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1

Diagnosis of pineal region tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to explain the different radio-clinical presentations of pineal region tumors. Although MR images provide a important help to diagnosis, because of topographic analysis and evaluation of MR characteristics in the tumors, clinic, presentation tumors markers and the stereotaxic surgery are also of great importance. Radiological appearances, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnostic of pineal region tumours. (authors)

2

Papillary tumor of the pineal region  

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Presented is a patient with papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR), an uncommon and recently recognized neoplasm. As its name implies, PTPR does not arise from the pineal gland itself. The cell of origin is thought to be the specialized ependymocytes of the subcommissural organ. Primary tumors of the pineal region include pineal parenchymal neoplasms, germ cell neoplasms, and tumors arising from adjacent structures, including meningiomas, astrocytomas, and ependymomas. Like other masses ...

Vandergriff, Clayton; Opatowsky, Michael; O Rourke, Brian; Layton, Kennith

2012-01-01

3

The challenge of pineal region tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These preceding case studies serve to emphasize various facets of pineal region tumors. The first case highlights the possible effect of such tumors on pineal physiology. A clear relationship between pineal function and diurnal rhythms is noted. While the pineal gland has been studied extensively in various mammals, basic investigation in man is somewhat lacking. However, with the development of an accurate, sensitive, and specific melatonin assay, more can be learned in the clinical setting. Application of this basic work is seen in the second case. Another aspect of clinical investigation focuses on the immunopathology of pineal tumors. Tumors of the pineal region can be ''benign'' and/or radio-insensitive. Some require surgical treatment, others do not. Lipomas may well be diagnosed radiographically and do not necessarily require surgical intervention, while meningiomas can often be surgically cured

4

Diagnosis and treatment of pineal region tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this volume is to review the pertinent literature dealing with pineal tumors and thus aid in the handling of these rather uncommon lesions. After the first, introductory, chapter, three chapters treat the pathology and diagnosis of pineal tumors. There is also one chapter on intracranial germ cell tumors (natural history and pathogenesis) and one on the normal function of the pineal gland. With the exception of the chapter on diagnostic radiology of pineal tumors, which seems somewhat superficial, these five chapters summarize current knowledge about the nature of these complex lesions and their symptomatology very well. The next nine chapters deal with biopsy and surgery of these tumors and how to manage the patient. The first of these gives a historical review of the development of surgical techniques - from the first attempt by Horsley in 1905 to the microsurgical techniques of today. It is followed by a very important and detailed description of the microsurgical anatomy of the pineal region

5

CT and MR of pineal region tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging features of pineal region tumors were analyzed in 14 oncologic cases. The tumors were classified as germ-cell tumors, glial tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, meningiomas, and cysts. They demonstrated different MR signal characteristics on precontrast scans and nodular or ring type enhancement with occasional central lucencies, except for benign cysts, which have not shown enhancement. MR images were useful in defining the relationship of the tumor to the posterior third ventricle, sylvian aqueduct, vein of Galen, and tentorium. Although CT can demonstrate in more evident fashion displacement of the original pineal calcification as well as tumor calcifications, MR imaging demonstrates different signal characteristics in germinomas and pineoblastomas which can be a useful adjunct in the evaluation and differential diagnosis of these tumors. PMID:8295504

Gouliamos, A D; Kalovidouris, A E; Kotoulas, G K; Athanasopoulou, A K; Kouvaris, J R; Trakadas, S J; Vlahos, L J; Papavasiliou, C G

1994-01-01

6

Tumors of the pineal region: radiological findings  

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To consider the different radiological findings that, together with age, sex, clinical picture and serum markers, indicate a presumed or even definitive diagnosis in tumors of the pineal region. We reviewed retrospectively 18 patients diagnosed as having pineal region tumors. The lesions in this series consisted of seven germinoma, three meningiomas, one pineoblastoma. two ependymomas, one teratoma, two glial cysts, and arachnoid cyst and a lipoma. All but the arachnoid cysts and the lipoma were confirmed histologically. We took into account mainly the epidemiological data, tumor markers and CT and MR features. The germinoma was the most common lesions, representing 38.8% of the tumors in our series. All developed in men (mean age: 21 years). Small non tumoral calcifications were present in pineal gland in six of these cases. This tumor usually invades adjacent structures and produces metastatic seeding in CSF. The pineoblastoma contained prominent tumor calcifications. Meningiomas were detected only in middle-aged women. In addition to the fact that the behavior of these lesions was typical of that meningiomas in other locations, meningeal enhancement in the vicinity of the extraaxial tumor aided in the diagnosis. The teratoma showed variable attenuation, ranging from a fatty substance to calcium, and elevated fetoprotein levels. The glial cyst is a cyst lesion that does not be-have exactly like the CSF, while the arachnoid cyst was isointense with respect to the CSFyst was isointense with respect to the CSF in all sequences. Enhancement was observed in the glial cysts, one peripheral and the other nodular. The assessment of age, sex, clinical picture and tumor markers, together with the features observed in CT an MR images are suggestive of the histological diagnosis of pineal region tumors. We recommend the use of CT because of its availability and its ability detect calcifications, thus indicating a specific histological type, and of MR because of its greater anatomical definition and its, ability to determine the degree of tumor extension or invasion. (Author) 19 refs

7

Transcallosal approach to pineal tumors and the hospital for sick children series of pineal region tumors  

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Direct surgery on a pineal region mass can be carried out safely and is justified in that the pineal region harbors many benin tumors which would not benefit from radiotherapy. Furthermore, this region contains some highly malignant tumors that need more than just local radiotherapy. In order to discern between these various groups of tumors, histologic proof of the nature of the entire tumor is necessary. The author has found the posterior transcallosal approach to the pineal region a safe and satisfactory approach to tumors in this region and also found this approach particularly advantageous when the tumor extends upwards and forwards into the third ventricle. Direct surgery on pineal tumors can now be carried out confidently and safely and in many cases, radical if not total removal of the neoplasm can be achieved

8

Diagnosis of pineal region tumors; Imagerie des tumeurs de la region pineale  

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The aim of this paper is to explain the different radio-clinical presentations of pineal region tumors. Although MR images provide a important help to diagnosis, because of topographic analysis and evaluation of MR characteristics in the tumors, clinic, presentation tumors markers and the stereotaxic surgery are also of great importance. Radiological appearances, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnostic of pineal region tumours. (authors). 44 refs.

Gauvrit, J.Y.; Soto Ares, G.; Hamon-Kerautret, M.; Pruvo, J.P.; Blond, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 59 - Lille (France)

1997-09-01

9

Pineal region tumors: computed tomographic-pathologic spectrum  

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While several computed tomographic (CT) studies of posterior third ventricular neoplasms have included descriptions of pineal tumors, few reports have concentrated on these uncommon lesions. Some authors have asserted that the CT appearance of many pineal tumors is virtually pathognomonic. A series of nine biopsy-proved pineal gland and eight other presumed tumors is presented that illustrates their remarkable heterogeneity in both histopathologic and CT appearance. These tumors included germinomas, teratocarcinomas, hamartomas, and other varieties. They had variable margination, attentuation, calcification, and suprasellar extension. Germinomas have the best response to radiation therapy. Biopsy of pineal region tumors is now feasible and is recommended for treatment planning

10

Diagnostic radiation and its prognosis of pineal region tumor  

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20 Gy of local irradiation was performed for the patients with pineal region tumor. We evaluated the tumor volume on X-CT in the pre-radiation and 20 Gy of post-radiation state. If tumor is sensitive enough to radiation therapy, we add 40 Gy of whole brain and 30 to 40 Gy of whole spine irradiation. If not, we transfer patients to neurosurgeons for the purpose of tumor ressection. We call this procedure ''Diagnostic Radiation.'' We proposed the concept of TRR (Tumor Regression Ratio) in order to evaluate our protocol more objctively. TRR is as follows: TRR (%) = [1-Total Tumor Volume (at each dose) / Total Tumor Volume (at o Gy)] x 100 (%) Total Tumor Volume(mm3) = slice thickness(mm) x siguma HDA (mm2) on each slice: where HDA is high density area on enhanced CT. Eleven patients were studied and TRR of each patients was calculated. The relations between TRR, tumor markers, CSF seeding and prognoiss was discussed. From our study, (1) TRR at 20Gy was important and might predict approximate prognosis of each cae case. A) TRR = 100 ? very good B) TRR < 20 ? poor C) 20 <= TRR < 100 ? high possibility (2) Majority of TRR < 100 cases have turned out to be histologically in teratoma category. (3) Good correlation between the level of tumor markers and prognosis was observed. Cases with elevated level of AFP and/or HCG were radio- resistant and had poor prognosis. (4) Distant metastasis must also be kept in mind in the treatment of pineal region tumor. (author)

11

Radiotherapy of pineal tumors  

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Radiotherapy has universally been used in the treatment of pineal tumors and suprasellar germinomas. Recently however, major technical advances related to the use of the operating microscope and development of microsurgical techniques have prompted a renewed interest in the direct surgical approach for biopsy and/or excision. This interest has resulted in a controversy regarding the role of surgery prior to radiotherapy. Because of the heterogeneity of tumors occurring in the pineal region (i.e., germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, glial tumors, and cysts) and their differing biological behavior, controversy also surrounds aspects of radiotherapy such as: the optimal radiation dose, the volume to be irradiated, and indications for prophylactic spinal irradiation. A review of the available data is presented in an attempt to answer these questions

12

Papillary tumor of the pineal region: report of a rapidly progressive tumor with possible multicentric origin  

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Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is an uncommon tumor recently added to the WHO classification of CNS tumors. We report a case of PTPR in a young boy that was noteworthy for early CSF dissemination and relentless progression. In spite of intensive chemotherapy and comprehensive radiotherapy, the boy died. The neuroimaging appearance is unique with possible multicentric origin of the tumor and intense uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-pentetreotide. (orig.)

Sato, Takashi S. [University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Kirby, Patricia A. [University of Iowa, Department of Pathology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Buatti, John M. [University of Iowa, Department of Radiation Oncology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Moritani, Toshio [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, IA (United States)

2009-02-15

13

Lung carcinoma metastasis presenting as a pineal region tumor / Metástasis del carcinoma de pulmón que se presenta como tumor de la región pineal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish La región pineal es un sitio inusual para el depósito de metástasis y la mayoría de las metástasis pineales son asintomáticas. Un hombre de 53 años debutó con una cefalea intensa, limitación en la supraversión y diplopia. La exploración neurológica fue irrelevante. La resonancia magnética (RM) cereb [...] ral demostró una lesión solitaria de 1,5 x 2 cm bien delimitada, en la región pineal con hidrocefalia. Fue intervenido quirúrgicamente siendo el diagnóstico anatomopatológico de adenocarcinoma. Un estudio sistémico descubrió un adenocarcinoma de pulmón como tumor primario. Aunque muy raramente, las metástasis deben considerarse en el diagnóstico diferencial de tumores de la región pineal. Abstract in english The pineal region is an unusual site for brain metastasis and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. A 53 year-old man presented with severe headache, limitation of upward gaze and diplopia. The patient's neurological examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of [...] the brain demonstrated a 1,5 x 2 cm well demarcated solitary mass in the pineal region with hydrocephalus. Surgery was performed and adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. A systemic investigation revealed adenocarcinoma of the lung as primary lesion. Although rare, metastatic tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors.

Y., Samanci; C., Iplikcioglu; E., Ozek; D., Ozcan; B., Marangozoglu.

2011-12-01

14

Contribution of the daily melatonin profile to diagnosis of tumors of the pineal region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumors of the pineal region (TPR) include different entities: germ cell tumors (GCT), pineal parenchymal tumors (PPT), meningiomas, and glial tumors. Except for GCT, there are no peripheral markers and histopathological diagnosis needs biopsy or surgery. We studied daily melatonin variations in twenty-nine patients with TPR and five with tectal plate glioma (TPG), used as controls, before and/or after surgery. Before surgery, a melatonin nycthemeral rhythm was observed in patients with TPG and TPR (one cyst, three PPT, one papillary tumor of the pineal region, two meningiomas, six gliomas). Melatonin rhythm was dramatically reduced for undifferentiated or invasive tumors. After surgery, the absence of melatonin variation in some cases could be the consequence of pineal damage by surgery. The contribution of determination of melatonin profiles to the diagnosis of TPR remains limited but of interest. The evidence for melatonin deficiency could justify melatonin administration to prevent the postpinealectomy syndrome. PMID:19169855

Leston, José; Mottolese, Carmine; Champier, Jacques; Jouvet, Anne; Brun, Jocelyne; Sindou, Marc; Chazot, Guy; Claustrat, Bruno; Fèvre-Montange, Michelle

2009-07-01

15

Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors - quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma  

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Our study aimed to elucidate the imaging features for the differentiation of pineal germinoma and other pineal region tumors. Image data sets of computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 93 pineal region tumors including 33 germinomas, 30 nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), and 10 miscellaneous tumors of pineal region were reviewed. Imaging features on CT and MRI were qualitatively assessed by three readers. To know the reasons for morphological differences between germinomas and NGGCTs, histological investigation was done. Localized calcification was seen in more than 70 % of germ cells tumors (GCTs: germinomas and NGGCTs) while it was scattered in more than half of PPTs. Cystic components in tumors were most frequent in NGGCTs (62 %). Multiplicity of lesion was restricted to GCTs: 39.4 % in germinoma and 10.0 % in NGGCTs. Thick peritumoral edema was more frequent in germinoma than in NGGCT: 40.6 vs. 14.8 % (p = 0.0433, Fisher's test). Bithalamic extension of tumor was seen in 78.8 % of germinomas. It was significantly rare in other groups of tumors (p < 0.0001, Fisher's test). The relative collagen amount per unit area was significantly lower in germinoma than in NGGCTs. By paying attention to characteristic features as bithalamic extension, thick peritumoral edema, calcification pattern, multiplicity, and their combination, the preoperative differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma will become more accurate. (orig.)

Awa, Ryuji; Campos, Francia; Arita, Kazunori; Karki, Prasanna; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Oyoshi, Tatsuki; Hirano, Hirofumi [Kagoshima University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuhiko [Hiroshima University, Department of Clinical Oncology and Neuro-oncology Program, Hiroshima (Japan); Tominaga, Atsushi; Kurisu, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki [Hiroshima University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Fukukura, Yoshihiko [Kagoshima University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Fujii, Yukihiko [Niigata University, Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

2014-07-15

16

Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors - quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our study aimed to elucidate the imaging features for the differentiation of pineal germinoma and other pineal region tumors. Image data sets of computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 93 pineal region tumors including 33 germinomas, 30 nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), and 10 miscellaneous tumors of pineal region were reviewed. Imaging features on CT and MRI were qualitatively assessed by three readers. To know the reasons for morphological differences between germinomas and NGGCTs, histological investigation was done. Localized calcification was seen in more than 70 % of germ cells tumors (GCTs: germinomas and NGGCTs) while it was scattered in more than half of PPTs. Cystic components in tumors were most frequent in NGGCTs (62 %). Multiplicity of lesion was restricted to GCTs: 39.4 % in germinoma and 10.0 % in NGGCTs. Thick peritumoral edema was more frequent in germinoma than in NGGCT: 40.6 vs. 14.8 % (p = 0.0433, Fisher's test). Bithalamic extension of tumor was seen in 78.8 % of germinomas. It was significantly rare in other groups of tumors (p < 0.0001, Fisher's test). The relative collagen amount per unit area was significantly lower in germinoma than in NGGCTs. By paying attention to characteristic features as bithalamic extension, thick peritumoral edema, calcification pattern, multiplicity, and their combination, the preoperative differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma will become more accurate. (orig.)

17

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor located in the pineal region following prophylactic irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

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Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare entity. In the central nervous system, AT/RT generally arises from the posterior fossa of infants and behaves aggressively. AT/RT is reported to arise from the infratentorial region (63%) and other sites, such as the suprasellar region, cerebellopontine angle, and spinal cord. The pineal region is rare (6%) as a site of origin. Radiation-induced brain tumors are well known. In this report, we present a case of a pineal region tumor causing acute hydrocephalus that could be pathologically diagnosed as AT/RT following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:22218708

Kuge, Atsushi; Sato, Shinya; Sakurada, Kaori; Takemura, Sunao; Kayama, Takamasa

2012-07-01

18

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor located in the pineal region following prophylactic irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare entity. In the central nervous system, AT/RT generally arises from the posterior fossa of infants and behaves aggressively. AT/RT is reported to arise from the infratentorial region (63%) and other sites, such as the suprasellar region, cerebellopontine angle, and spinal cord. The pineal region is rare (6%) as a site of origin. Radiation-induced brain tumors are well known. In this report, we present a case of a pineal region tumor causing acute hydrocephalus that could be pathologically diagnosed as AT/RT following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (author)

19

Neurosurgical venous considerations for tumors of the pineal region resected using the infratentorial supracerebellar approach.  

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The authors present a microsurgical technique for the resection of a heterogeneous group of pineal-region tumors and discuss the key points for successfully performing this surgery. Twenty-six consecutive patients with pineal-region tumors were resected by the senior author (H.B.) and analyzed retrospectively. For all 26 patients, the operation was conducted using the infratentorial supracerebellar (ITSC) approach in the sitting (23 patients) or Concorde (three patients) positions. Twenty-five patients had symptomatic obstructive hydrocephalus and were treated with ventricular drainage, a previously inserted ventriculoperitoneal shunt, or an endoscopic third ventriculostomy before undergoing resection of the pineal-region tumor. The gross total removal of the tumor was achieved in 23 patients and subtotal removal was achieved in three patients. The tumors were pathologically diagnosed mainly as pineocytomas (10), pilocytic astrocytomas (6), or pineal cysts (4). Twenty-five of the patients clinically improved after surgery, and there was no mortality. Two patients experienced transient postoperative neurological deterioration: one patient developed Parinaud syndrome, and one patient developed intermittent diplopia. Successful surgery and patient outcome when treating tumors of the pineal region using the ITSC approach requires: (i) preservation of the venous flow of the Galenic draining system; (ii) preservation of the thick bridging veins of the tentorial surface of the cerebellum, especially the hemispheric bridging veins; and (iii) minimizing retraction of the cerebellum during surgery to avoid adverse effects caused by both direct cerebellar compression and disturbance of the venous circulation. PMID:21917460

Kodera, Toshiaki; Bozinov, Oliver; Sürücü, Oguzkan; Ulrich, Nils H; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Bertalanffy, Helmut

2011-11-01

20

Tumores da região pineal: considerações sobre 12 casos Tumours of the pineal region: comments on 12 cases  

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Full Text Available Foram revistos 12 casos de tumores da região pineal, sob os aspectos clínico, laboratorial e neurorradiológico. Em 6 doentes o diagnóstico baseou-se apenas nos dados clínicos e neurorradiológicos (particularmente ventriculográficos e, nos restantes 6 casos, foi confirmado por exame histopatológico. A sobrevida de 3 a 9 anos, verificada em 4 casos submetidos a tratamento conservador mediante operações de derivação seguidas de irradiação pela bomba de cobalto, constitui índice em favor da conduta adotada.Twelve cases of tumours of the pineal region were analysed under the clinical, laboratorial and radiological viewpoints. In 6 cases the diagnosis was based only on the clinical and radiological (particularly ventriculogramortem examination. The survival from 3 to 9 years, in 4 cases submitted to the conservative treatment including intra or extracranial shunts follow by cobalto-therapy, supports the indication of the procedure adopted.

Rolando Tenuto

1969-06-01

 
 
 
 
21

Tumores da região pineal: considerações sobre 12 casos / Tumours of the pineal region: comments on 12 cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram revistos 12 casos de tumores da região pineal, sob os aspectos clínico, laboratorial e neurorradiológico. Em 6 doentes o diagnóstico baseou-se apenas nos dados clínicos e neurorradiológicos (particularmente ventriculográficos) e, nos restantes 6 casos, foi confirmado por exame histopatológico. [...] A sobrevida de 3 a 9 anos, verificada em 4 casos submetidos a tratamento conservador mediante operações de derivação seguidas de irradiação pela bomba de cobalto, constitui índice em favor da conduta adotada. Abstract in english Twelve cases of tumours of the pineal region were analysed under the clinical, laboratorial and radiological viewpoints. In 6 cases the diagnosis was based only on the clinical and radiological (particularly ventriculogramortem examination. The survival from 3 to 9 years, in 4 cases submitted to the [...] conservative treatment including intra or extracranial shunts follow by cobalto-therapy, supports the indication of the procedure adopted.

Rolando, Tenuto; Horacio M., Canelas; José, Zaclis; Julinho, Aisen; Waldir A., Tognola.

22

Radiotherapy of Pineal and Ectopic Pineal Tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From December 1984 to February 1990, 16 patients with tumors of pineal and suprasellar location were treated with radiation therapy. Tissue diagnoses were obtained before radiation therapy in 5 patients and 11 were irradiated without histologic confirmation. Initial treatments for these patients were craniospinal plus boost primary irradiation(six), whole brain plus boost primary irradiation(nine), primary tumor site irradiation(one). The 5 year actuarial survival rate is 71%. Three cases with elevated beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) responded favorably to radiation, but pineal tumors with elevated alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) did not respond well. Spinal metastasis developed in 2 cases (2/15) with elevated AFP : one received prophylactic spinal irradiation, another did not. Our studies suggest that more aggressive treatment would be necessary in patient with elevated AFP and in this patient, radiation therapy may be initiate without pathologic confirmation. From the result of our study, routine use of prophylactic spinal irradiation for all patients with pineal region tumor is not indicated and use of prophylactic spinal irradiation is considered for the patients with positive craniospinal fluid cytology, meningeal seeding, disease extension along the ventricular wall and biopsy proven germinoma

23

Pineal region tumors: results of radiation therapy and indications for elective spinal irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighteen patients with pineal region tumors seen from November 1960 to November 1978 were reviewed. Thirteen patients treated with radiation therapy received tumor doses in the 4000 to 5500 rad range. The five year survival and five year disease-free survival were 73 and 63% respectively. Spinal cord metastasis occurred in 2 of 13 (15%) patients. Attempts at salvage radiotherapy for these patients were unsuccessful. Computerized tomography (CT) scan provides an excellent method of evaluating the response of pineal region tumors to radiation. Rapid regression of the tumor mass on CT scan reflects the highly radioresponsive nature of germinomas, the tumor type most likely to disseminate throughout the neuraxis. This principle can be exploited to select unbiopsied patients with a high risk of spinal cord metastasis for prophylactic spinal radiation at an early stage of treatment

24

Endoscopic surgery for tumors of the pineal region via a paramedian infratentorial supracerebellar keyhole approach (PISKA).  

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The tumors of the pineal region represent a significant challenge in terms of patient selection and surgical approach. Traditional surgical options were commonly used to approach this area causing considerable surgical morbidity and mortality. We report for the first time on a series of endoscopic procedures for lesions of the pineal region performed via an infratentorial supracerebellar keyhole approach (PISKA) in the prone position using endoscope-assisted and endoscope-controlled technique. A single-institution series of 11 consecutive patients (five male and six female patients [11 total cases]; mean age 21 years, range 1-75 years) treated via the endoscope-assisted and endoscope-controlled PISKA for a pathological entity in the pineal region was retrospectively reviewed. The mean follow-up time was 24 months. The endoscopic PISKA was successfully used to approach a variety of pineal lesions, including pineocytoma (three patients), pineal cysts (four patients), germinoma, lipoma, medulloblastoma, and glioblastoma (one patient each). Gross total resection was achieved in ten cases and subtotal resection in one case. The mean preoperative tumor volumes were approximately 2 × 2 cm. Five patients developed postoperatively transient Parinaud's syndrome. One patient underwent surgical revision for cerebrospinal fluid leak. There was no mortality. Ten patients had an uneventful postoperative course with restitutio ad integrum after a mean follow-up duration of 13.5 months. The endoscopically PISKA is a safe and effective minimally invasive approach that enables endoscopic treatment of different lesions of the pineal region with comparable results to standard microsurgical technique but less morbidity. PMID:25106132

Thaher, Firas; Kurucz, Peter; Fuellbier, Lars; Bittl, Markus; Hopf, Nikolai J

2014-10-01

25

Stereotactic techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of pineal region tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The marked diversity of pathological lesions arising in the pineal region supports the increasing need to obtain a definitive tissue diagnosis. In the pre-CT era, radiographic studies rarely allowed for anything more than the outlining of a mass lesion. Contrast ventriculography could not distinguish between a non-neoplastic cyst and an astrocytoma. This limitation illustrates the difficulty of interpreting the results of previous retrospective series in which the majority of patients treated had neither a tissue diagnosis nor a CT scan to confirm the clinical impression of a pineal region tumor. Computerized tomography now offers a much improved definition of the pathological process. The utilization of computerized tomography, angiography, biochemical markers, and the clinical presentation all contribute to the establishment of the correct diagnosis. Prior to the widespread application of microsurgical techniques, exploration of the pineal region had proved hazardous even in the best of hands. More recently, several experienced neurosurgeons have reported satisfactory results in the microsurgical exploration of the pineal region. Stereotactic needle biopsy has been used predominantly in European centers as an alternative to either open surgical exploration or blind radiation therapy. Their published series have demonstrated both a high degree of efficacy in establishing the diagnosis while avoiding some of the risk associated with direct surgical visualization of thd with direct surgical visualization of the pineal region. In this chapter the author describe the technique of CT/stereotactic biopsy at the M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute and review the results obtained at several major centers. The use of, and indications for, stereotactic radiosurgery and interstitial brachytherapy is discussed

26

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma of the pineal region.  

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Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas are indolent, astrocytic tumors usually located in the superficial cerebral cortex. They have not been described as occurring in the pineal region. We describe a patient with an astrocytic tumor arising in the pineal region that fulfilled all of the morphologic and immunohistochemical criteria of a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma located in the pineal region. PMID:20655751

Srinivas, B H; Uppin, Megha S; Panigrahi, Manas K; Vijaya Saradhi, M; Jyotsna Rani, Y; Challa, Sundaram

2010-11-01

27

Spontaneous pineal apoplexy in a pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation  

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Full Text Available Pineal apoplexy is a rare clinical presentation of pineal parenchymal tumors. We report the curative treatment of a case of pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation with spontaneous apoplectic hemorrhage. This case is shown through computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and is confirmed via histopathological studies. Recurrent upward gaze paresis was observed after the stereotactic biopsy. The paresis required an expeditious tumor resection. The mechanism of the pineal apoplectic hemorrhage remains unclear although it has been observed in different pineal region lesions. Clinical and radiological evidence of the cure 5 years post-surgery is available.

Timothy Steel

2013-03-01

28

Germinomas and other pineal tumors: Chemotherapeutic responses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results and potential future role of chemotherapy in the treatment of pineal region tumors are reviewed in this paper. To date only a small number of patients with pineal region tumors have been treated with chemotherapy and this has commonly been done in association with radiation therapy. Very few patients have had a chemotherapy-induced tumor response that can clearly be attributed to only that therapy. In this paper the authors review 5 patients from our series in whom a therapeutic response was observed that was clearly attributable to drug administration and nor surgery, radiotherapy, or adrenal corticosteroids. Four of these patients had tumors of germ cell origin. These observations added to a limited number of other case reports suggest a promising therapeutic role for chemotherapeutic agents in the management of pineal region tumors. In particular, germ cell tumors of the pinear region appear to be especially responsive to chemotherapeutic agents. The pattern and responses of the pineal region tumors suggest that an important factor in therapeutic effectiveness is the absence of the blood-brain barrier in this area, thereby permitting appropriate drug delivery. An exciting prospect is that the Japanese are currently conducting a national cooperative study on the use of chemotherapy in the treatment of pineal tumors. Because of the high incidence of these tumors in Japan, these studies will undoubtedly be of great value

29

Papillary tumor of the pineal region: a case involving isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genotyping.  

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Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a recently described neoplasm. Several studies have been published on this tumor, but its pathological features and the appropriate treatment remain unclear. PTPR is reported to originate from ependymal cells in the subcommissural organ. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) mutations have been a focus area in glioma research as promising predictors. We report a case of PTPR that was characterized by local recurrence, although subtotal removal and radiotherapy seemed effective for many months. Histological examination showed ependymal features in the surgical specimens. As far as we are aware, this case study is the first to show that the IDH1/2 genotypes in PTPR cells are wild-type genotypes, which is consistent with the negative immunoreactivity that was observed for the IDH1 mutant antibody in this study. PMID:22466620

Ishida, Atsushi; Shibuya, Makoto; Komori, Takashi; Nobusawa, Sumihito; Niimura, Kaku; Matsuo, Seigo; Hori, Tomokatsu

2013-01-01

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A role of trial radiation therapy in the pineal region tumors  

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The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the treatment results of 30 patients with pineal region tumors who were underwent radiation therapy under the diagnosis by either CT or MRI. There was no histological verification. We analyzed the prognostic factors that have a significant effect on the overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) rates. A total 30 patients with pineal region tumors were treated between March 1983 and August 1995. After a trial radiation therapy of 20 {approx} 30 Gy/2 {approx} 3 weeks, the patients were evaluated for their clinical response and radiological response by either CT or MRI and the final treatment direction was then decided. According to their response to the trial radiation therapy and the involved site, radiation treatment was given in various field i.e., local, ventricle, whole brain and craniospinal field. The radiation dose ranged from 40.8 to 59.4 Gy (Median 50.4 Gy). The median follow up was 36.5 months (4 {approx} 172 months). An improvement or stability in the clinical symptoms was observed in 28 patients (93.3%) after the trial RT. Nineteen patients (63.3%) showed a partial or complete response by CT or MRI. The two-year and five-year survival rates of the patients were 66.7% and 55.1%, respectively. No significant difference in the survival rates according to the degree of the radiological response was observed after the trial RT. The results of univariate analysis showed that age, the primary site, the performance status(KPS {>=} 70), the degree of response after completing RT and the RT field were significant prognostic factors affecting the survival and disease free survival rates ({rho} < 0.05). The clinical and histological characteristics of pineal region tumors are quite complex and diverse. Therefore, it is difficult to predict the histological diagnosis and the possibility of radiocurability only with the initial response to RT. We think that the development of less invasive histological diagnostic techniques and tailored treatment to the histological type of each tumor are needed.

Kim, Yeon Shil; Ryu, Mi Ryung; Chung, Su Mi; Kim, Moon Chan; Yoon, Sei Chul [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2002-06-15

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Differentiation of germinomas from other tumors in the pineal region with CT and MR imaging, with special reference to extension patterns to the thalami  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) characteristics of pineal region germinomas, the author reviewed images from 40 patients with pineal region tumors. These tumors were divided into two groups: those with germinomas (n=17), and those with other tumors in the pineal region (5 with a germ cell tumor other than germinoma; 8, mixed germ cell tumor; 8, pineal parenchymal tumor; and 2, miscellaneous tumors; n=23). All cases were investigated with CT; 31 of the cases were also investigated with MR imaging. The following parameters comprised statistically significant differences between the two groups: maximum size of the tumor, tumor density of the precontrast CT, signal intensity of precontrast T1-weighted spin-echo images, and homogeneity of the tumor on both precontrast and postcontrast studies. This study found that extension patterns of pineal region tumors into the thalamus have significant implications in differentiating germinomas from other tumors of this region. Germinomas are characterized by thalamic extension without lateral displacement of the third ventricle walls due to direct compression by tumors (p=0.0034). The analysis of tumor extension patterns, combined with the parameters mentioned above, may provide a more accurate differential diagnosis in pineal region tumors, leading to prompt and appropriate treatment. (author)

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Differentiation of germinomas from other tumors in the pineal region with CT and MR imaging, with special reference to extension patterns to the thalami  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) characteristics of pineal region germinomas, the author reviewed images from 40 patients with pineal region tumors. These tumors were divided into two groups: those with germinomas (n=17), and those with other tumors in the pineal region (5 with a germ cell tumor other than germinoma; 8, mixed germ cell tumor; 8, pineal parenchymal tumor; and 2, miscellaneous tumors; n=23). All cases were investigated with CT; 31 of the cases were also investigated with MR imaging. The following parameters comprised statistically significant differences between the two groups: maximum size of the tumor, tumor density of the precontrast CT, signal intensity of precontrast T1-weighted spin-echo images, and homogeneity of the tumor on both precontrast and postcontrast studies. This study found that extension patterns of pineal region tumors into the thalamus have significant implications in differentiating germinomas from other tumors of this region. Germinomas are characterized by thalamic extension without lateral displacement of the third ventricle walls due to direct compression by tumors (p=0.0034). The analysis of tumor extension patterns, combined with the parameters mentioned above, may provide a more accurate differential diagnosis in pineal region tumors, leading to prompt and appropriate treatment. (author)

Furusawa, Tetsuya [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

1998-03-01

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Serial computed tomographic studies of pineal region tumor treated by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the one year period from 1976 to 1977, we observed five cases of pineal region tumor diagnosed by means of characteristic clinical symptoms and CT scan findings. Of that number, one was diagnosed as suprasellar germinoma. On four of the cases, we did V-P shunts and we gave irradiation to all five. During the period of treatment, we studied the relationship among the course of treatment, the clinical symptoms and the CT scan findings. 1. Very early in the course of treatment, we can discern the radiation sensitivity of the tumor by means of the decrease in tumor size and the degree of contrast enhancement of the tumor on the CT scan. 2. We believe the decrease in the size of the tumor occurs before any improvements of clinical symptoms. Even though the tumor image has disappeared on the CT scan, there are some cases where the clinical symptoms still remain. 3. After the V-P shunt operation, the ventricular system becomes markedly small in three of four cases and showed a tendency to enlarge slightly during the course of irradiation therapy. These findings appear to be independent of clinical status. (author)

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Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

35

Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

Wang, Peng [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu (China); Mao, Qing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Liu, Yan-Hui, E-mail: liuyanhui9@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

2014-03-01

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Radiotherapy Results of pineal Tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective analysis was performed on 23 patients with pineal region tumors treated with radiation from 1979 through 1985 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Histologic confirmation was done in only one case by surgical removal, and in the remaining 22 patients, the diagnosis was based on clinical and radiological findings. The radiation volume was the primary tumor site in 1 case, whole brain in 14 cases, and the whole craniospinal axis in 8 cases. The overall 5 year survival was 71.5%. The 5 year survival was 69. 3% for whole brain treated group and 73.3% for craniospinal axis treated group. The survival for the two groups did not differ significantly. In two cases sites of recurrence were detected. One in supratentorial area, and the other in the lung. The results from this retrospective analysis and the review of other reports indicate that routine use of prophlatic spinal irradiation is not warranted in pineal region tumor, and the craniospinal irradiation is recommended in cases with high risk for subarachnoid seeding such as positive CSF cytology, surgical removal or biopsy

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Cavernous hemangioma in the pineal region.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cavernous hemangioma in the pineal region of a 22-year-old man is reported. Because the patient had diabetes insipidus and a contrast-medium-enhanced mass in his pineal region on computed tomography, a germinoma was suspected. A ventricular shunt was made and the tumor was irradiated, but without a response. After irradiation the tumor was entirely removed, and postoperatively the diabetes insipidus improved. PMID:6879419

Fukui, M; Matsuoka, S; Hasuo, K; Numaguchi, Y; Kitamura, K

1983-09-01

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Management of pineal region tumours in children  

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Pineal region tumors in children are rare. A wide diversity of lesion arises from the pineal gland or the surrounding tissues. Among them, germinomas, nongerminomatous germ cell tumors and pineoblastoma are the most common. These tumor do not have pathognomonic imaging findings. However, tumor markers evaluation may narrow the differential diagnosis. Symptoms are usually related to tumor size and location. Treatment depends on tumor type but still the standard management remains unclear.

 

George A Alexiou

2012-03-01

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Papillary tumor of pineal region: Prolonged control rate after gamma knife radiosurgery - A case report and review of literature  

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Full Text Available Papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPR are very rare. We describe the first report of a PTPR empirically managed with gamma knife radiosurgery. The patient was initially shunted and referred for empirical gamma knife radiosurgery. After initially showing some improvement, he had recurrence of tumor after 7 years. For recurrence he underwent a gross total resection and the biopsy established the diagnosis of PTPR. Further research needs to be done as to the efficacy of gamma knife surgery for PTPR. In addition, the role of stereotactic biopsy for eligible patients should be considered as the initial step to direct the treatment of choice.

Cardenas Raul

2010-01-01

40

Diagnostic radiology of pineal tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contrast enhanced CT scan of the head and full column myelography using a water-soluble agent (after controlling increased intracranial pressure) are the screening methods of choice in evaluating patients with tumors of the pineal region. Angiography retains an important role in these patients: to document the degree of vascularity of the mass seen on CT scan; to rule out the possibility that the enhancing mass is a benign vascular lesion such as vein of Galen aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, etc.; to provide the surgeon with a clear image of displaced normal arteries and veins prior to biopsy, and to show the position of cortical veins at the site of the planned surgical approach. Data now being accumulated regarding the use of CT-guided stereotaxic biopsy methods may demonstrate that needle biopsy of lesions of this area can be performed with much less risk to the patient than was the case with open biopsy methods. This new technique, along with microscopic surgical resection methods, may produce better treatment results than have been possible in the past

 
 
 
 
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Advanced magnetic resonance imaging with histopathological correlation in papillary tumor of pineal region: Report of a case and review of literature  

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Full Text Available Papillary tumors of the pineal region are recently described as rare mass lesions with limited literature available on their natural history and imaging features. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI including perfusion, diffusion, and spectroscopic features were described in an 18-year-old girl with papillary tumor of pineal region. A well-defined, T1 hyperintense and contrast-enhancing mass lesion was noted in pineal region with few cystic spaces within. Solid portion of lesion showed minimal diffusion restriction with average apparent diffusion coefficient of 0.812 ? 10 -3 mm 2 /s; on MR spectroscopy elevated myo-inositol peak with reduced N-acetylaspartate and elevated choline in the tumor. On perfusion study there was significantly high relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV (6-9 times and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF. Our findings agree with previous descriptions of cystic areas with T1 hyperintense appearance of this tumor but very high level of tumor perfusion, diffusion restriction, and presence of myo-inositol peak are important imaging findings and may correlate with the recent reports of high tumor recurrence in these cases.

Vaghela V

2010-01-01

42

Massa expansiva da região posterior do terceiro ventrículo (tumores da região da pineal) / Expansive mass lesion in the posterior region of the third ventricle (tumours of the pineal reffion)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Tumores da região da pineal não são comuns. São descritos aspectos clínicos, tomográficos e dos resultados terapêuticos em 12 casos observados num período de 5 anos (1979-1984). Os autores consideram que a via de acesso supracerebelar infratentorial, descrita por Krause em 1926 e reintroduzida por S [...] tein em 1971, é a melhor para a abordagem cirúrgica desse tipo de tumor. Abstract in english Tumours of the pineal region are rare. Clinical and CT aspects, and results of the treatment of 12 cases observed in a 5 years period (1979-1984) are described. The authors consider the supracerebellar infratentorial approach, formerly described by Krause in 1926 and reintroduced by Stein in 1971, t [...] he best for the surgical management of these tumours.

Antonio Ronaldo, Spotti; Eduardo Carlos da, Silva.

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Massa expansiva da região posterior do terceiro ventrículo (tumores da região da pineal Expansive mass lesion in the posterior region of the third ventricle (tumours of the pineal reffion  

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Full Text Available Tumores da região da pineal não são comuns. São descritos aspectos clínicos, tomográficos e dos resultados terapêuticos em 12 casos observados num período de 5 anos (1979-1984. Os autores consideram que a via de acesso supracerebelar infratentorial, descrita por Krause em 1926 e reintroduzida por Stein em 1971, é a melhor para a abordagem cirúrgica desse tipo de tumor.Tumours of the pineal region are rare. Clinical and CT aspects, and results of the treatment of 12 cases observed in a 5 years period (1979-1984 are described. The authors consider the supracerebellar infratentorial approach, formerly described by Krause in 1926 and reintroduced by Stein in 1971, the best for the surgical management of these tumours.

Antonio Ronaldo Spotti

1989-12-01

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PINEAL GLAND TUMORS: EXPERIENCE FROM THE SEER DATABASE  

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Pineal gland tumors are rare and account for less than 1% of all primary brain tumor diagnoses. Also, they are more commonly seen in pediatric patients than in adults. We analyzed the available SEER data on pineal gland tumors that were diagnosed during the period 1973–2005. The cohort was subdivided into groups on the basis of tumor histology: germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, gliomas, and other pineal tumors. Analyses of incidence, survival, factors influencing survival, and tr...

Al-hussaini, Maysa; Sultan, Iyad; Gajjar, Amar J.; Abuirmileh, Najyah; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim

2009-01-01

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Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report / Glioblastoma multiforme de região pineal: relato de caso  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Os tumores da região pineal são incomuns e podem ser divididos em três categorias de acordo com a sua origem: células germinativas, células do parênquima e células gliais. Em sua maioria, os gliomas de pineal são astrocitomas de baixo grau, sendo que o seu correspondente maligno, glioblast [...] oma multiforme, é o mais comum e agressivo tumor encefálico e é extremamente raro nesta localização, com apenas alguns casos relatados na literatura. CASO: Mulher com 29 anos apresentando há 2 meses cefaléia, nucalgia, febre, náuseas e crises convulsivas. O exame físico mostrou rigidez de nuca, hipotonia, hipotrofia e hiperreflexia generalizadas, sinal de Babinski e paralisia do VI nervo craniano. A tomografia computadorizada revelou lesão hipodensa mal delimitada na topografia de pineal, com captação heterogênea de contraste. A ressonância magnética demonstrou lesão na região pineal com infiltração de tálamo à direita. A paciente foi submetida a craniotomia direita com ressecção parcial do tumor. O exame histológico definiu o diagnóstico de glioblastoma multiforme. No pós-operatório foi indicada radioterapia, mas a paciente recusou o tratamento e morreu dois meses depois. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de raro nesta topografia, os glioblastomas multiformes devem ser considerados no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões agressivas localizadas na glândula pineal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only f [...] ew cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized hypotony, hypotrophy and hyper-reflexia, Babinski sign and left VI cranial par palsy. CT scan examination revealed a ill-defined hypodense lesion at the pineal region with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. MRI showed a lesion at the pineal region infiltrating the right thalamic region. The patient underwent a right craniotomy with partial resection of the mass. The histological examination of paraffin-embedded material defined the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. Post-operative radiotherapy was indicated but the patient refused the treatment and died two months afterwards. CONCLUSION: in spite of its rarity at this location, glioblastoma multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aggressive lesions at the pineal region.

Emerson Leandro, Gasparetto; Danny, Warszawiak; Guilherme Pradi, Adam; Luiz Fernando, Bleggi-Torres; Arnolfo de, Carvalho Neto.

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Meningiomas of pineal region in children Meningiomas da região da pineal em crianças  

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Full Text Available Meningiomas are uncommon tumors in children and either more rarely encountered in the pineal region. We report two cases of meningioma of the pineal region in children. One of these cases was a five years-old girl and the other a one year-old boy. No specific clinical presentation or tomographic examinations findings was identified before treatment, suggestive of a diagnosis of menigioma. The clinical and laboratory features were very similar to the most common tumors of the pineal region. Prior to the surgery, the histology of these tumors was not suspected. Both patients underwent direct surgery and complete removal was achieved by a suboccipital transtentorial approach. The tumors originated from velum interpositum in both cases. At the follow up, one case presented with recurrence six years later, and she underwent a reoperation with total resection without morbidity. Long-term follow up presented no other recurrences.Meningiomas são tumores poucos frequentes em crianças, e mais raramente encontrados na região da pineal. Relatamos dois casos de meningioma da região da pineal em crianças, uma menina de cinco anos e um menino de um ano de idade. Não foi identificada nenhuma forma de apresentação clinica ou caracteristica tomográfica, antes do tratamento, que sugerisse o diagnóstico de meningioma. As características clinicas e laboratoriais encontradas foram similares às de tumores mais frequentes da região da pineal. Ambos os pacientes foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico e a remoção completa foi obtida por abordagem suboccipital transtentorial. Durante o seguimento, um dos pacientes foi reoperado por recorrencia do tumor seis anos após o tratamento inicial. Atualmente, os pacientes encontram-se livres de recorrência tumoral.

