 1400 than at 0900 and 0200. The numerical density of DCV in perikarya was significantly higher at 0200 than at 1400. No significant differences were found in rough endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes and multivesicular bodies. The pineal serotonin content showed a prominent rhythm with the maximum at 1400. The plasma melatonin concentration was significantly higher at 0200 than at 0900, 1400 and 2100. The obtained results demonstrate that both pinealocyte ultrastructure and pineal biochemistry in the pig undergo significant changes in the course of the diurnal rhythm.

  16. Transducin Duplicates in the Zebrafish Retina and Pineal Complex: Differential Specialisation after the Teleost Tetraploidisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagman, David; Callado-Pérez, Amalia; Franzén, Ilkin E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplications provide raw materials that can be selected for functional adaptations by evolutionary mechanisms. We describe here the results of 350 million years of evolution of three functionally related gene families: the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of transducins, the G protein involved in vision. Early vertebrate tetraploidisations resulted in separate transducin heterotrimers: gnat1/gnb1/gngt1 for rods, and gnat2/gnb3/gngt2 for cones. The teleost-specific tetraploidisation generated additional duplicates for gnb1, gnb3 and gngt2. We report here that the duplicates have undergone several types of subfunctionalisation or neofunctionalisation in the zebrafish. We have found that gnb1a and gnb1b are co-expressed at different levels in rods; gnb3a and gnb3b have undergone compartmentalisation restricting gnb3b to the dorsal and medial retina, however, gnb3a expression was detected only at very low levels in both larvae and adult retina; gngt2b expression is restricted to the dorsal and medial retina, whereas gngt2a is expressed ventrally. This dorsoventral distinction could be an adaptation to protect the lower part of the retina from intense light damage. The ontogenetic analysis shows earlier onset of expression in the pineal complex than in the retina, in accordance with its earlier maturation. Additionally, gnb1a but not gnb1b is expressed in the pineal complex, and gnb3b and gngt2b are transiently expressed in the pineal during ontogeny, thus showing partial temporal subfunctionalisation. These retina-pineal distinctions presumably reflect their distinct functional roles in vision and circadian rhythmicity. In summary, this study describes several functional differences between transducin gene duplicates resulting from the teleost-specific tetraploidisation. PMID:25806532

  17. Skeletal muscle in the pineal gland of the bat, Rhinopoma microphyllum: an ultrastructural investigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatnagar, K. P.

    1994-01-01

    The unusual occurrence of skeletal muscle in the pineal gland of the bat Rhinopoma microphyllum is described. Individual muscle fibres were centrally placed and were incompletely encapsulated by a labyrinthine network of widened spaces filled with electron-dense material. The 2.4 micron long sarcomeres consisted of well developed A, I, H, M, and Z bands. A few myofibrils were oriented transversely within the same fibre. T system components, mitochondria and glycogen appeared normally distribu...

  18. Diurnal variation of the adenylyl cyclase type 1 in the rat pineal gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Tzavara, E. T.; Pouille, Y.; Defer, N.; Hanoune, J.

    1996-01-01

    Nocturnal melatonin production in the pineal gland is under the control of norepinephrine released from superior cervical ganglia afferents in a rhythmic manner, and of cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP increases the expression of serotonin N-acetyltransferase and of inducible cAMP early repressor that undergo circadian oscillations crucial for the maintenance and regulation of the biological clock. In the present study, we demonstrate a circadian pattern of expression of the calcium/calmodulin activate...

  19. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical characterization of interstitial cells in pre- and postnatal developing sheep pineal gland

    OpenAIRE

    Regodo?n, S.; Aj, Masot; Franco, A.; Redondo, E.

    2009-01-01

    Pineal gland interstitial cells from 32 sheep embryos (from day 54 of gestation until birth ) and 18 sheep (from 1 month to >2 years) were analysed using ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. From day 98 of gestation and throughout postnatal development, a second cell type was observed in addition to pinealocytes; these cells displayed uniform ultrastructural features similar to those of CNS astrocytes. Ultrastructural homogeneity was not matched by the results of histochemical ...

  20. Retrieval of brain tumors with region-specific bag-of-visual-words representations in contrast-enhanced MRI images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Yu, Mei; Lu, Zhentai; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2012-01-01

    A content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system is proposed for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images of brain tumors. In this CBIR system, spatial information in the bag-of-visual-words model and domain knowledge on the brain tumor images are considered for the representation of brain tumor images. A similarity metric is learned through a distance metric learning algorithm to reduce the gap between the visual features and the semantic concepts in an image. The learned similarity metric is then used to measure the similarity between two images and then retrieve the most similar images in the dataset when a query image is submitted to the CBIR system. The retrieval performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain CE-MRI dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). The experimental results demonstrate that the mean average precision values of the proposed method range from 90.4% to 91.5% for different views (transverse, coronal, and sagittal) with an average value of 91.0%. PMID:23243462

  1. [The morphological response of the pineal gland of old animals on course of melatonin injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubina-Vakulik, G I; Bondarenko, L A; Gevorkian, A R

    2009-01-01

    On the old (18-20 months) male rats of Wistar population the influence of the 10 days evening melatonin injections in physiological rang doses on morphological state pineal gland, was studied. It has been shown, that the course of melatonin injections to old rats brings appearance of histological pattern of pineal gland activation: increasing of area of pinealocytes nuclear and density of nuclear and cytoplasm with stein by hallocyanine on total nucleic acid that means stimulation to material both indole, and peptide nature production. Using of melatonin in dose 0.05 mg/kg mass of the body is sparing for pinealocytes of the old rats and slows the apoptosis processes on background of polyploidization. Using of melatonin in dose 0,5 mg/kg mass of the body causes cell's overstrain and induces the forced apoptosis. It's possible to suppose that the geroprotective effect of the evening injections of melatonin is increased due to stimulation of the biosynthesis of neuropeptides in pineal gland. PMID:20405730

  2. Morphological study of the pineal gland of (crab eater raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Oliveira Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Procyon cancrivorus is a wild carnivore that is widely distributed and relatively common, but it remains little studied, and few works report on the biology of this species. The aim of this work was to characterize morphologically the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus through macro, microscopic and radiographic studies, and to compare them with those from other animals. In this work, four adult animals of both sexes were used, originating from the Scientific Herd of CECRIMPAS IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76. Macroscopically, the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus was located between the occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres, cranially to the vermis cerebelar. It was positioned rostrally to the rostral colliculus and caudally to the habenular comissure. Microscopically, the gland was covered externally by a capsule deriving from the meningeal pia mater. The presence of three types of cells was noted in the glandular parenchyma: pinealocytes, glial cells and mast cells. No calcareous concretions in the pineal gland were found in the radiographic and microscopic studies.

  3. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Smith

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences designated to be on the Z_random, while one matched a W chromosome sequence and could be useful in cataloguing functionally important genes on this sex chromosome. Additionally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified and validated in 10 ESTs that showed 98% or higher sequence similarity to known chicken genes. Here, we have described resources that may be useful in comparative and functional genomic analysis of genes expressed in an important organ, the pineal gland, in a model and agriculturally important organism.

  4. Amyloid ? peptide directly impairs pineal gland melatonin synthesis and melatonin receptor signaling through the ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecon, Erika; Chen, Min; Marçola, Marina; Fernandes, Pedro A C; Jockers, Ralf; Markus, Regina P

    2015-06-01

    Melatonin is the hormone produced by the pineal gland known to regulate physiologic rhythms and to display immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties. It has been reported that Alzheimer disease patients show impaired melatonin production and altered expression of the 2 G protein-coupled melatonin receptors (MTRs), MT1 and MT2, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we evaluated whether this dysfunction of the melatonergic system is directly caused by amyloid ? peptides (A?1-40 and A?1-42). A? treatment of rat pineal glands elicited an inflammatory response within the gland, evidenced by the up-regulation of 52 inflammatory genes, and decreased the production of melatonin up to 75% compared to vehicle-treated glands. Blocking NF-?B activity prevented this effect. Exposure of HEK293 cells stably expressing recombinant MT1 or MT2 receptors to A? lead to a 40% reduction in [(125)I]iodomelatonin binding to MT1. ERK1/2 activation triggered by MTRs, but not by the ?2-adrenergic receptor, was markedly impaired by A? in HEK293 transfected cells, as well as in primary rat endothelial cells expressing endogenous MTRs. Our data reveal the melatonergic system as a new target of A?, opening new perspectives to Alzheimer disease diagnosis and therapeutic intervention.-Cecon, E., Chen, M., Marçola, M., Fernandes, P. A. C., Jockers, R., Markus, R. P. Amyloid ? peptide directly impairs pineal gland melatonin synthesis and melatonin receptor signaling through the ERK pathway. PMID:25757565

  5. Toward the gene(s) for Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome and associated tumors in two different regions of 11p15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, J.; Chehenase, V.; Boulevin, C. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS) is a malformation syndrome associated with predisposition to different types of tumors (WT, ADCC). Cytogenetic and familial studies mapped the WBS locus to 11p15.5. Genomic imprinting has been implicated in the expression of the syndrome. Using 11p15 specific markers we have determined the parental origin of both chromosomes 11 in sporadic WBS cases. Probands in 5 out of 26 informative families (25%) displayed uniparental disomy (UPD) corresponding to a paternal isodisomy for region 11p15.5. Mosaic phenotypes reflect the timing of their origin and the fate of cells involved as well as the cell-specific pattern of imprinting. Somatic mosaicism for UPD may thus explain the incomplete forms of WBS, the association of hemihypertrophy in sporadic WBS and even some cases of isolated hemihypertrophy. Moreover, the risk (60%) of developing a tumor seems higher for patients with paternal 11p UPD than for WBS patients in general (7.5%). Two different genomic libraries specific for region 11p15.5 were constructed and screened to isolate and characterize the gene(s) responsible for WBS and/or tumor progression. The characterization and and the localization of these cDNAs are in progress. 5 CA repeats genetically mapped in 11p15 were used to isolate YACs (CEPH). These CA repeats are now physically mapped using a panel of hybrids specific for the 11p15 region, and the contigs of YACs mapping in the regions of interest will be used to isolate coding sequences.

