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1

Pathology of pineal region tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various histological types of tumors arise in the pineal region. The most common tumors are pineal parenchymal tumors and germ cell tumors. Pineal parenchymal tumors are divided into pineocytoma, pineal parenchymal tumor with intermediate differentiation and pineoblastoma. Pineocytomas are well-differentiated tumors and retain the morphological and immunohistochemical features of pineal parenchymal cells. Lobular architectures and pineocytomatous rosettes are also typical features. In contrast, pineoblastomas are embryonal tumors resembling primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET). However, pineoblastomas are distinct from PNET in other sites due to their exhibiting photosensory differentiation including Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes and fleurettes. Although pineal cysts are tumor-like lesions, and not true neoplasms, they are occasionally difficult to distinguish from pineocytoma and astrocytoma. From the therapeutic aspect, a precise differential diagnosis is critical. The pineal region is the most common site of the brain in which germ cell tumors occur. Germinoma, teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor and choriocarcinoma are encountered, and the latter three types of tumors usually constitute elements of mixed germ cell tumors. The morphological and immunohistochemical features of intracranial germ cell tumors are very similar to those of gonadal germ cell tumors, although there are some differences in germinoma. Pineal germinoma may exhibit carcinomatous differentiation. Other types of tumors are occasionally observed, including fibrillary and pilocytic astrocytoma, glioblastoma, ependymoma, melanoma, meningioma and so on. Metastatic pineal tumors are also rare. The most common site of origin for pineal metastasis is the lung. PMID:11767290

Hirato, J; Nakazato, Y

2001-09-01

2

Pineal region tumors--neurosurgical review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment for the pineal region tumors depends on tumor histology. Nowadays, germinomas can be cured by radiotherapy and chemotherapy without surgical resection but the other pineal region tumors should be primary treated by surgery. Two microsurgical approaches, the infratentorial supracerebellar and the occipital transtentorial, are accepted as the main standard accesses to the pineal region. For benign pineal tumors (pineocytoma, meningioma, mature teratomas, symptomatic pineal cysts, etc.) radical surgical resection can be curative. For malignant tumors radical surgical resection is not an objective. Serum and CSF markers contribute to the diagnosis of pineal parenchymal tumors. b-HCG is mainly positive in choriocarcinomas, embryonal carcinomas and mixed germ cell tumors and AFP is expressed by yolk sac tumors, embryonic carcinomas, immature teratomas and mixed germ cell tumors, b-HCG is usually low in germinomas which are often positive for PLAP on immunohistochemistry. Fifty-one pineal region tumors were surgically treated by senior author (NdT). Only 17 of them were the neoplasms originating from pineal body (pineal tumors). In conclusion it can be stressed that management of pineal tumors requires a multidisciplinary cooperation. With the exception of germinoma where only a biopsy is needed, the role of the surgeons still remains prominent as resection of pineal tumors requires high technical skill and experience as well as precise clinical judgment. PMID:20088167

Radovanovic, Ivan; Dizdarevic, Kemal; de Tribolet, Nicolas; Masic, Tarik; Muminagic, Sahib

2009-01-01

3

Histopathology of tumors of the pineal region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal region tumors are heterogeneous lesions and include mainly pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPRs) and germ cell tumors (GCTs). This article describes the cystic pineal gland compared with normal tissue and histopathological features of the most frequent pineal region tumors. PPTs are subdivided into pineocytoma (grade I), pineoblastoma (grade IV) and tumors with intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs; grades II-III). A grading system based on the number of mitoses and neurofilament protein expression distinguishes low- from high-grade PPTID. PTPR is a new tumoral entity thought to originate from the subcommissural organ. GCTs include germinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, yolk sac tumor and choriocarcinoma and are often of mixed histologic composition. New histogenetic data for GCTs are presented. PMID:20465391

Fèvre-Montange, Michelle; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Champier, Jacques; Jouvet, Anne

2010-05-01

4

Endoscopic surgery for pineal region tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endoscopic surgery may play an important role in most patients with pineal region tumors. We report our experience with 5 patients treated by a burr hole endoscopic technique. The procedure included in all cases third ventriculostomy for the correction of hydrocephalus, CSF sample for cytology and tumor markers, and tumor biopsy for histological diagnosis. Endoscopic biopsies showed a pineocytoma in two cases, a germinoma in 2 and a low-grade astrocytoma in one. We agree that endoscopic surgery may allow us to select cases requiring a microsurgical approach (medium-sized or large non-germ-cell tumors) from cases to be treated only by irradiation and chemotherapy (germinomas and other non-germ-cell tumors). Then, in some patients with pineal region tumors the endoscopic procedure remains the only surgical treatment. When a direct microsurgical approach is indicated, it may be performed in a non-emergency situation and after correction of the hydrocephalus by endoscopic third ventriculostomy. PMID:11487787

Gangemi, M; Maiuri, F; Colella, G; Buonamassa, S

2001-06-01

5

Tumors of the pineal region: radiological findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To consider the different radiological findings that, together with age, sex, clinical picture and serum markers, indicate a presumed or even definitive diagnosis in tumors of the pineal region. We reviewed retrospectively 18 patients diagnosed as having pineal region tumors. The lesions in this series consisted of seven germinoma, three meningiomas, one pineoblastoma. two ependymomas, one teratoma, two glial cysts, and arachnoid cyst and a lipoma. All but the arachnoid cysts and the lipoma were confirmed histologically. We took into account mainly the epidemiological data, tumor markers and CT and MR features. The germinoma was the most common lesions, representing 38.8% of the tumors in our series. All developed in men (mean age: 21 years). Small non tumoral calcifications were present in pineal gland in six of these cases. This tumor usually invades adjacent structures and produces metastatic seeding in CSF. The pineoblastoma contained prominent tumor calcifications. Meningiomas were detected only in middle-aged women. In addition to the fact that the behavior of these lesions was typical of that meningiomas in other locations, meningeal enhancement in the vicinity of the extraaxial tumor aided in the diagnosis. The teratoma showed variable attenuation, ranging from a fatty substance to calcium, and elevated fetoprotein levels. The glial cyst is a cyst lesion that does not be-have exactly like the CSF, while the arachnoid cyst was isointense with respect to the CSF in all sequences. Enhancement was observed in the glial cysts, one peripheral and the other nodular. The assessment of age, sex, clinical picture and tumor markers, together with the features observed in CT an MR images are suggestive of the histological diagnosis of pineal region tumors. We recommend the use of CT because of its availability and its ability detect calcifications, thus indicating a specific histological type, and of MR because of its greater anatomical definition and its, ability to determine the degree of tumor extension or invasion. (Author) 19 refs

1997-01-01

6

Transcallosal approach to pineal tumors and the hospital for sick children series of pineal region tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Direct surgery on a pineal region mass can be carried out safely and is justified in that the pineal region harbors many benin tumors which would not benefit from radiotherapy. Furthermore, this region contains some highly malignant tumors that need more than just local radiotherapy. In order to discern between these various groups of tumors, histologic proof of the nature of the entire tumor is necessary. The author has found the posterior transcallosal approach to the pineal region a safe and satisfactory approach to tumors in this region and also found this approach particularly advantageous when the tumor extends upwards and forwards into the third ventricle. Direct surgery on pineal tumors can now be carried out confidently and safely and in many cases, radical if not total removal of the neoplasm can be achieved

1984-01-01

7

MR imaging in tumors of the pineal region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten patients with tumors of the pineal region underwent CT and MRI investigations. There were 3 germinomas, 3 teratomas and 1 of each of the following: Pineocytoma, PNET, ependymoma and meningioma. Not only were tumor size and growth compared to CT, but an attempt was made to obtain knowledge of the histology of the tumor by special T/sub 2/ calculations. The investigations did not lead to an improvement in type specific diagnosis.

Mueller-Forell, W.; Schroth, G.; Egan, P.J.

1988-06-01

8

MR imaging in tumors of the pineal region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten patients with tumors of the pineal region underwent CT and MRI investigations. There were 3 germinomas, 3 teratomas and 1 of each of the following: Pineocytoma, PNET, ependymoma and meningioma. Not only were tumor size and growth compared to CT, but an attempt was made to obtain knowledge of the histology of the tumor by special T2 calculations. The investigations did not lead to an improvement in type specific diagnosis. (orig.)

1988-01-01

9

Pathology of pineal parenchymal tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumors of the pineal region can arise from multiple cellular origins and thus represent a very heterogeneous group of pathologies. Such tumors include pineal parenchymal tumors, germ cell tumors, astrocytomas, ependymomas, and papillary pineal tumors. Within the subgroup of pineal parenchymal tumors, there is a histopathologic spectrum ranging from pineocytoma to pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation to pineoblastoma. The current World Health Organization classification and the pathologic features of each of the pineal parenchymal tumor subtypes are reviewed in this article. PMID:21801981

Han, Seunggu J; Clark, Aaron J; Ivan, Michael E; Parsa, Andrew T; Perry, Arie

2011-07-01

10

Epidemiology of germ cell tumors in Asia of pineal region tumor.  

Science.gov (United States)

A higher incidence of pineal region tumors in Asian countries compared to Western countries has been reported. In the Brain Tumor Registry of Japan (BTRJ), there were 38,273 primary brain tumors except those of unknown histology (1123 cases) registered in the period between 1984 and 1993, in which 807 pineal region tumors with 104 unknown histology were registered in BTRJ. Of these pineal region tumors, germ cell tumors had the highest frequency, 70.3%, followed by pineal parenchymal tumors, 12.0%; pineocytoma in 7.8% and pineoblastoma in 4.2%. Limited to germ cell tumors, germinoma was 68.0%, then teratoma including malignant teratoma, had the second high frequency, 14.7% in pineal region. While data reported by Allaire et al. and Edwards et al. revealed that the incidence of germinoma was 88.6%, 52.4% of germ cell tumors in pineal region in France and in USA, respectively. Although number of cases is very small, it is suggested that the percentage of germinoma in germ cell tumors in the pineal region might be almost the same in Western countries as in Asian countries, and the occurrence of germ cell tumors in the pineal region was much higher than those in Asia. Age and gender distribution of pineal region tumors indicated that germ cell tumors and pineocytoma showed a high incidence in males and in children. Most of malignant pineal region tumors other than germinomas showed poor prognosis, but recent progress in surgical techniques and effective chemotherapy will improve the prognosis. PMID:11767288

Nomura, K

2001-09-01

11

Diagnostic radiation and its prognosis of pineal region tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

20 Gy of local irradiation was performed for the patients with pineal region tumor. We evaluated the tumor volume on X-CT in the pre-radiation and 20 Gy of post-radiation state. If tumor is sensitive enough to radiation therapy, we add 40 Gy of whole brain and 30 to 40 Gy of whole spine irradiation. If not, we transfer patients to neurosurgeons for the purpose of tumor ressection. We call this procedure ''Diagnostic Radiation.'' We proposed the concept of TRR (Tumor Regression Ratio) in order to evaluate our protocol more objctively. TRR is as follows: TRR (%) = [1-Total Tumor Volume (at each dose) / Total Tumor Volume (at o Gy)] x 100 (%) Total Tumor Volume(mm3) = slice thickness(mm) x siguma HDA (mm2) on each slice: where HDA is high density area on enhanced CT. Eleven patients were studied and TRR of each patients was calculated. The relations between TRR, tumor markers, CSF seeding and prognoiss was discussed. From our study, (1) TRR at 20Gy was important and might predict approximate prognosis of each cae case. A) TRR = 100 ? very good B) TRR < 20 ? poor C) 20 <= TRR < 100 ? high possibility (2) Majority of TRR < 100 cases have turned out to be histologically in teratoma category. (3) Good correlation between the level of tumor markers and prognosis was observed. Cases with elevated level of AFP and/or HCG were radio- resistant and had poor prognosis. (4) Distant metastasis must also be kept in mind in the treatment of pineal region tumor. (author)

1984-01-01

12

Lung carcinoma metastasis presenting as a pineal region tumor / Metástasis del carcinoma de pulmón que se presenta como tumor de la región pineal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish La región pineal es un sitio inusual para el depósito de metástasis y la mayoría de las metástasis pineales son asintomáticas. Un hombre de 53 años debutó con una cefalea intensa, limitación en la supraversión y diplopia. La exploración neurológica fue irrelevante. La resonancia magnética (RM) cereb [...] ral demostró una lesión solitaria de 1,5 x 2 cm bien delimitada, en la región pineal con hidrocefalia. Fue intervenido quirúrgicamente siendo el diagnóstico anatomopatológico de adenocarcinoma. Un estudio sistémico descubrió un adenocarcinoma de pulmón como tumor primario. Aunque muy raramente, las metástasis deben considerarse en el diagnóstico diferencial de tumores de la región pineal. Abstract in english The pineal region is an unusual site for brain metastasis and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. A 53 year-old man presented with severe headache, limitation of upward gaze and diplopia. The patient's neurological examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of [...] the brain demonstrated a 1,5 x 2 cm well demarcated solitary mass in the pineal region with hydrocephalus. Surgery was performed and adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. A systemic investigation revealed adenocarcinoma of the lung as primary lesion. Although rare, metastatic tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors.

Y., Samanci; C., Iplikcioglu; E., Ozek; D., Ozcan; B., Marangozoglu.

13

Radiotherapy of Pineal and Ectopic Pineal Tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From December 1984 to February 1990, 16 patients with tumors of pineal and suprasellar location were treated with radiation therapy. Tissue diagnoses were obtained before radiation therapy in 5 patients and 11 were irradiated without histologic confirmation. Initial treatments for these patients were craniospinal plus boost primary irradiation(six), whole brain plus boost primary irradiation(nine), primary tumor site irradiation(one). The 5 year actuarial survival rate is 71%. Three cases with elevated beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) responded favorably to radiation, but pineal tumors with elevated alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) did not respond well. Spinal metastasis developed in 2 cases (2/15) with elevated AFP : one received prophylactic spinal irradiation, another did not. Our studies suggest that more aggressive treatment would be necessary in patient with elevated AFP and in this patient, radiation therapy may be initiate without pathologic confirmation. From the result of our study, routine use of prophylactic spinal irradiation for all patients with pineal region tumor is not indicated and use of prophylactic spinal irradiation is considered for the patients with positive craniospinal fluid cytology, meningeal seeding, disease extension along the ventricular wall and biopsy proven germinoma.

Cho, Heung Lae; Sohn, Seung Chang [Pusan Paik Hospital Inje University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

1991-12-15

14

Successful treatment of neoadjuvant therapy for papillary tumor of the pineal region.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a boy who in 1994, at the age of 11, presented with headache and vomiting. The fi nal diagnosis was papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a heterogeneous mass. Hydrocephalus was addressed by immediate ventricle drainage; subsequently, we attempted tumor removal. As the intraoperative diagnosis of the hemorrhagic tumor was primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), we did not proceed to total removal. After the delivery of radiotherapy (50.4 Gy) and one course of Nimustine hydrochloride (ACNU) chemotherapy, the residual tumor was completely resected. The diagnosis at that time (1994) was papillary pineocytoma. He was followed on an outpatient basis for 15 years and remained free of recurrence. This type of tumor was later proposed to represent a new distinct tumor subtype, papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR). Our data indicate that our patient's tumor should be included in this category. PMID:19856218

Nakamura, Hideo; Makino, Keishi; Kochi, Masato; Nakazato, Yoichi; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

2009-01-01

15

Lung carcinoma metastasis presenting as a pineal region tumor Metástasis del carcinoma de pulmón que se presenta como tumor de la región pineal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pineal region is an unusual site for brain metastasis and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. A 53 year-old man presented with severe headache, limitation of upward gaze and diplopia. The patient's neurological examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain demonstrated a 1,5 x 2 cm well demarcated solitary mass in the pineal region with hydrocephalus. Surgery was performed and adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. A systemic investigation revealed ...

Samanci, Y.; Iplikcioglu, C.; Ozek, E.; Ozcan, D.; Marangozoglu, B.

2011-01-01

16

Advanced magnetic resonance imaging with histopathological correlation in papillary tumor of pineal region: Report of a case and review of literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Papillary tumors of the pineal region are recently described as rare mass lesions with limited literature available on their natural history and imaging features. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including perfusion, diffusion, and spectroscopic features were described in an 18-year-old girl with papillary tumor of pineal region. A well-defined, T1 hyperintense and contrast-enhancing mass lesion was noted in pineal region with few cystic spaces within. Solid portion of lesion showed minimal d...

Vaghela V; Radhakrishnan N; Radhakrishnan V; Menon G; Kesavadas C; Thomas B

2010-01-01

17

Neuroendoscopic management of posterior third ventricle and pineal region tumors: technique, limitation, and possible complication avoidance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endoscopic approach has gained an increased popularity in recent years for the biopsy and, in selected cases, the removal of tumors of the posterior third ventricle and pineal region. The authors report their experience on a series of 20 patients discussing also the technical limitations and complication avoidance. This is a prospective study of 20 patients with posterior third ventricle and pineal region tumors surgically managed by endoscopic biopsy and/or excision and simultaneous third ventriculostomy. The removal of the lesion could be achieved in 12 cases whereas in 8, only a biopsy could be performed. A histological diagnosis could be obtained in all cases. No delayed third ventricular stoma failures were recorded in any patient at the latest follow-up (mean follow-up, 39 months). Severe postoperative complications were recorded in 2 out of 12 cases of tumor removal attempt and in zero out of eight cases of biopsy. A delayed (3 weeks) postoperative mortality occurred in a patient harboring a GBM that developed an intratumoral hematoma 48 h postoperatively, one patient was in a vegetative state. Transient postoperative complications included: nausea and vomiting (five cases) and diplopia (two cases). One patient developed a bilateral ophthalmoplegia that recovered within 6 months due to residual tumor hemorrhage. Higher rate of complications was found in the case of vascularized and/or larger lesions. Endoscopic management of posterior third ventricle lesions may represent an effective option. However, though biopsies remain often a safe procedure, tumor excision should be limited to highly selected cases (cystic, poorly vascularized, and/or smaller than 2.5-cm lesions). PMID:22258494

Chibbaro, S; Di Rocco, F; Makiese, O; Reiss, A; Poczos, P; Mirone, G; Servadei, F; George, B; Crafa, P; Polivka, M; Romano, A

2012-07-01

18

Mixed germ cell tumor presenting as intratumoral hemorrhage: report of a case originated from the pineal region.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 17-year-old male patient was brought to our clinic because of sudden onset of headache, vomiting, followed by transient loss of consciousness during a strenuous exercise. Neurologic examinations revealed that the patient had severe sensorimotor and brain stem dysfunction. Examinations of cranial CT and MR imaging showed a huge heterogeneously enhanced tumor originated from the pineal region with tumoral hemorrhage. The tumor markers were found to be high in AFP but not the beta-HCG and CEA. A clinical diagnosis highly suggestive of germ cell tumor was made. Prior to the planned emergency radiation therapy, he received an external ventricular drainage (EVD) and open biopsy of the tumor. Due to a postoperative complication of cerebellar hemorrhage observed 8 hours later, another maneuver was therefore required to extirpate the pineal tumor and cerebellar hematoma. The histological diagnosis proved to be a mixed germ cell tumor with tumoral hemorrhage. Spontaneous intratumoral hemorrhage in germ cell tumor of the pineal region is rare, probably due to compromised venous circulation within the tumor. The bleeding propensity, which may contribute to the formation of cerebellar hematoma, warrants a special attention when a biopsy procedure is to be performed. PMID:10518367

Hung, Y C; Lee, E J; Wang, L C; Chen, H H; Yan, J J; Yu, C Y

1999-08-01

19

Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

Wang, Peng [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu (China); Mao, Qing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Liu, Yan-Hui, E-mail: liuyanhui9@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

2014-03-01

20

Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Papillary tumor of the pineal region: two case studies and a review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a newly recognized distinct entity in the 2007 World Health Organization nomenclature. This tumor is characterized by epithelial-appearing areas with papillary features and more densely cellular areas that often display ependymal-like differentiation. Ultrastructurally, this rare neuroepithelial tumor possesses neuroendocrine, secretory, and ependymal organelles that likely originate from the subcommissural organ (SCO) near the aqueduct of Sylvius. To date, approximately fifty-seven described cases worldwide have been recognized, with ages ranging from 5 years to 66 years (mean age=32 years). Clinical presentation most often includes headache and obstructive hydrocephalus. The tumor, which is well circumscribed, may be cystic and radiographically is often considered to be consistent with the findings of a pineocytoma. Microscopic evaluation often demonstrates a lesion with papillary areas lined by epithelioid tumor cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and more cellular areas with cells exhibiting clear or vacuolated cytoplasm. Perivascular and true rosettes may be identified. Distinctive immunohistochemical features including reactivity for keratins (AE1/AE3, CAM 5.2, CK18) and only focal GFAP staining help distinguish this neoplasm from an ependymoma. The relative paucity of data compiled for this tumor makes giving an accurate diagnosis and prognosis a daunting task. We discuss two additional cases of PTPR that presented to us within a three-month span in order to more fully elucidate the possible presentations of this rare entity. Furthermore, we examine now 59 reported cases of PTPR in order to review the current diagnostic and treatment modalities in addition to exploring emerging research encompassing this unusual neoplasm. PMID:21844577

Rickard, Kyle A; Parker, John R; Vitaz, Todd W; Plaga, Alexis R; Wagner, Stephanie; Parker, Joseph C

2011-01-01

22

Stereotactic radiosurgery for pineal and related tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiosurgery is increasingly being used to treat pineal region tumors, either as an additional therapy after conventional treatments or as a primary treatment. We report our experience with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of pineal and related tumors. Forty-nine patients underwent GKRS for pineal and related tumors (n = 74) between February 1992 and September 2007. The diagnosis was germ cell tumors (GCTs) in 38 patients (53 tumors), pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) in 9 (19 tumors), and unknown in 2 (2 tumors). The mean treatment volume was 3.3 ml (range 0.1-22 ml) in GCT cases and 3.7 ml (range 0.3-23 ml) in PPT cases. Prescribed doses around 50% isodose line ranged from 9.9 to 25.7 Gy. One patient (one tumor) with pineocytoma was lost to follow-up. Median clinical and imaging follow-up in the remaining 48 cases was 33.5 months (range, 3-192 months). Survival rates at 5 years and 10 years after GKRS in GCT cases (n = 38) were both 68%. They were 100 and 67%, respectively, in PPT cases (n = 8). We evaluated the treatment results with categorization of GCT cases into 2 groups, i.e. germinoma (group 1), and germinoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell and malignant GCT (group 2). PPT cases were also divided into 2 groups, i.e. pineocytoma (group 3) and pineoblastoma and mixed pineocytoma/pineoblastoma (group 4). Local tumor control (LTC) rates at 3 and 5 years were 82% in group 1 (n = 18), 72 and 62% in group 2 (n = 35), and 85% in group 3 (n = 13). LTC rate at 2 years was 30% in group 4 (n = 5). In group 1 (n = 16), progression-free survival (PFS) rates at 3 and 5 years were 79 and 63%. They were 43 and 37% in group 2 (n = 22), and 80% in group 3 (n = 5). PFS rate at 2 years was 33% in group 4 (n = 3). Germinoma and pineocytoma showed higher LTC and PFS rates after GKRS, though pineoblastoma was liable to relapse. Intermediate prognosis was obtained in germinoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell and malignant GCT. GKRS is expected to be an effective and safe adjuvant treatment approach to pineal and related tumors. PMID:19329865

Mori, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Toshinori; Yoshida, Kouta; Kida, Yoshihisa

2009-01-01

23

Comparative genomic hybridization in pineal parenchymal tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine pineal parenchymal tumors were studied by comparative genomic hybridization. These consisted of three pineocytomas (WHO grade II), three pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (WHO grade III), and three pineoblastomas (WHO grade IV). An average of 0 chromosomal changes per pineocytoma, 5.3 per pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation (3.3 gains vs. 2.0 losses), and 5.6 per pineoblastoma (2.3 gains vs. 3.3 losses) were found. The most frequent DNA copy number changes among pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation and pineoblastomas were gains of 12q (3/6 cases), 4q, 5p, and 5q (2/6 cases each), as well as losses of 22 (4/6 cases), 9q, and 16q (2/6 cases each). Among pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation, the most common chromosomal imbalances were +4q, +12q, and -22 (2/3 cases each), and in pineoblastomas -22 (2/3 cases). Five high level gains were identified, all of them in pineoblastomas; these were found on 1q12-qter, 5p13.2-14, 5q21-qter, 6p12-pter, and 14q21-qter. Clinically, all patients with pineocytomas and pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation were alive after a mean observation time of 142 and 55 months, respectively, whereas all patients with pineoblastomas had died after an average of 17 months. Our findings suggest that pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation are cytogenetically more similar to pineoblastomas and prognostically more similar to pineocytomas. Furthermore, imbalances in higher-grade pineal parenchymal tumors mainly affect gains of 12q and losses of chromosome 22. PMID:11107183

Rickert, C H; Simon, R; Bergmann, M; Dockhorn-Dworniczak, B; Paulus, W

2001-01-01

24

Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report / Glioblastoma multiforme de região pineal: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Os tumores da região pineal são incomuns e podem ser divididos em três categorias de acordo com a sua origem: células germinativas, células do parênquima e células gliais. Em sua maioria, os gliomas de pineal são astrocitomas de baixo grau, sendo que o seu correspondente maligno, glioblast [...] oma multiforme, é o mais comum e agressivo tumor encefálico e é extremamente raro nesta localização, com apenas alguns casos relatados na literatura. CASO: Mulher com 29 anos apresentando há 2 meses cefaléia, nucalgia, febre, náuseas e crises convulsivas. O exame físico mostrou rigidez de nuca, hipotonia, hipotrofia e hiperreflexia generalizadas, sinal de Babinski e paralisia do VI nervo craniano. A tomografia computadorizada revelou lesão hipodensa mal delimitada na topografia de pineal, com captação heterogênea de contraste. A ressonância magnética demonstrou lesão na região pineal com infiltração de tálamo à direita. A paciente foi submetida a craniotomia direita com ressecção parcial do tumor. O exame histológico definiu o diagnóstico de glioblastoma multiforme. No pós-operatório foi indicada radioterapia, mas a paciente recusou o tratamento e morreu dois meses depois. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de raro nesta topografia, os glioblastomas multiformes devem ser considerados no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões agressivas localizadas na glândula pineal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only f [...] ew cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized hypotony, hypotrophy and hyper-reflexia, Babinski sign and left VI cranial par palsy. CT scan examination revealed a ill-defined hypodense lesion at the pineal region with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. MRI showed a lesion at the pineal region infiltrating the right thalamic region. The patient underwent a right craniotomy with partial resection of the mass. The histological examination of paraffin-embedded material defined the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. Post-operative radiotherapy was indicated but the patient refused the treatment and died two months afterwards. CONCLUSION: in spite of its rarity at this location, glioblastoma multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aggressive lesions at the pineal region.

Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Warszawiak, Danny; Adam, Guilherme Pradi; Bleggi-Torres, Luiz Fernando; Carvalho Neto, Arnolfo de.

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Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report Glioblastoma multiforme de região pineal: relato de caso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only few cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized hypotony, hypotrophy and hyper-reflexia, Babinski sign and left VI cranial par palsy. CT scan examination revealed a ill-defined hypodense lesion at the pineal region with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. MRI showed a lesion at the pineal region infiltrating the right thalamic region. The patient underwent a right craniotomy with partial resection of the mass. The histological examination of paraffin-embedded material defined the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. Post-operative radiotherapy was indicated but the patient refused the treatment and died two months afterwards. CONCLUSION: in spite of its rarity at this location, glioblastoma multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aggressive lesions at the pineal region.OBJETIVO: Os tumores da região pineal são incomuns e podem ser divididos em três categorias de acordo com a sua origem: células germinativas, células do parênquima e células gliais. Em sua maioria, os gliomas de pineal são astrocitomas de baixo grau, sendo que o seu correspondente maligno, glioblastoma multiforme, é o mais comum e agressivo tumor encefálico e é extremamente raro nesta localização, com apenas alguns casos relatados na literatura. CASO: Mulher com 29 anos apresentando há 2 meses cefaléia, nucalgia, febre, náuseas e crises convulsivas. O exame físico mostrou rigidez de nuca, hipotonia, hipotrofia e hiperreflexia generalizadas, sinal de Babinski e paralisia do VI nervo craniano. A tomografia computadorizada revelou lesão hipodensa mal delimitada na topografia de pineal, com captação heterogênea de contraste. A ressonância magnética demonstrou lesão na região pineal com infiltração de tálamo à direita. A paciente foi submetida a craniotomia direita com ressecção parcial do tumor. O exame histológico definiu o diagnóstico de glioblastoma multiforme. No pós-operatório foi indicada radioterapia, mas a paciente recusou o tratamento e morreu dois meses depois. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de raro nesta topografia, os glioblastomas multiformes devem ser considerados no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões agressivas localizadas na glândula pineal.

Emerson Leandro Gasparetto

2003-06-01

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Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology / Cirurgia com gamma knife como tratamento experimental para tumores da região da pineal: uma estratégia alternativa quando os dados anatomopatológicos são negativos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Tumores da região da pineal (TRP) são pouco frequentes e as propostas de tratamento são bastante variadas. Os autores relatam sua experiência em cirurgias com uso gamma knife (CGK) como tratamento experimental inicial em séries de TRP que não têm diagnóstico anatomopatológico ou nos quais o diagnóst [...] ico não ficou claro. Foram estudados retrospectivamente 17 pacientes com TRP nestas condições e que foram submetidos a CGK. Destes, 9 pacientes foram submetidos posteriormente a radioterapia de todo o encéfalo e medula espinhal entre 6 e 9 meses depois da CGK. Dezesseis dos 17 pacientes foram acompanhados por um período médio de 33,3 meses. A taxa total de resposta nos pacientes foi de 75% e a taxa dos controles, 81,3%. Não houve nenhum déficit neurológico evidente que pudesse ser atribuído à CGK. A CGK como tratamento experimental pode ser uma estratégia alternativa no grupo específico de pacientes com TRP em que não há diagnóstico anatomopatológico, podendo ser obtida uma boa qualidade de vida com poucas complicações para esse grupo de pacientes. Abstract in english Objective : Pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method : Seventeen PRT patients with negative [...] pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6–9 months after GKS. Results : Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion : The findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications.

Peng, Wang; Qing, Mao; Wei, Wang; Liang-Xue, Zhou; Yan-Hui, Liu.

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From the archives of the AFIP: lesions of the pineal region: radiologic-pathologic correlation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lesions of the pineal region include a diverse group of entities. The most common neoplastic lesions are the germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors may be hormonally active, and evaluation of serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels of oncoproteins assists in making the diagnosis. Neoplasms arising from the pineal parenchyma include the low-grade pineocytoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, and the highly malignant pineoblastoma. Germ cell tumors and pineal parenchymal neoplasms do not have pathognomonic imaging findings, but imaging in combination with laboratory evaluation helps narrow the differential diagnosis. Neoplasms may also arise from the variety of cell types residing in the proximity of the pineal gland. These include lipomas, meningiomas, and astrocytomas. Congenital lesions such as epidermoid and dermoid cysts and lipomas can also occur. Knowledge of the variety of lesions that occur in the pineal region, their imaging appearances, and their clinical features assists in narrowing the radiologic differential diagnosis and optimizing patient treatment. PMID:21057132

Smith, Alice Boyd; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Smirniotopoulos, James G

2010-11-01

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Conservative management of pineal tumors - Mayo clinic experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The typical pineal tumor occurs in an adolescent boy with subacute increased intracranial pressure and Parinaud's syndrome. Diagnosis is confirmed by CT scanning, and long-term survival usually following shunting and radiation therapy. Direct surgical methods for successful treatment of suitable pineal tumors have evolved and may be utilized with relatively low risk in appropriate cases

1984-01-01

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[Benign glial cysts of the pineal region].  

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A review of the pertinent literature regarding glial cysts of the pineal region is presented. Various pathogenic factors have been advocated such as the physiological involution of the pineal gland, a sequestration of the embryonic cavum pineale or the degenerative evolution of glial inclusions within the pineal gland. The pathological description is classical with three layers: an external fibrous capsule, an intermediate layer of pineal tissue and an internal glial wall. Imaging of these lesions is typical, namely the thin rim of peripheral contrast enhancement and the presence of calcifications. These cysts are more frequent in women in their third decade of life. They are almost always latent and their fortuitous disclosure at NMR examinations is common. Some of them will nevertheless cause intracranial hypertension due to hydrocephalus and hemorrhage. Those symptomatic cysts should be treated. Surgical excision has been the method of choice and the results are good. More recently a mere stereotactic needle aspiration has been performed with satisfactory long-term results. PMID:9686234

Vallée, B; Meriot, P; Person, H; Rodriguez, V; Sidhamed, S; Dam Hieu, P

1997-01-01

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Immunohistochemical characterization of pineal parenchymal tumors using novel monoclonal antibodies to the pineal body.  

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To characterize the immunohistochemical nature of pineal parenchymal tumors (PPT), we examined nine cases of normal pineal bodies and 23 cases of PPT using several neuronal and glial antibodies and 10 novel monoclonal antibodies raised against human pineal tissue. The PPT were classified into four pineocytoma, five pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation (Int-PPT), and 14 pineoblastoma. The pinealocytes, parenchymal cells of the pineal body, were labeled with five, neuronal and seven pineal monoclonal (from PP1 to PP7) antibodies in the normal pineal bodies. The subjects ranged from 3 to 85 years old, 12 female and eight male subjects were studied. Antibodies to glial cells PI1, PI2 and PX1, stained interstitial cells of the pineal body. Many of the PPT showed positive immunostaining for pinealocyte-associated antigens and neuronal markers. The intensity of immunostaining showed some association with the degree of differentiation of the tumor, but there was a considerable variety of staining from case to case. The pineocytomas are more immunopositive than are the Int-PPT or pineoblastoma for neuronal and pinealocyte-associated antibodies. In particular the neurofilament protein (NFP)68 kDa, PP1 and PP6 showed significant differences of reactivity between pineocytoma, Int-PPT and pineoblastoma, when compared in groups showing extensive positive staining (positive staining in almost all areas of the tumor). By using three representative antibodies, anti-NFP68kDa, PP1 and PP6, we were able to make a clear distinction between pineoblastoma, Int-PPT and pineocytoma. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), PI1 and PI2 antibodies only occasionally showed a small number of positive cells in the tumor, and thus we considered these cells to be non-neoplastic interstitial cells or reactive astrocytes entrapped in the tumor. Our data suggest that the glial differentiation of PPT may occur, but that it seems to be a very rare event. PMID:12075938

Yamane, Yuko; Mena, Hernando; Nakazato, Yoichi

2002-06-01

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Pineal tumors: experience with 48 cases over 10 years.  

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The authors retrospectively reviewed 48 patients treated at Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) between 1986 and 1995. There were 35 children and 13 adults, accounting for 10.1% of 345 pediatric and 0.68% of 1914 adult brain tumors in SNUH during the same period. The 48 cases consisted of 33 cases of germ cell tumor (69%, GCT); 6 of pineoblastoma (PB, 12.5%); 3 of pineocytoma (PC, 6.3%); 3 of anaplastic astrocytoma (6.3%); 1 of astrocytoma; 1 of glioblastoma; and 1 of ependymoma. The median age was 13 years (range 1-59) and the male-to-female ratio was 3.36:1. The most frequent presenting symptom was due to increased intracranial pressure (90%), followed by Parinaud syndrome or diplopia (50%). Patients with a benign tumor, such as teratoma (TE), astrocytoma, or ependymoma, underwent surgery by the occipital transtentorial approach (OTT) for attempted radical resection without adjuvant therapy, while patients with immature teratoma (imTE), PC, and anaplastic astrocytoma underwent regional radiotherapy (RT) after debulking via OTT. Seven patients with nongerminomatous malignant GCT (NG-MGCT) and 3 with germinoma (GE) underwent craniospinal radiation only, 6 with GE, a NG-MGCT, and 2 with GE+TE received craniospinal radiotherapy (CSRT) after debulking via OTT. Three patients with GE, 4 with NG-MGCT, and 3 with PB underwent radiochemotherapy after debulking via OTT. Forty-four patients were followed up after treatment. The median follow-up period was 36 months. All patients with GE were alive after RT at 36 months (median) of follow-up (range 7-70 months). All with GE+TE and TE were alive. Three patients with PC or astrocytoma were also alive with stable or no evidence of disease. In 1 of the 3 cases of imTE there was a recurrence. However, 4 patients with NG-MGCT died, all of whom had undergone CSRT only; 2 PB patients were alive (12, 19 months), 1 in a moribund status (36 months), and 2 were dead (6, 60 months). The overall mean survival time with pineal tumors was 66 months and the 3-year survival rate was 84% with minimal posttreatment complications. It is concluded that pineal region tumors have male and childhood predominances, and the most common tumor is GCT. The majority of pineal region tumors are malignant. Pineal region tumors can be approached safely and effectively and the surgical complications are mostly transient. Their prognosis is dependent on the pathologies and treatment modalities. PMID:9548342

Cho, B K; Wang, K C; Nam, D H; Kim, D G; Jung, H W; Kim, H J; Han, D H; Choi, K S

1998-01-01

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[A case of glioblastoma multiforme in the pineal region with intraventricular hemorrhage].  

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Introduction:Glioblastoma multiforme(GBM)is a very rare type of tumor involving the pineal region. No case of pineal region GBM with tumoral hemorrhage has ever been reported. Here, we present the first such case report. Case report:A 65-year-old man presented with sudden-onset disturbance of consciousness. CT revealed intraventricular hemorrhage and acute hydrocephalus. The patient was treated by an emergent operation for ventricular drainage. MRI with contrast media showed a heterogeneous enhanced area in the pineal region. The patient underwent endoscopic biopsy surgery and a third ventriculostomy for non-communicating hydrocephalus. The pathological diagnosis was high-grade glioma, indicating the need for tumor removal via the occipital transtentorial approach. The tumor was removed subtotally and radiation and chemotherapy courses were then started. Conclusion:Pineal GBM with tumoral hemorrhage has never been reported before. Endoscopic operations are useful for rapid decision making prior to radical surgery. PMID:24807547

Suzuki, Ryotaro; Suzuki, Kensuke; Sugiura, Yoshiki; Takano, Issei; Nagaishi, Masaya; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Takigawa, Tomoji; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Hyodo, Akio

2014-05-01

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Follow-up study with computerized tomography during and after irradiation in patients with pineal tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twelve cases of pineal tumors were studied by means of computerized tomography during and after radiation therapy. The patients were 9 cases of pineal germinoma, 2 cases of pineal teratoma with a component of embryonal carcinoma, and 1 case of ependymoma. In the follow-up CT studies, all the cases of pineal germinoma showed a remarkable response to irradiation with megavoltage x-ray (Linac). In 4 cases, the tumor size was shown to have decreased at the early stages (700-1000 rads) of the irradiation. At the termination of irradiation (4000-5000 rads), the enhancing tumor mass became unrecognizable, or only a dot-like calcification remained in the pineal region. In the 2 cases with pineal teratoma, the size of the tumor in the pineal region remained unchanged on CT scan, even with extensive irradiation schedules, while the simultaneous embryonal carcinoma within the teratoma grew rapidly in the other half of the brain. These metastatic lesions were highly enhanced and circumscribed, and were treated by means of operations and by chemotherapy, which were temporarily effective. The prognosis in both cases was poor. Regarding the case of ependymoma, the radiation therapies were not effective, and the tumor was found in follow-up CT scans to have increased continuously in size. The prognosis was poor in spite of surgical operations and chemotherapy. From these observations, it is concluded that a differential diagnosis between various kinds of pineal tumors might be difficult on the basis of a single CT scan alone; however, it becomes possible when one takes into account the different responses to irradiation in the follow-up CT studies. (author)

1978-01-01

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Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples / Magnetic resonance study of the pineal region: normal pineal gland, simple cysts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo) identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4%) [...] e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu maior diâmetro. Os cistos simples da pineal aparecem com frequência de 2,6% em relação a toda a série (762 casos) elevando-se essa frequência para 6,1% se forem consideradas somente as pineais visiblizadas (329 casos). Os cistos simples não se correlacionam nem com a idade nem com o sexo e os cistos sintomáticos são raros. Os critérios para diagnóstico diferencial dos cistos simples versus tumores da região da pineal são: dimensões menores ou iguais a 20 milímetros; espessura da parede abaixo de 2 milímetros; ausência de efeito expansivo; sinal igual ao líquido cefalorraquidiano e ausência de crescimento dos cistos. Abstract in english A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the normal pineal gland and pineal simple cysts was performed in 762 cases. A fine section technique (maximum 3 millimeters) enabled most of the times the identifying of a normal pineal in addition to demonstrating that a pineal without any cyst shows an i [...] sointense signal in Tl and T2 which, in turn, is enhanced following gadolinium. The measure of the normal pineal was of about 6.1 millimeters in its diameter length. Pineal simple cysts were observed in a 2.6% frequency in relation to the whole series (762 cases); however reaches 6.1% when only the visualized pineals were considered (329 cases). Also, it was found out that simple cysts were not correlated to age or gender. Simple cysts characteristics are: dimension less or equal to 20 millimeters; absence of expansive effect; similar signal to that of the cerebrospinal fluid; absence of cyst growth.