Hamilton Matushita

2007-12-01

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Meningiomas of pineal region in children / Meningiomas da região da pineal em crianças  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Meningiomas são tumores poucos frequentes em crianças, e mais raramente encontrados na região da pineal. Relatamos dois casos de meningioma da região da pineal em crianças, uma menina de cinco anos e um menino de um ano de idade. Não foi identificada nenhuma forma de apresentação clinica ou caracter [...] istica tomográfica, antes do tratamento, que sugerisse o diagnóstico de meningioma. As características clinicas e laboratoriais encontradas foram similares às de tumores mais frequentes da região da pineal. Ambos os pacientes foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico e a remoção completa foi obtida por abordagem suboccipital transtentorial. Durante o seguimento, um dos pacientes foi reoperado por recorrencia do tumor seis anos após o tratamento inicial. Atualmente, os pacientes encontram-se livres de recorrência tumoral. Abstract in english Meningiomas are uncommon tumors in children and either more rarely encountered in the pineal region. We report two cases of meningioma of the pineal region in children. One of these cases was a five years-old girl and the other a one year-old boy. No specific clinical presentation or tomographic exa [...] minations findings was identified before treatment, suggestive of a diagnosis of menigioma. The clinical and laboratory features were very similar to the most common tumors of the pineal region. Prior to the surgery, the histology of these tumors was not suspected. Both patients underwent direct surgery and complete removal was achieved by a suboccipital transtentorial approach. The tumors originated from velum interpositum in both cases. At the follow up, one case presented with recurrence six years later, and she underwent a reoperation with total resection without morbidity. Long-term follow up presented no other recurrences.

Hamilton, Matushita; Fernando Campos, Pinto; José Píndaro Pereira, Plese.

48

Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology / Cirurgia com gamma knife como tratamento experimental para tumores da região da pineal: uma estratégia alternativa quando os dados anatomopatológicos são negativos  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Tumores da região da pineal (TRP) são pouco frequentes e as propostas de tratamento são bastante variadas. Os autores relatam sua experiência em cirurgias com uso gamma knife (CGK) como tratamento experimental inicial em séries de TRP que não têm diagnóstico anatomopatológico ou nos quais o diagnóst [...] ico não ficou claro. Foram estudados retrospectivamente 17 pacientes com TRP nestas condições e que foram submetidos a CGK. Destes, 9 pacientes foram submetidos posteriormente a radioterapia de todo o encéfalo e medula espinhal entre 6 e 9 meses depois da CGK. Dezesseis dos 17 pacientes foram acompanhados por um período médio de 33,3 meses. A taxa total de resposta nos pacientes foi de 75% e a taxa dos controles, 81,3%. Não houve nenhum déficit neurológico evidente que pudesse ser atribuído à CGK. A CGK como tratamento experimental pode ser uma estratégia alternativa no grupo específico de pacientes com TRP em que não há diagnóstico anatomopatológico, podendo ser obtida uma boa qualidade de vida com poucas complicações para esse grupo de pacientes. Abstract in english Objective : Pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method : Seventeen PRT patients with negative [...] pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6–9 months after GKS. Results : Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion : The findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications.

Peng, Wang; Qing, Mao; Wei, Wang; Liang-Xue, Zhou; Yan-Hui, Liu.

2014-02-01

49

Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology / Cirurgia com gamma knife como tratamento experimental para tumores da região da pineal: uma estratégia alternativa quando os dados anatomopatológicos são negativos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Tumores da região da pineal (TRP) são pouco frequentes e as propostas de tratamento são bastante variadas. Os autores relatam sua experiência em cirurgias com uso gamma knife (CGK) como tratamento experimental inicial em séries de TRP que não têm diagnóstico anatomopatológico ou nos quais o diagnóst [...] ico não ficou claro. Foram estudados retrospectivamente 17 pacientes com TRP nestas condições e que foram submetidos a CGK. Destes, 9 pacientes foram submetidos posteriormente a radioterapia de todo o encéfalo e medula espinhal entre 6 e 9 meses depois da CGK. Dezesseis dos 17 pacientes foram acompanhados por um período médio de 33,3 meses. A taxa total de resposta nos pacientes foi de 75% e a taxa dos controles, 81,3%. Não houve nenhum déficit neurológico evidente que pudesse ser atribuído à CGK. A CGK como tratamento experimental pode ser uma estratégia alternativa no grupo específico de pacientes com TRP em que não há diagnóstico anatomopatológico, podendo ser obtida uma boa qualidade de vida com poucas complicações para esse grupo de pacientes. Abstract in english Objective : Pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method : Seventeen PRT patients with negative [...] pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6–9 months after GKS. Results : Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion : The findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications.

Peng, Wang; Qing, Mao; Wei, Wang; Liang-Xue, Zhou; Yan-Hui, Liu.

50

Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only few cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized hypotony, hypotrophy and hyper-reflexia, Babinski sign and left VI cranial par palsy. CT scan examination revealed a ill-defined hypodense lesion at the pineal region with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. MRI showed a lesion at the pineal region infiltrating the right thalamic region. The patient underwent a right craniotomy with partial resection of the mass. The histological examination of paraffin-embedded material defined the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. Post-operative radiotherapy was indicated but the patient refused the treatment and died two months afterwards. CONCLUSION: in spite of its rarity at this location, glioblastoma multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aggressive lesions at the pineal region.

Gasparetto Emerson Leandro

2003-01-01

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Treatment of pineal region lesions: our experience in 39 patients.  

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The pineal region is the origin of lesions with a highly diverse histopathology. The aim of this study was to present our experience in treating patients with the pineal region lesions. In period between 1990 and 2007, 39 patients with pineal region lesions were operated on at the Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital "Sestre milosrdnice", Zagreb, Croatia. The study group consisted of 21 female and 18 male patients with the median age of 24.4 years (4-66 years). Surgery was performed using the infratentorial supracerebellar approach in all patients. The pineal region lesions were removed totally in 23 (58.97%), subtotal in 14 (35.9%) and partially in 2 (5.13%) patients. Pathohistological examination revealed 13 pineocytomas (33.33%), 10 germinomas (25.64%), 7 glial cysts (17.94%), 3 pineoblastomas (7.69%), two pilocytic astrocytomas (7.69%) and one case (2.56%) of papilloma plexus chorioideus, epidermal cyst, yolk sack tumor and ganglioglioma. There was no surgical mortality. Thirteen patients (33.3%) experienced complications in the postoperative period. During the follow-up period that ranged from 3 to 48 months six patients died (15.4%). The infratentorial supracerebellar approach is a safe and effective surgical approach. Benign pineal lesions could be cured with surgery alone. In the case of malignant pineal lesions radical surgical resection allowed determining the exact pathohistological diagnosis and facilitated adjuvant therapy (irradiation and chemotherapy). PMID:20102079

Sajko, Tomislav; Kudeli?, Nenad; Lupret, Velimir; Lupret, Velimir; Nola, Iskra Aleksandra

2009-12-01

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Pineal and ectopic pineal tumors: the role of radiation therapy.  

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Seventeen patients wih pineal tumors and one ectopic (suprasellar) germinoma were treated with radiation therapy. Surgery was restricted to decompression in 16 patients, and only two patients had resection of the tumor. Thirteen of 18 patients are alive without evidence for disease with a ten-year survival rate of 88%. The tumor dose ranged from 4000 rads to 6000 rads. No age or dose dependence in survival was noted, but patients with whole brain irradiation or generous volume to include ventricular system had better survival. No case of spinal metastasis was noted. The possibility of increased incidence of meningeal seeding following surgical intervention is considered. From their data, the authors feel that radiation therapy with or without surgical decompression should be the primary treatment for pinealoma. Surgery can be used for diagnosis and/or treatment of patients who show delayed response to radiation. Recommendation is made for the use of whole brain irradiation to 4000 rads followed by a boost to the tumor area to 5000 rads. PMID:7248896

Rao, Y T; Medini, E; Haselow, R E; Jones, T K; Levitt, S H

1981-08-01

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From the archives of the AFIP: lesions of the pineal region: radiologic-pathologic correlation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lesions of the pineal region include a diverse group of entities. The most common neoplastic lesions are the germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors may be hormonally active, and evaluation of serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels of oncoproteins assists in making the diagnosis. Neoplasms arising from the pineal parenchyma include the low-grade pineocytoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, and the highly malignant pineoblastoma. Germ cell tumors and pineal parenchymal neoplasms do not have pathognomonic imaging findings, but imaging in combination with laboratory evaluation helps narrow the differential diagnosis. Neoplasms may also arise from the variety of cell types residing in the proximity of the pineal gland. These include lipomas, meningiomas, and astrocytomas. Congenital lesions such as epidermoid and dermoid cysts and lipomas can also occur. Knowledge of the variety of lesions that occur in the pineal region, their imaging appearances, and their clinical features assists in narrowing the radiologic differential diagnosis and optimizing patient treatment. PMID:21057132

Smith, Alice Boyd; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Smirniotopoulos, James G

2010-11-01

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Ganglioglioma da região da pineal: relato de caso / Ganglioglioma of the pineal region: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os gangliogliomas são neoplasias mistas, compostas de elementos gliais e neuronais, extremamente raros na região da glândula pineal. Na presente revisão da literatura foram encontrados oito casos publicados. Apresentamos o caso de paciente de 14 anos, masculino, com ganglioglioma da região da pineal [...] , tratado cirurgicamente, com exérese total da lesão por via suboccipital transtentorial. O estudo histológico mostrou tratar-se de ganglioglioma grau I, confirmado por imuno-histoquímica. Conclui-se que tais tumores são raros e que se deve optar pela cirurgia, objetivando a exérese total. Quando isso não for possível, ou no caso de recorrência, o paciente deve ser acompanhado clínica e radiograficamente, considerando-se a radioterapia como tratamento complementar. Abstract in english Ganglioglioma are tumors presenting neoplastic glial cells and nerve cells, very rarely found in the pineal region. Only eight cases have been previously published in the literature. We present the case of a 14 years-old male patient with a ganglioglioma of the pineal region. The patient was treated [...] surgically by a suboccipital transtentorial approach with complete removal. Histopathologic specimens with immunostainning revealed a ganglioglioma grade I. We conclude that these tumors are rare and should be treated surgically aiming total remove. If it is not possible or in case of recorrence the patient should be followed and radiotheraphy could be considered.

Walter José, Fagundes-Pereyra; Larissa de, Sousa; Gervásio Teles de Cardoso, Carvalho; Atos Alves de, Sousa.

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Ganglioglioma da região da pineal: relato de caso Ganglioglioma of the pineal region: case report  

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Full Text Available Os gangliogliomas são neoplasias mistas, compostas de elementos gliais e neuronais, extremamente raros na região da glândula pineal. Na presente revisão da literatura foram encontrados oito casos publicados. Apresentamos o caso de paciente de 14 anos, masculino, com ganglioglioma da região da pineal, tratado cirurgicamente, com exérese total da lesão por via suboccipital transtentorial. O estudo histológico mostrou tratar-se de ganglioglioma grau I, confirmado por imuno-histoquímica. Conclui-se que tais tumores são raros e que se deve optar pela cirurgia, objetivando a exérese total. Quando isso não for possível, ou no caso de recorrência, o paciente deve ser acompanhado clínica e radiograficamente, considerando-se a radioterapia como tratamento complementar.Ganglioglioma are tumors presenting neoplastic glial cells and nerve cells, very rarely found in the pineal region. Only eight cases have been previously published in the literature. We present the case of a 14 years-old male patient with a ganglioglioma of the pineal region. The patient was treated surgically by a suboccipital transtentorial approach with complete removal. Histopathologic specimens with immunostainning revealed a ganglioglioma grade I. We conclude that these tumors are rare and should be treated surgically aiming total remove. If it is not possible or in case of recorrence the patient should be followed and radiotheraphy could be considered.

Walter José Fagundes-Pereyra

2001-09-01

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Multiple remote epidural hematomas following pineal gland tumor resection  

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In cases of pineal tumor combined with obstructive hydrocephalus, preoperative ventriculostomy or ventriculoperitoneal shunting is typically required prior to tumor resection. The objectives of preoperative ventriculostomy are gradual reduction of intracranial pressure and consequent preoperative brain protection. Here we report a case of pineal tumor resection with preoperative ventriculostomy that was complicated by multiple epidural hematomas. While postoperative intracranial hemorrhage ma...

Lim Jeong-Wook; Yang Seung-Hwan; Lee Jong-Soo; Song Shi-Hun

2010-01-01

57

[Transient homonymous hemianopsia due to thrombosis of the confluence of sinuses after occipital transtentorial removal of pineal region tumor].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report a case of 74-year-old woman suffering thrombosis of the confluence of sinuses after the left occipital transtentorial removal of a pineal region epidermoid cyst. Four days after the operation, the patient developed left homonymous hemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a venous infarct in the right occipital lobe and magnetic resonance venography disclosed a signal defect of the posterior part of the confluence of sinuses. The patients' neurological symptom recovered soon after anticoagulation treatment, and magnetic resonance venography after the sixth week showed recanalization of the confluence of sinuses. Although it might be rare, thrombosis of the dural sinus should be recognized as a complication of craniotomy. PMID:21041894

Meguro, Toshinari; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Haruma, Jun; Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Muraoka, Kenichiro; Terada, Kinya; Hirotsune, Nobuyuki; Nishino, Shigeki

2010-10-01

58

Conservative management of pineal tumors - Mayo clinic experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The typical pineal tumor occurs in an adolescent boy with subacute increased intracranial pressure and Parinaud's syndrome. Diagnosis is confirmed by CT scanning, and long-term survival usually following shunting and radiation therapy. Direct surgical methods for successful treatment of suitable pineal tumors have evolved and may be utilized with relatively low risk in appropriate cases

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Multiple remote epidural hematomas following pineal gland tumor resection  

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Full Text Available In cases of pineal tumor combined with obstructive hydrocephalus, preoperative ventriculostomy or ventriculoperitoneal shunting is typically required prior to tumor resection. The objectives of preoperative ventriculostomy are gradual reduction of intracranial pressure and consequent preoperative brain protection. Here we report a case of pineal tumor resection with preoperative ventriculostomy that was complicated by multiple epidural hematomas. While postoperative intracranial hemorrhage may occur at any site, it is rare in those areas remote from the operative field. In the present case, multiple remote sequential epidural hematomas developed following resection of a pineal gland tumor. We also discuss the pathophysiologic mechanisms and provide a literature review.

Lim Jeong-Wook

2010-01-01

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Tumours of the pineal region in childhood  

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36 patients with tumours in the pineal region were treated between 1980 and 1986, 19 of whom were under 20 years of age. Diagnosis was based on cranial CT, supplemented to by MRI as from 1986. Preoperative angiography was peformed on all patients to demonstrate tumour vascularization and type of vascular supply. Stereotactic biopsies were complemented by intraoperative ventriculography. Stereotactic biopsy only was performed in 13 patients out of the total group to verify tumour histology. 23 patients were directly operated on primarily. 3 of these died postoperative. In cases of germ-cell tumours and pineal blastomas the total brain and the vertebral canal were irradiated. (orig./MG)

 
 
 
 
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Failure pattern of pineal and ectopic pineal germ cell tumor after gamma knife radiosurgery  

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This study was performed to determine the optimal treatment volume of patients treating with radiation therapy for intracranial germ cell tumor. From 1993 to 1998, 19 patients with intracranial germ cell tumors treated by gamma knife radiosurgery were analyzed. The location of tumor was as follows; 9 cases on pineal region, 1 case on suprasellar region, and 9 cases of multiple lesion. 7 patients were pathologically verified; 5 cases of germ cell tumor and 2 cases of non germinomatous germ cell tumor. Tumor volume was ranged from 2.4 cm3 to 74 cm3. Irradiation dose was 10 Gy to 20 Gy with 50% isodose curve. Follow up period was 10 months to 54 months. Recurrences were observed in 14 cases among 19 (74%) patients. Complete remission and partial remission were achieved in 2 (11%) and 10 (53%) respectively. No response was observed in 7 (36%). 2 cases were recurred within original tumor bed. 6 cases were recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed. Bentricular relapses separated from pretreatment tumor bed were 3. Spinal recurrences were 4. Among 8 recurred cases of which tumor volume is smaller than 20 cm3, 2 were recurred within original tumor bed, 4 were recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed, and 1 spinal recurrence. Meanwhile, 6 cases of which tumor volume larger than 20 cm3, 1 case was recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed, 2 ventricular recurrences separated with original tumor bed, and 3 spinal recurrencoriginal tumor bed, and 3 spinal recurrences. 5 cases which did not show any recurrence sign show any recurrence sign showed characteristics of single lesion, tumor volume smaller than 20 cm3 and normal tumor marker. All of 4 cases of spinal recurrences happened in the case having ventricular invasion or lesion. Among 9 cases having multiple lesion, only 3 cases recurred within original tumor bed or around tumor bed, the other 6 cases recurred separated from pretreatment tumor bed. Gamma knife radiosurgery is not recommended for the treatment of intracranial germ cell tumor. It is because of small treatment volume and inadequate radiation dose that are characteristics of gamma knife radiosurgery. Tumor volume, ventricular lesion or invasion, and normal tumor marker are ideal indications for small involved field radiation therapy. Prophylactic spinal irradiation seems to be necessary when there is ventricular lesion, ventricular invasion, and multiple lesions. When the tumor volume is larger than 20 cm3, multiple lesions, abnormal tumor marker, and whole ventricular irradiation or partial brain irradiation would be possible and neoadjuvant chemotherapy would be most beneficial in these group

62

A case of teratoma which developed 5 years after radiotherapy for pineal tumor  

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A case of pineal teratoma which developed 5 years after radiotherapy for a pineal tumor at 9 years of age was presented. The patient had been admitted with increased intracranial pressure at 9 years of age. Computerized tomography (CT) scans at that time showed pineal and suprasellar tumors with ventricular dissemination. From the CT scan findings, germinoma was diagnosed and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt followed by radiotherapy was performed. 5550 rads for the brain and 1300 rads for the spinal axis were given. The tumors seemed to have almost disappeared after this therapy, and the patient continued to do well until he complained of severe headache and general fatigue in September 1984. CT scans after infusion of contrast media showed a ringed enhanced tumor at the pineal region with extension to the left thalamus. With a preoperative diagnosis of teratoma, he was operated for the subtotal removal of the tumor and was discharged with slight mental dullness two months post-operatively. Histological diagnosis of the specimen was a mature teratoma. From the response of the tumor to radiotherapy in the first admission and from the histological findings, the tumor was thought to be a mixed germ cell tumor. The authors summarized the characteristic findings of mixed germ cell tumor on CT scan and discussed the treatment for pineal tumor. (author)

63

Failure pattern of pineal and ectopic pineal germ cell tumor after gamma knife radiosurgery  

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This study was performed to determine the optimal treatment volume of patients treating with radiation therapy for intracranial germ cell tumor. From 1993 to 1998, 19 patients with intracranial germ cell tumors treated by gamma knife radiosurgery were analyzed. The location of tumor was as follows; 9 cases on pineal region, 1 case on suprasellar region, and 9 cases of multiple lesion. 7 patients were pathologically verified; 5 cases of germ cell tumor and 2 cases of non germinomatous germ cell tumor. Tumor volume was ranged from 2.4 cm{sup 3} to 74 cm{sup 3}. Irradiation dose was 10 Gy to 20 Gy with 50% isodose curve. Follow up period was 10 months to 54 months. Recurrences were observed in 14 cases among 19 (74%) patients. Complete remission and partial remission were achieved in 2 (11%) and 10 (53%) respectively. No response was observed in 7 (36%). 2 cases were recurred within original tumor bed. 6 cases were recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed. Bentricular relapses separated from pretreatment tumor bed were 3. Spinal recurrences were 4. Among 8 recurred cases of which tumor volume is smaller than 20 cm{sup 3}, 2 were recurred within original tumor bed, 4 were recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed, and 1 spinal recurrence. Meanwhile, 6 cases of which tumor volume larger than 20 cm{sup 3}, 1 case was recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed, 2 ventricular recurrences separated with original tumor bed, and 3 spinal recurrences. 5 cases which did not show any recurrence sign show any recurrence sign showed characteristics of single lesion, tumor volume smaller than 20 cm{sup 3} and normal tumor marker. All of 4 cases of spinal recurrences happened in the case having ventricular invasion or lesion. Among 9 cases having multiple lesion, only 3 cases recurred within original tumor bed or around tumor bed, the other 6 cases recurred separated from pretreatment tumor bed. Gamma knife radiosurgery is not recommended for the treatment of intracranial germ cell tumor. It is because of small treatment volume and inadequate radiation dose that are characteristics of gamma knife radiosurgery. Tumor volume, ventricular lesion or invasion, and normal tumor marker are ideal indications for small involved field radiation therapy. Prophylactic spinal irradiation seems to be necessary when there is ventricular lesion, ventricular invasion, and multiple lesions. When the tumor volume is larger than 20 cm{sup 3}, multiple lesions, abnormal tumor marker, and whole ventricular irradiation or partial brain irradiation would be possible and neoadjuvant chemotherapy would be most beneficial in these group.

Cho, Heung Lae; Sohn, Seung Chang [College of Medicine, Inje Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

2000-06-01

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Primary malignant melanoma in the pineal region treated without chemotherapy  

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Background: Primary pineal malignant melanomas are uncommon intracranial tumor. Here we discuss and review a case of primary pineal malignant melanoma over its feature of imaging studies, pathological findings, and management. Case Description: A 49-year-old woman receiving renal dialysis underwent computed tomography due to a 4-month history of tinnitus and hearing disturbance. A high-density 35-mm diameter tumor was detected in the pineal region; there was obstructive hydrocephalus. The tumor was heterogeneously hyperintense on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images, iso- and low-mixed intense on T2-weighted images with hemorrhagic components, and very low-intense on T2* images. A tumor was subtotally removed via the occipital transtentorial approach. Histologically, it consisted of densely proliferated spindle-shaped or polygonal cells with rich cytoplasmic melanin. The neoplastic cells manifested cellular pleomorphism, nuclear atypia, and mitosis (3/10 high-power fields) and were immunopositive for HMB45, Melan-A, and S100 protein. The MIB-1 index was 17.4%. Whole-body 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography did not demonstrate any sites with hyper uptake. Examination of the skin and mucosa identified no lesions suggestive of melanoma. She underwent treatment with the whole brain and extended local boost irradiation. Chemotherapy was not delivered due to renal failure. Follow-up imaging studies showed no recurrence or distant lesions 56 weeks after surgery. Conclusion: We report a rare case of primary pineal malignant melanoma with prolonged survival of more than 56 weeks after subtotal tumor resection followed by whole-brain and extended local irradiation without chemotherapy. Radiotherapy without chemotherapy might be sufficient for the treatment of this tumor. PMID:23226609

Shinsato, Yoshinari; Hanada, Tomoko; Kisanuki, Takao; Yonezawa, Hajime; Yunoue, Shunji; Yoshioka, Takako; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Hirano, Hirofumi; Arita, Kazunori

2012-01-01

65

Radiotherapy for tumours of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas (by Glanzmann and Seelentag)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this letter to the editor the authors agree with Glanzmann and Seelentag that, for tumors of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas, empirical radiotherapy after ventriculoperitoneal shunting can give gratifying results, particularly in patients under the age of 30. On the other hand they strongly recommend an aggressive surgical approach as the initial therapeutic manoever for pineal tumors. The authors further clearly indicate in which cases radiotherapy or chemotherapy is recommended as the next therapeutic option. (author). 4 refs

66

Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples / Magnetic resonance study of the pineal region: normal pineal gland, simple cysts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo) identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4%) [...] e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu maior diâmetro. Os cistos simples da pineal aparecem com frequência de 2,6% em relação a toda a série (762 casos) elevando-se essa frequência para 6,1% se forem consideradas somente as pineais visiblizadas (329 casos). Os cistos simples não se correlacionam nem com a idade nem com o sexo e os cistos sintomáticos são raros. Os critérios para diagnóstico diferencial dos cistos simples versus tumores da região da pineal são: dimensões menores ou iguais a 20 milímetros; espessura da parede abaixo de 2 milímetros; ausência de efeito expansivo; sinal igual ao líquido cefalorraquidiano e ausência de crescimento dos cistos. Abstract in english A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the normal pineal gland and pineal simple cysts was performed in 762 cases. A fine section technique (maximum 3 millimeters) enabled most of the times the identifying of a normal pineal in addition to demonstrating that a pineal without any cyst shows an i [...] sointense signal in Tl and T2 which, in turn, is enhanced following gadolinium. The measure of the normal pineal was of about 6.1 millimeters in its diameter length. Pineal simple cysts were observed in a 2.6% frequency in relation to the whole series (762 cases); however reaches 6.1% when only the visualized pineals were considered (329 cases). Also, it was found out that simple cysts were not correlated to age or gender. Simple cysts characteristics are: dimension less or equal to 20 millimeters; absence of expansive effect; similar signal to that of the cerebrospinal fluid; absence of cyst growth.

JOSÉ GUILHERME, CALDAS; DOMINIQUE, DOYON; HENRIQUE, LEDERMAN; ROBERT, CARLIER.

1998-06-01

67

Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples Magnetic resonance study of the pineal region: normal pineal gland, simple cysts  

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Full Text Available Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4% e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu maior diâmetro. Os cistos simples da pineal aparecem com frequência de 2,6% em relação a toda a série (762 casos elevando-se essa frequência para 6,1% se forem consideradas somente as pineais visiblizadas (329 casos. Os cistos simples não se correlacionam nem com a idade nem com o sexo e os cistos sintomáticos são raros. Os critérios para diagnóstico diferencial dos cistos simples versus tumores da região da pineal são: dimensões menores ou iguais a 20 milímetros; espessura da parede abaixo de 2 milímetros; ausência de efeito expansivo; sinal igual ao líquido cefalorraquidiano e ausência de crescimento dos cistos.A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study of the normal pineal gland and pineal simple cysts was performed in 762 cases. A fine section technique (maximum 3 millimeters enabled most of the times the identifying of a normal pineal in addition to demonstrating that a pineal without any cyst shows an isointense signal in Tl and T2 which, in turn, is enhanced following gadolinium. The measure of the normal pineal was of about 6.1 millimeters in its diameter length. Pineal simple cysts were observed in a 2.6% frequency in relation to the whole series (762 cases; however reaches 6.1% when only the visualized pineals were considered (329 cases. Also, it was found out that simple cysts were not correlated to age or gender. Simple cysts characteristics are: dimension less or equal to 20 millimeters; absence of expansive effect; similar signal to that of the cerebrospinal fluid; absence of cyst growth.

JOSÉ GUILHERME CALDAS

1998-06-01

68

Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples / Magnetic resonance study of the pineal region: normal pineal gland, simple cysts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo) identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4%) [...] e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu maior diâmetro. Os cistos simples da pineal aparecem com frequência de 2,6% em relação a toda a série (762 casos) elevando-se essa frequência para 6,1% se forem consideradas somente as pineais visiblizadas (329 casos). Os cistos simples não se correlacionam nem com a idade nem com o sexo e os cistos sintomáticos são raros. Os critérios para diagnóstico diferencial dos cistos simples versus tumores da região da pineal são: dimensões menores ou iguais a 20 milímetros; espessura da parede abaixo de 2 milímetros; ausência de efeito expansivo; sinal igual ao líquido cefalorraquidiano e ausência de crescimento dos cistos. Abstract in english A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the normal pineal gland and pineal simple cysts was performed in 762 cases. A fine section technique (maximum 3 millimeters) enabled most of the times the identifying of a normal pineal in addition to demonstrating that a pineal without any cyst shows an i [...] sointense signal in Tl and T2 which, in turn, is enhanced following gadolinium. The measure of the normal pineal was of about 6.1 millimeters in its diameter length. Pineal simple cysts were observed in a 2.6% frequency in relation to the whole series (762 cases); however reaches 6.1% when only the visualized pineals were considered (329 cases). Also, it was found out that simple cysts were not correlated to age or gender. Simple cysts characteristics are: dimension less or equal to 20 millimeters; absence of expansive effect; similar signal to that of the cerebrospinal fluid; absence of cyst growth.

JOSÉ GUILHERME, CALDAS; DOMINIQUE, DOYON; HENRIQUE, LEDERMAN; ROBERT, CARLIER.

69

Pineal yolk sac tumor: correlation between neuroimaging and pathological findings Tumor do seio endodérmico da pineal: correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem  

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Full Text Available A 17-year-old boy presented with somnolence and mental confusion. Physical examination demonstrated motor disturbances. Laboratorial investigation showed elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The CT scan revealed a heterogeneous mass at the pineal region. At the MRI, this lesion was hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, enhancing after contrast administration. The patient underwent a surgical biopsy, which defined the diagnosis of yolk sac tumor. We emphasize the correlation of neuroimaging and pathological findings of this rare pineal region tumor.Um menino de 17 anos de idade apresentou-se com sonolência e confusão mental. O exame físico demonstrou distúrbios motores. A investigação laboratorial revelou aumento dos níveis de alfafetoproteína no soro e no líquor. A TC de crânio revelou massa heterogênea na região pineal. À RM, a lesão era hipointensa em T1 e hiperintensa em T2, com realce após a administração de contraste. O paciente foi submetido a biópsia cirúrgica, a qual definiu o diagnóstico de tumor do seio endodérmico. Enfatizamos a correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem deste raro tumor da região pineal.

Taísa Davaus

2007-06-01

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Pineal yolk sac tumor: correlation between neuroimaging and pathological findings / Tumor do seio endodérmico da pineal: correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um menino de 17 anos de idade apresentou-se com sonolência e confusão mental. O exame físico demonstrou distúrbios motores. A investigação laboratorial revelou aumento dos níveis de alfafetoproteína no soro e no líquor. A TC de crânio revelou massa heterogênea na região pineal. À RM, a lesão era hip [...] ointensa em T1 e hiperintensa em T2, com realce após a administração de contraste. O paciente foi submetido a biópsia cirúrgica, a qual definiu o diagnóstico de tumor do seio endodérmico. Enfatizamos a correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem deste raro tumor da região pineal. Abstract in english A 17-year-old boy presented with somnolence and mental confusion. Physical examination demonstrated motor disturbances. Laboratorial investigation showed elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The CT scan revealed a heterogeneous mass at the pineal region. At the MRI, [...] this lesion was hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, enhancing after contrast administration. The patient underwent a surgical biopsy, which defined the diagnosis of yolk sac tumor. We emphasize the correlation of neuroimaging and pathological findings of this rare pineal region tumor.

Taísa, Davaus; Emerson L., Gasparetto; Arnolfo de, Carvalho Neto; Juliana Elizabeth, Jung; Luiz Fernando, Bleggi-Torres.

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Masses of the pineal region: clinical presentation and radiographic features.  

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The pineal gland is important in structure, function and in the pathology that can affect it. The significance of the pathology of the gland and its adjacent structures is twofold: anatomical location, and biological behaviour of many of the lesions. The gland is in a critical anatomic location, and as the dorsal portions of the midbrain are compressed, patients may present with obstructive hydrocephalus, and/or with focal neurology. Masses and tumours of the pineal region range widely in behaviour, from the completely benign (eg, pineal cyst) to highly malignant (eg, pineoblastoma). Masses in the pineal region may be benign cysts (most common mass), tumours of various sources as well as rare vascular malformations that result in mass effect. Tumours of the pineal region represent a variety of histologies. Germ cell tumours are the most common: germinomas (50%), teratoma (15%), and choricocarcinoma (5%). Primary tumours of the pineal region make up 15% of all pineal tumours and represent a spectrum of aggressiveness. Other less common tumours also occur in the pineal region including metastatic spread and direct invasion from tumours arising in adjacent structures. Accurate diagnosis is essential to plan appropriate management, and early referral for medical imaging is a necessary first step. Although there is significant overlap in the imaging characteristics of some pineal masses, a distinction between aggressive and benign lesions is usually possible, and invaluable preoperative information is obtained in patients who require histological diagnosis. PMID:20971711

Gaillard, Frank; Jones, Jeremy

2010-10-01

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Gliosarcoma of the pineal region with cerebellar metastasis: case illustration.  

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A very rare case of gliosarcoma of the pineal region with cerebellar metastasis is presented. A few cases of glioblastoma and fibrosarcoma have already been published however there was no reported case with gliosarcoma at the pineal region even with cerebellar metastases. PMID:22338845

Banczerowski, Péter; Vajda, János; Bálint, Katalin; Sipos, László

2012-01-30

73

Radiation therapy for pineal tumors: 30-year experience at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighteen tumors of the pineal region were treated at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital since 1957. Preoperative evaluation included CT scan in 11 patients and cerebrospinal fluid cytology in four. Histologic diagnosis was obtained in nine patients. Diagnosis in two other patients was based on CT scan response at 2,000 cGY. Fifteen patients received whole-brain irradiation with a boost, one each with limited-field and whole-brain irradiation only. One patient with melanoma received craniospinal irradiation. Median pineal dose was 55 Gy; range, 50-60 Gy. Five treatment failures occurred, four local and one distant. Actuarial survival was 80%, 70%, and 65% at 5, 10, and 20 years. Median follow-up was 8.8 years. Cranial radiotherapy alone appears to control the majority of pineal tumors

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Radiation Therapy of Midline Pineal Tumors and Suprasellar Germinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

20 cases of midline pineal tumors and 3 suprasellar germinomas received radiation therapy at Yonsei University Medical College, Severance hospital from 1971 to 1982 were reviewed. 12 cases were pathologically proved; 10 germinomas, 1 pineoblastoma, and 1 pineocytoma. 11 cases received radiotherapy without biopsy confirmation. Although treatment fields varied from small field to whole brain irradiation, but not to the spinal cord, most patients received 4000-5000 rads irradiation to the primary tumor site. 17 patients are alive without evidence of disease and 5 year actuarial NED survival is 73.2%. 9 of 10 biopsy proved germinomas and all 6 presumed germinomas are alive and well. Optimum radiation dose, adequate irradiation field, tumor response to radiation observed in serial CT scan and role of radiation therapy in the management of pineal tumors are also discussed

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Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe CT and MR findings in a 23-month-old infant with a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal gland. The tumour has been stereotactically biopsied and surgically resected. The pathological diagnosis was made on the resected piece. Embryology of the pineal gland and the histology of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy are discussed. (orig.)

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Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe CT and MR findings in a 23-month-old infant with a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal gland. The tumour has been stereotactically biopsied and surgically resected. The pathological diagnosis was made on the resected piece. Embryology of the pineal gland and the histology of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy are discussed. (orig.)

Gorhan, C.; Soto-Ares, G.; Pruvo, J.P. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, Lille (France); Ruchoux, M.M. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France); Blond, S. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France)

2001-11-01

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RAdiotherapy for tumours of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between 1960 and 1985, 42 patinets with pineal region tumors and two patients with suprasellar germinomas were treated by irradiation after shuntin gwith biopsy in five cases and subtotal resection in three cases. Ten year survival rates are: 79% in patients less than 31 years old and unbiopsied tumours, 25% in patients older than 30 years and unbiopsied tumours, 3/4 in patients with germinomas. Target volumes varied, but only three cases had craniospinal irradiation. Cumulative risk of spinal seeding in patients with germinomas and unbiolsied tumors is about 6% after cranal radiotherapy. The low risk of spinal seeding in patients with pineal tumours of unknown histology or germinomas without signs of dissemination in the CT/MR, myelography, examination of the CSF (cytology and markers) do not justify prophylactic spinal irradiation. Our data do not show a clear association between cranial target volume (whole brain or local fields) and recurrence rate 41 of 44 cases had target doses higher than 4400 cGy. There is a small but definite risk of major complications after a dose of about 5500 cGy with conventional fractionation. (author). 27 refs.; 5 figs.

Glanzmann, C. (Universitaetsspital Zuerich (Switzerland). Department Medizinische Radiologie, Klinik fuer Radio-Onkologie); Seelentag, W. (Kantonspital Sakt Gallen (Switzerland). Klinik fuer Radio-Onkologie)

1989-09-01

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RAdiotherapy for tumours of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 1960 and 1985, 42 patinets with pineal region tumors and two patients with suprasellar germinomas were treated by irradiation after shuntin gwith biopsy in five cases and subtotal resection in three cases. Ten year survival rates are: 79% in patients less than 31 years old and unbiopsied tumours, 25% in patients older than 30 years and unbiopsied tumours, 3/4 in patients with germinomas. Target volumes varied, but only three cases had craniospinal irradiation. Cumulative risk of spinal seeding in patients with germinomas and unbiolsied tumors is about 6% after cranal radiotherapy. The low risk of spinal seeding in patients with pineal tumours of unknown histology or germinomas without signs of dissemination in the CT/MR, myelography, examination of the CSF (cytology and markers) do not justify prophylactic spinal irradiation. Our data do not show a clear association between cranial target volume (whole brain or local fields) and recurrence rate 41 of 44 cases had target doses higher than 4400 cGy. There is a small but definite risk of major complications after a dose of about 5500 cGy with conventional fractionation. (author). 27 refs.; 5 figs

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Patofysiologiske mekanismer bag øjensymptomer ved primaere tumorer i corpus pineale.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Primary tumors of the pineal body can produce dyscoordinative movements of the eye, pupillary dilatation, paralysis of adduction during convergence and nystagmus. Obstruction of the aqueduct can cause hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure and papilledema. Diabetes insipidus may be a presenting symptom. Pinealocytes and the photoreceptors of the eye contain several autoantigens. In man, the best known is the S-antigen. This antigen can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with primary tumors of the pineal body. The S-antigen, and possibly other related autoantigens, can elicit an autoimmune mediated reaction causing inflammatory eye symptoms. This recently described paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome shares properties in common with other known cancer-associated ophthalmologic syndromes characterised by rapid development of eye symptoms, rapid loss of sight and by eye manifestations prior to evident appearance of symptoms related to primary tumor growth. A primary tumor of the pineal body should be considered in patients where a monosymptomatic uveoretinitis presents without associated provoking factors. Furthermore, analyses of S-antigen in the spinal fluid can be useful in the clinical diagnosis of the same primary tumors.

Illum, N O; MØller, M

1993-01-01

80

Intracranial germinomas with simultaneous lesions at pineal and suprasellar regions: diagnostics and therapeutics considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germinomas are the most common intracranial germ cell tumor. Germinomas comprise 65% of this type of tumor and represent a less malignant form. This neoplasm constitutes approximately 0.1% to 3.4% of all intracranial tumors. The embryologic origin remains a mystery. Ninety-five percent of germinomas arise in the region of the third ventricle, along an axis from the suprasellar cistern (48%) to the pineal region (37%, involvement of both sites, either sequentially or simultaneously, ocurred rarely (6%). Clinical presentation depends on tumor location and may involve endocrine, hypothalamic, visual and cognitive dysfunction. We report two cases of patients with germinomas with simultaneous lesions in both the suprasellar and pineal regions and review on the clinical presentation, means of diagnosis, treatment using radiotherapy and outcome of this rate treatable neoplasm. (The author)

 
 
 
 
81

Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery of pineal and related tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of gamma radiosurgery as an additional therapy after conventional treatments for pineal and related tumors was studied in 30 out of 33 cases with a mean follow-up of 23.3 months. Overall results showed that complete response (CR) was obtained in 8 cases (26.7%) and response rate was 73.3%. However, enlargement of the tumors was noted in 8 cases, of which 7 (23.3%) died of tumor progression (PG). Germinomas and pineocytomas showed higher response and control rates of 100%, and no tumor enlargement or death occurred after gamma knife treatment. In germinoma with STGC (syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell) which has been thought to have intermediate prognosis, two cases showed partial response (PR), but another died from progression of the disease. Malignant germ cell tumors and pineoblastomas showed unfavorable response and prognosis; the response and progression rates were 50%. However, complete response was obtained in 3 cases (25%) after gamma radiosurgery. Gamma knife was the initial treatment in three cases without pathological diagnosis in which one obtained CR and two showed partial response (PR). Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery is expected to be an effective and novel treatment for pineal and related tumors not only as an adjuvant, but also as an initial therapy. (author)

82

Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery of pineal and related tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of gamma radiosurgery as an additional therapy after conventional treatments for pineal and related tumors was studied in 30 out of 33 cases with a mean follow-up of 23.3 months. Overall results showed that complete response (CR) was obtained in 8 cases (26.7%) and response rate was 73.3%. However, enlargement of the tumors was noted in 8 cases, of which 7 (23.3%) died of tumor progression (PG). Germinomas and pineocytomas showed higher response and control rates of 100%, and no tumor enlargement or death occurred after gamma knife treatment. In germinoma with STGC (syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell) which has been thought to have intermediate prognosis, two cases showed partial response (PR), but another died from progression of the disease. Malignant germ cell tumors and pineoblastomas showed unfavorable response and prognosis; the response and progression rates were 50%. However, complete response was obtained in 3 cases (25%) after gamma radiosurgery. Gamma knife was the initial treatment in three cases without pathological diagnosis in which one obtained CR and two showed partial response (PR). Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery is expected to be an effective and novel treatment for pineal and related tumors not only as an adjuvant, but also as an initial therapy. (author)

Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Mori, Yoshimasa; Yamada, Yasushi; Kida, Yoshihisa [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan). Gamma Knife Center

2001-06-01

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Pineal mixed germ cell tumor with a synchronous sellar lesion in the sixth decade.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) typically affect children and adolescents. We here report on a 59-year-old male patient presenting with diplopia, polydipsia and polyuria. On clinical examination, slight restriction of the upward gaze was seen on the left side. Computed tomography demonstrated calcifications in the pineal region and enhanced neurohypophysis. Magnetic resonance imaging displayed a heterogeneous pineal mass of 3-cm diameter, which was multicystic with an enhanced cyst wall, and also swelling of the pituitary stalk. The pineal lesion of the tumor, which included calcifications and keratinaceous components, was totally excised using an occipital transtentorial approach. Histopathological examination showed it to be a mixed GCT with germinoma and mature teratoma components. Postoperative chemoradiotherapy provided complete disappearance of the suprasellar lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of mixed bifocal GCT in an older adult reported in the literature, although a few cases of tumors with a single histological component have been reported. Hence, our case further underlines the possibility of the occurrence of GCTs in older adults and advocates the consideration of GCTs in the differential diagnosis of such cases for appropriate management. PMID:21287366

Bohara, Manoj; Hirano, Hirofumi; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Yonezawa, Hajime; Campos, Francia; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Sugata, Sei; Arita, Kazunori

2011-04-01

84

Pineal and ectopic pineal tumors: the role of radiation therapy. [X ray; /sup 60/Co  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seventeen patients with pineal tumors and one ectopic (suprasellar) germinoma were treated with radiation therapy. Surgery was restricted to decompression in 16 patients, and only two patients had resection of the tumor. Thirteen of 18 patients are alive without evidence for disease with a ten-year surrvival rate of 88%. The tumor dose ranged from 4000 rads to 6000 rads. No age or dose dependence in survival was noted, but patients with whole brain irradiation or generous volume to include ventricular system had better survival. No case of spinal metastasis was noted. The possibility of increased incidence of meningeal seeding following surgical intervention is considered. From their data, the authors feel that radiation therapy with or without surgical decompression should be the primary treatment for pinealoma. Surgery can be used for diagnosis and/or treatment of patients who show delayed response to radiation. Recommendation is made for the use of whole brain irradiation to 4000 rads followed by a boost to the tumor area to 5000 rads.

Rao, Y.T.R.; Medini, E.; Haselow, R.E.; Jones, T.K. Jr.; Levitt, S.H.

1981-08-01

85

Endoscopic diagnosis of a pineal papillary glioneuronal tumor with extensive ventricular involvement: Case report with review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Papillary glioneuronal tumor (PGNT is a newly described mixed glioneuronal tumor, recently included in the World Health Organization classification of central nervous system tumors. We report morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics PGNT of the pineal region extending into the third and lateral ventricles in a four-year-old male child and reviewed all the cases reported in the international literature till date. In this child the diagnosis of PGNT was established by endoscopic biopsy and squash smear examination.

Husain Nuzhat

2009-01-01

86

Masses in the pineal region - MRI with Gd-DTPA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results obtained from contrast-enhanced MRI in 21 patients with masses in the pineal region are reported. The use of gadolinium-DTPA results in intensive contrast uptake by the tumour; this produces better definition of the tumour and more exact delineation from neighbouring structures. This is of importance in judging resectability and in choosing the operative approach. During chemotherapy or radiotherapy, it provides reliable demonstration of the success of treatment and accurately demonstrates the size of the tumour and the presence of necrosis. On the other hand, histologic classification of pineal tumours is possible only occasionally. (orig.)