  6. Estudo da glândula pineal de suíno por meio de microscopia de luz - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2038 Study of the swine pineal gland by means of light microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Fernando Pereira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas dez glândulas pineais de suínos da raça Landrace com 180 dias de idade, sendo cinco machos e cinco fêmeas. Após a coleta, o material foi fixado em solução de formalina a 10% por um período de 48 horas e, em seguida, submetido a tratamento de rotina para inclusão em parafina e realização de cortes histológicos, que foram corados por hematoxilina-eosina e Sírius-Red F3BA. As lâminas selecionadas foram fotografadas em fotomicroscópio do Departamento de Ciências Morfofisiológicas da Universidade Estadual de Maringá. O presente estudo teve por objetivo verificar a morfologia da glândula pineal de suínos por meio de microscopia de luz. Os resultados permitem verificar que a glândula pineal de suínos apresenta-se revestida pela pia-máter que emite projeções para o interior da glândula, constituindo septos de tecido conjuntivo. A distribuição dos elementos celulares no parênquima da glândula pineal apresenta-se de maneira heterogênea, na qual se observam regiões com escassez celular e predominância de pequenos feixes de fibras conjuntivas e concreções calcárias. Os resultados permitem concluir que a glândula pineal de suínos apresenta-se delimitada por septações de tecido conjuntivo proveniente da pia-máter, e que no interior da glândula é comum a presença de concreções calcáriasTen swine pineal glands from Landrace breed at the age of 180 days were collected, 5 males and 5 females. After the collection, the material was fastened in formaline solution at 10% for a period of 48 hours, and soon after it was undergone a routine treatment for inclusion in paraffin and accomplishment of histologic courts that have been red-faced for hematoxylin-eosin and Sírius-Red F3BA. The selected sheets were photographed in fotomicroscopy from the Department of Morphologic Sciences of Universidade Estadual de Maringá (State University of Maringá. The present study aimed to verify the morphology of swine pineal gland by means of light microscopy. The results permit to verify that the swine pineal gland was covered by pia-mater which emits projections into the gland constituting septs of connective tissue. The distribution of the cellular elements in the parenchyma pineal has a heterogeneous way, with scarcity cellular areas and predominance of small bundles of connective fibers and calcarian concrections. The results allow us to conclude that the swine pineal gland structure was characterized by septations of the connective tissue of pia-mater and inside the gland parenchyma calcarian concretions were frequently observed

  7. Use of the bilobed flap in the pubic region after tumoral lesion excision / Utilização do retalho bilobado na região pubiana após exérese de lesão tumoral

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe Maurício Soeiro, Sampaio; Marcela Duarte Benez, Miller; Gustavo Vieira, Gualberto; Maria Clara Gutierrez, Galhardo; Antonio Carlos Francesconi do, Valle; Paulo Roberto Cotrim de, Souza.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A reconstrução de defeitos cirúrgicos na região pubiana é um desafio para qualquer cirurgião. Objetivamos demonstrar a aplicação do retalho bilobado na reconstrução da região pubiana, após excisão de HPV recidivante aos tratamentos convencionais. Apesar da utilização clássica deste retalho ser na re [...] gião nasal, aplicações em áreas distintas também se mostraram com excelentes resultados funcionais e estéticos. Abstract in english Reconstruction of surgical defects in the pubic region is a challenge to any surgeon. Our goal was to demonstrate the use of the bilobed flap to reconstruct the pubic region skin after the excision of a recurrent HPV lesion, resistant to conventional treatments. In spite of its classical use in nasa [...] l reconstructions, the bilobed flap has applications in extranasal defects, with excellent functional and aesthetic results.

  8. Mediastinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our practice the mediastinal tumors are infrequent. The mediastinum is the portion of the thoracic cavity that contains numerous organs and structures which makes a crossroad for the diagnostic process. Within which congenital cysts, inflammatory and benign tumors, malignant neoplasms may develop. In the superior compartment are found: thymoma and thymic cysts, germ cell tumors, thyroid lesions, parathyroid adenomas, malignant lymphomas, paragangliomas, hemangiomas, lipomas, and inflammatory lesions such as fibrosing mediastinitis. In the middle portion: pericardial cysts, bronchial cysts, malignant lymphomas. In the posterior region: neurogenic tumors such as Shawnomas, neurofibromas, ganglioneuroblastomas, neuroblastomas, paragangliomas, and gastro enteric cysts. We describe two cases. One of a female patient with a prominent tumor in the anterior compartment of the mediastinum, detected by the x-ray films. Initially a cardiac lesion was excluded by echographic, angiographic studies. The biopsy exhibited a prominent fibrosis that suggested fibrosing mediastinitis (sclerosing). Whoever the immunohistochemical phenotype was positive for lambda chains, determining the diagnosis of lymphoma. The other case is of a young male with a thymoma associated to a pure red cell aplasia, which was the initial clinical symptom. Computerized tomography and thyroid scintigraphy was used. (The author)

  9. Alpha-2 adrenergic activity of bromocriptine and quinpirole in chicken pineal gland. Effects on melatonin synthesis and [3H]rauwolscine binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the pineal gland and retina of chickens, serotonin N-acetyl-transferase (NAT) activity and melatonin content are modulated by different receptors, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland and D2-dopamine receptors in retina. The effect of two D2-dopamine receptor agonists, bromocriptine and quinpirole (LY 171555), on melatonin synthesis in these tissues was investigated. Systemic administrations of bromocriptine and quinpirole decreased nocturnal NAT activity and melatonin content of both pineal gland and retina. Bromocriptine was equipotent in the two tissues, whereas quinpirole was approximately 100-fold more potent in retina than in pineal gland. In pineal gland, the suppressive effects of bromocriptine and quinpirole on NAT activity were blocked by yohimbine, a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, but not by spiperone, a D2-dopamine receptor antagonist. In contrast, bromocriptine- and quinpirole-induced decreases of the enzyme activity in retina were antagonized by spiperone, and not affected by yohimbine. The nocturnal increase of NAT activity of pineal glands in vitro was inhibited with an order of potency clonidine greater than bromocriptine greater than quinpirole. Additionally, bromocriptine and quinpirole displaced the specific binding of [3H]rauwolscine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, to membranes from chicken pineal gland, with potencies comparable to those observed for inhibition of NAT activity in vitro. It is suggested th NAT activity in vitro. It is suggested that bromocriptine and quinpirole, in addition to their D2-dopaminergic activity, can stimulate alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland of chicken

  10. The 3' untranslated region of tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA is a target of the mRNA-stabilizing factor HuR.

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Jl; Wait, R.; Mahtani, Kr; Sully, G.; Clark, Ar; Saklatvala, J.

    2001-01-01

    Posttranscriptional regulation is important for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) expression in monocytes and macrophages, and an AU-rich element (ARE) in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of TNF-alpha mRNA is implicated in control of its translation and mRNA stability. Regulation of mRNA turnover is thought to be mediated by trans-acting proteins, which bind the ARE and stabilize or destabilize the transcript. However, with the exception of the destabilizing factor tristetraprolin, the ...

  11. Stages of Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but usually begin in organs such as the pineal gland in the brain, in the mediastinum (area ... the gonads (testicles or ovaries). This includes the pineal gland in the brain, the mediastinum (area between ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but usually begin in organs such as the pineal gland in the brain, in the mediastinum (area between ... the gonads (testicles or ovaries). This includes the pineal gland in the brain, the mediastinum (area between the ...

  13. General Information about Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but usually begin in organs such as the pineal gland in the brain, in the mediastinum (area between ... the gonads (testicles or ovaries). This includes the pineal gland in the brain, the mediastinum (area between the ...

  14. Determination of regional blood-tissue transfer constants and initial (plasma) volume in brain and brain tumors using 68Ga-EDTA and dynamic positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs with Avian Sarcoma Virus induced brain tumors were studied under pentobarbital anesthesia at 8 to 10 wks of age when they demonstrated contrast enhancing lesions on CT scans of 1.5 cm or greater diameter. Four to 6 mCi of /sup 68/Ga-EDTA in saline was intravenously infused over 3 min, arterial blood rapidly sampled, and serial 30 sec scans obtained on the Neuro-PET. The scanning period and interval between blood sampling was gradually increased after 5-6 min; 25 min scans were obtained from 30 min until the end of the experiments (2 to 4 hrs). Fifteen min prior to the end of the experiments, 1 mCi of /sup 14/C-?-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) was intravenously injected, arterial blood sampled, the animal killed with intravenous KCl, and the brain rapidly frozen for later processing of histology and quantitative autoradiography. Regions of interest could be outlined on the basis of histology image overlays and directly compared with the /sup 14/C-AIB autoradiographic images. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant blood-tumor barrier in these experimental animals and suggest that similar studies could be performed in patients with brain tumors in order to individualize their chemotherapy

  15. Diagnostic evaluation of breast tumors and loco-regional lymph node metastases using positron emission tomography; Diagnostik des Mammakarzinoms und der lokoregionaeren Lymphknoten mit der Positronenemissionstomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avril, N.; Ziegler, S.; Schwaiger, M. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Dose, J.; Jaenicke, F. [Universitaets-Frauenklinik Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    Based on the increased glucose metabolism of malignant tissue, positron emission tomography (PET), using the radiolabeled glucose analog {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), allows idenfitication of breast cancer. Based on the criteria implemented in image interpretation, sensitivity of PET imaging ranged from 68% to 94% with a specificity between 84% and 97%. However, sensitivity for small tumors (<1 cm) was found to be low. PET demonstrates tumor involvement of regional lymph nodes with high accuracy, predominantly in patients with advanced breast cancer. The sensitivity for the detection of axiallary lymph node metastases was 79%, increasing to 94% in patients with primary breast tumors larger than 2 cm in diameter. Corresponding specificities were 96 and 100%, respectively. Lymph node metastases could not be identified in four of six patients with small primary breast cancers (stage pT1), resulting in a sensitivity of only 33% in these patients. By visualizing primary tumors and metastases in one imaging procedure, PET imaging may allow the effective staging of breast cancer patients. Response to treatment may be assessed at an earlier point than with imaging techniques currently used. Therefore, indications for PET studies in the future may be the evaluation of loco-regional lymph nodes, whole-body staging, diagnosis of local recurrence and therapy monitoring. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der verstaerkte Glukosestoffwechsel maligner Tumoren wird mit der Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) unter Verwendung des radioaktiv markierten Glukoseanalogons F-18-Fluordeoxyglukose (FDG) diagnostisch genutzt. In Abhaengigkeit von den Beurteilungskriterien werden Mammakarzinome mit einer Sensitivitaet von 68% bis 94% erkannt. Eine wesentliche Limitation dieser Methode in der Mammadiagnostik beruht auf der deutlich eingeschraenkten Sensitivitaet beim Nachweis kleiner Karzinome (<1 cm). Die Spezifitaet ist im Vergleich zu radiologischen Verfahren deutlich hoeher und liegt zwischen 84% und 97%. Die Positronenemissionstomographie erlaubt neben der Primaertumordiagnostik auch den Nachweis lokoregionaler Lymphknotenmetastasen. Ein Befall der axillaeren Lymphknoten wurde mit einer Sensitivitaet von 79% erkannt. Bei Patientinnen mit kleinen Primaertumoren (Stadium pT1) betrug die Sensitivitaet allerdings nur 33%, waehrend bei groesseren Primaertumoren axillaere Lymphknotenmetastasen mit einer Sensitivitaet von 94% nachgewiesen wurden. Auch hier fand sich fuer die Positronenemissionstomographie eine hohe Spezifitaet von 96% bis 100%. Da sowohl Primaertumoren als auch Metastasen in einer Untersuchung nachgewiesen werden koennen, ist mit der Positronenemissionstomographie ein effektives Staging moeglich. Das Ansprechen eines Tumors auf eine Therapie kann ueber die Aenderung des Glukosestoffwechsels moeglicherweise frueher als mit anderen bildgebenden Verfahren beurteilt werden. Als zukuenftige Indikationen fuer PET-Untersuchungen sind neben der Evaluierung des lokoregionalen Lymphknotenstatus, das Ganzkoerperstaging, die Rezidivdiagnostik wie auch das Therapiemonitoring vorstellbar. (orig.)