CALDAS, JOSÉ GUILHERME; DOYON, DOMINIQUE; LEDERMAN, HENRIQUE; CARLIER, ROBERT.

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Statistical analysis of pineal tumors based on the data of Brain Tumor Registry of Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we present statistical analyses of pineal tumors based on the data from Brain Tumor Registry of Japan. The most frequent tumor in the pineal region was germinoma, and it accounted for 49.2% of all pineal tumors; it was followed by pineocytoma (8.5%), glioma (6.5%), pineoblastoma (5.1%), malignant teratoma (5.2%) and teratoma (5.1%). Germinoma is most frequent among patients between 10 and 19 years of age, and there are some patients aged >30 years; however, there are few patients with choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, and yolk sac tumor who are aged >30 years. Pineoblastoma is most frequent among patients under 5 years of age, while pineocytoma is evenly distributed in patients between 10 and 60 years of age. The 5-year survival rate of germinoma was 89.4%, while those of embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor and choriocarcinoma were 35.3, 37.3 and 58.1%, respectively. PMID:19329857

Shibui, Soichiro; Nomura, Kazuhiro

2009-01-01

36

Malignant pineal germ-cell tumors: An analysis of cases from three tumor registries  

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The exact incidence of pineal germ-cell tumors is largely unknown. The tumors are rare, and the number of patients with these tumors, as reported in clinical series, has been limited. The goal of this study was to describe pineal germ-cell tumors in a large number of patients, using data from available brain tumor databases. Three different databases were used: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1973–2001); Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS;...

Villano, J. Lee; Propp, Jennifer M.; Porter, Kimberly R.; Stewart, Andrew K.; Valyi-nagy, Tibor; Li, Xinyu; Engelhard, Herbert H.; Mccarthy, Bridget J.

2008-01-01

37

Radiation Therapy of Midline Pineal Tumors and Suprasellar Germinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

20 cases of midline pineal tumors and 3 suprasellar germinomas received radiation therapy at Yonsei University Medical College, Severance hospital from 1971 to 1982 were reviewed. 12 cases were pathologically proved; 10 germinomas, 1 pineoblastoma, and 1 pineocytoma. 11 cases received radiotherapy without biopsy confirmation. Although treatment fields varied from small field to whole brain irradiation, but not to the spinal cord, most patients received 4000-5000 rads irradiation to the primary tumor site. 17 patients are alive without evidence of disease and 5 year actuarial NED survival is 73.2%. 9 of 10 biopsy proved germinomas and all 6 presumed germinomas are alive and well. Optimum radiation dose, adequate irradiation field, tumor response to radiation observed in serial CT scan and role of radiation therapy in the management of pineal tumors are also discussed

1983-06-01

38

Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery for pineal and related tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of gamma knife radiosurgery as an additional therapy after conventional treatments for pineal and related tumors was studied in 30 of 33 tumors with a mean follow-up of 23.3 months. Overall results showed that a complete response was obtained in 8 cases (26.7%) and the response rate was 73.3%. However, tumor progression was found in 8 cases (26.7%), of whom 7 (23.3%) died as a consequence. Germinoma and pineocytoma showed higher response and control rates (100%), and neither progression nor death occurred after gamma knife treatment. Germinoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells (STGC) has been thought to have an intermediate prognosis. Two of our cases showed a partial response and another progression. Malignant germ cell tumor and pineoblastoma showed unfavorable responses and prognosis, with the response and progression rates both being 50%. Gamma knife radiosurgery was the initial treatment in three pineal tumor cases without a histological diagnosis, and one complete and two partial responses were obtained. Gamma knife radiosurgery is expected to be an effective and novel approach to pineal and related tumors, not only as an adjuvant but also as an initial treatment. PMID:11767295

Kobayashi, T; Kida, Y; Mori, Y

2001-09-01

39

[Mixed tumors of the pineal area. Diagnosis and therapy consisting of secreting germ cell tumor].  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary intracranial germ cell tumors are rare neurological diseases. Secreting germ cell tumors that predominantly appear in the pineal region are characterized by elevated levels of beta-HCG and AFP in CSF. Adequate diagnostic and therapeutic regimens of these tumors are still under debate. We present the case of a patient suffering from spinal metastasis of a secreting germ cell tumor with raised levels of beta-HCG in CSF. Six years before, a pineocytoma of intermediate differentiation had been diagnosed by stereotaxic biopsy. This demonstrates the importance of an early detection of a germ cell neoplasm in case of midline-sized brain-tumors by evaluation of beta-HCG and AFP in CSF and serum. Today, different therapeutic strategies depending on the histological diagnosis are available and justify a high priority of a surgical tumor biopsy. However, the value of stereotaxic procedures remains controversial. Recently published data gave evidence of a definite improved prognosis of secreting CNS germ cell tumors following combined treatment with high-dose polychemotherapy, surgical resection and radiation of the tumor area. beta-HCG and AFP may serve as useful markers to enable follow-up of the disease. PMID:9673977

Hilker, R; Mielke, R; Berthold, F; Schröder, R; Heiss, W D

1998-06-01

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Isodense epidermoid cyst in the pineal region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 69-year-old male was admitted complaining of gait disturbances and diplopia, 2.5 years after an episode of serous meningitis. Neurological examination on admission disclosed Parinaud's sign, unsteady gait and dysdiadochokinesis on the left side. A striking finding on the computerized tomography (CT) was the left to right shift of the posterior portion of the third ventricle without visualization of the quadrigeminal and ambient cisterns, which were almost completely occupied by an isodense mass accompanied by high dense flecks and a low dense part. Enhanced CT showed positive enhancement in the vicinity of the pineal calcification. By the suboccipital supracerebellar approach, an encapsulated mass containing brownish yellow fluid was subtotally removed and a histological examination of it revealed epidermoid tissue and hemosiderin deposits in the solid portion. Few reports of isodense epidermoid cysts have so far been found in the literature giving a full explanation for this unusual CT attenuation value. Based on the clinical course and histology of this case, the pathogenesis of the unusual density is discussed along the following lines: The mixture of the low dense factor due to cholesterin and the high dense factor due to prior bleeding is believed to result in the isodense attenuation value in the liquid portion. Also, in the solid part, a microscopically mixed texture of deposited hemosiderin and cholesterin clefts in the inflammatory granulomatous tissue could explain its density on the CT scan. (author)

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

ALK positive inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the pineal region  

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Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMTs) are an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm with a dense inflammatory infiltrate, usually encountered in children. IMTs of the central nervous system are extremely rare. This report describes the case of an IMT in a 61 year old man, in the pineal region. The tumour was completely excised, and immunohistochemistry demonstrated anaplastic lymphoma kinase 1 expression. There was no tumour recurrence during 18 months of follow up. Our case extends both the ag...

Clarke, A. J.; Jacques, T. S.; Galloway, M. J.; Thom, M.; Kitchen, N. D.; Plant, G. T.

2005-01-01

42

Estudio experimental sobre la influencia de las hormonas pineales en la génesis y desarrollo de tumores mamarios hormonodependientes  

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El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la influencia de distintos niveles de actividad pineal sobre la inducción y el crecimiento de tumores mamarios hormonodependientes. El aumento de la actividad pineal obtenido por asociación de ceguera con bulbectomía olfatoria, subnutrición o exposición a bajas temperaturas produjo: a) descenso de la incidencia tumoral y aumento del tiempo de latencia de aparición de los tumores; b) descenso en el número de tumores y en la superficie tumoral; c) ...

1986-01-01

43

Role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of pineal parenchymal tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated 20 pineal parenchymal tumor patients who underwent radiosurgery at our institution over a 20-year period. Thirteen patients had pineocytoma, 5 patients had pineoblastoma and 2 patients had mixed pineal parenchymal tumors. The median radiosurgery prescription dose to the tumor margin was 15.0 (12-20) Gy. At an average of 54.1 (range, 7.7-149.2) months, 6 patients had died and 14 patients were living. The overall survival after radiosurgery was 95.0, 68.6, and 51.4% at 1, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Patients with pineocytomas had 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survivals of 100, 92.3 and 92.3%, respectively. In 19 patients who were evaluated with imaging, 5 (26%) demonstrated complete regression, 9 (47%) had partial regression, 2 (11%) had stable tumors and 2 (11%) showed local in-field progression. The progression-free survival after stereotactic radiosurgery for all type of pineal parenchymal tumors was 100, 89.2 and 89.2% at 1, 3, 5 years after radiosurgery, respectively. Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective and safe alternative to the surgical resection of pineocytomas as well as part of multimodal therapy for more aggressive pineal parenchymal tumors. PMID:19329860

Kano, Hideyuki; Niranjan, Ajay; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C; Lunsford, Dade

2009-01-01

44

Primary glioblastoma in the pineal region: a case report and review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Glioblastoma in the pineal region is extremely rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. Case presentation A 68-year-old man presented with a sudden deterioration manifesting as a headache, vomiting and gait disturbance. A magnetic resonance imaging study revealed a heterogeneously ring-enhanced mass in the pineal region. The mass was subtotally removed through the occipital transtentorial approach, and diagnosed as a glioblastoma. Conclusion We discuss the clinical course, radiological findings and treatment strategies of pineal glioblastoma with a review of the relevant literature.

Moon Kyung-Sub

2008-08-01

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Precocious Puberty due to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin-Secreting Pineal Tumor  

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Full Text Available We present a 9-year-old boy with central precocious puberty and hydrocephalus causedby a human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG secreting pineal tumor. High levels of ?-hCGin the serum and cerebrospinal fluid were observed in this patient. The patient receivedradiotherapy and chemotherapy without surgical intervention. Subsequently, significanttumor regression was observed and the serum ?-hCG level normalized. There was no evidenceof tumor recurrence at follow-up one year after treatment. The role of tissue biopsy toestablish a diagnosis in pineal germ cell tumors remains controversial because it can be adifficult procedure and may be dangerous, causing severe complications. In this patient, theelevated ?-hCG level indicated the presence of a tumor and was considered sufficient evidenceto warrant initiating treatment.

Ho-Chang Kuo

2006-04-01

46

Pineal gland in rats with 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene-induced mammary tumors subjected to manipulations known as enhancers of pineal actions  

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The ultrastructure of pinealocytes was studied in rats with 7,17-dimethylbenz (a) anthraceneinduced manimary tumors which were subjected to experimental manipulations known as enhancers of pineal actions (anosmia, underfeeding or cold exposure). In these aniinals we found: (1) - more nuclei with deep nuclear invaginations; (11) - a large number of cytoplasmic organelles, including lipid droplets. myeloid bodies, synaptic ribbons and lysosomes; (111) - numer...

Cos, S.; Bardasano, J. L.; Mediavilla, M. D.; Sa?nchez Barcelo?, E. J.

1989-01-01

47

Patofysiologiske mekanismer bag øjensymptomer ved primaere tumorer i corpus pineale.  

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Primary tumors of the pineal body can produce dyscoordinative movements of the eye, pupillary dilatation, paralysis of adduction during convergence and nystagmus. Obstruction of the aqueduct can cause hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure and papilledema. Diabetes insipidus may be a presenting symptom. Pinealocytes and the photoreceptors of the eye contain several autoantigens. In man, the best known is the S-antigen. This antigen can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with primary tumors of the pineal body. The S-antigen, and possibly other related autoantigens, can elicit an autoimmune mediated reaction causing inflammatory eye symptoms. This recently described paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome shares properties in common with other known cancer-associated ophthalmologic syndromes characterised by rapid development of eye symptoms, rapid loss of sight and by eye manifestations prior to evident appearance of symptoms related to primary tumor growth. A primary tumor of the pineal body should be considered in patients where a monosymptomatic uveoretinitis presents without associated provoking factors. Furthermore, analyses of S-antigen in the spinal fluid can be useful in the clinical diagnosis of the same primary tumors.

Illum, N O; Møller, M

1993-01-01

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Clinicopathological study of pineal parenchymal tumors: correlation between histopathological features, proliferative potential, and prognosis.  

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This study describes the clinicopathologic features of 13 cases with pineal parenchymal tumors. Based on the histopathologic findings, especially the extent of atypia and pineocytic differentiation as determined by Bodian's staining, we classified these tumors into pineocytomas (4), pineocytomas with anaplasia (4) and pineoblastomas (5). All the cases with pineocytoma and pineocytoma with anaplasia were adults, and all the cases with pineoblastoma were younger children. One patient with pineocytoma died of other disease 7 months after initial treatment. One patient with pineocytoma with anaplasia died 168 months after initial treatment. The other patients with pineocytoma and pineocytoma with anaplasia survived between 9 and 179 months after surgery. However, all of the five pineoblastoma patients died within 14 months after initial treatment. The mean MIB-1 index in pineoblastomas was significantly higher than that in other types of pineal parenchymal tumors, but there were no differences between pineocytomas and pineocytomas with anaplasia with respect to the MIB-1 index. The mean MIB-1 index in neurofilament protein-immunopositive cases was significantly lower than that in immunonegative cases. With regard to the malignant potential, we emphasize that a clear distinction should be made between pineoblastomas in children and other types of pineal parenchymal tumors in adults. PMID:10746962

Tsumanuma, I; Tanaka, R; Washiyama, K

1999-01-01

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Pineocytoma and pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation presenting cytologic pleomorphism: a multicenter study.  

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Cytologic pleomorphism has been described in a limited number of benign pineal tumors, namely pineocytoma (PC) and pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) of intermediate differentiation (PPTID). We examined the clinicopathologic features in a retrospective series of 14 cases (seven females and seven males aged from 10 to 65 years) of pleomorphic PPT. Seven cases were PC, with no mitoses and with areas of tumoral cells forming large pineocytomatous rosettes and other areas with giant cells containing hyperchromatic nuclei. The other seven were PPTID, presenting few mitoses (< or =2), a Ki67 proliferation index between 3% and 7%, and predominantly composed of small neoplastic cells and scattered giant cells, sometimes multinucleated. In the 14 tumors, the proportion of pleomorphic areas was variable. Most tumoral cells showed extensive neuronal differentiation with strong expression of neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin and neurofilaments. Some of the neoplastic cells expressed S100 protein. The follow-up period ranged from 1.2 to 13 years and only one PC and one PPTID progressed after stereotactic biopsy or incomplete resection. The lack of invasiveness and the low proliferation index of these tumors suggest a benign clinical course despite the marked pleomorphism, the latter of which can lead to upgrading. PMID:18371183

Fèvre-Montange, Michelle; Szathmari, Alexandru; Champier, Jacques; Mokhtari, Karima; Chrétien, Fabrice; Coulon, Alix; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Polivka, Marc; Varlet, Pascale; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Fauchon, François; Jouvet, Anne

2008-07-01

50

Malformación cavernosa de la región pineal: Caso clínico y revisión de la literatura / Cavernous malformation of the pineal region: Case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las malformaciones cavernosas de la región pineal son raras, con solamente 21 casos publicados hasta el momento en la literatura. A pesar de la dificultad de su diagnóstico debido a su extrema rareza, la presencia de esta lesión puede ser sospechada basándonos en sus características radiológicas. Pr [...] esentamos el caso de una paciente de 57 años de edad, con un cuadro clínico de instauración aguda de desorientación, somnolencia y diplopia. La TC cerebral mostró una hemorragia aguda en la región pineal e hidrocefalia triventricular asociada y la RM cerebral fue sugestiva de que se tratase de una malformación cavernosa. La paciente fue operada con escisión total de la lesión y el estudio histológico confirmó el diagnóstico de angioma cavernoso. Concluimos que la cirugía para extracción total de la lesión es el tratamiento de elección cuando, basados en la imagen, sospechamos un angioma cavernoso de la región pineal. Abstract in english Cavernous malformations rarely occur in the pineal region with only 21 reported to date. Although its diagnosis is not easy because of the extreme rareness of this condition, the presence of this lesion can be suspected based on its typical radiological findings. We report the case of a 57-year-old [...] woman presented with desorientation, somnolence and diplopy. The CT-scan showed an acute hemorrhage in the pineal region and triventricular hydrocephalus. An MRI suggested a cavernous malformation. The patient was operated with total en-bloc removal of the lesion. We conclude that surgical exploration and total resection is the treatment of choice when the diagnosis of cavernous angioma is suspected of the basis of neuroimaging.

C., Chamadoira; A., Cerejo; A., Vilarinho; L., Castro; R., Vaz.

51

Isodense epidermoid cyst in the pineal region. Case report  

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A 69-year-old male was admitted complaining of gait disturbances and diplopia, 2.5 years after an episode of serous meningitis. Neurological examination on admission disclosed Parinaud's sign, unsteady gait and dysdiadochokinesis on the left side. A striking finding on the computerized tomography (CT) was the left to right shift of the posterior portion of the third ventricle without visualization of the quadrigeminal and ambient cisterns, which were almost completely occupied by an isodense mass accompanied by high dense flecks and a low dense part. Enhanced CT showed positive enhancement in the vicinity of the pineal calcification. By the suboccipital supracerebellar approach, an encapsulated mass containing brownish yellow fluid was subtotally removed and a histological examination of it revealed epidermoid tissue and hemosiderin deposits in the solid portion. Few reports of isodense epidermoid cysts have so far been found in the literature giving a full explanation for this unusual CT attenuation value. Based on the clinical course and histology of this case, the pathogenesis of the unusual density is discussed along the following lines: The mixture of the low dense factor due to cholesterin and the high dense factor due to prior bleeding is believed to result in the isodense attenuation value in the liquid portion. Also, in the solid part, a microscopically mixed texture of deposited hemosiderin and cholesterin clefts in the inflammatory granulomatous tissue could explain its density on the CT scan.

Yamanouchi, Yasuo; Takahara, Nobuhiko; Kawamura, Yasuo; Matsumura, Hiroshi

1985-02-01

52

Molecular basis for defining pineal gland and pinealocytes as targets for tumor necrosis factor (TNF  

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Full Text Available The pineal gland, which is the gland that translates darkness into an endocrine signal by releasing melatonin at night, is now considered a key player in the mounting of an innate immune response. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, the first pro-inflammatory cytokine to be released by an inflammatory response, suppresses the translation of the key enzyme of melatonin synthesis (arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase-alkyl-N-acetyltransferase, Aa-nat. Here we show that TNF receptors of the subtype 1 (TNF-R1 are expressed by astrocytes, microglia and pinealocytes. We also show that the activation of TNF triggers the nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB pathway in pinealocytes by reducing the cytoplasmic level of the inhibitory nuclear factor kappa B protein of the subtype A (NFKBIA. The TNF-induced nuclear translocation of the p50/p50 NFKB transcription factor lacks a transactivation domain, and this phenomenon explains how TNF blocks the transcription of Aa-nat. In addition, the p65/RelA nuclear translocation was read-out following the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and the synthesis of nitric oxide NO. The increase in the transcription of genes activated by NFKB opens a new perspective for understanding the implication of the pineal gland in pathophysiological conditions.

ReginaP.Markus

2011-05-01

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Clinical experience with a high definition exoscope system for surgery of pineal region lesions.  

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VITOM-90 (Karl Storz Endoscopy, Tuttlingen, Germany) is a new technology that can be used as an alternative to the operating microscope. We have found that this device substantially improves surgeon comfort during infra-tentorial supracerebellar approaches to pineal region masses, and now report our experiences. The VITOM-90 is a specially designed scope that is attached to a high definition (HD) digital camera and displayed on a HD video monitor. This system was utilized in five patients undergoing infratentorial supracerebellar approaches for pineal region lesions. Surgical outcomes and pathologies are described. The device was used by three surgeons during five procedures. Three patients underwent surgery in the sitting position and two in the modified prone (Concorde) position. Pathologies included pineocytoma, lipoma, and germinoma. Total resection was achieved in three patients and subtotal in two patients. Surgeon assessment was positive; surgeons indicated that surgery with the VITOM-90 was more comfortable than with the operating microscope. Lack of stereopsis was considered a minor drawback. The VITOM-90 permitted a natural head and neck position. Operating room personnel and residents reported improved visualization of the anatomy. Using the VITOM-90 benefited surgeons during pineal region surgery by reducing strain and allowing the surgeon to operate from a comfortable position without increased operative time or complications. The improved comfort levels may translate into safer, more accurate surgeries in this complex area. PMID:24534630

Birch, Kurtis; Drazin, Doniel; Black, Keith L; Williams, James; Berci, George; Mamelak, Adam N

2014-07-01

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Expression of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase enzyme in the human central nervous system and in pineal parenchymal cell tumors.  

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Pineal parenchymal tumor (PPT) cells usually show immunoreactivity for synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament protein, class III beta-tubulin, tau protein, PGP9.5, chromogranin, serotonin, retinal S-antigen, and rhodopsin, but these markers are not specific for PPTs. Melatonin is produced and secreted mainly bypineal parenchymal cells; hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) catalyzes the final reaction in melatonin biosynthesis. We hypothesized that HIOMT could serve as a tumor marker of PPTs, and we investigated HIOMT localization and HIOMT expression in samples of normal human tissue and in PPTs, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and medulloblastomas. In normal tissue, HIOMT was expressed in retinal cells, pineal parenchymal cells, neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, microglia, macrophages, thyroid follicular epithelium, principal and oxyphil cells of parathyroid gland, adrenal cortical cells, hepatic parenchymal cells, renal tubule epithelium, and enteroendocrine cells of stomach and duodenum. The HIOMT was also expressed in all 46 PPTs studied. The proportions of HIOMT-immunoreactive cells successively decreased in the following tumors: pineocytoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, and pineoblastoma. A few HIOMT-immunoreactive cells were observed in one of 6 primitive neuroectodermal tumors and 23 of 42 medulloblastomas. These results indicate that HIOMT immunohistochemistry may be useful for the diagnosis of PPTs and be a prognostic factor in PPTs. PMID:20418777

Fukuda, Takahiro; Akiyama, Nobutake; Ikegami, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Atsushi; Oka, Hidehiro; Komori, Takashi; Tanaka, Yuko; Nakazato, Youichi; Akimoto, Jiro; Tanaka, Masahiko; Okada, Yoshikazu; Saito, Saburo

2010-05-01

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Pineal parenchymal tumors: a correlation of histological features with prognosis in 66 cases.  

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The WHO classification of CNS tumors divides pineal parenchymal tumors (PPT) into pineocytoma (PC), pineoblastoma (PB) and mixed pineocytoma-pineoblastoma or PPT with intermediate differentiation. The reported incidence of mixed/intermediate PPT varies and this may reflect the difficulty in classifying tumors of this type. In an attempt to overcome the problem of the classification of PPT with intermediate differentiation, we describe the relationship between histological features and patient survival in a large cooperative series of 66 PPT from 12 neurosurgical centres. All tumors were studied with both light microscopy and immunohistochemically using antibodies against glial markers or neural/neuroendocrine markers. Our series included 11 PC, 39 mixed/intermediate PPT and 16 PB. A number of mitoses greater than 6 and the presence of necrosis were associated with a poorer outcome, while positive immunostaining for neurofilaments was associated with a better survival. We propose a new prognostic grading of 4 grades, grade I for PC, grade II for PPT with fewer than 6 mitoses and positive immunolabelling for neurofilaments, grade III for PPT with either 6 or more than 6 mitoses or fewer than 6 mitoses but without immunostaining for neurofilaments and grade IV for PB. PMID:10668895

Jouvet, A; Saint-Pierre, G; Fauchon, F; Privat, K; Bouffet, E; Ruchoux, M M; Chauveinc, L; Fèvre-Montange, M

2000-01-01

56

Combination chemotherapy (cisplatin, vinblastin) and low-dose irradiation in the treatment of pineal parenchymal cell tumors.  

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Pineal parenchymal cell tumors (PPCTs) with or without metastasis into the lumbar region by way of the cerebrospinal fluid were treated successfully with combination chemotherapy using cisplatin, vinblastin, and bleomycin (PVB) or cisplatin and vinblastin (PV) and low-dose irradiation (25 approximately 30 Gy). Our series included a case of pineoblastoma, two cases of mixed pinocytoma/pineoblastoma, and a case of pineocytoma, compared to which the data held by the All Japan Brain Tumor Registry (AJBTR) included information on 47 cases pineocytoma and 20 of pineoblastoma. All our patients have survived, with scores of 90% or over on Karnofsky's performance scale, for 2-12 years of follow-up so far; however, the 5-year survival rates of the patients recorded by AJBTR were 83% for pineocytoma treated with radiation and 43% without radiation; and 42% for pineoblastoma treated with radiation and 50% without radiation. Incomplete or varied chemotherapeutic regimens used in different medical centers to treat PPCTs precluded an evaluation such as was made by AJBTR. Our results suggested that combination chemotherapy with low-dose back-up radiotherapy may be the treatment of choice for primary or recurrent disease with or without dissemination in PPCTs. PMID:9840380

Kurisaka, M; Arisawa, M; Mori, T; Sakamoto, T; Seike, M; Mori, K; Okada, T; Wakiguchi, H; Kurashige, T

1998-10-01

57

Apoptotic proteins and markers of differentiation in childhood pineal parenchymal tumors: relationships and prognostic value.  

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Pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) in children and adolescents are uncommon and more data on their biological activity and behavior are still needed. The aim of our study was to estimate the expression and prognostic value of some proteins regulating apoptosis and cell cycle as well as being markers of cellular differentiation in PPTs. Tumor specimens obtained from 27 patients who underwent surgical treatment for PPTs were evaluated in immuno-histochemical analysis. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, p53, NSE (neuron specific enolase), GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein), beta-III tubulin and nestin were studied. Co-localization of two chosen antibodies (e.g. Bcl-2/Bax, BCl-2/NSE, p53/NSE, etc.) was also made with a scanning confocal microscope. Histopathological examination revealed: 15 pineocytomas, 1 intermediately differentiated PPT and 11 pineoblastomas. For further analysis two groups were created: Group I: patients with pineocytoma or intermediately differentiated PPTs (16 cases) Group II: patients with pineoblastoma (11 cases). A statistically significant positive correlation between patients' survival time and tubulin and NSE expression was found. Bcl-2, p53 and nestin correlated negatively with survival time. PMID:19701869

Marcol, W; Mandera, M; Grajkowska, W; Malinowska-Ko?odziej, I; Olakowska, E; W?aszczuk, A; Lewin-Kowalik, J

2009-08-01

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Expression of O?-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and immunohistochemical analysis of 12 pineal parenchymal tumors.  

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Pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) are rare neoplasms which occupy less than 1% of primary CNS tumors. Because of their rare incidence, previous reports on PPTs are limited in number and the useful molecular markers for deciding histological grading and even selecting chemotherapy are undetermined. In this study, we conducted immunohistochemical analysis of 12 PPT specimens, especially for expression of O?-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) to assess whether temozolomide (TMZ) could serve as a possible alternative therapy for PPTs. We analyzed 12 PPTs, consisting of three pineocytomas, six PPTs of intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs), and three pineoblastomas. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using antibodies against MGMT, synaptophysin, neurofilament protein (NF), p53, and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN). Immunohistochemically, 11 out of 12 cases were positive for MGMT. The mean MIB-1 labeling index was less than 1% in pineocytoma, 3.5% in PPTID, and 10.5% in pineoblastoma. All 12 cases were positive for synaptophysin and 11 cases, except one PPTID case, showed positive for NF. Nuclear staining of NeuN was negative in all cases although cytoplasmic staining of NeuN was observed in five cases. No case was positive for p53. Eleven out of 12 cases of PPTs demonstrated MGMT expression, suggesting chemoresistancy to TMZ treatment. This is the first report showing MGMT expression in PPTs. In addition, MIB-1 labeling index correlated with WHO grade, although the immunoreactivity of synaptophysin, NF, NeuN and p53 did not correlate with the histological grade. PMID:22458700

Kanno, Hiromi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Mitsuteru; Ozaki, Yoshimaru; Murata, Junichi; Sawamura, Yutaka; Kato, Masahito; Kubota, Kanako; Tanino, Mishie; Kimura, Taichi; Nagashima, Kazuo; Itoh, Tamio; Tanaka, Shinya

2012-12-01

59

Image-guided stereotactic biopsy of pineal region tumour using CT venography in patient with a pacemaker: a technical note.  

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Image-guided stereotactic biopsy of pineal region tumours requires careful appreciation of neuroanatomy and avoidance of the deep cerebral venous system. A patient with a pineal region lesion obstructing the third ventricle and causing obstructive hydrocephalus required stereotactic biopsy after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion. The presence of a pacemaker precluded MR Venography. Fine-cut CT Venography was performed in its stead and merged with image guidance software, and a trajectory was planned avoiding the venous anatomy. Stereotactic biopsy was successfully performed without complication, revealing a pineocytoma. PMID:23163299

Stovell, Matthew G; Jenkinson, Michael D

2013-06-01

60

Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation: Treatment outcomes of five cases  

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Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation (PPTID) is a rare disease, first classified by the World Health Organization in 2000. The number of available studies on the treatment of PPTID is currrently limited and the optimal management for this disease has not yet been determined. We retrospectively evaluated the treatment outcomes for PPTID at our institute and analyzed the roles of radiation therapy and chemotherapy for this disease. The clinical data on five patients diagnosed with PPTID since 2000 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with cerebrospinal dissemination at diagnosis received biopsy-only surgery, craniospinal and whole-ventricular irradiation and chemotherapy. Patients with locally limited disease at diagnosis received local or whole-ventricular irradiation after surgery. The median relapse-free and overall survival were 72.9 and 94.1 months, respectively. Two of the five patients developed a relapse of cerebrospinal dissemination after treatment and succumbed to the disease. All the patients who received both craniospinal and whole-ventricular irradiation exhibited evidence of cerebral white matter abnormalities in magnetic resonance imaging and developed neurocognitive disorders after treatment. Although PPTID may be aggressive and has cerebrospinal fluid seeding potential, PPTID patients may survive long-term, even after recurrence. Considering the long survival time and the late adverse effects due to intensive treatment, the irradiation field and usage of chemotherapy after surgery require optimization.

WATANABE, TSUBASA; MIZOWAKI, TAKASHI; ARAKAWA, YOSHIKI; IIZUKA, YUSUKE; OGURA, KENGO; SAKANAKA, KATSUYUKI; MIYAMOTO, SUSUMU; HIRAOKA, MASAHIRO

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful?  

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Quantitative values of CT attenuation, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standardized uptake value (SUV) were investigated for differentiation between pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and germinomas. Differences in age, sex, and calcification pattern were also evaluated. Twenty-three patients with PPTs and germinomas in 20 years were retrospectively enrolled under the approval of the institutional review board. CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV (20, 13, and 10 patients, respectively) were statistically compared between the two tumors. Differences in sex and patterns of calcification (''exploded'' or ''engulfed'') were also examined. Mean patient ages were compared among three groups of pineoblastoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, (PPTID) and pineocytoma and germinoma. None of the quantitative values of CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p >.05). However, there was a significant difference in age (p <.05) among the three groups of pineoblastoma (mean age ± standard deviation 7.0 ± 8.7 years), PPTID, and pineocytoma (53.7 ± 11.4 years) and germinoma (19.1 ± 8.1 years). Sex also showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p =.039). Exploded pattern of calcification was found in 9 of 11 PPT patients and engulfed pattern in 7 of 9 patients with germinomas. No reverse pattern was observed, and the patterns of calcification were considered highly specific of tumor types. None of the quantitative imaging values could differentiate PPTs from germinomas. Age, sex, and calcification patterns were confirmed useful in differentiating these tumors to some degree. (orig.)

2014-04-01

62

Demonstration of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) mRNA expression in pineal parenchymal tumors: histochemical in situ hybridization.  

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The expression of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), an enzyme catalyzing the final step of melatonin biosynthesis, was examined in three pineoblastomas and five pineocytomas by in situ hybridization analysis. Distinct hybridization signals for HIOMT mRNA, though weaker than in normal pineal gland pinealocytes, were detected in two of the three pineoblastoma and three of the five pineocytoma cases. Of the pineoblastomas, hybridization signals were observed in most tumor cells of one case, while in another, signals were detected in occasional cells clustered or scattered throughout the neoplastic field. Of the pineocytomas, signals were detected in most tumor cells of two cases, while in one case, signals were detected only in occasional cells. Among these specimens, one pineoblastoma and one pineocytoma were also analyzed using northern blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses. In the northern blot analysis, an apparently single band corresponding to the size of HIOMT mRNA was detected in both pineoblastoma and pineocytoma RNA blots. In the RT-PCR analysis, three species of HIOMT mRNA generated via alternative splicing were detected in both tumors. These results suggest that the neoplastic cells of pineoblastomas and pineocytomas often retain the ability to express HIOMT mRNA, as in normal pinealocytes, and that HIOMT is a useful tumor marker for the diagnosis of pineal parenchymal tumors. PMID:10831155

Tsumanuma, I; Tanaka, R; Ichikawa, T; Washiyama, K; Kumanishi, T

2000-05-01

63

Pineal epidermoid coinciding with pineocytoma.  

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Tumours of the pineal region are uncommon. We report on a 62-year-old male presenting with Parinaud's syndrome and aqueduct stenosis caused by a cystic tumour in the pineal region. During surgery, adjacent to the cystic tumour, a second smaller tumour was identified, which was clearly separate from the first tumour and from the pineal gland. Histological examination disclosed the cystic tumour as an epidermoid cyst, whereas the second tumour demonstrated histological and immunohistochemical features of a pineocytoma. The unique finding of two different types of tumours in the pineal region is evaluated with regard to the histogenesis of epidermoid cysts and pineocytomas. PMID:14505106

Mawrin, C; Grimm, C; von Falkenhausen, U; Kirches, E; Scherlach, C; Kanakis, D; Vorwerk, C; Boltze, C; Firsching, R; Dietzmann, K

2003-09-01

64

Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful?  

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Quantitative values of CT attenuation, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standardized uptake value (SUV) were investigated for differentiation between pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and germinomas. Differences in age, sex, and calcification pattern were also evaluated. Twenty-three patients with PPTs and germinomas in 20 years were retrospectively enrolled under the approval of the institutional review board. CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV (20, 13, and 10 patients, respectively) were statistically compared between the two tumors. Differences in sex and patterns of calcification (''exploded'' or ''engulfed'') were also examined. Mean patient ages were compared among three groups of pineoblastoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, (PPTID) and pineocytoma and germinoma. None of the quantitative values of CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p >.05). However, there was a significant difference in age (p <.05) among the three groups of pineoblastoma (mean age ± standard deviation 7.0 ± 8.7 years), PPTID, and pineocytoma (53.7 ± 11.4 years) and germinoma (19.1 ± 8.1 years). Sex also showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p =.039). Exploded pattern of calcification was found in 9 of 11 PPT patients and engulfed pattern in 7 of 9 patients with germinomas. No reverse pattern was observed, and the patterns of calcification were considered highly specific of tumor types. None of the quantitative imaging values could differentiate PPTs from germinomas. Age, sex, and calcification patterns were confirmed useful in differentiating these tumors to some degree. (orig.)

Kakigi, Takahide; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Ryo; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C. [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto (Japan); Mikami, Yoshiki [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Kyoto (Japan); Shimono, Taro [Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

2014-04-15

65

Pineal metastasis as first clinical manifestation of colorectal adenocarcinoma: case report / Metástase pineal como primeira manifestação clinica de adenocarcinoma colorretal: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Metástases cerebrais derivadas de adenocarcinomas colorretais ocorrem em 8% dos casos. Geralmente a doença primária e as metástases em outros órgãos já são conhecidas quando do momento das manifestações neurológicas. Descrevemos um caso de metástase única na região pineal que promoveu a primeira man [...] ifestação clínica de adenocarcinoma colorretal. Uma mulher de 48 anos de idade apresentava há quinze dias de sua admissão ao nosso serviço diplopia e síndrome de Parinaud . O exame de ressonância magnética revelou lesão heterogênea localizada na região pineal. O tumor foi completamente retirado por acesso infratentorial/supracerebelar. O exame histológico revelou tumor metastático indiferenciado e o exame imuno-histoquímico demostrou adenocarcinoma do trato gastrointestinal moderadamente diferenciado. Metástases para a região pineal são extremamente raras e devem ser consideradas no diagnóstico diferencial de tumores nesta região. Abstract in english Cerebral metastases from colorectal adenocarcinomas occur in 8% of the cases. Diagnosis is usually made when primary disease and widespread metastases are already known. We report the case of a patient with single metastases in the pineal region as the first clinical manifestation of a colorectal ad [...] enocarcinoma. A 48-year-old female with Parinaud's syndrome for 15 days prior her admission was evaluated in our clinic. She had no symptoms or signs of colorectal disease. MRI examination revealed an heterogeneous lesion with peritumoral gadolinium enhancement, located in the pineal region. The tumor was radically resected through an infratentorial/supracerebellar approach. Histology showed metastatic carcinoma and immunohistochemical examination showed gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinoma. Metastases to the pineal region are extremely rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors of this region.

RAMINA, RICARDO; COELHO NETO, MAURÍCIO; MARIUSHI, WAGNER M.; ARRUDA, WALTER O..

66

Radiation Is an Important Component of Multimodality Therapy for Pediatric Non-Pineal Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To review a historical cohort of pediatric patients with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET), to clarify the role of radiation in the treatment of these tumors. Patients and Methods: Fifteen children aged <18 years with non-pineal sPNETs diagnosed between 1992 and 2006 were identified. Initial therapy consisted of surgical resection and chemotherapy in all patients and up-front radiotherapy (RT) in 5 patients. Five patients had RT at the time of progression, and 5 received no RT whatever. Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival were then calculated. Results: The median follow-up from diagnosis for all patients was 31 months (range, 0.5-165 months) and for surviving patients was 49 months (range, 10-165). Of the 5 patients who received up-front RT, all were alive without evidence of disease at a median follow-up of 50 months (range, 25-165 months). Only 5 of the 10 patients who did not receive up-front RT were alive at last follow-up. There was a statistically significant difference in overall survival between the patient group that received up-front RT and the group that did not (p = 0.048). In addition, we found a trend toward a statistically significant improvement in overall survival for those patients who received gross total resections (p = 0.10). Conclusions: Up-front RT and gross total resection may confer a survival benefit in patients with sPNET. Local failure was the dominant pattern of recurrence. Efforts should be made to determine patients most likely to have local failure exclusively or as a first recurrence, in order to delay or eliminate craniospinal irradiation

2008-12-01

67

Pineal metastasis as first clinical manifestation of colorectal adenocarcinoma: case report  

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Full Text Available Cerebral metastases from colorectal adenocarcinomas occur in 8% of the cases. Diagnosis is usually made when primary disease and widespread metastases are already known. We report the case of a patient with single metastases in the pineal region as the first clinical manifestation of a colorectal adenocarcinoma. A 48-year-old female with Parinaud's syndrome for 15 days prior her admission was evaluated in our clinic. She had no symptoms or signs of colorectal disease. MRI examination revealed an heterogeneous lesion with peritumoral gadolinium enhancement, located in the pineal region. The tumor was radically resected through an infratentorial/supracerebellar approach. Histology showed metastatic carcinoma and immunohistochemical examination showed gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinoma. Metastases to the pineal region are extremely rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors of this region.

RAMINA RICARDO

1999-01-01

68

Probing Pineal-specific Gene Expression with Transgenic Zebrafish†  

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The pineal gland of zebrafish (Danio rerio) contains lightsensitive photoreceptor cells and plays an important role in the neuroendocrine system. The zebrafish exorhodopsin gene encodes a pineal-specific photoreceptive protein, whose promoter region harbors a cis-acting element, pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), directing pineal-specific gene expression. For in vivo genetic studies on PIPE-binding proteins and their regulatory mechanisms, we generated a transgenic zebrafish line, Tg...