87

Clinical and neurophysiological changes in patients with pineal region expansions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last 20 years neurological and neurosurgical follow up of our patients with pineal region expansions (118 patients) pointed to certain clinical and neurophysiological regularities. We performed retrospective study which included 84 patients with pineal region expansions in the period from 1992 to 2009. The study included 55 women and 29 men, mean age 30.08 +/- 13.93 years, with positive brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)--70 patients (83.4%) had simple pineal gland cysts, and 14 patients (16.67%) had expansive process in pineal region with compressive effect. All patients had headache, while 32 patients (38%) had epileptic phenomena--primary generalized seizures. Patients had common electroencephalography (EEG) pattern with paroxysmal discharges of 3Hz (or more than 3 Hz) spike-and-wave complexes. Operation with supracerebellar infratentorial approach was performed in 70 patients. In most of our patients indication for the operation was established based on the size of the cyst (15 mm or more), with the signs of compression on the quadrigeminal plate and compression of the surrounding veins, which could result in seizures and EEG changes verified in our group of patients. Pathohistological analysis revealed pineocytomas in 11 cases (15.71%), pinealoblastomas in 2 cases (2.86%), one case of teratoma (1.43%), while 56 patients had pineal gland cysts (80%). Following surgery clinical condition improved in all patients--patients became seizure-free and headaches significantly decreased. Other symptoms including diplopiae, nausea, vomiting, vertigo as well as blurred vision also disappeared. There were no complications after surgical procedures. This study points to often appearance of seizures that clinically and neurophysiologically present as primary generalized epilepsy in patients with pineal region expansions. Our hypotheses are that mass effect on the surrounding veins that affects normal perfusion, compressive effect on the quadrigeminal plate and the aqueduct of the midbrain, hemosiderin deposists, as well as secretion disturbances of anticonvulsive agent melatonin can be involved in the pathogenesis of seizures. We suggest to perform high resolution brain MRI with special demonstration of pineal region in all young patients that have seizures and specific EEG changes. PMID:23697248

Hajnsek, Sanja; Paladino, Josip; Gadze, Zeljka Petelin; Nankovi?, Sibila; Mrak, Goran; Lupret, Velimir

2013-03-01

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The unilateral occipital transtentorial approach for pineal region meningiomas: a report of 15 cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the current study, we reviewed and re-evaluated the experiences of microsurgical management for pineal region meningiomas via the unilateral occipital transtentorial approach (Poppen's approach). Clinical data were obtained on 15 meningiomas of the pineal region, which underwent microsurgery via unilateral Poppen's approach from March 2009 to June 2012. These patients were hospitalized in our department; their data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The tumors were removed via the right Poppen's approach in 12 cases and left Poppen's approach in 3 cases, and intraoperative external ventricular drainage was performed for hydrocephalus in 3 cases. As a result, gross total resection was achieved in 11 cases, near total resection in 3 cases and subtotal resection in 1 case. All resected tumors were pathologically confirmed. The postoperative complications included two cases of homonymous hemianopia, and deteriorated Parinaud syndrome and diplopia in one case. Ten cases were followed up (range 1-4 years) and no death occurred. On the basis of the existing literature and our experiences, the unilateral Poppen's approach is appropriate for most meningiomas of the pineal region that are small or intermediate in size. However, gross total resection might be difficult via the unilateral Poppen's approach for large-sized meningiomas with much contralateral infratentorial extension due to limited exposure. For these cases, combined supra-infratentorial or bilateral Poppen's approaches are recommended. Preoperative or intraoperative external ventricular drainage can increase tumor exposure and improve microsurgical effects. PMID:24397496

Qiu, Bo; Wang, Yong; Ou, Shaowu; Guo, Zongze; Wang, Yunjie

2014-10-01

89

Pineal tumors in children and adolescents. Treatment by CSF shunting and radiotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumors of the pineal region account for 3% to 8% of pediatric intracranial tumors. The treatment of such tumors has been in a state of flux between conservative therapy (cerebrospinal fluid shunting and radiotherapy) and direct surgical removal. A brief history and review of the literature with analysis of both approaches is given, and the Mayo Clinic's experience with conservative treatment of tumors in the pineal region in patients 20 years old and younger (27 cases) is studied and analyzed. The series comprises 21 boys and six girls, with an age range of 1 to 20 years (mean 13.7 years). Follow-up examinations are complete and range from 1 to 24 years, with a mean follow-up period of 7.8 years. The median survival time for these patients treated with shunt and radiotherapy is 17.7 years. There was no mortality from treatment and complications were rare. The details of the clinical presentation, diagnostic findings, pathology, therapy, recurrence, and survival are presented. All patients under 6 years of age (six cases) had recurrences, 50% in other areas in the brain and 50% in the spinal cord, perhaps pointing to the need for whole-brain and spinal-axis irradiation in patients in this age group. The results of this study of the conservative approach form a standard against which results of any other type of therapy may be compared. PMID:7299463

Abay, E O; Laws, E R; Grado, G L; Bruckman, J E; Forbes, G S; Gomez, M R; Scott, M

1981-12-01

90

Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples Magnetic resonance study of the pineal region: normal pineal gland, simple cysts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo) identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4%) e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu maior diâmetro. Os ...

JOSÉ GUILHERME CALDAS; DOMINIQUE DOYON; HENRIQUE LEDERMAN; ROBERT CARLIER

1998-01-01

91

The role of computed tomography in the management of pineal area tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eleven patients with pathology-proven pineal area tumors were evaluated by computed tomography before and after treatment. There were 3 germinomas, 3 gliomas, 2 metastases, and 1 each of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, epidermoid tumor, and neuroblastoma. An accurate CT diagnosis was made in 9 of the 11 cases. Although CT findings are not pathognomonic, an accurate diagnosis is possible in most cases if the CT information is combined with the age, sex, clinical findings, and, in some patients, tumor response to irradiation. CT, a noninvasive procedure, can help in evaluating the effects of various treatment modalities on pineal tumors

92

Germinomas cerebrais (teratomas atípicos da pineal) / Cerebral germinomas (atipical teratomas of the pineal region)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São estudados três casos de germinomas cerebrais, sendo um tópico, da região pineal, e dois ectópicos, chamados germinomas supra-selares ou quiasmáticos. Estes últimos parecem ser mais agressivos que os seus congeneres tópicos, pois alem de se disseminarem pelas cisternas basais, costumam infiltrar [...] as paredes do III ventrículo, fórnix, hipotálamo, nervos e quiasma ópticos. Caracteristicamente produzem um enorme aumento das proteínas liquóricas, desacompanhado de uma pleocitose proporcional. As proteínas liquóricas aumentadas sao globulinas cujas reações mostram-se fortemente positivas, possivelmente produzidas pelas celulas de aspecto linfocitario que constituem parte desta neoplasia. O aumento das proteinas liquoricas e tao acentuado que em presenca de uma crianca ou adolescente com sindrome de hipertensão intracraniana, hiperproteinoraquia sem pleocitose e sinais clínicos ou radiológicos sugestivos de localização na base do crânio a possibilidade de um germinoma quiasmático deve ser seriamente considerada, pois o quadro e muito sugestivo. Abstract in english Three cases of Cerebral Germinomas, one of them situated in the pineal region (topical) and two ectopical of the so called suprasellar or chiasmal Germinomas are studied. These last ones may be more aggressive than the congeneral topical ones, since besides it's dissemination throughout the basal ci [...] sternas they usually infilstrate into de walls of the III Ventricle, Fornix, Hypothalamus, Chiasma and Optic nervs. A high level of proteins in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells is characteristic. Globulins are the predominant fraction of the increased spinal fluid proteins, as indicated by the highly positive laboratory test. These globulins are possibly produced by the lymphocytes which are part of this neoplasm. The high level of protein in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells, in the presence of intracranial syndrome in a child or adolescent, with anatomical signs of basal localization make the possibility of a Chiasmal Germinona highly probable.

Alexandre, Alencar.

93

Germinomas cerebrais (teratomas atípicos da pineal Cerebral germinomas (atipical teratomas of the pineal region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available São estudados três casos de germinomas cerebrais, sendo um tópico, da região pineal, e dois ectópicos, chamados germinomas supra-selares ou quiasmáticos. Estes últimos parecem ser mais agressivos que os seus congeneres tópicos, pois alem de se disseminarem pelas cisternas basais, costumam infiltrar as paredes do III ventrículo, fórnix, hipotálamo, nervos e quiasma ópticos. Caracteristicamente produzem um enorme aumento das proteínas liquóricas, desacompanhado de uma pleocitose proporcional. As proteínas liquóricas aumentadas sao globulinas cujas reações mostram-se fortemente positivas, possivelmente produzidas pelas celulas de aspecto linfocitario que constituem parte desta neoplasia. O aumento das proteinas liquoricas e tao acentuado que em presenca de uma crianca ou adolescente com sindrome de hipertensão intracraniana, hiperproteinoraquia sem pleocitose e sinais clínicos ou radiológicos sugestivos de localização na base do crânio a possibilidade de um germinoma quiasmático deve ser seriamente considerada, pois o quadro e muito sugestivo.Three cases of Cerebral Germinomas, one of them situated in the pineal region (topical and two ectopical of the so called suprasellar or chiasmal Germinomas are studied. These last ones may be more aggressive than the congeneral topical ones, since besides it's dissemination throughout the basal cisternas they usually infilstrate into de walls of the III Ventricle, Fornix, Hypothalamus, Chiasma and Optic nervs. A high level of proteins in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells is characteristic. Globulins are the predominant fraction of the increased spinal fluid proteins, as indicated by the highly positive laboratory test. These globulins are possibly produced by the lymphocytes which are part of this neoplasm. The high level of protein in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells, in the presence of intracranial syndrome in a child or adolescent, with anatomical signs of basal localization make the possibility of a Chiasmal Germinona highly probable.

Alexandre Alencar

1981-12-01

94

[Epidermoid cysts in the pineal region--analysis of four cases and review of the literature].  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidermoid cysts represent 0.2-1% of all intracranial tumours. Extremely rare they are found in the pineal region. We present four patients with epidermoid cysts located in the pineal region observed and operated by the senior author (S.G.) during a period of twenty years and review of the literature. PMID:20506782

Laleva, M; Uzunov, K; Gabrovski, N; abrovski, St

2009-01-01

95

Cystic lesions of the pineal region - MRI and pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pineal lesions are rare. Tumours in this location comprise 0.4-1% of intracranial tumours. They grow mainly as solid-mass lesions, and cystic tumours are not common. On MRI, a cystic configuration is associated usually with non-neoplastic pineal lesions rather than with a tumour, but analysis does not allow cystic pineal tumours to be distinguished from glial cysts with certainty. We compared neuroradiological and pathological data from 13 cystic pineal lesions, analysing preoperative MRI. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens were stained routinely and immunocytochemically, using the streptavidin-biotin-complex method. Histology revealed six pineocytomas, four glial cysts, an arachnoid cyst, a low-grade astrocytoma and a teratoma. Signal characteristics of pineocytomas were similar in many respects to those of glial pineal cysts. Histomorphological analysis allowed unambiguous discrimination between pineocytomas and glial pineal cysts. (orig.)

Engel, U. [Department of Neuropathology, Benjamin-Franklin-Klinikum, Faculty of Medicine, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Gottschalk, S.; Niehaus, L.; Lehmann, R. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Radiological Diagnosis, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); May, C.; Vogel, S. [Neurosurgical Clinic, St. Gertraud' s Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Jaenisch, W. [Department of Neuropathology, Landesklinik Brandenburg (Germany)

2000-06-01

96

MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma: focus on differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the characteristic MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma, and differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors. MR images of patients with histopathologically proven pineal germinoma(n=3D14) and other pineal germ cell tumors(n=3D10) were retrospectively analyzed with regard to size, signal intensity and homogeneity, enhancing features, cyst formation, and multiplicity of lesions. Other pineal germ cell tumors were the mixed germ cell tumors (n=3D4), malignant teratomas (n=3D3), choriocarcinoma(n=3D1), embryonal carcinoma(n=3D1), and endodermal sinus tumor(n=3D1). Tumor markers were evaluated. On T1-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(86%) or iso signal intensity (93%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or iso signal intensity(70%). On T2-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(64%) or iso signal intensity(57%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or high signal intensity(80%). On Gd-DTPA enhanced images, germinomas showed homogeneous (93%) or strong enhancement (64%), while other germ cell tumors showed homogeneous(60%) or strong enhancement (70%). Cyst formation was noted in ten Patients (71%) with germinoma and in six (60%) with other germ cell tumors. Invasion on surrounding structures was seen in 11 patients (79%) with germinoma and in five (50%) with other germ cell tumors. Lesions were multiple in three patients(21%) with germinoma. Thirteen of 14 patients with germinoma had normal serum {alpha}-FP(tetoprotein) and {beta}-HCG(human chononic gonafotrophin) levels. Two of four patients with mixed germ cell tumors had elevated serum {beta}-FP and {alpha}-HCG levels; in the ther two, elevated serum {alpha}-FP or {beta}-HCG levels were noted. In the malignant teratoma and embryonal carcinoma patients, serum {alpha}-FP and {beta}-HCG levels were normal. The patient with choriocarcinoma had an elevated serum {beta}-HCG level. On T1W1, the only significant differential point (p<0.01) between germinomas and other germ cell tumors was homogeneity. Germinomas were frequently homogeneous, and iso signal intensity on T1WI and T2WI, strong enhancement, and the formation of small cysts(<3mm) was noted. This MR imaging finding, combined with assay for tumor markers, is helpful for the differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma and other germ cell tumors.=20.

Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Ho Kyu; Kim, Jae Kyun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Myung Jun; Ham, Soo Youn; Lee, Jong Hwa; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1998-10-01

97

Primary glioblastoma in the pineal region: a case report and review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Glioblastoma in the pineal region is extremely rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. Case presentation A 68-year-old man presented with a sudden deterioration manifesting as a headache, vomiting and gait disturbance. A magnetic resonance imaging study revealed a heterogeneously ring-enhanced mass in the pineal region. The mass was subtotally removed through the occipital transtentorial approach, and diagnosed as a glioblastoma. Conclusion We discuss the clinical course, radiological findings and treatment strategies of pineal glioblastoma with a review of the relevant literature.

Moon Kyung-Sub

2008-08-01

98

Precocious Puberty due to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin-Secreting Pineal Tumor  

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Full Text Available We present a 9-year-old boy with central precocious puberty and hydrocephalus causedby a human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG secreting pineal tumor. High levels of ?-hCGin the serum and cerebrospinal fluid were observed in this patient. The patient receivedradiotherapy and chemotherapy without surgical intervention. Subsequently, significanttumor regression was observed and the serum ?-hCG level normalized. There was no evidenceof tumor recurrence at follow-up one year after treatment. The role of tissue biopsy toestablish a diagnosis in pineal germ cell tumors remains controversial because it can be adifficult procedure and may be dangerous, causing severe complications. In this patient, theelevated ?-hCG level indicated the presence of a tumor and was considered sufficient evidenceto warrant initiating treatment.

Ho-Chang Kuo

2006-04-01

99

Intracranial germinoma in the pineal region arising after subtotal resection of epidermoid cyst: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an unusual case of a germinoma of the pineal region arising adjacent to an epidermoid cyst in a 16-year-old male. Initial imaging findings were classic for epidermoid cyst. The patient underwent two partial resections at an outside institution, each specimen demonstrating pure epidermoid cyst. Follow-up imaging over a period of 24 months showed an area of progressive contrast enhancement adjacent to the initial lesion, suggesting the development of a neoplasm. Given the area of contrast enhancement in addition to worsening headaches and visual changes, he underwent a third and final resection at our institution. Pathology revealed a mixed germ cell tumor with prominent germinoma component in addition to a well-differentiated epidermoid cyst. Details of his imaging and pathologic findings are presented, and possible explanations for these findings are explored, the most likely of which is lack of complete resection at the onset failed to identify the whole of the neoplasm. We conclude that pediatric epidermoid cysts of the pineal region should always receive close follow-up, particularly when total resection is not performed. PMID:24221216

Walker, Amanda J; Huynh-Le, Minh-Phuong; Nauen, David; Malayeri, Ashkan A; Jallo, George; Terezakis, Stephanie A

2014-05-01

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Pineal germinoma with extracranial metastases: case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal germinoma is the commonest pineal region tumor of childhood and adolescence. Metastatic germinoma most commonly occurs via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and it is usually limited to the cerebrospinal axis. ExtacraniaI hematogenous metastasis is known to be very rare. We report here on a case of pineal germinoma with gradual extracranial metastases that occurred both through the CSF pathway and by hematogenous spread. The patient had multifocal CSF seeding after his surgery for pineal germinoma, and the left iliac metastasis and lung metastasis then occurred

 
 
 
 
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Pineal germinoma with extracranial metastases: case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pineal germinoma is the commonest pineal region tumor of childhood and adolescence. Metastatic germinoma most commonly occurs via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and it is usually limited to the cerebrospinal axis. ExtacraniaI hematogenous metastasis is known to be very rare. We report here on a case of pineal germinoma with gradual extracranial metastases that occurred both through the CSF pathway and by hematogenous spread. The patient had multifocal CSF seeding after his surgery for pineal germinoma, and the left iliac metastasis and lung metastasis then occurred.

Lee, Young Rang; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Park, Moon Hyang; Ko, Yong [College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2004-08-01

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Pineal gland in rats with 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene-induced mammary tumors subjected to manipulations known as enhancers of pineal actions  

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The ultrastructure of pinealocytes was studied in rats with 7,17-dimethylbenz (a) anthraceneinduced manimary tumors which were subjected to experimental manipulations known as enhancers of pineal actions (anosmia, underfeeding or cold exposure). In these aniinals we found: (1) - more nuclei with deep nuclear invaginations; (11) - a large number of cytoplasmic organelles, including lipid droplets. myeloid bodies, synaptic ribbons and lysosomes; (111) - numer...

Cos, S.; Bardasano, J. L.; Mediavilla, M. D.; Sa?nchez Barcelo?, E. J.

1989-01-01

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Evaluation of pineal calcification in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study cases were 804 patients who had received either CT or plain radiographs for some reasons. Their ages ranged from newborn to 15 years old. Twenty four patients had the pineal calcification, in which one patient had the pineal region tumor and 4 patients had precocious puberty. The incidence of the pineal calcification was observed on CT as 0.2, 5.8, and 14 % in their age of 0 to 5, 6 to 10, and 11 to 15 years old, respectively. On the other hand, this finding was detected only in 0, 1.1, and 1.2 % on plain radiographs. In conclusion, pineal calcification on CT may suggest the pathological state in children. Although it is observed in a minority of normal children, such a calcification could be looked upon as not only pineal region tumor but precocious puberty and other intracranial disorders with suspicion. (author)

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Analysis of clinical features and treatment in mature teratomas at pineal region  

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Full Text Available Surgical treatment through occipital tentorium of cerebellum approach was performed in nine cases of mature teratoma at the pineal region. Diagnosis was confirmed by postoperative pathological examination. No perioperative death occurred. Surgery-related complications (visual difficulties, visual field defects, seizures were seen in 4 cases. All cases were followed for 3 months-7 years (mean 3.70 years. The mature teratoma at the pineal region are more common in male children. The main clinical manifestations are intracranial hypertension and ataxia. Neurosurgical treatment may provide satisfactory outcome.

QI Gui-jun

2012-04-01

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Use of 3D-computed tomography angiography for planning the surgical removal of pineal region meningiomas using Poppen's approach: a report of ten cases and a literature review  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several treatment approaches for pineal region meningiomas, such as Poppen's approach, Krause's approach and combinations of the two approaches. We present our experience with the use of 3D-computed tomography angiography for planning the surgical removal of pineal region meningiomas using a suboccipital transtentorial approach (Poppen's approach and evaluate the role of Poppen's approach. Methods During the period from January 2005 to June 2010, ten patients presented to us with pineal region meningioma. MRI was routinely used to define the tumor size, position, and its relevant complications while 3D-CTA was applied to define the blood supply of the tumor and the venous complex (VC shift before operations. Most of the meningiomas had developed at both sides of the tentorial plane and extended laterally with typical characteristics of a pineal region tumor. Results All tumors were completely removed surgically without any injury to the VC. Postoperative intracranial infection occurred in one case who recovered after antibiotics were given. Postoperative intraventricular hemorrhage and pneumocephalus were found in one case, but fully recovered after conservative treatment. In the nine cases of concurrent hydrocephalus, this was gradually relieved in eight patients and the single case that became aggravated was successfully treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Moreover, the follow-up MRI examinations did not indicate any recurrence of the meningiomas. Conclusion We found that the use of Poppen's approach is strongly supported for the successful removal of pineal region meningiomas without serious complications.

Li Ye

2011-06-01

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MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma: focus on differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

patients with germinoma had normal serum ?-FP(tetoprotein) and ?-HCG(human chononic gonafotrophin) levels. Two of four patients with mixed germ cell tumors had elevated serum ?-FP and ?-HCG levels; in the ther two, elevated serum ?-FP or ?-HCG levels were noted. In the malignant teratoma and embryonal carcinoma patients, serum ?-FP and ?-HCG levels were normal. The patient with choriocarcinoma had an elevated serum ?-HCG level. On T1W1, the only significant differential point (p<0.01) between germinomas and other germ cell tumors was homogeneity. Germinomas were frequently homogeneous, and iso signal intensity on T1WI and T2WI, strong enhancement, and the formation of small cysts(<3mm) was noted. This MR imaging finding, combined with assay for tumor markers, is helpful for the differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma and other germ cell tumors.=20

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MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs

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Pineal region tumours treated with interstitial brachytherapy with low activity sources (192-iridium)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three patients with tumours of the pineal region underwent interstitial Ir-192 brachytherapy. Histological diagnoses were obtained in all patients, by stereotactic biopsy and included one germinoma, one mixed pineoblastomapincocytoma, and one astrocytoma grade III. Our approach to pineal region neoplasms is first to decide whether sterotactic biopsy or surgery should be performed. When a pineal lesion is thought to be benign on the basis of imaging, such as benign teratoma, surgery is performed to resect the entire lesion. When a definitive diagnosis is not possible, stereotactic biopsy is performed to obtain a histological diagnosis for treatment planning, using a Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) stereotactic apparatus with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). When a lesion is malignant and localized, stereotactic implantation of catheters for interstitial brachytherapy is performed simultaneously. Radioactive Ir-192 seeds are inserted into the catheters and maintained for 5-10 days to give 36 Gy of irradiation at the tumour periphery. Sequential CT scans and MRI after treatment revealed tumour disappearance in two patients with germinoma and high grade astrocytoma and tumour reduction in the patient with mixed pineoblastoma/pineocytoma. No significant morbidity or mortality occurred in any of these patients after stereotactic biopsy and brachytherapy. The technique and the advantages of this therapeutic approach to selected pineal region tumours are described and discussed. (author)

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MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures  

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A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Satoh, H. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Uozumi, T. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Arita, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Sumida, M. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

1995-11-01

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Molecular basis for defining pineal gland and pinealocytes as targets for tumor necrosis factor (TNF  

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Full Text Available The pineal gland, which is the gland that translates darkness into an endocrine signal by releasing melatonin at night, is now considered a key player in the mounting of an innate immune response. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, the first pro-inflammatory cytokine to be released by an inflammatory response, suppresses the translation of the key enzyme of melatonin synthesis (arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase-alkyl-N-acetyltransferase, Aa-nat. Here we show that TNF receptors of the subtype 1 (TNF-R1 are expressed by astrocytes, microglia and pinealocytes. We also show that the activation of TNF triggers the nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB pathway in pinealocytes by reducing the cytoplasmic level of the inhibitory nuclear factor kappa B protein of the subtype A (NFKBIA. The TNF-induced nuclear translocation of the p50/p50 NFKB transcription factor lacks a transactivation domain, and this phenomenon explains how TNF blocks the transcription of Aa-nat. In addition, the p65/RelA nuclear translocation was read-out following the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and the synthesis of nitric oxide NO. The increase in the transcription of genes activated by NFKB opens a new perspective for understanding the implication of the pineal gland in pathophysiological conditions.

ReginaP.Markus

2011-05-01

111

Malformación cavernosa de la región pineal: Caso clínico y revisión de la literatura / Cavernous malformation of the pineal region: Case report and review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las malformaciones cavernosas de la región pineal son raras, con solamente 21 casos publicados hasta el momento en la literatura. A pesar de la dificultad de su diagnóstico debido a su extrema rareza, la presencia de esta lesión puede ser sospechada basándonos en sus características radiológicas. Pr [...] esentamos el caso de una paciente de 57 años de edad, con un cuadro clínico de instauración aguda de desorientación, somnolencia y diplopia. La TC cerebral mostró una hemorragia aguda en la región pineal e hidrocefalia triventricular asociada y la RM cerebral fue sugestiva de que se tratase de una malformación cavernosa. La paciente fue operada con escisión total de la lesión y el estudio histológico confirmó el diagnóstico de angioma cavernoso. Concluimos que la cirugía para extracción total de la lesión es el tratamiento de elección cuando, basados en la imagen, sospechamos un angioma cavernoso de la región pineal. Abstract in english Cavernous malformations rarely occur in the pineal region with only 21 reported to date. Although its diagnosis is not easy because of the extreme rareness of this condition, the presence of this lesion can be suspected based on its typical radiological findings. We report the case of a 57-year-old [...] woman presented with desorientation, somnolence and diplopy. The CT-scan showed an acute hemorrhage in the pineal region and triventricular hydrocephalus. An MRI suggested a cavernous malformation. The patient was operated with total en-bloc removal of the lesion. We conclude that surgical exploration and total resection is the treatment of choice when the diagnosis of cavernous angioma is suspected of the basis of neuroimaging.

C., Chamadoira; A., Cerejo; A., Vilarinho; L., Castro; R., Vaz.

2010-04-01

112

Isodense epidermoid cyst in the pineal region. Case report  

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A 69-year-old male was admitted complaining of gait disturbances and diplopia, 2.5 years after an episode of serous meningitis. Neurological examination on admission disclosed Parinaud's sign, unsteady gait and dysdiadochokinesis on the left side. A striking finding on the computerized tomography (CT) was the left to right shift of the posterior portion of the third ventricle without visualization of the quadrigeminal and ambient cisterns, which were almost completely occupied by an isodense mass accompanied by high dense flecks and a low dense part. Enhanced CT showed positive enhancement in the vicinity of the pineal calcification. By the suboccipital supracerebellar approach, an encapsulated mass containing brownish yellow fluid was subtotally removed and a histological examination of it revealed epidermoid tissue and hemosiderin deposits in the solid portion. Few reports of isodense epidermoid cysts have so far been found in the literature giving a full explanation for this unusual CT attenuation value. Based on the clinical course and histology of this case, the pathogenesis of the unusual density is discussed along the following lines: The mixture of the low dense factor due to cholesterin and the high dense factor due to prior bleeding is believed to result in the isodense attenuation value in the liquid portion. Also, in the solid part, a microscopically mixed texture of deposited hemosiderin and cholesterin clefts in the inflammatory granulomatous tissue could explain its density on the CT scan.

Yamanouchi, Yasuo; Takahara, Nobuhiko; Kawamura, Yasuo; Matsumura, Hiroshi

1985-02-01

113

Incidence of calcification in the pineal gland, habenular commissure and choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CT scans of 3,000 consecutive normal persons were examined to verify the incidence of calcification in the pineal body, the habenular commissure, and the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle. In people over 10 years old, pineal calcification was found in 83% (male 83%, female 81%), habenular calcification in 18% (male 22%, female 60%). In people over 30 years of age, pineal calcification was found in 86%, habenular calcification in 20%, and choroid plexus calcification in 69%. There was a preponderance of male cases in almost all decades. There were four types of calcification patterns in the pineal region, including the pineal body and the habenular commissure: 1) The first type was the P type, in which the pineal body only was calcified. This type was the most frequent one. 2) The second type was the hP type. Both the habenular commissure and the pineal body were calcified, but the latter was larger. 3) The third type was the Hp type. Both the habenular commissure and the pineal body were calcified, but the former was larger. 4) The fourth type was the HP conjugated type. The calcifications of the habenular commissure and the pineal body were fused, in contrast to the three above-mentioned types, in which the two calcifications were separated. The fourth type was then classified into four subtypes. The size and shape of the calcification in the pineal region were examined in 29 pineal-region tumors and other germinoma cases. There were no specific differences in es. There were no specific differences in calcification between normal persons and the pineal region tumor cases. However, there was a tendency for the pineal body calcification in the pineal teratoma to deviate unilaterally. (author)

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Clinical experience with a high definition exoscope system for surgery of pineal region lesions.  

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VITOM-90 (Karl Storz Endoscopy, Tuttlingen, Germany) is a new technology that can be used as an alternative to the operating microscope. We have found that this device substantially improves surgeon comfort during infra-tentorial supracerebellar approaches to pineal region masses, and now report our experiences. The VITOM-90 is a specially designed scope that is attached to a high definition (HD) digital camera and displayed on a HD video monitor. This system was utilized in five patients undergoing infratentorial supracerebellar approaches for pineal region lesions. Surgical outcomes and pathologies are described. The device was used by three surgeons during five procedures. Three patients underwent surgery in the sitting position and two in the modified prone (Concorde) position. Pathologies included pineocytoma, lipoma, and germinoma. Total resection was achieved in three patients and subtotal in two patients. Surgeon assessment was positive; surgeons indicated that surgery with the VITOM-90 was more comfortable than with the operating microscope. Lack of stereopsis was considered a minor drawback. The VITOM-90 permitted a natural head and neck position. Operating room personnel and residents reported improved visualization of the anatomy. Using the VITOM-90 benefited surgeons during pineal region surgery by reducing strain and allowing the surgeon to operate from a comfortable position without increased operative time or complications. The improved comfort levels may translate into safer, more accurate surgeries in this complex area. PMID:24534630

Birch, Kurtis; Drazin, Doniel; Black, Keith L; Williams, James; Berci, George; Mamelak, Adam N

2014-07-01

115

Assessing therapy response of secreting pineal germ cell tumor on simultaneous 18F-choline PET/MRI.  

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An 18-year-old man presented with 6 weeks' history of diplopia, early morning headaches, and blurred vision; on ophthalmologic examination, Parinaud syndrome was revealed. Brain MRI scan showed a calcified pineal mass. Brain simultaneous PET/MRI with 18F-choline showed an avid enhancing mass occupying the pineal region with restricted diffusion. A second examination after chemotherapy demonstrated reduction in both size and radiotracer activity of the mass. Our study emphasizes the potential of simultaneous 18F-choline PET/MRI being a useful tool for contribution in the diagnosis and treatment assessment in a convenient way with minimal radiation exposure and reduced throughput patient time. PMID:24217533

Panagiotidis, Emmanouil; Shankar, Ananth; Afaq, Asim; Bomanji, Jamshed

2014-09-01

116

Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor in the pineal gland and the third ventricle: a case with radiological and clinical implications  

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A 39-year-old man presented with more than 20 years history of episodic headache and one year history of dizziness, impaired vision and memory disorders. Computed tomography and Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic mass involving the pineal gland, tectum and the third ventricle and obstruction of the aqueduct. Interestingly, the fourth ventricle was not involved in this case. The pathological diagnosis was rosette forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT). These lesions are considered low-gra...

Xu, Junqing; Yang, Yong; Liu, Ying; Wei, Mengqi; Ren, Jing; Chang, Yingjuan; Huan, Yi; Yin, Hong; Xue, Yan

2012-01-01

117

Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantitative values of CT attenuation, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standardized uptake value (SUV) were investigated for differentiation between pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and germinomas. Differences in age, sex, and calcification pattern were also evaluated. Twenty-three patients with PPTs and germinomas in 20 years were retrospectively enrolled under the approval of the institutional review board. CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV (20, 13, and 10 patients, respectively) were statistically compared between the two tumors. Differences in sex and patterns of calcification (''exploded'' or ''engulfed'') were also examined. Mean patient ages were compared among three groups of pineoblastoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, (PPTID) and pineocytoma and germinoma. None of the quantitative values of CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p >.05). However, there was a significant difference in age (p <.05) among the three groups of pineoblastoma (mean age ± standard deviation 7.0 ± 8.7 years), PPTID, and pineocytoma (53.7 ± 11.4 years) and germinoma (19.1 ± 8.1 years). Sex also showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p =.039). Exploded pattern of calcification was found in 9 of 11 PPT patients and engulfed pattern in 7 of 9 patients with germinomas. No reverse pattern was observed, and the patterns of calcification were considered highly specific of tumor types. None of the quantitative imaging values could differentiate PPTs from germinomas. Age, sex, and calcification patterns were confirmed useful in differentiating these tumors to some degree. (orig.)

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Refining the staging evaluation of pineal region germinoma using neuroendoscopy and the presence of preoperative diabetes insipidus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment strategies for CNS germinoma are currently evolving. Current approaches include reducing the volume and dose of radiation by adding pre-irradiation chemotherapy. Very accurate staging is necessary with such an approach to prevent failures. Eight consecutive patients with pineal germinoma at one institution underwent endoscopic surgery for tumor biopsy, direct visualization of the third ventricular region, and third ventriculostomy for those with hydrocephalus. All patients were treated with 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Conformal field radiation therapy followed, with the dose to the tumor bed dependent on the response to chemotherapy. Patients who had MRI, endoscopic, or cerebrospinal fluid evidence of multicentric or disseminated disease also received craniospinal radiation. Six patients had diabetes insipidus (DI) at presentation. All 6 had tumor studding the floor of the third ventricle on endoscopic visualization, while only 4 of those patients had MRI evidence of disease in that region. All patients have completed therapy and are alive, with no evidence of disease at median follow-up of 31.5 months from diagnosis. Direct endoscopic visualization of the third ventricular region may be more sensitive than MRI for evaluating the presence of suprasellar disease and appears to add important information. This parameter should be added to the staging evaluation when feasible. In this series, the presence of DI was 100% predictive of suprasellar disease, even when the MRI was negative for involvement of that region. Patients should be evaluated for DI as part of the initial staging, and if it is present, the patients should be treated for suprasellar disease regardless of MRI findings. PMID:15134627

Reddy, Alyssa T; Wellons, John C; Allen, Jeffrey C; Fiveash, John B; Abdullatif, Hussein; Braune, Karen W; Grabb, Paul A

2004-04-01

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Long term outcome of adolescent and adult patients with pineal parenchymal tumors treated with fractionated radiotherapy between 1982 and 2003 - a single institution's experience  

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Background: To evaluate the effectivity of fractionated radiotherapy in adolescent and adult patients with pineal parenchymal tumors (PPT). Methods: Between 1982 and 2003, 14 patients with PPTs were treated with fractionated radiotherapy. 4 patients had a pineocytoma (PC), one a PPT with intermediate differentiation (PPTID) and 9 patients a pineoblastoma (PB), 2 of which were recurrences. All patients underwent radiotherapy to the primary tumor site with a median total dose of 54 Gy. In 9 pat...

Stoiber, Eva Maria; Schaible, Benjamin; Herfarth, Klaus; Schulz-ertner, Daniela; Huber, Peter E.; Debus, Ju?rgen; Oertel, Susanne

2011-01-01

120

Imaging of brain tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

 
 
 
 
121

Radiation Is an Important Component of Multimodality Therapy for Pediatric Non-Pineal Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To review a historical cohort of pediatric patients with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET), to clarify the role of radiation in the treatment of these tumors. Patients and Methods: Fifteen children aged <18 years with non-pineal sPNETs diagnosed between 1992 and 2006 were identified. Initial therapy consisted of surgical resection and chemotherapy in all patients and up-front radiotherapy (RT) in 5 patients. Five patients had RT at the time of progression, and 5 received no RT whatever. Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival were then calculated. Results: The median follow-up from diagnosis for all patients was 31 months (range, 0.5-165 months) and for surviving patients was 49 months (range, 10-165). Of the 5 patients who received up-front RT, all were alive without evidence of disease at a median follow-up of 50 months (range, 25-165 months). Only 5 of the 10 patients who did not receive up-front RT were alive at last follow-up. There was a statistically significant difference in overall survival between the patient group that received up-front RT and the group that did not (p = 0.048). In addition, we found a trend toward a statistically significant improvement in overall survival for those patients who received gross total resections (p = 0.10). Conclusions: Up-front RT and gross total resection may confer a survival benefit in patients with sPNET. Local failure was the dominant pattern of recurrence. Efforts should be made to def recurrence. Efforts should be made to determine patients most likely to have local failure exclusively or as a first recurrence, in order to delay or eliminate craniospinal irradiation

122

Pineal metastasis as first clinical manifestation of colorectal adenocarcinoma: case report / Metástase pineal como primeira manifestação clinica de adenocarcinoma colorretal: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Metástases cerebrais derivadas de adenocarcinomas colorretais ocorrem em 8% dos casos. Geralmente a doença primária e as metástases em outros órgãos já são conhecidas quando do momento das manifestações neurológicas. Descrevemos um caso de metástase única na região pineal que promoveu a primeira man [...] ifestação clínica de adenocarcinoma colorretal. Uma mulher de 48 anos de idade apresentava há quinze dias de sua admissão ao nosso serviço diplopia e síndrome de Parinaud . O exame de ressonância magnética revelou lesão heterogênea localizada na região pineal. O tumor foi completamente retirado por acesso infratentorial/supracerebelar. O exame histológico revelou tumor metastático indiferenciado e o exame imuno-histoquímico demostrou adenocarcinoma do trato gastrointestinal moderadamente diferenciado. Metástases para a região pineal são extremamente raras e devem ser consideradas no diagnóstico diferencial de tumores nesta região. Abstract in english Cerebral metastases from colorectal adenocarcinomas occur in 8% of the cases. Diagnosis is usually made when primary disease and widespread metastases are already known. We report the case of a patient with single metastases in the pineal region as the first clinical manifestation of a colorectal ad [...] enocarcinoma. A 48-year-old female with Parinaud's syndrome for 15 days prior her admission was evaluated in our clinic. She had no symptoms or signs of colorectal disease. MRI examination revealed an heterogeneous lesion with peritumoral gadolinium enhancement, located in the pineal region. The tumor was radically resected through an infratentorial/supracerebellar approach. Histology showed metastatic carcinoma and immunohistochemical examination showed gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinoma. Metastases to the pineal region are extremely rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors of this region.

RICARDO, RAMINA; MAURÍCIO, COELHO NETO; WAGNER M., MARIUSHI; WALTER O., ARRUDA.

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Pineal metastasis as first clinical manifestation of colorectal adenocarcinoma: case report  

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Full Text Available Cerebral metastases from colorectal adenocarcinomas occur in 8% of the cases. Diagnosis is usually made when primary disease and widespread metastases are already known. We report the case of a patient with single metastases in the pineal region as the first clinical manifestation of a colorectal adenocarcinoma. A 48-year-old female with Parinaud's syndrome for 15 days prior her admission was evaluated in our clinic. She had no symptoms or signs of colorectal disease. MRI examination revealed an heterogeneous lesion with peritumoral gadolinium enhancement, located in the pineal region. The tumor was radically resected through an infratentorial/supracerebellar approach. Histology showed metastatic carcinoma and immunohistochemical examination showed gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinoma. Metastases to the pineal region are extremely rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors of this region.

RAMINA RICARDO

1999-01-01

124

Probing Pineal-specific Gene Expression with Transgenic Zebrafish†  

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The pineal gland of zebrafish (Danio rerio) contains lightsensitive photoreceptor cells and plays an important role in the neuroendocrine system. The zebrafish exorhodopsin gene encodes a pineal-specific photoreceptive protein, whose promoter region harbors a cis-acting element, pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), directing pineal-specific gene expression. For in vivo genetic studies on PIPE-binding proteins and their regulatory mechanisms, we generated a transgenic zebrafish line, Tg...

Kojima, Daisuke; Dowling, John E.; Fukada, Yoshitaka

2008-01-01

125

Pineal cyst: a review of clinical and radiological features.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal cysts (PCs) are benign and often asymptomatic lesions of the pineal region that are typically small and do not change in size over time. PCs appear as small, well circumscribed, unilocular masses that either reside within or completely replace the pineal gland. This article reviews and discusses the characteristic features of PCs-clinical, histological, and identifiable by various imaging modalities-which assist clinicians in narrowing the differential diagnosis for pineal lesions. PMID:21801982

Choy, Winward; Kim, Won; Spasic, Marko; Voth, Brittany; Yew, Andrew; Yang, Isaac

2011-07-01

126

MR imaging of pineal cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors

127

MR imaging of pineal cysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors.

Ahn, Yong Sik; Yu, Hyeon; Kim, Wan Tae; Bae, Jin Woo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1999-09-01

128

Pineal gland cysts--an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal cysts occur in all ages, predominantly in adults in the fourth decade of life. In series of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, the prevalence of pineal cysts ranged between 1.3% and 4.3% of patients examined for various neurologic reasons and up to 10.8% of asymptomatic healthy volunteers. The diagnosis of pineal cyst is usually established by MRI with defined radiological criteria to distinguish benign pineal cyst from tumors of this area. A recent study demonstrated the findings obtained by transcranial sonography to correspond to those obtained by MRI in the detection of both pineal gland cyst and pineal gland itself, and could be used in the future mainly as follow up examination. Pineal cysts usually have no clinical implications and remain asymptomatic for years. The most common symptoms include headache, vertigo, visual and oculomotor disturbances, and obstructive hydrocephalus. Less frequently, patients present with ataxia, motor and sensory impairment, mental and emotional disturbances, epilepsy, circadian rhythm disturbances, hypothalamic dysfunction of precocious puberty, and recently described occurrence of secondary parkinsonism. Symptomatic cysts vary in size from 7 mm to 45 mm, whereas asymptomatic cysts are usually less than 10 mm in diameter, although a relationship between the cyst size and the onset of symptoms has been proved to be irrelevant in many cases. There is agreement that surgical intervention should be undertaken in patients presenting with hydrocephalus, progression of neurologic symptoms, or cyst enlargement. Tissue sample of the pineal lesion can be obtained by open surgery, stereotaxy and neuroendoscopy. PMID:20055263

Bosnjak, Jelena; Budisi?, Mislav; Azman, Drazen; Strineka, Maja; Crnjakovi?, Miljenko; Demarin, Vida

2009-09-01

129

Pineal and Pituitary Glands  

Science.gov (United States)

... after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Pineal and Pituitary Glands The pineal gland is a small endocrine gland ... of the corpus callosum, and secretes melatonin . The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain ...

130

Comparison of Three Methods for the Estimation of Pineal Gland Volume Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

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Pineal gland is a very important neuroendocrine organ with many physiological functions such as regulating circadian rhythm. Radiologically, the pineal gland volume is clinically important because it is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although many studies have estimated the pineal gland volume using different techniques, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no stereological work done on this subject. The objective of t...

Acer, Niyazi; Il?ca, Ahmet Turan; Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; O?zc?elik, O?zlem; Y?ld?r?m, Birdal; Turgut, Mehmet

2012-01-01

131

The pineal volume: a three-dimensional volumetric study in healthy young adults using 3.0 T MR data.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via routine or enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) scan. The knowledge of normal pineal size is helpful to detect small pineal lesions, while very few true volumetric data of pineal glands have been reported. Therefore, we obtained the accurate reference range of normal pineal volumes in 112 individuals aged 20-30 years recruited randomly from a healthy community sample. Transverse and sagittal 3.0T magnetic resonance data were obtained using three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted FSPGR and T2-weighted SE sequences. True pineal volumes were measured from T1-weighted images, while estimated volumes were calculated using pineal length, width and height. All the glands were divided into three types according to the maximum inner diameter of pineal cysts. The prevalence of asymptomatic pineal cyst is 25.00%, with a slight female predominance. In the whole sample, we found no gender differences of pineal volume, but a significant gender difference of pineal volume index. A significant correlation between pineal volume and asymptomatic cyst was found. After excluding cases with big pineal cysts, there were significant correlations between pineal volume and head circumference, body height and body weight, respectively. This study suggests that asymptomatic pineal cysts may exert an important influence on pineal volume. PMID:19665543

Sun, Bo; Wang, Dan; Tang, Yuchun; Fan, Lingzhong; Lin, Xiangtao; Yu, Taifei; Qi, Hengtao; Li, Zhenping; Liu, Shuwei

2009-11-01

132

Space-occupying lesions in the pineal gland region in MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preoperative CT and MRI studies of 24 patients with space occupying lesions of the pinealis region were analysed. MRI demonstrated all 24 lesions, whereas CT could detect only 20 out of 24. MRI was superior to CT in assessment of size, localisation and relation to adjacent structures. No significant difference was found between CT and MRI in preoperative prediction of tumour histology. (orig.)