  16. X-ray diagnosis of the neoplasms of the hard palate region. Pt. 2. Tumors extending from the region anatomically adjacent to the hard palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 65 patients X-ray surveys of the skulls, pantomography, occlusal, tomographic, CT and TMR examinations were performed due to malignant and bening tumors extending from the organs adjacent to the hard palate. On the basis of X-ray as well as histological examinations, changes in the bone structures were found in 47 patients, in 21 the image of the structure being normal. The applicability of CT and TMR for evaluating malignant processes of soft tissues and bone structures was disclosed to be of great value. The usefulness of occlusal X-rays for estimating the hard palate structure was emphasized. (author)

  17. Tumor diagnosis, grading, and staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimal use of radiation therapy for the treatment of animal tumors necessitates accurate clinical evaluation, diagnostic imaging, and pathology. This requires a coordinated effort between the clinical and radiation oncologist, radiologist, and pathologist. The histological appearance of the tumor, tumor grade, and tumor stage are important diagnostic criteria that need to be established. Diagnostic imaging, including radiographic, computerized tomographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound studies are helpful in establishing an accurate tumor location and diagnosis. Biopsy and histological examination of tumor tissue are necessary for final diagnosis of tumor type. Determination of tumor type is critical because different tumor types vary in regard to radiosensitivity, local behavior, and propensity for regional and systemic metastasis. The histological grade of many tumors is an important indicator of the potential for local invasion or systemic metastases, and may influence treatment response. Tumor staging as determined by clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and histological evaluation is necessary to establish the extent of the tumor, both locally, regionally, and systemically. The clinical oncologist should have an understanding of the procedures involved in tumor diagnosis, tumor grading, and tumor staging. This provides a better understanding of the neoplastic condition and recognition of the limitations of diagnostic procedures. Tumor type, grade, and stage all impact radiation treatment planning and the need for adjuvant regional or systemic therapy

  18. Steroid hormone and antihormone induced changes in the pineal and adrenocortical karyomorphology and cell proliferation in mice ( Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasree Bandyopadhyay

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} In the present investigation steroid hormones, estradiol and testosterone and non-steroidal antihormones, tamoxifen and flutamide induced responsiveness in pineal and adrenal karyomorphology and cell proliferation activity was studied in post pubertal male mice (Mus musculus. Estradiol was injected at a dose of 5µg, testosterone 100 µg, tamoxifen 500 µg and flutamide 2 mg per 100 gm body weight administered intramuscularly in all cases for ten consecutive days. Control mice were similarly injected with oil vehicle 0.3 ml of peanut oil intramuscularly for same duration. The results indicated that except testosterone, all other treatments with estradiol, tamoxifen and flutamide caused significant hyperactivity of both  the pineal and the adrenal gland associated with significantly increased cell proliferation activity. On the contrary testosterone administration was inhibitory to pineal - adrenal karyometric and mitotic incidence values. It was concluded that in male post pubertal mice both pineal and adrenal shows antagonistic response towards estradiol and testosterone administration. Although tamoxifen showed estrogen agonistic behaviour, flutamide on the reverse induced pineal and adrenal cytophysiological stimulation. Such stimulatory response was antagonistic to the inhibitory response shown by pineal and adrenal karyomorphology and cell proliferation following testosterone administration.

  19. Neuropeptide Y as a presynaptic modulator of norepinephrine release from the sympathetic nerve fibers in the pig pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zió?kowska, N; Lewczuk, B; Przybylska-Gornowicz, B

    2015-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) released from the sympathetic nerve endings is the main neurotransmitter controlling melatonin synthesis in the mammalian pineal gland. Although neuropeptide Y (NPY) co-exists with NE in the pineal sympathetic nerve fibers it also occurs in a population of non-adrenergic nerve fibers located in this gland. The role of NPY in pineal physiology is still enigmatic. The present study characterizes the effect of NPY on the depolarization-evoked 3H-NE release from the pig pineal explants. The explants of the pig pineal gland were loaded with 3H-NE in the presence of pargyline and superfused with Tyrode medium. They were exposed twice to the modified Tyrode medium containing 60 mM of K+ to evoke the 3H-NE release via depolarization. NPY, specific agonists of Y1- and Y2- receptors and pharmacologically active ligands of ?2-adrenoceptors were added to the medium before and during the second depolarization. The radioactivity was measured in medium fractions collected every 2 minutes during the superfusion. NPY (0.1-10 ?M) significantly decreased the depolarization-induced 3H-NE release. Similar effect was observed after the treatment with Y2-agonist: NPY13-36, but not with Y1-agonist: [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY. The tritium overflow was lower in the explants exposed to the 5 ?M NPY and 1 ?M rauwolscine than to rauwolscine only. The effects of 5 ?M NPY and 0.05 ?M UK 14,304 on the depolarization-evoked 3H-NE release were additive. The results show that NPY is involved in the regulation of NE release from the sympathetic terminals in the pig pineal gland, inhibiting this process via Y2-receptors. PMID:25928910

  20. Quantitative Determination of Irinotecan and the Metabolite SN-38 by Nanoflow Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Different Regions of Multicellular Tumor Spheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Hummon, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    A new and simple method was developed to evaluate the distribution of therapeutics in three-dimensional multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) by combining serial trypsinization and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). This methodology was validated with quantitative measurements of irinotecan and its bioactive metabolite, SN-38, in distinct spatial regions of HCT 116 MCTS. Irinotecan showed a time-dependent permeability into MCTS with most of the drug accumulating in the core after 24 h of treatment. The amount of SN-38 detected was 30 times lower than that of the parent drug, and was more abundant in the outer rim and intermediate regions of MCTS where proliferating cells were present. This method can be used to investigate novel and established drugs. It enables investigation of drug penetration properties and identification of metabolites with spatial specificity in MCTS. The new approach has great value in facilitating the drug evaluation process.

  1. A clinico-histopathological study of appendageal skin tumors, affecting head and neck region in patients attending the dermatology OPD of a tertiary care centre in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Abanti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Appendageal skin tumors (ATs are those neoplasms that differentiate toward/arise from pilosebaceous apparatus, apocrine, or eccrine sweat glands. Pilosebaceous apparatus are concentrated in head?neck area; thus it is expected that ATs would account for a major fraction of skin tumors over this site. Aims: This study aims at finding the clinico-histopathological correlation in cases ATs in head?neck region among attendees of dermatology OPD. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study, conducted over 1-year period. All clinically suspected cases of ATs were evaluated and subjected to histopathological examination. Confirmed cases of ATs were finally analyzed. Results : Among twenty eight thousand four hundred sixty six new patients attending OPD, 30 suspected cases of ATs underwent histopathological examination. Histopathology was confirmatory in only 23 (76.67% cases. Out of 23, syringoma were found in 9 (39.13%, trichoepithelioma in 6 (26.08%, syringocystadenoma papilliferum in 4 (17.39%, sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 3 (13.04%, and vellous hair cyst in 1 (4.34 %. Females (65.21% outnumbered males (34.78% in our study population. Conclusions: ATs of head?neck region constitute a meager population (0.08% attending dermatology OPD, and were more common among young population. Often it is over-diagnosed clinically thus necessitating histological confirmation. Young females being cosmetically more conscious are more eager to seek advice for this condition.

  2. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  3. Circadian-related heteromerization of adrenergic and dopamine D4 receptors modulates melatonin synthesis and release in the pineal gland

    OpenAIRE

    Gonza?lez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The role of the pineal gland is to translate the rhythmic cycles of night and day encoded by the retina into hormonal signals that are transmitted to the rest of the neuronal system in the form of serotonin and melatonin synthesis and release. Here we describe that the production of both melatonin and serotonin by the pineal gland is regulated by a circadian-related heteromerization of adrenergic and dopamine D4 receptors. Through alpha18-D4 and ß1-D4 receptor heteromers dopamine inhibits ad...

  4. Muscleblind-Like 2: Circadian Expression in the Mammalian Pineal Gland is Controlled by an Adrenergic-cAMP Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong–so; Coon, Steven L.; Weller, Joan L.; Blackshaw, Seth; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Muscleblind-like 2 (Mbnl2) is a zinc finger protein first identified in Drosophila. It appears to be essential for photoreceptor development and to be involved in RNA splicing. Here we report that Mbnl2 is strongly expressed in the rat pineal gland. The abundance of pineal Mbnl2 transcripts follows a marked circadian rhythm with peak levels approximately 7-fold higher at night than day levels. Mbnl2 protein exhibits a similar rhythm. In vitro studies indicate that the abundance of Mbnl2 trans...

  5. Thyroid hormone and adrenergic signaling interact to control pineal expression of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (Drd4)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong-so; Bailey, Michael J.; Weller, Joan L.; Sugden, David; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine plays diverse and important roles in vertebrate biology, impacting behavior and physiology through actions mediated by specific G protein-coupled receptors, one of which is the dopamine receptor D4 (Drd4). Here we present studies on the >100-fold daily rhythm in rat pineal Drd4 expression. Our studies indicate that Drd4 is the dominant dopamine receptor gene expressed in the pineal gland. The gene is expressed in pinealocytes at levels which are ?100-fold greater than in other tiss...

  6. Response of the Pineal Gland in the Rats Exposed to Three Different Light Spectra of Short Periods

    OpenAIRE

    Aral, Erinc?; Uslu, Sema; Sunal, Emine; Sariboyaci, Ayla Eker; Okar, I?mer; Aral, Ertunc?

    2006-01-01

    The pineal gland is a part of the photo-endocrine system. Photon energy is important for the function of this system, and affects the level of nocturnal melatonin. In mammals light-induced suppression of melatonin production is dependent on the intensity and wavelength of the light used. We studied the chronic effects of light wavelengths on the pineal gland in rats after exposure to a short photoperiod using 3 different light spectra with the same irradiance. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were us...

  7. Environmental control and adrenergic regulation of pineal activity in the diurnal tropical rodent, Arvicanthis ansorgei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garidou-Boof, Marie-Laure; Sicard, Bruno; Bothorel, Béatrice; Pitrosky, Bruno; Ribelayga, Christophe; Simonneaux, Valérie; Pévet, Paul; Vivien-Roels, Berthe

    2005-04-01

    Like nocturnal rodents, the diurnal tropical rodent Arvicanthis ansorgei shows a daily rhythm in pineal melatonin content. Seasonal and photoperiodic variations in the biosynthetic activity of the pineal gland: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) activities and melatonin content were measured in male and female A. ansorgei captured near Samaya, Mali, and kept either under artificial laboratory photoperiods [light-dark (LD) cycles: LD 14:10, LD 12:12 or LD 10:14 or caught in the field in Mali and killed at four different times of the year (January, April, June and November). Under artificial photoperiod, the duration of the nocturnal peak of AA-NAT activity and melatonin content increased with the duration of the dark period while the amplitude did not significantly change. In the field, annual variations in the amplitude of the nocturnal melatonin peak were observed with a maximum in April (highest temperature, low humidity and no grass availability, only seeds) and a minimum in November (high humidity, maximum green grass availability). The variations in the amplitude of the melatonin peak were not correlated with changes in AA-NAT HIOMT activities, suggesting that seasonal variations in the amplitude of the melatonin peak are not driven by these enzymes. Daytime injections of the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, stimulated melatonin synthesis in January, April and June, but not in November. The annual differences in the amplitude of the melatonin peak as well as the seasonal differences in the response to an adrenergic stimulation suggest that environmental factors other than photoperiod, such as temperature, humidity and consequent food availability, could be important in the regulation of the annual variations in the pineal biosynthetic activity in this species. PMID:15725341

  8. Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 in Primary CNS Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Marianne HØjsgaard; Nielsen, SØren

    2011-01-01

    In diagnostic pathology thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is used as a relatively specific and sensitive diagnostic marker of thyroid and lung adenocarcinomas and lung carcinoids but has also been demonstrated in minor proportions of carcinomas from other organs as well as nonepithelial neoplasms. Two antibody clones are widely used for TTF-1 demonstration, 8G7G3/1 and SPT24, the latter being the most sensitive. Few studies have addressed the occurrence of TTF-1 in central nervous system (CNS) tumors with highly divergent results, a major reason for which seems to be use of different clones. Based on multitissue blocks we analyzed the TTF-1 expression in a series of 155 CNS tumors comparing antibody clones 8G7G3/1 and SPT24 in optimized protocols on the Benchmark Ultra stainer. With clone SPT24 TTF-1 staining was observed in 13 cases (8%). Among astrodendroglial and oligodendroglial tumors, TTF-1 expression was found in 10 of 56 grades III to IV tumors (18%), as opposed to 0 of 47 grades I to II tumors (0%). The TTF-1 expression in positive tumors was generally weak to moderate and focal (mean histoscore 28, range: 2 to 120). TTF-1 positivity was inversely correlated to the expression of nestin. Among 52 other CNS tumors, TTF-1 expression was found in 1 of 3 central neurocytoma (the only CNS tumor with a moderate, diffuse staining), 1 of 18 ependymal tumors, and 1 of 5 choroid plexus tumors, whereas 4 pineal tumors, 11 meningiomas, 8 embryonal tumors, and 4 mixed neuronal-glial tumors all were negative. None of the 155 tumors stained with the 8G7G3/1 antibody clone. TTF-1 expression in primary brain tumors should be taken into consideration when interpreting brain tumors of uncertain origin.