Kojima, Daisuke; Dowling, John E.; Fukada, Yoshitaka

2008-01-01

69

Imaging of brain tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

1995-06-01

70

Pineal and Pituitary Glands  

Science.gov (United States)

... after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Pineal and Pituitary Glands The pineal gland is a small endocrine ... of the corpus callosum, and secretes melatonin . The pituitary gland is located at the base of the ...

71

Elements in the human pineal body  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

100 human pineal bodies (=epiphyses, =pineal glands) were examined by neutron activation analysis for the concentration of Ca, K, Na, Rb, Fe, Co, Se and Zn. Comparing the results with the values from other brain areas, the Ca-content was 90 times higher, Co-content was double and Zn-concentration three times as high as those in the brain. The K, Na, Rb, Fe and Se values were found to be similar to those of other brain regions. Element concentration and age gave no significant correlation for the elements investigated. The K-content was taken as a parameter for cellular vitality and the pineal bodies were grouped into three classes of vitality. The normal K and Na, and the varying trace element concentrations refer to some specific biochemical and physiological functions of the organ. (author)

1981-06-19

72

Biosynthesis of taurine by rat pineals in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal glands from adult, male rats were incubated in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer buffer containing 14C-cystine. After three hours the incubation media and pineal gland extracts were placed separately on Dowex AG W50-X-4 columns. In the elution volume where 14C-labeled taurine is found a labeled peak was recovered. However, when subjected to one or two dimensional paper chromatography especially the eluants from pineal gland extracts yielded two 14C-labeled substances one located in the region where unlabeled taurine is detected by ortho-phthalaldehyde reagent. These results were confirmed utilizing a method developed in our laboratory based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pineals, as well as their respective incubation medium, were shown to contain radioactive taurine. These results demonstrate that rat pineal glands are capable of taurine synthesis. Also a high degree of labeling was associated with an area on paper chromatograms, migrating more rapidly than the standards, using acidic solvent systems. If represented by a single pineal compound, the substance must be rapidly synthesized from 14C-cystine to account for the radioactivity observed. Future studies of sulfur metabolism within the pineal gland could be of significant interest. (author)

1980-01-01

73

Primary pineal malignant melanoma  

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Full Text Available Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare entity, with only thirteen cases reported in the world literature to date. We report a case of a 70-year-old man, who consulted with gait disturbance of six months duration, associated in the last month with dizziness, visual abnormalities and diplopia. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. The magnetic resonance showed a 25 mm expansive mass in the pineal gland that was associated with hydrocephaly, ventricular and transependimary oedema. The lesion was partially excised by a supracerebellar infratentorial approach. The histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient received radiation therapy, but died of disease 16 weeks later. We herein review the literature on this rare tumour and comment on its clinical, radiological and histopathological features and differential diagnosis.

Cesar La Cruz Pelea

2011-05-01

74

Primary pineal melanoma presenting with leptomeningeal spreading in a 22-year-old woman: a case report  

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Abstract Introduction Primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region is exceedingly rare. We report a case of primary pineal malignant melanoma and review the literature. Case presentation Our patient was a 22-year-old Iranian woman without any significant past medical history, who was referred to our center with a four-week history of headache and gait disturbance. A magnetic resonance imaging study showed a solid mass in the pineal region causing obstructive ...

Azimi Parisa; Mohmmadi Hassan; Refiezadeh Mitra

2012-01-01

75

A case of pineal teratoma with intraventricular free fat on CT scan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detection of an intraventricular or intratumoral fat-fluid level on the plain craniograms has been known as a characteristic sign indicating the presence of intracranial teratomatous tumors. On CT scans, however, only thirteen cases have been previously reported to be found an intraventricular and/or subarachnoid free fat associated with spontaneous ruptures of these tumors. We reported a case of pineal teratoma with intraventricular free-fat seen on CT scans. A nine-year-old male with precocious puberty was admitted to our hospital complaining a moderate nonpulsatile headache. Neurological examinations were normal without signs of meningeal irritation. The serum and CSF titer of HCG were raised markedly. The laboratory data of the CSF were normal and there were no pathological cells in the CSF. The CT scans revealed a large heterogeneous mass containing multiple areas of negative density in the pineal region. There were negative density droplets in the bilateral frontal horn on the same CT scans indicating a presence of free fats. At surgery, an yellowish oily material was drained from the tumor, but there was no sign of meningitis over the cortical surface of the occipital lobe. An intraventricular free fat on CT scan have been reported in fourteen cases including ours following the first case described by Fawcitt in 1976. Although most of the cases presented headache, only two cases was diagnosed clinically as chemical meningitis. Pathological changes indicating granulomatous meningitis, however, were noted in five cases, all of them presenting seizure attacks. (author)

1986-01-01

76

Neuroendoscopic biopsy for intraventricular tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroendoscopy has been shown to be an effective and minimally invasive method in the management of intraventricular tumors. Endoscopic tumor biopsy with or without additional endoscopic procedures such as third ventriculostomy and septostomy can be performed at the same session. Neuroendoscopic tumor biopsy was performed in 18 patients in our department. Their ages ranged from 2 to 65 years (median 12 years); only two of them were adult. Location of the tumors were as follows: pineal region in 7, hypothalamus and 3rd ventricle in 4, lateral ventricle in 4, thalamus in 2, and tectal in 1 patient. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia using rigid neuroendoscopes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected at the beginning of the procedure for cytological analysis and for pineal tumor markers. Biopsy forceps were used to obtain tissue from the lesion. The third ventriculostomy was performed in all patients with a pineal tumor, in addition to the tumor biopsy. The pathological examinations revealed a low-grade astrocytoma in 6 patients, anaplastic astrocytoma in 3, germinoma in 3, pineocytoma in 1, pineoblastoma in 2, glioblastoma multiforme in 1 and granulomatous lesion in 1. Subsequent mode of treatment such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy or radical surgery was determined on the basis of pathological diagnosis. Neuroendoscopic tumor biopsy is a less invasive method than open surgery and has some advantages such as treating the hydrocephalus at the same surgical session and the availability of CSF cytology. Neuroendoscopic techniques should be considered in selected patients. PMID:14628246

Yurtseven, T; Er?ahin, Y; Demirta?, E; Mutluer, S

2003-10-01

77

Conventional and advanced MRI features of pediatric intracranial tumors: supratentorial tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE. Our objective is to review the imaging characteristics and applications of conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques of supratentorial intracranial masses in the pediatric population. Specifically, we review astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, primary neuroectodermal tumors, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, gangliogliomas, arachnoid cysts, and choroid plexus and pineal region masses. CONCLUSION. Advanced imaging methods, such as MR spectroscopy, perfusion MRI, functional MRI, diffusion-tensor imaging, and tractography, help develop a more accurate differential diagnosis and aid in planning tumor treatment. PMID:23617516

Borja, Maria J; Plaza, Michael J; Altman, Nolan; Saigal, Gaurav

2013-05-01

78

Pleomorphic pineocytoma associated with normal pineal parenchyma: report of a case in a 70-year-old man.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineocytomas (PCs) most frequently occur in adults, but only three cases have been reported in women older than 70 years. In PCs, cytologic pleomorphism, accompanied by ganglion cells intensely expressing neuronal markers, has been described and the presence of pleomorphic cells may lead to an erroneous upgrading of the tumor. We report an unusual case of pleomorphic pineocytoma in an older patient who presented with a slowly growing tumor adjacent to residual pineal gland. The immunohistological markers of the tumoral tissue and the remnant normal pineal tissue were evaluated and compared. In the neoplasm, the large number of cells labeled for neuronal markers, including many pleomorphic cells, confirmed previous findings that a neuronal immunophenotype is common in PC. Reactivity for synaptophysin was stronger in the tumor than the pineal gland, whereas neurofilament protein reactivity was stronger in the pineal gland than the tumor. The neoplastic cells, but not the pineal gland, were reactive for chromogranin A. This dense core vesicle-associated protein immunolabeling is an interesting diagnostic marker for PCs, which makes it possible to distinguish normal pineal parenchyma with low or negative expression from tumoral tissue. This case illustrates that, even though PCs are low-grade tumors, they can increase in size and surgery appears a valuable option. PMID:20573029

Durand, Anne; Guyotat, Jacques; Champier, Jacques; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Pélissou-Guyotat, Isabelle; Jouvet, Anne; Fèvre-Montange, Michelle

2011-02-01

79

Pineal veins in vertebral angiography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Angiographic patterns of pineal veins in normal and pathological conditions are examined. The diagnostic value of these veins for midline growths is limited owing to their inconstant visualization, multifarious angiographic patterns and minute size. With this in mind, greater significance of classical displacements of the internal and basal veins is outlined. PMID:1196485

Turtas, S

1975-11-21

80

The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk are also reduced in size. Although the brains of neonatal Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice appear normal, severe hydrocephalus develops in about 70 % of the Lhx9 (-/-) mice at 5-8 weeks of age; these observations are the first to document that deletion of Lhx9 results in hydrocephalus and as such indicate that Lhx9 contributes to the maintenance of normal brain structure. Whereas hydrocephalus is absent in neonatal Lhx9 (-/-)mutant mice, the neonatal pineal gland in these animals is hypoplastic. Accordingly, it appears that Lhx9 is essential for early development of the mammalian pineal gland and that this effect is not secondary to hydrocephalus.

Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a > 2-fold down-regulation of 543 genes and a > 2-fold up-regulation of 745 genes (p < 0.05). Of these, one of the most highly up-regulated (18-fold) was Hoxc4, a member of the Hox gene family, members of which are known to control gene expression cascades. During a 24-h period, a set of 51 genes exhibited differential day/night expression in pineal glands of wild-type animals; only eight of these were also day/night expressed in the Crx-/- pineal gland. However, in the Crx-/- pineal gland 41 genes exhibited differential night/day expression that was not seen in wild-type animals. These findings indicate that Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome and also influences differential night/day gene expression in this tissue. Some effects of Crx deletion on the pineal transcriptome might be mediated by Hoxc4 up-regulation.

Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel

2011-01-01

82

Chronic myelogenous leukemia following therapy for pineal germinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 13-year-old male was diagnosed as having pineal germinoma in July 1998. Since then, he had been treated with tumor excision, radiation and chemotherapy. In June 2002, he was diagnosed as having the chronic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and following treatment with interferon-?, he achieved hematological complete remission. Although CML is rare in secondary leukemia, the present case seemed therapy-related CML because of its clinical course, as the CML occurred after the period with radiation and chemotherapy. This is the first case of secondary CML following therapy for intracranial tumors. (author)

2004-01-01

83

Pineal thyroid relationship in psychic stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal hormone and thyroid functions, were studied simultaneously in rats after the induction of acute psychic stress as well as exogenous administration of melatonin, thyroxine and also after thyroidectomy. A gradual increase in 131I uptake, serum PBI and melatonin levels were observed in blood, reaching maximum on 8th day of psychic stress. Melatonin administration resulted in hypothyroidism whereas thyroxine increased the activity of pineal qland. Thyroidectomy revealed a gradual decrease in melatonin content of pineal gland whereas supplementation with thyroxine resulted in a melatonin content similar to that observed in sham operated (control) group. (author)

1981-07-01

84

Regional blood flow in RT-9 brain tumors  

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Regional blood flow (BF) was measured in RT-9 experimental brain tumors using carbon-14 labeled iodoantipyrine, the Kety tissue-exchange equations, and quantitative autoradiographic techniques. Blood flow was variable within tumor tissue, and the range of BF increased with increasing tumor size; the overall range was 6 to 138 ml/100 gm/min and the maximum range within an individual tumor was 55 ml/100 gm/min. In all but one case, mean tumor BF was less than that in the same anatomic region of...

1983-01-01

85

Regional cerebral blood flow measurement in brain tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined on seventeen patients with brain tumors. Ring type single photon emission CT (SPECT) was used following intravenous injection of 133Xe. Case materials included eleven meningiomas and six malignant gliomas. Evaluation was performed with emphasis on the following points; 1. Correlation of the flow data within tumors to the angiographic tumor stains, 2. Influence of tumors on the cerebral blood flow of the normal brain tissue, 3. Correlation between degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemispheres. There was significant correlation between flow data within tumors and angiographic tumor stains in meningiomas. Influence of tumors on cerebral blood flow of the normal tissue was greater in meningiomas than in gliomas. There was negative correlation between the degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemisphere. It has been concluded that the measurement of CBF in brain tumors is a valuable method in evaluation of brain tumors. (author)

1986-01-01

86

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in mandibular region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon neoplasm derivative of the odontogenic epithelium containing canalicular structures with inductor modifications of variable intensity in the conjunctival tissue. It is a slow growth lesion and no much invasive but that may to be similar to other odontogenic lesions more aggressive including the dentigerous cyst and the ameloblastoma among others. Its classical location (upper canine area) guides us to diagnosis and its duct histological pattern is very typical of this tumor. Other tumors included in this group are the ameloblastic fibroma, the ameloblastic odontoma, the calcified odontogenic cyst and composed and complex odontomas. This group of lesions may or not to have formations of hard tissue inside. Thus, authors present the case of a patient presenting with this type of tumor making a histopathology study, a literature review on this benign odontogenic tumor and its clinical radiographic features, treatment, as well as the differential diagnoses to be into account. (author)

2010-01-01

87

Melatonin, the Pineal Gland, and Circadian Rhythms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amniote circadian organization derives from the interactions of circadian oscillator and photoreceptors located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the pineal gland, and the eyes. In mammals, circadian organization is dominated by the SCN, w...

V. M. Cassone W. S. Warren D. S. Brooks J. Lu

1993-01-01

88

Melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland  

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Poster presentation: The mammalian pineal organ is a peripheral oscillator, depending on afferent information from the so-called master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. One of the best studied outputs of the pineal gland is the small and hydrophobic molecule melatonin. In all vertebrates, melatonin is synthesized rhythmically with high levels at night, signalling the body the duration of the dark period. Changes or disruptions of melatonin rhythms in humans are related...

Ackermann Katrin; Bux Roman; Rüb Udo; Kauert Gerold; Stehle Jörg H

2007-01-01

89

[Characteristics of the pineal gland and thymus relationship in aging].  

Science.gov (United States)

The review presents the interference between thymus and pineal gland during their involution. The research data of thymus peptides influence on pineal gland and pineal peptides on thymus are summarized. Analysis of these data showed that pineal peptides (Epithalamin, Epitalon) had more effective geroprotective effect on thymus involution in comparison with geroprotective effect of thymic peptides (Thymalin, Thymogen) on involution of pineal gland. The key mechanisms of pineal peptides effect on thymus dystrophy is immunoendocrine cooperation, which is realized as transcription's activation of various proteins. PMID:21809618

Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetno?, I M; Trofimov, A V; Sevost'ianova, N N

2011-01-01

90

Imaging appearance of bone tumors of the maxillofacial region  

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Full Text Available This paper reviews the imaging appearance of benign and malignant bone tumors of the maxillofacial region. A benign bone tumor commonly appears as a well circumscribed lesion. The matrix of the tumor may be calcified or sclerotic. Malignancies often display aggressive characteristics such as cortical breakthrough, bone destruction, a permeative pattern and associated soft-tissue masses. Computed tomography scan is an excellent imaging modality for accurate localization of the lesion, characterization of the tumor matrix and detection of associated osseous changes such as bone remodeling, destruction or periosteal reaction. Magnetic resonance imaging is of limited value in the evaluation of maxillofacial bone tumors.

Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel Razek

2011-01-01

91

Circadian signaling in the chick pineal organ.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chick pineal organ is recognized to contain an endogenous circadian oscillator as well as having direct photic input pathways and the capability of synthesizing melatonin. Despite its interesting circadian cell biology, far less is known about the chick pineal as compared to mammalian pineal glands. The goals of our research were to identify and characterize novel components of the circadian system in this photoneuroendocrine organ. Using a subtractive screening strategy of a nocturnal chick pineal cDNA library, we identified numerous genes whose expression in the chick pineal has never been reported. Among these, we focused our attention on a homologue to the regulatory subunit of the mammalian serine/threonine protein phosphatase (STPP) 2A. The expression of this gene in the chick pineal is highly circadian both in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of the PP2A enzyme in this tissue revealed that it is predominantly cytosolic in localization, sensitive to classical PP2A inhibitors, and far more active during the subjective night. Interestingly, the acute pharmacological inhibition of PP2A leads to elevated phosphoCREB levels and concomitant melatonin secretion, indicating that this enzyme participates at some level in the control of nocturnal pineal melatonin synthesis. In a second aspect of our research, we examined the mechanisms underlying the circadian rhythmicity of cyclic GMP in the chick pineal. This signaling molecule is poorly understood, despite its well-known, high-amplitude circadian rhythms and the presence of many cGMP-dependent targets in this tissue. Our work has shown that although both soluble (sGC) and membrane-bound (mGC) forms of guanylyl cyclase are present, the primary contributor to the circadian rhythms of cGMP is the mGC-B enzyme, which is activated only by the natriuretic peptide CNP. As pharmacological blockade of mGC-B (but not sGC) suppresses nocturnal cGMP levels, we conclude that CNP-dependent mechanisms are involved. Hence, the circadian clock in the chick pineal appears to drive either CNP secretion or mGC-B expression (or synthetic efficiency) in order to elevate nocturnal cGMP. Conversely, light may inhibit cGMP by uncoupling this drive. These data provide new strategies for understanding both photic input pathways (presumed to depend on cGMP) and cGMP-dependent cellular function in the chick pineal organ. PMID:12916716

Olcese, James

2003-07-01

92

Primary yolk sac tumor of the cerebellar vermis: A case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare and comprise 2-5% of all germ cell tumors. Seminoma/dysgerminoma, teratoma, yolk sac tumor (YST) and mixed germ cell tumors are few of the extragonadal germ cell tumors arising within the brain. Of these, primary pure YSTs arising in the brain are extremely rare and arise in the pineal (62%) and suprasellar (31%) regions. Primary YST occurring in the cerebellum is exceedingly rare, associated with a very poor prognosis and has been reported in less than 10 cases in literature. We herein report a case of primary pure yolk sac tumor in the cerebellar vermis in a 2-year-old child. PMID:24943765

Shenoy, Asha S; Desai, Heena M; Tyagi, Devendra K; Savant, Hemant V; Kavishwar, Vikas S; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshi

2014-01-01

93

Radiotherapy of malignant tumors of the maxillofacial region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Domestic and foreign literature data on problems of radiotherapy of malignant tumors of the maxillofacial region are reviewed. According to literature data radiotherapy of patients with cancer of oral cavity mucosa is applied as an independent method in 69.6% of cases and in combination with operation it is applied in 84.8% of cases. Radiosensitivity of tumors of this localization as well as methods for improvement of the radioteirapy depending on the type of tumor and its stage are analyzed. Efficiency of radiotherapy of metastases in regional lymph nodes as well as ad isability of their prophylactic irradiation are discussed

1985-01-01

94

Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Otx2 is a vertebrate homeobox gene, which has been found to be essential for the development of rostral brain regions and appears to play a role in the development of retinal photoreceptor cells and pinealocytes. In this study, the temporal expression pattern of Otx2 was revealed in the rat brain, with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages. Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland. Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression pattern similar to that of Otx2, although there was a distinct lag in time of onset. Otx2 protein was identified in pineal extracts and found to be localized in pinealocytes. Total pineal Otx2 mRNA did not show day-night variation, nor was it influenced by removal of the sympathetic input, indicating that the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland. Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes associated with phototransduction and melatonin synthesis.

Rath, Martin F; Muñoz, Estela

2006-01-01

95

Comparison of some peptidic and proteic ovine pineal fractions with a bovine pineal E5 fraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using rather simple and mild extraction and separation methods, three ovine pineal fractions (XM 300R - PP 7.2, PP 7.2' and PP 7.2S) were obtained, which contain peptidic/proteic substances and which show fluorescence characteristics of indoles. The ovine fractions were compared with the bovine pineal E5-fraction. The ovine fractions are chemically sensitive to normal laboratory light and stable in red light (..lambda.. > 600 nm). Immunologically, these fractions and the bovine E5 fraction are stable. From the results of radioimmunological experiments it was concluded that the bovine pineal E5 fraction as well as the ovine pineal fraction XM 300R - PP 7.2 and PP 7.2S may contain (a) peptide(s) ending by the same carboxy terminal tripeptide Pro-Arg-Gly(NH/sub 2/).

Noteborn, H.P.; Ebels, I.; Salemink, C.A. (State Univ. of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands). Department of Organic Chemistry); Pevet, P. (The Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands).); Reinharz, A.C. (Hopital Cantonal, Geneva (Switzerland). Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology); Neacsu, C. (Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology, Bucharest (Romania).)

1982-01-01

96

Comparison of some peptidic and proteic ovine pineal fractions with a bovine pineal E5 fraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using rather simple and mild extraction and separation methods, three ovine pineal fractions (XM 300R - PP 7.2, PP 7.2' and PP 7.2S) were obtained, which contain peptidic/proteic substances and which show fluorescence characteristics of indoles. The ovine fractions were compared with the bovine pineal E5-fraction. The ovine fractions are chemically sensitive to normal laboratory light and stable in red light (#betta# > 600 nm). Immunologically, these fractions and the bovine E5 fraction are stable. From the results of radioimmunological experiments it was concluded that the bovine pineal E5 fraction as well as the ovine pineal fraction XM 300R - PP 7.2 and PP 7.2S may contain (a) peptide(s) ending by the same carboxy terminal tripeptide Pro-Arg-Gly(NH"2). (Author)

1982-01-01

97

[A case of pineal teratoma with interesting radiological findings].  

Science.gov (United States)

A rare case of mature pineal teratoma with interesting radiological findings in a 16-month-old infant is reported. The patient was referred to our clinic because of generalized convulsions. A CT scan showed marked hydrocephalus and a low density mass lesion without contrast enhancement in the pineal region. A CT cisternography demonstrated the lesion as a filling defect area on the image produced immediately after the emergent V-P shunt, and a filling area 24 hours later. The lesion was of signal intensity on T-1 weighted MR image and of high signal intensity on T-2 weighted MR image, equal to CSF intensity. These radiological findings were compatible with an arachnoid cyst in the quadrigeminal cistern, so we performed the excision of both anterior and posterior cyst walls using the occipital tentorial approach. However, the histology of the cyst wall was not compatible with that of an arachnoid cyst, showing neuroepithelial-like cell lining with positive staining for cytokeratine. The postoperative follow-up on MRI was continued for 31 months. An MRI performed 9 days after the first operation showed, compared with the gray matter, iso-signal intensity area and high signal intensity area on T-1 weighted image. At first, we thought this was because of bleeding of the pineal gland brought on by the operative maneuver. However, the mixed intensity lesion shown on T-1 weighted images gradually expanded and distorted, and finally showed the typical MR images for a teratoma. The operative findings using the occipital transtentorial approach were typical for a teratoma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8072638

Nakashima, S; Masuoka, J; Tsuji, T; Tabuchi, K

1994-08-01

98

Regional cerebral blood flow in the patient with brain tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with xenon-enhanced CT (Xe-CT) in 21 cases of intracranial tumors (13 meningiomas, 5 gliomas, 3 metastatic brain tumors). Peritumoral edema was graded as mild, moderate or severe based on the extent of edema on CT and MRI. According to intratumoral blood flow distribution patterns, three patterns were classified as central type with relatively high blood flow at the center of the tumor, homogeneous type with an almost homogeneous blood flow distribution, and marginal type with relatively high blood flow at the periphery of the tumor. High grade astrocytoma and metastatic brain tumor showed marginal type blood flow and moderate or severe edema except in one case. Five meningiomas with severe peritumoral edema revealed marginal type blood flow and four with mild peritumoral edema showed central type blood flow, except for one case. No correlation was found between the extent of peritumoral edema and histological subtype, tumor size, location, duration of clinical history, vascularization on angiogram, and mean blood flow in the tumor. These results suggest that blood flow distribution patterns within the tumor may affect the extension of peritumoral edema. Pre- and postoperative rCBFs were evaluated with Xe-CT and IMP-SPECT in 7 cases, mean rCBF of peritumoral edema was 6.2 ml/100 g/min preoperatively, and discrepancy between rCBF on Xe-CT and that on IMP-SPECT was shown in the remote cortical region ipsilateral to the tumor. Postoperative rCBF revealed an improved blood flow in both adjacent and remote areas, suggesting that the decreased blood flow associated with brain tumors might be relieved after surgery. (author) 53 refs

1993-06-01

99

Pineal cysts: an incidental MRI finding?  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of pineal cysts (PC) in "standard" MRI was reviewed. Seven cases of PC were found from 400 consecutive MRI examinations. PC did not produce clinically relevant symptoms in any of the patients. Our data, as well as those emerging from a critical review of the literature, suggest that PC are often asymptomatic and represent an incidental MRI finding. Images

Di Costanzo, A; Tedeschi, G; Di Salle, F; Golia, F; Morrone, R; Bonavita, V

1993-01-01

100

Symptomatic glial cysts of the pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small asymptomatic cysts of the pineal gland represent a common incidental finding in adults undergoing computerized tomography or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging or at postmortem examination. In contrast, large symptomatic pineal cysts are rare, being limited to individual case reports or small series. The authors have reviewed 24 cases of large pineal cysts. The mean patient age at presentation was 28.7 years (range 15 to 46 years); 18 were female and six male. Presenting features in 20 symptomatic cases included: headache in 19; nausea and/or vomiting in seven; papilledema in five; visual disturbances in five (diplopia in three, "blurred vision" in two, and unilateral partial oculomotor nerve palsy in one); Parinaud's syndrome in two; hemiparesis in one; hemisensory aberration in one; and seizures in one. Four lesions were discovered incidentally. Magnetic resonance imaging typically demonstrated a 0.8- to 3.0-cm diameter mass (mean 1.7 cm) with homogeneous decreased signal intensity on T1-weighted images, increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and a distinct margin. Hydrocephalus was present in eight cases. The cysts were surgically excised via an infratentorial/supracerebellar approach (23 cases) or stereotactically biopsied (one case). Histological examination revealed a cyst wall 0.5 to 2.0 mm thick comprised of three layers: an outer fibrous layer, a middle layer of pineal parenchymal cells with variable calcification, and an inner layer of hypocellular glial tissue often exhibiting Rosenthal fibers and/or granular bodies. Evidence of prior hemorrhage, mild astrocytic degenerative atypia, and disorganization of pineal parenchyma were often present. Postoperative follow-up review in all 24 cases (range 3 months to 10 years) revealed no complications in 21, mild ocular movement deficit in one, gradually resolving Parinaud's syndrome in one, and radiographic evidence of a postoperative venous infarct of the superior cerebellum with ataxia of 1 week's duration in one. Of the patients referred for study, the cysts were most often initially misdiagnosed as a pineocytoma in eight and a pilocytic astrocytoma in three. Only two patients were correctly diagnosed as having pineal cysts. This stresses the importance of recognizing the histopathological spectrum of pineal cysts, as well as correlation with radiographic findings, if a correct diagnosis is to be attained. PMID:8113858

Fain, J S; Tomlinson, F H; Scheithauer, B W; Parisi, J E; Fletcher, G P; Kelly, P J; Miller, G M

1994-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Collision tumors of the paranasal region: presentation of two cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Collision tumors in the paranasal region are extremely rare with limited literature data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of associations of squamous cell carcinoma-esthesioneuroblastoma and lymphoma-hemangiopericytoma in the paranasal region. Preoperatively, radiological and clinical findings should be evaluated carefully for the diagnosis and two or more biopsy specimens should be taken from different morphological parts of the lesions. Adjuvant therapy should be planned according to two different histologies and special importance should be given to the tumor which indicates the prognosis of the patient. A multidisciplinary approach is required for the management of synchronous malignancies. PMID:24835907

Göde, Sercan; Midilli, Ra?it; Ceylan, Naim; Akal?n, Taner; Veral, Ali; Var??, Ahmet; Karc?, Bülent

2014-01-01

102

Supratentorial tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

2007-06-01

103

Malignant tumors arising in the maxillary region after radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although radiotherapy has proven of great therapeutic value in the treatment of malignant tumors, it should also be borne in mind that radiation has a serious potential risk of giving rise to a secondary malignancy. We recently experienced 2 cases each of carcinoma and sarcoma arising in the irradiated areas long after radiation therapy for malignant tumors. In these 4 cases, 2 males and 2 females, the primary neoplastic diseases were squamous cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, carcinoma of unknown pathology and malignant lymphoma, and the secondary tumors were epidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, respectively. The sites of occurrence of these malignancies were invariably in the maxillary region; the mean latent period was 15 years, aside from an infantile case with a latent period of 5 years. In view of the primary diseases being malignant tumors the following criteria were set up for the diagnosis of radiation-induced malignancies: (1) the site of occurrence is within the confines of a previously irradiated area, (2) the latent period is prolonged and (3) the malignancy occurs as a double tumor. Therapy was primarily by operation. The prognosis was exceedingly ominous, the average survival time being 22 months. This was probably and mainly because of rapidity of tumor growth. Thus, the secondary tumors had already spread back to inward by the time they were first discovered. This should be kept in mind during a long-term follow-up of patients receiving radiotherapy for malignancy. (author)

1984-01-01

104

DETECTION OF TUMOR REGION USING FAST FUZZY CLUSTERING ALGORITHM  

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Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is a medical imaging technique for measuring the anatomy and functions of the body in detail to providing information of the brain and the brain stem. To understand the complex segmentation among the brain regions we propose a fuzzy clustering algorithm. The algorithm starts with globally denoising the brain images using Kernel algorithm. Next, region will be segmented using the FFC (Fast Fuzzy Clustering algorithms and detecting the tumor region and type of disease will be detected.. The results suggest that the proposed algorithms provide improved performance and segmentation accuracy compared to the existing algorithms.

Ms.A.Dhivya (ME

2014-04-01

105

Regional tumor oximetry: 19F NMR spectroscopy of hexafluorobenzene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: An accurate method for monitoring oxygen tension (pO2) of individual tumors could be valuable for optimizing treatment plans. We have recently shown that 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-lattice relaxometry of hexafluorobenzene (HFB) provides a highly sensitive indicator of tumor oxygenation. We have now refined the methodology to provide enhanced precision, and applied the method to investigate dynamic changes in tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Dunning prostate adenocarcinoma R3327-AT1 was grown in the form of pedicles on the foreback of male Copenhagen rats. When the tumors reached ?1 cm diameter, HFB (20 ?l) was administered, either centrally or peripherally, by direct intratumoral (IT) injection. Local pO2 was determined using pulse-burst saturation recovery (PBSR) 19F NMR spectroscopy on the basis of the spin-lattice relaxation rate, R1. Results: Interrogation of the central region of tumors provided typical values in the range pO2 = 1.4-6.4 mmHg, with a typical stability of ±2 mmHg over a period of 20 min, when rats breathed 33% O2. Altering the inhaled gas to oxygen or carbogen (95% O2/5% CO2) produced no significant change. In contrast, interrogation of tumor periphery indicated baseline pO2 in the range 7.9-78.9 mmHg. Altering inspired gas produced significant changes (p 2 or carbogen, although the change was generally greater with carbogen. In each case, pO2 returned to baseline within 16 min of returning the inhaled gas to baseline. Conclusion: We believe this method provides a valuable new approach with the requisite precision and accuracy to investigate tumor pO2

1998-04-01

106

Non-pancreatic cancer tumors in the pancreatic region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most of tumors found in the pancreas are adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. A small number of tumors in the pancreas, such as islet cell tumors or neuroendocrine tumors, papillary cystic neoplasms, lymphoma, acinar cell tumors, metastatic tumors to the pancreas often, have a far better prognosis, and the majority of these tumors are non-malignant or benign. The author reviewed the recent literatures, and summarized where the tumor comes originally in the pancreas, what is the type of the tumor, ...

Andre?n-sandberg, A?ke

2011-01-01

107

Tumores não hipofisários da região selar / Nonpituitary tumors of the sellar region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A hipófise, a sela túrcica e a região peri-selar podem ser acometidas por uma série de lesões, incluindo tumores benignos e malignos, bem como uma ampla variedade de doenças não neoplásicas. Os aspectos clínicos e radiológicos podem auxiliar no diagnóstico diferencial destas lesões. Porém, em muitos [...] casos, somente a análise histopatológica pode estabelecer o diagnóstico definitivo. Neste artigo, revisamos principais tumores não hipofisários da região selar e peri-selar, ressaltando seus aspectos endócrinos mais relevantes. Abstract in english The pituitary gland, sella turcica and the parasellar region can be involved by a wide variety of lesions, including benign and malignant neoplasms as well as a wide variety of non neoplastic tumor-like lesions. Clinical and radiological aspects could help in the differential diagnosis of these lesi [...] ons. Nevertheless, in many cases only the histopathological analysis could establish the definitive diagnosis. In this paper, we review the nonpituitary tumors of the sellar region emphasizing the associated hormonal disturbances.

Mauro A., Czepielewski; Guilherme A.F.S., Rollin; Alessandra, Casagrande; Marcelo Paglioli, Ferreira; Nelson P., Ferreira.

108

Circadian rhythms in the pineal organ persist in zebrafish larvae that lack ventral brain  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, located in the ventral hypothalamus, is a major regulator of circadian rhythms in mammals and birds. However, the role of the SCN in lower vertebrates remains poorly understood. Zebrafish cyclops (cyc mutants lack ventral brain, including the region that gives rise to the SCN. We have used cyc embryos to define the function of the zebrafish SCN in regulating circadian rhythms in the developing pineal organ. The pineal organ is the major source of the circadian hormone melatonin, which regulates rhythms such as daily rest/activity cycles. Mammalian pineal rhythms are controlled almost exclusively by the SCN. In zebrafish and many other lower vertebrates, the pineal has an endogenous clock that is responsible in part for cyclic melatonin biosynthesis and gene expression. Results We find that pineal rhythms are present in cyc mutants despite the absence of an SCN. The arginine vasopressin-like protein (Avpl, formerly called Vasotocin is a peptide hormone expressed in and around the SCN. We find avpl mRNA is absent in cyc mutants, supporting previous work suggesting the SCN is missing. In contrast, expression of the putative circadian clock genes, cryptochrome 1b (cry1b and cryptochrome 3 (cry3, in the brain of the developing fish is unaltered. Expression of two pineal rhythmic genes, exo-rhodopsin (exorh and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (aanat2, involved in photoreception and melatonin synthesis, respectively, is also similar between cyc embryos and their wildtype (WT siblings. The timing of the peaks and troughs of expression are the same, although the amplitude of expression is slightly decreased in the mutants. Cyclic gene expression persists for two days in cyc embryos transferred to constant light or constant dark, suggesting a circadian clock is driving the rhythms. However, the amplitude of rhythms in cyc mutants kept in constant conditions decreased more quickly than in their WT siblings. Conclusion Our data suggests that circadian rhythms can be initiated and maintained in the absence of SCN and other tissues in the ventral brain. However, the SCN may have a role in regulating the amplitude of rhythms when environmental cues are absent. This provides some of the first evidence that the SCN of teleosts is not essential for establishing circadian rhythms during development. Several SCN-independent circadian rhythms have also been found in mammalian species. Thus, zebrafish may serve as a model system for understanding how vertebrate embryos coordinate rhythms that are controlled by different circadian clocks.

Goldstein-Kral Lauren

2011-01-01

109

Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri

2014-01-01

110

Peptidegic stimulation of differentiation of pineal immune cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied cell composition of the pineal lymphoid tissue and the effect of peptides on its differentiation and proliferation capacity. It was shown that the lymphoid component of the pineal gland in organotypic culture is primarily presented by low-differentiated CD5(+)-lymphocytes, while mature T and B cells are less abundant. Dipeptide vilon stimulates differentiation of precursors into T-helpers, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and B cells, while tetrapeptide epithalon stimulated their differentiation towards B cells. Tripeptide vesugen had no effect on differentiation capacity of immune cells of the pineal gland, but enhanced their proliferation potential. Thus, dipeptide vilon acts as an inductor of differentiation of pineal immune cells, which can play an important compensatory role in age-related atrophy of the thymus, the central organ of the immune system. PMID:22803057

Linkova, N S; Khavinson, V Kh; Chalisova, N I; Katanugina, A S; Koncevaya, E A

2011-11-01

111

Regional and Temporal Differences in Gene Expression of LHBETATAG Retinoblastoma Tumors  

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In the current study, the gene expression of retinoblastoma tumors was examined in a murine mouse model. The study is the first to show regional and temporal variations in gene expression in these tumors.

Houston, Samuel K.; Pina, Yolanda; Clarke, Jennifer; Koru-sengul, Tulay; Scott, William K.; Nathanson, Lubov; Schefler, Amy C.; Murray, Timothy G.

2011-01-01

112

Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 {+-} 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

Whitehead, Matthew T. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Oh, Christopher C. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Choudhri, Asim F. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States)

2013-12-15

113

The dielectric properties of human pineal gland tissue and RF absorption due to wireless communication devices in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human pineal gland, the dielectric properties of a sample of 20 freshly removed pineal glands were measured less than 20 h after death. Furthermore, a corresponding high resolution numerical model of the brain region surrounding the pineal gland was developed, based on a real human tissue sample. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices, the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland when compared to SAR limits according to international safety standards. The highest absorption was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case the RF power absorbed inside the pineal gland (organ mass 96 mg) was as low as 11 {mu}W, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland were found to be lower by a factor of 4.2 and 36, respectively. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the pineal gland induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices are unlikely.

Schmid, Gernot [Austrian Research Centers GmbH-ARC, ITM, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Ueberbacher, Richard [Austrian Research Centers GmbH-ARC, ITM, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Samaras, Theodoros [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tschabitscher, Manfred [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mazal, Peter R [Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

2007-09-07

114

The dielectric properties of human pineal gland tissue and RF absorption due to wireless communication devices in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human pineal gland, the dielectric properties of a sample of 20 freshly removed pineal glands were measured less than 20 h after death. Furthermore, a corresponding high resolution numerical model of the brain region surrounding the pineal gland was developed, based on a real human tissue sample. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices, the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland when compared to SAR limits according to international safety standards. The highest absorption was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case the RF power absorbed inside the pineal gland (organ mass 96 mg) was as low as 11 ?W, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland were found to be lower by a factor of 4.2 and 36, respectively. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the pineal gland induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices are unlikely

2007-09-07

115

The pineal gland in newborn southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the newborn southern elephant seal the pineal gland is very large, and both pineal and plasma melatonin concentration is elevated. The pineal gland was investigated during the first 24 h, and up to 20 days of age, in elephant seal pups. A primary aim of this investigation was to determine whether there are obvious ultrastructural characteristics of pinealocytes that are exhibiting extraordinarily high levels of activity. Blood and pineal glands were collected from thirty seven pups of known age which were sampled at random from early September to early November (1985) at Macquarie Island. The pineal gland is large (mean weight, 4.71 +/- 0.35 gm, range 1-9.3 gm) and actively secreting melatonin at birth. Melatonin concentrations were extremely variable, yet very high in pups during the first 24 h post-partum. Mean melatonin plasma concentration for pups 0-24 h was 17632.8 +/- 5723.8 pmol/l (4090.8 +/- 1327.9 pg/ml), ranging from 126 pmol/l (29 pg/ml) to 297000 pmol/l (68904 pg/ml). Electron microscopic examination did not reveal any marked changes in pinealocyte ultrastructure suggestive of increased secretory activity during this period. The large and extremely active pineal gland in newborn southern elephant seal suggests that it is actively involved in thermoregulation. PMID:2277325

Little, G J; Bryden, M M

1990-01-01

116

Morphologic study of the pineal gland of the dog/ Estudo morfológico da glândula pineal do cão  

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Full Text Available Following the discovery of the melatonin by Lerner et al. (1958, new research and perspectives were developed in order to improve the knowledge regarding the pineal gland. This hormone is not only related to the circadian control but also influences other behavioral functions such as the reproductive cycle and thermoregulation. In this study the morphology of the pineal gland (epiphysis cerebri from 20 dogs were analyzed by means of macroscopic and microscopic evaluation. The shape of the gland ranged from conic to “tongue-like shape” (in relation to human tongue. The gland color ranged from beige to gray-brownish and it had a gelatinous consistency. The width and length of the glands ranged from 1.38 to 2.39 mm and 1.53 to 2.96 mm, respectively. Capsule, septa, pinealocytes, glial cells and pigment granules were microscopically found in all glands. No calcareous concretions were observed.Após a descoberta da melatonina por Lerner et al. (1958, novas pesquisas e perspectivas surgiram tornando a pineal uma estrutura mais estudada. Além disso, sabe-se que este hormônio está relacionado com o controle circadiano e outras funções comportamentais fisiológicas como o ciclo reprodutivo e termorregulação. Neste trabalho, foram utilizados 20 cães e estudamos a morfologia das glândulas, empregando uma análise macroscópica e microscópica. O formato das pineais variou de cônico a glossóide (em relação à língua humana; cor entre bege e marrom-acinzentado e apresentaram consistência gelatinosa. A largura e o comprimento das glândulas variaram respectivamente de 1,38 a 2,39 mm e de 1,53 a 2,96 mm. Quanto à microscopia, utilizamos coloração de eosina-hematoxilina (HE, e em todas as pineais observamos a presença dos seguintes componentes: cápsula; septos ou trabéculas pinealócitos; células da glia; grânulos de pigmentos, e não foram notadas concreções calcáreas.