133

Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature  

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Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resect...

Levidou Georgia; Korkolopoulou Penelope; Agrogiannis George; Paidakakos Nikolaos; Bouramas Dimos; Patsouris Efstratios

2010-01-01

134

Primary pineal melanoma presenting with leptomeningeal spreading in a 22-year-old woman: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region is exceedingly rare. We report a case of primary pineal malignant melanoma and review the literature. Case presentation Our patient was a 22-year-old Iranian woman without any significant past medical history, who was referred to our center with a four-week history of headache and gait disturbance. A magnetic resonance imaging study showed a solid mass in the pineal region causing obstructive hydrocephalus. A brain biopsy was performed and the histological examination indicated melanoma. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. Our patient underwent gross total resection. At the time of discharge she had fully recovered without any neurological deficits. Three weeks after discharge, she was readmitted to hospital with the diagnosis of distal deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism; 12 weeks after the onset of her illness she died of cardiopulmonary arrest. Conclusion We have presented here a rare tumor, a primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second-youngest patient with such a tumor reported in the literature.

Azimi Parisa

2012-06-01

135

Peculiarities in the CT findings of germ cell tumors in various tumor localizations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CT findings of 17 germ cell tumors were studied in relation to the locations of the tumor, the pathological diagnoses, and the tumor markers (AFP and HCG). Generally, the CT findings of germ cell tumors depended on the pathological diagnoses more strongly than on the location of the tumors. On plain CT of 7 germ cell tumors in the pineal region, all of them demonstrated heterogeneous findings. Hydrocephalus was seen in 6 cases (86%) and calcification in 6 cases (86%) of the germ cell tumors in the pineal region. Calcification and hydrocephalus that appeared more often than in other regions were characteristic of germ cell tumors of the pineal region. The germ cell tumors in the basal ganglia had a slightly homogenous high density, with small cysts and calcification in most of them on plain CT. On enhanced CT, the tumors were moderately enhanced in all cases located in the basal ganglia. Four cases of germ cell tumors located in the basal ganglia revealed the dilatation of lateral ventricle due to hemispheric atrophy in the tumor side. The germ cell tumors showing an increase in the tumor markers such as AFP and HCG, which were usually malignant germ cell tumors, were strongly enhanced on enhanced CT. (author)

136

Primary pineal malignant melanoma  

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Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare entity, with only thirteen cases reported in the world literature to date. We report a case of a 70-year-old man, who consulted with gait disturbance of six months duration, associated in the last month with dizziness, visual abnormalities and diplopia. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. The magnetic resonance showed a 25 mm expansive mass in the pineal gland that was associated with hydrocephaly, ventricular and transepen...

Cesar La Cruz Pelea; Oderay Mabel Cedeño Díaz; Roberto Garcia Leal

2011-01-01

137

Elements in the human pineal body  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

100 human pineal bodies (=epiphyses, =pineal glands) were examined by neutron activation analysis for the concentration of Ca, K, Na, Rb, Fe, Co, Se and Zn. Comparing the results with the values from other brain areas, the Ca-content was 90 times higher, Co-content was double and Zn-concentration three times as high as those in the brain. The K, Na, Rb, Fe and Se values were found to be similar to those of other brain regions. Element concentration and age gave no significant correlation for the elements investigated. The K-content was taken as a parameter for cellular vitality and the pineal bodies were grouped into three classes of vitality. The normal K and Na, and the varying trace element concentrations refer to some specific biochemical and physiological functions of the organ. (author)

138

Pineal Germinoma in a Child with Interferon-? Receptor 1 Deficiency. Case Report and Literature Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interferon-? receptor 1 (IFN-?R1) deficiency is one of the primary immunodeficiencies conferring Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD). Some cases of neoplasms have been recently reported in patients with MSMD, underlying the already known link between immunodeficiency and carcinogenesis. We report the first case of intracranial tumour, i.e. pineal germinoma, in a 11-year-old patient with complete IFN-?R1 deficiency. The first clinical presentation of the genetic immunodeficiency dates back to when the child was aged 2 y and 10 mo, when he presented a multi-focal osteomyelitis caused by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. The diagnosis of IFN-?R1 deficiency (523delT/523delT in IFNGR1 gene) was subsequently made. The child responded to antibiotic therapy and remained in stable clinical condition until the age of 11 years, when he started complaining of frontal, chronic headache. MRI revealed a solid pineal region mass lesion measuring 20 × 29 × 36 mm. Histological findings revealed a diagnosis of pineal germinoma. The patient received chemotherapy followed by local whole ventricular irradiation with boost on pineal site, experiencing complete remission, and to date he is tumor-free at four years follow-up. Four other cases of tumors have been reported in patients affected by MSMD in our knowledge: a case of Kaposi sarcoma, a case of B-cell lymphoma, a case of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and a case of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In conclusion, in patients with MSMD, not only the surveillance of infectious diseases, but also that of tumors is important. PMID:25216720

Taramasso, L; Boisson-Dupuis, S; Garrè, M L; Bondi, E; Cama, A; Nozza, P; Morana, G; Casanova, J L; Marazzi, M G

2014-11-01

139

Biosynthesis of taurine by rat pineals in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal glands from adult, male rats were incubated in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer buffer containing 14C-cystine. After three hours the incubation media and pineal gland extracts were placed separately on Dowex AG W50-X-4 columns. In the elution volume where 14C-labeled taurine is found a labeled peak was recovered. However, when subjected to one or two dimensional paper chromatography especially the eluants from pineal gland extracts yielded two 14C-labeled substances one located in the region where unlabeled taurine is detected by ortho-phthalaldehyde reagent. These results were confirmed utilizing a method developed in our laboratory based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pineals, as well as their respective incubation medium, were shown to contain radioactive taurine. These results demonstrate that rat pineal glands are capable of taurine synthesis. Also a high degree of labeling was associated with an area on paper chromatograms, migrating more rapidly than the standards, using acidic solvent systems. If represented by a single pineal compound, the substance must be rapidly synthesized from 14C-cystine to account for the radioactivity observed. Future studies of sulfur metabolism within the pineal gland could be of significant interest. (author)

140

Pineal cysts in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and characteristics of pineal cysts found on MRI in children. METHODS: This is a retrospective monocentric study of all brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations performed under the same technical conditions for checking the idiopathic nature of short stature (ISS group, n?=?116) and for the investigation of central precocious puberty (CPP) over a 3-year period (n?=?56). Dimensions, wall and septal thickness, number of locules, signal intensity, and the presence of a solid component were analysed. Ten of 19 cysts were re-evaluated (follow-up interval 4-28 months). The prevalence of the pineal cysts was compared between the two groups using ?2 and Fisher's exact tests, and a significance threshold of p?cysts was comparable in the two groups, CPP (10.7%) and ISS (11.2%). Cyst characteristics were similar in the two groups and 74% had thin septations. None of the cysts changed on follow-up. None of the children with pineal cysts exhibited neurological signs. CONCLUSION: Benign pineal cysts are a common finding in young children. High-resolution MRI demonstrates that these cysts are often septated. This pattern is a normal variant and does not require follow-up MR imaging or IV contrast media. PMID:22347985

Lacroix-Boudhrioua, V; Linglart, A; Ancel, P Y; Falip, C; Bougnères, P F; Adamsbaum, C

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Pineal calcification on computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal gland visible in plain skull radiography when calcified had been an important indicator for evaluation of any space, occupying lesion within cranium according to displacement of it from normal midline position. Since the pineal gland is more frequently demonstrated on CT scan than plain skull radiography, it seems helpful to define the incidence and localization of pineal gland. 324 patients, performed head CT scan are analyzed incidence and localization of calcified pineal gland. The results were as follows: 1. The overall incidence of pineal calcification was 51%. 2. The male and female ratio in pineal calcification was 56% to 43%. 3. 1) In the AP localization of pineal gland, the ratio of distance from anterior inner table of the skull to the pineal gland and that from pineal gland to the posterior inner table was 1.46 ± 0.20. 2) In the lateral localization of pineal gland, according to 'Lateral Percentage Shift' by Hahn and Rim (1976), the result was 0.98% shift in 80 normal cases, but 2.20% shift in 38 cases with S.O.L

142

Structure and ultrastructure of the pigmented cells in the adult dog pineal gland.  

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The light and electron microscopic features of pigmented cells in the adult dog pineal gland have been described. The presence of pigmented cells was a constant characteristic of the dog pineal gland, though wide variations in the amount of pigment could be found among different animals. Conversely, the localisation of pigmented cells was very constant on the basal surface of the proximal region of the pineal gland. Frequently, clusters of pigmented cells were seen in the posterior commissure...

Calvo, J.; Boya, J.; Garcia-maurin?o, J. E.; Lopez-carbonell, A.

1988-01-01

143

Conventional and advanced MRI features of pediatric intracranial tumors: supratentorial tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE. Our objective is to review the imaging characteristics and applications of conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques of supratentorial intracranial masses in the pediatric population. Specifically, we review astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, primary neuroectodermal tumors, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, gangliogliomas, arachnoid cysts, and choroid plexus and pineal region masses. CONCLUSION. Advanced imaging methods, such as MR spectroscopy, perfusion MRI, functional MRI, diffusion-tensor imaging, and tractography, help develop a more accurate differential diagnosis and aid in planning tumor treatment. PMID:23617516

Borja, Maria J; Plaza, Michael J; Altman, Nolan; Saigal, Gaurav

2013-05-01

144

Pinealitis accompanying equine recurrent uveitis.  

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There is no direct verification of pineal gland involvement in human uveitis. Specimens of pineal tissue are not available during active uveitis in human patients. Naturally occurring uveitis in horses gives us an opportunity to examine tissues during active ocular inflammation. We examined the pineal gland of a horse that was killed because it had become blind during an episode of uveitis. The clinical history and histopathology of the eyes were consistent with post-leptospiral equine recurr...

Kalsow, C. M.; Dwyer, A. E.; Smith, A. W.; Nifong, T. P.

1993-01-01

145

Primary pineal malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare entity, with only thirteen cases reported in the world literature to date. We report a case of a 70-year-old man, who consulted with gait disturbance of six months duration, associated in the last month with dizziness, visual abnormalities and diplopia. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. The magnetic resonance showed a 25 mm expansive mass in the pineal gland that was associated with hydrocephaly, ventricular and transependimary oedema. The lesion was partially excised by a supracerebellar infratentorial approach. The histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient received radiation therapy, but died of disease 16 weeks later. We herein review the literature on this rare tumour and comment on its clinical, radiological and histopathological features and differential diagnosis.

Cesar La Cruz Pelea

2011-05-01

146

Prognostic Significance of P53 Protein, Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in Pineal Parenchymal Tumours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pineal parenchymal tumours are very rare consisting less than 0.1% of all central nervous system tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of Ki-67, cyclin D1 and p53 protein expressions in pineal parenchymal tumours. Ten pineal parenchymal tumours were investigated: 2 pineocytomas, 5 pineal parenchymal tumour of intermediate differentiation and 3 pineoblastomas . Immunohistochemical staining was performed using avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The number of mitoses ranged from 0-25 in pineal parenchymal tumour of intermediate differentiation and 2-30 in pineoblastomas. In general, Ki-67 was found between 0-53.5 %, cyclin D1 was found between 0-40%, p53 was found between 0-4% in pineal parenchymal tumors. In pineal parenchymal tumour of intermediate differentiation, positive staining rates for Ki-67, cyclin D1 and p53 were found as 4-17.5%, 2-30% and 0-4%, respectively. In pineoblastomas, Ki-67, cyclin D1 and p53 were found as 9.2-53.5%, 5-40% and 1-2%, respectively. The number of mitoses was not significant for the prognosis in pineal parenchymal tumors. The very low level of p53 protein made us think that it does not play an active role in the development of these tumours

Nagihan YALCIN

2009-12-01

147

Similar fine structural localization of immunoreactive glutamate in the frog pineal complex and retina.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of immunoreactive glutamate was compared in the pineal complex (pineal and frontal organs) and retina of frogs (Rana esculenta, R. arvalis, R. ridibunda, R. catesbeiana, Bufo viridis, Bombinator igneus) by postembedding immuno-electron microscopy. Similar to retinal photoreceptors (rods and cones), bipolars and ganglion cells, the rod- and cone-like photoreceptors and the neurons of the pineal and frontal organs exhibited glutamate immunoreactivity. Synaptic terminals of photoreceptor cells on secondary neurons of the pineal complex and retina were strongly immunoreactive. The pineal tract and the fibers of the frontal nerve also displayed glutamate immunoreactivity. There was no essential difference in the immunoreactivity of the retinal and pineal elements among the species studied. The similar histology of the pineal complex and retina of the frog and the high correlation of their binding sites of antiglutamate immunosera allow us to assume that glutamate performs a similar role in the pineal complex as is already known for the retina. The high immunoreactivity of the presynaptic region of pinealocytic processes and axons of secondary neurons suggests the role of a neurotransmitter for this excitatory amino acid in the efferent pathways of the pineal complex. PMID:7612360

Vigh, B; Vigh-Teichmann, I; Debreceni, K; Takács, J

1995-03-01

148

The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk are also reduced in size. Although the brains of neonatal Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice appear normal, severe hydrocephalus develops in about 70 % of the Lhx9 (-/-) mice at 5-8 weeks of age; these observations are the first to document that deletion of Lhx9 results in hydrocephalus and as such indicate that Lhx9 contributes to the maintenance of normal brain structure. Whereas hydrocephalus is absent in neonatal Lhx9 (-/-)mutant mice, the neonatal pineal gland in these animals is hypoplastic. Accordingly, it appears that Lhx9 is essential for early development of the mammalian pineal gland and that this effect is not secondary to hydrocephalus.

Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; MØller, Morten

2014-01-01

149

TLR4 and CD14 receptors expressed in rat pineal gland trigger NFKB pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFKB), a pivotal player in inflammatory responses, is constitutively expressed in the pineal gland. Corticosterone inhibits pineal NFKB leading to an enhancement of melatonin production, while tumor necrosis factor (TNF) leads to inhibition of Aa-nat transcription and the production of N-acetylserotonin in cultured glands. The reduction in nocturnal melatonin surge favors the mounting of the inflammatory response. Despite these data, there is no clear evidence of the ability of the pineal gland to recognize molecules that signal infection. This study investigated whether the rat pineal gland expresses receptors for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin from the membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, and to establish the mechanism of action of LPS. Here, we show that pineal glands possess both CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), membrane proteins that bind LPS and trigger the NFKB pathway. LPS induced the nuclear translocation of p50/p50 and p50/RELA dimers and the synthesis of TNF. The maximal expression of TNF in cultured glands coincides with an increase in the expression of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) in isolated pinealocytes. In addition, LPS inhibited the synthesis of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin. Therefore, the pineal gland transduces Gram-negative endotoxin stimulation by producing TNF and inhibiting melatonin synthesis. Here, we provide evidence to reinforce the idea of an immune-pineal axis, showing that the pineal gland is a constitutive player in the innate immune response. PMID:20586888

da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Sanseray; Carvalho-Sousa, Claudia Emanuele; Tamura, Eduardo Koji; Pinato, Luciana; Cecon, Erika; Fernandes, Pedro Augusto Carlos Magno; de Avellar, Maria Christina Werneck; Ferreira, Zulma Silva; Markus, Regina Pekelmann

2010-09-01

150

Morphological findings relating to the problem of cortex and medulla in the pineal glands of rat and hamster.  

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Because, in previous investigations on the rat pineal gland, karyometric studies of pinealocytes from cortical and medullary regions had yielded contradictory results, experiments were carried out to resolve this problem. In immersion-fixed, paraffin-embedded pineal glands, nuclear size of cortical regions was invariably larger than that in the medulla, the nuclear size clearly depending on the plane of sectioning. The differences between cortex and medulla were abolished in (a) pineal glands...

Heidbu?chel, U.; Vollrath, L.

1983-01-01

151

A case of pineal teratoma with intraventricular free fat on CT scan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detection of an intraventricular or intratumoral fat-fluid level on the plain craniograms has been known as a characteristic sign indicating the presence of intracranial teratomatous tumors. On CT scans, however, only thirteen cases have been previously reported to be found an intraventricular and/or subarachnoid free fat associated with spontaneous ruptures of these tumors. We reported a case of pineal teratoma with intraventricular free-fat seen on CT scans. A nine-year-old male with precocious puberty was admitted to our hospital complaining a moderate nonpulsatile headache. Neurological examinations were normal without signs of meningeal irritation. The serum and CSF titer of HCG were raised markedly. The laboratory data of the CSF were normal and there were no pathological cells in the CSF. The CT scans revealed a large heterogeneous mass containing multiple areas of negative density in the pineal region. There were negative density droplets in the bilateral frontal horn on the same CT scans indicating a presence of free fats. At surgery, an yellowish oily material was drained from the tumor, but there was no sign of meningitis over the cortical surface of the occipital lobe. An intraventricular free fat on CT scan have been reported in fourteen cases including ours following the first case described by Fawcitt in 1976. Although most of the cases presented headache, only two cases was diagnosed clinically as chemical meningitis. Pathological changes indicating grngitis. Pathological changes indicating granulomatous meningitis, however, were noted in five cases, all of them presenting seizure attacks. (author)

152

Regional cerebral blood flow measurement in brain tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined on seventeen patients with brain tumors. Ring type single photon emission CT (SPECT) was used following intravenous injection of 133Xe. Case materials included eleven meningiomas and six malignant gliomas. Evaluation was performed with emphasis on the following points; 1. Correlation of the flow data within tumors to the angiographic tumor stains, 2. Influence of tumors on the cerebral blood flow of the normal brain tissue, 3. Correlation between degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemispheres. There was significant correlation between flow data within tumors and angiographic tumor stains in meningiomas. Influence of tumors on cerebral blood flow of the normal tissue was greater in meningiomas than in gliomas. There was negative correlation between the degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemisphere. It has been concluded that the measurement of CBF in brain tumors is a valuable method in evaluation of brain tumors. (author)

153

Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors)  

Science.gov (United States)

... germ cell tumors to form is near the pineal gland and in an area that includes the pituitary ... of the inside of the brain, showing the pineal and pituitary glands, optic nerve, ventricles (with cerebrospinal fluid shown in ...

154

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in mandibular region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon neoplasm derivative of the odontogenic epithelium containing canalicular structures with inductor modifications of variable intensity in the conjunctival tissue. It is a slow growth lesion and no much invasive but that may to be similar to other odontogenic lesions more aggressive including the dentigerous cyst and the ameloblastoma among others. Its classical location (upper canine area) guides us to diagnosis and its duct histological pattern is very typical of this tumor. Other tumors included in this group are the ameloblastic fibroma, the ameloblastic odontoma, the calcified odontogenic cyst and composed and complex odontomas. This group of lesions may or not to have formations of hard tissue inside. Thus, authors present the case of a patient presenting with this type of tumor making a histopathology study, a literature review on this benign odontogenic tumor and its clinical radiographic features, treatment, as well as the differential diagnoses to be into account. (author)

155

Circadian regulation of pineal gland rhythmicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (1) local control of serotonin and melatonin rhythms; (2) neurotransmitters involved in central control of melatonin; (3) plasticity of the neural circuit controlling melatonin production; (4) role of clock genes in melatonin formation; (5) phase control of pineal rhythmicity; (6) impact of light at night on pineal rhythms; and (7) physiological function of the pineal rhythmicity. PMID:21782887

Borjigin, Jimo; Zhang, L Samantha; Calinescu, Anda-Alexandra

2012-02-01

156

Comparative histology of pineal calcification  

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The pineal organ (pineal gland, epiphysis cerebri) contains several calcified concretions called "brain sand7' or acervuli (corpora arenacea). These concretions are conspicuous with imaging techniques and provide a useful landmark for orientation in the diagnosis of intracranial diseases. Predominantly composed of calcium and magnesium salts, corpora arenacea are numerous in old patients. In smaller number they can be present in children as well. The degree...

Vigh, B.; Sze?l, A.; Debreceni, K.; Feje?r, Z.; Manzano E Silva, M. J.; Vigh-teichmann, I.

1998-01-01

157

Imaging appearance of bone tumors of the maxillofacial region  

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Full Text Available This paper reviews the imaging appearance of benign and malignant bone tumors of the maxillofacial region. A benign bone tumor commonly appears as a well circumscribed lesion. The matrix of the tumor may be calcified or sclerotic. Malignancies often display aggressive characteristics such as cortical breakthrough, bone destruction, a permeative pattern and associated soft-tissue masses. Computed tomography scan is an excellent imaging modality for accurate localization of the lesion, characterization of the tumor matrix and detection of associated osseous changes such as bone remodeling, destruction or periosteal reaction. Magnetic resonance imaging is of limited value in the evaluation of maxillofacial bone tumors.

Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel Razek

2011-01-01

158

Regional cerebral blood volume of intracranial tumors determined by MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to characterize intracranial tumors based on MR measurements of regional cerebral blood volume. In 8 patients without intracranial pathology and 42 patients with intracranial tumors a T2'-weighted image series was acquired during bolus injection of gadolinium-DTPA, and regional cerebral blood volume maps were calculated. The regional cerebral blood volume index (rCBVi) of vital tumor was expressed in percent of the value measured in contralateral gray matter. In extra-axial tumors (meningiomas) rCBVi was higher (124 ± 110%), and in low-grade intra axial tumors rCBVi was lower (79 ± 65%), than in contralateral cortex. In malignant intra-axial tumors the distribution of rCBV was heterogeneous: high in vital tumor (glioblastomas: rCBVi = 165 ± 85%; metastases: rCBVi = 106 ± 79%), but low in necrosis (rCBVi = 33% of contralateral white matter) and edema (rCBVi = 53% of contralateral white matter). rCBVi was highest in arteriovenous malformations (1053 ± 584% of contralateral gray matter). We conclude that regional cerebral blood volume and the degree of heterogeneity of blood volume distribution is useful to characterize intracranial tumors, although the large biological variability of individual tumor entities indicates limitations. (orig.)

159

Regional cerebral blood volume of intracranial tumors determined by MRI  

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The aim of this study was to characterize intracranial tumors based on MR measurements of regional cerebral blood volume. In 8 patients without intracranial pathology and 42 patients with intracranial tumors a T2{sup `}-weighted image series was acquired during bolus injection of gadolinium-DTPA, and regional cerebral blood volume maps were calculated. The regional cerebral blood volume index (rCBV{sub i}) of vital tumor was expressed in percent of the value measured in contralateral gray matter. In extra-axial tumors (meningiomas) rCBV{sub i} was higher (124 {+-} 110%), and in low-grade intra axial tumors rCBV{sub i} was lower (79 {+-} 65%), than in contralateral cortex. In malignant intra-axial tumors the distribution of rCBV was heterogeneous: high in vital tumor (glioblastomas: rCBV{sub i} = 165 {+-} 85%; metastases: rCBV{sub i} = 106 {+-} 79%), but low in necrosis (rCBV{sub i} = 33% of contralateral white matter) and edema (rCBV{sub i} = 53% of contralateral white matter). rCBV{sub i} was highest in arteriovenous malformations (1053 {+-} 584% of contralateral gray matter). We conclude that regional cerebral blood volume and the degree of heterogeneity of blood volume distribution is useful to characterize intracranial tumors, although the large biological variability of individual tumor entities indicates limitations. (orig.)

Boeck, J.C. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany); Wlodarczyk, W. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany); Sander, B. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany); Neumann, K. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany); Maeurer, J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany); Gremmler, M. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany); Vogl, T.J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany); Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany)

1995-12-31

160

A pineal regulatory element (PIRE) mediates transactivation by the pineal/retina-specific transcription factor CRX  

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The circadian hormone melatonin is synthesized predominantly in the pineal gland by the actions of two pineal-specific enzymes: serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT). Pineal night-specific ATPase (PINA), another pineal- and night-specific protein we recently identified, is produced as a truncated form of the Wilson disease gene (Atp7b) product. To identify the regulatory elements required for pineal-specific gene expression, we isolated sequences up...

Li, Xiaodong; Chen, Shiming; Wang, Qingliang; Zack, Donald J.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Borjigin, Jimo

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Endoscopic surgery for hemorrhagic pineal cyst following antiplatelet therapy: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal cysts of the third ventricle presenting with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to internal cystic hemorrhage are a rare clinical entity. The authors report a case of a 61-year-old man taking antiplatelet medication who suffered from a hemorrhagic pineal cyst and was treated with endoscopic surgery. One month prior to treatment, the patient was diagnosed with a brainstem infarction and received clopidogrel in addition to aspirin. A small incidental pineal cyst was concurrently diagnosed using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging which was intended to be followed conservatively. The patient presented with a sudden onset of headache and diplopia. On admission, the neurological examination revealed clouding of consciousness and Parinaud syndrome. Computerized tomography (CT) scans demonstrated a hemorrhagic mass lesion in the posterior third ventricle. The patient underwent emergency external ventricular drainage with staged endoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy using a flexible videoscope. Histological examination revealed pineal tissue with necrotic change and no evidence of tumor cells. One year later MR imaging demonstrated no evidence of cystic lesion and a flow void between third ventricle and prepontine cistern. In patients with asymptomatic pineal cysts who are treated with antiplatelet therapy, it is important to be aware of the risk of pineal apoplexy. Endoscopic management can be effective for treatment of hemorrhagic pineal cyst with obstructive hydrocephalus. PMID:24067776

Tamura, Yoji; Yamada, Yoshitaka; Tucker, Adam; Ukita, Tohru; Tsuji, Masao; Miyake, Hiroji; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

2013-01-01

162

Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland.

Levidou Georgia

2010-09-01

163

Advances in the management of central nervous system germ cell tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intracranial germ cell tumors represent a relatively small portion of pediatric central nervous system tumors, with a reported incidence ranging from 3.6% in North America to 15.3% in parts of Asia. They are known to arise in midline locations, most frequently the pineal gland and suprasellar regions, and affect males twice to three times more frequently than females, especially in the case of pineal-region tumors. The median age of diagnosis is 10-12 years. The treatment of intracranial germ cells tumors is complicated by their relative rarity, histologic heterogeneity, and a lack of widespread consensus on their optimal management. Despite these challenges, important progress continues to be made, with a move toward multicenter and international collaborative efforts that offer potential for clinical advancements. This review focuses on recent developments in the management of intracranial germ cell tumors, including updates in diagnosis, surveillance, biology, treatment, and outcomes. PMID:24838613

Millard, Nathan E; Dunkel, Ira J

2014-07-01

164

Autoradiographic demonstration of target cells for the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in the rat pineal gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Male rats received [3H]aldosterone 30 min before sacrifice. Autoradiograms were prepared from brain and pineal gland by a thaw-mount technique. Grain counting revealed that the pineal retained 4 times as much radioactivity as brain regions with tight capillaries. Using an appropriate method of quantitative autoradiogram evaluation, it was shown that in adrenalectomized animals, but not after shamoperiation, 28% of the pinealocytes concentrated the steroid in their nuclei. This is the first demonstration of saturable mineralocorticoid binding in the pineal gland. (author)

165

Primary yolk sac tumor of the cerebellar vermis: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare and comprise 2-5% of all germ cell tumors. Seminoma/dysgerminoma, teratoma, yolk sac tumor (YST) and mixed germ cell tumors are few of the extragonadal germ cell tumors arising within the brain. Of these, primary pure YSTs arising in the brain are extremely rare and arise in the pineal (62%) and suprasellar (31%) regions. Primary YST occurring in the cerebellum is exceedingly rare, associated with a very poor prognosis and has been reported in less than 10 cases in literature. We herein report a case of primary pure yolk sac tumor in the cerebellar vermis in a 2-year-old child. PMID:24943765

Shenoy, Asha S; Desai, Heena M; Tyagi, Devendra K; Savant, Hemant V; Kavishwar, Vikas S; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshi

2014-01-01

166

Tumores não hipofisários da região selar Nonpituitary tumors of the sellar region  

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Full Text Available A hipófise, a sela túrcica e a região peri-selar podem ser acometidas por uma série de lesões, incluindo tumores benignos e malignos, bem como uma ampla variedade de doenças não neoplásicas. Os aspectos clínicos e radiológicos podem auxiliar no diagnóstico diferencial destas lesões. Porém, em muitos casos, somente a análise histopatológica pode estabelecer o diagnóstico definitivo. Neste artigo, revisamos principais tumores não hipofisários da região selar e peri-selar, ressaltando seus aspectos endócrinos mais relevantes.The pituitary gland, sella turcica and the parasellar region can be involved by a wide variety of lesions, including benign and malignant neoplasms as well as a wide variety of non neoplastic tumor-like lesions. Clinical and radiological aspects could help in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. Nevertheless, in many cases only the histopathological analysis could establish the definitive diagnosis. In this paper, we review the nonpituitary tumors of the sellar region emphasizing the associated hormonal disturbances.

Mauro A. Czepielewski

2005-10-01

167

Malignant small cell tumor of the thoracopulmonary region(Askin tumor)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of malignant small cell tumors primarily involve the soft tissue of the chest wall and lung was described by Askin in 1970. This rate tumor has a neuroepithelial origin and affects children and young adult, characteristically. Histologic overlap between other small cell neoplasms usually makes differentiation difficult, and immunochemical and electron microscopic features play a role in differentiation. Radiologic appearance was chest wall or pleural based mass with or without rib destruction and/or pleural change. Authors experienced two cases of malignant small cell tumor of the thoracopulmonary region, and report with review of literatures

168

Malignant tumors arising in the maxillary region after radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although radiotherapy has proven of great therapeutic value in the treatment of malignant tumors, it should also be borne in mind that radiation has a serious potential risk of giving rise to a secondary malignancy. We recently experienced 2 cases each of carcinoma and sarcoma arising in the irradiated areas long after radiation therapy for malignant tumors. In these 4 cases, 2 males and 2 females, the primary neoplastic diseases were squamous cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, carcinoma of unknown pathology and malignant lymphoma, and the secondary tumors were epidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, respectively. The sites of occurrence of these malignancies were invariably in the maxillary region; the mean latent period was 15 years, aside from an infantile case with a latent period of 5 years. In view of the primary diseases being malignant tumors the following criteria were set up for the diagnosis of radiation-induced malignancies: (1) the site of occurrence is within the confines of a previously irradiated area, (2) the latent period is prolonged and (3) the malignancy occurs as a double tumor. Therapy was primarily by operation. The prognosis was exceedingly ominous, the average survival time being 22 months. This was probably and mainly because of rapidity of tumor growth. Thus, the secondary tumors had already spread back to inward by the time they were first discovered. This should be kept in mind during a long-term follow-up of patients receiving radiotherapy for malignancy. (author)

169

Transcriptome analysis of the zebrafish pineal gland  

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The zebrafish pineal gland (epiphysis) is a site of melatonin production, contains photoreceptor cells, and functions as a circadian clock pace maker. Here we have used microarray technology to study the zebrafish pineal transcriptome. Analysis of gene expression at three larval and two adult stages revealed a highly dynamic transcriptional profile, revealing many genes that are highly expressed in the zebrafish pineal gland. Statistical analysis of the data based on Gene Ontology annotation ...

Toyama, Reiko; Chen, Xiongfong; Jhawar, Nupur; Aamar, Emil; Epstein, Jonathan; Reany, Nir; Alon, Shahar; Gothilf, Yoav; Klein, David; Dawid, Igor B.

2009-01-01

170

Circadian Regulation of Pineal Gland Rhythmicity  

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The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (1) local control of serotonin and melatonin rhythms; (2) neurotransmitters involved in central control of melatonin; (3) plasticity o...

Borjigin, Jimo; Zhang, L. Samantha; Calinescu, Anda-alexandra

2012-01-01

171

Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome  

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Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. Here, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse p...

Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M.; Rohde, Kristian; Coon, Steven L.; Litman, Thomas; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

2011-01-01

172

Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a > 2-fold down-regulation of 543 genes and a > 2-fold up-regulation of 745 genes (p < 0.05). Of these, one of the most highly up-regulated (18-fold) was Hoxc4, a member of the Hox gene family, members of which are known to control gene expression cascades. During a 24-h period, a set of 51 genes exhibited differential day/night expression in pineal glands of wild-type animals; only eight of these were also day/night expressed in the Crx-/- pineal gland. However, in the Crx-/- pineal gland 41 genes exhibited differential night/day expression that was not seen in wild-type animals. These findings indicate that Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome and also influences differential night/day gene expression in this tissue. Some effects of Crx deletion on the pineal transcriptome might be mediated by Hoxc4 up-regulation.

Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel

2011-01-01

173

The immune-pineal axis: stress as a modulator of pineal gland function.  

Science.gov (United States)

The temporal organization of mammals presents a daily adjustment to the environmental light/dark cycle. The environmental light detected by the retina adjusts the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, which innervate the pineal gland through a polysynaptic pathway. During the night, this gland produces and releases the nocturnal hormone melatonin, which circulates throughout the whole body and adjusts several bodily functions according to the existence and duration of darkness. We have previously shown that during the time frame of an inflammatory response, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inhibit while anti-inflammatory mediators, such as glucocorticoids, enhance the synthesis of melatonin, interfering in the daily adjustment of the light/dark cycle. Therefore, injury disconnects the organism from environmental cycling, while recovery restores the light/dark information to the whole organism. Here, we extend these observations by evaluating the effect of a mild restraint stress, which did not induce macroscopic gastric lesions. After 2 h of restraint, there was an increase in circulating corticosterone, indicating activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In parallel, an increase in melatonin production was observed. Taking into account the data obtained with models of inflammation and stress, we reinforce the hypothesis that the activity of the pineal gland is modulated by the state of the immune system and the HPA axis, implicating the darkness hormone melatonin as a modulator of defense responses. PMID:19236342

Couto-Moraes, Renato; Palermo-Neto, João; Markus, Regina Pekelmann

2009-02-01

174

Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples  

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Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo) identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4%) e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu maior diâmetro. Os ...

CALDAS JOSÉ GUILHERME; DOYON DOMINIQUE; LEDERMAN HENRIQUE; CARLIER ROBERT

1998-01-01

175

Malignant tumors of head and neck region - a retrospective analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the spectrum of malignant tumors of head and neck region. The data of total 375 neoplastic lesions of both the sexes between 8-70 years of age was collected and compared with the findings reported from centers in other parts of the country. Among the total 375 cases of neoplastic lesions, 148 were benign whereas 227 proved to be malignant histologically in 155 male and 72 female patients. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most frequently encountered histological category (45.8%) followed by lymphoma (14.5%), basal cell carcinoma (10.5%), carcinoma thyroid (10.5%) and salivary gland tumors (8.80%). These were followed by infrequently encountered tumors including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (n=5), small blue round cell tumors (n=3), undifferentiated carcinoma (n=3), retinoblastoma (n=2) and transitional carcinoma nose (n=1). The anatomical regions involved with this tumor were larynx (53.5% of all SCC) followed by pharynx (18.7%) tongue (10.71%) oral cavity (4.4%) metastasis (5.3%) and skin (2.60%). (author)

176

Hibernoma of the axillary region: a rare benign adipocytic tumor  

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Full Text Available Hibernoma is a rare benign tumor considered to arise from remnants of fetal brown adipose tissue. It tends to occur in sites where brown fat persists beyond fetal life, such as the interscapular region, but can occur in sites where brown fat is usually absent in adults. Clinically, hibernomas are slow-growing, asymptomatic tumors. However, unlike lipomas, MRI findings sometimes mislead clinicians to diagnose a malignant neoplasm. We describe a 63-year-old male with an axillary hibernoma involving the brachial neurovascular bundles and mimicking a well-differentiated liposarcoma, from which it should be distinguished.

Yasuhito Tanaka

2010-03-01

177

Supratentorial tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

178

Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone  

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Full Text Available The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demonstrated the biological action of pineal allopregnanolone on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum during development in juvenile birds. Pinealectomy (Px induces apoptosis of Purkinje cells, whereas allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks prevents cell death. Furthermore, Px increases the number of Purkinje cells that express active caspase-3, a crucial mediator of apoptosis, and allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks decreases the number of Purkinje cells expressing active caspase-3. It thus appears that pineal allopregnanolone prevents cell death of Purkinje cells by suppressing the activity of caspase-3 during development. This paper highlights new aspects of the biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone.

Kazuyoshi Tsutsui

2014-05-01

179

Regional tumor oximetry: 19F NMR spectroscopy of hexafluorobenzene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: An accurate method for monitoring oxygen tension (pO2) of individual tumors could be valuable for optimizing treatment plans. We have recently shown that 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-lattice relaxometry of hexafluorobenzene (HFB) provides a highly sensitive indicator of tumor oxygenation. We have now refined the methodology to provide enhanced precision, and applied the method to investigate dynamic changes in tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Dunning prostate adenocarcinoma R3327-AT1 was grown in the form of pedicles on the foreback of male Copenhagen rats. When the tumors reached ?1 cm diameter, HFB (20 ?l) was administered, either centrally or peripherally, by direct intratumoral (IT) injection. Local pO2 was determined using pulse-burst saturation recovery (PBSR) 19F NMR spectroscopy on the basis of the spin-lattice relaxation rate, R1. Results: Interrogation of the central region of tumors provided typical values in the range pO2 = 1.4-6.4 mmHg, with a typical stability of ±2 mmHg over a period of 20 min, when rats breathed 33% O2. Altering the inhaled gas to oxygen or carbogen (95% O2/5% CO2) produced no significant change. In contrast, interrogation of tumor periphery indicated baseline pO2 in the range 7.9-78.9 mmHg. Altering inspired gas produced significant changes (p 2 or carbogen, although the chang or carbogen, although the change was generally greater with carbogen. In each case, pO2 returned to baseline within 16 min of returning the inhaled gas to baseline. Conclusion: We believe this method provides a valuable new approach with the requisite precision and accuracy to investigate tumor pO2

180

CT and MRI of germ-cell tumors with metastasis or multi-located tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty-seven cases of germ-cell tumors were examined with a CT scan in our clinic. In the 11 cases of metastasis or multi-localized tumors, the CT findings were studied in connection with the MRI findings. There were 6 cases of germ-cell tumors which had broad infiltrating tumors with multiple lesions on first admission. Their tumor sites were different from that in cases of malignant glioma, being frequently localized in the pineal and/or the suprasellar region, on the wall of the third and/or lateral ventricle, and in the region of the basal ganglia. Five of the cases of germ-cell tumors had metastasis with various patterns connected to a remote area - that is, to spinal cords, to the ventricular wall and basal cistern of the brain stem by CSF dissemination, to a lung by hematogeneous metastasis, and to the peritoneal wall or organs by a V-P shunt. The CT findings of germ-cell tumors were correlated mainly with the results of the histological diagnosis; they were found not to differ with the tumor site. The germinoma in the suprasellar region had less calcification than in the pineal region. Cysts, calcification, and an enlargement of the lateral ventricle on the tumor side were frequently seen in the germinoma of the basal ganglia. On the MRI of 5 cases of germinoma, the T{sub 1}-weighted image revealed a slightly low or iso signal intensity, while the T{sub 2}-weighted image showed a high signal intensity. In the case of multiple tumor lesions, some cases demonstrated different CT findings and radiosensitivities for each tumor. The possibility of a multicentric origin for the tumors is thus suggested in some cases of germ-cell tumors. (author).

Miyagami, Mitsusuke; Tazoe, Makoto; Tsubokawa, Takashi (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

1989-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

CT and MRI of germ-cell tumors with metastasis or multi-located tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-seven cases of germ-cell tumors were examined with a CT scan in our clinic. In the 11 cases of metastasis or multi-localized tumors, the CT findings were studied in connection with the MRI findings. There were 6 cases of germ-cell tumors which had broad infiltrating tumors with multiple lesions on first admission. Their tumor sites were different from that in cases of malignant glioma, being frequently localized in the pineal and/or the suprasellar region, on the wall of the third and/or lateral ventricle, and in the region of the basal ganglia. Five of the cases of germ-cell tumors had metastasis with various patterns connected to a remote area - that is, to spinal cords, to the ventricular wall and basal cistern of the brain stem by CSF dissemination, to a lung by hematogeneous metastasis, and to the peritoneal wall or organs by a V-P shunt. The CT findings of germ-cell tumors were correlated mainly with the results of the histological diagnosis; they were found not to differ with the tumor site. The germinoma in the suprasellar region had less calcification than in the pineal region. Cysts, calcification, and an enlargement of the lateral ventricle on the tumor side were frequently seen in the germinoma of the basal ganglia. On the MRI of 5 cases of germinoma, the T1-weighted image revealed a slightly low or iso signal intensity, while the T2-weighted image showed a high signal intensity. In the case of multiple tumor lesions, some cases demonstrated different CT findings and radiosensitivities for each tumor. The possibility of a multicentric origin for the tumors is thus suggested in some cases of germ-cell tumors. (author)

182

[Specifics of regional metastases of adrenal malignant tumors].  

Science.gov (United States)

Radicality of surgical treatment of the adrenal gland malignant tumor (AGMT) depends on its primary complete excision as well as all the regional metastases (RM). This trusts the necessity of studying of the regional metastatic spreading ways. There were investigated the regional metastatic spreading ways in 257 patients with AGMT, treated in 1968-2002 yrs in the clinic. In 33% of the patients with AGMT RM were revealed. Regional metastatic spreading was as usual lymphogenic one. RM were usually revealed in lymphatic nodes of renal hilus, paranephral and paraaortal fat tissue. That's why while doing the operative intervention for AGMT it is necessary to perform revision of the renal hilum lymphatic nodes, as well as paranephral and paraaortal fat tissue and muscles of the back. PMID:15071998

Kvachenkiuk, A N

2004-01-01

183

[Germ-cell tumors of the brain--their course and management].  

Science.gov (United States)

Germ-cell tumors (GCT) of the CNS constitute a small group with an incidence varying in the range 0.1 to 3.4 per cent of all primary brain neoplasms. In the WHO classification of brain tumors they are differentiated in a separate group, and further subdivided into: germinoma, teratoma (mature, immature, malignant), embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, endodermal sinus tumor and mixed germinal tumors. Of them germinoma is the most frequently encountered (41-65 per cent of all GCT), whereas the incidence rate of mixed GCT may reach 32 per cent Mainly median structures are being involved--III ventricle (pineal region and hypothalamo-hypophyseal structures), basal ganglia, with isolated cases being described in corpus callosum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and spinal cord. Eleven patients with a total of 13 verified GCT are presented (in one instance germinomas involving the pineal body and suprasellar region are simultaneously established). The clinical course data, results of the diagnostic examinations done (CT, brain angiography, tumor markers), treatment carried out--surgical, radio- and chemotherapy, as well as the outcome of the long-term follow-up study of patients are analyzed. Three patients have mixed GCT. It is of interest to note a case where ten years after the removal of a benign teratoma in the pineal region, germinoma in the same location is diagnosed and removed. PMID:9739879

Gabrovski, S

1997-01-01

184

Tumores não hipofisários da região selar / Nonpituitary tumors of the sellar region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A hipófise, a sela túrcica e a região peri-selar podem ser acometidas por uma série de lesões, incluindo tumores benignos e malignos, bem como uma ampla variedade de doenças não neoplásicas. Os aspectos clínicos e radiológicos podem auxiliar no diagnóstico diferencial destas lesões. Porém, em muitos [...] casos, somente a análise histopatológica pode estabelecer o diagnóstico definitivo. Neste artigo, revisamos principais tumores não hipofisários da região selar e peri-selar, ressaltando seus aspectos endócrinos mais relevantes. Abstract in english The pituitary gland, sella turcica and the parasellar region can be involved by a wide variety of lesions, including benign and malignant neoplasms as well as a wide variety of non neoplastic tumor-like lesions. Clinical and radiological aspects could help in the differential diagnosis of these lesi [...] ons. Nevertheless, in many cases only the histopathological analysis could establish the definitive diagnosis. In this paper, we review the nonpituitary tumors of the sellar region emphasizing the associated hormonal disturbances.

Mauro A., Czepielewski; Guilherme A.F.S., Rollin; Alessandra, Casagrande; Marcelo Paglioli, Ferreira; Nelson P., Ferreira.