  9. Incase of Same Region Treatment by using a Tomotherapy and a Linear Accelerator Absorbed Dose Evaluation of Normal Tissues and a Tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Geum Seong; Kim, Chang Uk; Kim, Hoi Nam; Heo, Gyeong Hun; Song, Jin Ho; Hong, Joo Yeong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Catholic University Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Treating same region with different modalities there is a limit to evaluate the total absorbed dose of normal tissues. The reason is that it does not support to communication each modalities yet. In this article, it evaluates absorbed dose of the patients who had been treated same region by a tomotherapy and a linear accelerator. After reconstructing anatomic structure with a anthropomorphic phantom, administrate 45 Gy to a tumor in linac plan system as well as prescribe 15 Gy in tomotherapy plan system for make an ideal treatment plan. After the plan which made by tomoplan system transfers to the oncentra plan system for reproduce plan under the same condition and realize total treatment plan with summation 45 Gy linac treatment plan. To evaluate the absorbed dose of two different modalities, do a comparative study both a simple summation dose values and integration dose values. Then compare and analyze absorbed dose of normal tissues and a tumor with the patients who had been exposured radiation by above two different modalities. The result of compared data, in case of minimum dose, there are big different dose values in spleen (12.4%). On the other hand, in case of the maximum dose, it reports big different in a small bowel (10.2%) and a cord (5.8%) in head and neck cancer patients, there presents that oral (20.3%), right lens (7.7%) in minimum dose value. About maximum dose, it represents that spinal (22.5), brain stem (12%), optic chiasm (8.9%), Rt lens (11.5%), mandible (8.1%), pituitary gland (6.2%). In case of Rt abdominal cancer patients, there represents big different minimum dose as Lt kidney (20.3%), stomach (8.1%) about pelvic cancer patients, it reports there are big different in minimum dose as a bladder (15.2%) as well as big different value in maximum dose as a small bowel (5.6%), a bladder (5.5%) in addition, making treatment plan it is able us to get. In case of comparing both simple summation absorbed dose and integration absorbed dose, the minimum dose are represented higher as well as the maximum dose come out lower and the average dose are revealed similar with our expected values data. It is able to evaluate tumor and normal tissue absorbed dose which could had been not realized by treatment plan system. The DVH of interesting region are prescribed lower dose than expected. From now on, it needs to develop the new modality which are able to realize exact dose distribution as well as integration absorbed dose evaluation in same treatment region with different modalities.

  10. Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhaniya Shikha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT is a rare tumorous form of calcifying odontogenic cyst and only a small number of cases have been described. It is a locally invasive neoplasm that is characterized by ameloblastoma-like epithelial islands, ghost cells and dentinoid. The present report describes a case of a 21-year-old male with a tumor in the posterior region of the mandible, showing features of DGCT.

  11. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracranial Tumors : Early Experience with Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between August 1988 and December 1991, 24 patients with intracranial tumors were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery(RS) using a 10 MV linear accelerator at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine. There were 5 meningiomas, 3 craniopharyngiomas, 9 glial tumors, 2 solitary metastases, 2 acoustic neurinomas, 2 pineal tumors, and 1 non-Hodgkin Iymphoma. Ten patients were treated as primary treatment after diagnosis with stereotactic biopsy or neuroimaging study. Nine patients underwent RS for post-op. residual tumors and three patients as a salvage treatment for recurrence after external irradiation. Two patients received RS as a boost followed by fractionated conventional radiotherapy. Among sixteen patients who were followed more than 6 months with neuroimage, seven patients (2 meningiomas, 4 benign glial tumors, one non-Hodgkin lymphoma) showed complete response on neuroimage after RS and nine patients showed decreased tumor size. There was no acute treatment related side reaction. Late complications include three patients with symptomatic peritumoral braid edema and one craniopharyngioma with optic chiasmal injury. Through this early experience, we conclude that stereotactically directed single high doses of irradiation to the small intracranial tumors is effective for tumor control. However, in order to define the role of radiosurgery in the management of intracranial tumors, we should get the long-term results available to demonstrate the benefresults available to demonstrate the benefits versus potential complications of this therapeutic modality

  12. Stereotactic biopsy and interstitial therapy of tumours of the pineal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report on 163 cases of stereotactic biopsy with subsequent implanation of iodine-125 or iridium-192 in 80 cases. Progress observations document the favourable effect of interstitial isotope therapy in deliminated low-grade gliomas and recurrences of extracerebral tumours, as well as the effect of external irradiation of the neuroaxis in dysontogenetic tumours. Histological diagnosis, however, is the prerequisite for therapy decision-taking, which can be obtained at low risk using the CT-(MRI-)stereotactic technique. (orig.)

  13. Mixed germ cell tumour of the pineal region : a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandon N

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available An intracranial mixed germ cell tumour with germinoma and teratoma components is reported. The patient presented with parinaud?s syndrome and precocious puberty. The treatment involved partial surgical debulking followed by whole brain radiotherapy (4500 cGY in 25 fraction over 5 weeks and chemotherapy (consisting of cisplatin and etoposide. Post treatment MRI showed no residual lesion. The controversies in the management are discussed.

  14. Similar regions of human chromosome 3 are eliminated from or retained in human/human and human/mouse microcell hybrids during tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Kost-Alimova, M; Ingvarsson, S; Qianhui, Q; Kiss, H; Szeles, A; Kholodnyuk, I; Cuthbert, A; Klein, G; Imreh, S

    2001-01-30

    By passaging microcell hybrids (MCHs) containing human chromosome 3 (chr3) on A9 mouse fibrosarcoma background through severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice (elimination test), we have previously defined a 1-Mb-long common eliminated region 1 (CER1) at 3p21.3, a second eliminated region (ER2) at 3p21.1-p14 and a common retained region (CRR) at 3q26-qter. In the present work, chr3 was transferred by microcell fusion into the human nonpapillary renal cell carcinoma line KH39 that contained uniparentally disomic chr3. Four MCHs were generated. Compared with KH39, they developed fewer and smaller tumors, which grew after longer latency periods in SCID mice. The tumors were analyzed in comparison with corresponding MCHs by chr3 arm-specific painting, 19 fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, and 27 polymorphic markers. Three MCHs that maintained the intact exogenous chr3 in vitro lost one 3p copy in all 11 tumors. Seven of 11 tumors lost the exogenous 3p, whereas four tumors contained mixed cell populations that lacked either the exogenous or one endogenous KH39 derived 3p. In one MCH the exogenous chr3 showed deletions within CER1 and ER2 already in vitro. It remained essentially unchanged in 8/9 derived tumors. The third, exogenous copy of the 3q26-q27 region (part of CRR) was retained in 16/20 tumors. It can be concluded that the human/human MCH-based elimination test identifies similar eliminated and retained regions on chr3 as the human/murine MCH-based test. PMID:11158607

  15. Pediatric hodgkin lymphoma in a South Indian regional cancer center: its immunomorphology, tumor-associated macrophages, and association with epstein-barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zameer, Mohammed Abdul Lateef; Premalata, Chennagiri S; Arunakumari, Bandagadde; Appaji, Lingappa; Rama Rao, Clementina

    2015-05-01

    Pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) comprises approximately a fifth of all patients with HL in India. Seventy-four cases of pediatric classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL) from a regional cancer center in southern India were analyzed on a tissue microarray (TMA) for the stage of B-cell differentiation of the Hodgkin/Reed Sternberg (HRS) cell by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using CD10, bcl6, MUM1/IRF4, and CD 138. Fifty-two of seventy-four (70.3%) cases were of late germinal center/early post-germinal center phenotype (CD10-/bcl6-/MUM1+/CD138-). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) association using Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA (EBER) RISH and EBV-LMP1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed an EBV association of 93%. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) in the microenvironment were also assessed on the TMA by CD68 IHC, and most cases (59.7%) showed >25% TAMs, with no case showing ?5%. These findings indicate that pediatric cHL in India is a tumor, predominantly, of late germinal center/early post-germinal center B cells, is almost invariably EBV associated, and with a high number of TAMs in the microenvironment. This latter finding suggests that criteria other than TAM scores need to be developed for risk stratification of pediatric EBV-associated HL especially in developing countries. PMID:25252151

  16. The early response of pineal N-acetyltransferase activity, melatonin and catecholamine levels in rats irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male Wistar rats adapted to an artificial light-dark regimen were whole-body gamma-irradiated with a dose of 14.35 Gy. Irradiation, sham-irradiation and decapitation 30, 60 and 120 min after the exposure were performed between 2000 h and 0100 h in the darkness. The serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity (NAT), the concentration of melatonin and corticosterone were also determined. Ionizing radiation did not change the activity of NAT, the key enzyme of melatonin synthesis; however, it decreased the concentration of pineal melatonin. The concentration of pineal dopamine and norepinephrine decreased 30 and 120 min after exposure, while the concentration of epinephrine was elevated 30 min after irradiation, though later it was markedly decreased. The serum melatonin level was not changed but an increase in corticosterone level was observed. In the early period after exposure a decrease in pineal melatonin occurred, accompanied by a decrease in pineal catecholamines. On the contrary, in the phase of developed radiation injury the signs of increased melatonin synthesis were observed on days 3 and 4 after the exposure. (author) 6 figs., 25 refs

  17. Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 Expression in the Rat Pineal Gland: Detailed Analysis of Expression Pattern and Regulatory Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachine; Hisano, Setsuji

    Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, is closely related physiologically to circadian rhythm, sleep and reproduction, and also psychiatrically to mood disorders in humans. Under circadian control, melatonin secretion is modulated via nocturnal autonomic (adrenergic) stimulation to the gland, which expresses vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2 and a VGLUT1 splice variant (VGLUT1v), glutamatergic markers. Expression of VGLUT2 gene and protein in the intact gland has been reported to exhibit a rhythmic change during a day. To study VGLUT2 expression is under adrenergic control, we here performed an in vitro experiment using dispersed pineal cells of rats. Stimulation of either ?-adrenergic receptor or cAMP production to the pineal cells was shown to increase mRNA level of VGLUT2, but not VGLUT1 and VGLUT1v. Because an ability of glutamate to inhibit melatonin production was previously reported in the cultured gland, it is likely that pineal VGLUT2 transports glutamate engaged in the inhibition of melatonin production.

  18. The influence of sex hormones on the pineal gland of the chick: a histochemical and ultrastructural study.

    OpenAIRE

    Boya, J.; Calvo, J.; Zamorano, L.

    1980-01-01

    The pineal gland of chicks treated with oestrogens and androgens has been studied histochemically and ultrastructurally from post-hatching until 90 days of age. The results obtained may demonstrate a precocious maturity of the gland caused by its response to the early high level of sex hormones circulating in the blood.

  19. Frecuencia de Virus Papiloma Humano en Tumores no Ginecológicos de la Región de la Araucanía, Chile / Human Papilloma Virus Frequency in non-Gynecological Tumors in the Araucanía Region, Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    René, Hoffstetter; Alejandra, Andana; Pablo, Guzmán; Carmen G, Ili; Javier, Retamal; Bárbara, Mora; Juan C, Roa; Raúl, Sánchez.