Francisco Xavier Hernandez Blazquez

2008-08-01

117

Supratentorial tumors; Supratentorielle Tumoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

Grunwald, I.; Dillmann, K.; Roth, C.; Backens, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

2007-06-15

118

A new identified complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal gland cysts are typically asymptomatic, benign cysts most commonly found incidentally in adults. In rare cases, a large pineal gland cyst can be complicated by intracystic hemorrhage, which could then manifest with neurological symptoms. We report a new complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst in a 40-year-old man with new onset seizures. PMID:24746445

Mehrzad, Raman; Mishra, Suprav; Feinstein, Alexander; Ho, Michael G

2014-01-01

119

Desmoid tumor of ilio-acetabular region with articular cartilage breach: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Desmoid tumor of bone is a rare benign tumor. It is reported commonly in mandibular and meta-diaphyseal region of long bones. We report involvement of unusual site in ilio-acetabular region with breach in articular cartilage. Case Report: A 40 year old female presented with pain in the left hip. Radiologically, a lytic lesion at ilio-acetabular region was seen. Intra-operatively breach in acetabular roof was seen which was missed in the scan. Curettage and defect reconstruction was done. Histopathology reported as desmoid tumor. 20 months post-operatively patient was symptom free. Conclusion: Desmoid tumor is a rare bone tumor. This case report emphasizes about the rarity of the lesion in this location and the rare chances of breach in articular cartilage of the joint. The chances of recurrences are high with intralesional curettage. Keywords: Lytic lesion, Desmoid tumor, ilio-acetabular region, breach in articular margin

Himanshu Prasad

2013-10-01

120

Global daily dynamics of the pineal transcriptome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transcriptome profiling of the pineal gland has revealed night/day differences in the expression of a major fraction of the genes active in this tissue, with two-thirds of these being nocturnal increases. A set of over 600 transcripts exhibit two-fold to >100-fold daily differences in abundance. These changes appear to be primarily attributable to adrenergic-cyclic-AMP-dependent mechanisms, which are controlled via a neural pathway that includes the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master circadian oscillator. In addition to melatonin synthesis, night/day differences in gene expression impact genes associated with several specialized functions, including the immune/inflammation response, photo-transduction, and thyroid hormone/retinoic acid biology. The following nonspecialized cellular features are also affected: adhesion, cell cycle/cell death, cytoskeleton, DNA modification, endothelium, growth, RNA modification, small molecule biology, transcription factors, vesicle biology, signaling involving Ca(2+), cyclicnucleotides, phospholipids, mitogen-activated protein kinases, the Wnt signaling pathway, and protein phosphorylation.

Bustos, Diego M; Bailey, Michael J

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

In vivo imaging of tumor-propagating cells, regional tumor heterogeneity, and dynamic cell movements in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) is an aggressive pediatric sarcoma of muscle. Here, we show that ERMS-propagating potential is confined to myf5+ cells and can be visualized in live, fluorescent transgenic zebrafish. During early tumor growth, myf5+ ERMS cells reside adjacent normal muscle fibers. By late stage ERMS, myf5+ cells are reorganized into distinct regions separated from differentiated tumor cells. Time-lapse imaging of late stage ERMS revealed that myf5+ cells populate newly forme...

Ignatius, Myron S.; Chen, Eleanor; Elpek, Natalie M.; Fuller, Adam; Tenente, Ine?s M.; Clagg, Ryan; Liu, Sali; Blackburn, Jessica S.; Linardic, Corinne M.; Rosenberg, Andrew; Nielsen, Petur G.; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Langenau, David M.

2012-01-01

122

Malignant giant cell tumor of soft parts in lumbosacral region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Giant cell tumor of soft parts is a rare neoplasm that mainly affects adulst and the elderly and is usually located in the extremities. Here we report a child with giant cell tumor of soft tissue, which is a very rare condition in childhood. Clinical presentation : A 5 year old girl presented with a 5 month history of left lower extremity pain. She had developed paraplegia before admission. On examination, mild left lumbosacral swelling and tenderness was found. Abdominal and pelvic CT-Scan revealed an expansile lytic lesion of the left side of sacrum with significant soft tissue component extending toward the left iliac bone. Lumbar MRI revealed a space occupying lesion originating from posterior L5 elements, projecting toward the L1. Intervention : The patient underwent surgery. A firm epidural hemorrhagic tumor of L5, S1, and S2 with no spinal cord involvement was found. Partial tumor resection (measuring 3*1*0.5 cm in maximal diameter and laminectomy was done. Conclusion : Primary giant cell tumors of soft tissue are distinctive, rare neoplasms that exhibit a wide clinicopathologic spectrum similar to osseous GCTs and need to be differentiated from other giant cell rich soft tissue tumors. Recognition of this tumor is important due to its behavior as a low grade malignancy, but this cannot be predicted and metastasis does occur rarely

Jadali F

2008-04-01

123

Regional thymidine transport and incorporation in experimental brain and subcutaneous tumors  

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The regional distribution and local incorporation of (/sup 14/C)thymidine into a nonextractable tissue fraction, probably DNA, was measured in normal and neoplastic tissues. A study was made of brain tumors induced by avian sarcoma virus and ethylnitrosourea, and transplanted RG-2 intracerebral and subcutaneous gliomas. An incorporation quotient, Q, was calculated for different tumor regions and brain from the methanol nonextractable radioactivity in the tissue and the plasma concentration-time integral of thymidine. The incorporation quotient represents the rate of clearance of thymidine from blood and its incorporation into macromolecules (probably DNA). The values of Q were compared with a labeling index measured in the same tissue regions with conventional autoradiography. The following observations were made: (1) the mean plasma half-life of thymidine was 6.5 min; (2) the regional incorporation quotient in tumors varied from values comparable to normal brain to more than 100 times higher; (3) RG-2 tumors had significantly higher Qs than the other tumor models; (4) Q in subcutaneous tumors varied most widely (greater than 500-fold range); (5) the labeling index reflected the values of Q in some tumor regions but not in others; differences between the two were most frequently related to tumor cell density and the intensity of individual tumor cell labeling. A comparison of these data with previous studies of capillary permeability and blood flow in these tumor models indicates that the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)thymidine into a nonextractable tissue fraction can be limited by transcapillary transport in brain tumors and by blood flow in systemic tumors, and that thymidine disposition in these tumors is not always indicative of the rate of DNA synthesis.

Molnar, P.; Groothuis, D.; Blasberg, R.; Zaharko, D.; Owens, E.; Fenstermacher, J.

1984-08-01

124

Tumor odontógeno adenomatoide en región mandibular Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in mandibular region  

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Full Text Available El tumor odontogénico adenomatoide es un tumor poco frecuente derivado del epitelio odontontogénico, que contiene estructuras canaliculares con modificaciones inductivas de intensidad variable en el tejido conjuntivo. Es una lesión de crecimiento lento y poco invasiva pero que se puede asemejar a otras lesiones odontógenas de mayor agresividad como el quiste dentígero y el ameloblastoma entre otros. Su localización clásica (área de caninos superiores nos orienta al diagnóstico y su patrón histológico ductiforme es muy propio de este tumor. Otros tumores que se encuentran dentro de este grupo son el fibroma ameloblástico, el odontoameloblastoma, el quiste odontógeno calcificante y los odontomas compuesto y complejo. Este grupo de lesiones puede o no tener formaciones de tejido duro dental dentro de ellos. Por esta razón, se presenta un paciente con este tipo de tumor, al que se le realizó estudio histopatológico, se revisó la literatura acerca de este tumor odontogénico benigno y sus características clínicas, radiográficas, tratamiento, así como los diagnósticos diferenciales que se deben tener en cuenta.The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon neoplasm derivative of the odontogenic epithelium containing canalicular structures with inductor modifications of variable intensity in the conjunctival tissue. It is a slow growth lesion and no much invasive but that may to be similar to other odontogenic lesions more aggressive including the dentigerous cyst and the ameloblastoma among others. Its classical location (upper canine area guides us to diagnosis and its duct histological pattern is very typical of this tumor. Other tumors included in this group are the ameloblastic fibroma, the ameloblastic odontoma, the calcified odontogenic cyst and composed and complex odontomas. This group of lesions may or not to have formations of hard tissue inside. Thus, authors present the case of a patient presenting with this type of tumor making a histopathology study, a literature review on this benign odontogenic tumor and its clinical radiographic features, treatment, as well as the differential diagnoses to be into account.

Ernesto Sánchez Cabrales

2010-12-01

125

Regional tumor oxygen tension: fluorine echo planar imaging of hexafluorobenzene reveals heterogeneity of dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Therapeutic success could be enhanced if therapy were tailored to the characteristics of specific tumors. We have been developing novel approaches to measuring tumor oxygen tension in vivo, and recently reported a method based on 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin lattice echo planar imaging (EPI) relaxometry of hexafluorobenzene (HFB). We have now examined the feasibility of monitoring dynamic changes in regional tumor oxygenation in response to respiratory challenge. Preliminary data in one tumor show distinct differences before and subsequent to irradiation. Methods and Materials: Dunning prostate adenocarcinoma R3327-AT1 was grown in the form of pedicles on the foreback of male Copenhagen rats. When the tumors reached ? 1 cm diameter, HFB (40 ?l) was administered by direct intratumoral injection deliberately dispersed to interrogate both central and peripheral regions. Local pO2 was determined using pulse burst saturation recovery 19F NMR EPI on the basis of the spin lattice relaxation rate. Results: Interrogation of both central and peripheral regions of tumors showed bimodal distribution for oxygenation, including many voxels with pO2 2 produced significant elevation for regions with initially high pO2 (p 2 showed little response. Following irradiation (20 Gy), tumor oxygenation was significantly elevated and remained high for at least 10 h. Conclusion: We believe this method provides a valuable new approach to investigate tumor oximetry that may extend our understanding of tumor physiology, and could have prognostic value

1998-11-01

126

Tumor odontógeno adenomatoide en región mandibular / Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in mandibular region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El tumor odontogénico adenomatoide es un tumor poco frecuente derivado del epitelio odontontogénico, que contiene estructuras canaliculares con modificaciones inductivas de intensidad variable en el tejido conjuntivo. Es una lesión de crecimiento lento y poco invasiva pero que se puede asemejar a ot [...] ras lesiones odontógenas de mayor agresividad como el quiste dentígero y el ameloblastoma entre otros. Su localización clásica (área de caninos superiores) nos orienta al diagnóstico y su patrón histológico ductiforme es muy propio de este tumor. Otros tumores que se encuentran dentro de este grupo son el fibroma ameloblástico, el odontoameloblastoma, el quiste odontógeno calcificante y los odontomas compuesto y complejo. Este grupo de lesiones puede o no tener formaciones de tejido duro dental dentro de ellos. Por esta razón, se presenta un paciente con este tipo de tumor, al que se le realizó estudio histopatológico, se revisó la literatura acerca de este tumor odontogénico benigno y sus características clínicas, radiográficas, tratamiento, así como los diagnósticos diferenciales que se deben tener en cuenta. Abstract in english The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon neoplasm derivative of the odontogenic epithelium containing canalicular structures with inductor modifications of variable intensity in the conjunctival tissue. It is a slow growth lesion and no much invasive but that may to be similar to other odont [...] ogenic lesions more aggressive including the dentigerous cyst and the ameloblastoma among others. Its classical location (upper canine area) guides us to diagnosis and its duct histological pattern is very typical of this tumor. Other tumors included in this group are the ameloblastic fibroma, the ameloblastic odontoma, the calcified odontogenic cyst and composed and complex odontomas. This group of lesions may or not to have formations of hard tissue inside. Thus, authors present the case of a patient presenting with this type of tumor making a histopathology study, a literature review on this benign odontogenic tumor and its clinical radiographic features, treatment, as well as the differential diagnoses to be into account.

Ernesto, Sánchez Cabrales; Dadonim, Vila Morales; Ángel Mario, Felipe Garmendia; Alain, Serra Ortega; Alma, Torres Gómez de Cádiz.

127

Primary yolk sac tumor of bilateral basal ganglia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A primary intracranial yolk sac tumor (YST) is a type of germ cell tumor (GCT) and usually involves the pineal or suprasellar regions, as do other GCTs. Primary YST in the basal ganglia is not common, and bilateral basal ganglia involvement is even rarer. Early diagnosis is often difficult because of minimal or subtle findings without space-occupying lesions shown on neuroimaging during the early course of the disease. We report a case of primary intracranial YST encountered in the basal ganglia bilaterally and describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic problem, imaging characteristics, histopathologic features, and prognosis of the tumor. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the third reported case of primary YST confined to the basal ganglia in the literature. PMID:20728859

Wang, Chung-Hao; Hsu, Ting-Rong; Yang, Tzu-Ying; Wong, Tai-Tong; Chang, Feng-Chi; Ho, Donald Ming-Tak; Chiang, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Kai-Ping

2010-08-01

128

Liver Tumor Segmentation Using Level Sets and Region Growing  

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Medical imaging is an important tool for diagnosis and treatment planning today. However as the demand for efficiency increases at the same time as the data volumes grow immensely, the need for computer assisted analysis, such as image segmentation, to help and guide the practitioner increases. Medical image segmentation could be used for various different tasks, the localization and delineation of pathologies such as cancer tumors is just one example. Numerous problems with noise and image a...

Thomasson, Viola

2011-01-01

129

Tumor Hypoxia is Independent of Hemoglobin and Prognostic for Loco-regional Tumor Control after Primary Radiotherapy in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is evidence that tumor hypoxia adversely affects loco-regional tumor control and survival in head and neck cancer. The aim of the current study was to compare pretreatment tumor oxygenation measured by Eppendorf pO2 electrodes with known prognostic factors in advanced head and neck tumors after definitive radiotherapy, and to evaluate the prognostic significance of these parameters on loco-regional tumor control. Sixty-seven patients, median age 56 years (22-82), all with primary stage III-IV squamous cell carcinoma were available for survival analysis. Tumor oxygenation was described as the fraction of pO2 values=2.5 mmHg (HP2.5) and the median tumor pO2. By regression analysis HP2.5 was independent of known prognostic factors including stage, pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) and the largest tumor diameter at the site of pO2 measurement. By Kaplan-Meier analysis loco-regional tumor control at 5 years was in favor of less hypoxic tumors using either HP2.5 or median tumor pO2 as descriptors and stratifying by the median values. Also, Hb was prognostic of loco-regional tumor control at 5 years using the median value as cut off. HP2.5 as continuous parameter was highly significant for loco-regional tumor control in a multivariate analysis. In conclusion both HP2.5 and total Hb were prognostic for loco-regional tumor control, but HP2.5 as continuous variable was independently the strongest prognostic indicator for loco-regional tumor control after definitive primary radiotherapy in advanced head and neck tumors

2004-06-01

130

Giant cell tumor of soft tissue in groin region, clinically diagnosed as inguinal lymphadenopathy  

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Full Text Available Giant cell tumor of soft tissue is a rare primary soft tissue neoplasm with clinical and histological similarities to giant cell tumor of bone. Most cases arise from superficial soft tissue of extremities and present as painless and well circumscribed masses. Adequate surgical treatment by complete excision is associated with a benign clinical course in most cases. We report a case of primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue in groin region of a young man which was thought to be an inguinal lymphadenopathy in clinical examination. KEY WORDS: Giant cell tumor, soft tissue, inguinal lymphadenopathy, groin.

Ahmad Sobhan Ardakani

2006-12-01

131

FULLY AUTOMATED APPROACH TO IDENTIFY BRAIN TUMORS USING DYNAMIC REGION MERGING  

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Full Text Available : Image segmentation is a fundamental task of computer vision application. In this paper address the automatic image segmentation algorithum, which exploit the information obtain from deducting tumor in brain MRI. Many segmentation technic are used to deduct the tumor portion like Thresholding technic, Hybrid technic , Boundary based technic, and Region based technic but in this all technic should deducted the initial tumor tissue but when the secondary tumor present or more than one tumor are present in same brain image it is difficult to deducted the irregular tissue from the regular surrounding tissue to get real identification of involved and non involved area which help the surgeon to distinguish the total effected area covered by (primary & secondary tumor portion. The proposed method is DRM(dynamic region growingto deducted the tumor boundary in region merging style .In this paper two essential issue in a region merging algorithms : order of merging and stopping criteria.in the proposed method this two issued are solved by a novel predicates ,which is defined by a sequential probability ratio test (SPRTand minimum cost criterion. We also proved that the producedsegmentation satisfied certain global properties

ASHWINI JANGDE, NAVNEET SAHU

2013-08-01

132

Dynamic studies of positron-emitting putative tumor marker 132Cs in mice show differential tumor and regional uptake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Positron-emitting 132Cs (t1/2 = 6.47 days) was generated from stable 133CsCl via the 133Cs (p,pn) 132Cs reaction. BALB/c mice, bearing implanted MT296 mammary tumors, were given 4.6 mEq kg-1 of 132CsCl via a single intraperitoneal injection. Postinjection uptake of 132Cs into body regions was monitored in vivo with external detectors. Positron emission from the tumor region was continuously greater than that from the head, the numerical ratio of mean emission intensities being fourfold at 10 min postinjection. Tissues excised from these mice postmortem showed sequence of relative tissue cesium uptake rates to be kidney 1.8, small intestine 1.7, tumor 1.0, skin 0.75, liver 0.75, skeletal muscle 0.4, and brain 0.28. Comparative studies with multiple injections of stable cesium and rubidium showed this sequence to be ion-specific. These observations suggest that positron-emitting isotopes of cesium could provide useful markers for tumors of several tissues

1985-01-01

133

Depression of nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in castrate male rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity was examined in intact rats, castrated rats, and in rats that had been castrated and had received testosterone proprionate. Castration resulted in significantly depressing nocturnal levels of pineal NAT (p<0.05) when compared to enzyme activity in intact rats. Testosterone proprionate administration restored plasma LH levels to normal values in castrate rats but did not induce nocturnal pineal enzyme activity to levels seen in the pineal glands of intact rats. The data substantiate the existence of a feedback control of pineal biosynthetic activity by the hypophyseal-gonadal system, but the identity of the hormone(s) responsible for regulation of pineal NAT activity is not known. (author)

1980-01-01

134

Pineal gland volume in primary insomnia and healthy controls: a magnetic resonance imaging study.  

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Little is known about the relation between pineal volume and insomnia. Melatonin promotes sleep processes and, administered as a drug, it is suitable to improve primary and secondary sleep disorders in humans. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that human plasma and saliva melatonin levels are partially determined by the pineal gland volume. This study compares the pineal volume in a group of patients with primary insomnia to a group of healthy people without sleep disturbance. Pineal gland volume (PGV) was measured on the basis of high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in 23 patients and 27 controls, matched for age, gender and educational status. Volume measurements were performed conventionally by manual delineation of the pineal borders in multi-planar reconstructed images. Pineal gland volume was significantly smaller (P < 0.001) in patients (48.9 ± 26.6 mm(3) ) than in controls (79 ± 30.2 mm(3) ). In patients PGV correlated negatively with age (r = -0.532; P = 0.026). Adjusting for the effect of age, PGV and rapid eye movement (REM) latency showed a significant positive correlation (rS  = 0.711, P < 0.001) in patients. Pineal volume appears to be reduced in patients with primary insomnia compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to clarify whether low pineal volume is the basis or the consequence of functional sleep changes to elucidate the molecular pathology for the pineal volume loss in primary insomnia. PMID:24456088

Bumb, Jan M; Schilling, Claudia; Enning, Frank; Haddad, Leila; Paul, Franc; Lederbogen, Florian; Deuschle, Michael; Schredl, Michael; Nolte, Ingo

2014-06-01

135

Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamic nucleus paraventricularis mimics the effects of light on pineal melatonin synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an attempt to clarify further the role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in the control of pineal function, the effects of 2 min electrical stimulation of these nuclei were investigated in acutely blinded, adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Pineal serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, melatonin content and catecholamine levels were measured by means of radio-enzymatic, radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid-chromatography methods, respectively. All three pineal parameters underwent significant declines following brief PVN stimulation during the night time. These observations lend credence to the view that the neural pathways transmitting light information to the sympathetic innervation controlling pineal melatonin synthesis. 22 references, 1 figure

1987-02-02

136

Degeneration activity of the pineal gland after sympathetic denervation.  

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After removal of the superior cervical ganglia the pineal gland of the rat showed a period of transient increase in activity of serotonin-N-acetyltransferase. This degeneration activity was preceded by a decline of the levels of endogenous noradrenaline and an impairment of the 3H-metaraminol uptake. Twenty-seven hours after sympathetic denervation the levels of the endogenous neurotransmitter were almost completely depleted, while either 24 h or 21 days after denervation total uptake of the tritiated amine decreased to only about 50% of the control values. Previous chronic sympathetic decentralization elicited in the pineal gland post-junctional supersensitivity, as judged by the enhanced degeneration activity observed in decentralized glands after sympathetic denervation. The present findings confirm that, in endocrine glands and similarly to other autonomically innervated organs, acute denervation induces degeneration activity. PMID:7167205

Luchelli-Fortis, M A; Stefano, F J; Perec, C J

1982-12-01

137

The pineal gland - Its possible roles in human reproduction  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses the role of the pineal gland in controlling mammalian reproduction, with particular attention given to the role of melatonin in polyestrus mammals, like humans and laboratory rodents. Evidence is cited indicating the influence of melatonin production and blood content on the age of puberty, the timing of the ovulatory cycle, gonadal steriodogenesis, and patterns of reproductive behavior. It is suggested that abnormal patterns of melatonin might be associated with amenorrhea, anovulation, unexplained infertility, premature menopause, and habitual abortions.

Brzezinski, Amnon; Wurtman, Richard J.

1988-01-01

138

Pineal-specific agouti protein regulates teleost background adaptation  

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Background adaptation is used by teleosts as one of a variety of camouflage mechanisms for avoidance of predation. Background adaptation is known to involve light sensing by the retina and subsequent regulation of melanophore dispersion or contraction in melanocytes, mediated by ?-melanocyte–stimulating hormone and melanin-concentrating hormone, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that an agouti gene unique to teleosts, agrp2, is specifically expressed in the pineal and is required for up-r...

2010-01-01

139

Malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor of the pelvic paravertebral region: case report  

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Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a rare but distinctive neoplasm of unknown histogenesis, occurring primarily in children. It has a characteristic histologic pattern and aggressive clinical behavior, and was originally thought to be a malignant sarcomatous variant of Wilms tumor; numerous cases of MRT arising from extrarenal sites have, however, been reported. We describe the radiologic findings of two cases of malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor that arose in the pelvic paravertebral region of two children. Both were confirmed by surgical excision and pathologic examination.

Park, Jae Seong; Kim, Dong Jin; Lee, Myeong Sub; Kim, Myung Soon; Hong, In Soo; Lee, Kwang Gil; Kim, Tae Heon [Yonsei Univ., Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

2001-11-01

140

Stereoscopic virtual reality models for planning tumor resection in the sellar region  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It is difficult for neurosurgeons to perceive the complex three-dimensional anatomical relationships in the sellar region. Methods To investigate the value of using a virtual reality system for planning resection of sellar region tumors. The study included 60 patients with sellar tumors. All patients underwent computed tomography angiography, MRI-T1W1, and contrast enhanced MRI-T1W1 image sequence scanning. The CT and MRI scanning data were collected and then imported into a Dextroscope imaging workstation, a virtual reality system that allows structures to be viewed stereoscopically. During preoperative assessment, typical images for each patient were chosen and printed out for use by the surgeons as references during surgery. Results All sellar tumor models clearly displayed bone, the internal carotid artery, circle of Willis and its branches, the optic nerve and chiasm, ventricular system, tumor, brain, soft tissue and adjacent structures. Depending on the location of the tumors, we simulated the transmononasal sphenoid sinus approach, transpterional approach, and other approaches. Eleven surgeons who used virtual reality models completed a survey questionnaire. Nine of the participants said that the virtual reality images were superior to other images but that other images needed to be used in combination with the virtual reality images. Conclusions The three-dimensional virtual reality models were helpful for individualized planning of surgery in the sellar region. Virtual reality appears to be promising as a valuable tool for sellar region surgery in the future.

Wang Shou-sen

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

Diagnosis of tumors of the pituitary region by two-plane CT scans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty five cases of tumors in the pituitary region were analysed by two-plane CT (ordinary sections and reverse sections) in order to obtain a more accurate image of the tumor and thus establish an appropriate indication for the subnasal transsphenoidal approach. The tumors of pituitary region were classified into six groups (types I-VI) according to their degree of extension and direction of growth. Small tumors such as types I and II were detected more clearly by the reverse section than by the ordinary section. In cases of large tumors (types III-VI) relation of the tumor to the surrounding structures such as the sphenoid sinus, third ventricle, lateral ventricule, middle fossa and brain stem was accurately demonstrated by the reverse section. In the differential diagnosis of tumors in the pituitary regions, tumors showing mixed density or slightly high density and widening of the anteroposterior diameter of the sella in the precontrast reverse section and homogeneous enhancement by infusion were likely to be pituitary adenomas. One third of the pituitary adenomas showed ring-like high density in the post-contrast reverse section. Calcification was not seen in the pituitary adenomas by CT scans. All craniopharyngiomas belonged to types III-VI. Craniopharyngiomas showed high and/or low density, and various degrees of calcification in plain CT scans. Ring-like high density was seen in two thirds of the craniopharyngiomas. About one third of the craniopharyngiomas showed widening of the antero-posterior diameter of the sella. (J.P.N.)

1981-01-01

142

Minimally invasive resection of benign gastric tumors in challenging locations: prepyloric region or gastroesophageal junction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benign gastric tumors in a prepyloric location or within 3 cm adjacent of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) are often challenging to resect using minimally invasive surgical techniques. The aim of this study was to examine the outcomes of patients who underwent minimally invasive enucleation or resection of benign gastric tumors at these difficult locations. The charts of patients undergoing minimally invasive resection of benign-appearing submucosal gastric tumors between June 2001 and December 2012 were reviewed. Data on tumor size and location, type of minimally invasive surgical resection, perioperative complications, 90-day mortality, pathology, and recurrence were collected. A total of 70 consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic resection of benign-appearing submucosal gastric tumors; there were 24 patients with lesions close to the GEJ and nine patients with lesions close to the prepyloric region. All lesions were successfully resected laparoscopically. For prepyloric tumors, surgical approaches included enucleation (n = 1), wedge resection (n = 2), and distal gastrectomy with reconstruction (n = 6). For tumors close to the GEJ, surgical approaches included enucleation (n = 16), wedge resection (n = 3), and esophagogastrectomy (n = 5). Complications in this series of 33 patients included late strictures requiring endoscopic dilation in three patients who underwent esophagogastrectomy. The 90-day mortality rate was zero. There were no recurrences over a mean follow-up of 15 months (range, 1 to 86 months). Minimally invasive enucleation or formal anatomic resection of submucosal tumors located adjacent to the GEJ or at the prepyloric region is safe and carries a low risk for tumor recurrence. Submucosal gastric lesions adjacent to the GEJ are amenable to laparoscopic enucleation or wedge resection unless they extend proximally into the esophagus. Prepyloric lesions often require formal anatomic resection with reconstruction. PMID:24160780

Armstrong, Christopher; Gebhart, Alana; Smith, Brian R; Nguyen, Ninh T

2013-10-01

143

Adenovirus tumor-specific transplantation antigen is a function of the E1A early region  

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Viable recombinant adenoviruses that carry a portion of the type 12 E1A and E1B transcription units in a type 5 background were used to identify genes controlling expression of the adenovirus tumor-specific transplantation antigen (TSTA). The TSTA immunity is not crossreacting between the group A and group C adenovirus serotypes. Viruses carrying the E1A region (sub370-12E1A), or both E1A and E1B (sub370-12E1AB) regions of Ad12, induce a strong transplantation immunity against tumors induced ...

1986-01-01

144

Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland : Roles in Development and Phenotype Maintenance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function. A working model is proposed for understanding the sequential action of homeobox genes in controlling development and mature circadian function of the mammalian pinealocyte based on knowledge from detailed developmental and daily gene expression analyses in rats, the pineal phenotypes of homebox gene-deficient mice and studies on development of the retinal photoreceptor; the pinealocyte and retinal photoreceptor share features not seen in other tissues and are likely to have evolved from the same ancestral photodetector cell.

Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian

2013-01-01

145

Experiment K-7-19: Pineal Physiology After Spaceflight: Relation to Rat Gonadal Function  

Science.gov (United States)

The function of pineal exposed to microgravity and spaceflight is studied. It is found that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanisms of the response noted.

Holley, D. C.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

1994-01-01

146

Germ cell tumors of the sacrococcygeal region: radiologic-pathologic correlation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Germ cell tumors of the sacrococcygeal region include mature and immature teratomas and endodermal sinus tumor. Most sacrococcygeal teratomas are discovered in the newborn period as an obvious mass, but they may be detected prenatally. Endodermal sinus tumors are usually discovered later in early childhood. Pathologically and radiologically, teratomas are either both cystic and solid, predominantly cystic, or rarely solid. Over 50% have calcification or ossification. Most malignant teratomas have substantial solid components and may contain calcification. Treatment is surgical excision including coccygectomy. Malignant tumors are treated with both surgery and chemotherapy. Prognosis is excellent for teratoma, although local recurrences may occur. Malignant teratomas have had a dismal prognosis in the past, which has been improved with multiagent chemotherapy. PMID:8066275

Keslar, P J; Buck, J L; Suarez, E S

1994-05-01

147

Regional and Temporal Differences in Gene Expression of LHBETATAG Retinoblastoma Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate by microarray the hypothesis that LHBETATAG retinoblastoma tumors exhibit regional and temporal variations in gene expression. Methods. LHBETATAG mice aged 12, 16, and 20 weeks were euthanatized (n = 9). Specimens were taken from five tumor areas (apex, anterior lateral, center, base, and posterior lateral). Samples were hybridized to gene microarrays. The data were preprocessed and analyzed, and genes with a P 2.5 were considered to be differentially expressed. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed for overlap with known networks by using pathway analysis tools. Results. There were significant temporal (P 2.5, there were significant changes in gene expression of 190 genes apically, 84 genes anterolaterally, 126 genes posteriorly, 56 genes centrally, and 134 genes at the base. Differentially expressed genes overlapped with known networks, with significant involvement in regulation of cellular proliferation and growth, response to oxygen levels and hypoxia, regulation of cellular processes, cellular signaling cascades, and angiogenesis. Conclusions. There are significant temporal and regional variations in the LHBETATAG retinoblastoma model. Differentially expressed genes overlap with key pathways that may play pivotal roles in murine retinoblastoma development. These findings suggest the mechanisms involved in tumor growth and progression in murine retinoblastoma tumors and identify pathways for analysis at a functional level, to determine significance in human retinoblastoma. Microarray analysis of LHBETATAG retinal tumors showed significant regional and temporal variations in gene expression, including dysregulation of genes involved in hypoxic responses and angiogenesis.

Houston, Samuel K.; Pina, Yolanda; Clarke, Jennifer; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Scott, William K.; Nathanson, Lubov; Schefler, Amy C.

2011-01-01

148

Neuroradiological evaluation of benign extramedullary tumors in the high cervical region and at the foramen magnum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twelve cases of benign extramedullary tumors in the high cervical region and at the foramen magnum were experienced during past five years among eighty all spinal and paraspinal tumors. The diagnosis of masses in this region is very difficult because of the variety of clinical course, symptoms and neurological findings as pointed out by many reporters. Also in our cases, 70 % of the patients complained of the deteriorated motor weakness of the upper or lower extremities on admission, though they had noticed the onset of slight neck or occipital pain a few years ago. Neurological examination on admission clearly showed the symptom of myelopathy except in two cases with a tumor at the foramen magnum and C1 level. The percentage of positive findings of plain X-rays was 50 %, that of metrizamide myelography was 92 % and that of IV. e. CT and met. e. CT was 100 %. NMR-CT was performed in 2 cases, and in one of them it was useful in confirming the tumor configuration and extension. Five interesting cases were described mainly from the neuroradiological aspects. Finally the differentiation between meningioma and neurinoma was discussed from the aspects of myelogram, CT and NMR-CT. As already pointed out, it is most important not to forget the existence of tumors in this region when one comes across the confused symptoms, afterwards not to overlook the slight positive neurological and neuroradiological findings. (author)

1986-01-01

149

Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effect upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity.

Creighton, J.A.; Rudeen, P.K.

1988-01-01

150

Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effect upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity

1988-01-01

151

Regional measurements of "1"4Cmisonidazole distribution and blood flow in subcutaneous RT-9 experimental tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regional ["1"4C]misonidazole-derived radioactivity (MISO*) was measured by quantitative autoradiography in s.c. RT-9 experimental tumors 0.5, 2, and 4 h after an i.v. bolus (25 mg) and constant infusion (10 mg/h) in rats. Misonidazole (MISO) concentration in plasma, tumor, and other tissues was also measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The distribution of MISO* in the tumors always resulted in a characteristic pattern with high peripheral and low central values. The high-activity regions in the tumor rim achieved tissue: plasma MISO* activity ratios of 0.97 and 2.2 by 0.5 and 4 h, respectively; for central tumor regions, this ratio was 0.20 and 0.32 for the same periods, respectively. The limited distribution of MISO* to central tumor regions could be correlated to low values of blood flow (measured with ["1"3"1I]iodoantipyrine) and to diffusion from peripheral tumor regions. Low blood flow in the central regions of these tumors will significantly limit the distribution of MISO and other drugs to viable-appearing cells in these areas and could account in part for the failures of chemotherapy in certain solid tumors. Pharmacokinetic modeling indicates that 1 to 9 h may be necessary for MISO concentrations in some tumor regions to reach 50% of that in plasma

1985-01-01

152

Morphologic Changes in Rat's Pineal Gland After Eliminating Retinal Photic Stimulation Cambios Morfológicos en la Glándula Pineal de Ratas Luego de la Eliminación de la Estimulación Fótica Retiniana  

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Melatonin secretion from mammalian pineal glands is regulated by light stimulation by means of a complex neuroanatomical pathway that includes the retina, hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, intermediolateral nucleus of the thoracic spinal cord, and finally, the superior cervical ganglia. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in the pinealocytes and the blood vessel density of the pineal gland after eliminating photic stimulation in rats. Thirteen adult Sprague-Dawley rats we...

2008-01-01

153

Circadian changes in long noncoding RNAs in the pineal gland  

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Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a broad range of biological roles, including regulation of expression of genes and chromosomes. Here, we present evidence that lncRNAs are involved in vertebrate circadian biology. Differential night/day expression of 112 lncRNAs (0.3 to >50 kb) occurs in the rat pineal gland, which is the source of melatonin, the hormone of the night. Approximately one-half of these changes reflect nocturnal increases. Studies of eight lncRNAs with 2- to >100-fold daily rhy...

Coon, Steven L.; Munson, Peter J.; Cherukuri, Praveen F.; Sugden, David; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Clokie, Samuel J. H.; Fu, Cong; Olanich, Mary E.; Rangel, Zoila; Werner, Thomas; Mullikin, James C.; Klein, David C.; Benjamin, Betty; Blakesley, Robert

2012-01-01

154

A case of hemorrhagic pineal cyst: MR/CT correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 30-year-old male had headache pain for one month and was evaluated with both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR). These scans demonstrated an obstructing pineal cyst containing layered acute and subacute blood products by MR criteria. The concurrent scans allowed correlation between CT and MR findings in this rare complication of an unusual entity, explained his headache (and the development of later upward gaze paresis), provided a precise surgical/anatomic approach, and gave a good final clinical result. The report illustrates appropriate CT and MR images and pathological specimen. (orig.)

1989-01-01

155

A case report of Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor in the mandibular anterior region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a tumor of odontogenic epithelium with varying degrees of inductive changes in the connective tissue. The common radiographic appearance of AOT is a unilocular radiolucency associated with an unerupted tooth. Detectable radiopacities are reported in many cases. We present a case of AOT in a 9-year old-female patient. Cystic lesion with numerous, punctuate radiopaque foci was seen on the anterior region of the mandible. These radiopacities mostly were situated on the buccal side of impacted tooth on the multiplanar images of cone beam computed tomograph. Characteristic duct like structures and amyloid like material were observed on histopathologic finding.

2009-06-01

156

A case report of Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor in the mandibular anterior region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a tumor of odontogenic epithelium with varying degrees of inductive changes in the connective tissue. The common radiographic appearance of AOT is a unilocular radiolucency associated with an unerupted tooth. Detectable radiopacities are reported in many cases. We present a case of AOT in a 9-year old-female patient. Cystic lesion with numerous, punctuate radiopaque foci was seen on the anterior region of the mandible. These radiopacities mostly were situated on the buccal side of impacted tooth on the multiplanar images of cone beam computed tomograph. Characteristic duct like structures and amyloid like material were observed on histopathologic finding.

Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Paeng, Jun Young [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Department of Pathology, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-06-15

157

Role of CT in diagnosis of tumors in chiasmatic-sellar region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The comparison of results of different neuroradiological examinations in 156 patients in the chiasmatic and sellar region with actual topographic and anatomical relations revealed during examination of necroptic preparations (39 cases) and during microsurgical operations (117 patients) the supreme diagnostic possibilities of computerized tomography as compared with classical contrast examinations. Computerized tomography is superior to angiographic and pneumoencephalographic examinations, in particular because it provides a direct and complete view of the entire tumor and surrounding formations. It also provides information on the incorporation of the tumor into the sinus cavernosus. Classical pneumoencephalographic examination is necessary to differentiate hypodense intrasellar adenomas from an empty sella and in particular to assess the relationship between the tumor and the floor of the IIIrd ventricle of the brain. Lateral tomographic pneumoencephalograms visualize critical structures more accurately and clearly than reconstructed sagittal computed tomograms. (author). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 22 refs

1987-05-01

158

Regional coupling of blood flow and methionine uptake in an experimental tumor assessed with autoradiography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Regional distribution of L-(methyl-/sup 14/C) methionine (/sup 14/C-MET) and 4-(/sup 18/F) fluoro-antipyrine (/sup 18/FAP) was compared using experimental rat tumors (AH109A) and a computerized autoradiogram image processor. Tissue distributions of the two tracers were found to be inhomogeneous in the tumor with nearly identical image patterns. Analysis of tissue radioactivities revealed that 82% of /sup 14/C-MET was derived from the acid insoluble fraction at 60 min after injection. The present study showed that /sup 14/C-MET uptake closely relates to tissue blood flow and may depend on its blood to tissue transport. Rapid incorporation of MET in the acid insoluble fraction implies that it is rapidly metabolized after transport into tumor tissue.