185

Tumores não hipofisários da região selar / Nonpituitary tumors of the sellar region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A hipófise, a sela túrcica e a região peri-selar podem ser acometidas por uma série de lesões, incluindo tumores benignos e malignos, bem como uma ampla variedade de doenças não neoplásicas. Os aspectos clínicos e radiológicos podem auxiliar no diagnóstico diferencial destas lesões. Porém, em muitos [...] casos, somente a análise histopatológica pode estabelecer o diagnóstico definitivo. Neste artigo, revisamos principais tumores não hipofisários da região selar e peri-selar, ressaltando seus aspectos endócrinos mais relevantes. Abstract in english The pituitary gland, sella turcica and the parasellar region can be involved by a wide variety of lesions, including benign and malignant neoplasms as well as a wide variety of non neoplastic tumor-like lesions. Clinical and radiological aspects could help in the differential diagnosis of these lesi [...] ons. Nevertheless, in many cases only the histopathological analysis could establish the definitive diagnosis. In this paper, we review the nonpituitary tumors of the sellar region emphasizing the associated hormonal disturbances.

Mauro A., Czepielewski; Guilherme A.F.S., Rollin; Alessandra, Casagrande; Marcelo Paglioli, Ferreira; Nelson P., Ferreira.

2005-10-01

186

Pineal thyroid relationship in psychic stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal hormone and thyroid functions, were studied simultaneously in rats after the induction of acute psychic stress as well as exogenous administration of melatonin, thyroxine and also after thyroidectomy. A gradual increase in 131I uptake, serum PBI and melatonin levels were observed in blood, reaching maximum on 8th day of psychic stress. Melatonin administration resulted in hypothyroidism whereas thyroxine increased the activity of pineal qland. Thyroidectomy revealed a gradual decrease in melatonin content of pineal gland whereas supplementation with thyroxine resulted in a melatonin content similar to that observed in sham operated (control) group. (author)

187

NeuroD1: developmental expression and regulated genes in the rodent pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

NeuroD1/BETA2, a member of the bHLH transcription factor family, is known to influence the fate of specific neuronal, endocrine and retinal cells. We report here that NeuroD1 mRNA is highly abundant in the developing and adult rat pineal gland. Pineal expression begins in the 17-day embryo at which time it is also detectable in other brain regions. Expression in the pineal gland increases during the embryonic period and is maintained thereafter at levels equivalent to those found in the cerebellum and retina. In contrast, NeuroD1 mRNA decreases markedly in non-cerebellar brain regions during development. Pineal NeuroD1 levels are similar during the day and night, and do not appear to be influenced by sympathetic neural input. Gene expression analysis of the pineal glands from neonatal NeuroD1 knockout mice identifies 127 transcripts that are down-regulated (>twofold, p twofold, p <0.05). According to quantitative RT-PCR, the most dramatically down-regulated gene is kinesin family member 5C ( approximately 100-fold) and the most dramatically up-regulated gene is glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 ( approximately fourfold). Other impacted transcripts encode proteins involved in differentiation, development, signal transduction and trafficking. These findings represent the first step toward elucidating the role of NeuroD1 in the rodent pinealocyte.

Muñoz, Estela M; Bailey, Michael J

2007-01-01

188

Paragangliomas of the head and neck region (''glomus tumors'')  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paragangliomas of the head and neck region - often incorrectly termed ''glomus tumors'' in everyday practice - are rare neoplasms that allow a radiologic diagnosis at first glance. They are found at four predilection sites; In the carotid bifurcation, at the parapharyngeal course of the vagal nerve, around the jugular foramen and in the tympanic cavity. Depending on their location and clinical manifestation they are diagnosed early or late. Therefore, their size may vary between few millimeters and several centimeters. Special problems arise when the tumors occur at multiple locations in the setting of genetic disease. Imaging is essential for establishing a diagnosis, for the description of their extension and for follow-up. Because of their high degree of vascularisation especially vagal and jugular paragangliomas are a challenge not only to the surgeon but also to the interventional neuroradiologist. Super-selective preoperative embolization can decide whether a tumor is operable or not. In individual cases infiltration of the carotid necessitates a temporary balloon test occlusion. (orig.)

189

CT and MRI findings in patients with suprasellar germ cell tumors  

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This is a retrospective analysis of CT and MRI findings in suprasellar germ cell tumors. The study population was comprised of 6 patients with germinomas, one with embryonal carcinoma, and one with mature teratoma. Suprasellar germinoma tended to have intratumoral low density on CT or intensity area on MRI, indicating tumor necrosis or occasionally cyst formation. Germinoma tissue may extend into the pituitary fossa. Sagittal MRI revealed that the extension was limited to the posterior part of the pituitary gland. MRI of the teratoma did not demonstrate extension of the tumor into the pituitary fossa. No germ cell tumor in this region was seen as calcification. Germinoma in this region did not always show marked homogeneous enhancement. These neuroradiological findings failed to determine subtypes of germ cell tumors. Two patients had germinomas in both the pineal and suprasellar areas. Two years after the total removal of pineal teratoma, it recurred in the suprasellar region that was not seen on the first MRI. In these two patients, germinomas called 'double midline tumors' seemed to have originated by CSF dissemination or subependymal seeding, which was not demonstrated on neuroradiological images. The teratoma case was thought to be one form of double midline tumor, because the first tumor tissue in the pineal region had been totally and extracapsulary removed two years earlier and the suprasellar lesion could not be demonstrated on sagittal MRI or CT scans. In conclusion, not only neuroradiological findings but also clinical findings such as tumor markers may be required in preoperative diagnosis of suprasellar germ cell tumors. (N.K.).

Kasamo, Shizuya; Asakura, Tetsuhiko; Nakamura, Katsumi; Nakayama, Masaki; Hirano, Hirobumi; Ohyama, Hiroshi (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

1992-06-01

190

The immunization site of cytokine-secreting tumor cell vaccines influences the trafficking of tumor-specific T lymphocytes and antitumor efficacy against regional tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumor cells engineered to secrete cytokines, referred to as tumor cell vaccines, can often generate systemic antitumor immunity and, in many cases, cause tumor regression. We compared the efficacy of s.c. immunization or intrahepatic immunization of GM-CSF-expressing tumor cell vaccines on the growth of s.c. or orthotopic liver tumors. A chemically transformed hepatic epithelial cell line, GP7TB, derived from Fischer 344 rats, was used to generate tumor models and tumor cell vaccines. Our results demonstrated that two s.c. injections of an irradiated tumor cell vaccine significantly controlled the growth of s.c. tumors, but was completely ineffective against orthotopic liver tumors. Effector cell infiltration in liver tumors was markedly reduced compared with s.c. tumors. Enhanced apoptosis of some effector cells was observed in the liver tumors compared with the s.c. tumors. Furthermore, the T cells induced by s.c. immunization preferentially migrated to s.c. tumor sites, as demonstrated by adoptive transfer experiments. In contrast, intrahepatic immunization, using parental tumor cells admixed with adenoviruses carrying the GM-CSF gene, yielded significantly better therapeutic effects on the liver tumors than on the s.c. tumors. Adoptive transfer experiments further confirmed that the T cells induced by liver immunization preferentially migrated to the liver tumor sites. Our results demonstrate that distinct T cell populations are induced by different immunization routes. Thus, the homing behavior of T cells depends on the route of immunization and is an important factor determining the efficacy of immunotherapy for regional tumors. PMID:15528337

Chang, Chun-Jung; Tai, Kuo-Feng; Roffler, Steve; Hwang, Lih-Hwa

2004-11-15

191

Quantifying Metabolic Heterogeneity in Head and Neck Tumors in Real Time: 2-DG Uptake Is Highest in Hypoxic Tumor Regions  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity may increase the likelihood of treatment failure due to the presence of a subset of resistant tumor cells. Using a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) xenograft model and a real-time fluorescence imaging approach, we tested the hypothesis that tumors are metabolically heterogeneous, and that tumor hypoxia alters patterns of glucose uptake within the tumor. Experimental Design Cal33 cells were grown as xenograft tumors (n?=?16) in nude mice after identification of this cell line's metabolic response to hypoxia. Tumor uptake of fluorescent markers identifying hypoxia, glucose import, or vascularity was imaged simultaneously using fluorescent molecular tomography. The variability of intratumoral 2-deoxyglucose (IR800-2-DG) concentration was used to assess tumor metabolic heterogeneity, which was further investigated using immunohistochemistry for expression of key metabolic enzymes. HNSCC tumors in patients were assessed for intratumoral variability of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in clinical PET scans. Results IR800-2-DG uptake in hypoxic regions of Cal33 tumors was 2.04 times higher compared to the whole tumor (p?=?0.0001). IR800-2-DG uptake in tumors containing hypoxic regions was more heterogeneous as compared to tumors lacking a hypoxic signal. Immunohistochemistry staining for HIF-1?, carbonic anhydrase 9, and ATP synthase subunit 5? confirmed xenograft metabolic heterogeneity. We detected heterogeneous 18F-FDG uptake within patient HNSCC tumors, and the degree of heterogeneity varied amongst tumors. Conclusion Hypoxia is associated with increased intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity. 18F-FDG PET scans may be used to stratify patients according to the metabolic heterogeneity within their tumors, which could be an indicator of prognosis. PMID:25127378

Nakajima, Erica C.; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matthew; Hou, Weizhou; Wang, Lin; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Ferris, Robert L.; Mountz, James M.; Van Houten, Bennett

2014-01-01

192

Late intrathoracic relapse of pineal germinoma connected to intraspinal canal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Extraneural metastases of intracranial germinoma are rarely reported. The authors describe the first case of metastatic lung germinoma of the thoracic spine. A 27-year-old man presented with right shoulder pain and right upper limb weakness. He had a history of repetitive radiation therapy - nine (whole-abdomen; 15Gy, 12 (whole brain; 30Gy, whole spine 42Gy and 14 years ago (local; 32Gy - for abdominal metastasis, temporal and fourth ventricle metastasis and spinal dissemination and metastatic pineal germinoma, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lung mass invading the thoracic spine that was diagnosed as a germinoma by tumor biopsy. He was treated by irradiation with 54Gy and two cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide. He did not have any sign of tumor eight years later.

Utsuki Satoshi

2007-01-01

193

Postnatal development of the dog pineal gland. Light microscopy  

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The light microscopical morphology of the dog pineal gland from the first postnatal day to maturity is described. In the first postnatal week, the pineal parenchyma shows immature cells and many mitotic figures. In this week, pigmented cells are obsemed for the first time, both in the pineal gland and in extrapineal nodules. Throughout the second week, the pineal parenchyma shows a cordonal pattern that disappears progressively in the following stages. From the...

Calvo, J. L.; Boya, J.; Garci?a-maurin?o, A.; Lo?pez Carbonell, A.

1990-01-01

194

Pineal proteins upregulate specific antioxidant defense systems in the brain  

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The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL), the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins (PP) on the antioxidant defense sys...

Bharti, Vijay K.; Srivastava, R. S.

2009-01-01

195

Pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), a cis-acting element, directs pineal-specific gene expression in zebrafish  

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The pineal gland, sharing morphological and biochemical similarities with the retina, plays a unique and central role in the photoneuroendocrine system. The unique development of the pineal gland is directed by a specific combination of the expressed genes, but little is known about the regulatory mechanism underlying the pineal-specific gene expression. We isolated a 1.1-kbp fragment upstream of the zebrafish exo-rhodopsin (exorh) gene, which is expressed specifically in the pineal gland. Tr...

Asaoka, Yoichi; Mano, Hiroaki; Kojima, Daisuke; Fukada, Yoshitaka

2002-01-01

196

[Extragonadal germ cell tumor in mediastinum: case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Germ Cell tumors of extragonadal origin are infrequent cases being described in literature less than 1000 cases. The frequent origin sites are mediastinum, retroperitoneum, sacrococcygeal region, and the pineal gland. There was a primary case of germinoma in mediastinum in a 27 years patient. In the image studies a mediastinal mass was demonstrated, a biopsy was taken arriving at the diagnosis. Normal tumor markers, testicular ultrasonography reported the presence of bilateral microlitiasis. It was treating with polychemotherapy and later residual mass was dried. The evolution was satisfactory with complete answer. PMID:18512396

Elizondo, Zavala A; Montelongo, Martínez R; González, J E

2008-03-01

197

Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Otx2 is a vertebrate homeobox gene, which has been found to be essential for the development of rostral brain regions and appears to play a role in the development of retinal photoreceptor cells and pinealocytes. In this study, the temporal expression pattern of Otx2 was revealed in the rat brain, with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages. Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland. Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression pattern similar to that of Otx2, although there was a distinct lag in time of onset. Otx2 protein was identified in pineal extracts and found to be localized in pinealocytes. Total pineal Otx2 mRNA did not show day-night variation, nor was it influenced by removal of the sympathetic input, indicating that the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland. Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes associated with phototransduction and melatonin synthesis.

Rath, Martin F; Muñoz, Estela

2006-01-01

198

Intracranial tumors with risk of dissemination in neuroaxis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The experience of the Radiotherapy Service, Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain), in the treatment of intracranial tumors with risk of neural axis dissemination is analyzed. In 15 years (1964 to 1979) 415 primary central nervous system tumors were studied and treated; 67 corresponded to tumors with risk of meningeal dissemination. Clinical dissemination in cerebrospinal fluid was proven in 14 patients. The actuarial survival of 10 years for patients with neural axis dissemination, without prophylactic treatment to the neuroaxis, is 14% with an average survival of 10.5 months. In approximately 20% of meduloblastomas, ependymal and pineal region tumors, meningeal metastases at some distance from the primary tumor can take place. Patients at risk with these types of neoplasia must be identified, ad an adequate radical therapeutic focus devised, not only for the primary tumor, but also for the risk of dissemination.

Calvo, F.A.; Hornedo, J.; de la Torre, A.; Sachetti, A.; Arellano, A.; Aramburo, P.; Aragon, G.; Otero, J.

1983-09-01

199

Tectal pineal cyst in a 1-year-old girl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glial cysts of the pineal gland can frequently be found in adults and children, but only rarely do they enlarge to become clinically relevant. We report a unique presentation of a pineal cyst in the midbrain tectum of a 16-month-old girl who initially presented with ptosis and strabismus. Preoperative imaging studies and intraoperative findings revealed no continuity between the tectal cyst and the pineal gland proper. We surmise that this tectal pineal cyst may have arisen from duplicated pineal gland tissue. PMID:24411061

Plowey, Edward D; Vogel, Hannes; Yeom, Kristen W; Jung, Henry; Chao, Kevin; Edwards, Michael S B

2014-03-01

200

Pineal yolk sac tumour with a solid pattern: a case report in a Chinese adult man with Down’s syndrome  

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Intracranial germ cell tumours are rare. The incidence of primary intracranial yolk sac tumour is even more uncommon, with only two reported cases being associated with Down’s syndrome in the English literature. This report details the findings of yolk sac tumour in the pineal region affecting a 22 year old Chinese man with Down’s syndrome. Histology revealed yolk sac tumour with only a solid pattern, potentially mimicking the more common germinoma in the pineal region. No other germ cell...

Tan, H. W.; Ty, A.; Goh, S. G. N.; Wong, M. C.; Hong, A.; Chuah, K. L.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Pineal cyst: study with magnetic resonance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of magnetic resonance (MR) as a diagnostic technique in central nervous system pathology has made possible the detection of structures that are hard to view with other diagnostic methods. In 21 patients in whom the existence of pineal cyst was detected by chance, we describe the study technique employed and present the MR characterization. In the absence of specific clinical symptoms and sings, the differential diagnosis of this pathology, with respect to other neoplastic formations located in the pineal gland, is based on its typical location behind the third ventricle, its size, which does not vary in the different serial studies, and its signal intensity. (author)

202

The polyomavirus early region gene in transgenic mice causes vascular and bone tumors.  

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Transgenic mice carrying the entire polyomavirus (Py) early region consistently develop both vascular and bone tumors. This tumor spectrum represents a subset of the tumors found in mice infected with Py and an expansion of the vascular tumor spectrum seen in Py middle T antigen (MT) transgenic mice (V. L. Bautch, S. Toda, J. A. Hassell, and D. Hanahan, Cell 51:529-538, 1987). Transgenic mice of three independent lineages develop these pathologies, and mice of individual lineages also develop...

Wang, R.; Bautch, V. L.

1991-01-01

203

Comparison of some peptidic and proteic ovine pineal fractions with a bovine pineal E5 fraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using rather simple and mild extraction and separation methods, three ovine pineal fractions (XM 300R - PP 7.2, PP 7.2' and PP 7.2S) were obtained, which contain peptidic/proteic substances and which show fluorescence characteristics of indoles. The ovine fractions were compared with the bovine pineal E5-fraction. The ovine fractions are chemically sensitive to normal laboratory light and stable in red light (#betta# > 600 nm). Immunologically, these fractions and the bovine E5 fraction are stable. From the results of radioimmunological experiments it was concluded that the bovine pineal E5 fraction as well as the ovine pineal fraction XM 300R - PP 7.2 and PP 7.2S may contain (a) peptide(s) ending by the same carboxy terminal tripeptide Pro-Arg-Gly(NH2). (Author)

204

Malignant giant cell tumor of soft parts in lumbosacral region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Giant cell tumor of soft parts is a rare neoplasm that mainly affects adulst and the elderly and is usually located in the extremities. Here we report a child with giant cell tumor of soft tissue, which is a very rare condition in childhood. Clinical presentation : A 5 year old girl presented with a 5 month history of left lower extremity pain. She had developed paraplegia before admission. On examination, mild left lumbosacral swelling and tenderness was found. Abdominal and pelvic CT-Scan revealed an expansile lytic lesion of the left side of sacrum with significant soft tissue component extending toward the left iliac bone. Lumbar MRI revealed a space occupying lesion originating from posterior L5 elements, projecting toward the L1. Intervention : The patient underwent surgery. A firm epidural hemorrhagic tumor of L5, S1, and S2 with no spinal cord involvement was found. Partial tumor resection (measuring 3*1*0.5 cm in maximal diameter and laminectomy was done. Conclusion : Primary giant cell tumors of soft tissue are distinctive, rare neoplasms that exhibit a wide clinicopathologic spectrum similar to osseous GCTs and need to be differentiated from other giant cell rich soft tissue tumors. Recognition of this tumor is important due to its behavior as a low grade malignancy, but this cannot be predicted and metastasis does occur rarely

Jadali F

2008-04-01

205

MR imaging of pineal cyst. Gd-DTPA wall enhancement pattern  

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We investigated the characteristic diagnostic imaging features of pineal cysts in 14 patients. Periodic MR images were obtained on all of them during the follow-up period of more than one year. Neurological deficits attributable to a pineal cyst were observed in only one patient, who had a convergence disturbance. the T{sub 1}-and T{sub 2}-weighted images were studied in all 14 cases, and to enhance contrast, Gd-DTPA was administered to all patients. The cysts had homogenous low intensity signals in T{sub 1}-weighted images and there were homogenous high intensity regions in T{sub 2}-weighted images. The margins were clear with little mass effect on the surrounding brain tissues. The results of Gd-DTPA enhancement of the cyst wall revealed the existence of three distinct patterns. They were: (1) A ring-like enhancement pattern seen in four cases, (2) an arcuate (partial) enhancement pattern observed in five patients, and (3) no enhancement, found in another five cases. The degree of enhancement was influenced by the relationship between thickness of the cyst wall and the spatial resolution of the MRI image. During the follow-up period no increase in the size of a given cyst was evident. These studies emphasize that follow-up MR imaging is necessary for determining changes in pineal cysts over time. Moreover, sagittal MR images are particularly useful for diagnosing pineal cysts and for understanding the relationship between the cyst and the surrounding tissues. (author).

Satoh, Hideki; Uozumi, Tohru; Arita, Kazunori; Kurisu, Kaoru; Sumida, Masayuki; Migita, Keisuke [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kiya, Katsuzo; Ikawa, Fusao

1994-12-01

206

Radionuclide diagnosis of regional metastases in patients with testicular tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study involved 181 patients with germinal testicular tumors. 80 patients underwent trans abdominal lymphadenectomy which enabled us to compare the results of lymphoscintigraphy (negative radiodiagnosis with colloidal preparations labeled with gold and technetium and positive radiodiagnosis with 99mTc-pertechnetate) with the date of histological study. High significance of lymphoscintigraphy was proved. Lymphoscintigraphy at testicular tumors allows to specify the stage of the process and the degree of lymphadenectomy at different terms after the operation

207

Supratentorial tumors; Supratentorielle Tumoren  

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Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

Grunwald, I.; Dillmann, K.; Roth, C.; Backens, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

2007-06-15

208

Anterior callosal section is useful for the removal of large tumors invading the dorsal part of the anterior third ventricle: operative technique and results.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large tumors invading the dorsal part of the anterior third ventricle are difficult to manage. The anterior transcallosal approach is usually used to manage these tumors. In our clinic, anterior callosal section was combined with the anterior interhemispheric (AIH) translamina terminalis approach for these tumors with excellent results. The AIH approach is useful for removing tumors in and around the anterior part of the third ventricle. However, AIH alone is insufficient for large tumors invading the dorsal part of the anterior third ventricle. In such situations, simple anterior callosal section enables the neurosurgeon to extirpate the caudal part of the tumors deeply hidden from operative field, sparing the foramen of Monro, fornix, etc. We treated four large tumors (malignant teratoma, recurrent chordoid glioma, recurrent papillary tumor of pineal region occupying the third ventricle, and paraventricular meningioma) without major complications. The malignant teratoma case exhibited no recurrence with >10 years follow-up. The chordoid glioma and papillary tumor of pineal region were totally removed. The meningioma was subtotally removed except only a small tumor around the bilateral anterior cerebral artery. This simple technique is a new way to manage difficult large lesions in and around the third ventricle. PMID:23568695

Shiramizu, Hideki; Hori, Tomokatsu; Matsuo, Seigo; Niimura, Kaku; Yoshimoto, Haruko; Ishida, Atsushi; Asakuno, Keizoh; Yuzawa, Miki; Moriyama, Takashi

2013-07-01

209

Regional tumor oxygen tension: fluorine echo planar imaging of hexafluorobenzene reveals heterogeneity of dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Therapeutic success could be enhanced if therapy were tailored to the characteristics of specific tumors. We have been developing novel approaches to measuring tumor oxygen tension in vivo, and recently reported a method based on 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin lattice echo planar imaging (EPI) relaxometry of hexafluorobenzene (HFB). We have now examined the feasibility of monitoring dynamic changes in regional tumor oxygenation in response to respiratory challenge. Preliminary data in one tumor show distinct differences before and subsequent to irradiation. Methods and Materials: Dunning prostate adenocarcinoma R3327-AT1 was grown in the form of pedicles on the foreback of male Copenhagen rats. When the tumors reached ? 1 cm diameter, HFB (40 ?l) was administered by direct intratumoral injection deliberately dispersed to interrogate both central and peripheral regions. Local pO2 was determined using pulse burst saturation recovery 19F NMR EPI on the basis of the spin lattice relaxation rate. Results: Interrogation of both central and peripheral regions of tumors showed bimodal distribution for oxygenation, including many voxels with pO2 2 produced significant elevation for regions with initially high pO2 (p 2 showed little respo low pO2 showed little response. Following irradiation (20 Gy), tumor oxygenation was significantly elevated and remained high for at least 10 h. Conclusion: We believe this method provides a valuable new approach to investigate tumor oximetry that may extend our understanding of tumor physiology, and could have prognostic value

210

Glia-Pinealocyte Network: The Paracrine Modulation of Melatonin Synthesis by Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)  

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The pineal gland, a circumventricular organ, plays an integrative role in defense responses. The injury-induced suppression of the pineal gland hormone, melatonin, which is triggered by darkness, allows the mounting of innate immune responses. We have previously shown that cultured pineal glands, which express toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), produce TNF when challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here our aim was to evaluate which cells present in ...

Da Silveira Cruz-machado, Sanseray; Pinato, Luciana; Tamura, Eduardo Koji; Carvalho-sousa, Cla?udia Emanuele; Markus, Regina P.

2012-01-01

211

Induction of photosensitivity in neonatal rat pineal gland  

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Pineal glands removed from neonatal rats at 5, 7, and 9 days of age and explanted into short-term culture, synthesized melatonin when stimulated with norepinephrine (NE); their melatonin synthesis could not be suppressed with bright white light. Dispersed pineal cell cultures or pineal explants prepared from 1-day-old neonates and held in culture for 7 or 9 days also synthesized melatonin when stimulated with NE, but in these cases melatonin synthesis was significantly...

Tosini, Gianluca; Doyle, Susan; Geusz, Mike; Menaker, Michael

2000-01-01

212

Possible role of pineal allopregnanolone in Purkinje cell survival  

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It is believed that neurosteroids are produced in the brain and other nervous systems. Here, we show that allopregnanolone (ALLO), a neurosteroid, is exceedingly produced in the pineal gland compared with the brain and that pineal ALLO acts on the Purkinje cell, a principal cerebellar neuron, to prevent apoptosis in the juvenile quail. We first demonstrated that the pineal gland is a major organ of neurosteroidogenesis. A series of experiments using molecular and biochemical techniques has fu...

Haraguchi, Shogo; Hara, Sakurako; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Mita, Masatoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

2012-01-01

213

The reno-pineal axis: A novel role for melatonin  

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The pineal gland is a tiny endocrine gland whose physiologic role has been the focus of much research and much more speculation over the past century. This mini-review discusses recent findings which correlate melatonin and renal physiology, and postulates the presence of a “reno-pineal axis.” Drawing lessons from comparative endocrinology, while quoting human data, it advocates the need to study the “reno-pineal axis” in greater detail.

Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Swati; Sahay, Manisha

2012-01-01

214

Tumor odontógeno adenomatoide en región mandibular / Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in mandibular region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El tumor odontogénico adenomatoide es un tumor poco frecuente derivado del epitelio odontontogénico, que contiene estructuras canaliculares con modificaciones inductivas de intensidad variable en el tejido conjuntivo. Es una lesión de crecimiento lento y poco invasiva pero que se puede asemejar a ot [...] ras lesiones odontógenas de mayor agresividad como el quiste dentígero y el ameloblastoma entre otros. Su localización clásica (área de caninos superiores) nos orienta al diagnóstico y su patrón histológico ductiforme es muy propio de este tumor. Otros tumores que se encuentran dentro de este grupo son el fibroma ameloblástico, el odontoameloblastoma, el quiste odontógeno calcificante y los odontomas compuesto y complejo. Este grupo de lesiones puede o no tener formaciones de tejido duro dental dentro de ellos. Por esta razón, se presenta un paciente con este tipo de tumor, al que se le realizó estudio histopatológico, se revisó la literatura acerca de este tumor odontogénico benigno y sus características clínicas, radiográficas, tratamiento, así como los diagnósticos diferenciales que se deben tener en cuenta. Abstract in english The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon neoplasm derivative of the odontogenic epithelium containing canalicular structures with inductor modifications of variable intensity in the conjunctival tissue. It is a slow growth lesion and no much invasive but that may to be similar to other odont [...] ogenic lesions more aggressive including the dentigerous cyst and the ameloblastoma among others. Its classical location (upper canine area) guides us to diagnosis and its duct histological pattern is very typical of this tumor. Other tumors included in this group are the ameloblastic fibroma, the ameloblastic odontoma, the calcified odontogenic cyst and composed and complex odontomas. This group of lesions may or not to have formations of hard tissue inside. Thus, authors present the case of a patient presenting with this type of tumor making a histopathology study, a literature review on this benign odontogenic tumor and its clinical radiographic features, treatment, as well as the differential diagnoses to be into account.

Ernesto, Sánchez Cabrales; Dadonim, Vila Morales; Ángel Mario, Felipe Garmendia; Alain, Serra Ortega; Alma, Torres Gómez de Cádiz.

215

Oxytalan fibres in the rat pineal gland.  

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The present study shows the existence of oxytalan fibres in the connective tissue spaces of the rat pineal gland. The identification of these fibres with light microscopy is based on their ability to stain with aldehyde-fuchsin and orcein after oxidation with peracetic acid. Using the electron microscope, oxytalan fibres appear as bundles of fibrils of 12-15 nm without transverse striation. Oxytalan fibres increase with age, being most abundant in the old rat.

Calvo, J.; Boya, J.

1983-01-01

216

Nitric oxide synthase in the pineal gland  

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The recent discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as a biological messenger molecule with unique characteristics has opened a new field in pineal research. This free radical gas is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. The activation of adrenoreceptors in the membrane of the pinealocytes mediates the increase in NO through a mechanism that involves G proteins. In the pinealocyte, NO stimulates guanylyl cyclase resulting in an increased ...

Lopez-figueroa, M. O.; Moller, M.

1996-01-01

217

Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

218

Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

Gizewski, E.R.; Forsting, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Essen (Germany)

2001-08-01

219

Giant cell tumor of soft tissue in groin region, clinically diagnosed as inguinal lymphadenopathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Giant cell tumor of soft tissue is a rare primary soft tissue neoplasm with clinical and histological similarities to giant cell tumor of bone. Most cases arise from superficial soft tissue of extremities and present as painless and well circumscribed masses. Adequate surgical treatment by complete excision is associated with a benign clinical course in most cases. We report a case of primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue in groin region of a young man which was thought to be an inguinal lymphadenopathy in clinical examination. KEY WORDS: Giant cell tumor, soft tissue, inguinal lymphadenopathy, groin.

Ahmad Sobhan Ardakani

2006-12-01

220

Pineal cyst: study with magnetic resonance. Quistes pineales simples: estudio con resonancia magnetica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of magnetic resonance (MR) as a diagnostic technique in central nervous system pathology has made possible the detection of structures that are hard to view with other diagnostic methods. In 21 patients in whom the existence of pineal cyst was detected by chance, we describe the study technique employed and present the MR characterization. In the absence of specific clinical symptoms and sings, the differential diagnosis of this pathology, with respect to other neoplastic formations located in the pineal gland, is based on its typical location behind the third ventricle, its size, which does not vary in the different serial studies, and its signal intensity. (author)

Paniagua, J.C.; Aleixandre, A.; Esteban, M.J.; Marti-Bomati, L.; Poyatos, C. (Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia (Spain))

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Analysis of MRI appearance of aggressive soft tissue tumor in hip joint region: compared with pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To analyze the MRI appearance of soft tissue tumor in hip joint region, and compare it with pathological features. Methods: MR appearance of 19 soft tissue tumor in hip joint region were retrospectively analyzed, including 12 male and 7 female, 45.2 years averaged. All patients had taken common MR scanning and Gd-DTPA contrast scanning. Results: There was 5 aggressive fibromatosis, 5 malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 2 synovial sarcoma, 4 liposarcoma, 1 lymphoma, 1 primitive neuroectodermal tumor and 1 metastatic tumor. Of 19 cases, 13 with hemorrhage and necrosis, 14 with peripheral edema, nerve and vessel involved in 11. Aggressive fibromatosis appeared as isointensity or hypointensity on T1WI, and moderate hyperintensity on T2WI with low signal inside. Malignant tumor were mostly ill-defined. After contrast scanning, tumors enhanced apparently. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma showed isointensity and heter-hypointensity on T1WI, and heter-hypointensity on T2WI. Necrosis and hemorrhage occurred. All cases showed strong enhancement, except for the areas of necrosis. Edema around tumor can be seen in most cases. Conclusion: MRI can demonstrate the from and internal and peripheral structure of soft tissue tumor in hip joint region, and can contribute to the diagnosis before operation. (authors)

222

Breakpoints of 19q13 translocations of benign thyroid tumors map within a 400 kilobase region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural rearrangements involving the long arm of chromosome 19 characterize a cytogenetic subgroup of benign thyroid tumors. To localize the breakpoint of the 19q13 aberrations, we have established three cell lines derived from benign thyroid tumors showing translocations in this region. We have used these cell lines and four additional primary tumors with 19q13 abnormalities for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping studies with ten cosmid clones located between the molecular markers POLD1 and TNNT1. The breakpoints of all chromosome 19 abnormalities mapped within a 400 kb region. PMID:9331571

Belge, G; Garcia, E; Rippe, V; Fusco, A; Bartnitzke, S; Bullerdiek, J

1997-10-01

223

Dynamic studies of positron-emitting putative tumor marker 132Cs in mice show differential tumor and regional uptake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Positron-emitting 132Cs (t1/2 = 6.47 days) was generated from stable 133CsCl via the 133Cs (p,pn) 132Cs reaction. BALB/c mice, bearing implanted MT296 mammary tumors, were given 4.6 mEq kg-1 of 132CsCl via a single intraperitoneal injection. Postinjection uptake of 132Cs into body regions was monitored in vivo with external detectors. Positron emission from the tumor region was continuously greater than that from the head, the numerical ratio of mean emission intensities being fourfold at 10 min postinjection. Tissues excised from these mice postmortem showed sequence of relative tissue cesium uptake rates to be kidney 1.8, small intestine 1.7, tumor 1.0, skin 0.75, liver 0.75, skeletal muscle 0.4, and brain 0.28. Comparative studies with multiple injections of stable cesium and rubidium showed this sequence to be ion-specific. These observations suggest that positron-emitting isotopes of cesium could provide useful markers for tumors of several tissues

224

Automated lung tumor segmentation for whole body PET volume based on novel downhill region growing  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose an automated lung tumor segmentation method for whole body PET images based on a novel downhill region growing (DRG) technique, which regards homogeneous tumor hotspots as 3D monotonically decreasing functions. The method has three major steps: thoracic slice extraction with K-means clustering of the slice features; hotspot segmentation with DRG; and decision tree analysis based hotspot classification. To overcome the common problem of leakage into adjacent hotspots in automated lung tumor segmentation, DRG employs the tumors' SUV monotonicity features. DRG also uses gradient magnitude of tumors' SUV to improve tumor boundary definition. We used 14 PET volumes from patients with primary NSCLC for validation. The thoracic region extraction step achieved good and consistent results for all patients despite marked differences in size and shape of the lungs and the presence of large tumors. The DRG technique was able to avoid the problem of leakage into adjacent hotspots and produced a volumetric overlap fraction of 0.61 +/- 0.13 which outperformed four other methods where the overlap fraction varied from 0.40 +/- 0.24 to 0.59 +/- 0.14. Of the 18 tumors in 14 NSCLC studies, 15 lesions were classified correctly, 2 were false negative and 15 were false positive.

Ballangan, Cherry; Wang, Xiuying; Eberl, Stefan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan

2010-03-01

225

Morfología de la Glándula Pineal: Revisión de la Literatura / Pineal Gland Morphology: A Literature Review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La glándula pineal es una pequeña estructura ubicada en el techo del diencéfalo, su principal función es la de regular los ritmos circadianos, tales como sueño-vigilia, secretar melatonina, hormona con fuerte efecto sobre la acción gonadal, además de oncostática, geroprotectora y antioxidante. La pr [...] esente revisión tiene por objetivo conocer los aspectos morfológicos de la glándula pineal, desde su desarrollo a nivel embriológico como su descripción anatómica e histológica con el fin de comprender su función desde un punto de vista integral. Abstract in english Pineal gland is a small structure located on the roof of the diencephalon, and its principal function is to play an important role in circadian rhythm regulation, such as sleep/wake, besides secreting melatonin, a hormone with a strong effect on gonadal action, and playing oncostatic, geroprotector [...] and antioxidant roles. This review aims to know the morphological aspects of the pineal gland, from its embryological development, its anatomic and histological description, in order to understand its function from an integral view.

Ignacio, Roa; Mariano, del Sol.

2014-06-01

226

Morfología de la Glándula Pineal: Revisión de la Literatura / Pineal Gland Morphology: A Literature Review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La glándula pineal es una pequeña estructura ubicada en el techo del diencéfalo, su principal función es la de regular los ritmos circadianos, tales como sueño-vigilia, secretar melatonina, hormona con fuerte efecto sobre la acción gonadal, además de oncostática, geroprotectora y antioxidante. La pr [...] esente revisión tiene por objetivo conocer los aspectos morfológicos de la glándula pineal, desde su desarrollo a nivel embriológico como su descripción anatómica e histológica con el fin de comprender su función desde un punto de vista integral. Abstract in english Pineal gland is a small structure located on the roof of the diencephalon, and its principal function is to play an important role in circadian rhythm regulation, such as sleep/wake, besides secreting melatonin, a hormone with a strong effect on gonadal action, and playing oncostatic, geroprotector [...] and antioxidant roles. This review aims to know the morphological aspects of the pineal gland, from its embryological development, its anatomic and histological description, in order to understand its function from an integral view.

Ignacio, Roa; Mariano, del Sol.

227

Demonstration of an orexinergic central innervation of the pineal gland of the pig  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Orexins/hypocretins, two isoforms of the same prepropeptide, are widely distributed throughout the brain and are involved in several physiological and neuroendocrine regulatory patterns, mostly related to feeding, sleep, arousal, and cyclic sleep-wake behaviors. Orexin-A and orexin-B bind with different affinities to two G-protein-coupled transmembrane receptors, orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptors (OR-R1 and OR-R2, respectively). Because of the similarities between the human and the swine brain, we have studied the pig to investigate the orexinergic system in the diencephalon, with special emphasis on the neuroanatomical projections to the epithalamic region. By using antibodies against orexin-A and orexin-B, immunoreactive large multipolar perikarya were detected in the hypothalamic periventricular and perifornical areas at the light and electron microscopic levels. In the region of the paraventricular nucleus, the orexinergic neurons extended all the way to the lateral hypothalamic area. Immunoreactive nerve fibers, often endowed with large varicosities, were found throughout the hypothalamus and the epithalamus. Some periventricular immunoreactive nerve fibers entered the epithalamic region and continued into the pineal stalk and parenchyma to disperse among the pinealocytes. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of orexinergic nerve fibers in the pig pineal gland. After extraction of total mRNA from the hypothalamus and pineal gland, we performed RT-PCR and nested PCR using primers specific for porcine orexin receptors. PCR products were sequenced, verifying the presence of both OR-R1 and OR-R2 in the tissues investigated. These findings, supported by previous studies on rodents, suggest a hypothalamic regulation of the pineal gland via central orexinergic nervous inputs.

Fabris, Chiara; Cozzi, Bruno

2004-01-01

228

Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.  

Science.gov (United States)

As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:939-943. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24692343

Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

2014-11-01

229

Circadian rhythms in the pineal organ persist in zebrafish larvae that lack ventral brain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, located in the ventral hypothalamus, is a major regulator of circadian rhythms in mammals and birds. However, the role of the SCN in lower vertebrates remains poorly understood. Zebrafish cyclops (cyc mutants lack ventral brain, including the region that gives rise to the SCN. We have used cyc embryos to define the function of the zebrafish SCN in regulating circadian rhythms in the developing pineal organ. The pineal organ is the major source of the circadian hormone melatonin, which regulates rhythms such as daily rest/activity cycles. Mammalian pineal rhythms are controlled almost exclusively by the SCN. In zebrafish and many other lower vertebrates, the pineal has an endogenous clock that is responsible in part for cyclic melatonin biosynthesis and gene expression. Results We find that pineal rhythms are present in cyc mutants despite the absence of an SCN. The arginine vasopressin-like protein (Avpl, formerly called Vasotocin is a peptide hormone expressed in and around the SCN. We find avpl mRNA is absent in cyc mutants, supporting previous work suggesting the SCN is missing. In contrast, expression of the putative circadian clock genes, cryptochrome 1b (cry1b and cryptochrome 3 (cry3, in the brain of the developing fish is unaltered. Expression of two pineal rhythmic genes, exo-rhodopsin (exorh and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (aanat2, involved in photoreception and melatonin synthesis, respectively, is also similar between cyc embryos and their wildtype (WT siblings. The timing of the peaks and troughs of expression are the same, although the amplitude of expression is slightly decreased in the mutants. Cyclic gene expression persists for two days in cyc embryos transferred to constant light or constant dark, suggesting a circadian clock is driving the rhythms. However, the amplitude of rhythms in cyc mutants kept in constant conditions decreased more quickly than in their WT siblings. Conclusion Our data suggests that circadian rhythms can be initiated and maintained in the absence of SCN and other tissues in the ventral brain. However, the SCN may have a role in regulating the amplitude of rhythms when environmental cues are absent. This provides some of the first evidence that the SCN of teleosts is not essential for establishing circadian rhythms during development. Several SCN-independent circadian rhythms have also been found in mammalian species. Thus, zebrafish may serve as a model system for understanding how vertebrate embryos coordinate rhythms that are controlled by different circadian clocks.

Goldstein-Kral Lauren

2011-01-01

230

X-ray and radioisotope studies in tumors of the duodeno-pancreatobiliary region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray and radioisotope study Was performed in 41 patients with tumors of duodenopancreatobility region. It has been determined that radioisotope scintigraphy can be used as a selective test for patients with suspected pancreatic cancer. Angiography is the most informative method in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Retrograde pancreatocholangiography is of utmost importance in the recognition of tumors of the extrahepatic ducts, major duodenal papilla and duodenum

231

Metastatic tumors in the sellar and parasellar regions: clinical review of four cases.  

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Metastatic tumors in the sellar and parasellar regions are uncommon and rarely detected in clinical practice. We present four cases of sellar and parasellar metastatic tumors, which metastasized from distant organ in one case and extended directly from adjacent structures in three. Common presenting symptoms were cranial neuropathies, headache and facial pain. Invasion into the cavernous sinus was noted in all cases. We report rare cases of sellar and parasellar metastases. Also, we should co...

Yi, H. J.; Kim, C. H.; Bak, K. H.; Kim, J. M.; Ko, Y.; Oh, S. J.

2000-01-01

232

Recurrent giant cell tumor of bone with simultaneous regional lymph node and pulmonary metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Giant cell tumors of bone are known for their unpredictable behavior characterized occasionally even by metastases. Most metastases lodge in the lungs but other rare sites are regional lymph nodes, mediastinum, skin, scalp and the pelvis. In this case report we document a case of giant cell tumor of the patella in which, associated with local recurrence, there were simultaneous metastases to lymph nodes and lungs. (orig.)

233

Malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor of the pelvic paravertebral region: case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a rare but distinctive neoplasm of unknown histogenesis, occurring primarily in children. It has a characteristic histologic pattern and aggressive clinical behavior, and was originally thought to be a malignant sarcomatous variant of Wilms tumor; numerous cases of MRT arising from extrarenal sites have, however, been reported. We describe the radiologic findings of two cases of malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor that arose in the pelvic paravertebral region of two children. Both were confirmed by surgical excision and pathologic examination.

Park, Jae Seong; Kim, Dong Jin; Lee, Myeong Sub; Kim, Myung Soon; Hong, In Soo; Lee, Kwang Gil; Kim, Tae Heon [Yonsei Univ., Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

2001-11-01

234

Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

MØller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri

2014-01-01

235

Stereoscopic virtual reality models for planning tumor resection in the sellar region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background It is difficult for neurosurgeons to perceive the complex three-dimensional anatomical relationships in the sellar region. Methods To investigate the value of using a virtual reality system for planning resection of sellar region tumors. The study included 60 patients with sellar tumors. All patients underwent computed tomography angiography, MRI-T1W1, and contrast enhanced MRI-T1W1 image sequence scanning. The CT and MRI scanning data were collected and then imported into a Dextroscope imaging workstation, a virtual reality system that allows structures to be viewed stereoscopically. During preoperative assessment, typical images for each patient were chosen and printed out for use by the surgeons as references during surgery. Results All sellar tumor models clearly displayed bone, the internal carotid artery, circle of Willis and its branches, the optic nerve and chiasm, ventricular system, tumor, brain, soft tissue and adjacent structures. Depending on the location of the tumors, we simulated the transmononasal sphenoid sinus approach, transpterional approach, and other approaches. Eleven surgeons who used virtual reality models completed a survey questionnaire. Nine of the participants said that the virtual reality images were superior to other images but that other images needed to be used in combination with the virtual reality images. Conclusions The three-dimensional virtual reality models were helpful for individualized planning of surgery in the sellar region. Virtual reality appears to be promising as a valuable tool for sellar region surgery in the future.