    1254-12-01

    Full Text Available El Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV por sus siglas en inglés) es una de las infecciones de transmisión sexual más frecuentes del mundo y se encuentra presente en la mayoría de los cánceres de cuello uterino. Se ha descrito su presencia en otros tipos de cáncer no ginecológicos como lo son esófago y prósta [...] ta. Sin embargo, las frecuencias de HPV descritas hasta el momento para estos tipos de cáncer son muy variables, y no hay artículos donde se muestren la presencia de HPV en estas neoplasias en Chile. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de HPV en muestras de biopsias de tumores no ginecológicos y tejido inflamatorio de pacientes de la región de La Araucanía. Se extrajo DNA desde un total de 47 biopsias de pacientes con esofagitis, 25 con carcinoma escamoso esofágico, 20 con hiperplasia nodular de la próstata y 39 con adenocarcinoma prostático. Estas fueron analizadas por PCR de la región L1 del virus y posterior genotipificación por reverse line blot. Se detectó HPV en el 53,2% de las muestras de esofagitis, 48% en muestras de carcinoma escamoso esofágico, 15% en hiperplasia nodular de la próstata y un 15,4% en los casos de adenocarcinoma prostático. Siendo los más frecuentes los genotipos de HPV 16 y 18, ya sea en infecciones simples o junto con otros genotipos, en lesiones preneoplásicas y neoplásicas de los tejidos estudiados. Existe una alta frecuencia de infección por HPV en biopsias de esofagitis y tejido inflamatorio esofágico de pacientes de la región de la Araucanía. En los casos de adenocarcinoma prostático e hiperplasia nodular de la próstata se observa una baja frecuencia de HPV. Abstract in english Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world and it is present in practically all cervical cancers. Its presence was described in other types of non-gynecologic cancer such as esophageal and prostate. However, HPV frequency described for these cancers is h [...] ighly variable, and there are no articles describing the presence of HPV in these tumors in Chile. To determine HPV frequency in samples from biopsies of non-gynecological tumors and inflammatory tissue from patients in the Araucanía region, DNA was extracted from a total of 47 biopsies from patients with esophagitis, 25 with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 20 with prostate nodular hyperplasia and 39 with prostate adenocarcinoma. These were analyzed by PCR of HPV L1 region and subsequent genotyping by reverse line blot. HPV was detected in 53.2% of esophagitis samples, 48% in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 15% in prostatitis and 15.4% in cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The most frequent HPV genotypes were 16 and 18, either single or in combination with other genotype infections, in inflammatory tissue and neoplastic lesions. In patients of the Araucanía region, there is a high rate of HPV infection in biopsies obtained in esophagitis and esophageal inflammatory tissue. In cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma and prostate nodular hyperplasia a low rate of HPV was observed.

  20. Genetic polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor promoter region and susceptibility to develop Hodgkin lymphoma in a Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Espíndola, Luz María; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Chavez-Pacheco, Juan Luis; Salcedo-Vargas, Mauricio; de Jesús Nambo-Lucio, María; Salinas-Lara, Citaltepetl; Alemón-Medina, Radames; Granados-Montiel, Julio; Reyes-Servín, Miguel Angel; Granados, Julio; de Jesús Castillejos-López, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare neoplasm of the lymphatic system, in which inflammation and allelic variants in cytokines have been proposed as etiological factors. Epstein-Barr virus infection is often associated as a risk factor in HL and since cytokines are involved in the humoral response to viral infection. Our aim was to study the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene (- 376G> A, - 238G> A and 581G> A) in a sample of Mexican patients (56 cases) and their susceptibility to develop HL, comparing these SNPs among healthy individuals (127 controls). Frequencies for TNF - 238G> A and TNF 581G> A showed no significant differences between cases and controls. However, the proportion of cases with the GA genotype of - 376 SNP showed a significant difference as compared to controls, odds ratio = 4.41 (95% confidence interval: 1.21-16.6), p = 0.02. We found that in this group of patients from Mexico the SNP - 376G> A in TNF shows an association with higher risk for HL. PMID:24033107

  1. Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as 'possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal cells into cancer cells. Owing to high utilisation of electricity in day-to-day life, exposure to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal gland activity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may influence the pineal gland is still unsolved. The pineal gland is likely to sense EMFs as light but, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data of human and animal studies of changes in melatonin levels due to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields exposure were analysed. Then, the results of this study were compared with the International Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental results in the literature for the biological effect of magnetic fields, in order to quantify the effects. The results show that this comparison does not seem to be consistent despite the fact that it offers an advantage of drawing attention to the importance of the exposure limits to weak EMFs. In addition to those inconsistent results, the following were also observed from this work: (i) the ICNIRP recommendations are meant for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be consis of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii) the significance of not replicating the existing experimental studies is another limitation in the power-frequency EMFs. Regardless of these issues, the above observation agrees with our earlier study in which it was confirmed that it is not a reliable method to characterise biological effects by observing only the ratio of AC magnetic field strength to frequency. This is because exposure duration does not include the ICNIRP limit. Furthermore, the results show the significance of disruption of melatonin due to exposure to weak EMFs, which may possibly lead to long-term health effects in humans. (author)

  2. Pituitary gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  3. Studies of cell kinetics in vital and necrotic tumor regions: Measurement of loss rate using 125iododeoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of determining cell losses in situ from the decrease in radioactivity after a single i.p. injection of the thymidine-analogue, 125iododeoxyuridine was tested for its applicability in different development stages of the solid mammary adenocarcinoma EO 771 on male C57 N1/6J mice. Invasive studies on activity distributions in vital and necrotic tumour regions were carried out after injection of Light Green SF. The following results were obtained: 1) External measurement of activity loss register the removal of labelled cells and decay products rather than cell death. The total activity of the tumour at any time following injection corresponds to the sum of radioactivity in the proliferating, non-growing and necrotic compartments. 2) In solid tumours, there are regions with differing transport capacity. 3) The method using 125J-UdR does not allow determination of loss rates as a function of a given volume but rather yields an averaged value. 4) Activity losses of vital tumour cells largely correspond to the cell loss. (orig./MG)

  4. Incase of Same Region Treatment by using a Tomotherapy and a Linear Accelerator Absorbed Dose Evaluation of Normal Tissues and a Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treating same region with different modalities there is a limit to evaluate the total absorbed dose of normal tissues. The reason is that it does not support to communication each modalities yet. In this article, it evaluates absorbed dose of the patients who had been treated same region by a tomotherapy and a linear accelerator. After reconstructing anatomic structure with a anthropomorphic phantom, administrate 45 Gy to a tumor in linac plan system as well as prescribe 15 Gy in tomotherapy plan system for make an ideal treatment plan. After the plan which made by tomoplan system transfers to the oncentra plan system for reproduce plan under the same condition and realize total treatment plan with summation 45 Gy linac treatment plan. To evaluate the absorbed dose of two different modalities, do a comparative study both a simple summation dose values and integration dose values. Then compare and analyze absorbed dose of normal tissues and a tumor with the patients who had been exposured radiation by above two different modalities. The result of compared data, in case of minimum dose, there are big different dose values in spleen (12.4%). On the other hand, in case of the maximum dose, it reports big different in a small bowel (10.2%) and a cord (5.8%) in head and neck cancer patients, there presents that oral (20.3%), right lens (7.7%) in minimum dose value. About maximum dose, it represents that spinal (22.5), brain stem (12%), optic chiasm (8.9%), Rt lens (11.5%), %), optic chiasm (8.9%), Rt lens (11.5%), mandible (8.1%), pituitary gland (6.2%). In case of Rt abdominal cancer patients, there represents big different minimum dose as Lt kidney (20.3%), stomach (8.1%) about pelvic cancer patients, it reports there are big different in minimum dose as a bladder (15.2%) as well as big different value in maximum dose as a small bowel (5.6%), a bladder (5.5%) in addition, making treatment plan it is able us to get. In case of comparing both simple summation absorbed dose and integration absorbed dose, the minimum dose are represented higher as well as the maximum dose come out lower and the average dose are revealed similar with our expected values data. It is able to evaluate tumor and normal tissue absorbed dose which could had been not realized by treatment plan system. The DVH of interesting region are prescribed lower dose than expected. From now on, it needs to develop the new modality which are able to realize exact dose distribution as well as integration absorbed dose evaluation in same treatment region with different modalities.

  5. Age-related morphometric changes in the pineal gland. A comparative study between C57BLI6J and CBA mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cernuda-cernuda, R.; Huerta, J. J.; Mun?oz Llamosas, M.; Alvarez-uri?a, M.; Garci?a-ferna?ndez, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the effects of melatonin on the aging of the pineal, the organ which is the main place for synthesis of this hormone. Using simple morphometric methods, some parameters of the pineal gland, such as total volume, number of pinealocytes and pinealocyte volume were estimated in two mice strains: normal CBA and melatonin-deficient C57BLl6J. Two age groups, 6 weeks and 10 months, were studied in order to evaluate possible differentia...

  6. Immune-Pineal Axis: Nuclear Factor ?B (NF-?B) Mediates the Shift in the Melatonin Source from Pinealocytes to Immune Competent Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Markus, Regina P.; Erika Cecon; Marco Antonio Pires-Lapa

    2013-01-01

    Pineal gland melatonin is the darkness hormone, while extra-pineal melatonin produced by the gonads, gut, retina, and immune competent cells acts as a paracrine or autocrine mediator. The well-known immunomodulatory effect of melatonin is observed either as an endocrine, a paracrine or an autocrine response. In mammals, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) blocks noradrenaline-induced melatonin synthesis in pinealocytes, which induces m...

  7. Localization of the MEN1 gene to a small region within chromosome 11q13 by deletion mapping in tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gene for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), and inherited predisposition to neuroendocrine neoplasm of the parathyroid glands, the pancreatic islet parenchyma, and the anterior pituitary gland, was recently mapped to chromosome 11q13 based on genetic linkage in families. The authors now show that the pathogenesis of MEN1-associated parathyroid lesions involves unmasking of a recessive mutation at the disease locus and that sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism shares the same mechanisms. By examination of allele losses in MEN1-associated lesions, they could define deletions of chromosome 11 and map the MEN1 locus to a small region within chromosome band 11q13, telomeric to the PYGM locus. In contrast, a low incidence of deletions involving the MEN1 gene was found in sporadic pituitary adenomas

  8. Characterization of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Tumor Necrosis Factor ? Promoter Region and in Lymphotoxin ? in Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions, Precursors of Cervical Cancer1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Ramirez, Miriam Enriqueta; Partida-Rodriguez, Oswaldo; Alegre-Crespo, Pedro Eduardo; Tapia-Lugo, Maria del Carmen; Perez-Rodriguez, Martha Esthela

    2011-01-01

    Development of cervical cancer is a long process of abnormal cancerous cell growth in the cervix and is primarily the result of infection with specific high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). The cytokines tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and lymphotoxin ? (LTA) have an important role in all stages of cervical cancer and have the ability to induce the regression or promote the development of human tumors. Biologically important single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occur within the TNF? and LTA genes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the SNPs in the TNF? promoter region (-163, -238, -244, -308, -376, -857, -863, and -1031) and in the first intron of LTA (+252) in women with precursor lesions of cervical cancer. Overall, we studied 396 women from Mexico City. A total of 191 patients with HPV infection and precursor cervical lesions were subdivided in two groups: those with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (n = 132) and those with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (n = 59). Women (n = 205) negative for HPV and without cervical lesions were also included in the study. DNA was extracted from peripheral white blood cells and from cervical samples, and detection of biallelic polymorphisms of TNF? and LTA was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques, respectively. We demonstrated that risk is associated with the genotype G/A (odds ratio = 2.48) and that protection is associated with the genotype G/G of SNP TNF? -376 (odds ratio = 0.37). PMID:22190997