Abe, Yoshinao; Itoh, Masatoshi; Fujiwara, Takehiko; Sato, Tachio; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ido, Tatsuo

1988-09-01

159

Clinical usefulness of computed tomography for evaluation of the effectiveness of radiation therapy of brain tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of radiation therapy for brain tumor, CT findings before, during, and after radiation therapy were studied in 48 patients with brain tumor (12 glioblastomas, 5 craniopharyngiomas, 4 pituitary adenomas, 2 medulloblastomas, 2 reticulum cell sarcomas, ependymoblastoma, oligodendroglioma, germinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, teratocarcinoma, meningioma, chordoma, 6 metastatic tumors, and 10 unbiopsied tumors). CT findings such as tumor size, mass effect, central lucency, and peripheral low density decreased in 69%, 63%, 65%, and 47%, respectively, after irradiation. Changes in tumor size correlated with clinical course in about 90% of the patients. Radiosensitivity of the brain tumors was assessed from the degree of decrease in tumor size demonstrated on CT. Radiosensitive tumors such as germinoma of pineal and suprasellar region could be diagnosed clinically without surgical biopsy since marked response to radiation was observed on serial CT scans during the course of radiation therapy. Thus, CT scan study can be considered to be highly useful for evaluating the effectiveness of radiation therapy for brain tumors. (author)

1980-01-01

160

Discontinuous region growing scheme for preliminary detection of tumor in MRCP images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumors are generally difficult to detect in Magnetic Resonance (MR) images as they can be of varying intensities and do not appear as clear structures on these images. This difficulty is more prominent in MR Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), which is the MR technology using a special sequence of T2-weighted imaging to identify the biliary tract, pancreatic duct, and gallbladder in the liver region, as MRCP images are more noisy in nature and are acquired for a more focused area with too much flexibility in position orientation for convenient computer-aided diagnosis. Based on the principle that the tumor mass manifests itself as blockage of the biliary tree structure, this paper introduces a technique that uses a region growing algorithm to identify discontinuities in the biliary tree as a means to preliminary detection of a possible tumor, in a fashion similar to the visual observation used by most radiologists in making their preliminary diagnosis. Through the use of appropriate image normalization, watershed segmentation, thresholding, rule-based region growing, and region analysis, the proposed technique is shown in this paper to be successful in identifying MRCP images with liver carcinoma from those with normal liver. Acquisition standardization, interactive image selection, and optimum image orientation will further enhance the accuracy of this proposed scheme for use in aiding clinical diagnosis at medical institutions. PMID:16978012

Logeswaran, Rajasvaran; Eswaran, Chikkannan

2006-08-01

 
 
 
 
161

Tachykinins and tachykinin-receptors in the rat pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-pressure liquid chromatography of extracts of rat pineal glands, followed by radio immunological analysis with antibodies against tachykinins, demonstrated the presence of substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B in the superficial rat pineal gland. Immunohistochemistry on perfusion-fixed rat brain sections showed substance P and neurokinin A to be present in nerve fibers located both in the perivascular spaces as well as intraparenchymally between the pinealocytes. After extracting total RNA, followed by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers specific for NK1-, NK2- and NK3-receptors, agarose gel analysis of the reaction products showed the presence of mRNA encoding all three neurokinin receptors. Immunohistochemical analysis showed NK1 receptor to be located in the interstitial cells of the gland. This location was confirmed by use of in situ hybridization using radioactively labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Double immunohistochemical stainings showed that the NK1-immunoreactive cells were not a part of the macrophages or antigen-presenting cells of the gland. Our study suggests that tachykinins, after release from intrapineal nerve fibers, are involved in an up to now unknown function, different from that of melatonin synthesis.

Mukda, S; Chetsawang, B

2005-01-01

162

Megaendoprosthesis in the treatment of bone tumors in the knee and hip region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. For almost two decades extremity amputation has not been the only viable option for patients with from bone cancer in the region of the hip and knee. Remarkable advances in implant technology, surgical reconstructive technique and adoption of new chemotherapy protocols provide a new option for surgeons who diagnose and treat bone tumors. Megaendoprosthesis has become widely accepted alternative in limb salvage surgery of the extremities. The aim of this study was to present an outcome of the treatment of bone tumors in the knee and hip region by the use of custom made megaendoprothesis. Methods. In the period 2006-2008 we adopted new clinical practice protocols for preoperative management in candidates for tumor megaprostheses of the hip and knee including: surgical tumor staging, histopathological verification, determinants of anatomical-mechanical defect, status of soft tissues, CT evaluation of the referent measures of pelvis, femur and tibia necessary for creation of custom made endoprosthesis and surgery plan, as well as modern, less invasive surgical approach. The patients were monitored during ? 24 months after the surgery for detecting possible complications. Results. All procedures were performed without complications during and immediately after the surgery. During the follow-up period not less than 24 months we failed to record any significant complications. Conclusion. Custom made megaendoprosthesis are the method of choice in the treatment of bone tumors in the region of the hip and knee at the Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. The greatest challenge - ensuring longevity of a prosthesis can be achieved not only by prevention of common complications of arthroplasty procedures but, certainly, with the introduction of new methods for preoperative planning - computer-assisted technique of measuring referent sizes and software solutions for the selection and design of custom-made components of an endoprosthesis.

Barjaktarovi? Radoslav

2011-01-01

163

Tumors in the region of the sella turcica; Tumoren der Sellaregion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tumors of the pituitary gland can lead to limitation of hypophysis function (hypophysis insufficiency) or hypersecretion of different hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, prolactinoma, TSH-secreting adenoma). The optic chiasma lies in close proximity to the pituitary gland and can be compressed by tumors leading to visual disturbances (bilateral hemianopsia). Tumors can be separated into hormone secreting and hormone inactive tumors, as well as into microadenoma with a diameter <10 mm and macroadenomas >10 mm. A rare group of tumors of the hypophysis region are craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germinomas, gliomas, metastases and granulomotous inflammations, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. (orig.) [German] Bei Tumoren der Hypophysenregion kann es zu einer Einschraenkung der Hypophysenfunktion (Hypophyseninsuffizienz) kommen, aber auch zu einem Hypersekretionssyndrom (Akromegalie, Cushing-Syndrom, Prolaktinom, TSH-sezernierendes Adenom). Unmittelbar ueber der Hypophysenregion liegt das Chiasma opticum, wodurch es bei Tumoren der Hypophysenregion zur Beeintraechtigung des Sehens kommen kann, meist als Verschlechterung des Sehfeldes beider Augen nach lateral (bitemporale Hemianopsie). Man unterscheidet hormonaktive und -inaktive Tumoren. Es werden Mikroadenome mit einem Durchmesser bis 10 mm und Makroadenome, die groesser als 10 mm sind, unterschieden. Eine seltenere Gruppe von Tumoren der Hypophysenregion sind die Kraniopharyngeome, Meningeome, Germinome, Gliome, Metastasen und granulomatoese Entzuendungen (Sarkoidose, Tuberkulose). (orig.)

Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostischeund Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

2009-07-15

164

A novel gene therapy-based approach that selectively targets hypoxic regions within solid tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is compelling evidence that malignant cells present within the hypoxic regions that are commonly found within solid tumors contribute significantly to local recurrence following radiation therapy. We describe now a novel strategy designed to target such cells that exploits the differential production within hypoxic regions of the pro-angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF). Specifically, we have generated cDNA constructs that encode two distinct chimeric cell surface proteins that incorporate, respectively, the extracellular domains of the VEGF receptors Flk-1 or Flt-1, fused in frame to the membrane spanning and cytoplasmic domains of the pro-apoptotic protein Fas. Both chimeric proteins (Flk/Fas and Flt/Fas) appear stable and can be readily detected on the surface of transfected cells by Western blot and/or FACS analysis. Importantly, tumor cells expressing the chimeric proteins were rapidly killed in a dose-dependent fashion upon the addition of exogenous recombinant VEGF. Adenoviral vectors encoding Flk/Fas have been generated and shown to induce tumor cells to undergo apoptosis upon transfer to hypoxic conditions in vitro. This activity is dependent upon the endogenous production of VEGF. Studies are currently underway to test the ability of adenoviral Flk/Fas (Ad.Flk/Fas) to reduce tumor recurrence in vivo when used as an adjuvant therapy in conjunction with clinically relevant doses of ionizing radiation

2003-08-17

165

Tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulates expression of adenovirus early region 3 proteins: implications for viral persistence.  

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Human adenovirus (Ad) can cause persistent infections in humans. Early region 3 (E3) of the virus appears to be implicated in this phenomenon. This transcription unit encodes proteins that interfere in various ways with host cell functions, including (i) cell-surface expression of histocompatibility class I antigens (HLA), (ii) cell-surface expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R), and (iii) the biological activity of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). We transfected t...

1992-01-01

166

Gene amplification as double minutes or homogeneously staining regions in solid tumors: Origin and structure  

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Double minutes (dmin) and homogeneously staining regions (hsr) are the cytogenetic hallmarks of genomic amplification in cancer. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain their genesis. Recently, our group showed that the MYC-containing dmin in leukemia cases arise by excision and amplification (episome model). In the present paper we investigated 10 cell lines from solid tumors showing MYCN amplification as dmin or hsr. Particularly revealing results were provided by the two subclon...

Storlazzi, Clelia Tiziana; Lonoce, Angelo; Guastadisegni, Maria C.; Trombetta, Domenico; D Addabbo, Pietro; Daniele, Giulia; L Abbate, Alberto; Macchia, Gemma; Surace, Cecilia; Kok, Klaas; Ullmann, Reinhard; Purgato, Stefania; Palumbo, Orazio; Carella, Massimo; Ambros, Peter F.

2010-01-01

167

Correlación topográfica y anatomopatológica en los tumores de la región selar Topographic and anatomopathological correlation in the sellar region tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realizaci??n de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fundamental fue demostrar el valor de la tomografía computadorizada en el diagnóstico presuntivo de la variedad histológica de los macroadenomas hipofisarios así como de otros tumores menos frecuentes de la región selar, teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes operados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomográfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar. Se registró la edad, sexo, clínica, signos tomográficos, resultados anatomopatológicos posquirúrgicos. Se observó mayor incidencia de los adenomas hipofisarios (110, con predominio de los no secretores (41,1 %. El grueso de los pacientes se ubicó en las edades entre 30 y 50 años. El sexo femenino prevaleció en los adenomas adrenocorticotrópicos y los meningiomas, y el masculino en los productores de gonadotropina y prolactina. Dentro de los signos tomográficos, la erosión de las clinoides y el dorso selar, así como la hidrocefalia predominaron en los adenomas no secretores y los tumores no adenohipofisarios. Los adenomas productores de gonadotropina se destacaron en la erosión del piso y en el balonamiento selar al igual que los adrenocorticotrópicos. Las calcificaciones fueron frecuentes en los teratomas y craneofaringiomas, al igual que la captación no homogénea del contraste, la cual fue característica en estos casos como en los quistes de la bolsa de Rathke. La TC demostró ser de gran valor diagnóstico en los macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico del paciente.The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas worlwide motivated us to carry out this research, whose fundamental aim was to demonstrate the value of CT in the presumptive diagnosis of the histological variety of hypophyseal macroadenomas, as well as of other less frequent tumours of the sellar region, considering the clinical picture. To this end, 124 patients operated on with a clinical and tomographic diagnosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumours were studied. Age, sex, hospital stay, tomographic signs, and postsurgical anatomopathological results were registered. The highest incidence was found in the hypophyseal adenomas (110, with predominance of the non-secreting adenomas (41.1 %. Most of the patients were 30-50. The female sex prevailed in the adrenocorticotropic adenomas and meningiomas, and the male sex in gonadotropin and prolactin-producing adenomas. Within the tomographic signs the erosion of the clinoid and sellar dorsum, and hydrocephalus, predominated in the non-secreting adenomas and in the non-adenohypohyseal tumours. The gonadotropin-producing adenomas stood out in the erosion of the floor and in sellar ballooning as well as the adrenocorticotropic adenomas. The calcifications were more common in teratomas and craniopharyngiomas, as well as and the non-homogenous capture of the contrast agent, which was characteristic in these cases, as in Rathke's pouch cysts. CT showed its great diagnostic value in hypophyseal macroadenomas, and other tumours of the sellar region, taking into account the patient's clinical picture.

Tania Garcia Moreira

2008-09-01

168

Glia-pinealocyte network: the paracrine modulation of melatonin synthesis by tumor necrosis factor (TNF).  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal gland, a circumventricular organ, plays an integrative role in defense responses. The injury-induced suppression of the pineal gland hormone, melatonin, which is triggered by darkness, allows the mounting of innate immune responses. We have previously shown that cultured pineal glands, which express toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), produce TNF when challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here our aim was to evaluate which cells present in the pineal gland, astrocytes, microglia or pinealocytes produced TNF, in order to understand the interaction between pineal activity, melatonin production and immune function. Cultured pineal glands or pinealocytes were stimulated with LPS. TNF content was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TLR4 and TNFR1 expression were analyzed by confocal microscopy. Microglial morphology was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In the present study, we show that although the main cell types of the pineal gland (pinealocytes, astrocytes and microglia) express TLR4, the production of TNF induced by LPS is mediated by microglia. This effect is due to activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) pathway. In addition, we observed that LPS activates microglia and modulates the expression of TNFR1 in pinealocytes. As TNF has been shown to amplify and prolong inflammatory responses, its production by pineal microglia suggests a glia-pinealocyte network that regulates melatonin output. The current study demonstrates the molecular and cellular basis for understanding how melatonin synthesis is regulated during an innate immune response, thus our results reinforce the role of the pineal gland as sensor of immune status. PMID:22768337

da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Sanseray; Pinato, Luciana; Tamura, Eduardo Koji; Carvalho-Sousa, Cláudia Emanuele; Markus, Regina P

2012-01-01

169

Effect of electric field exposure on melatonin and enzyme circadian rhythms in the rat pineal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of chronic 30-day electric field exposure on pineal serotonin N-acetyl transferase (EC 2.1.15) activity as well as melatonin and 5-methoxy tryptophol (5-MTOL) concentrations in rats, were assessed.

Wilson, B.; Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.

1980-11-01

170

Effects of low dose irradiation on cAMP levels of pineal gland in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To observe the effects of low dose radiation on cAMP levels of pineal gland. The authors examined the cAMP contents of pineal gland after whole-body irradiation with 50, 75, 100, 200, 500 mGy X-ray on Kunming male mice. The results showed that the cAMP levels of pineal gland after WBI with 50?100 mGy X-ray in mice was higher than sham irradiation mice, especially, 75 mGy group was marked higher than that of sham irradiation group (p<0.001). Whereas, high dose radiation may reduced to the cAMP levels of pineal gland in mice, among 2, 4 Gy groups was lower than that of sham irradiation group

1999-05-01

171

COSMOS 2044. Experiment K-7-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function  

Science.gov (United States)

It is now known that the pineal organ can interact with many endocrine and nonendocrine tissues in a regulatory fashion. Given its key role in the regulation of melatonin synthesis, its high concentration, and that its levels may persist longer than the more rapidly changing melatonin, it was felt that serotonin might give a more accurate assessment of the effects of microgravity on pineal function following recovery of animals from flight. Five-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), a major metabolite of serotonin metabolism, was also measured. One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, pineal calcium content was examined following spaceflight.

Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

1989-01-01

172

Circadian rhythm of pineal uptake of 32P in domestic fowl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of radioactive phosphorus by the pineal gland in White Leghorn cockerels (Gallus domesticus) showed a diurnal variation with maxima in the light phase and minima in the dark phase of the light: dark cycle. Constant light caused the rhythm to disappear while constant dark had no effect other than lowering the amplitude of the variations. These data indicate that the rhythm in pineal uptake of 32P is circadian. (author)

1977-01-01

173

Correlación topográfica y anatomopatológica en los tumores de la región selar / Topographic and anatomopathological correlation in the sellar region tumors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realización de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fundamental fue demostrar el valor de la tomografía computadorizada en el diagnóstico presuntivo de la variedad histológica de los macroadenomas hipofisarios así como de otros [...] tumores menos frecuentes de la región selar, teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes operados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomográfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar. Se registró la edad, sexo, clínica, signos tomográficos, resultados anatomopatológicos posquirúrgicos. Se observó mayor incidencia de los adenomas hipofisarios (110), con predominio de los no secretores (41,1 %). El grueso de los pacientes se ubicó en las edades entre 30 y 50 años. El sexo femenino prevaleció en los adenomas adrenocorticotrópicos y los meningiomas, y el masculino en los productores de gonadotropina y prolactina. Dentro de los signos tomográficos, la erosión de las clinoides y el dorso selar, así como la hidrocefalia predominaron en los adenomas no secretores y los tumores no adenohipofisarios. Los adenomas productores de gonadotropina se destacaron en la erosión del piso y en el balonamiento selar al igual que los adrenocorticotrópicos. Las calcificaciones fueron frecuentes en los teratomas y craneofaringiomas, al igual que la captación no homogénea del contraste, la cual fue característica en estos casos como en los quistes de la bolsa de Rathke. La TC demostró ser de gran valor diagnóstico en los macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico del paciente. Abstract in english The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas worlwide motivated us to carry out this research, whose fundamental aim was to demonstrate the value of CT in the presumptive diagnosis of the histological variety of hypophyseal macroadenomas, as well as of other less frequent tumours of the sellar r [...] egion, considering the clinical picture. To this end, 124 patients operated on with a clinical and tomographic diagnosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumours were studied. Age, sex, hospital stay, tomographic signs, and postsurgical anatomopathological results were registered. The highest incidence was found in the hypophyseal adenomas (110), with predominance of the non-secreting adenomas (41.1 %). Most of the patients were 30-50. The female sex prevailed in the adrenocorticotropic adenomas and meningiomas, and the male sex in gonadotropin and prolactin-producing adenomas. Within the tomographic signs the erosion of the clinoid and sellar dorsum, and hydrocephalus, predominated in the non-secreting adenomas and in the non-adenohypohyseal tumours. The gonadotropin-producing adenomas stood out in the erosion of the floor and in sellar ballooning as well as the adrenocorticotropic adenomas. The calcifications were more common in teratomas and craniopharyngiomas, as well as and the non-homogenous capture of the contrast agent, which was characteristic in these cases, as in Rathke's pouch cysts. CT showed its great diagnostic value in hypophyseal macroadenomas, and other tumours of the sellar region, taking into account the patient's clinical picture.

Garcia Moreira, Tania; Piedra Chávez, Fernando; López Arbolay, Omar; Garcia Ferrer, Luis; Delgado Gutiérrez, Dénise; Navarro Miranda, Hilca.

174

Levels of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 are higher in proliferating regions of A549 tumor cells grown as tumor xenografts in vivo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

3’-Fluoro-3’-deoxythymidine (FLT) has been proposed for positron emission tomography (PET)-based identification of tumor chemosensitivity that is mediated by the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (ENT1). ENT1 facilitates transport of FLT into cells and elevated levels of FLT are associated with both larger FLT-PET signals and increased response to nucleoside-based chemotherapies. FLT-PET is also used as a measure of tumor proliferation. The present study examined the extent to which ENT1 levels vary in a proliferation-dependent manner in tumor cells in vivo. Methods: The human adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was used to establish tumor xenografts in nude mice. FLT uptake was measured in vivo using PET, and further examined ex vivo using autoradiography. FLT uptake patterns were compared to immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of ENT1 and the proliferation markers Ki67 and BrdU. Results: Regional differences in FLT uptake matched differences in IHC proliferation markers. All cells stained for ENT1, but the staining intensity was twice as high for Ki67+ cells than for Ki67? cells. Conclusions: Under in vivo conditions, proliferating regions of tumors show increased FLT uptake and higher ENT1 levels than nonproliferating tumor regions.

2012-11-01

175

Rax: Developmental and Daily Expression Patterns in the Rat Pineal Gland and Retina  

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Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day (E) 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until E20. In both tissues, Rax is expressed throughout postnatal development into adulthood. In the mature rat pineal gland, the abundance of Rax transcripts increases 2-fold during the light period with a peak occurring at dusk. These findings are consistent with the evidence that Rax is of functional importance in eye development and suggest a role of Rax in the developing pineal gland. In addition, it would appear possible that Rax contributes to phenotype maintenance in the mature retina and pineal gland and may facilitate 24-h changes in the pineal transcriptome.

Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C

2011-01-01

176

Utility of diffusion tensor imaging in evaluation of the peritumoral region in patients with primary and metastatic brain tumors.  

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In the brain, diffusion tensor imaging is a useful tool for defining white matter anatomy, planning a surgical approach to space-occupying lesions, and characterizing tumors, including distinguishing primary tumors from metastases. Recent studies have attempted, with varying success, to use DTI to define the extent of tumor microinfiltration beyond the apparent borders on T2-weighted imaging. In the present review, we discuss the current state of research on the utility of DTI for evaluating the peritumoral region of brain tumors. PMID:24052506

Sternberg, E J; Lipton, M L; Burns, J

2014-03-01

177

Extensive genetic polymorphism in the human tumor necrosis factor region and relation to extended HLA haplotypes.  

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We have identified three polymorphic microsatellites (which we call TNFa, TNFb, and TNFc) within a 12-kilobase region of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) that includes the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) locus. TNFc is located within the first intron of the TNF-beta gene and has only 2 alleles. TNFa and TNFb are 3.5 kilobases upstream (telomeric) of the TNF-beta gene and have at least 13 and 7 alleles, respectively. TNFa, -b, and -c alleles are in linkage disequilibrium with allel...

Jongeneel, C. V.; Briant, L.; Udalova, I. A.; Sevin, A.; Nedospasov, S. A.; Cambon-thomsen, A.

1991-01-01

178

Diagnostic value of silver nitrate staining for nucleolar organizer regions in selected head and neck tumors  

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Full Text Available Background: The present study is aimed to assess the usefulness of silver nitrate staining of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs as a quantitative criterion for the diagnosis of selected head and neck tumors. Materials and Methods: The silver nitrate staining technique was used on 195 paraffin blocks collected from 85 patients. The samples consisted of 21 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of larynx, 28 SCC of oral mucosa and 36 samples of most common salivary gland tumors. Mann-Whitney U-Test was used for data analysis. Results: A significant difference was seen in the number of AgNOR dots between oral and laryngeal SCC with surrounding dysplastic and normal tissues ( P < 0.001 and also between mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma with pleomorphic adenoma and normal salivary gland tissue ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: The silver nitrate staining for NORs is a useful method for aiding the diagnosis of malignant and dysplastic mucosal lesions and also malignant and benign salivary gland tumors.

Eslami Behnam

2006-01-01

179

Gene amplification as double minutes or homogeneously staining regions in solid tumors: origin and structure.  

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Double minutes (dmin) and homogeneously staining regions (hsr) are the cytogenetic hallmarks of genomic amplification in cancer. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain their genesis. Recently, our group showed that the MYC-containing dmin in leukemia cases arise by excision and amplification (episome model). In the present paper we investigated 10 cell lines from solid tumors showing MYCN amplification as dmin or hsr. Particularly revealing results were provided by the two subclones of the neuroblastoma cell line STA-NB-10, one showing dmin-only and the second hsr-only amplification. Both subclones showed a deletion, at 2p24.3, whose extension matched the amplicon extension. Additionally, the amplicon structure of the dmin and hsr forms was identical. This strongly argues that the episome model, already demonstrated in leukemias, applies to solid tumors as well, and that dmin and hsr are two faces of the same coin. The organization of the duplicated segments varied from very simple (no apparent changes from the normal sequence) to very complex. MYCN was always overexpressed (significantly overexpressed in three cases). The fusion junctions, always mediated by nonhomologous end joining, occasionally juxtaposed truncated genes in the same transcriptional orientation. Fusion transcripts involving NBAS (also known as NAG), FAM49A, BC035112 (also known as NCRNA00276), and SMC6 genes were indeed detected, although their role in the context of the tumor is not clear. PMID:20631050

Storlazzi, Clelia Tiziana; Lonoce, Angelo; Guastadisegni, Maria C; Trombetta, Domenico; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Daniele, Giulia; L'Abbate, Alberto; Macchia, Gemma; Surace, Cecilia; Kok, Klaas; Ullmann, Reinhard; Purgato, Stefania; Palumbo, Orazio; Carella, Massimo; Ambros, Peter F; Rocchi, Mariano

2010-09-01

180

3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions.  

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Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. PMID:24480576

Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian; Ansari, Nariman; Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc; Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H; Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan; Steigemann, Patrick

2014-04-15

 
 
 
 
181

Three dimensional culture of pineal cell aggregates: a model of cell-cell co-operation.  

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Three dimensional (3-D) cultures of pineal cell aggregates were obtained by constant gyratory shaking the heterogenous cell populations, obtained from the rat pineals, in the DMEM (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium). Within 4 days, the pineal cells became organized into a tissue like configuration appearing as a compact ball, evidenced by the scanning electron microscopy. The 3-D aggregates seemed to be mainly composed of pinealocytes (round-oval cells), glial (elongated cells) and other unknown cells. The heterogenous cells were separated by intercellular spaces. The ultrastructural characteristics revealed by transmission electron microscopy exhibited the presence of granular lysosomes, typical of pinealocytes actively involved in the secretion. These pineal cell aggregates secreted melatonin and other indole amines i.e. 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT), indole acetic acid (IAA), 5-methoxy-3-indole acetic acid (5-MIAA), tryptophol (TOL) and 5-methoxytryptophol (5-MTL) in the culture medium, indicating the functional aspect of pinealocytes. The 3-D aggregates cultures had advantages over the pineal monolayer cultures as, after 4 days of culture, the amounts of indole amines secreted by 3-D aggregates were higher than those secreted by monolayer cultures. Besides, the 3-D aggregates remained functional till 24 days in the gyratory culture conditions. In the continuous perifusion system, the 3-D aggregates secreted melatonin while challanged with isoproterenol. This 3-D model of pineal cell aggregates might be useful, in future, to perform other kinetic studies of the release of indole amines in perifusion experiments as this system allows the maintenance of pineal cells for a long period of time. PMID:7550281

Khan, N A; Shacoori, V; Havouis, R; Querné, D; Moulinoux, J P; Rault, B

1995-05-01

182

The relation of CT-determined tumor parameters and local and regional outcome of tonsillar cancer after definitive radiation treatment  

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Purpose: To investigate the value of CT-derived tumor parameters as predictor of local and regional outcome of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma treated by definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The pretreatment CT studies of 112 patients with tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma were reviewed. After redigitizing the films, primary and nodal tumor volume was calculated with the summation-of-areas technique. The nodal CT aspect was graded using a 3-point scale (homogenous, inhomogeneous, and necrotic). Mean follow-up time was 33 months. Actuarial statistical analysis of local and regional outcome was done for each of the covariates; multivariate analysis was performed using Cox's proportional hazards model. Results: In the actuarial analysis, CT-determined primary tumor volume was significantly correlated with local recurrence rate (p<0.05) when all patients were considered, but primary tumor volume did not predict local control within the T2, T3, and T4 category. CT-determined nodal volume was significantly related to regional outcome (p<0.01), but nodal density was not. Total tumor volume was not significantly related to locoregional outcome (p=0.1). In the multivariate analysis, the T and N categories were the independent predictors of local and regional outcomes, respectively. Conclusion: Compared to other head-and-neck sites, primary and nodal tumor volume have only marginal predictive value regarding local and regional outcome after radiation therapy in tonsillar cancer

2001-05-01

183

Characterization of genomic instability in ulcerative colitis neoplasia leads to discovery of putative tumor suppressor regions.  

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Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory disease of the colon that is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer associated with genomic instability. We have previously demonstrated that genomic instability is present in UC patients with colonic neoplasia, and hypothesized that the chromosomal alterations may be taking place in regions that are susceptible to mutation or that provide a growth advantage to a cell undergoing neoplastic transformation. In this study, we used two polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA fingerprinting techniques (arbitrarily primed PCR and inter-simple-sequence-repeat PCR) to study the process of genomic instability. The two techniques of DNA fingerprinting cross-validate the instability observed in these studies. We analyzed the molecular basis of 10 commonly altered DNA bands obtained from DNA fingerprints of biopsies from various histologic grades of UC patients with dysplasia or cancer (UC Progressors). We determined that the band changes in the fingerprint truly represent changes in DNA sequence, and that the fingerprinting provides highly reproducible results. Furthermore, our investigation revealed that 40% of alterations involve repetitive sequences. Two frequently deleted sequences in 6q27 and 2q14 were studied further because they were frequently abnormal in the dysplastic and nondysplastic tissue of UC Progressors. The losses from 6q27 and 2q14 were confirmed by loss of heterozygosity and real-time PCR analysis. Both of these regions in chromosomes 6 and 2 are surrounded by highly repetitive and mobile LINE-1 elements, possibly making the region susceptible to mutational change. These regions were affected (lost) in UC Progressors but not in UC patients who were neoplasia free. Loss of heterozygosity at 6q27 has been described in ovarian and other cancers, while the 2q14 region has been implicated in prostate and sporadic colon cancers. Both regions are likely to contain tumor-suppressor genes. In conclusion, the genomic instability in UC Progressors can occur in regions that are susceptible to change and are locations of putative tumor-suppressor genes. PMID:16213356

Chen, Ru; Bronner, Mary P; Crispin, David A; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Brentnall, Teresa A

2005-10-15

184

Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors  

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Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

2012-09-28

185

Subtemporal transtentorial approach for excision of tumors in mid-superior petroclival region: a report of 43 cases  

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Full Text Available Objective To explore the surgical technique for excision of mid-superior petroclival region tumor through subtemporal transtentorial approach.Methods Forty-three patients with tumor at superior-middle petroclival region hospitalized from Jun.20003 to Apr.2010 were involved in present study,and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.Of the 43 patients,19 were male and 24 were female,age ranged from 23 to 64 years(with mean of 42 years,disease duration ranged from 2 months to 3 years(with average of 14 months.All the patients underwent tumor resection via subtemporal transtentorial approach.The relationship between tumors and adjacent superior-middle petroclival structures was evaluated,and then the adhesion between tumor and tentorium cerebelli or petroclival meninges was separated,the tumor was resected piecemeal from closest area to distant part.The arachnoidal planes between tumor and brain stem,hypothalamus,or cavernous was dissected to enlarge the gap between the tumor and brain tissue,at the same time avoiding irritation to the above important structures.The therapeutic effects and postoperative complications were recorded.Results Total resection was achieved in 31 cases(72.1%,subtotal resection in 7 cases(16.2%,and partial resection in 5 cases(11.6%.One patient died(3.3%.Twenty-three patients developed new postoperative neurological deficits.The patients were followed up for 3 to 48 months,and the neurological functions were found to recover in varying degrees.Conclusion Subtemporal transtentorial approach for excision of tumors at superior-middle petroclival region has advantages of shorter approach and easy to expose.The key of the operative procedure is to reduce the tumor volume and enlarge the operative space.

Xue-min XING

2011-04-01

186

Morphologic Changes in Rat's Pineal Gland After Eliminating Retinal Photic Stimulation Cambios Morfológicos en la Glándula Pineal de Ratas Luego de la Eliminación de la Estimulación Fótica Retiniana  

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Full Text Available Melatonin secretion from mammalian pineal glands is regulated by light stimulation by means of a complex neuroanatomical pathway that includes the retina, hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, intermediolateral nucleus of the thoracic spinal cord, and finally, the superior cervical ganglia. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in the pinealocytes and the blood vessel density of the pineal gland after eliminating photic stimulation in rats. Thirteen adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups, Group I acted as control, and Group II was subjected to a retinal lesión, by means of alcohol injected bilaterally to both ocular bulbs. After 3 weeks, the glands of both groups were processed with hematoxilin-eosin (HE and observed with an optic microscope. Group II results presented higher valúes in the number of pinealocytes and in the blood vessels observed. The differences with Group I was significant at p La secreción de melatonina por parte de glándula pineal de los mamíferos es regulada por la estimulación luminosa mediante complejas vías neuro anatómicas que incluyen la retina, el núcleo supraquiasmático hipotalámico, el núcleo intermediolateral de la médula torácica y finalmente el ganglio cervical superior. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar los cambios en la densidad de pinealocitos y vasos sanguíneos de la glándula pineal, luego de eliminar la estimulación fótica en ratas. Se utilizaron 13 ratas adultas Sprague Dawley divididas en 2 grupos, Grupo I actuó como control, y el Grupo II fue sometido a una lesión retiniana, por medio de alcoholización bilateral de ambos bulbos oculares. Luego de tres semanas las glándulas de ambos grupos fueron procesadas para hematoxilina-eosina y observadas al microscopio óptico. El grupo II presentó valores mayores en el número de pinealocitos y de vasos sanguíneos observados, las diferencias con el Grupo I fueron significativas con p<0.01. Estos resultados entregan una evidencia indirecta del efecto que la supresión de la estimulación fótica tiene en la glándula pineal en ratas.

Ignacio Roa Henriquez

2008-09-01

187

Identification of serotonin 5HT2 receptors in bovine pineal gland.  

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The concentration of serotonin in the pineal gland is extremely high, which prompted speculation that in addition to serving as a precursor of melatonin, serotonin may have an independent function of its own. By using [3H]-spiperone as a ligand, and ketanserine as a selective serotonin 5HT2 receptor antagonist, we have identified 5HT2 receptor in the bovine pineal gland, revealing a single population of binding sites with a dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) value of 1.26 +/- 0.41 nM and a receptor density (Bmax) value of 193 +/- 38.85 fmol/mg protein. In displacement experiments, the concentrations of the drugs required to inhibit 50% of the specific binding of [3H]-spiperone in descending order of potency were methysergide greater than ritanserin greater than pirenperone greater than pipamperone greater than ketanserin greater than cyproheptadine greater than M-trifluoromethylphenyl-piperazine greater than prazosin greater than 5-methoxy-N-N-dimethyltryptamine hydrogen oxalate greater than 1-(3-chlorophenol) piperazine greater than serotonin. In the rat pineal gland, [3H]-spiperone revealed a low affinity serotonin binding site with a Kd value of 25.77 +/- 10.7 nM and a Bmax value of 1244 +/- 472 fmol/mg protein. The results of these studies are interpreted to indicate that the bovine pineal gland possess serotonin 5HT2 receptor. However, the rat pineal gland possess a serotoninergic binding site of unknown nature. PMID:1795228

Govitrapong, P; Prapapanich, V; Ebadi, M

1991-01-01

188

Labelling of the pineal gland with 99mTc-glucose-6-phosphate  

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Lately, the pineal body has been the subject of a large variety of studies. Only recently it has been understood the role played by this endocrine gland to maintain the balance of the human body and also in animal models. Although small in dimensions, the pineal body is a very active organ, able to transmit precise temporal information. It probably participates in the synchronization of several organic functions. The present work aims to study a possible use of 99mTc-glucose-6-P as a tracer for the pineal gland. Histoautoradiographic studies have been performed in Wistar rats. Tomoscintigraphic studies were acquired in patients and in albine rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus hyplus). The labelling efficiency and the radiochemical purity of the labelled products have always been tested. Animal and human SPECT exams, show an activity focus projected over the area corresponding to the pineal body localization. Autoradiographic studies using [1-14C]-glucose-6-P did not reveal a more relevant activity at the pineal level, probably due to its hepatic conversion to 14C-glucose. (author)

1998-08-01

189

Cysteamine effects on somatostatin, catecholamines, pineal NAT and melatonin in rats  

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The thiol reagent cysteamine was administered to adult male rats with the aim of investigating its effect on different neural and pineal components. As expected, immunoreactive somatostatin decreased in the median eminence (ME) (p less than 0.05) and gastric antrum (p less than 0.05) after cysteamine; however, no significant change was observed in the pineal IRS content after drug treatment. A decrease in norepinephrine was observed in the ME (p less than 0.001), hypothalamus (p less than 0.001) and pineal gland (p less than 0.05), together with a rise in ME (p less than 0.005) and hypothalamic dopamine (p less than 0.005) content; these results are consistent with a dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibiting effect of cysteamine. No effect was observed on hypothalamic serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid content. Pineal N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) after cysteamine than after saline, but no statistically significant effect was observed on pineal melatonin content. The mechanism involved in the NAT rise is presumably not related to the known stimulatory effect of norepinephrine, which fell after cysteamine. It is suggested that cysteamine may act at an intracellular level, inhibiting NAT degradation, an effect demonstrated in vitro and thought to be related to a thiol:disulfide exchange mechanism.

Webb, S.M.; Champney, T.H.; Steger, R.W.; Vaughan, M.K.; Reiter, R.J.

1986-03-01

190

Effects of photoperiod on pineal melatonin in the marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris).  

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Pineal melatonin content was examined under four different photoperiods (10L:14D, 12L:12D, 14L:10D, and 16L:8D) in adult female rice rats (Experiment 1). Pineal melatonin was basal during the light and increased beginning 1 hr after lights off. Within 2 hr after lights off, melatonin increased to levels that were maintained throughout the dark period. In all but one photoperiod (10L:14D), melatonin remained elevated prior to light onset and decreased markedly within one hour after lights on. In addition, the duration of pineal melatonin was inversely related to the length of the photoperiod. In Experiment 2, the time course of pineal melatonin content on 16L:8D was examined every 20 min during the first hour after lights off and the first hour after lights on. Melatonin content increased gradually during the first hour and decreased markedly within 20 min after lights on. These data show that pineal melatonin in female rice rats is regulated by photoperiod. PMID:7562372

Edmonds, K E; Rollag, M D; Stetson, M H

1995-04-01

191

Control of pineal indole biosynthesis by changes in sympathetic tone caused by factors other than environmental lighting.  

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Description of experimental investigations showing that, in addition to environmental lighting, other manipulations known to modify sympathetic tone can also modify pineal indole biosynthesis. Comparable alterations in sympathetic tone that occur in response to activity or feeding cycles may be instrumental in generating the pineal rhythms that persist in the absence of light-dark cycle.

Lynch, H. J.; Eng, J. P.; Wurtman, R. J.

1973-01-01

192

Developmental and Diurnal Expression of the Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25 (Snap25) in the Rat Pineal Gland  

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Snap25 (synaptosomal-associated protein) is a 25 kDa protein, belonging to the SNARE-family (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) of proteins, essential for synaptic and secretory vesicle exocytosis. Snap25 has by immunohistochemistry been demonstrated in the rat pineal gland but the biological importance of this is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a high expression of mRNA encoding Snap25 in all parts of the rat pineal complex, the superficial-, and deep-pineal gland, as well as in the pineal stalk. Snap25 showed a low pineal expression during embryonic stages with a strong increase in expression levels just after birth. The expression showed no day/night variations. Neither removal of the sympathetic input to the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy nor bilateral decentralization of the superior cervical ganglia significantly affected the expression of Snap25 in the gland. The pineal expression levels of Snap25 were not changed following intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. The strong expression of Snap25 in the pineal gland suggests the presence of secretory granules and microvesicles in the rat pinealocyte supporting the concept of a vesicular release. At the transcriptional level, this Snap25-based release mechanism does not exhibit any diurnal rhythmicity and is regulated independently of the sympathetic nervous input to the gland.

Karlsen, Anna S; Rath, Martin Fredensborg

2013-01-01

193

Developmental and diurnal expression of the synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (Snap25) in the rat pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Snap25 (synaptosomal-associated protein) is a 25 kDa protein, belonging to the SNARE-family (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) of proteins, essential for synaptic and secretory vesicle exocytosis. Snap25 has by immunohistochemistry been demonstrated in the rat pineal gland but the biological importance of this is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a high expression of mRNA encoding Snap25 in all parts of the rat pineal complex, the superficial-, and deep-pineal gland, as well as in the pineal stalk. Snap25 showed a low pineal expression during embryonic stages with a strong increase in expression levels just after birth. The expression showed no day/night variations. Neither removal of the sympathetic input to the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy nor bilateral decentralization of the superior cervical ganglia significantly affected the expression of Snap25 in the gland. The pineal expression levels of Snap25 were not changed following intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. The strong expression of Snap25 in the pineal gland suggests the presence of secretory granules and microvesicles in the rat pinealocyte supporting the concept of a vesicular release. At the transcriptional level, this Snap25-based release mechanism does not exhibit any diurnal rhythmicity and is regulated independently of the sympathetic nervous input to the gland. PMID:23135794

Karlsen, Anna S; Rath, Martin F; Rohde, Kristian; Toft, Trine; Møller, Morten

2013-06-01

194

Circadian changes in long noncoding RNAs in the pineal gland  

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Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a broad range of biological roles, including regulation of expression of genes and chromosomes. Here, we present evidence that lncRNAs are involved in vertebrate circadian biology. Differential night/day expression of 112 lncRNAs (0.3 to >50 kb) occurs in the rat pineal gland, which is the source of melatonin, the hormone of the night. Approximately one-half of these changes reflect nocturnal increases. Studies of eight lncRNAs with 2- to >100-fold daily rhythms indicate that, in most cases, the change results from neural stimulation from the central circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (doubling time = 0.5-1.3 h). Light exposure at night rapidly reverses (halving time = 9-32 min) levels of some of these lncRNAs. Organ culture studies indicate that expression of these lncRNAs is regulated by norepinephrine acting through cAMP. These findings point to a dynamic role of lncRNAs in the circadian system.