Wang Shou-sen

2012-11-01

236

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PINEAL ACERVULI DURING THE HUMAN AGING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acervuli of 30 human pineal gland, were investigated during our research. They were collected during the autopsies at the Institut for forensic medicine of the Faculty of Medicine in Niš. Pineal tissue was processed with standard histologic procedure. Then, it was cut into 10 mm thick sections which were stained with HE, PAS, AB PAS and Mallory’s trichrome connective tissue stain. After that they were analyzed with light microscope. Morphometric analysis was performed by astereologic method. The B100 double square lattice test system was used. Average area, average perimeter, average diameter and contour index were calculated for the pineal acervuli of each age group. Obtained morphometric parameters were statisticaly analyzed. Acervuli were colored blue on HE stained sections. They were PAS and AB PAS positive structures which had red colored center and blue colored periphery on Mallory’s trichrome stained sections. Laminate structure was present, but it was not so concentric as it was in pineal capsula acervuli. Acervuli of the first age group had regular shape. They were localized at the pineal gland periphery. Acervuli of the second and the third age group obtained larger dimensions and more irregular shape, which finally led to mulberry structures formation in the core of the pineal gland. They were probably the result of the conglomeration of just formed with already formed ones. The increase of the average area, average parimeter, average diameter and contour index confirmed the increase of pineal acervuli dimensions and their shape irregularity during the aging process.Therefore, pineal acervuli show the increase of dimensions and shape irregularity. Finally, the process of conglomeration leads to mulberry like structures formation, in the second and the third age group which dominate pineal tissue in these age groups.

Dejan Zdravkovic

2004-01-01

237

Pineal gland calcification and defective sense of direction.  

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Calcification of the pineal gland is shown to be closely related to defective sense of direction. In a tricentre prospective study of 750 patients lateral skull radiographs showed that 394 had calcified pineal glands. Sense of direction was assessed by subjective questioning and objective testing and the results noted on a scale of 0-10 (where 10 equals perfect sense of direction). The average score for the 394 patients with pineal gland calcification was 3.7 (range 0-8), whereas the 356 pati...

Bayliss, C. R.; Bishop, N. L.; Fowler, R. C.

1985-01-01

238

Pineal cyst apoplexy: report of an unusual case managed conservatively.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal cyst apoplexy is a very rare entity with previously reported symptoms of severe frontal or occipital headache, gaze paresis and visual field defects, nausea or vomiting, syncope, ataxia, hearing loss and sudden death. The treatment options for symptomatic pineal cysts are observation, shunting, aspiration via stereotactic guidance or endoscopy, third ventriculostomy, ventriculocysternostomy, and/or surgical resection by craniotomy and microsurgery. Here, the authors report an unusual case of a 28-year-old male patient with pineal cyst apoplexy, presenting with headache, insomnia, and sexual dysfunction symptoms who is being managed conservatively and observed for two years by an academic tertiary care unit. PMID:22212992

Ayhan, Selim; Bal, Ercan; Palaoglu, Selcuk; Cila, Aysenur

2011-01-01

239

Tumor extragonadal de células germinales en mediastino: aportación de un caso / Extragonadal germ cell tumor in mediastinum: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los tumores de células germinales de origen extragonadal son descritos infrecuentemente en la literatura, siendo menos de 1.000 casos. Los sitios de origen por orden de frecuencia son mediastino, retroperitoneo, región sacro coccígea y glándula pineal. Este caso es de un germinoma primario en medias [...] tino en un paciente de 27 años de edad. En los estudios de imagen se demostró una masa mediastinal, se tomo una biopsia para llegar al diagnóstico. Marcadores tumorales normales, el ultrasonido testicular reportó la presencia de microlitiasis bilateral. El paciente fue tratado con poliquimioterapia y resección de masa residual. La evolución fue satisfactoria con respuesta completa. Abstract in english The Germ Cell tumors of extragonadal origin are infrequent cases being described in literature less than 1000 cases. The frequent origin sites are mediastinum, retroperitoneum, sacrococcygeal region, and the pineal gland. There was a primary case of germinoma in mediastinum in a 27 years patient. In [...] the image studies a mediastinal mass was demonstrated, a biopsy was taken arriving at the diagnosis. Normal tumor markers, testicular ultrasonography reported the presence of bilateral microlitiasis. It was treating with polychemotherapy and later residual mass was dried. The evolution was satisfactory with complete answer.

A., Zavala Elizondo; R., Martínez Montelongo; J.E., González.

2008-03-01

240

Tumor extragonadal de células germinales en mediastino: aportación de un caso / Extragonadal germ cell tumor in mediastinum: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los tumores de células germinales de origen extragonadal son descritos infrecuentemente en la literatura, siendo menos de 1.000 casos. Los sitios de origen por orden de frecuencia son mediastino, retroperitoneo, región sacro coccígea y glándula pineal. Este caso es de un germinoma primario en medias [...] tino en un paciente de 27 años de edad. En los estudios de imagen se demostró una masa mediastinal, se tomo una biopsia para llegar al diagnóstico. Marcadores tumorales normales, el ultrasonido testicular reportó la presencia de microlitiasis bilateral. El paciente fue tratado con poliquimioterapia y resección de masa residual. La evolución fue satisfactoria con respuesta completa. Abstract in english The Germ Cell tumors of extragonadal origin are infrequent cases being described in literature less than 1000 cases. The frequent origin sites are mediastinum, retroperitoneum, sacrococcygeal region, and the pineal gland. There was a primary case of germinoma in mediastinum in a 27 years patient. In [...] the image studies a mediastinal mass was demonstrated, a biopsy was taken arriving at the diagnosis. Normal tumor markers, testicular ultrasonography reported the presence of bilateral microlitiasis. It was treating with polychemotherapy and later residual mass was dried. The evolution was satisfactory with complete answer.

A., Zavala Elizondo; R., Martínez Montelongo; J.E., González.

 
 
 
 
241

Two unique cases of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor in the maxillary posterior region.  

Science.gov (United States)

A calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) is an uncommon odontogenic tumor with a predilection for the anterior part of the jaws. We report on 2 cases of CCOT in the posterior maxilla involving the maxillary sinus. In the first case, conventional radiography found a well-defined unilocular lesion. Internal calcification was identified on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Radiographically, the second case showed 2 large locules with a large complex odontoma and an embedded third molar. By revealing the internal calcification of the lesion, CBCT was helpful in the differential diagnosis of the first case. In both cases, CBCT illustrated the tumor extension and the relationship of the tumor to the maxillary sinus. Therefore, CBCT was an important tool for developing effective treatment plans for lesions in the posterior maxillary region. PMID:25201118

Chindasombatjaroen, Jira; Poomsawat, Sopee; Boonsiriseth, Kiatanant

2014-10-01

242

The dielectric properties of human pineal gland tissue and RF absorption due to wireless communication devices in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human pineal gland, the dielectric properties of a sample of 20 freshly removed pineal glands were measured less than 20 h after death. Furthermore, a corresponding high resolution numerical model of the brain region surrounding the pineal gland was developed, based on a real human tissue sample. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices, the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland when compared to SAR limits according to international safety standards. The highest absorption was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case the RF power absorbed inside the pineal gland (organ mass 96 mg) was as low as 11 ?W, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland were found to be lower by a factor of 4.2 and 36, respectively. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the pineal gland induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices are unlikely

243

The dielectric properties of human pineal gland tissue and RF absorption due to wireless communication devices in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human pineal gland, the dielectric properties of a sample of 20 freshly removed pineal glands were measured less than 20 h after death. Furthermore, a corresponding high resolution numerical model of the brain region surrounding the pineal gland was developed, based on a real human tissue sample. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices, the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland when compared to SAR limits according to international safety standards. The highest absorption was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case the RF power absorbed inside the pineal gland (organ mass 96 mg) was as low as 11 {mu}W, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland were found to be lower by a factor of 4.2 and 36, respectively. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the pineal gland induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices are unlikely.

Schmid, Gernot [Austrian Research Centers GmbH-ARC, ITM, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Ueberbacher, Richard [Austrian Research Centers GmbH-ARC, ITM, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Samaras, Theodoros [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tschabitscher, Manfred [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mazal, Peter R [Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

2007-09-07

244

Pineal and cortical melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 are decreased in Alzheimer’s disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pineal hormone melatonin is involved in physiological transduction of temporal information from the light dark cycle to circadian and seasonal behavioural rhythms, as well as possessing neuroprotective properties. Melatonin and its receptors MT1 and MT2, which belong to the family of G protein- coupled receptors, are impaired in Alzheimer’s disease (AD with severe consequences to neuropathology and clinical symptoms. The present data provides the first immunohistochemical evidence for the cellular localization of the both melatonin receptors in the human pineal gland and occipital cortex, and demonstrates their alterations in AD.We localized MT1 and MT2 in the pineal gland and occipital cortex of 7 elderly controls and 11 AD patients using immunohistochemistry with peroxidase-staining. In the pineal gland both MT1 and MT2 were localized to pinealocytes, whereas in the cortex both receptors were expressed in some pyramidal and non-pyramidal cells. In patients with AD, parallel to degenerative tissue changes, there was an overall decrease in the intensity of receptors in both brain regions. In line with our previous findings, melatonin receptor expression in AD is impaired in two additional brain areas, and may contribute to disease pathology.

F Fraschini

2006-12-01

245

Asymptomatic intraventricular lipid leak from a primary pineal teratoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a case of pineal teratoma in a symptomatically stable 6-year-old child in which MRI revealed intraventricular lipid accumulation in the absence of any primary tumour growth, metastatic disease or tumour degeneration. (orig.)

Harrison, R.L.; Abernethy, L.J. [Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom)

2001-02-01

246

Multivoxel 1H-MR spectroscopy in evaluating perienhancement region of brain tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the predictive value of multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in evaluating the metabolic changes in perienhancement area of brain tumors. Methods: Fifty-one intracranial tumor patients were recruited in this study with 24 astrocytomas [grade II(8), III(7), IV(9)], 15 metastases, and 12 meningiomas. Multivoxel proton MRS was performed on a 1.5 TMR scanner using point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence with TE of 144 ms and TR of 1000 ms. Spectra of three voxels were taken from A) enhanced, solid part of the tumor, B) perienhancement region (PER, with T2 hyperintense areas), and C) corresponding contralateral normal appearing white matter, and those regions were evaluated in every patients. Fitted areas in the spectrum for N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), lipid/ lactate, and myo-Inositol (mI) metabolite peaks were measured and NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cho (normal), Cho/Cr (n) ratios were calculated for each voxel (0.562 cm3 in size). One way ANOVA (SPSS 11.0 for windows, Chicago, Ill.) was used for statistical analysis in metabolic ratio's difference among the brain tumors. Results: In voxel A (MRS from the solid enhanced part of the lesion), the ratios of NAA/Cho and Cho/Cho (n) changed significantly by comparing with that of normal control brain tissues, but there was no significant difference among gliomas, metastases, and meningiomas (P>0.05). On the contrary, in voxel B of MRS 0.05). On the contrary, in voxel B of MRS from perienhancement region, NAA/Cho, Cho/Cho (n), and Cho/Cr (n) ratios revealed strong correlations between metabolite concentrations and tumor types, allowing the differentiation of glial tumors from both metastases and meningiomas (P<0.05). The mean values of PER for glial tumor, metastasis, and meningiomas were 0.89, 1.31, and 1.32 for NAA/Cho; 1.54, 1.78, and 1.87 for NAA/Cr; 1.47, 1.01, and 0.96 for Cho/Cho (n); and 1.75, 1.13 and, 1.21 for Cho/Cr (n), respectively. Conclusion: Evaluation of brain tumors and specifically perienhancement region with multivoxel proton MRS may be useful in distinguishing glial tumors from metastases and meningiomas

247

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PINEAL ACERVULI DURING THE HUMAN AGING  

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Acervuli of 30 human pineal gland, were investigated during our research. They were collected during the autopsies at the Institut for forensic medicine of the Faculty of Medicine in Niš. Pineal tissue was processed with standard histologic procedure. Then, it was cut into 10 mm thick sections which were stained with HE, PAS, AB PAS and Mallory’s trichrome connective tissue stain. After that they were analyzed with light microscope. Morphometric analysis was performed by astereologic metho...

Dejan Zdravkovic; Slobodan Vlajkovic; Vesna Stojanovic; Svetlana Antic; Ivan Jovanovic; Natalija Stefanovic; Rade Cukuranovic; Sladana Ugrenovic

2004-01-01

248

Diencephalic origin of the pineal gland of the chicken embryo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present paper, the diencephalic origin of the chick pineal gland was analyzed by a series of experiments: prosencephalic substitution; in vitro culture of isolated diencephalons; and total or partial excission of the diencephalic roof. The results indicate that the differentiation of the chick pineal gland in the rooof of the third ventricle is not influenced by the neighbouring brain vesicles and is of diencephalic origin. Moreover, in order to obtain c...

Aige-gil, Vicente; Murillo-ferrol, Narciso

1991-01-01

249

Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 ± 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

250

Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 {+-} 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

Whitehead, Matthew T. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Oh, Christopher C. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Choudhri, Asim F. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States)

2013-12-15

251

The pineal gland in newborn southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the newborn southern elephant seal the pineal gland is very large, and both pineal and plasma melatonin concentration is elevated. The pineal gland was investigated during the first 24 h, and up to 20 days of age, in elephant seal pups. A primary aim of this investigation was to determine whether there are obvious ultrastructural characteristics of pinealocytes that are exhibiting extraordinarily high levels of activity. Blood and pineal glands were collected from thirty seven pups of known age which were sampled at random from early September to early November (1985) at Macquarie Island. The pineal gland is large (mean weight, 4.71 +/- 0.35 gm, range 1-9.3 gm) and actively secreting melatonin at birth. Melatonin concentrations were extremely variable, yet very high in pups during the first 24 h post-partum. Mean melatonin plasma concentration for pups 0-24 h was 17632.8 +/- 5723.8 pmol/l (4090.8 +/- 1327.9 pg/ml), ranging from 126 pmol/l (29 pg/ml) to 297000 pmol/l (68904 pg/ml). Electron microscopic examination did not reveal any marked changes in pinealocyte ultrastructure suggestive of increased secretory activity during this period. The large and extremely active pineal gland in newborn southern elephant seal suggests that it is actively involved in thermoregulation. PMID:2277325

Little, G J; Bryden, M M

1990-01-01

252

Global daily dynamics of the pineal transcriptome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transcriptome profiling of the pineal gland has revealed night/day differences in the expression of a major fraction of the genes active in this tissue, with two-thirds of these being nocturnal increases. A set of over 600 transcripts exhibit two-fold to >100-fold daily differences in abundance. These changes appear to be primarily attributable to adrenergic-cyclic-AMP-dependent mechanisms, which are controlled via a neural pathway that includes the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master circadian oscillator. In addition to melatonin synthesis, night/day differences in gene expression impact genes associated with several specialized functions, including the immune/inflammation response, photo-transduction, and thyroid hormone/retinoic acid biology. The following nonspecialized cellular features are also affected: adhesion, cell cycle/cell death, cytoskeleton, DNA modification, endothelium, growth, RNA modification, small molecule biology, transcription factors, vesicle biology, signaling involving Ca(2+), cyclicnucleotides, phospholipids, mitogen-activated protein kinases, the Wnt signaling pathway, and protein phosphorylation.

Bustos, Diego M; Bailey, Michael J

2011-01-01

253

Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Brain Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Malignant Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Noninfiltrating Astrocytoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Meningioma; Brain Metastases; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Pineal Parenchymal Tumor; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Infiltrating Astrocytoma; Mixed Gliomas; Stage IV Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

2012-03-21

254

A case report of Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor in the mandibular anterior region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a tumor of odontogenic epithelium with varying degrees of inductive changes in the connective tissue. The common radiographic appearance of AOT is a unilocular radiolucency associated with an unerupted tooth. Detectable radiopacities are reported in many cases. We present a case of AOT in a 9-year old-female patient. Cystic lesion with numerous, punctuate radiopaque foci was seen on the anterior region of the mandible. These radiopacities mostly were situated on the buccal side of impacted tooth on the multiplanar images of cone beam computed tomograph. Characteristic duct like structures and amyloid like material were observed on histopathologic finding.

Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Paeng, Jun Young [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Department of Pathology, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-06-15

255

A case report of Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor in the mandibular anterior region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a tumor of odontogenic epithelium with varying degrees of inductive changes in the connective tissue. The common radiographic appearance of AOT is a unilocular radiolucency associated with an unerupted tooth. Detectable radiopacities are reported in many cases. We present a case of AOT in a 9-year old-female patient. Cystic lesion with numerous, punctuate radiopaque foci was seen on the anterior region of the mandible. These radiopacities mostly were situated on the buccal side of impacted tooth on the multiplanar images of cone beam computed tomograph. Characteristic duct like structures and amyloid like material were observed on histopathologic finding.

256

Role of CT in diagnosis of tumors in chiasmatic-sellar region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The comparison of results of different neuroradiological examinations in 156 patients in the chiasmatic and sellar region with actual topographic and anatomical relations revealed during examination of necroptic preparations (39 cases) and during microsurgical operations (117 patients) the supreme diagnostic possibilities of computerized tomography as compared with classical contrast examinations. Computerized tomography is superior to angiographic and pneumoencephalographic examinations, in particular because it provides a direct and complete view of the entire tumor and surrounding formations. It also provides information on the incorporation of the tumor into the sinus cavernosus. Classical pneumoencephalographic examination is necessary to differentiate hypodense intrasellar adenomas from an empty sella and in particular to assess the relationship between the tumor and the floor of the IIIrd ventricle of the brain. Lateral tomographic pneumoencephalograms visualize critical structures more accurately and clearly than reconstructed sagittal computed tomograms. (author). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 22 refs

257

Megaendoprosthesis in the treatment of bone tumors in the knee and hip region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. For almost two decades extremity amputation has not been the only viable option for patients with from bone cancer in the region of the hip and knee. Remarkable advances in implant technology, surgical reconstructive technique and adoption of new chemotherapy protocols provide a new option for surgeons who diagnose and treat bone tumors. Megaendoprosthesis has become widely accepted alternative in limb salvage surgery of the extremities. The aim of this study was to present an outcome of the treatment of bone tumors in the knee and hip region by the use of custom made megaendoprothesis. Methods. In the period 2006-2008 we adopted new clinical practice protocols for preoperative management in candidates for tumor megaprostheses of the hip and knee including: surgical tumor staging, histopathological verification, determinants of anatomical-mechanical defect, status of soft tissues, CT evaluation of the referent measures of pelvis, femur and tibia necessary for creation of custom made endoprosthesis and surgery plan, as well as modern, less invasive surgical approach. The patients were monitored during ? 24 months after the surgery for detecting possible complications. Results. All procedures were performed without complications during and immediately after the surgery. During the follow-up period not less than 24 months we failed to record any significant complications. Conclusion. Custom made megaendoprosthesis are the method of choice in the treatment of bone tumors in the region of the hip and knee at the Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. The greatest challenge - ensuring longevity of a prosthesis can be achieved not only by prevention of common complications of arthroplasty procedures but, certainly, with the introduction of new methods for preoperative planning - computer-assisted technique of measuring referent sizes and software solutions for the selection and design of custom-made components of an endoprosthesis.

Barjaktarovi? Radoslav

2011-01-01

258

A novel gene therapy-based approach that selectively targets hypoxic regions within solid tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is compelling evidence that malignant cells present within the hypoxic regions that are commonly found within solid tumors contribute significantly to local recurrence following radiation therapy. We describe now a novel strategy designed to target such cells that exploits the differential production within hypoxic regions of the pro-angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF). Specifically, we have generated cDNA constructs that encode two distinct chimeric cell surface proteins that incorporate, respectively, the extracellular domains of the VEGF receptors Flk-1 or Flt-1, fused in frame to the membrane spanning and cytoplasmic domains of the pro-apoptotic protein Fas. Both chimeric proteins (Flk/Fas and Flt/Fas) appear stable and can be readily detected on the surface of transfected cells by Western blot and/or FACS analysis. Importantly, tumor cells expressing the chimeric proteins were rapidly killed in a dose-dependent fashion upon the addition of exogenous recombinant VEGF. Adenoviral vectors encoding Flk/Fas have been generated and shown to induce tumor cells to undergo apoptosis upon transfer to hypoxic conditions in vitro. This activity is dependent upon the endogenous production of VEGF. Studies are currently underway to test the ability of adenoviral Flk/Fas (Ad.Flk/Fas) to reduce tumor recurrence in vivo when used as an adjuvant therapy in conjunction with clinically relevant doses of ionizing radiationonizing radiation

259

Sudden death due to a glial cyst of the pineal gland.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Asymptomatic cysts of the pineal gland are found frequently by radiological examination of the brain or at postmortem examination. Symptomatic cysts are rare, and may require surgical intervention. Sudden death due to a cystic lesion of the pineal gland is very rare. A case of a 22 year old man who collapsed and died unexpectedly is reported. Postmortem examination revealed a glial cyst of the pineal gland and evidence of chronic obstructive hydrocephalus. Deaths from colloid cysts and pineal...

Milroy, C. M.; Smith, C. L.

1996-01-01

260

Age-related incidence of pineal calcification detected by computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The age-related incidence of detectable pineal calcification in 725 patients (age range, newborn-20 yrs) suggests that there is a relationship between calcification and the hormonal role played by the pineal gland in the regulation of sexual development. Pineal calcification (demonstrated by computed tomography [CT] on 8-mm-thick sections) in patients less than 6 years old should be looked upon with suspicion, and follow-up CT should be considered to exclude the possible development of a pineal neoplasm

 
 
 
 
261

Flexible endoscopy for management of intraventricular brain tumors in patients with small ventricles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Object Endoscopic surgery is generally withheld in patients with small ventricles due to difficulties in ventricular cannulation and intraventricular manipulation. The effectiveness of flexible endoscopy for management of intraventricular brain tumors in patients with small ventricles was evaluated. Methods Forty-five patients who underwent endoscopic surgery with a flexible endoscope for intraventricular brain tumors were divided into small-ventricle and ventriculomegaly groups according to the frontal and occipital horn ratio (FOR). Retrospective review of these cases was performed and achievement of surgical goals and morbidity were assessed. Results Among the 45 patients, there were 14 with small ventricles and 31 with ventriculomegaly. In the smallventricle group, targeted tumors were located in the suprasellar region in 12 patients and in the pineal region in 2. In the ventriculomegaly group, tumors were located in the pineal region in 15 patients, in the suprasellar region in 9, in the lateral ventricle in 4, in the midbrain in 2, and in the fourth ventricle in 1. In the small-ventricle group, ventricular cannulation was successful and the surgical goals were accomplished in all patients. In ventriculomegaly group, sampling of the tumor was not diagnostic due to intraoperative hemorrhage in 1 patient. There were no significant differences in the rate of achieving the surgical goals or the morbidity between the 2 groups. Conclusions Endoscopic surgery using a flexible endoscope is useful for management of intraventricular brain tumors in patients with small ventricles. A flexible endoscope allows excellent maneuverability in introducing the device into the lateral ventricle and manipulating through small ventricles. PMID:25148214

Ogiwara, Hideki; Morota, Nobuhito

2014-11-01

262

Morphologic study of the pineal gland of the dog/ Estudo morfológico da glândula pineal do cão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following the discovery of the melatonin by Lerner et al. (1958, new research and perspectives were developed in order to improve the knowledge regarding the pineal gland. This hormone is not only related to the circadian control but also influences other behavioral functions such as the reproductive cycle and thermoregulation. In this study the morphology of the pineal gland (epiphysis cerebri from 20 dogs were analyzed by means of macroscopic and microscopic evaluation. The shape of the gland ranged from conic to “tongue-like shape” (in relation to human tongue. The gland color ranged from beige to gray-brownish and it had a gelatinous consistency. The width and length of the glands ranged from 1.38 to 2.39 mm and 1.53 to 2.96 mm, respectively. Capsule, septa, pinealocytes, glial cells and pigment granules were microscopically found in all glands. No calcareous concretions were observed.Após a descoberta da melatonina por Lerner et al. (1958, novas pesquisas e perspectivas surgiram tornando a pineal uma estrutura mais estudada. Além disso, sabe-se que este hormônio está relacionado com o controle circadiano e outras funções comportamentais fisiológicas como o ciclo reprodutivo e termorregulação. Neste trabalho, foram utilizados 20 cães e estudamos a morfologia das glândulas, empregando uma análise macroscópica e microscópica. O formato das pineais variou de cônico a glossóide (em relação à língua humana; cor entre bege e marrom-acinzentado e apresentaram consistência gelatinosa. A largura e o comprimento das glândulas variaram respectivamente de 1,38 a 2,39 mm e de 1,53 a 2,96 mm. Quanto à microscopia, utilizamos coloração de eosina-hematoxilina (HE, e em todas as pineais observamos a presença dos seguintes componentes: cápsula; septos ou trabéculas pinealócitos; células da glia; grânulos de pigmentos, e não foram notadas concreções calcáreas.

Francisco Xavier Hernandez Blazquez

2008-08-01

263

Advanced MR diffusion tensor imaging and perfusion weighted imaging of intramedullary tumors and tumor like lesions in the cervicomedullary junction region and the cervical spinal cord.  

Science.gov (United States)

Differential diagnosis between intramedullary tumors and tumor-like lesions (TLL) in the cervicomedullary junction region and cervical spinal cord is important, sometimes clinical dilemma on conventional MR imaging and empirical treatment. We evaluated advanced MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in 25 patients, including 12 with intramedullary tumors and 13 with TLL in the cervicomedullary junction region and cervical spinal cord. We found that mean fractional anisotropy value of tumors was significantly lower than the value found in TLL, and the mean trace apparent diffusion coefficient and peak height values of tumors were significantly higher (P < 0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that peak height was better than any of the other imaging parameters, with a sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 80% using a cutoff value of 4.523 to differentiate between tumors and TLL. In conclusion, the MR DTI and PWI could be useful in differentiating between intramedullary tumors and TLL in the cervicomedullary junction region and cervical spinal cord. PMID:24374994

Liu, Xiang; Tian, Wei; Kolar, Balasubramanya; Hu, Rui; Huang, Yuqing; Huang, Jason; Ekholm, Sven

2014-02-01

264

A new identified complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal gland cysts are typically asymptomatic, benign cysts most commonly found incidentally in adults. In rare cases, a large pineal gland cyst can be complicated by intracystic hemorrhage, which could then manifest with neurological symptoms. We report a new complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst in a 40-year-old man with new onset seizures. PMID:24746445

Mehrzad, Raman; Mishra, Suprav; Feinstein, Alexander; Ho, Michael G

2014-01-01

265

Tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulates expression of adenovirus early region 3 proteins: implications for viral persistence.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human adenovirus (Ad) can cause persistent infections in humans. Early region 3 (E3) of the virus appears to be implicated in this phenomenon. This transcription unit encodes proteins that interfere in various ways with host cell functions, including (i) cell-surface expression of histocompatibility class I antigens (HLA), (ii) cell-surface expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R), and (iii) the biological activity of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). We transfected t...

Ko?rner, H.; Fritzsche, U.; Burgert, H. G.

1992-01-01

266

Local corticosterone infusion enhances nocturnal pineal melatonin production in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin, an important marker of the endogenous rhythmicity in mammals, also plays a role in the body defence against pathogens and injuries. In vitro experiments have shown that either pro- or anti-inflammatory agents, acting directly in the organ, are able to change noradrenaline-induced pineal indoleamine production. Whereas corticosterone potentiates melatonin production, incubation of the gland with tumour necrosis factor-alpha decreases pineal hormonal production. In the present study, we show that nocturnal melatonin production measured by intra-pineal microdialysis is enhanced in pineals perfused with corticosterone at concentrations similar to those measured in inflamed animals. In vitro experiments suggest that this enhancement may be due to an increase in the activity of the two enzymes that convert serotonin to N-acetylserotonin (NAS) and NAS to melatonin. The present results support the hypothesis that the pineal gland is a sensor of inflammation mediators and that it plays a central role in the control of the inflammatory response. PMID:19076264

Fernandes, P A C M; Bothorel, B; Clesse, D; Monteiro, A W A; Calgari, C; Raison, S; Simonneaux, V; Markus, R P

2009-02-01

267

Pineal melatonin synthesis in Syrian hamsters: A summary  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past decade there has been ample documentation of the proposition that the pineal gland mediates photoperiodic influences upon reproductive behavior of hamsters. It is commonly hypothesized that the pineal gland expresses its activity by transformation of photoperiodic information into an hormonal output, that hormone being melatonin. If this hypothesis is correct, there must be some essential diffrence in melatonin's output when hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic environments. The experiments summarized in this communication analyze pineal melatonin contents in Syrian hamsters maintained in a variety of photoperiodic conditions during different physiological states. The results demonstrate that adult hamsters have a daily surge in pineal melatonin content throughout their lifetime when exposed to simulated annual photoperiodic cycles. There is some fluctuation in the amount of pineal melatonin produced during different physiological states and photoperiodic environments, but these fluctuations seem small when compared to those normally found for other regulatory hormones. When hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic regimens, the daily melatonin surge maintains a relatively constant phase relationship with respect to the onset of daily activity. There is a concomitant change in its phase relationship with respect to light-dark transitions.

Rollag, M. D.

1982-12-01

268

Major chromosomal breakpoint intervals in breast cancer tumors co-localize with differentially methylated regions.  

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Full Text Available Solid tumors exhibit chromosomal rearrangements resulting in gain or loss of multiple loci (copy number variation and translocations that occasionally result in the creation of novel chimeric genes. In the case of breast cancer, although most individual tumors each have unique CNV landscape the breakpoints, as measured over large datasets, appear to be non-randomly distributed in the genome. Breakpoints show a significant regional concentration at genomic loci spanning perhaps several megabases. The proximal cause of these breakpoint concentrations is a subject of speculation but is, as yet, largely unknown. To shed light on this issue, we have performed a bio-statistical analysis on our previously published data for a set of 119 breast tumors and normal controls, where each sample has both high resolution CNV and methylation data. The method examined the distribution of closeness of breakpoint regions with differentially methylated regions, coupled with additional genomic parameters, such as repeat elements and designated fragile sites in the reference genome. Through this analysis, we have identified a set of 91 regional loci called breakpoint enriched differentially methylated regions (BEDMRs characterized by altered DNA methylation in cancer compared to normal cells that are associated with frequent breakpoint concentrations within a distance of 1Mb. BEDMR loci are further associated with local hypomethylation (66% concentrations of the Alu SINE repeats within 3Mb and tend to occur near a number of cancer related genes such as the protocadherins, AKT1, DUB3, GAB2. BEDMRs seem to deregulate members of the histone gene family and chromatin remodeling factors e.g JMJD1B which might affect the chromatin structure and disrupt coordinate signaling and repair. From this analysis we propose that preference for chromosomal breakpoints is related to genome structure coupled with alterations in DNA methylation and hence chromatin structure associated with tumorigenesis.

Man-Hung EricTang

2012-12-01

269

Global daily dynamics of the pineal transcriptome.  

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Transcriptome profiling of the pineal gland has revealed night/day differences in the expression of a major fraction of the genes active in this tissue, with two-thirds of these being nocturnal increases. A set of over 600 transcripts exhibit two-fold to >100-fold daily differences in abundance. These changes appear to be primarily attributable to adrenergic-cyclic-AMP-dependent mechanisms, which are controlled via a neural pathway that includes the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master circadian oscillator. In addition to melatonin synthesis, night/day differences in gene expression impact genes associated with several specialized functions, including the immune/inflammation response, photo-transduction, and thyroid hormone/retinoic acid biology. The following nonspecialized cellular features are also affected: adhesion, cell cycle/cell death, cytoskeleton, DNA modification, endothelium, growth, RNA modification, small molecule biology, transcription factors, vesicle biology, signaling involving Ca(2+), cyclic nucleotides, phospholipids, mitogen-activated protein kinases, the Wnt signaling pathway, and protein phosphorylation. PMID:21302120

Bustos, Diego M; Bailey, Michael J; Sugden, David; Carter, David A; Rath, Martin F; Møller, Morten; Coon, Steven L; Weller, Joan L; Klein, David C

2011-04-01

270

Regional cerebral blood flow in brain tumors analyzed by N-isopropyl-(123I)-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

N-Isopropyl-(123I)-p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP), a newly developed tracer for regional cerebral blood flow, was applied to 18 patients with brain tumors. The static scan images were obtained by a single photon emission CT 20 minutes after IMP injection, and revealed decreased IMP uptake in the tumor region in 17 out of 18 patients. This result suggests the lack of an IMP-trapping mechanism in the tumor. In dynamic scan images, which were taken every 2 minutes just after IMP injection, IMP uptake in the tumor was intermediate between that of contralateral white matter and gray matter, and it increased momentarily in accordance with that of the gray and white matter. This finding indicates that the IMP uptake in a dynamic scan would express the regional tissue blood flow in the tumor. (author)

271

Levels of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 are higher in proliferating regions of A549 tumor cells grown as tumor xenografts in vivo  

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3’-Fluoro-3’-deoxythymidine (FLT) has been proposed for positron emission tomography (PET)-based identification of tumor chemosensitivity that is mediated by the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (ENT1). ENT1 facilitates transport of FLT into cells and elevated levels of FLT are associated with both larger FLT-PET signals and increased response to nucleoside-based chemotherapies. FLT-PET is also used as a measure of tumor proliferation. The present study examined the extent to which ENT1 levels vary in a proliferation-dependent manner in tumor cells in vivo. Methods: The human adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was used to establish tumor xenografts in nude mice. FLT uptake was measured in vivo using PET, and further examined ex vivo using autoradiography. FLT uptake patterns were compared to immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of ENT1 and the proliferation markers Ki67 and BrdU. Results: Regional differences in FLT uptake matched differences in IHC proliferation markers. All cells stained for ENT1, but the staining intensity was twice as high for Ki67+ cells than for Ki67? cells. Conclusions: Under in vivo conditions, proliferating regions of tumors show increased FLT uptake and higher ENT1 levels than nonproliferating tumor regions.

272

LHRH incorporation in normal and denervated pineal gland, and in pineal gland of rats with constant estrous-anovulatory syndrome: a preliminary study  

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Pineal gland and superior sympathetic cervical ganglia accumulated intravenously injected 3H-LHRH in an amount significantly higher than anterior and posterior hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and pituitary gland, the latter a specific target for LHRH. The prior administration of unlabelled LHRH significantly decreased the 3H-LHRH incorporation only in pineal and pituitary gland. Autoradiography showed that the radiolabel was localized at the level of the pinealocytes, with a seemingly, prevalent distribution of grains on the cellular contours. Pineal incorporation of LHRH was not significantly modified by either acute or chronic bilateral cervical ganglionectomy, although acute ganglioectomy resulted in a slight decrease in LHRH accumulation by pineal gland. Constant estrous anovulatory syndromes induced by either frontal hypothalamic deafferentation, or continuous illumination or neonatal androgenization did not appear to modify the LHRH incorporation in either pineal gland or cervical ganglia. Basing on these results, the pineal gland is supposed to be a target organ for LHRH. (author)

273

Intracranial tumors in children less than 2 years of age  

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We analyzed the characteristic CT findings in twelve cases of intracranial tumors in children under 2 years of age. The histological classification of them was as follows: 2 were teratomas, 3 ependymoma and ependymoblastomas, 2 medulloblastomas, 2 craniopharyngiomas, and 3 were other gliomas, including a pontine glioma. 1. Ten cases were located along the central neural axis. The supratentorial/infratentorial ratio became nearly equal at each age before and after the first year. 2. With regard to tumor size, approximately 70 % out of the brain tumors were more than 5 cm in diameter; especially, four cases had diameters of more than 7 cm. In the case of the teratomas, the cranial cavity was filled with several nodular tumors of varying densities. On admission, an ependymoblastoma in the posterior fossa had already invaded the pineal region. 3. Hydrocephalus was a frequent finding except for the two craniopharyngiomas and the pontine glioma. Some demonstrated an eminent ventricular collapse and a displacement of the midline structures because of the large size of the tumor masses. 4. The malignant gliomas had less peritumoral edemas in proportion to the large sizes of the tumor masses. The prognosis of some brain tumors in our cases less than 2 years of age was extremely poor, but an aggressive approach to them with surgical treatment, irradiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy may improve their chances of survival. (author)

274

The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes  

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The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

275

Symptomatic intracystic hemorrhage in pineal cysts. Report of 3 cases.  

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Pineal cysts are benign and often asymptomatic intracranial entities. Occasionally they can lead to neurological symptoms through growth or due to intracystic hemorrhage. The purpose of the current report is to describe their clinical characteristics and treatment options. In the current study, the authors illustrate the course of disease in 3 patients who developed neurological symptoms due to hemorrhage into a pineal cyst. Two of their patients had additional cerebral disease, and regular MR imaging examinations were conducted. This circumstance allowed documentation of growth and intracystic hemorrhage. After the occurrence of new neurological symptoms with severe headache, MR images showed a fluid-fluid interface due to intracystic hemorrhage. The third patient presented with acute triventricular hydrocephalus and papilledema due to aqueductal stenosis caused by intracystic hemorrhage. In all 3 cases, excision of the pineal cysts via an infratentorial/supracerebellar approach was performed. Histological examination revealed the characteristic structure of pineal cyst in all cases, with hemorrhagic residues in the form of hemosiderin deposits. All patients recovered fully after surgical removal of the cysts. Furthermore, resolution of occlusive hydrocephalus could be demonstrated in those cases with ventricular enlargement. Pineal cysts without neurological symptoms are often discovered as incidental findings on cranial MR images. In contrast, neurological symptoms such as severe headache, diplopia, or Parinaud syndrome, may occur as a result of pineal apoplexy due to intracystic hemorrhage. The authors' cases confirm that MR imaging can identify intracystic hemorrhage by a characteristic fluid-fluid interface. Their experience suggests that microsurgical resection of cysts may be an effective and curative treatment option. PMID:19645546

Sarikaya-Seiwert, Sevgi; Turowski, Bernd; Hänggi, Daniel; Janssen, Giesela; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Stummer, Walter

2009-08-01

276

Sympathetic neural control of indoleamine metabolism in the rat pineal gland  

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The mechanisms responsible for the acceleration in rat pineal biosynthetic activity in response to prolonged exposure to darkness or to immobilization were investigated in animals whose pineals were surgically denervated. Some animals were adrenalectomized to remove one potential source of circulating catecholamines, and some were subjected to a partial chemical sympathectomy accomplished by a series of intravenous injections of 6-hydroxydopamine. Results suggest that N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity can be enhanced either by release of norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals within the pineal or from sympathetic nerve terminals elsewhere. The stress of immobilization stimulates the pineal by increasing circulating catecholamines. Photic control of pineal function requires intact pineal sympathetic innervation, since the onset of darkness apparently does not cause a sufficient rise in circulating catecholamines to stimulate the pineal. The present studies suggest that nonspecific stress triggers increased biosynthesis and secretion of melatonin; it is possible that this hormone may participate in mechanisms of adaptation.

Lynch, H. J.; Hsuan, M.; Wurtman, R. J.

1975-01-01

277

Conservatively managed pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated patient  

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We present a case of pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated and hypertensive 56-year-old Hispanic male. At presentation, the patient's international normalized ratio (INR) was 10.51 and his blood pressure was 200/130 mmHg. His presenting symptoms included acute onset of headache, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and visual disturbance. Neuroimaging demonstrated hemorrhage into a morphologically normal pineal gland. Under conservative management, the patient experienced gradual resolution of all symptoms excluding the disturbance of upward gaze.

Werder, Gabriel M. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology, 3600 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, MI 48073 (United States); St Christopher Iba Mar Diop College of Medicine, Luton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gabriel_werder@yahoo.com; Razdan, Rahul S.; Gagliardi, Joseph A.; Chaddha, Shashi K.B. [St Vincent' s Medical Center, Bridgeport, CT (United States)

2008-02-15

278

Protein phosphorylation in rat pineal gland and its regulation in supersensitive and subsensitive states  

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The phosphorylation of specific proteins in pineal homogenate was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Cyclic AMP had the capacity to stimulate in a dose-dependent manner the incorporation of /sup 32/P in protein bands of apparent molecular weights 59K, 56K, and 35K with a maximal effect at 1 microM. On the other hand, calcium alone did not induce a marked increase in /sup 32/P incorporation with the exception of a dose-dependent phosphorylation of a 46K protein with a peak effect at 0.2 mM calcium concentration. The addition of exogenous calmodulin enhanced /sup 32/P incorporation in proteins migrating in the 62K and 52K regions, an effect that was antagonized by the calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine. However, also under these conditions, the stimulation of pineal protein phosphorylation was rather weak compared to that observed in other brain areas. In an attempt to investigate the functional changes of these biochemical processes during environmental lighting and adrenergic stimulation, it was found that the administration of (-)-isoproterenol (5 mg/kg, s.c.), a beta-receptor agonist, induced a clear-cut enhancement of /sup 32/P incorporation into the cyclic AMP-sensitive 59K and 56K proteins only in animals exposed for 18 h to the light, whereas it was almost ineffective in those kept in the dark for the same period. This effect was antagonized by (-)-propranolol pretreatment (20 mg/kg), suggesting that the changes in cyclic AMP-dependent protein phosphorylation observed in supersensitive pineals may represent a beta-receptor mediated process.

Cimino, M.; Benfenati, F.; Farabegoli, C.; Cattabeni, F.; Agnati, L.F.

1987-04-01

279

Utility of diffusion tensor imaging in evaluation of the peritumoral region in patients with primary and metastatic brain tumors.  

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In the brain, diffusion tensor imaging is a useful tool for defining white matter anatomy, planning a surgical approach to space-occupying lesions, and characterizing tumors, including distinguishing primary tumors from metastases. Recent studies have attempted, with varying success, to use DTI to define the extent of tumor microinfiltration beyond the apparent borders on T2-weighted imaging. In the present review, we discuss the current state of research on the utility of DTI for evaluating the peritumoral region of brain tumors. PMID:24052506

Sternberg, E J; Lipton, M L; Burns, J

2014-03-01

280

Controladores del Tiempo y el Envejecimiento: Núcleo Supraquiasmático y Glándula Pineal / Aging Process Entrainment: Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Pineal Gland  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El núcleo supraquiasmático (NSQ) es el principal reloj biológico de los mamíferos y sincroniza la actividad de la glándula pineal al ciclo luz-oscuridad a través de una vía polisináptica. El efecto de asa de retroalimentación neuroendocrina se lleva a cabo por la melatonina. El presente trabajo pret [...] ende demostrar que la glándula pineal modula la sensibilidad a la luz en el NSQ. Se utilizaron ratas Wistar, y se asignaron a 3 grupos: grupo A (falsa pinealectomía -sham-, sin luz), grupo B (falsa pinealectomía -sham- + luz) y grupo C al cual se le realizó la pinealectomía + luz, después de la manipulación se sacrifican para realizar inmunohistoquímica para c-Fos y al final conteo celular por técnica de estereología. Se obtuvo una reducción del 46,8% del promedio de células inmunorreactivas a c-Fos en el grupo C en comparación del grupo B. Este trabajo muestra que la sensibilidad a la luz está modulada por la actividad de la glándula pineal. Abstract in english The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the main and major biological clock in mammals and is responsible for the synchronization of the pineal gland to the light/darkness cycle through a polysynaptic pathway. The neuroendocrine feedback loop effect is carried out by melatonin. This study was carried o [...] ut to demonstrate that the pineal gland adjusts the sensibility to light in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Wistar rats were allocated in 3 groups: Group A (sham pinalectomy, without light), group B (sham pinealectomy + light) and group C which underwent real pinalectomy + light. After the intervention the animals were slain to perform immunohistochemistry for c-Fos and cell counting by stereology technique. A 46.8% average reduction in c-Fos immunoreactive cells was achieved in-group C as compared with group B. The present work shows that sensibility to the light is modulate by the activity of the pineal gland.

Parménides, Guadarrama-Ortiz; Ricardo, Ramírez-Aguilar; Alejandro, Madrid-Sánchez; Carlos, Castillo-Rangel; Diana, Carrasco-Alcántara; Raúl, Aguilar-Roblero.

 
 
 
 
281

Controladores del Tiempo y el Envejecimiento: Núcleo Supraquiasmático y Glándula Pineal / Aging Process Entrainment: Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Pineal Gland  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El núcleo supraquiasmático (NSQ) es el principal reloj biológico de los mamíferos y sincroniza la actividad de la glándula pineal al ciclo luz-oscuridad a través de una vía polisináptica. El efecto de asa de retroalimentación neuroendocrina se lleva a cabo por la melatonina. El presente trabajo pret [...] ende demostrar que la glándula pineal modula la sensibilidad a la luz en el NSQ. Se utilizaron ratas Wistar, y se asignaron a 3 grupos: grupo A (falsa pinealectomía -sham-, sin luz), grupo B (falsa pinealectomía -sham- + luz) y grupo C al cual se le realizó la pinealectomía + luz, después de la manipulación se sacrifican para realizar inmunohistoquímica para c-Fos y al final conteo celular por técnica de estereología. Se obtuvo una reducción del 46,8% del promedio de células inmunorreactivas a c-Fos en el grupo C en comparación del grupo B. Este trabajo muestra que la sensibilidad a la luz está modulada por la actividad de la glándula pineal. Abstract in english The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the main and major biological clock in mammals and is responsible for the synchronization of the pineal gland to the light/darkness cycle through a polysynaptic pathway. The neuroendocrine feedback loop effect is carried out by melatonin. This study was carried o [...] ut to demonstrate that the pineal gland adjusts the sensibility to light in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Wistar rats were allocated in 3 groups: Group A (sham pinalectomy, without light), group B (sham pinealectomy + light) and group C which underwent real pinalectomy + light. After the intervention the animals were slain to perform immunohistochemistry for c-Fos and cell counting by stereology technique. A 46.8% average reduction in c-Fos immunoreactive cells was achieved in-group C as compared with group B. The present work shows that sensibility to the light is modulate by the activity of the pineal gland.