  9. Tumor neuroectodérmico pigmentado infantil: Reporte de un caso Neuroectodermal tumor pigmented children: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Díaz Caballero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El tumor neuroectodérmico pigmentado es un tumor benigno de crecimiento rápido e intensamente pigmentado del maxilar inferior (y en ocasiones de otros sitios, que consiste en una masa infiltrativa de células dispuestas según un patrón alveolar. Aparece casi exclusivamente en lactantes. Se presenta como una tumoración protuberante en un maxilar o la mandíbula principalmente en tejidos blandos; encontrándose excepcionalmente en el tracto intestinal, pelvis, retroperitoneo y riñón. Clínicamente se manifiesta como una tumoración localizada, con presencia o no de zonas pigmentadas. Estas neoplasias son raras y afectan mayormente niños, que por lo general son menores de un año y que pueden ser congénitos. Su localización en cerca de un 70% es la mandíbula; facio-cervical, en 90%, también se reportaron en localizaciones como: fontanela anterior, hueso temporal y duramadre, epidídimo, huesos largos, mediastino. Éstos son considerados como formas periféricas, ya que existen formas centrales que pueden afectar cerebro, cerebelo, glándula pineal. La clínica de estos casos puede simular a muchas otras patologías, dificultando su diagnostico ya que es una masa que protruye y deforma que rara vez ulcera. Las radiografías muestran una masa radiolúcida con capacidad de destrucción focal y desplazamiento de los dientes, por lo que se puede confundir con un ameloblastoma es por esto que es necesario un manejo adecuado con los exámenes histológicos necesarios como se hizo en el presente caso.The Pigmented neuroectodermal tumor is a benign tumor of intensely pigmented and rapid growth of the lower jaw (and in occasions of other sites [places], that consists of a mass of infiltrative cells arranged according to an alveolar boss. It (he, she appears almost exclusively in nursing. He (she appears as a protruding tumor in the jaw Maxillary one or principally in the soft (smooth fabrics; being exceptionally in the intestinal tract, pelvis, retroperitoneum and kidney. Clinical, it (he, she demonstrates located as a tumor or not with presence of pigmented areas. These tumors are rare and mostly affect children, who are generally under one year and can be congenital. Its location in about 70 percent is the mandible, facio-cervical in 90 percent have also been reported in locations such as anterior fontanel, temporal bone and dura, epididymis, long bones, mediastinum. These are regarded as peripherally, as there are ways that can affect Central Brain, cerebellum, pineal gland. The clinic in these cases may mimic other pathologies, easily diagnosed as a protruding mass that deforms and rarely ulcerates. Radiographs showed a radiolucent mass capable of focal destruction and displacement of teeth, it can be confused with an ameloblastoma that is why it is necessary to an adequate histological examinations were made as necessary in this case.

  10. Tumor neuroectodérmico pigmentado infantil: Reporte de un caso / Neuroectodermal tumor pigmented children: A case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.J., Díaz Caballero; O., Cantillo Pallares; A., Herrera Herrera.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El tumor neuroectodérmico pigmentado es un tumor benigno de crecimiento rápido e intensamente pigmentado del maxilar inferior (y en ocasiones de otros sitios), que consiste en una masa infiltrativa de células dispuestas según un patrón alveolar. Aparece casi exclusivamente en lactantes. Se presenta [...] como una tumoración protuberante en un maxilar o la mandíbula principalmente en tejidos blandos; encontrándose excepcionalmente en el tracto intestinal, pelvis, retroperitoneo y riñón. Clínicamente se manifiesta como una tumoración localizada, con presencia o no de zonas pigmentadas. Estas neoplasias son raras y afectan mayormente niños, que por lo general son menores de un año y que pueden ser congénitos. Su localización en cerca de un 70% es la mandíbula; facio-cervical, en 90%, también se reportaron en localizaciones como: fontanela anterior, hueso temporal y duramadre, epidídimo, huesos largos, mediastino. Éstos son considerados como formas periféricas, ya que existen formas centrales que pueden afectar cerebro, cerebelo, glándula pineal. La clínica de estos casos puede simular a muchas otras patologías, dificultando su diagnostico ya que es una masa que protruye y deforma que rara vez ulcera. Las radiografías muestran una masa radiolúcida con capacidad de destrucción focal y desplazamiento de los dientes, por lo que se puede confundir con un ameloblastoma es por esto que es necesario un manejo adecuado con los exámenes histológicos necesarios como se hizo en el presente caso. Abstract in english The Pigmented neuroectodermal tumor is a benign tumor of intensely pigmented and rapid growth of the lower jaw (and in occasions of other sites [places]), that consists of a mass of infiltrative cells arranged according to an alveolar boss. It (he, she) appears almost exclusively in nursing. He (she [...] ) appears as a protruding tumor in the jaw Maxillary one or principally in the soft (smooth) fabrics; being exceptionally in the intestinal tract, pelvis, retroperitoneum and kidney. Clinical, it (he, she) demonstrates located as a tumor or not with presence of pigmented areas. These tumors are rare and mostly affect children, who are generally under one year and can be congenital. Its location in about 70 percent is the mandible, facio-cervical in 90 percent have also been reported in locations such as anterior fontanel, temporal bone and dura, epididymis, long bones, mediastinum. These are regarded as peripherally, as there are ways that can affect Central Brain, cerebellum, pineal gland. The clinic in these cases may mimic other pathologies, easily diagnosed as a protruding mass that deforms and rarely ulcerates. Radiographs showed a radiolucent mass capable of focal destruction and displacement of teeth, it can be confused with an ameloblastoma that is why it is necessary to an adequate histological examinations were made as necessary in this case.

  11. Historical and cultural aspects of the pineal gland: comparison between the theories provided by Spiritism in the 1940s and the current scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Daher, Jorge C; Iandoli, Decio; Gonçalves, Juliane P B; Lucchetti, Alessandra L G

    2013-01-01

    Significance has been attached to the pineal gland in numerous different cultures and beliefs. One religion that has advanced the role of the pineal gland is Spiritism. The objective of the present study was to compile information on the pineal gland drawing on the books of Francisco Cândido Xavier written through psychography and to carry out a critical analysis of their scientific bases by comparing against evidence in the current scientific literature. A systematic search using the terms "pineal gland" and "epiphysis" was conducted of 12 works allegedly dictated by the spirit "André Luiz". All information on the pineal having potential correlation with the field of medicine and current studies was included. Specialists in the area were recruited to compile the information and draw parallels with the scientific literature. The themes related to the pineal gland were: mental health, reproductive function, endocrinology, relationship with physical activity, spiritual connection, criticism of the theory that the organ exerts no function, and description of a hormone secreted by the gland (reference alluding to melatonin, isolated 13 years later). The historical background for each theme was outlined, together with the theories present in the Spiritist books and in the relevant scientific literature. The present article provides an analysis of the knowledge the scientific community can acquire from the history of humanity and from science itself. The process of formulating hypotheses and scientific theories can benefit by drawing on the cultural aspects of civilization, taking into account so-called non-traditional reports and theories. PMID:24522019

  12. Probable mechanism of catalysis of acetyl coenzyme A:arylamine N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.5.) from rat pineal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hormone melatonin is produced in the pineal gland by O-methylation of N-acetylserotonin. The enzyme responsible for O-methylation in the pineal, hydroxy-indole O-methyltransferase, can utilize serotonin only one-tenth as efficiently as it can use N-acetylserotonin, implying that N-acetylation precedes O-methylation. Serotonin has been shown to be N-acetylated to N-acetylserotonin in vivo, and this reaction is catalysed by an N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) enzyme. This enzyme would be more accurately termed acetyl coenzyme A: arylamine N-acetyltransferase and is not unique to the pineal gland, being found in other tissues such as the liver. The pineal enzyme, however, is unique in that it is under beta-adrenergic cyclic AMP control, levels rising during the dark phase. It is the formation of N-acetylserotonin that is rate-limiting in the formation of melatonin. The lability of pineal N-acetyltransferase has precluded any in-depth investigation and few kinetic determinations have been made. The assay for SNAT involved transfer of a 14C-acetyl group from [1-14C]acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) to tryptamine HCl (Tryp) to form N-acetyltryptamine (NAT). The present study is the first successful attempt to elucidate the catalytic behaviour of the enzyme. This information increases understanding of pineal biochemistry and enables more accurate interpretation of any physiological or pharmacological effects exerted on the enzymee enzyme

  13. A direct influence of moonlight intensity on changes in melatonin production by cultured pineal glands of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Akihiro; Ueda, Satomi; Hiyakawa, Nanae; Nikaido, Yoshiaki

    2006-04-01

    Rabbitfish are a restricted lunar-synchronized spawner that spawns around a species-specific lunar phase. It is not known how the fish perceive changes in cues from the moon. One possible explanation is that rabbitfish utilize changes in moonlight intensity to establish synchrony. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether or not the pineal gland of the golden rabbitfish can directly perceive changes in moonlight intensity. Isolated pineal glands were statically cultured under natural or artificial light conditions and melatonin secreted into the culture medium was measured using a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Under an artificial light/dark cycle, melatonin secretion significantly increased during the dark phase. Under continuous light conditions, melatonin secretion was suppressed, while culture under continuous dark conditions seemed to duplicate melatonin secretion corresponding to the light/dark cycle in which the fish were acclimated. When cultured pineal glands were kept under natural light conditions on the dates of the full and the new moon, small amounts of melatonin were secreted at night. Moreover, exposure of cultured pineal glands to artificial and natural light conditions resulted in a significant decrease of melatonin secretion within 2 hr. These results suggest that the isolated pineal gland of golden rabbitfish responds to environmental light cycles and that 'brightness' of the night moon has an influence on melatonin secretion from the isolated pineal gland. PMID:16499560

  14. Identification of the promoter region required for human adiponectin gene transcription: Association with CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-? and tumor necrosis factor-?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-specific plasma protein, is involved in insulin sensitizing and has anti-atherosclerotic properties. Plasma levels of adiponectin are decreased in obese individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes with insulin resistance. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) decreases the expression of adiponectin in adipocytes. The aims of the present study were: (1) to identify the promoter region responsible for basal transcription of the human adiponectin gene, and (2) to investigate the mechanism by which adiponectin was regulated by TNF-?. The human adiponectin promoter (2.1 kb) was isolated and used for luciferase reporter analysis by transient transfection into 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Deletion analysis demonstrated that the promoter region from -676 to +41 was sufficient for basal transcriptional activity. Mutation analysis of putative response elements for sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) (-431 to -423) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) (-230 to -224) showed that both elements were required for basal promoter activity. Adiponectin transcription was increased 3-fold in cells that over-expressed constitutively active C/EBP-?. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, using nuclear extract from 3T3-L1 cells and the -258 to -199 region as a probe, demonstrated specific DNA-protein binding, which was abolished by TNF-? treatment. The present data indicate that the putative response elements for SREBP and C/EBP are required for humaSREBP and C/EBP are required for human adiponectin promoter activity, and that suppression by TNF-? may, at least in part, be associated with inactivation of C/EBP-?

  15. Radiation therapy of intracranial germ cell tumors with radiosensitivity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty patients with pineal and/or suprasellar tumors were treated in the Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo, from 1975 to 1988. Histological diagnosis was obtained in 28 cases, whereas 22 patients were irradiated without pathological verification. Of the 28 patients with histological diagnosis, 11 had germinomas, 13 non-germinoma germ cell tumors, including nine teratomas, two choriocarcinomas and two embryonal carcinomas, two pineocytomas and two pineoblastomas. The treatment protocol since 1981 has been that, after 20 Gy is given with a local irradiation field, if tumor regression is marked and germinoma is highly suspected, whole brain or whole CNS irradiation is performed subsequently; otherwise, surgical intervention is performed followed by systemic chemotherapy plus radiation therapy. The five-year survival rates of histologically proven germinoma, histologically proven non-germinoma germ cell tumors, and clinically suspected germinomas by means of the above-mentioned method as well as tumor marker status were 73%, 28%, and 83%, respectively. The overall five-year survival rate was 61.3%. A statistically significant difference was found between the survival rates for the 11 cases with histologically proven germinoma and the 13 cases with non-germinoma germ cell tumors, although there was no significant difference between the survival rates for the histologically proven germinomas and the clinically suspected germinomas. Therefore radiation therapy is erminomas. Therefore radiation therapy is an effective treatment method for the management of intracranial germ cell tumors. (author)

  16. Association of nucleolar organizing regions and Ki-67 expression with recurrence rate of hair follicle tumor in dogs / Associação das regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e da expressão do Ki-67 com a taxa de recorrência dos tumores de folículo piloso em cães

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.C., Souza; N.M., Ocarino; W.L.F., Tavares; J.N., Boeloni; G.D., Cassali; R., Serakides.