Coon, Steven L; Munson, Peter J

2012-01-01

195

Two Synchronous and Different Salivary Gland Tumors Located in the Parotid Gland and Parapharyngeal Region: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available The majority of salivary gland tumors presents as a single mass in one gland. The occurrence of synchronous distinct tumors in salivary glands is rare. We report a case of two distinct salivary gland tumors localized in the parotid gland and parapharyngeal area. The first mass was in the left parapharyngeal region and the second was partially embedded in the caudal region of the left parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration was done for the parotid gland mass and cytological findings were consistent with Warthin's tumor. The parapharyngeal mass was excised and pleomorphic adenoma was diagnosed histopathologically. In this paper, cytological and histological findings of this rare patient are presented, and the literature is reviewed.

Mehmet KEFEL?

2009-06-01

196

THE REGIONAL METASTATIC TUMORS IN THE MALIGNANT MELANOMA OF THE NAIL  

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Full Text Available The malignant melanoma of the nail is relatively rare and the regional metastatic tumors appear even with less frequency. The paper relates the case of an old patient female, 67-year-old diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the left index nail in 1994. No secondary tumour has been diagnosed at that moment and transmetacarpal amputation of the second finger has been done. The patient followed a complete therapy with interferon and was re-examined each month, three six and then twelve month. In 1996 the first secondary melanoma developed on a superficial dorsal vein situated over the deep fascia that covered the remnant second metacarpian and was excised. Some other metastatic tumours developed during the following period, all of them being situated on the same cephalic vein, first in the forearm and than in the arm. The lymphnods were not invaded. The decision of the excision of the remnant cephalic vein has been taken in 1999. The histological examination confirmed the presence of tumoral cells. In 2000 axillary adenopathy has been detected so an excision of the left axillary lymphnods has been performed, together with skin which seemed to be pigmented. The histological exam revealed lymphnods invasion and cutaneous metastatic cells.

Camelia Tamas

2006-10-01

197

Extensive genetic polymorphism in the human tumor necrosis factor region and relation to extended HLA haplotypes.  

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We have identified three polymorphic microsatellites (which we call TNFa, TNFb, and TNFc) within a 12-kilobase region of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) that includes the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) locus. TNFc is located within the first intron of the TNF-beta gene and has only 2 alleles. TNFa and TNFb are 3.5 kilobases upstream (telomeric) of the TNF-beta gene and have at least 13 and 7 alleles, respectively. TNFa, -b, and -c alleles are in linkage disequilibrium with alleles at other loci within the MHC, including class I, class II, and class III. TNFa, -b, and -c alleles are also associated with extended HLA haplotypes. These TNF polymorphisms will allow a thorough genetic analysis of the involvement of TNF in MHC-linked pathologies. PMID:1946393

Jongeneel, C V; Briant, L; Udalova, I A; Sevin, A; Nedospasov, S A; Cambon-Thomsen, A

1991-11-01

198

Effect of short peptides on expression of signaling molecules in organotypic pineal cell culture.  

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We demonstrated the influence of short peptides on the expression of signaling molecules in organotypic culture of the pineal gland from 3-month-old rats. Peptides Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly and Lys-Glu-Asp stimulate the expression of proliferative protein Ki-67 in pineal gland culture. These peptides as well as Glu-Asp-Arg and Lys-Glu do not affect the expression of apoptosis marker AIF. The synthesis of transcription factor CGRP by pinealocytes was stimulated only by Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly. Thus, peptide Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly tissue-specifically stimulates proliferative and secretory activities of pinealocytes, which can be used for recovery of pineal gland functions at the molecular level. PMID:22803060

Khavinson, V Kh; Linkova, N S; Chalisova, N I; Dudkov, A V; Koncevaya, E A

2011-11-01

199

Uptake and metabolism of indole compounds by the goldfish pineal organ  

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Indole metabolism was studied in the pineal organ of the goldfish by radioautography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The rate of uptake of tritiated serotonin was rapid in vitro with dense labeling over the photoreceptor cells. Tritiated tryptophan was taken up at a slower rate and the label was distributed evenly over the epithelium. Continual light caused a reduction in the concentration of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) compared to groups exposed to constant darkness both in vivo and in explants, suggesting that these effects are not derived from photoreceptors outside the pineal organ. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that indole metabolism is functionally linked to phototransduction events in the pineal organ of lower vertebrates.

McNulty, J.A.

1986-02-01

200

Uptake and metabolism of indole compounds by the goldfish pineal organ  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indole metabolism was studied in the pineal organ of the goldfish by radioautography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The rate of uptake of tritiated serotonin was rapid in vitro with dense labeling over the photoreceptor cells. Tritiated tryptophan was taken up at a slower rate and the label was distributed evenly over the epithelium. Continual light caused a reduction in the concentration of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) compared to groups exposed to constant darkness both in vivo and in explants, suggesting that these effects are not derived from photoreceptors outside the pineal organ. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that indole metabolism is functionally linked to phototransduction events in the pineal organ of lower vertebrates

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region  

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Proton beam has been applied to treat various tumor patients in clinical studies. However, it is still undefined whether proton radiation can inhibit the blood vessel formation and induce the cell death in vascular endothelial cells in growing organs. The aim of this study are first, to develop an optimal animal model for the observation of blood vessel development with low dose of proton beam and second, to investigate the effect of low dose proton beam on the inhibition of blood vessel formation induced by hypoxic conditions. In this study, flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos were used to directly visualize and determine the inhibition of blood vessels by low dose (1, 2, 5 Gy) of proton beam with spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). And we observed cell death by acridine orange staining at 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) stage of embryos after proton irradiation. We also compared the effects of proton beam with those of gamma-ray. An antioxidant, N-acetyl cystein (NAC) was used to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the cell deaths induced by proton irradiation. Irradiated flk-1-GFP transgenic embryos with proton beam irradiation (35 MeV, spread out Bragg peak, SOBP) demonstrated a marked inhibition of embryonic growth and an altered fluorescent blood vessel development in the trunk region. When the cells with DNA damage in the irradiated zebrafish were stained with acridine orange, green fluorescent cell death spots were increased in trunk regions compared to non-irradiated control embryos. Proton beam also significantly increased the cell death rate in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but pretreatment of N-acetyl cystein (NAC), an antioxidant, recovered the proton-induced cell death rate (p<0.01). Moreover, pretreatment of NAC abrogated the effect of proton beam on the inhibition of trunk vessel development and malformation of trunk truncation. From this study, we found that proton radiation therapy can inhibit the blood vessel growth which is probably induced in hypoxic region in vivo in zebrafish embryos. The inhibition of blood vessel formation by proton beam might be caused by vascular cell death through the increased ROS generation. Therefore, proton therapy can be applied to treat tumor angiogenesis as well as abnormal vessel formation developing in hypoxic region

Lee, Y. M.; Heo, T. R.; Lee, K. B.; Jang, K. H.; Kim, H. N.; Lee, S. H.; Jeong, M. H. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2008-04-15

202

Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proton beam has been applied to treat various tumor patients in clinical studies. However, it is still undefined whether proton radiation can inhibit the blood vessel formation and induce the cell death in vascular endothelial cells in growing organs. The aim of this study are first, to develop an optimal animal model for the observation of blood vessel development with low dose of proton beam and second, to investigate the effect of low dose proton beam on the inhibition of blood vessel formation induced by hypoxic conditions. In this study, flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos were used to directly visualize and determine the inhibition of blood vessels by low dose (1, 2, 5 Gy) of proton beam with spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). And we observed cell death by acridine orange staining at 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) stage of embryos after proton irradiation. We also compared the effects of proton beam with those of gamma-ray. An antioxidant, N-acetyl cystein (NAC) was used to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the cell deaths induced by proton irradiation. Irradiated flk-1-GFP transgenic embryos with proton beam irradiation (35 MeV, spread out Bragg peak, SOBP) demonstrated a marked inhibition of embryonic growth and an altered fluorescent blood vessel development in the trunk region. When the cells with DNA damage in the irradiated zebrafish were stained with acridine orange, green fluorescent cell death spots were increased in trunk regions compared to non-irradiated control embryos. Proton beam also significantly increased the cell death rate in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but pretreatment of N-acetyl cystein (NAC), an antioxidant, recovered the proton-induced cell death rate (p<0.01). Moreover, pretreatment of NAC abrogated the effect of proton beam on the inhibition of trunk vessel development and malformation of trunk truncation. From this study, we found that proton radiation therapy can inhibit the blood vessel growth which is probably induced in hypoxic region in vivo in zebrafish embryos. The inhibition of blood vessel formation by proton beam might be caused by vascular cell death through the increased ROS generation. Therefore, proton therapy can be applied to treat tumor angiogenesis as well as abnormal vessel formation developing in hypoxic region

2008-01-01

203

123I-IMP SPECT in patients with brain tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

123I-IMP SPECT was studied in 20 patients with brain tumor (metastasis, 4; low grade astrocytoma, 6; high grade astrocytoma, 3; pineal tumor, 3; pituitary tumor, 3; meningioma, 1). Each case was intravenously injected 1 mCi of IMP. SPECT data were collected for 1,000 k counts 20 min. after injection, using a circular detector array emission tomograph system (SET 020, Shimadzu and ECLIPSE S-120, Japan Datageneral). Low activity areas on IMP SPECT image was observed in the area of the tumor and its surrounding edema in 13 cases with metastasis, astrocytoma, and meningioma. In 3 cases with pituitary adenoma and 1 case with pineal tumor, no defect was observed. In 2 cases with pineal tumor, low activity areas were observed in the limited area of tumor. T/N ratio (activity ratio of diseased area to the opposite normal area) was calculated in each case. T/N ratios were ranged from 44 % to 96 %, and had no tumor specificity. Moderate correlation was observed between T/N ratios of IMP and those of rCBF obtained by 133Xe inhalation method in 18 cases without meningioma (r = 0.76). In a case with meningioma, the discrepancy of T/N ratio between IMP and 133Xe was observed, which showed high rCBF and low activity on IMP image. (author)

1986-01-01

204

Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library  

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The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences designated to be on...

Stefanie Hartman; Greg Touchton; Jessica Wynn; Tuoyu Geng; Chong, Nelson W.; Ed Smith

2006-01-01

205

Buschke-Löwenstein tumor: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anogenital region  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Buschke-Lcwenstein tumor (BLT, as a rare form of condylomata acuminatum, was firstly described by Buschke in 1886 as a "carcinoma-like condyloma acuminatum of the penis”. BLT is generally considered to be a low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma of the anogenital region. Case Outline. We describe a case of BLT in a 56-year-old male patient who was referred to our institute due to a large defect in the gluteal region. The biopsy of the lesion was performed and the diagnosis of BLT was made on histopathological examination. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis showed the extensive vegetant lesion that significantly infiltrated pelvic organs accompanied with an enlargement of para-iliac lymph nodes. Sygmoidostomy for fecal diversion was done and chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin was initiated. Unfortunately, the patient’s severe condition caused fatal outcome. Conclusion. Our case points out that BLT should be treated at the initial stage in order to prevent untreatable condition which happened in our patient. Therefore, early diagnostics and staging of the disease using modern technologies are crucial in order to treat patients effectively.

Turkalj Ivan

2014-01-01

206

Abordaje endoscópico de los quistes gliales pineales sintomaticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Los quistes gliales pineales (QGP) son infrecuentes. El manejo quirúrgico de estos quistes no está consensuado. En la literatura se recogen 18 casos tratados por vía endoscópica. El objetivo de este trabajo es contribuir con nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento endoscópico de los QGP. Mat [...] erial y método. Entre 1999 y 2004, cinco pacientes con QGP sintomáticos, con o sin hidrocefalia, se trataron mediante vintriculostomía premamilar endoscópica (VPE) y fenestración del quiste. Se utilizó un endoscopio rígido, con sistema de neuronavegación en los casos sin hidrocefalia. Resultados. En el período de seguimiento (de 6 meses a 4 años) se recoge una resolución clínica en 4 casos y una disminución del tamaño del quiste en todos los casos. Todas las VPE fueron permeables en el seguimiento. No hubo déficits clínicos permanentes en ningún caso. Discusión. No existe en la literatura un acuerdo en el mejor tratamiento quirúrgico de los QGP. A pesar de la gran aceptación de la vía endoscópica, un gran número de autores abogan por una cirugía abierta o por una cirugía extereotáxica como la mejor opción. Además, existen algunas diferencias en el manejo quirúrgico endoscópico según ofrece la literatura. Conclusión. La VPE con la fenestración del quiste es un tratamiento eficiente debido a la baja morbilidad y a la eficacia en la resolución clínica y radiológica de los QGP con o sin hidrocefalia. La cirugía abierta, especialmente con la ayuda endoscópica, podría ser un tratamietno de segunda elección, y la cirugía estereotáxica debería abandonarse en estos casos. Abstract in english Objetive. Sympotomatic glial pineal cyst (GPC) are unfrequent. Surgical management of these cysts is not consensed. In the literature there are 18 cases reported treated by endoscopic approach. The purpose of this study is to contribute with our experience to the endoscopic treatment of the GPC. Mat [...] erials and Methods. Between 1999 and 2004, five patients with GPC underwent an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and cyst fenestration. We have used a rigid endoscope, with neuronavegation system in the cases without hydrocephalus. Results. In the follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 4 tears we have reported: clinical resolution in four cases and cyst size decrease in all cases. All the ETV have been patent. There was not perman ent morbility and not surgery related death. Discussion. An agreement doesn't exist in the literature about the better treatment of the surgery or by stereotaxy as the best treatment. There are great differences in the surgical management between the 18 endoscopic cases reported in the literature, and also in relation with our cases. Conclusion. The ETV with endoscopic cyst fenestration is an efficient treatment due to the low morbidity and the effectiveness in the treatment of the GPC with or without hydrocephalus. The open surgery (specially with the endoscope assisting microneurosurgery) wolud be a second choice technique, and the stereotactic surgery must be abandoned.

Villalba Martínez, Gloria; Caral Pons, Luis Alberto; Fiol Busquets, Bartolomeu; Fabregas Juliá, Neus; Ribalta Ribas, Teresa; Boget Prats, Teresa; Raspall Borell, Antoni; Ferrer Rodríguez, Enric.

207

Mutations in a new photoreceptor-pineal gene on 17p cause Leber congenital amaurosis.  

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Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA, MIM 204000) accounts for at least 5% of all inherited retinal disease and is the most severe inherited retinopathy with the earliest age of onset. Individuals affected with LCA are diagnosed at birth or in the first few months of life with severely impaired vision or blindness, nystagmus and an abnormal or flat electroretinogram (ERG). Mutations in GUCY2D (ref. 3), RPE65 (ref. 4) and CRX (ref. 5) are known to cause LCA, but one study identified disease-causing GUCY2D mutations in only 8 of 15 families whose LCA locus maps to 17p13.1 (ref. 3), suggesting another LCA locus might be located on 17p13.1. Confirming this prediction, the LCA in one Pakistani family mapped to 17p13.1, between D17S849 and D17S960-a region that excludes GUCY2D. The LCA in this family has been designated LCA4 (ref. 6). We describe here a new photoreceptor/pineal-expressed gene, AIPL1 (encoding aryl-hydrocarbon interacting protein-like 1), that maps within the LCA4 candidate region and whose protein contains three tetratricopeptide (TPR) motifs, consistent with nuclear transport or chaperone activity. A homozygous nonsense mutation at codon 278 is present in all affected members of the original LCA4 family. AIPL1 mutations may cause approximately 20% of recessive LCA, as disease-causing mutations were identified in 3 of 14 LCA families not tested previously for linkage. PMID:10615133

Sohocki, M M; Bowne, S J; Sullivan, L S; Blackshaw, S; Cepko, C L; Payne, A M; Bhattacharya, S S; Khaliq, S; Qasim Mehdi, S; Birch, D G; Harrison, W R; Elder, F F; Heckenlively, J R; Daiger, S P

2000-01-01

208

Análisis epidemiológico de la mortalidad por tumores sólidos en la Región Metropolitana, Chile, 1999 / Mortality caused by solid tumors in the Metropolitan Region, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Chronic diseases are the leading cause of mortality in Chile and, among these, tumors are the second most frequent cause of death. The langest number of deaths occur in the Metropolitan Region. Aim: To describe the rates of mortality caused by solid tumors in the Metropolitan Region. Mat [...] erial and methods: Analysis of deaths that occurred in 1999 in the Metropolitan Region. Data from death certificates, gathered by the Ministry of Health, were used. Crude mortality rates and Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL) caused by solid tumors were calculated. Results: Among men, gastric cancer accounts for the higher rate of mortality, followed by lung cancer. Among women, gallbladder cancer is the most frequent cause of death, followed by breast cancer. Gastric cancer also accounts for the higher amount of PYLL among men, but among women, breast cancer outweighs gallbladder cancer in this parameter. Conclusions: Gastric cancer continues to be an important cause of mortality in Chile and there is a worrysome increase in the mortality caused by gallbladder cancer (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 641-9)

Jorge, Szot M.

209

Degranulating mast cells in fibrotic regions of human tumors and evidence that mast cell heparin interferes with the growth of tumor cells through a mechanism involving fibroblasts  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mast cells that are present in fibrotic regions of cancer can suppress the growth of tumor cells through an indirect mechanism involving peri-tumoral fibroblasts. Methods We first immunostained a wide variety of human cancers for the presence of degranulated mast cells. In a subsequent series of controlled in vitro experiments, we then co-cultured UACC-812 human breast cancer cells with normal fibroblasts in the presence or absence of different combinations and doses of mast cell tryptase, mast cell heparin, a lysate of the human mast cell line HMC-1, and fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7, a powerful, heparin-binding growth factor for breast epithelial cells. Results Degranulating mast cells were localized predominantly in the fibrous tissue of every case of breast cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease that we examined. Mast cell tryptase and HMC-1 lysate had no significant effect on the clonogenic growth of cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. By contrast, mast cell heparin at multiple doses significantly reduced the size and number of colonies of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, especially in the presence of FGF-7. Neither heparin nor FGF-7, individually or in combination, produced any significant effect on the clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells cultured without fibroblasts. Conclusion Degranulating mast cells are restricted to peri-tumoral fibrous tissue, and mast cell heparin is a powerful inhibitor of clonogenic growth of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. These results may help to explain the well-known ability of heparin to inhibit the growth of primary and metastatic tumors.

Kanakubo Emi

2005-09-01

210

Tumor-specific binding of radiolabeled G-22 monoclonal antibody in glioma patients  

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Iodine-131-labeled G-22 monoclonal antibody F(ab'){sub 2} fragment reacting specifically with a glioma-associated surface glycoprotein was administered to 12 glioma patients to investigate its use in radioimaging of intracranial gliomas. No immediate or delayed side effects were attributable to antibody injection. Nine patients received the radiolabeled complex intravenously. The images of low-grade gliomas were generally poor and disappeared within 4 days. High-contrast images were obtained beyond the 7th day in high-grade gliomas except one case in the pineal region. Three patients received intraventricular or intratumoral administration. Clear images of all tumors were demonstrated from the 2nd until later than the 7th day. One patient with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination of brainstem glioma demonstrated negative CSF cytology after intraventricular administration. (author).

Yoshida, Jun; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Mizuno, Masaaki; Sugita, Kenichiro; Oshima, Motoo; Tadokoro, Masanori; Sakuma, Sadayuki (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Seo, Hisao

1992-03-01

211

Morphologic Changes in Rat's Pineal Gland After Eliminating Retinal Photic Stimulation / Cambios Morfológicos en la Glándula Pineal de Ratas Luego de la Eliminación de la Estimulación Fótica Retiniana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La secreción de melatonina por parte de glándula pineal de los mamíferos es regulada por la estimulación luminosa mediante complejas vías neuro anatómicas que incluyen la retina, el núcleo supraquiasmático hipotalámico, el núcleo intermediolateral de la médula torácica y finalmente el ganglio cervic [...] al superior. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar los cambios en la densidad de pinealocitos y vasos sanguíneos de la glándula pineal, luego de eliminar la estimulación fótica en ratas. Se utilizaron 13 ratas adultas Sprague Dawley divididas en 2 grupos, Grupo I actuó como control, y el Grupo II fue sometido a una lesión retiniana, por medio de alcoholización bilateral de ambos bulbos oculares. Luego de tres semanas las glándulas de ambos grupos fueron procesadas para hematoxilina-eosina y observadas al microscopio óptico. El grupo II presentó valores mayores en el número de pinealocitos y de vasos sanguíneos observados, las diferencias con el Grupo I fueron significativas con p Abstract in english Melatonin secretion from mammalian pineal glands is regulated by light stimulation by means of a complex neuroanatomical pathway that includes the retina, hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, intermediolateral nucleus of the thoracic spinal cord, and finally, the superior cervical ganglia. The purp [...] ose of this study was to analyze the changes in the pinealocytes and the blood vessel density of the pineal gland after eliminating photic stimulation in rats. Thirteen adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups, Group I acted as control, and Group II was subjected to a retinal lesión, by means of alcohol injected bilaterally to both ocular bulbs. After 3 weeks, the glands of both groups were processed with hematoxilin-eosin (HE) and observed with an optic microscope. Group II results presented higher valúes in the number of pinealocytes and in the blood vessels observed. The differences with Group I was significant at p

Ignacio, Roa Henriquez; Iván, Suazo Galdames; Mario, Cantín López; Daniela, Zavando Matamata.

212

Induction of gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia in rats exposed to localized X-irradiation of the gastric region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The induction of gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia was examined in 8-week-old male JCL/SD rats exposed to localized X-irradiation of the gastric region. The animals were each given two 20 Gy fractions of X-rays, with a one-week interval between fractions (total, 40 Gy). Nine atypical hyperplasias (20 %) and 13 adenocarcinomas (28 %) in the pyloric mucosa of the glandular stomach were found in 46 animals with X-irradiation. The incidence of intestinal metaplasia was 93 % in the pyloric mucosa, 50 % in the fundic mucosa and 96 % in both the pyloric and fundic mucosa. Type B metaplasia (intestinal metaplasia without Paneth cells) was most common and type C (intestinal metaplasia with Paneth cells) was less frequent. No gastric tumor or intestinal metaplasia appeared in non-irradiated control rats. This study shows that local X-irradiation of the gastric region induced both gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia independently. (author)

1987-01-01

213

Tumores de células germinativas intracranianos na infância: avaliação de 14 casos Primary intracranial germ cell tumors in children: evaluation of fourteen cases  

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Full Text Available Este estudo avalia o diagnóstico, a terapia e a sobrevida de 14 pacientes com tumor de células germinativas intracraniano durante o período entre 1991 e 2001. Onze pacientes eram do sexo masculino e três do feminino. A média de idade do grupo foi 12,5 anos (20 dias-18 anos. Na admissão, os mais comuns sintomas foram cefaléia (10/14, vômitos (6/14 e visuais (6/14. Os tumores estavam localizados em região hipotalâmica/hipofisária em 10 casos, suprasselar em 3 casos e intraparenquimatosa em 1 caso. Histologicamente, havia 1 caso de carcinoma embrionário, 5 de germinomas, 2 de teratoma maduro, 1 de teratoma imaturo e 5 de tumores mistos. O tratamento foi variável, dependendo da histologia da lesão. Três pacientes morreram após a progressão tumoral ou recidiva e um paciente morreu devido causa não relacionada ao tumor. Os demais estão vivos e sem doença.This study evaluates the diagnosis, therapy and survival of 14 patients with primary intracranial germ cell tumors during the period from 1991 to 2001. There were 11 males and 3 females. Mean age was 12.2 years old (20 days-18 years. On admission, the most common symptoms were headache (10/14, vomiting (6/14 and visual (6/14. The tumor was in pineal and hypothalamic region in 10 cases, suprasellar in 3 cases, and in the cerebral parenchyma in 1 case. Histologically there were 1 embryonal carcinoma, 5 germinomas, 2 mature teratomas, 1 immature teratoma and 5 mixed germ cell tumors. Treatment differed among the patients according to the type of tumor. Three patients died after tumor progression or relapse and one patient died from another condition. The remaining patients are alive and without disease.

Patrícia Imperatriz Porto Rondinelli

2005-09-01

214

Stress inhibition of melatonin synthesis in the pineal organ of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is mediated by cortisol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cortisol has been suggested to mediate the effect of stress on pineal melatonin synthesis in fish. Therefore, we aimed to determine how pineal melatonin synthesis is affected by exposing rainbow trout to different stressors, such as hypoxia, chasing and high stocking density. In addition, to test the hypothesis that cortisol is a mediator of such stress-induced effects, a set of animals were intraperitoneally implanted with coconut oil alone or containing cortisol (50 mg kg(-1) body mass) and sampled 5 or 48 h post-injection at midday and midnight. The specificity of such effect was also assessed in cultured pineal organs exposed to cortisol alone or with the general glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, mifepristone (RU486). Stress (in particular chasing and high stocking density) affected the patterns of plasma and pineal organ melatonin content during both day and night, with the greatest reduction occurring at night. The decrease in nocturnal melatonin levels in the pineal organ of stressed fish was accompanied by increased serotonin content and decreased AANAT2 enzymatic activity and mRNA abundance. Similar effects on pineal melatonin synthesis to those elicited by stress were observed in trout implanted with cortisol for either 5 or 48 h. These data indicate that stress negatively influences the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal organ, thus attenuating the day-night variations of circulating melatonin. The effect might be mediated by increased cortisol, which binds to trout pineal organ-specific glucocorticoid receptors to modulate melatonin rhythms. Our results in cultured pineal organs support this. Considering the role of melatonin in the synchronization of daily and annual rhythms, the results suggest that stress-induced alterations in melatonin synthesis could affect the availability of fish to integrate rhythmic environmental information. PMID:24436377

López-Patiño, Marcos A; Gesto, Manuel; Conde-Sieira, Marta; Soengas, José L; Míguez, Jesús M

2014-04-15

215

Effect of Electric Field Exposure on Melatonin and Enzyme Circadian Rhythms in the Rat Pineal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of chronic 30-day electric field exposure on pineal serotonin N-acetyl transferase (EC 2.1.15) activity as well as melatonin and 5-methoxy tryptophol (5-MTOL) concentrations in rats, were assessed. (ERA citation 08:010794)

B. Wilson L. E. Anderson D. I. Hilton R. D. Phillips

1980-01-01

216

Ethanol enhancement of isoproterenol-stimulated melatonin and cyclic AMP release from cultured pineal glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Norepinephrine stimulates the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland. The action of norepinephrine is believed to be mediated primarily by beta adrenergic receptors, and involves activation of adenylate cyclase. Ethanol, 25 to 50 mM, added to cultured pineal glands in vitro, enhanced isoproterenol-induced stimulation of cyclic AMP and melatonin production. The action of ethanol was observed only at doses of isoproterenol that produced a submaximal effect, and ethanol alone had no effect on cyclic AMP or melatonin release. Butanol, at a concentration of 2 mM, was as effective as 50 mM ethanol in increasing isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP and melatonin release, indicating that the response to alcohols was not due simply to changes in osmolarity, and may reflect a hydrophobic interaction of the alcohols with the cell membrane. The effects of ethanol on pineal cyclic AMP and melatonin release were reversible after a 15-min preincubation, but not after a 2-hr preincubation, suggesting that, over a long incubation period, ethanol may sensitize the pineal beta adrenergic receptor-coupled adenylate cyclase system to isoproterenol. The findings in this study are consistent with earlier work showing that ethanol increases cerebral cortical beta adrenergic receptor-coupled adenylate cyclase activity, and demonstrate that the effect of ethanol on the receptor-effector system can result in an endocrinological response. PMID:2540311

Chung, C T; Tamarkin, L; Hoffman, P L; Tabakoff, B

1989-04-01

217

Simple sensitive rat pineal gland organ culture technique for monitoring indole metabolism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pineal gland has received considerable attention in recent years and has been implicated as affecting and being influenced by physiological and endocrine processes. To determine indole metabolism in the pineal a technique is required which will enable sensitive monitoring of all metabolites while allowing for biochemical or pharmacological manipulations. Because the rat pineal gland is small and readily accessible it makes intact organ culture suitable for such purposes. A technique was sought in which indole metabolism could be monitored with relative simplicity while allowing sensitivity and reproducibility using single rat pineal glands. A technique was chosen where "1"4C and "3H-serotonin were used in organ culture. The results obtained from this technique indicated that the radioactivity recorded for the various metabolites of serotonin using both isotopes did not differ greatly and that the sensitivity of both methods is similar. The fewer manipulations needed using "3H-serotonin made this method faster and more accurate than using "1"4C-serotonin and it is thus to be recommended

1987-01-01

218

Subarachnoid dissemination of pineal germinoma 9 years after radiation therapy without local relapse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 22-year-old female developed intracranial and spinal subarachnoid metastases 9 years after radiation therapy for a pineal germinoma. Computed tomographic scans showed no evidence of local recurrence. Cerebrospinal axis irradiation achieved total remission. Delayed subarachnoid dissemination may be caused by germinoma cells remaining dormant in the subarachnoid space, outside the radiation field. (author)

1991-01-01

219

Subarachnoid dissemination of pineal germinoma 9 years after radiation therapy without local relapse; Case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 22-year-old female developed intracranial and spinal subarachnoid metastases 9 years after radiation therapy for a pineal germinoma. Computed tomographic scans showed no evidence of local recurrence. Cerebrospinal axis irradiation achieved total remission. Delayed subarachnoid dissemination may be caused by germinoma cells remaining dormant in the subarachnoid space, outside the radiation field. (author).

Tokoro, Kazuhiko; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Murase, Shizuo; Yagishita, Saburo (Kanagawa Rehabilitation Center, Atsugi (Japan)); Kyuma, Yoshikazu

1991-11-01

220

Subarachnoid dissemination of pineal germinoma 9 years after radiation therapy without local relapse--case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 22-year-old female developed intracranial and spinal subarachnoid metastases 9 years after radiation therapy for a pineal germinoma. Computed tomographic scans showed no evidence of local recurrence. Cerebrospinal axis irradiation achieved total remission. Delayed subarachnoid dissemination may be caused by germinoma cells remaining dormant in the subarachnoid space, outside the radiation field. PMID:1723161

Tokoro, K; Chiba, Y; Murase, S; Yagishita, S; Kyuma, Y

1991-11-01

 
 
 
 
221

A 5'-region polymorphism modulates promoter activity of the tumor suppressor gene MFSD2A  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The MFSD2A gene maps within a linkage disequilibrium block containing the MYCL1-EcoRI polymorphism associated with prognosis and survival in lung cancer patients. Survival discrepancies between Asians and Caucasians point to ethnic differences in allelic frequencies of the functional genetic variations. Results Analysis of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs mapping in the MFSD2A 5'-regulatory region using a luciferase reporter system showed that SNP rs12072037, in linkage disequilibrium with the MYCL1-EcoRI polymorphism and polymorphic in Asians but not in Caucasians, modulated transcriptional activity of the MFSD2A promoter in cell lines expressing AHR and ARNT transcription factors, which potentially bind to the SNP site. Conclusion SNP rs12072037 modulates MFSD2A promoter activity and thus might affect MFSD2A levels in normal lung and in lung tumors, representing a candidate ethnically specific genetic factor underlying the association between the MYCL1 locus and lung cancer patients' survival.

Kunitoh Hideo

2011-07-01

222

Finding regions of aberrant DNA copy number associated with tumor phenotype  

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DNA copy number alterations are a hallmark of cancer. Understanding their role in tumor progression can help improve diagnosis, prognosis and therapy selection for cancer patients. High-resolution, genome-wide measurements of DNA copy number changes for large cohorts of tumors are currently available, owing to technologies like microarray-based array comparative hybridization (arrayCGH). In this thesis, we present a computational pipeline for statistical analysis of tumor cohorts, which can h...

Tolosi, Laura

2012-01-01

223

Multiple mutations in the T region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing plasmid.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three genetic loci affecting tumor morphology lie within pTiA6NC T-DNA: tms, tmr, and tml. Using deletions and multiple transposon insertions, we constructed tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids representing every possible double and triple mutant combination. tms tmr and tms tmr tml mutants did not incite tumors on most plants and produced a very weak response on a few other hosts but tms tml and tmr tml mutants were virulent. Thus, either tms+ or tmr+ alone can promote significant tumor growth but ...

Ream, L. W.; Gordon, M. P.; Nester, E. W.

1983-01-01

224

Chromosome 11q23.1 is an unstable region in B-cell tumor cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromosome 11q23 region is a frequent target of chromosome aberrations in B-cell lymphoid tumors. Here, we present the cytogenetic and molecular characterization of an amplification affecting 11q23.1 in four cell lines derived from B-cell lymphoid tumors. A minimal common region of amplification of 330 kb was identified in three cell lines using Affymetrix Human Mapping 250K arrays. When analyzed with three BAC clones, the amplifications appeared different at cytogenetic level in each cell line. Possibly affected transcripts were evaluated using tiling arrays, and validated by real time PCR. Since no effect of the amplification at the local transcription level was observed, it is possible that 11q23 amplification might mainly represent the effect of unstable chromosomal region. PMID:21420167

Poretti, Giulia; Kwee, Ivo; Bernasconi, Barbara; Rancoita, Paola M V; Rinaldi, Andrea; Capella, Carlo; Zucca, Emanuele; Neri, Antonino; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Bertoni, Francesco

2011-06-01

225

Immunization against the polyoma virus-induced tumor-specific transplantation antigen by early region mutants of the virus.  

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To investigate the relation between the polyoma tumor-specific transplantation antigen and the virus-coded proteins, mice were immunized by inoculation of a variety of viable polyoma virus mutants and then challenged with polyoma virus-induced tumors. Two classes of early region mutants were used. One class produces a normal small T-antigen and truncated middle and large T-antigens. The second class (hr-t mutants) forms a normal large T-antigen together with N-terminal fragments of small and ...

Dalianis, T.; Magnusson, G.; Ito, Y.; Klein, G.

1982-01-01

226

Correlación tomográfica y anatomopatológica en los tumores de la región selar Tomographic and anatomopathological correlation in sellar region tumors Ischemic stroke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realización de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fundamental fue demostrar el valor de la tomografía computadorizada en el diagnóstico presuntivo de la variedad histológica de los macroadenomas hipofisarios así como de otros tumores menos frecuentes de la región selar, teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes operados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomográfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar. Se registró la edad, sexo, clínica, signos tomográficos, resultados anatomopatológicos posquirúrgicos. Se observó mayor incidencia de los adenomas hipofisarios (110; los no secretores resultaron los predominantes (41,1 %. La mayoría de los pacientes se ubicó en las edades entre 30 y 50 años. El sexo femenino prevaleció en los adenomas adrenocorticotrópicos y los meningiomas; el masculino, en los productores de GH y de prolactina. Dentro de los signos tomográficos, la erosión de las clinoides y el dorso selar, así como la hidrocefalia predominó en los adenomas no secretores y los tumores no adenohipofisarios. Los adenomas (GH se destacaron en la erosión del piso y en el balonamiento selar al igual que los de ACTH. Las calcificaciones fueron frecuentes en los teratomas y craneofaringiomas, al igual que la captación no homogénea del contraste, la cual fue característica en estos casos como en los quistes de la bolsa de Rathke. La tomografía computadorizada demostró ser de gran valor diagnóstico en los macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico del paciente.The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas in the world motivated the conduction of this research, whose main objective was to show the value of computerized tomography in the presumptive diagnosis of the histological variety of hypophyseal macroadenomas, as well as of other less common tumors of the sellar region, taking into account the clinical picture.To this end, 124 patients operated on with the clinical and tomographic diagnosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumors of the sellar region, were studied. Age, sex, clinic, tomographic signs, and anatomopathological results were registered. It was observed a higher incidence of the hypophyseal adenomas (110. The non-secreting adenomas proved to be the predominant (41.1 %. Most of the patients were 30-50 years old. The female sex prevailed in the adrenocorticotropic adenomas and meningiomas, whereas males predominated in the GH and prolactin-producing adenomas. Within the tomographic signs, the erosion of the clinoids and the dorsum sellae, as well as hydrocephalus predominated in the non-secreting adenomas and the non-adenohypophyseal tumors. The adenomas (GH stood out in the erosion of the floor and in the sellar ballooning, the same as the ACTH. The calcifications were frequent in the teratomas and craniopharyngiomas, as well as the non-homogenous capture of contrast, which was characteristic in these cases, as in Rathke's pouch cysts. Computarized tomography proved to have a great diagnostic value in the hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumors of the sellar region, taking into consideration the clinical picture of the patient.

Tania García Moreira

2007-12-01

227

Correlación tomográfica y anatomopatológica en los tumores de la región selar / Tomographic and anatomopathological correlation in sellar region tumors Ischemic stroke  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realización de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fundamental fue demostrar el valor de la tomografía computadorizada en el diagnóstico presuntivo de la variedad histológica de los macroadenomas hipofisarios así como de otros [...] tumores menos frecuentes de la región selar, teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes operados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomográfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar. Se registró la edad, sexo, clínica, signos tomográficos, resultados anatomopatológicos posquirúrgicos. Se observó mayor incidencia de los adenomas hipofisarios (110); los no secretores resultaron los predominantes (41,1 %). La mayoría de los pacientes se ubicó en las edades entre 30 y 50 años. El sexo femenino prevaleció en los adenomas adrenocorticotrópicos y los meningiomas; el masculino, en los productores de GH y de prolactina. Dentro de los signos tomográficos, la erosión de las clinoides y el dorso selar, así como la hidrocefalia predominó en los adenomas no secretores y los tumores no adenohipofisarios. Los adenomas (GH) se destacaron en la erosión del piso y en el balonamiento selar al igual que los de ACTH. Las calcificaciones fueron frecuentes en los teratomas y craneofaringiomas, al igual que la captación no homogénea del contraste, la cual fue característica en estos casos como en los quistes de la bolsa de Rathke. La tomografía computadorizada demostró ser de gran valor diagnóstico en los macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico del paciente. Abstract in english The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas in the world motivated the conduction of this research, whose main objective was to show the value of computerized tomography in the presumptive diagnosis of the histological variety of hypophyseal macroadenomas, as well as of other less common tumors [...] of the sellar region, taking into account the clinical picture.To this end, 124 patients operated on with the clinical and tomographic diagnosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumors of the sellar region, were studied. Age, sex, clinic, tomographic signs, and anatomopathological results were registered. It was observed a higher incidence of the hypophyseal adenomas (110). The non-secreting adenomas proved to be the predominant (41.1 %). Most of the patients were 30-50 years old. The female sex prevailed in the adrenocorticotropic adenomas and meningiomas, whereas males predominated in the GH and prolactin-producing adenomas. Within the tomographic signs, the erosion of the clinoids and the dorsum sellae, as well as hydrocephalus predominated in the non-secreting adenomas and the non-adenohypophyseal tumors. The adenomas (GH) stood out in the erosion of the floor and in the sellar ballooning, the same as the ACTH. The calcifications were frequent in the teratomas and craniopharyngiomas, as well as the non-homogenous capture of contrast, which was characteristic in these cases, as in Rathke's pouch cysts. Computarized tomography proved to have a great diagnostic value in the hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumors of the sellar region, taking into consideration the clinical picture of the patient.

García Moreira, Tania; Piedra Chávez, Fernando; López Arbolay, Omar; García Ferrer, Luis; Navarro Miranda, Hilca; Delgado Gutiérrez, Denise.