Parménides, Guadarrama-Ortiz; Ricardo, Ramírez-Aguilar; Alejandro, Madrid-Sánchez; Carlos, Castillo-Rangel; Diana, Carrasco-Alcántara; Raúl, Aguilar-Roblero.

2014-06-01

282

A light and electron microscopic study of the pineal body of the nutria (Myocastor coypus).  

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Light and electron microscopic studies of the nutria (Myocastor coypus) pineal gland revealed pinealocytes interspersed among glial, vascular, and neuronal elements. Each pinealocyte possessed a single process that terminated within the parenchyma near the perivascular region. The eccentrically located nucleus in these cells contained euchromatic chromatin, a prominent nucleolus, and a highly infolded nuclear envelope. The cytoplasm was rich in mitochondria, Golgi complexes, and glycogen particles. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) was better developed thant he rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and polyribosomes were not abundant. Long profiles of subsurface cisterns constituted prominent cytoplasmic features, and these were most conspicuous in the regions of soma-somatic apposition. The bulbous endings of the pinealocyte processes were filled with clear, round, secretory vesicles. Dense-cored vesicles were rarely observed. Glia reminiscent of protoplasmic astrocytes displayed cytoplasmic processes that enveloped blood vessels, invested the pineal periphery, and intervened among the pinealocytes. They thus seemed to form a barrier between the meningeal capsule and vascular space on the one hand and the parenchyma on the other. PMID:7246037

Salisbury, R L; Krieg, R J; Seibel, H R

1981-01-01

283

Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin: A rare tumor in the gluteal region  

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Full Text Available Primary mucinous carcinoma (PMC of the skin is a rare adnexal tumor of sweat gland origin. A case report is presented of a 50-year-old female who presented with a gluteal mass, which was diagnosed as an injection abscess. Following incision and drainage, the incision site persisted as a non-healing ulcer. An edge biopsy of the lesion revealed mucinous carcinoma of the skin. Investigations excluded the possibility of a metastatic mucinous carcinoma. Thus, the lesion in the gluteal region was diagnosed as PMC of the skin, a rare site of occurrence.

Krishnamurthy Jayashree

2009-04-01

284

Anti-tumor activities of peptides corresponding to conserved complementary determining regions from different immunoglobulins.  

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Short synthetic peptides corresponding to sequences of complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) from different immunoglobulin families have been shown to induce antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumor activities regardless of the specificity of the original monoclonal antibody (mAb). Presently, we studied the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of synthetic peptides derived from conserved CDR sequences of different immunoglobulins against human tumor cell lines and murine B16F10-Nex2 melanoma aiming at the discovery of candidate molecules for cancer therapy. Four light- and heavy-chain CDR peptide sequences from different antibodies (C36-L1, HA9-H2, 1-H2 and Mg16-H2) showed cytotoxic activity against murine melanoma and a panel of human tumor cell lineages in vitro. Importantly, they also exerted anti-metastatic activity using a syngeneic melanoma model in mice. Other peptides (D07-H3, MN20v1, MS2-H3) were also protective against metastatic melanoma, without showing significant cytotoxicity against tumor cells in vitro. In this case, we suggest that these peptides may act as immune adjuvants in vivo. As observed, peptides induced nitric oxide production in bone-marrow macrophages showing that innate immune cells can also be modulated by these CDR peptides. The present screening supports the search in immunoglobulins of rather frequent CDR sequences that are endowed with specific antitumor properties and may be candidates to be developed as anti-cancer drugs. PMID:24972300

Figueiredo, Carlos R; Matsuo, Alisson L; Massaoka, Mariana H; Polonelli, Luciano; Travassos, Luiz R

2014-09-01

285

3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions.  

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Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. PMID:24480576

Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian; Ansari, Nariman; Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc; Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H; Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan; Steigemann, Patrick

2014-04-15

286

3H-retinol derived photopigment in chick pineal membranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal glands display a day-night rhythm in the synthesis and secretion of melatonin. Dispersed chick pinealocytes retain their ability to respond to light in vitro for at least a week. Pinealocytes incubated overnight with 3H-retinol in the dark incorporate radioactivity predominantly into retinyl esters. To identify the chick pineal photopigment, SDS-PAGE was performed on radiolabelled preparations of pinealocytes and (intraocularly injected) rat retina. When intact cells or membrane preparations of cultured cells were incubated with NaCNBH3, in the dark, a single radioactive peak with an apparent molecular weight of 32,000 daltons was observed. Rat retina preparations revealed a major peak at approximately 40,000 daltons. Protease inhibitors were present in the workup, and radioactivity corresponding to the smaller peak from pineal was not observed in retina. There was no radioactive peak when NaCNBH3 was omitted. When samples were boiled in SDS the radioactivity shifted to the origin. These data suggest a protein in pinealocyte membranes which binds retinoid via a Schiff's base. Exposure to light of deoxycholate solubilized pineal membranes reduced the radioactivity associated with the protein. These findings raise the possibility that this protein is the pinealocyte's photopigment. Photopigments smaller than those observed in mammals have been reported in invertebrates

287

[Dynamic computed tomography of brain tumor].  

Science.gov (United States)

Dynamic computed tomography (CT) has been widely used because of its simplicity, but regional cerebral perfusion of brain tumors has not critically been evaluated. This study was conducted to evaluated parameters obtained from the dynamic perfusion study in brain tumors and to clarify the usefulness of the dynamic CT comparing with Xe-enhanced CT. Dynamic CT was performed on 20 patients with brain tumor (three meningiomas, one pineal tumor, three metastatic brain tumors, thirteen gliomas). Dynamic CT consisted of performing six rapid sequential scans after a bolus intravenous injection of 40 ml of iodinated contrast medium. In this study, five parameters (corrected first moment, area, peak, time to peak, percent terminal height) were obtained from computer analysed curve fit on time density curve profile of serial scanning. In Xe-enhanced CT, serial CT was taken every three or five minutes during inhalation of 40 to 50 percent stable xenon. Flow rate constant (K), partition coefficient (lambda) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) for each pixel were calculated from delta HU (Hounsfield unit) and end-tidal air curve and displayed on CRT as images. In patients with meningioma, values of area and percent terminal height of the tumor were much higher than those of contralateral gray matter, and these findings show excessive increase of the intratumoral blood volume and extreme extravasation of iodinated contrast medium respectively. In patients with metastatic brain tumor or malignant glioma, which were enhanced by contrast medium, the values of all parameters of the tumors were higher than contralateral gray matter. Increase of intratumoral blood volume and destruction of blood brain barrier are suggested in these tumors. In the remaining patients with glioma, which was not enhanced, the values of corrected first moment and time to peak of the tumors were higher but area and peak were lower than contralateral gray matter. These findings show decrease of intratumoral blood volume and delay of mean transit time and arrival time of the bolus. Compared with CBF measured by Xe-enhanced CT, it was suggested that high density area of metastatic brain tumor or malignant glioma consisted of viable tumor cells, and in patients with glioma, low density area adjacent to the tumor with contrast enhancement was the invasive site of the tumor. Using dynamic CT, we were also able to distinguish the tissue contains viable tumor cells from the other part of brain by the differences in the parameter value. PMID:6518125

Nakagomi, T; Takakura, K

1984-10-01

288

Mouse tumor necrosis factor receptor type I: genomic structure, polymorphism, and identification of regulatory regions.  

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The mouse tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-I gene was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The nucleotide sequence analysis shows that the TNFR-I is composed of 10 exons and nine introns. The first intron includes two simple dinucleotide repeat sequences, (GA)8 and (TC)9(TG)19. The (TC)9(TG)19 tandem repeat was found to be polymorphic in its length among various mouse strains. The nucleotide sequence of the 1076 bp 5' flanking region of the TNFR-I was also determined. Various possible regulatory sequences were identified in the 5' flanking region of the TNFR-I gene. For functional analysis, the 5' flanking region of the TNFR-I gene was isolated, ligated upstream of the luciferase reporter gene, and transiently transfected into L929, Hela, and a T cell hybridoma cell line. The results show that the isolated 5' flanking region has functional promoter activity and is responsible for constitutive expression of the TNFR-I gene. A series of truncated promoter constructs were generated and studied in a transient transfection system. Analysis of transient expression in L929 cells shows that the regions -1076/-939, -615/-425, and -425/-198 include positive regulatory elements, while the region -939/-615 may contain negative cis-acting elements for the constitutive expression of the TNFR-I. The shortest construct containing 198 bp of the 5' flanking region still has significant promoter activity, suggesting that the two GC-rich elements in this region may play an important role in the constitutive expression of the TNFR-I gene. PMID:8396415

Takao, S; Jacob, C O

1993-07-01

289

Circadian genomics of the chick pineal gland in vitro  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Chick pinealocytes exhibit all the characteristics of a complete circadian system, comprising photoreceptive inputs, molecular clockworks and an easily measured rhythmic output, melatonin biosynthesis. These properties make the in vitro pineal a particularly useful model for exploring circadian control of gene transcription in a pacemaker tissue, as well as regulation of the transcriptome by primary inputs to the clock (both photic and noradrenergic. Results We used microarray analysis to investigate the expression of approximately 8000 genes within cultured pinealocytes subjected to both LD and DD. We report that a reduced subset of genes was rhythmically expressed in vitro compared to those previously published in vivo, and that gene expression rhythms were lower in amplitude, although the functional distribution of the rhythmic transcriptome was largely similar. We also investigated the effects of 6-hour pulses of light or of norepinephrine on gene expression in free-running cultures during both subjective day and night. As expected, both light and norepinephrine inhibited melatonin production; however, the two treatments differentially enhanced or suppressed specific sets of genes in a fashion that was dependent upon time of day. Conclusion Our combined approach of utilizing a temporal, photic and pharmacological microarray experiment allowed us to identify novel genes linking clock input to clock function within the pineal. We identified approximately 30 rhythmic, light-responsive, NE-insensitive genes with no previously known clock function, which may play a role in circadian regulation of the pineal. These are candidates for future functional genomics experiments to elucidate their potential role in circadian physiology. Further, we hypothesize that the pineal circadian transcriptome is reduced but functionally conserved in vitro, and supports an endogenous role for the pineal in regulating local rhythms in metabolism, immune function, and other conserved pathways.

Thomas Terry L

2008-05-01

290

Age-related Histological Findings in the Pineal Gland of Crl:CD(SD) Rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

To provide background data as the pathologic basis, the pineal glands of 190 male and 193 female Crl:CD(SD) rats at ages of 0-7, 51-58, 70-85 and 111 weeks were examined histologically in this study. Mineralization and fibrosis were common findings in the aged rats, whereas they were rarely found in the young ones; mineralization was present in 7, 44, 67 and 79% of males and in 0, 32, 67 and 79% in females, and fibrosis was present in 0, 29, 48 and 44% of males and 0, 18, 40 and 35% of females at ages of 0-7, 51-58, 70-85 and 111 weeks, respectively. Striated muscle fiber appeared regularly in the fibrosis region from 51-58 weeks of age when fibrosis increased, while the origin of this fiber remained unclear. Vacuolation of pineal cells also increased with age in both sexes, though the total incidence was low. There was a low incidence of lymphocytic infiltration in both sexes, but this was not related to age. PMID:23345933

Tomonari, Yuki; Sato, Junko; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

2012-12-01

291

Cloning, Sequencing and Analysis of Melatonin Receptor Subtype MT1 in Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis and Pineal of Female Bactrian Camel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that melatonin is a coordinating signal for mammalian reproduction. In order to confirm the presence of melatonin receptors in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and pineal of female Bactrian camel, the researchers used a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR procedure to examine receptor MT1 expression. The length of MT1 gene was 452 bp. RT-PCR assaying revealed the presence of the mt1 (Mel1a melatonin receptor subtype in reproduction axis and pineal which were obtained from the slaughterhouse in the Ningxia Autonomous Region, China. Sequence has been confirmed a high identity (above 85% with melatonin receptor MT1 of other mammal known in GenBank. Comparing with other tissue’s sequences, one base substitution changed the 108th TTC codon (encoding Phenylalanine to TAC (Tyrosine on hypothalamus. Although, there are base substitutions in pineal’s gene, encoded amino acid are coincident with pituitary and ovary. The current results, the expression of MT1 receptor mRNA in brain and ovary, suggest that melatonin regulate reproduction function through not only neuroendocrine but also directly acting on the ovary in Bactrian camel.

Zhang Hairong

2012-01-01

292

The pineal gland: a comparative MR imaging study in children and adults with respect to normal anatomical variations and pineal cysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was undertaken to evaluate the variations in appearance of the normal pineal gland. The findings of 1000 consecutive MR imaging examinations obtained at 0.5 T were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 1 day to 83 years, and findings in children and adults were compared. In all age groups the pineal gland appeared mainly in three forms: (1) nodule-like, (2) crescent-like and (3) ring-like. Overall prevalences of these forms were 52 %, 26 % and 22 %, respectively. Apparent differences in frequencies were evident in children and adults with respect to the crescent-and ring-like types. Cystiform pineal lesions 5 mm or larger in one diameter (anteroposterior, sagittal or transverse) were taken to be true pineal cysts, when compared with the gland`s ring-like appearance (less than 5 mm). Pineal cysts had a prevalence of 0.6 % in children and 2.6 % in adults. No symptomatic pineal cyst with mass effect on the lamina tecti was detected in the series. Besides identifying the three anatomical types of the pineal gland as seen on MR imaging and addressing the potential significance of differences in their frequencies in children and adults, the author tries to explain the previous discrepancy between the MR imaging and autopsy series findings with respect to frequencies of the pineal cysts. (orig.)

Sener, R.N. [Dept. of Radiology, Ege Univ. Hospital, Izmir (Turkey)

1995-06-01

293

The pineal gland: a comparative MR imaging study in children and adults with respect to normal anatomical variations and pineal cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was undertaken to evaluate the variations in appearance of the normal pineal gland. The findings of 1000 consecutive MR imaging examinations obtained at 0.5 T were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 1 day to 83 years, and findings in children and adults were compared. In all age groups the pineal gland appeared mainly in three forms: (1) nodule-like, (2) crescent-like and (3) ring-like. Overall prevalences of these forms were 52 %, 26 % and 22 %, respectively. Apparent differences in frequencies were evident in children and adults with respect to the crescent-and ring-like types. Cystiform pineal lesions 5 mm or larger in one diameter (anteroposterior, sagittal or transverse) were taken to be true pineal cysts, when compared with the gland's ring-like appearance (less than 5 mm). Pineal cysts had a prevalence of 0.6 % in children and 2.6 % in adults. No symptomatic pineal cyst with mass effect on the lamina tecti was detected in the series. Besides identifying the three anatomical types of the pineal gland as seen on MR imaging and addressing the potential significance of differences in their frequencies in children and adults, the author tries to explain the previous discrepancy between the MR imaging and autopsy series findings with respect to frequencies of the pineal cysts. (orig.)

294

Tumor Teratóide Rabdóide Atípico Num Adulto / Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor in an Adult  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O tumor teratóide rabdóide atípico (TTRA) é uma neoplasia rara e agressiva, mais comum na infância e de mau prognóstico. Apenas 23 casos foram descritos em adultos. Permanece por estabelecer uma estratégia terapêutica, mas com ressecção macroscopicamente completa (RMC), radioterapia (RT) e quimioter [...] apia baseada em platinos e agentes alquilantes parecem obter-se os melhores resultados. Descreve-se o caso de uma mulher de 39 anos que iniciou um quadro de cefaleias, vertigens, perturbações visuais e ataxia. A RMN mostrou hidrocefalia relacionada com uma massa na região pineal. O tratamento consistiu em RMC, RT e 3 ciclos do esquema ICE. A doente permanece sem evidência de doença 30 meses após o diagnóstico. A propósito deste caso, procedeu-se a uma revisão da literatura. Abstract in english Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare and aggressive malignancy, which is more common in early childhood and carries a poor prognosis. Only 23 cases have been described in adults. A treatment strategy is yet to be established but gross total resection (GTR), early radiotherapy (RT) and [...] platinum and alkylator-based chemotherapy seem to be associated with better outcome. We report on a 39 year-old female who presented with headache, vertigo, blurry vision and ataxia. The MRI revealed hydrocephalus related to a mass at the pineal region. The treatment consisted of GTR, RT and 3 cycles of an outpatient-based ICE regimen. The patient remains disease-free 30 months after diagnosis. Following this case, a review of the literature is undertaken.

Cláudia, Caeiro; Isabel, Augusto; Teresa, Jaraquemada; Cristina, Sarmento; Margarida, Damasceno.

295

The CI findings of 6 cases of the pineal cyst. Consideration on neuroradiological images and the mechanism of occurrence of pineal cysts in childhood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In comparison to adult individuals over the age of 50, pineal cysts do rarely occur in children and adolescents. Here we report on four young patients who had pineal cysts in combination with hypophyseal dwarfism. We studied an 8-year-old girl with chiasmal germinoma, an 8-year-old boy with epilepsy, a 17-year-old male with spontaneous hypophyseal dwarfism and a 11-year-old female with craniopharyngioma. We also investigated a 29-year-old man with pontine glioma and a 48-year-old women with prolactinoma. The comparison of neuroimaging the pineal cysts in children and adults revealed the characteristics of their location in the pineal gland and the presence of residual normal gland. The etiology of pineal cysts in combination with pituitary dwarfism is unclear. However, our cases would suggest that they may be related to endocrinological disorders of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (author).

Nakajou, Takahito; Kurisaka, Masahiro; Mori, Koreaki [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

1995-03-01

296

The CI findings of 6 cases of the pineal cyst. Consideration on neuroradiological images and the mechanism of occurrence of pineal cysts in childhood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In comparison to adult individuals over the age of 50, pineal cysts do rarely occur in children and adolescents. Here we report on four young patients who had pineal cysts in combination with hypophyseal dwarfism. We studied an 8-year-old girl with chiasmal germinoma, an 8-year-old boy with epilepsy, a 17-year-old male with spontaneous hypophyseal dwarfism and a 11-year-old female with craniopharyngioma. We also investigated a 29-year-old man with pontine glioma and a 48-year-old women with prolactinoma. The comparison of neuroimaging the pineal cysts in children and adults revealed the characteristics of their location in the pineal gland and the presence of residual normal gland. The etiology of pineal cysts in combination with pituitary dwarfism is unclear. However, our cases would suggest that they may be related to endocrinological disorders of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (author)

297

A 1-Mb PAC contig spanning the common eliminated region 1 (CER1) in microcell hybrid-derived SCID tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed an elimination test to identify chromosomal regions that contain tumor inhibitory genes. Monochromosomal human/mouse microcell hybrids are generated and passaged through SCID mice. Derived tumors are then analyzed for deletions on the transgenomic chromosome. Using this strategy, we have previously identified a 1.6-cM common eliminated region 1 (CER1) on human 3p21. 3. We now report that CER1 contains 14 markers that are deleted in 19 SCID-derived tumors. A 1-Mb PAC contig that spans CER1 was assembled. Five chemokine receptor genes (CCR1, CCR3, CCR2, CCR5, and CCR6) were localized in CER1 in a 225-kb cluster. The lactotransferrin gene (LTF, or lactoferrin, LF), which reportedly has tumor inhibitory activity, also maps to CER1. Our results create a basis for characterization and further functional testing of genes within CER1. PMID:10610706

Yang, Y; Kiss, H; Kost-Alimova, M; Kedra, D; Fransson, I; Seroussi, E; Li, J; Szeles, A; Kholodnyuk, I; Imreh, M P; Fodor, K; Hadlaczky, G; Klein, G; Dumanski, J P; Imreh, S

1999-12-01

298

Two Synchronous and Different Salivary Gland Tumors Located in the Parotid Gland and Parapharyngeal Region: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available The majority of salivary gland tumors presents as a single mass in one gland. The occurrence of synchronous distinct tumors in salivary glands is rare. We report a case of two distinct salivary gland tumors localized in the parotid gland and parapharyngeal area. The first mass was in the left parapharyngeal region and the second was partially embedded in the caudal region of the left parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration was done for the parotid gland mass and cytological findings were consistent with Warthin's tumor. The parapharyngeal mass was excised and pleomorphic adenoma was diagnosed histopathologically. In this paper, cytological and histological findings of this rare patient are presented, and the literature is reviewed.

Mehmet KEFEL?

2009-06-01

299

Sagittal MR images of normal pineal glands after Gd-DTPA injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated normal pineal glands on Gd-DTPA enhanced MR images on a 1.5 Tesla superconducting unit. On enhanced sagittal MR images with a 3-mm slice thickness, pineal glands were identified as solid or cystic structures. The solid and cystic pineal glands were divided into two subgroups according to the degree of enhancement. The solid pineal glands showed diffuse or subtle enhancement and cystic ones showed peripheral enhancement either completely or incompletely. Of the 50 patients, 19 (38%) had solid pineal glands and 31 (62%) had cystic ones. In male, 7 out of 12 (63%) showed solid pineal glands and in female, 27 out of 39 (70%) showed cystic ones. (author)

300

An autopsy case of sudden unexpected death due to a glial cyst of the pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal cysts are usually asymptomatic; however, they may rarely cause symptoms such as chronic headache, paroxysmal headache with gaze paresis, postural syncope, loss of consciousness, and sudden death. A 30-year-old woman with no specific medical history except chronic headache was found collapsed in a public toilet per se. Postmortem examination revealed no external injuries or internal diseases except a cystic lesion of the pineal gland. Histologic examination showed an internal cyst surrounded by glial tissues and pineal parenchyma that was diagnosed as a glial cyst of the pineal gland. Although the pineal cyst cannot be confirmed as the cause of death, it was considered, as no other cause was evident. Herein, we report a pineal cyst considered as an assumed cause of death. PMID:25062343

Na, Joo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Park, Jong-Tae

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Cytogenetic analysis of tumoral thyroid tissues of thyroid glands of people from Gomel region as against Brest one  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis in vivo of histologically normal and tumoral thyroid tissues has shown that in organism of examined patients with thyroid cancer mutation process taken place not only in tumor but in histologically normal tissue. As a result of investigations pursued a significant increase in the level of aberrant cells in thyroid cell populations was revealed in people from Gomel regions as against Brest one

302

Pineal Photoreceptor Cells Are Required for Maintaining the Circadian Rhythms of Behavioral Visual Sensitivity in Zebrafish  

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In non-mammalian vertebrates, the pineal gland functions as the central pacemaker that regulates the circadian rhythms of animal behavior and physiology. We generated a transgenic zebrafish line [Tg(Gnat2:gal4-VP16/UAS:nfsB-mCherry)] in which the E. coli nitroreductase is expressed in pineal photoreceptor cells. In developing embryos and young adults, the transgene is expressed in both retinal and pineal photoreceptor cells. During aging, the expression of the transgene in retinal photorecept...

Li, Xinle; Montgomery, Jake; Cheng, Wesley; Noh, Jung Hyun; Hyde, David R.; Li, Lei

2012-01-01

303

Radiologic and laboratory diagnosis of the pineal gland state in some neuroendocrinal syndromes in women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiological and functional examinations of the pineal gland state and changes of bones of the vault and base of the skull are performed in 114 women. The data on melatonin excretion, calcification frequency of the pineal gland in different syndromes, signs of endocrinopathy, endocraniosis, intracranial hypertension in the observed persons of all groups are given. It is suggested that the retardation of calcification of the pineal gland is connected with humoral and hormonal status disorder

304

Delayed intra-tumoural haemorrhage in pineal germinoma: Case report and review  

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Full Text Available Intraparenchymal haemorrhage in a pineal germinoma is a very rare, though clinically significant event. We report the first case of a significantly delayed intraparenchymal haemorrhage in a pineal germinoma, 14 days after endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV, causing precipitous patient deterioration. We discuss potential contributing pathophysiological factors, and seek to illustrate that knowledge of its occurrence, and associated morbidity, is clinically significant in managing pineal germinoma patients with acute deterioration post obstructive hydrocephalus CSF diversion.

Michael Colditz

2013-07-01

305

Brain tumors in children; Hirntumoren beim Kind  

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Brain tumors are common in children; in Germany approximately 400 children are diagnosed every year. In the posterior fossa, cerebellar neoplasms outnumber brainstem gliomas. In contrast to their rarity in adults, brainstem gliomas are not uncommon in children. Supratentorial tumors can be subdivided by location into neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres, suprasellar and pineal tumors. Astrocytoma is the most common pediatric brain tumor followed by medulloblastoma, ependymoma and craniopharyngeoma. The combination of imaging morphology, tumor localisation and patient age at manifestation form the basis of the neuroradiological differential diagnosis. (orig.)

Harting, I.; Seitz, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

2009-06-15

306

Development and regeneration of the pineal region of the diencephalon  

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Organizer is a group of cells that induces and patterns surrounding tissues during embryo development. Previous studies of organizers were mainly based on transplantation of various pieces of tissues. This project first aimed to find out putative organizers using a novel method, which was to characterize organizers based on patterns of syn-expression genes. The differential microarray assays selected a list of gene that are enriched or depleted in three known organizers (Hensen’s node, noto...

Liu, J.

2014-01-01

307

Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamic nucleus paraventricularis mimics the effects of light on pineal melatonin synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an attempt to clarify further the role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in the control of pineal function, the effects of 2 min electrical stimulation of these nuclei were investigated in acutely blinded, adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Pineal serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, melatonin content and catecholamine levels were measured by means of radio-enzymatic, radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid-chromatography methods, respectively. All three pineal parameters underwent significant declines following brief PVN stimulation during the night time. These observations lend credence to the view that the neural pathways transmitting light information to the sympathetic innervation controlling pineal melatonin synthesis. 22 references, 1 figure

308

A hemorrhagic pineal cyst with a bacterial meningitis-like manifestation and benign outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal cysts are a common incidental finding in imaging studies, and the majority of such cysts are asymptomatic. However, hemorrhaging pineal cysts, which are considered to be rare, are often associated with severe symptoms. We herein describe the case of a 58-year-old patient with the novel manifestation of a bleeding pineal cyst, who had a benign outcome without any surgical treatment. Although the clinical manifestations resembled those of bacterial meningitis, magnetic resonance images suggested chemical meningitis caused by an intracystic hemorrhage and rupture of the pineal cyst. PMID:24334592

Yamamoto, Kanji; Omodaka, Toshikazu; Watanabe, Rie; Kodaira, Minori

2013-01-01

309

Pineal gland volume in primary insomnia and healthy controls: a magnetic resonance imaging study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the relation between pineal volume and insomnia. Melatonin promotes sleep processes and, administered as a drug, it is suitable to improve primary and secondary sleep disorders in humans. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that human plasma and saliva melatonin levels are partially determined by the pineal gland volume. This study compares the pineal volume in a group of patients with primary insomnia to a group of healthy people without sleep disturbance. Pineal gland volume (PGV) was measured on the basis of high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in 23 patients and 27 controls, matched for age, gender and educational status. Volume measurements were performed conventionally by manual delineation of the pineal borders in multi-planar reconstructed images. Pineal gland volume was significantly smaller (P Pineal volume appears to be reduced in patients with primary insomnia compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to clarify whether low pineal volume is the basis or the consequence of functional sleep changes to elucidate the molecular pathology for the pineal volume loss in primary insomnia. PMID:24456088

Bumb, Jan M; Schilling, Claudia; Enning, Frank; Haddad, Leila; Paul, Franc; Lederbogen, Florian; Deuschle, Michael; Schredl, Michael; Nolte, Ingo

2014-06-01

310

Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proton beam has been applied to treat various tumor patients in clinical studies. However, it is still undefined whether proton radiation can inhibit the blood vessel formation and induce the cell death in vascular endothelial cells in growing organs. The aim of this study are first, to develop an optimal animal model for the observation of blood vessel development with low dose of proton beam and second, to investigate the effect of low dose proton beam on the inhibition of blood vessel formation induced by hypoxic conditions. In this study, flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos were used to directly visualize and determine the inhibition of blood vessels by low dose (1, 2, 5 Gy) of proton beam with spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). And we observed cell death by acridine orange staining at 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) stage of embryos after proton irradiation. We also compared the effects of proton beam with those of gamma-ray. An antioxidant, N-acetyl cystein (NAC) was used to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the cell deaths induced by proton irradiation. Irradiated flk-1-GFP transgenic embryos with proton beam irradiation (35 MeV, spread out Bragg peak, SOBP) demonstrated a marked inhibition of embryonic growth and an altered fluorescent blood vessel development in the trunk region. When the cells with DNA damage in the irradiated zebrafish were stained with acridine orange, green fluorescent cell death spots were increased in trunk regions compared to non-irradiated control embryos. Proton beam also significantly increased the cell death rate in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but pretreatment of N-acetyl cystein (NAC), an antioxidant, recovered the proton-induced cell death rate (p<0.01). Moreover, pretreatment of NAC abrogated the effect of proton beam on the inhibition of trunk vessel development and malformation of trunk truncation. From this study, we found that proton radiation therapy can inhibit the blood vessel growth which is probably induced in hypoxic region in vivo in zebrafish embryos. The inhibition of blood vessel formation by proton beam might be caused by vascular cell death through the increased ROS generation. Therefore, proton therapy can be applied to treat tumor angiogenesis as well as abnormal vessel formation developing in hypoxic region

311

A glândula pineal e o metabolismo de carboidratos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A influência da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos vem sendo investigada há décadas. Entretanto, resultados contraditórios não esclarecem, até o momento, o verdadeiro papel da melatonina sobre a homeostasia dos carboidratos. Através de estudos recentes, contribuímos de maneira ineqü [...] ívoca para a caracterização do papel da glândula pineal como moduladora do metabolismo de carboidratos. Além disso, à luz dos conhecimentos atuais, demonstramos quais passos do mecanismo de ação da insulina estão envolvidos nessa modulação. Nossos estudos revelaram que a pinealectomia promove um quadro de resistência à insulina, sem obesidade. A captação máxima de 2-deoxi-glicose, estimulada por insulina, em adipócitos isolados está diminuída, sem entretanto modificar a capacidade da insulina ligar-se ao seu receptor e estimular a fosforilação dos substratos intracelulares representados pela pp 185. Por outro lado, em vários tecidos sensíveis à insulina, observou-se uma diminuição no conteúdo da proteína transportadora de glicose GLUT4, mas diminuição no mRNA do GLUT4 apenas em alguns desses tecidos, sugerindo uma regulação tecido-específica. Adicionalmente, foi demonstrado que a regulação da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos é mediado pela melatonina: o hormônio aumentou a sensibilidade à insulina de adipócitos isolados e o tratamento de reposição com melatonina restaurou o conteúdo de GLUT4 no tecido adiposo branco. Em síntese, os estudos aqui relatados evidenciam um importante papel da glândula pineal na modulação da homeostasia de carboidratos. Essa regulação é dependente da melatonina e pode ser resumida, até o presente momento, como um aumento da sensibilidade tecidual à insulina, que envolve alterações na expressão gênica do GLUT4. Abstract in english For decades, the influence of the pineal gland on carbohydrate metabolism has been investigated. However, contradictory results have not yet elucidated the role played by melatonin in carbohydrate homeostasis. In our recent studies, we have contributed to characterize the role of the pineal gland as [...] a modulator of carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, based on present-day knowledge, we have demonstrated the steps of insulin action mechanism involved in this modulation. Our studies reveal that pinealectomy causes a condition of obesity-free insulin resistance. The maximum uptake of 2-deoxi-glucose prompted by insulin in isolated adipocytes is diminished, without however changing the insulin capacity to bind to its receptor, and to stimulate the phosphorilation of intracellular substrates represented by pp 185. Conversely, in several insulin-sensitive tissues, our studies detected a decrease in the amount of glucose transporter protein GLUT4, and a decrease in GLUT4 mRNA in only some of these tissues, suggesting a tissue-specific regulation. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the pineal gland regulation influences carbohydrate metabolism through melatonin, by our demonstration that the hormone increased insulin sensitivity of isolated adipocytes, and that melatonin replacement therapy restored the amount of GLUT4 in white adipose tissue. In summary, the studies reported here evidence an important role played by the pineal gland in the modulation of carbohydrate homeostasis. This regulation seems to be melatonin-dependent and can be described, so far, as an increase in tissue sensitivity to insulin, which involves changes in GLUT4 gene expression.

Patrícia Monteiro, Seraphim; Doris Hissako, Sumida; Fabiana Tumi, Nishide; Fábio Bessa, Lima; José, Cipolla Neto; Ubiratan Fabres, Machado.

2000-08-01

312

Depressive symptomatology and pineal epidermoid cyst: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Intracranial epidermoid cysts are congenital cysts. They comprise 0.2-1.8% of primary intracranial tumours and are four to nine times as common as dermoid cysts. Case report We here in present the case of a 32-year-old man who reported sudden onset of symptoms of a depressive symptomatology and particularly severe headache, accompanied by fatigue, depressed mood most of the day, marked diminished interest or pleasure in all or almost all activities, insomnia and diminished ability to think or concentrate. Brain magnetic resolution imaging examination revealed a pineal epidermoid cystic lesion, visualised in the posterior part of the third ventricle, with a maximum diameter of ?2.8 cm and obstructing the aqueduct of Sylvius, causing obstructive hydrocephalus. Discussion Pineal cysts may enlarge over time, because of either increased cyst fluid or intracystic haemorrhage, and become symptomatic. Brain radiological investigations in patients with depressive symptomatology may be substantial. PMID:25287638

Kontoangelos, Konstantinos; Economou, Marina; Maltezou, Maria; Kandaraki, Anna; Papadimitriou, George N

2013-08-01

313

A glândula pineal e o metabolismo de carboidratos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A influência da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos vem sendo investigada há décadas. Entretanto, resultados contraditórios não esclarecem, até o momento, o verdadeiro papel da melatonina sobre a homeostasia dos carboidratos. Através de estudos recentes, contribuímos de maneira ineqüívoca para a caracterização do papel da glândula pineal como moduladora do metabolismo de carboidratos. Além disso, à luz dos conhecimentos atuais, demonstramos quais passos do mecanismo de ação da insulina estão envolvidos nessa modulação. Nossos estudos revelaram que a pinealectomia promove um quadro de resistência à insulina, sem obesidade. A captação máxima de 2-deoxi-glicose, estimulada por insulina, em adipócitos isolados está diminuída, sem entretanto modificar a capacidade da insulina ligar-se ao seu receptor e estimular a fosforilação dos substratos intracelulares representados pela pp 185. Por outro lado, em vários tecidos sensíveis à insulina, observou-se uma diminuição no conteúdo da proteína transportadora de glicose GLUT4, mas diminuição no mRNA do GLUT4 apenas em alguns desses tecidos, sugerindo uma regulação tecido-específica. Adicionalmente, foi demonstrado que a regulação da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos é mediado pela melatonina: o hormônio aumentou a sensibilidade à insulina de adipócitos isolados e o tratamento de reposição com melatonina restaurou o conteúdo de GLUT4 no tecido adiposo branco. Em síntese, os estudos aqui relatados evidenciam um importante papel da glândula pineal na modulação da homeostasia de carboidratos. Essa regulação é dependente da melatonina e pode ser resumida, até o presente momento, como um aumento da sensibilidade tecidual à insulina, que envolve alterações na expressão gênica do GLUT4.For decades, the influence of the pineal gland on carbohydrate metabolism has been investigated. However, contradictory results have not yet elucidated the role played by melatonin in carbohydrate homeostasis. In our recent studies, we have contributed to characterize the role of the pineal gland as a modulator of carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, based on present-day knowledge, we have demonstrated the steps of insulin action mechanism involved in this modulation. Our studies reveal that pinealectomy causes a condition of obesity-free insulin resistance. The maximum uptake of 2-deoxi-glucose prompted by insulin in isolated adipocytes is diminished, without however changing the insulin capacity to bind to its receptor, and to stimulate the phosphorilation of intracellular substrates represented by pp 185. Conversely, in several insulin-sensitive tissues, our studies detected a decrease in the amount of glucose transporter protein GLUT4, and a decrease in GLUT4 mRNA in only some of these tissues, suggesting a tissue-specific regulation. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the pineal gland regulation influences carbohydrate metabolism through melatonin, by our demonstration that the hormone increased insulin sensitivity of isolated adipocytes, and that melatonin replacement therapy restored the amount of GLUT4 in white adipose tissue. In summary, the studies reported here evidence an important role played by the pineal gland in the modulation of carbohydrate homeostasis. This regulation seems to be melatonin-dependent and can be described, so far, as an increase in tissue sensitivity to insulin, which involves changes in GLUT4 gene expression.

Patrícia Monteiro Seraphim

2000-08-01

314

The pineal neurohormone melatonin and its physiologic opiatergic immunoregulatory role  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pineal gland functions as a neuroendocrine transducer that coordinate the organism response to changing environmental stimuli such as light and temperature. The main and best known pineal neurohormone is melatonin that is synthesized and released in a circadian fashion with a peak during the night darkness hours. We have recently reported that melatonin exerts important immuno regulatory functions. Here we describe the astonishing property of exogenous melatonin which is able to counteract completely the depressive effect of anxiety-restraint stress and/or of corticosterone on thymus weight, andibody production and antiviral responses. This effect seems to be mediated by antigen-activated T cells via an opiatergic mechanism.

Georges J. M. Maestroni

1987-01-01

315

The pineal neurohormone melatonin and its physiologic opiatergic immunoregulatory role  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The pineal gland functions as a neuroendocrine transducer that coordinate the organism response to changing environmental stimuli such as light and temperature. The main and best known pineal neurohormone is melatonin that is synthesized and released in a circadian fashion with a peak during the nig [...] ht darkness hours. We have recently reported that melatonin exerts important immuno regulatory functions. Here we describe the astonishing property of exogenous melatonin which is able to counteract completely the depressive effect of anxiety-restraint stress and/or of corticosterone on thymus weight, andibody production and antiviral responses. This effect seems to be mediated by antigen-activated T cells via an opiatergic mechanism.

Georges J. M., Maestroni; Ario, Conti; Walter, Pierpaoli.

316

A glândula pineal e o metabolismo de carboidratos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A influência da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos vem sendo investigada há décadas. Entretanto, resultados contraditórios não esclarecem, até o momento, o verdadeiro papel da melatonina sobre a homeostasia dos carboidratos. Através de estudos recentes, contribuímos de maneira ineqü [...] ívoca para a caracterização do papel da glândula pineal como moduladora do metabolismo de carboidratos. Além disso, à luz dos conhecimentos atuais, demonstramos quais passos do mecanismo de ação da insulina estão envolvidos nessa modulação. Nossos estudos revelaram que a pinealectomia promove um quadro de resistência à insulina, sem obesidade. A captação máxima de 2-deoxi-glicose, estimulada por insulina, em adipócitos isolados está diminuída, sem entretanto modificar a capacidade da insulina ligar-se ao seu receptor e estimular a fosforilação dos substratos intracelulares representados pela pp 185. Por outro lado, em vários tecidos sensíveis à insulina, observou-se uma diminuição no conteúdo da proteína transportadora de glicose GLUT4, mas diminuição no mRNA do GLUT4 apenas em alguns desses tecidos, sugerindo uma regulação tecido-específica. Adicionalmente, foi demonstrado que a regulação da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos é mediado pela melatonina: o hormônio aumentou a sensibilidade à insulina de adipócitos isolados e o tratamento de reposição com melatonina restaurou o conteúdo de GLUT4 no tecido adiposo branco. Em síntese, os estudos aqui relatados evidenciam um importante papel da glândula pineal na modulação da homeostasia de carboidratos. Essa regulação é dependente da melatonina e pode ser resumida, até o presente momento, como um aumento da sensibilidade tecidual à insulina, que envolve alterações na expressão gênica do GLUT4. Abstract in english For decades, the influence of the pineal gland on carbohydrate metabolism has been investigated. However, contradictory results have not yet elucidated the role played by melatonin in carbohydrate homeostasis. In our recent studies, we have contributed to characterize the role of the pineal gland as [...] a modulator of carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, based on present-day knowledge, we have demonstrated the steps of insulin action mechanism involved in this modulation. Our studies reveal that pinealectomy causes a condition of obesity-free insulin resistance. The maximum uptake of 2-deoxi-glucose prompted by insulin in isolated adipocytes is diminished, without however changing the insulin capacity to bind to its receptor, and to stimulate the phosphorilation of intracellular substrates represented by pp 185. Conversely, in several insulin-sensitive tissues, our studies detected a decrease in the amount of glucose transporter protein GLUT4, and a decrease in GLUT4 mRNA in only some of these tissues, suggesting a tissue-specific regulation. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the pineal gland regulation influences carbohydrate metabolism through melatonin, by our demonstration that the hormone increased insulin sensitivity of isolated adipocytes, and that melatonin replacement therapy restored the amount of GLUT4 in white adipose tissue. In summary, the studies reported here evidence an important role played by the pineal gland in the modulation of carbohydrate homeostasis. This regulation seems to be melatonin-dependent and can be described, so far, as an increase in tissue sensitivity to insulin, which involves changes in GLUT4 gene expression.

Patrícia Monteiro, Seraphim; Doris Hissako, Sumida; Fabiana Tumi, Nishide; Fábio Bessa, Lima; José, Cipolla Neto; Ubiratan Fabres, Machado.

317

Ultrastructure of the pineal gland in the adult rat.  

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The ultrastructure of the rat pineal gland was studied from 75 days until 10 months of age. Type I pinealocytes of young adults showed nuclei with dispersed chromatin, numerous infoldings of the nuclear envelope and well developed nucleoli. The cytoplasm displayed many mitochondria and clusters of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. With increasing age, there was a clear increase in the number of dense bodies or lysosomes in the Type I pinealocyte. The changes in the Type II pinealocytes with age w...

Calvo, J.; Boya, J.

1984-01-01

318

Postnatal evolution of the rat pineal gland: light microscopy.  

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The postnatal development and morphology of the adult albino rat pineal gland was studied from one day up to ten months of age. During postnatal life there was a marked increase in gland and pinealocyte volume, more intense during the first 45 days. After ten days, the differences in nuclear morphology of parenchymal cells showed two different types of pinealocyte. The characteristic adult arrangement of pinealocytes in cords and pseudo-rosettes was observed after 15-20 days. After 75 days th...

Calvo, J.; Boya, J.

1984-01-01

319

The pineal gland - Its possible roles in human reproduction  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses the role of the pineal gland in controlling mammalian reproduction, with particular attention given to the role of melatonin in polyestrus mammals, like humans and laboratory rodents. Evidence is cited indicating the influence of melatonin production and blood content on the age of puberty, the timing of the ovulatory cycle, gonadal steriodogenesis, and patterns of reproductive behavior. It is suggested that abnormal patterns of melatonin might be associated with amenorrhea, anovulation, unexplained infertility, premature menopause, and habitual abortions.

Brzezinski, Amnon; Wurtman, Richard J.

1988-01-01

320

Degranulating mast cells in fibrotic regions of human tumors and evidence that mast cell heparin interferes with the growth of tumor cells through a mechanism involving fibroblasts  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mast cells that are present in fibrotic regions of cancer can suppress the growth of tumor cells through an indirect mechanism involving peri-tumoral fibroblasts. Methods We first immunostained a wide variety of human cancers for the presence of degranulated mast cells. In a subsequent series of controlled in vitro experiments, we then co-cultured UACC-812 human breast cancer cells with normal fibroblasts in the presence or absence of different combinations and doses of mast cell tryptase, mast cell heparin, a lysate of the human mast cell line HMC-1, and fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7, a powerful, heparin-binding growth factor for breast epithelial cells. Results Degranulating mast cells were localized predominantly in the fibrous tissue of every case of breast cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease that we examined. Mast cell tryptase and HMC-1 lysate had no significant effect on the clonogenic growth of cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. By contrast, mast cell heparin at multiple doses significantly reduced the size and number of colonies of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, especially in the presence of FGF-7. Neither heparin nor FGF-7, individually or in combination, produced any significant effect on the clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells cultured without fibroblasts. Conclusion Degranulating mast cells are restricted to peri-tumoral fibrous tissue, and mast cell heparin is a powerful inhibitor of clonogenic growth of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. These results may help to explain the well-known ability of heparin to inhibit the growth of primary and metastatic tumors.