    1075-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o índice mitótico, o diâmetro nuclear, o número de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e a expressão do Ki-67 em 82 tumores de folículo piloso de cães, entre 2000 e 2006. Os tumores foram classificados como tricoblastoma (n=32), tricoepitelioma benigno (n=30), tr [...] icoepitelioma maligno (n=6), pilomatricoma (n=7), acantoma infundibular ceratinizante (n=5) e tricolemoma (n=2). A cabeça, o dorso e os membros foram os locais mais frequentemente acometidos. O tricoepitelioma maligno apresentou índice mitótico, número de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e expressão do Ki-67 significativamente maiores quando comparado aos outros tipos de tumores. Dentre as neoplasias benignas, o tricoblastoma apresentou índice mitótico e número de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos significativamente maiores. A expressão do Ki-67 não diferiu entre os tumores benignos de folículo piloso. A recorrência foi observada apenas em dois casos, incluindo um tricoepitelioma benigno e um tricoepitelioma maligno. Em dois casos, os nódulos não foram removidos com margem cirúrgica completa. Desta forma, conclui-se que nas neoplasias benignas de folículo piloso, o número das regiões organizadoras de nucléolo e da expressão de Ki-67 foram significativamente menores que em neoplasias malignas. Além disto, sugere-se que a margem cirúrgica completa está mais associada à recorrência dos tumores que as regiões organizadoras de nucléolo, a expressão de Ki-67 e o índice mitótico. Abstract in english Mitotic index, nuclear diameter, number of nucleolar organizing regions, and Ki-67 expression, in hair follicle tumors of 82 dogs were evaluated. Tissue specimens were used to prepare sections for histological staining for number of nucleolar organizing region and immunohistochemical staining for Ki [...] -67. Tumors were classified as trichoblastoma (n=32), benign trichoepithelioma (n=30), pilomatricoma (n=7), malignant trichoepithelioma (n=6), infundibular keratinizing acanthoma (n=5), and tricholemmoma (n=2). Head, dorsum, and limbs were the most affected sites. Malignant trichoepithelioma presented significantly higher mitotic index, number of nucleolar organizing regions and Ki-67 expression. Regarding benign neoplasms, trichoblastoma presented significantly higher mitotic index and number of nucleolar organizing regions. Ki-67 expression did not differ among hair follicle benign neoplasms. Recurrence was only observed in two cases, with one benign trichoepithelioma and one malignant trichoepithelioma. In the two cases, nodules have not been removed with clean surgical margin. It was concluded that in benign neoplasms of hair follicles, the number of nucleolar organizing regions and Ki-67 expression were significantly smaller than in malignant neoplasm. Clean surgical margins are suggested to be more responsible to tumor recurrences than the number of nucleolar organizing regions, expression of Ki-67, and the mitotic index.

  17. Influence of the pineal gland on the physiology, morphometry and morphology of pancreatic islets in rats A influência da glândula pineal na fisiologia, morfometria e morfologia das ilhotas pancreáticas em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, L. M. B.; Dos Reis, L. C.; Lima, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the pineal gland through melatonin secretion on the physiological and morphological parameters of pancreatic islets, we studied the plasma biochemistry and morphological and morphometric characteristics of the endocrine pancreas of male Wistar rats. The animals were distributed into five groups of ten rats each: NC - normal control group; NS - sham-operated group; Px (25) - pinealectomised group, studied 15-25 days after surgery; Px (70) - pinealectomised group...

  18. A novel function for the pineal organ in the control of swim depth in the Atlantic halibut larva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novales Flamarique, Iñigo

    2002-02-01

    The pineal organ of vertebrates is a photo-sensitive structure that conveys photoperiod information to the brain. This information influences circadian rhythm and related metabolic processes such as thermoregulation, hatching time, body growth, and the timing of reproduction. This study demonstrates extra-ocular light responses that control swim depth in the larva of the Atlantic halibut, Hyppoglosus hyppoglosus. Young larvae without a functional eye (=29 days), which possess a functional eye, swim immediately downwards (microsecond delay) following the onset of the light stimulus, but proceed to swim upwards several seconds later. These two response patterns are thus opposite in polarity and have different time kinetics. Because the pineal organ of the Atlantic halibut develops during the embryonic stage, and because it is the only centre in the brain that expresses functional visual pigments (opsins) at early larval stages, it is the only photosensory organ capable of generating the extra-ocular responses observed.

  19. Pineal gland as an endocrine gravitational lunasensor: manifestation of moon-phase dependent morphological changes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, A V; Kostyuchenko, V P; Solovieva, A S; Olovnikov, A M

    2014-10-01

    We found that some morphological properties of the pineal gland and submandibular salivary gland of mice are significantly distinct at the new and full moon. We suppose that the differences are initiated by the displacements of the electron-dense concretions in the secretory vesicles of pinealocytes. This presumably occurs under the influence of the gravitational field, which periodically changes during different phases of the moon. It seems that the pinealocyte is both an endocrine and gravisensory cell. A periodic secretion of the pineal gland probably stimulates, in a lunaphasic mode, the neuroendocrine system that, in turn, periodically exerts influence on different organs of the body. The observed effect probably serves, within the lifelong clock of a brain, to control development and aging in time. PMID:25519065

  20. Parallel evolution of tumor subclones mimics diversity between tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul

    2013-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumor adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicines approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumor (intratumor heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumors (intertumor heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, we obtained 48 biopsies from eight stage III and IV clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) and used DNA copy-number analyses to compare biopsies from the same tumor with 440 singletumor biopsies from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of TCGA and multi-region ccRCC samples revealed segregation of samples from the same tumor into unrelated clusters. 25% of multi-region samples appeared more similar to unrelated samples than to any other sample originating from the same tumor. We find that the majority of recurrent DNA copy number driver aberrations in single biopsies are not present ubiquitously in late stage ccRCC and are likely to represent subclonal events acquired during tumor progression. Such heterogeneous subclonal genetic alterations within individual tumors may impair the identification of robust ccRCC molecular subtypes classified by distinct copy number alterations and clinical outcomes. The co-existence of distinct subclonal copy number events in different regions of individual tumors reflects the diversification of individual ccRCCs through multiple evolutionary routes and may contribute to tumor sampling bias and impact upon tumor progression and clinical outcome.

  1. Giant cell tumor of hard palate

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, T. S.; Kumar, D.; Kumar, S.; Agarwal, K.

    2001-01-01

    The giant cell tumors usually present in epiphysis of long bones. These are uncommon tumors in head and neck region. These tumors have benign historical features but can be aggressive locally and even can metastasise to lungs. This rare tumor in hard palate is being reported here which was excised transpalatly.

  2. Comparison of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) and Fluorescent Light on Suppression of Pineal Melatonin in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winget, Charles M.; Heeke, D. S.; Holley, D. C.; Mele, G.; Brainard, G. C.; Hanifin, J. P.; Rollag, M. D.; Savage, Paul D. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    To validate a novel LED array for use in animal habitat lighting by comparing its effectiveness to cool-white fluorescent (CWF) lighting in suppressing pineal gland melatonin. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 175-200 g, were maintained under control conditions for 2 weeks (food and water ad lib, 12L: 12D CWF, 18 uW/square cm). Dark adapted animals (animals before lights on) were exposed to 5 min of LED or CWF light of similar spectral power distribution. Two groups of rats (LED vs. CWF) were compared at 5 light intensities (100, 40, 1, 1.0, and 0. 1 lux). A control group was placed into the exposure apparatus but not exposed to light. After exposure, pineal glands were rapidly removed and assayed for melatonin by RIA. Results. The dark-exposed control groups matched with the 5 intensity groups (100, 40, 10, 1.0, and 0.1 lux) showed mean + SEM pineal melatonin values of 1167 +/- 136, 1569 +/- 126, 353 +/- 34, 650 +/- 124, and 464 +/- 85, pg/ml respectively. The corresponding CWF exposure data were 393 1 41, 365 +34, 257 +/- 13, 218 +/- 42, and 239 +/- 71 pg/ml, respectively. Corresponding LED exposure data were 439 +/- 25, 462 +/- 50, 231 +/- 6, 164 +/- 12, and 158 +/- 12 pg/ml, respectively. Rats exposed to both experimental light conditions at all illuminances studied showed significant melatonin suppression (p less than 0.01, ANOVA). In no case was the melatonin suppression induced by LED illuminance significantly different from the melatonin suppression elicited by the same intensity of CWF light. The results show that a novel LED light source can suppress pineal melatonin equal to that of a conventional CWF light source.

  3. Chronic stress decreases the expression of sympathetic markers in the pineal gland and increases plasma melatonin concentration in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Dagnino-Subiabre, A; Orellana, JA; Carmona-Fontaine, C.; J Montiel; Díaz-Velíz, G; Serón-Ferré, M; Wyneken, U; Concha, ML; Aboitiz, F

    2006-01-01

    Chronic stress affects brain areas involved in learning and emotional responses. Although most studies have concentrated on the effect of stress on limbic-related brain structures, in this study we investigated whether chronic stress might induce impairments in diencephalic structures associated with limbic components of the stress response. Specifically, we analyzed the effect of chronic immobilization stress on the expression of sympathetic markers in the rat epithalamic pineal gland by imm...

  4. Embryonic development of the bovine pineal gland (Bos taurus) during prenatal life (30 to 135 days of gestation)

    OpenAIRE

    Regodo?n, S.; Roncero, V.

    2005-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the pineal gland of 30 bovine embryos (Bos taurus) has been analysed from 30 until 135 days of gestation by means of optical microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques. For this study, the specimens were grouped into three stages in accordance with the most relevant histological characteristics: Stage 1 (30 to 64 days of prenatal development); Stage 2 (70 to 90 days) and Stage 3 (106 to 135 days). In the cow, it is from 30 days of gestatio...

  5. Homeobox Genes and Melatonin Synthesis: Regulatory Roles of the Cone-Rod Homeobox Transcription Factor in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Kristian Rohde; Xf Ller, Morten M.; Martin Fredensborg Rath

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a cAMP-based induction of Aanat transcription. However, additional transcriptional control mechanisms exist. Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processe...

  6. Protective role of buffalo pineal proteins on arsenic-induced oxidative stress in blood and kidney of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Srivastava

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to various toxic metals has become an increasingly recognized source of ill- ness in human and animals, worldwide. Arsenic (As and its compounds cause adverse health effects in animals and humans. Recently, it has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have antioxidants role due to secretary product other than melatonin. With keeping this view, pre-sent investigation tested effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pineal proteins (PP on arsenic-induced oxidative stress in RBCs (Red blood cells and kidney of rats. Methods: Eighteen adult female Wistar rats were grouped into group-I (Control, group-II (Arsenic control, and group-III (Arsenic + Pineal proteins. Experimental rats were given 100 ppm arsenic (p.o. for 4 weeks alone or along with pineal proteins at a dose of 100 µg/kg body weight (i.p.. Results: Interestingly, arsenic ex-posure led to the stimulation of kidney catalase (CAT activity, but inhibition of RBCs CAT activ-ity and significantly (P<0.05 increased the RBCs and kidney lipid peroxidation level (LPO. How-ever, arsenic treatment caused depletion of glu- tathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GR in kidney tissues. In RBCs, only GR and CAT activity were significantly (P<0.05 declined. These changes were significantly (P<0.05 reversed by PP treatment in arsenic exposed animals. Conclusion: Therefore, present study indicated the significant protecting effect of buf-falo (Bubalus bubalis PP against arsenic in-duced-oxidative stress through antioxidant de-fense systems in rats.