228

The effects of pulsing magnetic fields on pineal melatonin synthesis in a teleost fish (brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on findings in various mammalian species, where exposure to electromagnetic fields decreased the nocturnal synthesis of the pineal secretory product melatonin, we investigated the effects of magnetic field (MF) exposure in a teleost fish, the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Fields were generated by Helmholtz coils (maximum flux density 40 microT, frequency 1 Hz, 200 ms on, 800 ms off). Melatonin concentrations were estimated by a specific radioimmunoassay. MF exposure significantly increased night-time pineal (P < 0.001) and serum (P < 0.01) melatonin levels, as compared with the controls. It is suggested that either the pineal glands are directly affected, i.e. by an increased Ca2+-influx into pineal photoreceptors, or that the responses are indirect since induced currents, caused by the rapid rise and decay of the generated MF, may have disturbed the sensory system for electric fields. PMID:9855367

Lerchl, A; Zachmann, A; Ali, M A; Reiter, R J

1998-11-13

229

Breast Tumor Diagnosis Using Diode Laser in NearInfrared Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last years, new non-invasively laser methods were used to detect breast tumors for pre- and postmenopausal females. The methods based on using laser radiation are safer than the other daily used methods for breast tumor detection like X-ray mammography, CT-scanner, and nuclear medicine. One of these new methods is called FDPM (Frequency Domain Photon Migration. It is based on the modulation of laser beam by variable frequency sinusoidal waves. The modulated laser radiations illuminate the breast tissue and received from opposite side.In this paper the amplitude and the phase shift of the received signal were calculated according to the original signal for the sake of diagnosis.These calculations were carried out for different breast thicknesses to find out the best modulation laser beam wavelength and the optimum breast thickness necessary for diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors. According to our work the most suitable laser wave length to detect the breast tumor for pre- and postmenopausal females was 956 nm and 674 nm for both malignant and benign tumors.Keywords: Tumor detection, laser modulation, Photon migration Breast tumor

Ahmed Ali Mohammed

2009-01-01

230

Increased delta aminolevulinic acid and decreased pineal melatonin production. A common event in acute porphyria studies in the rat.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tryptophan (TRP) is the precursor of melatonin, the primary secretory product of the pineal gland. Hepatic heme deficiency decreases the activity of liver tryptophan pyrrolase, leading to increased plasma TRP and serotonin. As a paradox, patients with attacks of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), exhibit low nocturnal plasma melatonin levels. This study using a rat experimental model was designed to produce a pattern of TRP and melatonin production similar to that in AIP patients. Pineal mel...

Puy, H.; Deybach, J. C.; Bogdan, A.; Callebert, J.; Baumgartner, M.; Voisin, P.; Nordmann, Y.; Touitou, Y.

1996-01-01

231

Chronic intractable epilepsy associated with a tumor located in the central region: functional mapping data and postoperative outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Out of 57 patients operated for intractable epilepsy of the central region, 8 harbored an indolent glioma (7 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, 1 ganglioglioma). Mapping of the sensorimotor area with depth electrodes implanted for stereoelectroencephalographic exploration demonstrated no or abnormal motor responses after low-frequency stimulation, and variable sensory responses to high-frequency stimulation, suggesting reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex representation around the tumor and absence of functional tissue within the neoplastic volume. After lesionectomy (3 cases) or corticectomy including the tumor (5 cases), 6 (75%) patients were seizure-free (class I of Engel) at the time to follow-up. No permanent motor or sensory deficit was observed in 6 cases. In 2, a mild facial (in 1) and arm (in 1) deficit persisted. It is concluded that the resection of intrinsic low-grade tumors associated with long-standing epilepsy and located in the central region can be associated with excellent seizure outcome and no or minimal postoperative deficit because of functional reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex. PMID:9711760

Devaux, B; Chassoux, F; Landré, E; Turak, B; Daumas-Duport, C; Chagot, D; Gagnepain, J P; Chodkiewicz, J P

1997-01-01

232

Allogeneic inhibitory activity of regional lymph node cells in the mouse isografted with methylcholanthrene-induced tumor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In mouse bearing progressive cancer a decrease was present in the allogeneic inhibitory activity of T-lymphocytes, which constitutes the core of immunological surveillance system in mammalians. For tests, methylcholanthrene-induced tumor (MC-tumor was isografted subcutaneously on the back between scapulae of C3H mice, and the lymphocytes were prepared from the regional axillary lymph nodes removed from these mice at 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks after grafting. These lymph nodes cells were cultured together with 40-fold numbers of allogeneic JTC-11 cells derived from Ehrlich cancer cells in a culture medium containing 2.0% (v/v PHA for 24 or 48 hours. The proliferation rate of JTC-11 cells (increased numbers at weekly interval was considered the allogeneic inhibitory activity of lymph node cells. As a result it was demonstrated that in the early stage after tumor transplantation, i.e., in the first or second week, regional lymph node cells showed a strong allogeneic inhibitory activity, as in the case with lymph-node cells from normal mice, but at progressive stage of cancer, i.e., the third or fourth week when tumors were larger, such activity was completely lost. It seems that mice with progressive cancer showed a decrease of allogeneic inhibitory activity, i.e., a disruption of homeostasis was present.

Orita,Kunzo

1975-06-01

233

Quantitative differences in the pineal ultrastructure of perinatal and adult harp (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata).  

Science.gov (United States)

Seals are unique among mammals in that newborns have a large pineal gland and extremely high plasma levels of melatonin at birth. Melatonin levels are also high in the seal fetus but decline rapidly during the first few days of life. The aim of the present study was to provide quantitative information about the ultrastructure of the seal pineal gland using fetal, newborn, and adult hooded seals (Cystophora cristata), and newborn and adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). The relative and absolute volumes of pinealocytes (Pi), arteries and veins, nerves, connective tissue, capillaries and glial cells, as well as mitocondria and lipid droplets in Pi, were calculated by use of point count analysis. Whereas the pineal ultrastructure was similar in fetuses and newborns, both seal species showed a pronounced and particular reduction in the volume of Pi and a similar reduction in pinealocyte mitochondria. There was also a shift from unmyelinated to myelinated pineal nerves in adults compared with fetal/newborns. The selective and marked reduction of Pi may explain the zonated pineal structure typical of the adult seal. The results demonstrate that the fetal gland is as large and active as that of the newborn seal and support the notion that the large size and high activity of the pineal gland in the newborn seal is a fading consequence of its prenatal condition. PMID:12932203

Aarseth, Jo Jorem; Stokkan, Karl-Arne

2003-10-01

234

[Gender assessment of signs of malignant tumors of the maxillofacial area residents in Ivano-Frankivsk region during 2000-2010 yy].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the incidence of malignant tumors of the maxillofacial region in the Ivano-Frankivsk region, based on a retrospective analysis of the record charts of patients from 2000 to 2010. The study investigated the dynamics of indicators of malignant tumors of the maxillofacial region according to the Ivano-Frankivsk Clinical Oncology Center on the basis of a retrospective analysis of 417 patients with registration cards. The characteristic of the prevalence of malignant tumors of the maxillofacial area of the region by gender and localization of the pathological process. PMID:24423674

Karavan, Ia R; Levandovski?, R A; Kostishin, I D; Romanchuk, V R

2013-12-01

235

Automatic Diagnosis of Abnormal Tumor Region from Brain Computed Tomography Images Using Wavelet Based Statistical Texture Features  

CERN Multimedia

The research work presented in this paper is to achieve the tissue classification and automatically diagnosis the abnormal tumor region present in Computed Tomography (CT) images using the wavelet based statistical texture analysis method. Comparative studies of texture analysis method are performed for the proposed wavelet based texture analysis method and Spatial Gray Level Dependence Method (SGLDM). Our proposed system consists of four phases i) Discrete Wavelet Decomposition (ii) Feature extraction (iii) Feature selection (iv) Analysis of extracted texture features by classifier. A wavelet based statistical texture feature set is derived from normal and tumor regions. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to select the optimal texture features from the set of extracted texture features. We construct the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifier and evaluate the performance of classifier by comparing the classification results of the SVM based classifier with the Back Propagation Neural network classifier(BPN...

Padma, A

2011-01-01

236

Expression of UV-Sensitive Parapinopsin in the Iguana Parietal Eyes and Its Implication in UV-Sensitivity in Vertebrate Pineal-Related Organs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identifi...

Wada, Seiji; Kawano-yamashita, Emi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Terakita, Akihisa

2012-01-01

237

Regional variation in histopathologic features of tumor specimens from treatment-naive glioblastoma correlates with anatomic and physiologic MR Imaging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Histopathologic evaluation of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) at initial diagnosis is typically performed on tissue obtained from regions of contrast enhancement (CE) as depicted on gadolinium-enhanced, T1-weighted images. The non-enhancing (NE) portion of the lesion, which contains both reactive edema and infiltrative tumor, is only partially removed due to concerns about damaging functioning brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate histopathologic and physiologic MRI features of image...

Barajas, Ramon F.; Phillips, Joanna J.; Parvataneni, Rupa; Molinaro, Annette; Essock-burns, Emma; Bourne, Gabriela; Parsa, Andrew T.; Aghi, Manish K.; Mcdermott, Michael W.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Cha, Soonmee; Chang, Susan M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

2012-01-01

238

Chronomics affirm extending scope of lead in phase of duodenal vs. pineal circadian melatonin rhythms  

Science.gov (United States)

In Göttingen, Germany, circadian variations in melatonin had been determined time-macroscopically in pineal glands, blood plasma and duodenum of chicken and rats. When these data were meta-analyzed, they agreed with the results from an independent survey on tissues from rats collected in a laboratory in Pécs, Hungary. In the latter study, tissues were analyzed chemically in Bratislava, Slovakia, and numerically in Minneapolis, MN, USA, all by single- and multiple-component cosinor and parameter tests. In rats and chickens, these inferential statistical procedures clearly demonstrated a lead in phase of the 24-h cosine curves best fitting all of the duodenal vs. those best fitting all of the pineal melatonin values in each species in 2 geographic (geomagnetic) locations. The 24-h cosine curve of circulating melatonin was found to be in an intermediate phase position. Mechanisms of the phase differences and the contribution of gastrointestinal melatonin to circulating hormone concentrations are discussed.

Poeggeler, B.; Cornelissen, G.; Huether, G.; Hardeland, R.; Jozsa, R.; Zeman, M.; Stebelova, K.; Olah, A.; Bubenik, G.; Pan, W.; Otsuka, K.; Schwartzkopff, O.; Bakken, E. E.; Halberg, F.

2008-01-01

239

Chronomics: circadian lead of extrapineal vs. pineal melatonin rhythms with an infradian hypothalamic exploration.  

Science.gov (United States)

A circadian rhythm is documented for plasma, pineal, and hypothalamic melatonin of male and female rats kept on staggered lighting regimens. Log[_10]-transformation of the data usually normalizes, when need be, the distribution of residuals from the 24-hour cosine curve fits. A tentative circadian acrophase chart is presented that shows a lead in circadian acrophase of duodenal over pineal melatonin. The use of antiphasic lighting regimens facilitates circadian studies that can be carried out for several days, thereby allowing the assessment of infradian components such as a circasemiseptan variation in hypothalamic melatonin documented herein. The results are qualified by the presence of a second extremum of a double magnetic storm at the start of mapping. PMID:16275497

Zeman, M; Józsa, R; Cornélissen, G; Stebelova, K; Bubenik, G; Olah, A; Poeggeler, B; Huether, G; Hardeland, R; Nagy, G; Czernus, V; Pan, W; Otsuka, K; Halberg, F

2005-10-01

240

Chronomics affirm extending scope of lead in phase of duodenal vs. pineal circadian melatonin rhythms.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Göttingen, Germany, circadian variations in melatonin had been determined time-macroscopically in pineal glands, blood plasma and duodenum of chicken and rats. When these data were meta-analyzed, they agreed with the results from an independent survey on tissues from rats collected in a laboratory in Pécs, Hungary. In the latter study, tissues were analyzed chemically in Bratislava, Slovakia, and numerically in Minneapolis, MN, USA, all by single- and multiple-component cosinor and parameter tests. In rats and chickens, these inferential statistical procedures clearly demonstrated a lead in phase of the 24-h cosine curves best fitting all of the duodenal vs. those best fitting all of the pineal melatonin values in each species in 2 geographic (geomagnetic) locations. The 24-h cosine curve of circulating melatonin was found to be in an intermediate phase position. Mechanisms of the phase differences and the contribution of gastrointestinal melatonin to circulating hormone concentrations are discussed. PMID:16275498

Poeggeler, B; Cornélissen, G; Huether, G; Hardeland, R; Józsa, R; Zeman, M; Stebelova, K; Oláh, A; Bubenik, G; Pan, W; Otsuka, K; Schwartzkopff, O; Bakken, E E; Halberg, F

2005-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Survey on the management of orbital and intraocular tumors among oculofacial surgeons in the Asia-Pacific region.  

Science.gov (United States)

A web-based anonymous survey was performed to assess the common practices of oculofacial surgeons in the management of orbital and intraocular tumors in the Asia-Pacific region. The questionnaire comprised a series of questions covering controversial topics sent via email to 131 oculofacial surgeons across 14 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A total response rate of 61.7 % was achieved from May to December 2012. The most common benign orbital tumor was cavernous hemangioma (39.6 %) and the most common malignant orbital tumor was lymphoma (85.7 %). 40 % of surgeons recommended orbital radiation, for which the most common indications were thyroid eye disease (70.0 %) and malignancy (30.0 %). The most common orbitotomy approach was lateral (79.2 %). Most surgeons (87.1 %) offered enucleation for retinoblastoma, but there was also a significant proportion that offered chemoreduction with transpupillary thermotherapy or cryotherapy (58.1 %). Fewer surgeons offered brachytherapy (16.1 %) and intra-arterial chemotherapy (6.5 %). When performing enucleation for retinoblastoma, 81.8 % of surgeons performed a primary orbital implant placement. The most preferred type of implant was silicone/acrylic (90.2, 90.2 and 87.8 % for elderly, adults and children, respectively). The majority of surgeons used donor sclera (57.5 %) or no wrapping material at all (32.5 %). Almost all surgeons (95.1 %) did not drill and peg the implant for motility. We report the results of the first survey of oculofacial surgeons in the Asia-Pacific region on the management of intraocular and orbital tumors. In comparison with previous surveys performed in the USA and the UK, we found the practice patterns of the Asia-Pacific surgeons to be comparable. PMID:24085354

Wang, Priscilla Xinhui; Koh, Victor Teck Chang; Lun, Katherine; Sundar, Gangadhara

2014-06-01

242

Chronomics affirm extending scope of lead in phase of duodenal vs. pineal circadian melatonin rhythms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Göttingen, Germany, circadian variations in melatonin had been determined time-macroscopically in pineal glands, blood plasma and duodenum of chicken and rats. When these data were meta-analyzed, they agreed with the results from an independent survey on tissues from rats collected in a laboratory in Pécs, Hungary. In the latter study, tissues were analyzed chemically in Bratislava, Slovakia, and numerically in Minneapolis, MN, USA, all by single- and multiple-component cosinor and param...

Poeggeler, B.; Corne?lissen, G.; Huether, G.; Hardeland, R.; Jo?zsa, R.; Zeman, M.; Stebelova, K.; Ola?h, A.; Bubenik, G.; Pan, W.; Otsuka, K.; Schwartzkopff, O.; Bakken, E. E.; Halberg, F.

2005-01-01

243

Pineal parenchymal tumours: I. Pineocytoma: a tumour responsive to platinum-based chemotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineocytoma and pineoblastoma are now recognised as a spectrum of the same disease. Three cases of pineocytoma (grade I-II) are presented, in which platinum-based chemotherapy was used with some success, either as part of primary therapy or at the time of relapse. With the recent reclassification of pineal parenchymal tumours into a grade I-IV continuum, the place of chemotherapy, previously only well-established in pineoblastoma, is discussed. PMID:15214646

Jackson, A S N; Plowman, P N

2004-06-01

244

Relationship between nocturnal serotonin surge and melatonin onset in rodent pineal gland  

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Abstract Background We have recently reported dynamic circadian rhythms of serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) output in the pineal gland of rat, which precedes the onset of N-acetylserotonin (NAS) and melatonin secretion at night. The present study was aimed at investigating in detail the relationship between 5-HT onset (5HT-on) and melatonin onset (MT-on) in multiple strains of rats and comparing them with those of hamsters. Methods Animals were maintained i...

2006-01-01

245

Bimodal circadian secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland in a living CBA mouse  

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Circadian melatonin secretion is the best-known output signal from the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus that indicates internal conditions of the body. We have established a system that enables long-term monitoring of melatonin secretion by implanting a transverse microdialysis probe in or near the pineal gland in a freely moving mouse. This in vivo method enabled continuous measurement of melatonin secretion over a period of >20 days in individual CB...

Nakahara, Daiichiro; Nakamura, Masato; Iigo, Masayuki; Okamura, Hitoshi

2003-01-01

246

Postnatal maturation of the parenchymal cell types in the rabbit pineal gland  

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An ultrastructural study on the maturation of the parenchymal rabbit pineal cell types from the first postnatal day up to 120 days is presented. Two main cell types are distinguished from the first 24h of postnatal life. Pinealocytes of the types 1 and 11 display different developmental degrees. Both immature cell types are arranged in groups. In addition, type 11 pinealocytes form rosette-like structures. Both cell types progressively become isolated and displ...

Garci?a-maurin?o, J. E.; Boya, J.

1992-01-01

247

Radiation changes in the regional lymph nodes and their influence o tumor cell migration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments on rabbits have shown that morphological changes in lymph nodes developing during endolymphatic administration of colloidal 198Au bring about a decrease in the retention of tumor cells by lymph nodes. They precipitate mainly in the lymphatic ways with the disordered lymph outflow. The sorption capacity of lymph nodes increases at the expense of the enhanced function of the preserved lymphoid tissue on the 40th and 60th day. Increased penetration of tumor cells into the thoracic duct is observed on the 60th day

1980-01-01

248

Scintigraphy of the bones with sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate for the diagnosis of tumor spread in the head and neck region  

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A total of 105 patients with primary, recurrent and metastatic head and neck tumors, benign tumors and inflammatory processes in this region were examined by using scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc- pyrophosphate. Scintigraphy was found superior over radiography in the diagnosis of head and neck soft tissue tumors involving cranial bones. Examination with sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate is a highly informative method in the diagnosis of metastases of head and neck tumors to the skeleton and of metastatic involvement of the cranium in patients with tumors of other anatomical regions. Scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate permits early diagnosis of radiation osteomyelities of the cranial bones and control over the results of its treatment. Recommendations have been issued to prevent errors in the diagnosis of bone lesions. Indications to the use of scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate for patients with head and neck tumors have been defined.

Prikhod' ko, A.G. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii)

1982-01-01

249

Starting the zebrafish pineal circadian clock with a single photic transition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue of what starts the circadian clock ticking was addressed by studying the developmental appearance of the daily rhythm in the expression of two genes in the zebrafish pineal gland that are part of the circadian clock system. One encodes the photopigment exorhodopsin and the other the melatonin synthesizing enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT2). Significant daily rhythms in AANAT2 mRNA abundance were detectable for several days after fertilization in animals maintained in a normal or reversed lighting cycle providing 12 h of light and 12 h of dark. In contrast, these rhythms do not develop if animals are maintained in constant lighting or constant darkness from fertilization. In contrast to exorhodopsin, rhythmicity of AANAT2 can be initiated by a pulse of light against a background of constant darkness, by a pulse of darkness against a background of constant lighting, or by single light-to-dark or dark-to-light transitions. Accordingly, these studies indicate that circadian clock function in the zebrafish pineal gland can be initiated by minimal photic cues, and that single photic transitions can be used as an experimental tool to dissect the mechanism that starts the circadian clock in the pineal gland. PMID:16497800

Vuilleumier, Robin; Besseau, Laurence; Boeuf, Gilles; Piparelli, Aurélien; Gothilf, Yoav; Gehring, Walter G; Klein, David C; Falcón, Jack

2006-05-01

250

Pharmacological characterisation of oxytocin binding sites in the ovine pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both oxytocin (OT) and [Arg8]vasopressin (AVP) are found within the ovine pineal gland and may function to modulate melatonin secretion. However, the receptors which mediate the actions of these peptides have yet to be characterised. Preliminary studies of ovine pineal microsomal cell membranes showed binding of [3H]OT (79+/-9 fmol/mg) 10 times greater than binding of [3H]AVP (8+/-3 fmol/mg). Saturation studies using either [3H]OT or the selective OT receptor ligand [125I]d(CH2)5[Tyr(Me)2,Thr4,Orn8,Tyr-NH2(9)]-vasotocin (OTA) revealed high affinity, single site kinetics (Kd = 1.72+/-0.32 nM; Bmax = 68+/-18 fmol/mg). Binding of [3H]AVP was more effectively displaced by OT than AVP, suggesting that binding may be due to cross-reaction with the OT binding site. Displacement of [3H]OT using a range of selective agonists and antagonist analogues revealed pharmacological characteristics similar to [3H]OT binding sites in the ovine and rat uterus. These data show that the ovine pineal expresses a high density of OT binding sites which may participate in the regulation of melatonin secretion. PMID:9250578

Rahmani, H R; Muge, D K; Ingram, C D

1997-05-14

251

Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library  

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Full Text Available The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences designated to be on the Z_random, while one matched a W chromosome sequence and could be useful in cataloguing functionally important genes on this sex chromosome. Additionally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified and validated in 10 ESTs that showed 98% or higher sequence similarity to known chicken genes. Here, we have described resources that may be useful in comparative and functional genomic analysis of genes expressed in an important organ, the pineal gland, in a model and agriculturally important organism.

Ed Smith

2006-04-01

252

Testicular dysfunction in experimental chronic renal insufficiency: a deficiency of nocturnal pineal N-acetyltransferase activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochemical correlates of neuroendocrine/gonadal function and nocturnal levels of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity were determined in partially nephrectomized (PNx), male, Long Evans rats following a 5-week period of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). PNx animals demonstrated two to four-fold elevations in urea nitrogen and three to four-fold reductions (P less than 0.02) in plasma total testosterone concentrations as compared to sham-operated controls. The pituitary LH contents of PNx rats were decreased to approximately 60% of the control value (P less than 0.05). There were no differences in plasma prolactin levels between the control and PNx groups either at mid-day or in the middle of the night. Nocturnal pineal NAT activity in PNx rats was markedly reduced to approximately 20% of the control value (P less than 0.001). Similar evidence of gonadal dysfunction (reduced plasma total testosterone and testes testosterone content) and a significant decrease in night-time levels of pineal NAT activity were also observed after 13 weeks of CRI in PNx rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain that were housed under a different photoperiod. These results suggest that pineal gland dysfunction is a feature of CRI in the PNx model. Such an abnormality might contribute to the pathogenesis of gonadal dysfunction in CRI.

Holmes, E. W.; Hojvat, S. A.; Kahn, S. E.; Bermes, E. W.

1989-01-01

253

Regional cerebral blood flow in brain tumors analyzed by N-isopropyl-("1"2"3I)-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

N-Isopropyl-("1"2"3I)-p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP), a newly developed tracer for regional cerebral blood flow, was applied to 18 patients with brain tumors. The static scan images were obtained by a single photon emission CT 20 minutes after IMP injection, and revealed decreased IMP uptake in the tumor region in 17 out of 18 patients. This result suggests the lack of an IMP-trapping mechanism in the tumor. In dynamic scan images, which were taken every 2 minutes just after IMP injection, IMP uptake in the tumor was intermediate between that of contralateral white matter and gray matter, and it increased momentarily in accordance with that of the gray and white matter. This finding indicates that the IMP uptake in a dynamic scan would express the regional tissue blood flow in the tumor. (author)

1987-01-01

254

A survey of molecular details in the human pineal gland in the light of phylogeny, structure, function and chronobiological diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human pineal gland is a neuroendocrine transducer that forms an integral part of the brain. Through the nocturnally elevated synthesis and release of the neurohormone melatonin, the pineal gland encodes and disseminates information on circadian time, thus coupling the outside world to the biochemical and physiological internal demands of the body. Approaches to better understand molecular details behind the rhythmic signalling in the human pineal gland are limited but implicitly warranted, as human chronobiological dysfunctions are often associated with alterations in melatonin synthesis. Current knowledge on melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland is based on minimally invasive analyses, and by the comparison of signalling events between different vertebrate species, with emphasis put on data acquired in sheep and other primates. Together with investigations using autoptic pineal tissue, a remnant silhouette of premortem dynamics within the hormone's biosynthesis pathway can be constructed. The detected biochemical scenario behind the generation of dynamics in melatonin synthesis positions the human pineal gland surprisingly isolated. In this neuroendocrine brain structure, protein-protein interactions and nucleo-cytoplasmic protein shuttling indicate furthermore a novel twist in the molecular dynamics in the cells of this neuroendocrine brain structure. These findings have to be seen in the light that an impaired melatonin synthesis is observed in elderly and/or demented patients, in individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease, Smith-Magenis syndrome, autism spectrum disorder and sleep phase disorders. Already, recent advances in understanding signalling dynamics in the human pineal gland have significantly helped to counteract chronobiological dysfunctions through a proper restoration of the nocturnal melatonin surge. PMID:21517957

Stehle, Jörg H; Saade, Anastasia; Rawashdeh, Oliver; Ackermann, Katrin; Jilg, Antje; Sebestény, Tamás; Maronde, Erik

2011-08-01

255

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Primary, Recurrent, and Metastatic Tumors in the Head-and-Neck Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), also known as radiosurgery, in patients with head-and-neck cancers. Methods and Materials: Patients with pathologically proven malignant lesions in the head-and-neck region were treated using single-dose SBRT (S-SBRT) or fractionated SBRT (F-SBRT). Radiation doses were either single-fraction 13-18 Gy for S-SBRT or 36-48 Gy in five to eight fractions for F-SBRT. Response evaluation was based on clinical examinations and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging scans. Pre- and post-SBRT tumor dimensions were measured in three axes, and tumor volumes were calculated. Response evaluation also was performed using World Health Organization criteria. Results: Fifty-five lesions were treated in 44 patients (25 men, 19 women). There were three groups of patients: those with primary (n = 10), recurrent (n = 21), and metastatic tumors (n = 13). The predominant histologic type was squamous cell carcinoma (n = 33). The majority of lesions were treated using F-SBRT (n = 37). Based on radiographic and clinical assessment, a 77% (complete + partial response) response rate was noted. Percentage of reduction in tumor volume was 52% ± 38% based on follow-up scans in 24 patients. Tumor control rates at 1 year were 83.3% and 60.6% in the primary and recurrent groups, respectively. Median overall survival was 28.7, 6.7, and 5.6 months for the primary, recurrent, and metastatic groups, respectively. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 1-2 mucositis was noted in all patients treated for oropharyngeal or laryngeal lesions. Conclusions: The SBRT in single or fractionated doses offers a viable treatment option for selected patients with primary, recurrent, and metastatic head-and-neck cancers with functional preservation.

2009-07-15

256

Immune Monitoring of the Circulation and the Tumor Microenvironment in Patients with Regionally Advanced Melanoma Receiving Neoadjuvant Ipilimumab  

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We evaluated neoadjuvant ipilimumab in patients with surgically operable regionally advanced melanoma in order to define markers of activity in the blood and tumor as assessed at baseline (before ipilimumab) and early on-treatment. Patients were treated with ipilimumab (10 mg/kg intravenously every 3 weeks ×2 doses) bracketing surgery. Tumor and blood biospecimens were obtained at baseline and at surgery. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry for select biomarkers were performed. Thirty five patients were enrolled; IIIB (3; N2b), IIIC (32; N2c, N3), IV (2). Worst toxicities included Grade 3 diarrhea/colitis (5; 14%), hepatitis (2; 6%), rash (1; 3%), elevated lipase (3; 9%). Median follow up was 18 months: among 33 evaluable patients, median progression free survival (PFS) was 11 months, 95% CI (6.2–19.2). There was a significant decrease in circulating myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Greater decrease in circulating monocyte gate MDSC Lin1?/HLA-DR?/CD33+/CD11b+ was associated with improved PFS (p?=?0.03). There was a significant increase in circulating regulatory T cells (Treg; CD4+CD25hi+Foxp3+) that, unexpectedly, was associated with improved PFS (HR?=?0.57; p?=?0.034). Baseline evidence of fully activated type I CD4+ and CD8+ antigen-specific T cell immunity against cancer-testis (NY-ESO-1) and melanocytic lineage (MART-1, gp100) antigens was detected and was significantly potentiated after ipilimumab. In tumor, there was a significant increase in CD8+ T cells after ipilimumab (p?=?0.02). Ipilimumab induced increased tumor infiltration by fully activated (CD69+) CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ T cells with evidence of induction/potentiation of memory T cells (CD45RO+). The change in Treg observed within the tumor showed an inverse relationship with clinical benefit and greater decrease in tumor MDSC subset Lin1?/HLA-DR?/CD33+/CD11b+ was associated with improved PFS at one year. Neoadjuvant evaluation revealed a significant immunomodulating role for ipilimumab on Treg, MDSC and effector T cells in the circulation and tumor microenvironment that warrants further pursuit in the quest for optimizing melanoma immunotherapy.

Tarhini, Ahmad A.; Edington, Howard; Butterfield, Lisa H.; Lin, Yan; Shuai, Yongli; Tawbi, Hussein; Sander, Cindy; Yin, Yan; Holtzman, Matthew; Johnson, Jonas; Rao, Uma N. M.; Kirkwood, John M.

2014-01-01

257

Antibodies Specifically Targeting a Locally Misfolded Region of Tumor Associated EGFR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is involved in stimulating the growth of many human tumors, but the success of therapeutic agents has been limited in part by interference from the EGFR on normal tissues. Previously, we reported an antibody (mab806) against a truncated form of EGFR found commonly in gliomas. Remarkably, it also recognizes full-length EGFR on tumor cells but not on normal cells. However, the mechanism for this activity was unclear. Crystallographic structures for Fab:EGFR{sub 287-302} complexes of mAb806 (and a second, related antibody, mAb175) show that this peptide epitope adopts conformations similar to those found in the wtEGFR. However, in both conformations observed for wtEGFR, tethered and untethered, antibody binding would be prohibited by significant steric clashes with the CR1 domain. Thus, these antibodies must recognize a cryptic epitope in EGFR. Structurally, it appeared that breaking the disulfide bond preceding the epitope might allow the CR1 domain to open up sufficiently for antibody binding. The EGFR{sub C271A/C283A} mutant not only binds mAb806, but binds with 1:1 stoichiometry, which is significantly greater than wtEGFR binding. Although mAb806 and mAb175 decrease tumor growth in xenografts displaying mutant, overexpressed, or autocrine stimulated EGFR, neither antibody inhibits the in vitro growth of cells expressing wtEGFR. In contrast, mAb806 completely inhibits the ligand-associated stimulation of cells expressing EGFR{sub C271A/C283A}. Clearly, the binding of mAb806 and mAb175 to the wtEGFR requires the epitope to be exposed either during receptor activation, mutation, or overexpression. This mechanism suggests the possibility of generating antibodies to target other wild-type receptors on tumor cells.

Garrett, T.; Burgess, A; Gan, H; Luwor, R; Cartwright, G; Walker, F; Orchard, S; Clayton, A; Nice, E; et. al.

2009-01-01

258

FDG uptake and glut-1 expression in primary tumors and loco-regional lymph nodes in non-small-cell lung cancer  

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FDG uptake level by primary tumors in NSCLC may affect the likelihood of malignant involvement in loco-regional lymph nodes (LNs). FDG uptake in tumors has been reported to be mediated by glucose transporter type 1 (Glut-I). Here, we investigated the correlations between primary tumors and loco-regional LNs in NSCLC regarding FDG uptake and Glut-1 expression. 126 NSCLC patients (M: F=103: 23, age=659.7y) who underwent curative resection and loco-regional LN dissection within 4 week period after FDG-PET study were enrolled. Maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV) by PET and %Glut-1 expression by immunostaining were compared between primary tumors and FDG uptake positive loco-regional LNs. Significant correlations were found between 52 malignant LNs and 37 primary tumors in terms of maxSUV (r=0.6451, p<0.0001) and %Glut-1 expression (r=0.8341, p<0.0001). Linear regression of the relation between maxSUVs of malignant LNs (Y) and maxSUVs of primary tumors (X) yielded the expression Y = 0.5938 + 0.4808 X with an r2 value of 0.4162. On the other hand, no significant correlation was observed between 144 benign LNs and 75 primary tumors in terms of maxSUVs (r= -0.0125, p 0.8831). Moreover, %Glut-1 expressions of pathologically proven benign LNs and primary tumors were found to be correlated (r=0.3863, p=0.0004), but r2 value was low at 0.1492. High correlations were found between primary tumors and loco-regional metastatic LNs in NSCLC regarding FDG uptake and Glut-1 expression. Mediastinal LN staging of NSCLC by FDG-PET may be improved by considering the linear correlation between FDG uptakes of metastatic LNs and primary tumors.

Lee, Won Woo; Nguyen, Xuan Canh; Chung, Jin Haeng; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Songnam (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

259

Alpha-2 adrenergic activity of bromocriptine and quinpirole in chicken pineal gland. Effects on melatonin synthesis and [3H]rauwolscine binding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the pineal gland and retina of chickens, serotonin N-acetyl-transferase (NAT) activity and melatonin content are modulated by different receptors, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland and D2-dopamine receptors in retina. The effect of two D2-dopamine receptor agonists, bromocriptine and quinpirole (LY 171555), on melatonin synthesis in these tissues was investigated. Systemic administrations of bromocriptine and quinpirole decreased nocturnal NAT activity and melatonin content of both pineal gland and retina. Bromocriptine was equipotent in the two tissues, whereas quinpirole was approximately 100-fold more potent in retina than in pineal gland. In pineal gland, the suppressive effects of bromocriptine and quinpirole on NAT activity were blocked by yohimbine, a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, but not by spiperone, a D2-dopamine receptor antagonist. In contrast, bromocriptine- and quinpirole-induced decreases of the enzyme activity in retina were antagonized by spiperone, and not affected by yohimbine. The nocturnal increase of NAT activity of pineal glands in vitro was inhibited with an order of potency clonidine greater than bromocriptine greater than quinpirole. Additionally, bromocriptine and quinpirole displaced the specific binding of [3H]rauwolscine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, to membranes from chicken pineal gland, with potencies comparable to those observed for inhibition of NAT activity in vitro. It is suggested that bromocriptine and quinpirole, in addition to their D2-dopaminergic activity, can stimulate alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland of chicken

1990-01-01

260

Cloning, expression and chromosomal location of NKX6B TO 10Q26, a region frequently deleted in brain tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nkx6-2 (former Gtx) is a murine-homeobox-containing gene localized distally on Chromosome (Chr) 7. Analysis of the expression pattern, together with DNA binding assays, suggests that this gene product might be important for differentiated oligodendrocyte function and in the regulation of myelin gene expression. We now report on the cloning and characterization of the human homolog (NKX6B). DNA sequence analysis of an 11-kb genomic fragment revealed that the complete human gene spans 1.2 kb and is composed of three exons. NKX6B is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 277 amino acids with 97% identity to mouse Nkx6-2. Northern blot experiments showed that NKX6B expression is tightly controlled in a tissue-specific fashion with the highest site of expression being the brain. Finally, using STS content mapping and RH analyis, we demonstrated that NKX6B maps to the 10q26, a region where frequent loss of heterozygosity has been observed in various malignant brain tumors. These results may implicate NKX6B as a candidate tumor suppressor gene for brain tumors, particularly for oligodendrogliomas. PMID:11210186

Lee, S H; Davison, J A; Vidal, S M; Belouchi, A

2001-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Role of magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of tumors in the cardiac region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to review the role of MRI in the assessment of heart neoplasm, 25 cases with heart neoplasm (10 myxoma, 6 rhabdomyoma, 5 angiosarcoma, 2 mesothelioma, 1 lymphoma, and 1 fibroma) were examined with MRI and echocardiography. Multislice T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images and static gradient-echo images were taken in appropriate directions with electrocardiogram gating. Gadolinium enhancement was performed in 21 cases. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in all cases. Except for the 5 patients with rhabdomyoma, the pathological diagnosis was obtained. MRI proved to be useful for tissue characterization of myxoma, angiosarcoma, mesothelioma, and fibroma in cases with tuberous sclerosis. MRI also proved to be useful for detection of the tumor, depiction of contour, relation with other cardiac structures, in cases with myxoma, angiosarcoma, mesothelioma, lymphoma, and fibroma. In the differential diagnosis, MRI provided important information in cases with myxoma, rhabdomyoma, angiosarcoma, and fibroma. In cases with tumors expanding into the mediastinum, such as mesothelioma and fibroma in this report, MRI was useful in determining the location and border. In cases with tumors adjacent to pericardium, MRI was useful in detecting pericardial invasion. Gadolinium enhancement added useful information in cases with myxoma, rhabdomyoma, angiosarcoma, and mesothelioma. The role of MRI with and without Gd enhancement differs somewhat in individual types of heart neoplasm, and adaptation must be considered in each kind of neoplasm. On the other hand, MRI is an essential examination in all cases with a cardiac mass, which has not been diagnosed, since it may provide useful information for the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

2003-12-01

262

Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proton beam induced apoptosis significantly in Lewis lung carcinoma cells and hepatoma HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but slightly in leukemia Molt-4 cells. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for death rate relative to gamma ray were ranged from 1.3 to 2.1 in LLC or HepG2 but 0.7 in Molt-4 cells at 72h after irradiation. The typical apoptosis was observed by nuclear DNA staining with DAPI. By FACS analysis after stained with PI, sub-G1 cell fraction was significantly increased but G2/M phase was not altered by proton beam irradiation measured at 24 h after irradiation. Proton beam-irradiated tumor cells induced cleavage of PARP-1 and procaspases (-3 and -9) and increased the level of p53 and p21. decreased pro-lamin B. Acitivity of caspases was significantly increased after proton beam irradiation. Furthermore, ROS were significantly increased and N-acetyl cystein (NAC) pretreatment restored the apoptotic cell death induced in proton beam-irradiated cells. In conclusion, single treatment of low energy proton beam with SOBP induced apoptosis of solid tumor cells via increased ROS, active caspase -3,-9 and p53, p2

2007-01-01

263

TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents  

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This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

Groh, K.R.