Kanakubo Emi

2005-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

Regulation of period 1 expression in cultured rat pineal  

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The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro expression of Period 1 (Per1), Period 2 (Per2) and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) genes in the rat pineal gland to understand the mechanism(s) regulating the expression of these genes in this organ. Pineals, when maintained in vitro for 5 days, did not show circadian rhythmicity in the expression of any of the three genes monitored. Norepinephrine (NE) induced AA-NAT and Per1, whereas its effect on Per2 was negligible. Contrary to what was observed in other systems, NE stimulation did not induce circadian expression of Per1. The effect of NE on Per1 level was dose- and receptor subtype-dependent, and both cAMP and cGMP induced Per1. Per1 was not induced by repeated NE - or forskolin - stimulation. Protein synthesis was not necessary for NE-induced Per1, but it was for reduction of Per1 following NE stimulation. Per1 transcription in pinealocytes was activated by BMAL1/CLOCK. Our results indicate that important differences are present in the regulation of these genes in the mammalian pineal. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Fukuhara, Chiaki; Dirden, James C.; Tosini, Gianluca

2002-01-01

322

Content of microelements in the rat pineal gland at different ages and the effects of selenium supplementation  

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The mammalian pineal gland regulates a number of important physiological processes. In this paper we report changes in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) in the male rat pineal glands at 4, 5, 8, and 12 months of age. The effect of Se supplementation in drinking water on the content of pineal gland microelements was also studied. Selenium (Se)-dependent changes in pineal gland reported in this study suggest novel physicochemical and biochemical properties of S...

Demajo M.; Jozanov-Stankov Olga; ?uji? Ivana

2006-01-01

323

Parathyroid adenoma diagnosed on the basis of a giant cell tumor of parieto-occipital region and multifocal bone injuries.  

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Brown tumors are rare skeletal manifestations of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) that may mimic cancer metastases. Histopathologically, they are difficult to differentiate from other giant cell lesions. A case is presented of 41-year-old woman with giant cell tumor in parieto-occipital region with injury of external bone lamina, growing into the skull cavity. The mass was suspected of being neoplastic. Numerous osteolytic lesions in the skull skeleton and multifocal bone injuries were observed, also. Elevation in calcium (5.91 mEq/L) and parathormone (1188 ng/mL) concentrations and hypercalciuria (52 mEq/24 h) suggested the diagnosis of HPT initially manifesting as a brown tumor of the skull. Further exploration confirmed the existence of parathyroid adenoma as a cause of the disease. The key treatment for the condition was surgical excision of the adenoma followed by the normalization of parathyroid function and significant reduction in size of skull tumor and other lesions. PMID:24464010

Bohdanowicz-Pawlak, Anna; Szymczak, Jadwiga; Jakubowska, Joanna; Jedrzejuk, Diana; Pawlak, Andrzej; Lukienczuk, Tadeusz; Bolanowski, Marek

2013-01-01

324

Regional variation in histopathologic features of tumor specimens from treatment-naive glioblastoma correlates with anatomic and physiologic MR Imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Histopathologic evaluation of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) at initial diagnosis is typically performed on tissue obtained from regions of contrast enhancement (CE) as depicted on gadolinium-enhanced, T1-weighted images. The non-enhancing (NE) portion of the lesion, which contains both reactive edema and infiltrative tumor, is only partially removed due to concerns about damaging functioning brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate histopathologic and physiologic MRI features of image-guided tissue specimens from CE and NE regions to investigate correlations between imaging and histopathologic parameters. One hundred nineteen tissue specimens (93 CE and 26 NE regions) were acquired from 51 patients with newly diagnosed GBM by utilizing stereotactic image-guided sampling. Variables of anatomic, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic susceptibility-weighted, contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging (DSC) from each tissue sample location were obtained and compared with histopathologic features such as tumor score, cell density, proliferation, architectural disruption, hypoxia, and microvascular hyperplasia. Tissue samples from CE regions had increased tumor score, cellular density, proliferation, and architectural disruption compared with NE regions. DSC variables such as relative cerebral blood volume, peak height, and recovery factor were significantly higher, and the percentage of signal intensity recovery was significantly lower in the CE compared with the NE regions. DWI variables were correlated with histopathologic features of GBM within NE regions. Image-guided tissue acquisition and assessment of residual tumor from treatment-naive GBM should be guided by DSC in CE regions and by DWI in NE regions. PMID:22711606

Barajas, Ramon F; Phillips, Joanna J; Parvataneni, Rupa; Molinaro, Annette; Essock-Burns, Emma; Bourne, Gabriela; Parsa, Andrew T; Aghi, Manish K; McDermott, Michael W; Berger, Mitchel S; Cha, Soonmee; Chang, Susan M; Nelson, Sarah J

2012-07-01

325

Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

2012-09-28

326

Reactivity of axillary lymph-nodes draining invasive breast carcinomas - immunohistochemical evidence of tumor-associated reactions of B-region and T-region.  

Science.gov (United States)

The B and T regions in 495 axillary lymph nodes (TU-LN) draining 104 invasive breast carcinomas and 34 non-tumor-draining axillary/cervical lymph nodes (R-LN) were investigated immunohistochernically in frozen sections. The extents of the B regions and T regions were evaluated by staining with TO15 (CD22) and Leu-1 (CD5), respectively. Staining with Ki-M4, which specifically recognizes follicular dendritic cells, enabled determination of the number of lymphatic follicles. The germinal-center index (GCI), the numerical ratio of primary to secondary follicles, was determined to quantify the reactivity of the B regions. The number of Ki-67+ proliferating lymphoid cells per 0.5 mm(2) T region (PCT) was assessed as an index of the reactivity of the T regions. (i) In the TU-LN, the median GCI and PCT (0.1 and 18, respectively) were significantly lower than in the R-LN (0.6 and 26, respectively; both p<0.01). (ii) Greater TU-LN volumes were found to be associated with predominance of the T regions, high GCIs, and high PCTs. (iii) Higher GCIs and PCTs were associated with predominance of the T regions in TU-LN in general, but TU-LN partially destroyed by tumor metastases exhibited higher GCIs and PCTs when there was predominance of the B regions. The findings of the study show that LN draining breast carcinomas and reactive LN with signs of chronic nonspecific lymphadenitis exhibit significant immunohistochemical differences but it remains open to speculation whether the malignant tumor exerts suppressive effects on the lymphoreticular tissue or whether its antigenicity is low, particularly when compared with common, mostly infectious stimuli leading to chronic lymphadenitis. PMID:21607369

Horny, H; Horst, H

1994-03-01

327

Homeobox genes in the rodent pineal gland: roles in development and phenotype maintenance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function. A working model is proposed for understanding the sequential action of homeobox genes in controlling development and mature circadian function of the mammalian pinealocyte based on knowledge from detailed developmental and daily gene expression analyses in rats, the pineal phenotypes of homebox gene-deficient mice and studies on development of the retinal photoreceptor; the pinealocyte and retinal photoreceptor share features not seen in other tissues and are likely to have evolved from the same ancestral photodetector cell. PMID:23076630

Rath, Martin F; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten

2013-06-01

328

Experiment K-7-19: Pineal Physiology After Spaceflight: Relation to Rat Gonadal Function  

Science.gov (United States)

The function of pineal exposed to microgravity and spaceflight is studied. It is found that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanisms of the response noted.

Holley, D. C.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

1994-01-01

329

Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland : Roles in Development and Phenotype Maintenance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function. A working model is proposed for understanding the sequential action of homeobox genes in controlling development and mature circadian function of the mammalian pinealocyte based on knowledge from detailed developmental and daily gene expression analyses in rats, the pineal phenotypes of homebox gene-deficient mice and studies on development of the retinal photoreceptor; the pinealocyte and retinal photoreceptor share features not seen in other tissues and are likely to have evolved from the same ancestral photodetector cell.

Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian

2013-01-01

330

The modulatory effect of substance P on rat pineal norepinephrine release and melatonin secretion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Secretion of melatonin by the mammalian pineal gland is primarily regulated by the release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerve terminals that originate from the superior cervical ganglia. Peptidergic nerves that originate in the perikarya located in the sensory trigeminal ganglia also innervate the pineal gland. Some of these peptidergic nerve fibers contain substance P. Previously, we have characterized neurokinin 1 type substance P receptors in the pineal gland. However, the function of this receptor in the pineal gland remains unclear. Here, we examined the modulatory effect of substance P on rat pineal NE transmission. We show that at the presynaptic level, substance P stimulates the KCl-induced [(3)H]NE release from the pineal nerve ending. However, we found that substance P did not affect the basal levels of either arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity or melatonin secretion in rat pineal organ cultures. However, in the presence of NE, substance P inhibited the NE-induced increase in AANAT activity and melatonin secretion. This is the first time that a function for substance P in the mammalian pineal gland has been demonstrated.

Mukda, Sujira; MØller, Morten

2009-01-01

331

Small Tumor Virus Genomes Are Integrated near Nuclear Matrix Attachment Regions in Transformed Cells  

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More than 15% of human cancers have a viral etiology. In benign lesions induced by the small DNA tumor viruses, viral genomes are typically maintained extrachromosomally. Malignant progression is often associated with viral integration into host cell chromatin. To study the role of viral integration in tumorigenesis, we analyzed the positions of integrated viral genomes in tumors and tumor cell lines induced by the small oncogenic viruses, including the high-risk human papillomaviruses, hepat...

Shera, Katherine A.; Shera, Christopher A.; Mcdougall, James K.

2001-01-01

332

Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity  

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The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effect upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity.

Creighton, J.A.; Rudeen, P.K.

1988-01-01

333

Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effect upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity

334

Effect of low dose radiation on cell cycle of pineal gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: In the present study the authors observed the effect of low dose radiation (LDR) on cell cycle of pineal gland in mice. Methods: The distribution in the phase of the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry after staining of pineal gland with prospidium iodine (PI) after WBI with 75 mGy X-rays. Results: It was shown that the percentage of G0/G1 phase and G2 + M phase of pineal gland cells decreased after irradiation (P < 0.05), and meanwhile the percentage of S-phase of pineal gland cells increased after irradiation (P < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicated that WBI with LDR could promote DNA synthesis of pineal gland cells in mice

335

Experiment K-6-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. It was recognized as early as 1685 (cited in Kitay and Altschule, 1954) that the pineal of humans calcified with age. However, little can be found in the literature relating calcification and pineal function. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, researchers examined pineal calcium content following the spaceflight. Researchers concluded that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanism of the responses noted.

Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Kaddis, F.; Markley, C.; Krasnov, I.

1990-01-01

336

Breast Tumor Diagnosis Using Diode Laser in NearInfrared Region  

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Full Text Available In the last years, new non-invasively laser methods were used to detect breast tumors for pre- and postmenopausal females. The methods based on using laser radiation are safer than the other daily used methods for breast tumor detection like X-ray mammography, CT-scanner, and nuclear medicine. One of these new methods is called FDPM (Frequency Domain Photon Migration. It is based on the modulation of laser beam by variable frequency sinusoidal waves. The modulated laser radiations illuminate the breast tissue and received from opposite side.In this paper the amplitude and the phase shift of the received signal were calculated according to the original signal for the sake of diagnosis.These calculations were carried out for different breast thicknesses to find out the best modulation laser beam wavelength and the optimum breast thickness necessary for diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors. According to our work the most suitable laser wave length to detect the breast tumor for pre- and postmenopausal females was 956 nm and 674 nm for both malignant and benign tumors.Keywords: Tumor detection, laser modulation, Photon migration Breast tumor

Ahmed Ali Mohammed

2009-01-01

337

Postnatal development of cell types in the rat pineal gland.  

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The morphological development of the rat pineal gland has been studied from 1 to 60 days of age. During the first days, undifferentiated cells (pinealoblasts) with scanty cytoplasm and frequent mitotic figures were observed. The differentiation of cell types (Types I and II pinealocytes) began on the third day after birth and was completed by days 15-20. At 3 days of age, nerve fibres were first observed, both in the connective spaces and in the parenchyma. After 5 days, an important hypertro...

Calvo, J.; Boya, J.

1983-01-01

338

A case of hemorrhagic pineal cyst: MR/CT correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 30-year-old male had headache pain for one month and was evaluated with both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR). These scans demonstrated an obstructing pineal cyst containing layered acute and subacute blood products by MR criteria. The concurrent scans allowed correlation between CT and MR findings in this rare complication of an unusual entity, explained his headache (and the development of later upward gaze paresis), provided a precise surgical/anatomic approach, and gave a good final clinical result. The report illustrates appropriate CT and MR images and pathological specimen. (orig.)

339

Case of hemorrhagic pineal cyst: MR/CT correlation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 30-year-old male had headache pain for one month and was evaluated with both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR). These scans demonstrated an obstructing pineal cyst containing layered acute and subacute blood products by MR criteria. The concurrent scans allowed correlation between CT and MR findings in this rare complication of an unusual entity, explained his headache (and the development of later upward gaze paresis), provided a precise surgical/anatomic approach, and gave a good final clinical result. The report illustrates appropriate CT and MR images and pathological specimen.

Osborn, R.E.; Deen, H.G.; Kerber, C.W.; Glass, R.F.

1989-05-01

340

[Arylsulfatase activity in the pineal body, studied by electron microscopy].  

Science.gov (United States)

For the demonstration of aryl-sulphatase in the corpus pineale as a substrat p-Nitrochatecholsulphat (2-Hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl sulphat) has been used. The reaction is negativ when p-Nitrophenylsulphat or acetylphenylsulphat are used. Localization of the enzyme occurred in the Golgi-system and in the smooth-surface endoplasmic reticulum. By the aid of the histochemical reaction the formation of primary lysosomes can be demonstrated on the level of the Golgi system and of the smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum as well. Aryl-sulphatase correspond to the: A and B type. Reaction in the presence of pCMB and KCN is inhibited. PMID:1012285

Norbert, K; Péter, S; Endre, S

1976-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Minimally Invasive-Endoscopic Intraventricular Neurosurgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... for taking out tumors such as colloid cysts, pineal region tumors. And then lastly we're now ... about the seed of the soul being the pineal gland. And Dr. Souweidane is always lucky enough ...

342

Tumores de células germinativas intracranianos na infância: avaliação de 14 casos / Primary intracranial germ cell tumors in children: evaluation of fourteen cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avalia o diagnóstico, a terapia e a sobrevida de 14 pacientes com tumor de células germinativas intracraniano durante o período entre 1991 e 2001. Onze pacientes eram do sexo masculino e três do feminino. A média de idade do grupo foi 12,5 anos (20 dias-18 anos). Na admissão, os mais com [...] uns sintomas foram cefaléia (10/14), vômitos (6/14) e visuais (6/14). Os tumores estavam localizados em região hipotalâmica/hipofisária em 10 casos, suprasselar em 3 casos e intraparenquimatosa em 1 caso. Histologicamente, havia 1 caso de carcinoma embrionário, 5 de germinomas, 2 de teratoma maduro, 1 de teratoma imaturo e 5 de tumores mistos. O tratamento foi variável, dependendo da histologia da lesão. Três pacientes morreram após a progressão tumoral ou recidiva e um paciente morreu devido causa não relacionada ao tumor. Os demais estão vivos e sem doença. Abstract in english This study evaluates the diagnosis, therapy and survival of 14 patients with primary intracranial germ cell tumors during the period from 1991 to 2001. There were 11 males and 3 females. Mean age was 12.2 years old (20 days-18 years). On admission, the most common symptoms were headache (10/14), vom [...] iting (6/14) and visual (6/14). The tumor was in pineal and hypothalamic region in 10 cases, suprasellar in 3 cases, and in the cerebral parenchyma in 1 case. Histologically there were 1 embryonal carcinoma, 5 germinomas, 2 mature teratomas, 1 immature teratoma and 5 mixed germ cell tumors. Treatment differed among the patients according to the type of tumor. Three patients died after tumor progression or relapse and one patient died from another condition. The remaining patients are alive and without disease.

Patrícia Imperatriz Porto, Rondinelli; Carlos Alberto Martinez, Osório; Luís Fernando, Lopes.

343

[Gender assessment of signs of malignant tumors of the maxillofacial area residents in Ivano-Frankivsk region during 2000-2010 yy].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the incidence of malignant tumors of the maxillofacial region in the Ivano-Frankivsk region, based on a retrospective analysis of the record charts of patients from 2000 to 2010. The study investigated the dynamics of indicators of malignant tumors of the maxillofacial region according to the Ivano-Frankivsk Clinical Oncology Center on the basis of a retrospective analysis of 417 patients with registration cards. The characteristic of the prevalence of malignant tumors of the maxillofacial area of the region by gender and localization of the pathological process. PMID:24423674

Karavan, Ia R; Levandovski?, R A; Kostishin, I D; Romanchuk, V R

2013-12-01

344

A radiologic study by CT scan of pineal size in cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alterations in size of the pineal body and melatonin secretion have been observed in cancer patients. The present study was carried out to evaluate pineal dimension in a group of cancer patients and their relation to melatonin blood levels. The study included 70 oncologic patients. As controls, 41 patients with acute or chronic disease other than cancer entered the study. Melatonin serum levels were measured by radioimmunoassay on venous blood samples collected at 9:00 a.m. Pineal size was determined by brain CT scan, by considering the product of the two longest perpendicular diameters, multiplied by the thickness of the stratum. The volume of the pineal body was found to be enlarged in 12/70 (17%) cancer patients, and its mean value was significantly higher than that observed in controls. Melatonin levels were also significantly higher in oncologic patients than in controls. However, there was no correlation between melatonin levels and pineal size in cancer patients. Finally, cancer patients did not show a higher degree of pineal calcifications than controls. The clinical significance of pineal enlargement in cancer patients remains to be understood

345

The parapineal and pineal organs of the elver (glass eel), Anguilla anguilla L.  

Science.gov (United States)

The parapineal organ of the glass eel (elver) consists of approximately 400 cells and is situated to the left of the connection of the pineal stalk to their ventricle. A conspicuous nerve tract containing approximately 350 fibers arises from the parapineal organ and runs in spatial relationship to the habenular commissure toward the left habenular nucleus. The dominating cell type of the parapineal organ of the elver is a neuron (sensory neuron) of small diameter provided with atypical cilia (9 x 2 + 0, or rarely 8 x 2 + 0 types). Well-developed photoreceptor outer segments are lacking, and no interstitial cells of ependymal type have been observed with certainty in the parapineal organ. The axonal processes from the nerve cells form the tract leaving the parapineal organ. The pineal organ proper of the elver consists of photoreceptor cells with well-developed outer segments, interstitial cells of ependymal type, and ganglion cells. Axons from the latter form the pineal tract, which leaves the pineal organ and runs in close contact with the subcommissural organ toward the posterior commissure. The proximal part of the pineal stalk contains only a few photoreceptor cells the outer segments of which are less developed than those of the pineal body and the distal part of the pineal stalk. PMID:7083311

van Veen, T

1982-01-01

346

The frequency of pineal calcification during the first 18 years of life  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are sparse or contradictory data on frequency and pathological significance of pineal calcifications in childhood. This is particularly so for children younger than 6 years of age. We therefore looked for pineal gland calcifications in 1044 consecutive a.p. and lateral skull films. Pineal calcification was diagnosed, if accepted by both authors, and if the calcified spot fitted into at least 2 of 4 localisation methods. 80 patients with pineal calcifications were detected using this method. In 40 of these patients CCT confirmed the calcification. The frequency of pineal calcification was 3% in the first 12 months of life rising gradually to 7.1% in children of 10 years of age. From 10 years onwards, there is a marked increase of frequency of calcifications of the pineal gland up to 33% in the group of children of 18 years of age. In contrast to some statements in literature, pineal calcifications seem to be physiological in a limited percentage even below the age of 6 years. (orig.)

347

Automatic Diagnosis of Abnormal Tumor Region from Brain Computed Tomography Images Using Wavelet Based Statistical Texture Features  

CERN Document Server

The research work presented in this paper is to achieve the tissue classification and automatically diagnosis the abnormal tumor region present in Computed Tomography (CT) images using the wavelet based statistical texture analysis method. Comparative studies of texture analysis method are performed for the proposed wavelet based texture analysis method and Spatial Gray Level Dependence Method (SGLDM). Our proposed system consists of four phases i) Discrete Wavelet Decomposition (ii) Feature extraction (iii) Feature selection (iv) Analysis of extracted texture features by classifier. A wavelet based statistical texture feature set is derived from normal and tumor regions. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to select the optimal texture features from the set of extracted texture features. We construct the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifier and evaluate the performance of classifier by comparing the classification results of the SVM based classifier with the Back Propagation Neural network classifier(BPN...

Padma, A

2011-01-01

348

Daily variation of constitutively activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) in rat pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

In mammals, the production of melatonin by the pineal gland is mainly controlled by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the master clock of the circadian system. We have previously shown that agents involved in inflammatory responses, such as cytokines and corticosterone, modulate pineal melatonin synthesis. The nuclear transcription factor NFKB, detected by our group in the rat pineal gland, modulates this effect. Here, we evaluated a putative constitutive role for the pineal gland NFKB pathway. Male rats were kept under 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle or under constant darkness (DD) condition. Nuclear NFKB was quantified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay on pineal glands obtained from animals killed throughout the day at different times. Nuclear content of NFKB presented a daily rhythm only in LD-entrained animals. During the light phase, the amount of NFKB increased continuously, and a sharp drop occurred when lights were turned off. Animals maintained in a constant light environment until ZT 18 showed diurnal levels of nuclear NFKB at ZT15 and ZT18. Propranolol (20 mg/kg, i.p., ZT 11) treatment, which inhibits nocturnal sympathetic input, impaired nocturnal decrease of NFKB only at ZT18. A similar effect was observed in free-running animals, which secreted less nocturnal melatonin. Because melatonin reduces constitutive NFKB activation in cultured pineal glands, we propose that this indolamine regulates this transcription factor pathway in the rat pineal gland, but not at the LD transition. The controversial results regarding the inhibition of pineal function by constant light or blocking sympathetic neurotransmission are discussed according to the hypothesis that the prompt effect of lights-off is not mediated by noradrenaline, which otherwise contributes to maintaining low levels of nuclear NFKB at night. In summary, we report here a novel transcription factor in the pineal gland, which exhibits a constitutive rhythm dependent on environmental photic information. PMID:20205557

Cecon, Erika; Fernandes, Pedro A; Pinato, Luciana; Ferreira, Zulma S; Markus, Regina P

2010-01-01

349

Sex-related differences in the nuclear population of postpubertal rat pineal gland. A quantitative study  

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Male and female parenchymal pineal cell types have been studied throughout postpubertal development to determine the existence of sex-related differences on a time basis. Six age groups (2, 3,4, 8, 15 and 24 months) of eight rats (4 males and 4 females) were used in this study. Nuclei of both parenchymal pineal cell types were counted in 5 areas of 26.377 pm' per pineal gland on semithin sections. Nonparametric statistics of our results (Mann-Whitney U-test and...

Lo?pez Mun?oz, F.; Boya, J.; Calvo, J. L.

1991-01-01

350

The projection of the calcified pineal gland on slightly rotated AP films as a reliable landmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The projection of the pineal gland between the two outer tables of the skull in the AP film has been reconstructed on the basis of the CT print of the head, with and without lateral rotation. In this experimental approach it is proven that rotation up to 50 does not influence the position of the pineal gland on the AP film. The range of the normal position of the pineal in the frontal plane is defined and the normal distribution is given. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MB

351

Effect of low dose radiation on cGMP levels of pineal gland in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The change of cGMP of pineal gland in mice were observed with low dose radiation (LDR). The time-course changes of cGMP were detected by radioimmunoassay after WBI with 75 mGy X rays. It was shown that the levels of cGMP of pineal gland in mice began to decrease and reached its lowest peak at 18 h (p < 0.01) after WBI. And began to increase at 24 h and reached its highest peak at 72 h (p < 0.05). These results indicated that WBI with LDR could reduce to the cGMP levels of pineal gland cells in mice

352

Modulation of Aanat gene transcription in the rat pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main function of the rat pineal gland is to transform the circadian rhythm generated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus into a rhythmic signal of circulating melatonin characterized by a large nocturnal increase that closely reflects the duration of night period. This is achieved through the tight coupling between environmental lighting and the expression of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase, the rhythm-controlling enzyme in melatonin synthesis. The initiation of Aanat transcription at night is controlled largely by the norepinephrine-stimulated phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein by protein kinase A. However, to accurately reflect the duration of darkness, additional signaling mechanisms also participate to fine-tune the temporal profile of adrenergic-induced Aanat transcription. Here, we reviewed some of these signaling mechanisms, with emphasis on the more recent findings. These signaling mechanisms can be divided into two groups: those involving modification of constitutively expressed proteins and those requiring synthesis of new proteins. This review highlights the pineal gland as an excellent model system for studying neurotransmitter-regulated rhythmic gene expression. PMID:19860854

Ho, Anthony K; Chik, Constance L

2010-01-01

353

Tachykinins and tachykinin-receptors in the rat pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-pressure liquid chromatography of extracts of rat pineal glands, followed by radio immunological analysis with antibodies against tachykinins, demonstrated the presence of substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B in the superficial rat pineal gland. Immunohistochemistry on perfusion-fixed rat brain sections showed substance P and neurokinin A to be present in nerve fibers located both in the perivascular spaces as well as intraparenchymally between the pinealocytes. After extracting total RNA, followed by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers specific for NK1-, NK2- and NK3-receptors, agarose gel analysis of the reaction products showed the presence of mRNA encoding all three neurokinin receptors. Immunohistochemical analysis showed NK1 receptor to be located in the interstitial cells of the gland. This location was confirmed by use of in situ hybridization using radioactively labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Double immunohistochemical stainings showed that the NK1-immunoreactive cells were not a part of the macrophages or antigen-presenting cells of the gland. Our study suggests that tachykinins, after release from intrapineal nerve fibers, are involved in an up to now unknown function, different from that of melatonin synthesis.

Mukda, S; Chetsawang, B

2005-01-01

354

Survey on the management of orbital and intraocular tumors among oculofacial surgeons in the Asia-Pacific region.  

Science.gov (United States)

A web-based anonymous survey was performed to assess the common practices of oculofacial surgeons in the management of orbital and intraocular tumors in the Asia-Pacific region. The questionnaire comprised a series of questions covering controversial topics sent via email to 131 oculofacial surgeons across 14 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A total response rate of 61.7 % was achieved from May to December 2012. The most common benign orbital tumor was cavernous hemangioma (39.6 %) and the most common malignant orbital tumor was lymphoma (85.7 %). 40 % of surgeons recommended orbital radiation, for which the most common indications were thyroid eye disease (70.0 %) and malignancy (30.0 %). The most common orbitotomy approach was lateral (79.2 %). Most surgeons (87.1 %) offered enucleation for retinoblastoma, but there was also a significant proportion that offered chemoreduction with transpupillary thermotherapy or cryotherapy (58.1 %). Fewer surgeons offered brachytherapy (16.1 %) and intra-arterial chemotherapy (6.5 %). When performing enucleation for retinoblastoma, 81.8 % of surgeons performed a primary orbital implant placement. The most preferred type of implant was silicone/acrylic (90.2, 90.2 and 87.8 % for elderly, adults and children, respectively). The majority of surgeons used donor sclera (57.5 %) or no wrapping material at all (32.5 %). Almost all surgeons (95.1 %) did not drill and peg the implant for motility. We report the results of the first survey of oculofacial surgeons in the Asia-Pacific region on the management of intraocular and orbital tumors. In comparison with previous surveys performed in the USA and the UK, we found the practice patterns of the Asia-Pacific surgeons to be comparable. PMID:24085354

Wang, Priscilla Xinhui; Koh, Victor Teck Chang; Lun, Katherine; Sundar, Gangadhara

2014-06-01

355

Radiation changes in the regional lymph nodes and their influence o tumor cell migration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments on rabbits have shown that morphological changes in lymph nodes developing during endolymphatic administration of colloidal 198Au bring about a decrease in the retention of tumor cells by lymph nodes. They precipitate mainly in the lymphatic ways with the disordered lymph outflow. The sorption capacity of lymph nodes increases at the expense of the enhanced function of the preserved lymphoid tissue on the 40th and 60th day. Increased penetration of tumor cells into the thoracic duct is observed on the 60th day

356

Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery of brain tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One thousand cases with various head and neck diseases have been treated by gamma radiosurgery at Komaki City Hospital since May 1991. Five hundred and sixty-eight out of 1,000 cases were neoplastic lesions which consisted of 173 cases of neurinoma, 108 of metastatic tumors, 103 of meningioma, 69 of gliomas, 27 of pituitary adenoma, 26 of craniopharyngioma, 13 of pineal tumors, 11 of chordoma, 6 of malignant lymphoma, 5 of hemangioblastoma and so on. The most effective result has been shown in metastatic brain tumors. The complete response (disappearance of the lesion) was obtained in more than 50% of the treated lesions, and the control rate of 85% was maintained for more than 12 months. Next effective results were shown in craniopharyngioma, malignant pineal tumors and malignant lymphoma. There was a group which showed moderate response but no tumor disappearance. Those were pituitary adenoma, acoustic neurinoma, meningioma and chordoma. Gliomas showed less response and even progression of tumor at relatively higher rate. It has been found that malignant gliomas showed difficult control of the tumor and progression rate of 70%, while benign gliomas showed the control rate of more than 90%. Besides intracranial lesions, malignant skull base tumors such as chordoma, naso-pharyngeal cancer, adenoid cystic cancer showed better response to gamma radiosurgery and higher control rate for longer period of time with high QOL compaired to conventional irradiation. (author)

357

Morphological Characteristics and Embryological Development of Pineal Gland and Experimental Grafting Procedures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pineal gland is a major neuroendocrine organ both in human and animals and its principal product is melatonin. It has been implicated in a number of physiological functions (circadian rhytms, sleep, reproduction, and immune system. It is notable that transplantation of the pineal gland into different anatomical locations (the third or fourth cerebral ventricle, hypothalamus, cortical cerebral tissue, and anterior chamber of the eye appears to evoke a degree of functional recovery. The present review focuses upon the morphological characteristics and the embryological development of the pineal gland as well as experimental grafting procedures into some structures in pinealectomized animals. It has been demonstrated that pinealocytes survive transplantation into these sites and exhibit ultrastructural features of active secretion. Recent investigations have shown that the transplanted pineal gland in the anterior chamber of the eye is reinnervated by neurons. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(1.000: 65-76

Mehmet Turgut

2003-02-01

358

Chronic exposure to 60-Hz electric fields: effects on pineal function in the rat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a component of studies to search for effects of 60-Hz electric field exposure on mammalian endocrine function, concentrations of melatonin, 5-methoxytryptophol, and serotonin-N-acetyl transferase activity were measured in the pineal glands of rats exposed or sham-exposed at 65 kV/m for 30 days.In two replicate experiments there were statistically significant differences between exposed and control rats in that the normal nocturnal increase in pineal melatonin content was depressed in the exposed animals. Concentrations of 5-methoxytryptophol were increased in the pineal glands of the exposed groups when compared to sham-exposed controls. An alteration was also observed in serotonin-N-acetyl transferase activity, with lower levels measured in pineal glands from exposed animals.

Wilson, B.W.; Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Philips, R.D.

1980-01-01

359

Effects of low dose irradiation on cAMP levels of pineal gland in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To observe the effects of low dose radiation on cAMP levels of pineal gland. The authors examined the cAMP contents of pineal gland after whole-body irradiation with 50, 75, 100, 200, 500 mGy X-ray on Kunming male mice. The results showed that the cAMP levels of pineal gland after WBI with 50?100 mGy X-ray in mice was higher than sham irradiation mice, especially, 75 mGy group was marked higher than that of sham irradiation group (p<0.001). Whereas, high dose radiation may reduced to the cAMP levels of pineal gland in mice, among 2, 4 Gy groups was lower than that of sham irradiation group

360

Effect of noradrenaline on production of methoxyindoles by rat pineal gland in organ culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report examined the effect of noradrenaline on production of methoxyindoles by the pineal gland in organ culture. Pineal glands were incubated in pairs in 95?l culture medium containing 5-hydroxy [2-14C]tryptamine creatinine sulphate (0,1 mM) and noradrenaline (NA) (0,5-100 ?M). The results indicated that noradrenaline appeared to have a characteristic action on pineal metabolism. An increase in production of both N-acetylserotonin and melatonin by the pineal after noradrenaline treatment was observed. The overall production of methoxyindoles followed a very similar trend to that of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin, which suggests some degree of noradrenergic control over HIOMT levels

 
 
 
 
361

COSMOS 2044. Experiment K-7-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function  

Science.gov (United States)

It is now known that the pineal organ can interact with many endocrine and nonendocrine tissues in a regulatory fashion. Given its key role in the regulation of melatonin synthesis, its high concentration, and that its levels may persist longer than the more rapidly changing melatonin, it was felt that serotonin might give a more accurate assessment of the effects of microgravity on pineal function following recovery of animals from flight. Five-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), a major metabolite of serotonin metabolism, was also measured. One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, pineal calcium content was examined following spaceflight.

Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

1989-01-01

362

The perivascular phagocyte of the mouse pineal gland: An antigen-presenting cell  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The perivascular space of the rat pineal gland is known to contain phagocytic cells that are immunoreactive for leukocyte antigens, and thus they appear to belong to the macrophage/microglial cell line. These cells also contain MHC class II proteins. We investigated this cell type in the pineal gland of mice. Actively phagocytosing cells with a prominent lysosomal system were found in the pericapillary spaces of the mouse pineal gland following intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase. The cells also exhibited strong acid phosphatase activity. Perivascular cells were immunopositive for MHC class II protein and for CD68, a marker of monocytes/phagocytes. This study verifies that perivascular phagocytes with antigen-presenting properties are present in the mouse pineal gland.

MØller, Morten; Rath, Martin F

2006-01-01

363

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Primary, Recurrent, and Metastatic Tumors in the Head-and-Neck Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), also known as radiosurgery, in patients with head-and-neck cancers. Methods and Materials: Patients with pathologically proven malignant lesions in the head-and-neck region were treated using single-dose SBRT (S-SBRT) or fractionated SBRT (F-SBRT). Radiation doses were either single-fraction 13-18 Gy for S-SBRT or 36-48 Gy in five to eight fractions for F-SBRT. Response evaluation was based on clinical examinations and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging scans. Pre- and post-SBRT tumor dimensions were measured in three axes, and tumor volumes were calculated. Response evaluation also was performed using World Health Organization criteria. Results: Fifty-five lesions were treated in 44 patients (25 men, 19 women). There were three groups of patients: those with primary (n = 10), recurrent (n = 21), and metastatic tumors (n = 13). The predominant histologic type was squamous cell carcinoma (n = 33). The majority of lesions were treated using F-SBRT (n = 37). Based on radiographic and clinical assessment, a 77% (complete + partial response) response rate was noted. Percentage of reduction in tumor volume was 52% ± 38% based on follow-up scans in 24 patients. Tumor control rates at 1 year were 83.3% and 60.6% in the primary and recurrent groups, respectively. Median overall survival was 28.7, 6.7, and 5.6 months for the primary, recurrent, and metastatic r the primary, recurrent, and metastatic groups, respectively. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 1-2 mucositis was noted in all patients treated for oropharyngeal or laryngeal lesions. Conclusions: The SBRT in single or fractionated doses offers a viable treatment option for selected patients with primary, recurrent, and metastatic head-and-neck cancers with functional preservation.

364

Cell populations in the pineal gland of the viscacha (Lagostomus maximus). Seasonal variations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pineal samples of the viscacha, which were taken in winter and in summer, were analysed using both light and electron microscopy. The differences found between the two seasons were few in number but significant. The parenchyma showed two main cell populations. Type I cells occupied the largest volume of the pineal and showed the characteristics of typical pinealocytes. Many processes, some of which were filled with vesicles, could be seen in intimate contact wi...

Cernuda-cernuda, R.; Piezzi, R. S.; Domi?nguez, S.; Alvarez-uri?a, M.

2003-01-01

365

Rax: Developmental and Daily Expression Patterns in the Rat Pineal Gland and Retina  

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Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day (E) 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until E20. In both tissues, Rax is e...

Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C.; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F.

2011-01-01

366

Morphological Characteristics and Embryological Development of Pineal Gland and Experimental Grafting Procedures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pineal gland is a major neuroendocrine organ both in human and animals and its principal product is melatonin. It has been implicated in a number of physiological functions (circadian rhytms, sleep, reproduction, and immune system). It is notable that transplantation of the pineal gland into different anatomical locations (the third or fourth cerebral ventricle, hypothalamus, cortical cerebral tissue, and anterior chamber of the eye) appears to evoke a degree of functional recovery. The p...

Mehmet Turgut; Aysegul Uysal; Mine Yurtseven

2003-01-01

367

Circadian and seasonal variations in pineal gland intercellular canaliculi in the white rat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seventy Wistar rats are used to study the changes in pineal intercellular canaliculi over a 21-hour period and for two different photoperiods (pre-autumn, first week of September, and winter, first week of February). The study considers these changes at pineal body, cortical and medullar level separately, and compares the values obtained. The results show variations in canalicular surface at different point times (10:00, 14:00,18:00) and for both photoperiods. ...

Marti?nez Soriano, F.; Cimas Garci?a, C.; Rui?z Torner, A.

1991-01-01

368

Melatonin-like immunoreactivity in the pineal gland of the cow: an immunohistochemical study  

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With a view to checking the presence of melatonin in the pineal gland of the cow, in the present work we used six adult animals, ranging in age from one to six years, which were sacrificed at dawn. Sections of 6 µm thickness of Bouin-fixed and paraffin-embedded pineal glands were incubated in an anti-melatonin serum, which was provided by the Institute for Molecular and Cellular Recognition, Gunma University, Maebshi, Japan. After incubation and successive was...

Carvajal, J. C.; Go?mez Esteban, M. B.; Carbajo, S.; Mun?oz Barragan, L.

2004-01-01

369

Comparative histomorphological study of the pineal gland in human and fowl  

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Objectives: Comparative histological studies of pineal gland of man and fowl has been made to observe structural differences if any between these two species. Background: Some works have been done sporadically on laboratory animals and on birds and also in human correlating with other parameters. In this investigation an approach has been made to observe the cellular organization of the pineal gland parenchyma in these two vertebrates, having different physiological aspects. Methods: Some spe...

Pal, B.; Ghosal, A. K.; Minj, A. P.; Ghosh, R. K.

2013-01-01

370

Ultrastructural changes in the rat pineal gland after sympathetic denervation. Quantitative study  

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Ultrastructural changes in the rat pineal gland were studied quantitatively 7 and 60 days after the sympathetic denervation by bilateral excission or decentralization of superior cervical ganglia. The surface occupied by pineal parenchymal cells decreased in rats of experimental groups with respect to the control group. Furthermore, profile areas of the cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus of the pinealocytes were also diminished. Cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the ...

Calvo, J. L.; Boya, J.; Garci?a-maurin?o, J. E.

1990-01-01

371

Macro-microscopical aspects of the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus, 1758) pineal gland  

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Gross and microscopical aspects of the buffalo pineal gland were described in seasonal parturition animals, since this gland is responsible for melatonin secretion which acts upon the hypothalamus-hypophysis reproductive axis feedback system. (Hafez, 1995). For the present study, 11 cross-bred buffaloes, predominantly of the Mediterranean breed, from the Pirassununga Campus - USP (University of São Paulo), were killed in different photoperiods in the slaughterhouse. The pineal glands were ob...

Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez; Celina Almeida Furlanetto Mançanares; Maria Angélica Miglino; Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio; Ana Flávia de Carvalho

2009-01-01

372

Circadian and seasonal changes of synaptic bodies in different parts of the rabbit pineal gland  

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In the mammalian pineal gland, synaptic bodies (SBs) are poorly understood organelles. Previous studies in rabbits have shown that the organelles are rather heterogeneous in shape, are few in number during the day and increase in number at night. No studies are currently available on seasonal changes in this species and it is unknown whether the biological rhythms are identical in the proximal, intermediate and distal parts of the elongated pineal. To this end,...

Marti?nez Soriano, F.; Hernandez-gil Tejadal, T.; Lopez Bigorra, M.; Ballester Carmona, S.; Vollrath, L.

1999-01-01

373

Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library  

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The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences d...

Ed Smith; Chong, Nelson W.; Tuoyu Geng; Jessica Wynn; Stefanie Hartman; Greg Touchton

2005-01-01

374

Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Changes Related To Methylphenidate In Rat Pituitary and Pineal Glands  

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Objective: The presence of a dopaminergic function in pituitary and pineal glands is well known. Methylphenidate (MPH), a widely prescribed psychostimulant for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, is an indirect dopamine agonist which could have the capacity of influencing the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system with the pineal gland. Our aim is to investigate dose-dependent immunohistochemical dopamine 2 expression, possible cell apoptosis and ultrastructural changes of the rat pituitar...

Elmas, C?ig?dem; Bahceliog?lu, Meltem; Erdog?an, Deniz; Go?zi?l, Rabet; Take, Gu?lnur; C?algu?ner, Engin; S?ener, Dila

2012-01-01

375

On the participation of the pineal gland in the response of rat testes to ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was aimed to determine influence of pineal stimulation by light restriction on the response of rat testes to single, locally administered exposure dose of 7.79x10-2 C/kg of X-rays. Different arrangements of light-dark cycles before and after irradiation were used. It was found that stimulation of the pineal by light deprivation before and after irradiation may be accelerated by displacing the animals after irradiation to normal conditions. (author)

376

Circadian rhythm of pineal uptake of 32P in domestic fowl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of radioactive phosphorus by the pineal gland in White Leghorn cockerels (Gallus domesticus) showed a diurnal variation with maxima in the light phase and minima in the dark phase of the light: dark cycle. Constant light caused the rhythm to disappear while constant dark had no effect other than lowering the amplitude of the variations. These data indicate that the rhythm in pineal uptake of 32P is circadian. (author)

377

Rhodopsin Kinase Activity in the Mammalian Pineal Gland and Other Tissues  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhodopsin kinase, an enzyme involved in photochemical transduction in the retina, has been found in the mammalian pineal gland in amounts equal to those in the retina; other tissues had 7 percent of this amount, or less. This finding suggests that, in mammals, rhodopsin kinase functions in the pineal gland and other tissues to phosphorylate rhodopsin-like integral membrane receptors and is thereby involved in signal transduction.

Somers, Robert L.; Klein, David C.

1984-10-01

378

Homeobox genes and melatonin synthesis: regulatory roles of the cone-rod homeobox transcription factor in the rodent pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a cAMP-based induction of Aanat transcription. However, additional transcriptional control mechanisms exist. Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processes, are also expressed in the mature rodent pineal gland. Among these, the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor is believed to control pineal-specific Aanat expression. Based on recent advances in our understanding of Crx in the rodent pineal gland, we here suggest that homeobox genes play a role in adult pineal physiology both by ensuring pineal-specific Aanat expression and by facilitating cAMP response element-based circadian melatonin production. PMID:24877149

Rohde, Kristian; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin Fredensborg

2014-01-01

379

Homeobox genes and melatonin synthesis : regulatory roles of the cone-rod homeobox transcription factor in the rodent pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a cAMP-based induction of Aanat transcription. However, additional transcriptional control mechanisms exist. Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processes, are also expressed in the mature rodent pineal gland. Among these, the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor is believed to control pineal-specific Aanat expression. Based on recent advances in our understanding of Crx in the rodent pineal gland, we here suggest that homeobox genes play a role in adult pineal physiology both by ensuring pineal-specific Aanat expression and by facilitating cAMP response element-based circadian melatonin production.

Rohde, Kristian; MØller, Morten

2014-01-01

380

Involvement of the pineal body in the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test.  

Science.gov (United States)

As an interesting exception to the general clinical application of the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT), the test could not be performed successfully in diagnosing a patient who suffered from cancer of the pineal body. The following examinations were attempted using the BDORT: 1) The thymus representation area, 2) the distal forearm during compression of th