  7. Determination of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.4) activity in rat pineal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was an attempt to ascertain optimum conditions for in vitro HIOMT activity with regard to concentration of enzyme, pH, buffer, temperature, incubation time, substrate concentration and velocity maxima. Pineal glands were obtained from rats of the Wistar strain kept in a cycle of 12 hours dark / 12 hours light and fed a balanced diet. Methyl 14C, N-acetylserotonin and melatonin were used. The assay technique used was based on modification of that of Axelrod

  8. Pineal and cortical melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 are decreased in Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fraschini, F.; Angeloni, D.; Ravid, R.; Jockers, R.; So?zer-topcular, N.; Brunner, P.

    2006-01-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin is involved in physiological transduction of temporal information from the light dark cycle to circadian and seasonal behavioural rhythms, as well as possessing neuroprotective properties. Melatonin and its receptors MT1 and MT2, which belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors, are impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with severe consequences to neuropathology and clinical symptoms. The present data provides the first immunohistochemical evidence for the...

  9. Pineal Gland Transplants into the Cerebral Hemisphere of Newborn Rats: A Study of the Blood Brain Barrier and Innervation

    OpenAIRE

    McNulty, J. A.; Fox, L. M.; Shaw, P. L.; Alones, V. E.; Klausen, B. S.; Swenson, R. S.; De Castro, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    Pineal glands from neonatal (0-1 day) Long-Evans black-hooded rats were transplanted into the cerebral hemispheres of litter mates for periods of 1 to 5.5 months. Grafts exhibited differentiated pinealocytes that were intensely immunoreactive for serotonin. Transplant vasculature was permeable to endogenous IgG, comprised fenestrated endothelia with wide pericapillary spaces typical of in situ glands, and had a volume density intermediate to that of surrounding cort...

  10. Loss of chromosome 1p/19q in oligodendroglial tumors: refinement of chromosomal critical regions and evaluation of internexin immunostaining as a surrogate marker.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Patrick G

    2011-03-01

    Loss of chromosome 1p\\/19q in oligodendrogliomas represents a powerful predictor of good prognosis. Expression of internexin (INA), a neuronal specific intermediate filament protein, has recently been proposed as a surrogate marker for 1p\\/19q deletion based on the high degree of correlation between both parameters in oligodendrogliomas. The aim of this study was to assess further the diagnostic utility of INA expression in a set of genetically well-characterized oligodendrogliomas. On the basis of a conservative approach for copy number determination, using both comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescent in situ hybridization, INA expression as a surrogate marker for 1p\\/19q loss had both reduced specificity (80%) and sensitivity (79%) compared with respective values of 86% and 96% reported in the previous report. The histologic interpretation and diagnostic value of INA expression in oligodendrogliomas should therefore be assessed with greater caution when compared with 1p\\/19q DNA copy number analysis. In addition, DNA copy number aberrations of chromosomes 10, 16, and 17 were detected exclusively in 1p\\/19q codeleted samples, suggesting that other regions of the genome may contribute to the 1p\\/19q-deleted tumor phenotype inthese samples.

  11. Tumor vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor vaccines have several potential advantages over standard anticancer regiments. They represent highly specific anticancer therapy. Inducing tumor-specific memory T-lymphocytes, they have potential for long-lived antitumor effects. However, clinical trials, in which cancer patients were vaccinated with tumor vaccines, have been so far mainly disappointing. There are many reasons for the inefficiency of tumor vaccines. Most cancer antigens are normal self-molecules to which immune tolerance exists. That is why the population of tumor-specific lymphocytes is represented by a small number of low-affinity T-lymphocytes that induce weak antitumor immune response. Simultaneously, tumors evolve many mechanisms to actively evade immune system, what makes them poorly immunogenic or even tolerogenic. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies are directed toward breaking immune tolerance to tumor antigens, enhancing immunogenicity of tumor vaccines and overcoming mechanisms of tumor escape. There are several approaches, unfortunately, all of them still far away from an ideal tumor vaccine that would reject a tumor. Difficulties in the activation of antitumor immune response by tumor vaccines have led to the development of alternative immunotherapeutic strategies that directly focus on effector mechanisms of immune system (adoptive tumor- specific T-lymphocyte transfer and tumor specific monoclonal antibodies). (author)

  12. RECOGNITION OF N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE (GLyNAc) AND POLY-N-ACETYLLACTOSAMINE RESIDUES IN VESSELS OF THE RAT PINEAL GLAND / RECONOCIMIENTO DE RESIDUOS DE N-ACETILGLUCOSAMINA (GLyNAc) Y POLI-N-ACETILLACTOSAMINA EN VASOS DE LA GLÁNDULA PINEAL DE RATAS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mildred, Ferreira-Medeiros; Elenice, Correa-Gillieron.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Las lectinas son proteínas que contienen áreas singulares para el reconocimiento de secuencias de azúcares en los glicoconjugados. La lecitina del tomate Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL) es capaz de reconocer específicamente los residuos de N-acetil-glucosamina (Gly-Nac) y poli-N-acetil-lactosamina. Ut [...] ilizamos la técnica histoquímica para LEL conjugada a la biotina con el propósito de investigar en la glándula pineal de ratones adultos y durante el desarrollo, las estructuras morfológicas capaces de unirse a esta lecitina. Nuestros resultados experimentales mostraron un material de coloración por la LEL, solamente en la superficie de las células endoteliales de todos los vasos sanguíneos y en todas las regiones de la glándula. La excepción ocurrió en los ratones con un día pos-natal (PN1), donde solamente los vasos de la región más periférica de la glándula presentaban coloración marrón amarillenta por la LEL, pero ninguno presentaba esta coloración en la región más central de la glándula. La reacción apareció especialmente en el espacio interno de las pseudo-rosetas, demostrando así que este espacio está, seguramente, representado por un vaso Abstract in english Lectins are proteins with binding sites that recognize a specific sequence of sugar moieties in complex glycoconjugates. In the present study the tomato lectin ­ Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL) (a selective microglial and endothelial marker) has been reported to recognize specific residues of N-acetyl [...] glucosamine (GlyNAc) and poly-N-acetyllactosamine. In the pineal gland the biotinylated LEL was used to investigate the appearance of these sugar residues in the structures of the rats during their development and adult life. Our results showed that the binding of LEL occurred exclusively in the material adherents on surface of the endothelia of the vessels in the peripheral and central regions of the gland. An exception can be cited to rats in first postnatal day where the vessels in the central region did not display the LEL-reaction. In all animals studied and, from 3- postnatal day onwards the LEL-reactions could be observed within the central space of pseudo-rosettes also characterizing this space as a vessel

  13. RECOGNITION OF N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE (GLyNAc AND POLY-N-ACETYLLACTOSAMINE RESIDUES IN VESSELS OF THE RAT PINEAL GLAND RECONOCIMIENTO DE RESIDUOS DE N-ACETILGLUCOSAMINA (GLyNAc Y POLI-N-ACETILLACTOSAMINA EN VASOS DE LA GLÁNDULA PINEAL DE RATAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildred Ferreira-Medeiros

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are proteins with binding sites that recognize a specific sequence of sugar moieties in complex glycoconjugates. In the present study the tomato lectin ­ Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL (a selective microglial and endothelial marker has been reported to recognize specific residues of N-acetylglucosamine (GlyNAc and poly-N-acetyllactosamine. In the pineal gland the biotinylated LEL was used to investigate the appearance of these sugar residues in the structures of the rats during their development and adult life. Our results showed that the binding of LEL occurred exclusively in the material adherents on surface of the endothelia of the vessels in the peripheral and central regions of the gland. An exception can be cited to rats in first postnatal day where the vessels in the central region did not display the LEL-reaction. In all animals studied and, from 3- postnatal day onwards the LEL-reactions could be observed within the central space of pseudo-rosettes also characterizing this space as a vesselLas lectinas son proteínas que contienen áreas singulares para el reconocimiento de secuencias de azúcares en los glicoconjugados. La lecitina del tomate Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL es capaz de reconocer específicamente los residuos de N-acetil-glucosamina (Gly-Nac y poli-N-acetil-lactosamina. Utilizamos la técnica histoquímica para LEL conjugada a la biotina con el propósito de investigar en la glándula pineal de ratones adultos y durante el desarrollo, las estructuras morfológicas capaces de unirse a esta lecitina. Nuestros resultados experimentales mostraron un material de coloración por la LEL, solamente en la superficie de las células endoteliales de todos los vasos sanguíneos y en todas las regiones de la glándula. La excepción ocurrió en los ratones con un día pos-natal (PN1, donde solamente los vasos de la región más periférica de la glándula presentaban coloración marrón amarillenta por la LEL, pero ninguno presentaba esta coloración en la región más central de la glándula. La reacción apareció especialmente en el espacio interno de las pseudo-rosetas, demostrando así que este espacio está, seguramente, representado por un vaso

  14. Radiation therapy for intracranial germ cell tumors. Predictive value of tumor response as evaluated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective study analyzed the outcome in patients with intracranial germ-cell tumors to determine whether tumor response during radiation therapy can predict achievement of primary local with radiation therapy alone. Between 1983 and 1993, 22 patients with untreated primary intracranial germ cell tumors received a total whole brain radiation dose of between 18 Gy and 45 Gy (mean 31.3 Gy) with or without a localized field of 10 to 36.4 Gy (mean, 22.4 Gy), or local irradiation only (1 patient). In 10 patients with pineal tumor only, who were treated first with radiation therapy, tumor response to radiation therapy was evaluated using computed tomography (CT) (at baseline, and approximately 20 Gy and 50 Gy). Areas of calcification in the tumor were subtracted from total tumor volume. Follow-up time ranged from 2 to 12 years. Five-year actuarial survival rates for patients with germinoma were 71%, 100% for patients with a teratoma component, and 100% for patients without histologic verification. Patients with germinomas or tumors suspected of being germinomas who were given more than 50 Gy had no local relapse. There was no correlation between primary local control by radiation therapy alone and initial tumor volume. The rate of tumor volume response to irradiation assessed by CT was significantly different in those patients who relapsed compared to those who did not relapse. Tumor response during radiation therapy using CT was considered to be predictive of primaT was considered to be predictive of primary local control with radiation therapy alone. (author)

  15. Carcinoid Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in slow motion." There are two subtypes of lung carcinoid tumors: typical and atypical. The difference is based ... neurotransmitter involved in behavior and depression. A typical lung carcinoid tumor produces high levels of serotonin and chromogranin- ...

  16. Carcinoid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing cancers. They usually start in the lining of the digestive tract or ... trouble breathing. Surgery is the main treatment for carcinoid tumors. If they haven't spread to other parts ...

  17. Mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammary neoplasia is one of the more common malignancies affecting domestic species. Despite their importance, they are often over- diagnosed, undertreated and subject to several misconceptions propagated by veterinarians and pet owners alike. Mammary neoplasia is the most frequent tumor type encountered in the female accounting for almost half of all malignancies reported. The canine has the highest incidence of mammary tumors of all domestic species. In the dog, about 65 percent of mammary tumors are benign mixed tumors, and 25 percent are carcinomas. The rest are adenomas, myoepitheliomas, and malignant mixed tumors. The age distribution of mammary tumors closely follows the age distribution of most tumors in the dog. Mammary tumors are rare in dogs 2 years old, but incidence begins to increase sharply at approximately 6 years of age. Median age at diagnosis is about 10 years. No breed predilection has been consistently reported

  18. Hypothalamic tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hypothalamic tumor is an abnormal growth in the hypothalamus gland, which is located in the brain. ... adults than in children. In adults, tumors in the hypothalamus are more likely cancer that has spread from ...

  19. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...