1993-06-01

264

Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy as a boost treatment for tumors in the head and neck region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this retrospective study was to report initial results of CyberKnife stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) boost for tumors in the head and neck area. Between March 2008 and August 2009, 10 patients were treated with SRT boost using CyberKnife system due mainly to unfavorable condition such as tumors in close proximity to serial organs or former radiotherapy fields. Treatment sites were the external auditory canal in two, the nasopharynx in one, the oropharynx in three, the nasal cavity in one, the maxillary sinus in two, and the oligometastatic cervical lymph node in one. All patients underwent preceding conventional radiotherapy of 40 to 60 Gy. Dose and fractionation scheme of the Cyberknife SRT boost was individualized, and prescribed dose ranged from 9 Gy to 16 Gy in 3 to 4 fractions. Among four patients for whom dose to the optic pathway was concerned, the maximum dose was only about 3 Gy for three patients whereas 9.6 Gy in the remaining one patient. The maximum dose for the mandible in one of three patients with oropharyngeal cancer was 19.7 Gy, whereas majority of the bone can be spared by using non-isocentric conformal beams. For a patient with nasopharyngeal cancer, the highest dose in the brain stem was 15 Gy. However, majority of the brain stem received less than 40% of the maximum dose. Although a small volume high dose area within the normal structure could be observed in several patients, results of the present study showed potential benefits of the CyberKnife SRT boost. (author)

2010-07-01

265

Season-dependent postembryonic maturation of the diurnal rhythm of melatonin biosynthesis in the chicken pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously, we have demonstrated that the timing of the nocturnal peak of activity of the pineal arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase - a key enzyme in the melatonin biosynthesis pathway - in 3-wk-old chickens kept from the day of hatch under controlled laboratory conditions (L:D 12:12) varies depending on the season of hatch (summer vs. winter). The present study was undertaken to answer the following questions: (1) are season-related differences seen in the level of transcription of genes encoding enzymes of the melatonin biosynthesis pathway? (2) Does the pineal content of the main precursor (serotonin) and the final product (melatonin) exhibit age- and season-related changes? (3) At which step in postembryonic development are these season-related variations in pineal gland function most pronounced? Male Hy-line chickens hatched in the summer or winter, from eggs laid by hens held on L:D 16:8, were kept from the day of hatch under L:D 12:12 conditions. At the age of 2, 9, or 16 d, chickens were sacrificed every 2 h over a 24-h period and their pineal glands, isolated under dim red light, were processed for the measurement of (i) the level of Aanat and Asmt (acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase) mRNAs encoding the two last enzymes involved in melatonin biosynthesis, (ii) the activity of these enzymes, and (iii) the pineal content of serotonin and melatonin. Circadian rhythmicity of all the measured parameters was evaluated by the cosinor method. The levels of Aanat mRNA, AANAT enzymatic activity, and the pineal melatonin content changed during postembryonic development in a manner that was dependent on the season of hatch. Furthermore, the diurnal profile of Asmt mRNA was elevated during the light phase. In "winter" birds, the pattern and amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of accumulation of this transcript did not change with age, while in "summer" birds it increased in an age-related way. In contrast, the enzymatic activity of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT; encoded by the Asmt gene) did not change rhythmically, although it increased with age in a season-related way. In "winter" chickens, the pineal serotonin content was low, regardless of age, and did not change rhythmically, whereas in "summer" individuals the serotonin rhythm was already well established by day 2, with the amplitude increasing with age. These results confirm the existence of a "seasonal memory" operating within the chicken pineal gland, although the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon have yet to be characterized. PMID:23003334

Piesiewicz, A; Kedzierska, U; Podobas, E; Adamska, I; Zuzewicz, K; Majewski, P M

2012-11-01

266

Activity of the hypoxia-activated pro-drug TH-302 in hypoxic and perivascular regions of solid tumors and its potential to enhance therapeutic effects of chemotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many chemotherapy drugs have poor therapeutic activity in regions distant from tumor blood vessels because of poor tissue penetration and low cytotoxic activity against slowly-proliferating cells. The hypoxia-activated pro-drug TH-302 may have selective toxicity for hypoxic and neighboring cells in tumors. Here we characterize the spatial distribution and ability of TH-302 to selectively target hypoxic regions and complement the effect of doxorubicin and docetaxel by modifying biomarker distribution. Athymic nude mice bearing human breast MCF-7 or prostate PC-3 tumors were treated with doxorubicin or docetaxel respectively and TH-302 alone or in combination. Biomarkers of drug effect including ?H2aX (a marker of DNA damage), cleaved caspase-3 or -6 (markers of apoptosis) and reduction in Ki-67 (a marker of cell proliferation) were quantified in tumor sections in relation to functional blood vessels (recognized by DiOC7) and hypoxia (recognized by EF5) using immunohistochemistry. ?H2aX expression at 10 min and cleaved caspase-3 or -6 at 24 hr after doxorubicin or docetaxel decreased with increasing distance from tumor blood vessels, with minimal expression in hypoxic regions; maximum reduction in Ki67 levels was observed in regions closest to vasculature at 24 hr. TH-302 induced maximal cell damage in hypoxic and neighboring regions, but was also active in tumor regions closer to blood vessels. TH-302 given 4 hr before doxorubicin or docetaxel increased DNA damage and apoptosis throughout the tumor compared to chemotherapy alone. When given with doxorubicin or docetaxel, TH-302 complements and enhances anticancer effects in both perivascular and hypoxic regions but also increases toxicity. PMID:24338277

Saggar, Jasdeep K; Tannock, Ian F

2014-06-01

267

Effect of steroid on brain tumors and surround edemas : observation with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps of perfusion MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To observe the hemodynamic change in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas after steroid treatment, and then investigate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MRI. We acquired conventional and perfusion MR images in 15 patients with various intracranial tumors (4 glioblastoma multiformes, 4 meningiomas, 3 metastatic tumors, 1 anaplastic ependymoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 hemangioblastoma, and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma). For perfusion MR imaging, a 1.5T unit employing the gradient-echo EPI technique was used, and further perfusion MR images were obtained 2-10 days after intravenous steroid therapy. After processing of the raw data, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were reconstructed. The maps were visually evaluated by comparing relative perfusion in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas with that in contralateral white matter. Objective evaluations were performed by comparing the perfusion ratios of brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Visual evaluations of rCBV maps, showed that in most brain tumors (67%, 10/15), perfusion was high before steroid treatment and showed in (80%, 12/15) decreased afterwards. Objective evaluation, showed that in all brain tumors, perfusion decreased. Visual evaluation of perfusion change in peritumoral edemas revealed change in only one case, but objective evaluation indicated that perfusion decreased significantly in all seven cases. rCBV maps acquired by perfusion MR imaging can provide hemodynamic information about brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Such maps could prove helpful in the preoperative planning of brain tumor surgery and the monitoring of steroid effects during conservative treatment. (author)

Choi, Ju Youl; Sun, Joo Sung; Kim, Sun Yong; Kim, Ji Hyung; Suh, Jung Ho; Cho, Kyung Gi; Kim, Jang Sung [Ajou University, School of Medicine, Su won (Korea, Republic of)

2000-01-01

268

Impact of axillary dissection on staging and regional control in breast tumors DBCG experience. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), Rigshisoutalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from 4771 patients with tumor diameters < or = 10 mm were analyzed. Results of surgery and pathoanatomical examinations indicated that nodal status was related to diameter, but not to number of nodes removed. More axillary metastases were found in group T1b tumors than in T1a. In 8% of tumors, at least 4 positive nodes were identified. Mean number of positive nodes was related to number of nodes removed, and when 10 or more nodes were removed a significantly lower axillary recurrence rate and better recurrence-free survival were demonstrated, confirming that axillary surgery has two goals: staging and regional disease control. Age, receptor status, grade and histological type, but not tumor location, were related to prognosis. In accordance with the classical prognostic factors, it was not possible to define a patient group where axillary surgery was superfluous. We conclude that proper staging and regional control renders a full axillary level I-II dissection necessary. PMID:10987222

Axelsson, C K; Rank, F; Blichert-Toft, M; Mouridsen, H T; Jensen, M B

2000-01-01

269

Descriptive epidemiology of primary brain and CNS tumors: results from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, 1990-1994.  

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The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) obtained 5 years of incidence data (1990-1994)--including reports on all primary brain and CNS tumors--from 11 collaborating state cancer registries. Data were available for 20,765 tumors located in the brain, meninges, and other CNS sites, including the pituitary and pineal glands. The average annual incidence was estimated at 11.5 cases per 100,000 person-years. The higher incidence of tumors in male patients (12.1 per 100,000 p...

Surawicz, T. S.; Mccarthy, B. J.; Kupelian, V.; Jukich, P. J.; Bruner, J. M.; Davis, F. G.

1999-01-01

270

A 5'-region polymorphism modulates promoter activity of the tumor suppressor gene MFSD2A  

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Abstract Background The MFSD2A gene maps within a linkage disequilibrium block containing the MYCL1-EcoRI polymorphism associated with prognosis and survival in lung cancer patients. Survival discrepancies between Asians and Caucasians point to ethnic differences in allelic frequencies of the functional genetic variations. Results Analysis of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping in the MFSD2A 5'-regulatory region using a luciferase repor...

Colombo Francesca; Falvella Felicia S; Galvan Antonella; Frullanti Elisa; Kunitoh Hideo; Ushijima Toshikazu; Dragani Tommaso A

2011-01-01

271

Regional Lung Density Changes After Radiation Therapy for Tumors in and Around Thorax  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To study the temporal nature of regional lung density changes and to assess whether the dose-dependent nature of these changes is associated with patient- and treatment-associated factors. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 118 patients with interpretable pre- and post-radiation therapy (RT) chest computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated. Changes in regional lung density were related to regional dose to define a dose-response curve (DRC) for RT-induced lung injury using three-dimensional planning tools and image fusion. Multiple post-RT follow-up CT scans were evaluated by fitting linear-quadratic models of density changes on dose with time as the covariate. Various patient- and treatment-related factors were examined as well. Results: There was a dose-dependent increase in regional lung density at nearly all post-RT follow-up intervals. The population volume-weighted changes evolved over the initial 6-month period after RT and reached a plateau thereafter (p < 0.001). On univariate analysis, patient age greater than 65 years (p = 0.003) and/or the use of pre-RT surgery (p < 0.001) were associated with significantly greater changes in CT density at both 6 and 12 months after RT, but the magnitude of this effect was modest. Conclusions: There appears to be a temporal nature for the dose-dependent increases in lung density. Nondosimetric clinical factors tend to have no, or a modest, impact on these changes.

2010-01-01

272

Hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel for regional delivery of paclitaxel to intraperitoneal tumors  

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Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy is an effective way of treating local and regional malignancies confined in the peritoneal cavity such as ovarian cancer. However, a persistent major challenge in IP chemotherapy is the need to provide effective drug concentrations in the peritoneal cavity for an extended period of time. We hypothesized that hyaluronic acid (HA)-based in-situ crosslinkable hydrogel would serve as a carrier of paclitaxel (PTX) particles to improve their IP retention and therap...

Bajaj, Gaurav; Kim, Mi Ran; Mohammed, Sulma I.; Yeo, Yoon

2012-01-01

273

Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure-function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling. PMID:24818076

Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

2014-01-01

274

Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure–function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

2014-01-01

275

Manual of recommendations for the diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of patients with Breast Cancer of the Tumor Center Munich - a regional hands-on publication  

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The revised 11th edition of the Manual of Recommendations for the Diagnosis, Therapy, and Follow-Up of Patients with Breast Cancer of the publications series of the Tumor Center Munich (Tumorzentrum München, TZM) is an excellent example of a regional hands-on publication which, while based on national and international guidelines, does not replace these. By virtue of countless additions and revisions in the course of 10 editions, the ‘blue tumor manual for breast cancer’ has matured into...

Janni, Wolfgang

2008-01-01

276

Human papillomaviruses in Buschke-Löwenstein tumors: physical state of the DNA and identification of a tandem duplication in the noncoding region of a human papillomavirus 6 subtype.  

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Six Buschke-Löwenstein tumors, i.e., highly differentiated squamous cell tumors of the genital region, were shown to contain human papillomavirus 6 (HPV 6) or HPV 11 genomes. The viral DNA was found in an episomal state, including a very small fraction of circular oligomers. HPV 6a and HPV 6d genomes were cloned from two of the tumors. Comparison with HPV 6b, cloned from a benign genital wart (E. -M. de Villiers, L. Gissmann, and H. zur Hausen, J. Virol. 40:932-935, 1981) by restriction mapp...

Boshart, M.; Zur Hausen, H.

1986-01-01

277

Radioimmunoassay of 5-methoxy tryptophol in sheep plasma and pineal glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

No 5-methoxytryptophol (ML) could be detected in sheep plasma using a specific, sensitive radioimmunoassay developed for the purpose. Blood samples were collected from sheep during darkness and daylight and during various stages of the estrous cycle, but in no sample was the ML content above the detection limit of the method. Addition of 1 mM pargyline and neostigmine to blood immediately after collection to block metabolism did not result in a detectable ML concentration. The failure to detect ML was not due to degradation since added ML was not degraded by blood enzymes even after 16 hours incubation at 37 degrees C. Injection of 100 microgram and 1 mg ML sc in sheep resulted in a rapid rise of ML to 95-130pg/ml and 560-1000pg/ml respectively and disappearing with a half life of approximately 15-20 minutes. Sheep pineal glands collected during the light phase contained ML (51 +/- 5pg/mg tissue. X +/- SE, n = 7) which represents less than 6% of the melatonin content. It is concluded that if ML is present in sheep blood it is present at very low levels. It is thus unlikely to be a major circulating pineal hormone in this species, however, its role within the CNS as a local hormone cannot be excluded. PMID:6682921

Kennaway, D J

1983-05-23

278

Pineal gland and melatonin affect testicular status in the adult marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of the presence or absence of the pineal gland and of melatonin administration were examined on testicular maintenance, regression, and recrudescence in adult male rice rats. Pinealectomy at the beginning of the study caused significant testicular regression in animals housed on both long (16L:8D) and short (12L:12D) photoperiods (Experiment 1). Sham-operated males maintained testicular weight on 16L:8D and underwent testicular regression on 12L:12D. The magnitude of testicular regression in pinealectomized animals was reduced relative to that of sham-operated animals housed on a short photoperiod and occurred on a different time course. Animals pinealectomized after testicular regression had occurred on 12L:12D demonstrated delayed photostimulated testicular recrudescence when housed on 16L:8D, while spontaneous testicular recrudescence was unaffected in animals maintained on 12L:12D (Experiment 2). Administration of melatonin via subcutaneous implants at the beginning of the study (Experiment 3) produced similar effects on testicular function attributed to pinealectomy in Experiment 1. Finally, melatonin implants administered after the testes regressed on 12L:12D delayed both photostimulated and spontaneous testicular recrudescence in animals housed on long or short photoperiods, respectively (Experiment 4). These results suggest a role for both the pineal gland and melatonin at various stages of the annual reproductive cycle of the male rice rat. PMID:8536938

Edmonds, K E; Stetson, M H

1995-09-01

279

Prioritization of brain MRI volumes using medical image perception model and tumor region segmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study is to explore prioritization methods in diagnostic imaging modalities to automatically determine the contents of medical images. In this paper, we propose an efficient prioritization of brain MRI. First, the visual perception of the radiologists is adapted to identify salient regions. Then this saliency information is used as an automatic label for accurate segmentation of brain lesion to determine the scientific value of that image. The qualitative and quantitative results prove that the rankings generated by the proposed method are closer to the rankings created by radiologists. PMID:24034739

Mehmood, Irfan; Ejaz, Naveed; Sajjad, Muhammad; Baik, Sung Wook

2013-10-01

280

Regional Normal Lung Tissue Density Changes in Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To describe regional lung tissue density changes in normal lung tissue of patients with primary and metastatic lung tumors who received stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 179 post-SBRT follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans of 62 patients who received SBRT between 2003 and 2009 were studied. Median prescription dose was 54 Gy (range, 30-60 Gy) in 3 to 5 fractions. SBRT-induced lung density changes on post-SBRT follow-up CT were evaluated at approximately 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after treatment. Dose-response curves (DRC) were generated for SBRT-induced lung damage by averaging CT number (HU) changes for regions of the lungs receiving the same dose at 5-Gy intervals. Results: For all follow-up interval periods, CT numbers linearly increased with dose until 35 Gy and were constant thereafter. For 3, 18, 24, and 30 months, the rate of relative electron density increase with dose was approximately 0.24% per Gy. At 6 months, the rate was also similar below 20 Gy but then rose to 0.6% per Gy above this threshold. After 6 months, DRCs were mostly time-independent. When split between patients treated with 3 fractions of 12 to 20 Gy (median, 20 Gy; average tumor volume, 12 ± 16 cm3) and with >3 fractions of 6 to 12.5 Gy (median, 9 Gy; average tumor volume, 30 ± 40 cm3), DRCs differed significantly. In both cases, CT changes at 3, 18, 24, and 30 months were identical to those of the population DRC; however, patients who received >3 fractions showed 6-month CT changes that were more than twice those for the group that received 3 fractions. Conclusions: This analysis of SBRT-induced normal lung density changes indicates that lung normal tissue has more pronounced self-limited acute effects than late effects. Differences in acute CT changes following treatments in 3 fractions were considerably less than for treatments in >3 fractions.

2012-11-15

 
 
 
 
281

Calcium binding proteins immunohistochemistry and identification of neurons in the mammalian pineal gland of the African giant rat: Cricetomys gambianus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of true neurons in the rodent pineal gland is still a matter of controversy. In this work, by using immunohistochemistry with five antibodies against calcium-binding proteins (calbindin-D28k, calretinin, calmodulin, neurocalcin and S-100 beta) and Cricetomys gambianus, a rodent belonging to Muridae family living in Africa, we were able to illustrate the presence of neurons in the pineal gland. Anti-calbindin-D28k and anti-calretinin labelled neurons belonging to two neural ganglia. One ganglion was localized in the anterior part of the gland near the pineal stalk and the other one in the posterior portion of the organ. Immunoreactive neurons are medium in size (15-20 microns) and have long thick processes running towards the stalk. Calretinin and calbindin-D28k positive neurons stained with different intensities. Thin processes were detected by anti-calretinin whereas thick processes were preferentially calbindin-D28k positive. Neurocalcin labelled a few smaller neurons and many thin processes within the ganglion. Calmodulin could not be detected immunochemically. Within the ganglia many astrocytic processes were S-100 beta positive. The afferent and the efferent pathways of the pineal ganglia remain to be elucidated. PMID:10378117

Bastianelli, E; Moutairou, K; Akélé-Akpo, M T; Darboux, R; Pochet, R

1999-03-01

282

The early response of pineal N-acetyltransferase activity, melatonin and catecholamine levels in rats irradiated with gamma rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Male Wistar rats adapted to an artificial light-dark regimen were whole-body gamma-irradiated with a dose of 14.35 Gy. Irradiation, sham-irradiation and decapitation 30, 60 and 120 min after the exposure were performed between 2000 h and 0100 h in the darkness. The serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity (NAT), the concentration of melatonin and corticosterone were also determined. Ionizing radiation did not change the activity of NAT, the key enzyme of melatonin synthesis; however, it decreased the concentration of pineal melatonin. The concentration of pineal dopamine and norepinephrine decreased 30 and 120 min after exposure, while the concentration of epinephrine was elevated 30 min after irradiation, though later it was markedly decreased. The serum melatonin level was not changed but an increase in corticosterone level was observed. In the early period after exposure a decrease in pineal melatonin occurred, accompanied by a decrease in pineal catecholamines. On the contrary, in the phase of developed radiation injury the signs of increased melatonin synthesis were observed on days 3 and 4 after the exposure. (author) 6 figs., 25 refs

1995-10-01

283

Quantitative comparison of retrosigmoid intradural suprameatal approach and retrosigmoid transtentorial approach: implications for tumors in the petroclival region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Retrosigmoid transtentorial (RTT) and retrosigmoid intradural suprameatal (RISA) approaches have been used in the treatment of petroclival tumors. Objective To compare the area of exposure of brainstem and petroclival region obtained through RTT and RISA in cadaveric specimens. Methods Five cadaveric specimens with a total of 10 sides were analyzed. RTT and RISA were performed on five sides each. Brainstem and petroclival surface exposure were measured using both the approaches. These values were compared between the two approaches. Results Brainstem area exposure with RTT was 441 ± 63 mm(2) and that with RISA was 311 ± 61 mm(2). Student's t-test revealed that the difference was significant (p = 0.01). The area of petroclival exposure medial to the Meckel cave through RTT was 696 ± 57 mm(2), and that through RISA was 716 ± 51 mm(2) (p = 0.69). The area of brainstem exposure between V and VII-VII complex through RTT and RISA was 387 ± 86 mm(2) and 378 ± 76 mm(2) (p = 0.87). Conclusion The RTT approach is an excellent approach to ventrolateral brainstem and petroclival region. It provides greater superoventral exposure of the ventrolateral brainstem than RISA and provides similar petroclival exposure. PMID:24436928

Ambekar, Sudheer; Amene, Chiazo; Sonig, Ashish; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

2013-10-01

284

Cavernomas in children with brain tumors: a late complication of radiotherapy Cavernomas en niños con tumores cerebrales: una complicación tardía de la radioterapia  

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Background. Delayed complications of radiation therapy comprise cerebral atrophy, radionecrosis and induction of tumors. Recent reports indicate the possibility of the "de-novo" formation of intracranial cavernomas in patients submitted to radiation therapy to the brain. Objectives. To report three children, two with medulloblastomas and one with a pineal germinoma, treated with radiotherapy that developed intracerebral cavernous hemangiomas some years after treatment. With this work, we aim ...

Marti?nez-lage, J. F.; La Fuente, I.; Ros San Pedro, J.; Fuster, J. L.; Pe?rez-espejo, M. A.; Herrero, M. T.

2008-01-01

285

Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as 'possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal cells into cancer cells. Owing to high utilisation of electricity in day-to-day life, exposure to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal gland activity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may influence the pineal gland is still unsolved. The pineal gland is likely to sense EMFs as light but, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data of human and animal studies of changes in melatonin levels due to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields exposure were analysed. Then, the results of this study were compared with the International Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental results in the literature for the biological effect of magnetic fields, in order to quantify the effects. The results show that this comparison does not seem to be consistent despite the fact that it offers an advantage of drawing attention to the importance of the exposure limits to weak EMFs. In addition to those inconsistent results, the following were also observed from this work: (i) the ICNIRP recommendations are meant for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii) the significance of not replicating the existing experimental studies is another limitation in the power-frequency EMFs. Regardless of these issues, the above observation agrees with our earlier study in which it was confirmed that it is not a reliable method to characterise biological effects by observing only the ratio of AC magnetic field strength to frequency. This is because exposure duration does not include the ICNIRP limit. Furthermore, the results show the significance of disruption of melatonin due to exposure to weak EMFs, which may possibly lead to long-term health effects in humans. (author)

2013-05-01

286

Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as 'possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal cells into cancer cells. Owing to high utilisation of electricity in day-to-day life, exposure to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal gland activity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may influence the pineal gland is still unsolved. The pineal gland is likely to sense EMFs as light but, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data of human and animal studies of changes in melatonin levels due to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields exposure were analysed. Then, the results of this study were compared with the International Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental results in the literature for the biological effect of magnetic fields, in order to quantify the effects. The results show that this comparison does not seem to be consistent despite the fact that it offers an advantage of drawing attention to the importance of the exposure limits to weak EMFs. In addition to those inconsistent results, the following were also observedfrom this work: (i) the ICNIRP recommendations are meant for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii) the significance of not replicating the existing experimental studies is another limitation in the power-frequency EMFs. Regardless of these issues, the above observation agrees with our earlier study in which it was confirmed that it is not a reliable method to characterise biological effects by observing only the ratio of AC magnetic field strength to frequency. This is because exposure duration does not include the ICNIRP limit. Furthermore, the results show the significance of disruption of melatonin due to exposure to weak EMFs, which may possibly lead to long-term health effects in humans. PMID:23051584

Halgamuge, Malka N

2013-05-01

287

Repeated endoscopic treatments of multiple recurrent ureteral tumors following 15–year–long history of bladder tumors in the patient from endemic nephropathy region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ureteral urothelial tumors (UUT are uncommon; their incidence is higher in areas affected by Balkanendemic nephropathy (BEN, with low–grade lesions prevalent. In these patients, the efficacy of conservative surgery is comparable to that of nephroureterectomy. Endoscopic treatment is indicated for single, small and low grade UUT, in older patients with significant comorbidity. The case of an 84–year–old lady from an area affected by BEN is presented. Over 20 years, the patient underwent five endoscopic interventions for multiple UUT, and numerous endoscopic interventions for recurrent bladder tumors. Among a highly select group of patients, endoscopic treatment of multiple small superficial low–grade ureteral tumors may prove successful.

Zoran Dzamic

2013-05-01

288

Cell loss from viable and necrotic tumor regions after local gamma irradiation measured by "1"2"5I-UdR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a tracer technique, loss of cells from perivascular and average tumor cells of the syngenic mammary adenocarcinoma EO 771 in male C57 BL/6J mice may be measured in the living animal, by the use of 125-labelled 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ("1"2"5I-UdR). It was the purpose of this paper to compare measurements in vivo with those made in vitro following local "6"0Co-gamma irradiation in the absorbed dose range from 10 to 27.5 Gy, incorporation of radioactivity into DNA of tumor cells and activity loss from labelled tumor cells were measured externally by a special scintillation counter device. In addition, by injecting the vital dye 'light green' into the mice the I-125-activity of the stained viable and unstained necrotic regions were separately measured for loss of activity following gamma irradiation. A comparison was made between radiation induced growth delay and the depression of "1"2"5I-UdR incorporation into DNA of the proliferating tumor cells. After local tumor irradiation with a dose of 27.5 Gy "6"0Co gamma rays an enhancement of the activity loss by 0.5% per hour was externally observed for the perivascular tumor cell population. A lower enhancement of 0.4% per hour was externally registered in the average tumor cell population. Both values were evaluated relative to sham-irradiated control tumors. The measurements on isolated tumors were in comparatively good agreement with the external values. The activity loss rate from the viable, euoxic tissue increased by 0.4% per hour after 27.5 Gy "6"0Co gamma rays and by 0.3% per hour in the average cell population, the latter representing a mixture of euoxic and hypoxic cells. The results demonstrate, that the external measurements are a good indicator for radiation effects under in vivo-conditions. (orig.)

1987-01-01

289

Melatonin secretion in vitro from the pineal complex of the lamprey Petromyzon marinus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin secretion from cultured pineal complexes of the lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) for 6 days under either a 12:12 light:dark cycle (L:D) or continuous darkness (D:D) at either 10 degrees or 20 degrees. Under the L:D cycle, melatonin release was completely suppressed during daytime and high during night-time, with larger amplitude at 20 degrees than at 10 degrees. Under D:D conditions, no significant circadian rhythmicity in secretion could be revealed by periodogram analysis at either 10 degrees or 20 degrees. This is the first direct evidence of melatonin secretion in a lamprey, suggesting that both light and temperature can affect in vitro melatonin secretion. PMID:8428641

Bolliet, V; Ali, M A; Anctil, M; Zachmann, A

1993-01-01

290

Unusual behaviour of a pineal germinoma mimicking neurosarcoidosis and metastasising along the endoscopic route.  

Science.gov (United States)

A previously healthy man underwent endoscopic biopsy for a suspected pineal germinoma. Histology and immunohistochemistry did not confirm the preoperative diagnosis, and neurosarcoidosis was hypothesised because of the presence of granulomatous reaction. The patient remained in good health for 3 years and was still asymptomatic when a control MRI showed metastasis implantation along the endoscopic route. A redobiopsy provided the diagnosis of germinoma, but was complicated by severe ventricular haemorrhage requiring emergency clot excision. Postoperative clinical conditions were so severe that the treatment of germinoma was postponed. Three months later, repeated MRI showed tumour progression. Chemotherapy promoted good tumour regression so that the treatment was completed by radiation therapy. The tumour completely disappeared on MRI, but the patient remained severely disabled because of the haemorrhage. PMID:23912659

Talamonti, Giuseppe; Ligarotti, Gianfranco K; Bramerio, Manuela; Imbesi, Francesca

2013-01-01

291

Complex NF-kappaB interactions at the distal tumor necrosis factor promoter region in human monocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a dense cluster of DNA-protein interactions located 600 nucleotides upstream of the transcriptional start site of the human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene. This area was identified as being of potential importance for lipopolysaccharide-inducible TNF expression in the human monocyte cell line Mono Mac 6, based on reporter gene analysis of point mutations at a number of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB)-like motifs within the human TNF promoter region. The area contains two NF-kappaB sites, which are here shown by DNase I and methylation interference footprinting to flank a novel binding site. UV cross-linking studies reveal that the novel site can also bind NF-kappaB as well as an unknown protein(s) of approximately 40 kDa. We show that these three adjacent kappaB-binding sites differ markedly in their relative affinities for p50/p50, p65/p65, and p65/p50, yet this 39-nucleotide segment of DNA appears capable of binding up to three NF-kappaB heterodimers simultaneously. Reporter gene studies indicate that each element of the cluster contributes to lipopolysaccharide-induced transcriptional activation in Mono Mac 6 cells. These findings suggest that NF-kappaB acts in a complex manner to activate TNF transcription in human monocytes. PMID:9694874

Udalova, I A; Knight, J C; Vidal, V; Nedospasov, S A; Kwiatkowski, D

1998-08-14

292

A multiprotein binding interface in an intrinsically disordered region of the tumor suppressor protein interferon regulatory factor-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interferon-regulated transcription factor and tumor suppressor protein IRF-1 is predicted to be largely disordered outside of the DNA-binding domain. One of the advantages of intrinsically disordered protein domains is thought to be their ability to take part in multiple, specific but low affinity protein interactions; however, relatively few IRF-1-interacting proteins have been described. The recent identification of a functional binding interface for the E3-ubiquitin ligase CHIP within the major disordered domain of IRF-1 led us to ask whether this region might be employed more widely by regulators of IRF-1 function. Here we describe the use of peptide aptamer-based affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to define a multiprotein binding interface on IRF-1 (Mf2 domain; amino acids 106-140) and to identify Mf2-binding proteins from A375 cells. Based on their function as known transcriptional regulators, a selection of the Mf2 domain-binding proteins (NPM1, TRIM28, and YB-1) have been validated using in vitro and cell-based assays. Interestingly, although NPM1, TRIM28, and YB-1 all bind to the Mf2 domain, they have differing amino acid specificities, demonstrating the degree of combinatorial diversity and specificity available through linear interaction motifs. PMID:21245151

Narayan, Vikram; Halada, Petr; Hernychová, Lenka; Chong, Yuh Ping; Žáková, Jitka; Hupp, Ted R; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Ball, Kathryn L

2011-04-22

293

Changes of regional perfusion in metastatic brain tumor and peritumoral area after radiosurgery. A study by 123I-IMP dynamic SPECT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes of regional perfusion in the tumor, peritumoral edematous area and juxtatumor brain after radiosurgical treatment for metastatic brain tumor were investigated by dynamic SPECT using 123I-IMP. The SPECT was performed in 12 patients before and 1, 7 and 30 days after stereotactic irradiation. A region of interest (ROI) was selected each in the tumor, peritumoral edematous area, juxtatumor brain and ipsilateral cerebellum. Radioactivity in each ROIs was counted on early SPECT based on dynamic SPECT from 0 to 5 minutes. Mean count/pixel in each ROIs was divided by mean count/pixel in the ROI of the ipsilateral cerebellum and its value was designated as a count ratio (CR). Relative change of post-treatment CRs investigated assuming the pre-treatment CRs as 1.0. rCR in the tumor did not show any significant change after radiosurgical treatment. rCR in the edematous area and the juxtatumor brain increased at 7 days after irradiation [Mean±SD 1.434±0.409 (p<0.05), 1.248±0.228 (p<0.05) by Mann-Whitney test] and at 30 days [1.359±0.245 (p<0.01), 1.301±0.287 (p<0.01)] respectively. Computed tomography revealed no change in the maximum diameter of the tumor at 1 month after irradiation but a significant reduction in the diameter [0.744±0.227 (p<0.02)] at 2 months. Early improvement of regional cerebral blood flow in the juxtatumor areas after radiosurgery suggested that radiosurgery could be effective treatment for metastatic brain tumor. (author)

1996-02-01

294

Repeated endoscopic treatments of multiple recurrent ureteral tumors following 15–year–long history of bladder tumors in the patient from endemic nephropathy region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ureteral urothelial tumors (UUT) are uncommon; their incidence is higher in areas affected by Balkanendemic nephropathy (BEN), with low–grade lesions prevalent. In these patients, the efficacy of conservative surgery is comparable to that of nephroureterectomy. Endoscopic treatment is indicated for single, small and low grade UUT, in older patients with significant comorbidity. The case of an 84–year–old lady from an area affected by BEN is presented. Over 20 years, the patient underwen...

2013-01-01

295

Comparison of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) and Fluorescent Light on Suppression of Pineal Melatonin in the Rat  

Science.gov (United States)

To validate a novel LED array for use in animal habitat lighting by comparing its effectiveness to cool-white fluorescent (CWF) lighting in suppressing pineal gland melatonin. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 175-200 g, were maintained under control conditions for 2 weeks (food and water ad lib, 12L: 12D CWF, 18 uW/square cm). Dark adapted animals (animals before lights on) were exposed to 5 min of LED or CWF light of similar spectral power distribution. Two groups of rats (LED vs. CWF) were compared at 5 light intensities (100, 40, 1, 1.0, and 0. 1 lux). A control group was placed into the exposure apparatus but not exposed to light. After exposure, pineal glands were rapidly removed and assayed for melatonin by RIA. Results. The dark-exposed control groups matched with the 5 intensity groups (100, 40, 10, 1.0, and 0.1 lux) showed mean + SEM pineal melatonin values of 1167 +/- 136, 1569 +/- 126, 353 +/- 34, 650 +/- 124, and 464 +/- 85, pg/ml respectively. The corresponding CWF exposure data were 393 1 41, 365 +34, 257 +/- 13, 218 +/- 42, and 239 +/- 71 pg/ml, respectively. Corresponding LED exposure data were 439 +/- 25, 462 +/- 50, 231 +/- 6, 164 +/- 12, and 158 +/- 12 pg/ml, respectively. Rats exposed to both experimental light conditions at all illuminances studied showed significant melatonin suppression (p less than 0.01, ANOVA). In no case was the melatonin suppression induced by LED illuminance significantly different from the melatonin suppression elicited by the same intensity of CWF light. The results show that a novel LED light source can suppress pineal melatonin equal to that of a conventional CWF light source.

Winget, Charles M.; Heeke, D. S.; Holley, D. C.; Mele, G.; Brainard, G. C.; Hanifin, J. P.; Rollag, M. D.; Savage, Paul D. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

296

The Study Drug Pathomorphism And Immunohistochemical Parameters Of Tumor In Endoarterial Of Regional Long-Term Chemotherapy In Treatment Of Cervical Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: To improve the results of radiotherapy for cervical cancer used local and systemic radio-modification drugs.Materials and methods: 1984 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (2b - 3a stage, which at one stage of complex treatment by a course indo-arterial of regional long-term poly-chemotherapy (EARDPHT mode: methotrexate - 50 mg/m2, the first 12 hours, fluorouracil 1000 mg/m2, over the next 12 hours and cisplatin - 100 mg/m2, for 48 hours, 2 stage - surgical treatment in the volume expanding hysterectomy 3 type (modification of Wertheim - Meigs.Results: The results of treatment of locally cervical cancer using VADRPHT, depending on the unilateral and bilateral tumor invasion in parametrial tissue showed that under unilateral lesion of parametrium results of treatment were higher than for the bilateral involvement of parametrium. Medical pathomorphosis in tumors of different severity was observed in 86.9% of patients, metastasis to regional lymph nodes were detected in 36% of operated patients, and also studied the degree of therapeutic pathomorphosis in lymph nodes. There was revealed that the complete regression of tumors, 5 - year survival rate is 98%, whereas in tumor regression of more than 50% of the original volume – 78.5%, with stabilization of tumor - no more than 58.4%.Conclusion:  The study of molecular-biological parameters of the tumor cells show the effectiveness of conducted neo-advent indo-arterial chemotherapy and play an important role in further treatment and prediction of disease.

V Navruzova

2013-09-01

297

Value of regional cerebral perfusion SPECT with N-isopropyl-(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in brain tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate early dynamics and late changes of IMP distribution in brain tumors and surrounding tissues, we performed serial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); eight 2-min scans (dynamic scan) immediately after IMP administration and two 30-min scans at 20 min (early scan) and 5 hr (late scan) after injection. We also measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 4 cases using positron emission tomography and 0 - 15 labeled carbon dioxide or water, and compared the distribution of IMP with CBF. Seven tumors out of 24 studies showed increased accumulation of IMP on the dynamic scan, indicating high blood flow, but the activity decreased rapidly in the tumor and all tumors showed decreased uptake on the late scan. The initial distribution of IMP in the tumor showed similar pattern as CBF measured by PET. In the early scan, decreased accumulation was observed in the more extended area than tumors visualized by XCT, probably including the area of perifocal edema. On the late scan, redistribution of the tracer was observed in the area of edema. In one case with right thalamic glioma, decreased uptake of the tracer was shown in the cortex of right cerebral hemisphere on the early scan, indicating transneuronal suppression, but no laterality was found on the late scan. There was no redistribution of the tracer in the tumor. In summary, only the initial distribution of IMP can show the blood flow in brain tumors, and routine SPECT with rotating gamma camera available in most institutions may fail to detect it. Late scan may be useful for delineating the tumor extention. (author)

1987-01-01

298

Comparative study of pineal clock gene and AANAT2 expression in relation to melatonin synthesis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).  

Science.gov (United States)

The photoreceptive teleost pineal is considered to be essential to the generation, synchronisation and maintenance of biological rhythms, primarily via melatonin release. The role of internal (circadian clock) and external (light) signals controlling melatonin production in the fish pineal differs between species, yet the reasons underpinning this remain largely unknown. Whilst in salmonids, pineal melatonin is apparently regulated directly by light, in all other studied teleosts, rhythmic melatonin production persists endogenously under the regulation of clock gene expression. To better understand the role of clocks in teleost pineals, this study aimed to characterise the expression of selected clock genes in vitro under different photoperiodic conditions in comparison to in vivo in both Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) (in vitro 12L:12D), a species known to display endogenous rhythmic melatonin synthesis. Results revealed no rhythmic clock gene (Clock, Period 1 &2) expression in Atlantic salmon or European seabass (Clock and Period 1) pineal in vitro. However rhythmic expression of Cryptochrome 2 and Period 1 in the Atlantic salmon pineal was observed in vivo, which infers extra-pineal regulation of clocks in this species. No rhythmic arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (Aanat2) expression was observed in the Atlantic salmon yet in the European seabass, circadian Aanat2 expression was observed. Subsequent in silico analysis of available Aanat2 genomic sequences reveals that Atlantic salmon Aanat2 promoter sequences do not contain similar regulatory architecture as present in European seabass, and previously described in other teleosts which alludes to a loss in functional connection in the pathway. PMID:24361868

McStay, Elsbeth; Migaud, Herve; Vera, Luisa Maria; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Davie, Andrew

2014-03-01

299

Pituitary insufficiency after operation of supratentorial intra- and extraaxial tumors outside of the sellar–parasellar region?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies investigating pituitary function after non-sellar brain tumor surgery showed that up to 38.2% of patients have pituitary insufficiency (PI). It has been assumed that the operation causes the PI, but preoperative hormone testing, which would have been necessary to prove this assumption, was not performed. The objective of this study is to answer the question if indeed microsurgery is the culprit of PI in patients with operatively treated non-sellar brain tumors. In this prospect...

Wachter, Dorothee; Gondermann, Nicole; Oertel, Matthias; Nestler, Ulf; Rohde, Veit; Bo?ker, Dieter-karsten

2011-01-01

300

Expression of transforming region of Moloney murine sarcoma virus in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with small tumor antigen of polyoma virus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacterial expression of the transforming region of Moloney murine sarcoma virus, designated mos, was obtained as a fusion protein with a portion of the small tumor antigen of polyoma virus. This was accomplished by fusing the entire mos open reading frame, encoding a 41,000-dalton protein, with a plasmid that expresses a beta-galactosidase-polyoma fusion protein under lac operon control. The resulting plasmid directed synthesis of the predicted polyoma antigen-sarcoma virus fusion protein of ...

Donoghue, D. J.; Hunter, T.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Interactions of the pineal hormone melatonin with oxygen-centered free radicals: a brief review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin,N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is a hormonal product of the pineal gland. Its synthesis is higher at night than during the day in all vertebrates including man. Once melatonin is produced in the pineal gland it is quickly released into the vascular system. The rapid release of melatonin is generally believed to relate to its high lipophilicity which allows it to readily pass through the membrane of the pinealocytes and the endothelial cells which line the capillaries. The result of the nocturnal synthesis and secretion of melatonin is high blood levels at night. Also because of its highly lipophilic nature, melatonin from the blood readily escapes into every other bodily fluid and all cells in the body. Until recently it was generally thought that melatonin's action in the organism depended on its exclusive interaction with specific receptors on cells located in discrete locations. Certainly, the interactions of melatonin with these membrane-bound receptors are believed to mediate the endocrine and circadian rhythm effects of melatonin. It was recently discovered, however, that melatonin's primary action may not depend on the previously described membrane receptors. We have found that melatonin is a very potent hydroxyl radical scavenger; free radicals and the hydroxyl radical in particular, because of its very high reactivity, can be extremely damaging to macromolecules in cells. Compared to glutathione and mannitol, two well known free radical scavengers, melatonin is a more powerful scavenger and affords protection of molecules, especially DNA, from oxidative damage. Melatonin's extremely high diffusibility is important for its scavenging action because this feature allows it to enter all cells and every subcellular compartment. Whereas the free radical quenching activity of melatonin does not require a receptor, we also have evidence that it may be bound in the nucleus thereby providing on-site protection to DNA. Besides scavenging the highly toxic hydroxyl radical, melatonin also stimulates glutathione peroxidase activity which metabolizes the precursor of the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, to water. Thus, melatonin has at least two means to protect the cell from oxidative damage, i.e., it breaks down hydrogen peroxide to harmless water and, in the event any hydroxyl radicals are formed, melatonin scavenges them. Melatonin may be the premier molecule to protect the organism from oxidative damage. PMID:8136717

Reiter, R J

1993-11-01

302

Human homologue of murine tumor rejection antigen gp96: 5'-regulatory and coding regions and relationship to stress-induced proteins.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cell-surface glycoproteins of 96 kDa (gp96) have been implicated in immunogenicity of methylcholanthrene-induced mouse sarcomas in syngeneic hosts. In view of the potential immunogenicity of gp96-related molecules in human tumors, we have defined the 5'-regulatory and complete coding regions of a human gp96 transcript. The 5'-regulatory region contains an imperfect heat shock element apart from other regulatory sequences. The amino acid sequence of human gp96 is 96% homologous to its murine c...

Maki, R. G.; Old, L. J.; Srivastava, P. K.

1990-01-01

303

Effects of photoperiod and temperature on rhythmic melatonin secretion from the pineal organ of the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The secretion rate of melatonin from cultured pineal organs of the white sucker was examined for several days under either a 12:12-hr light:dark (LD) cycle or continuous darkness (DD) at either 10 degrees or 20 degrees. The incubation medium was changed at 3-hr intervals and secreted melatonin was measured by RIA. Under a 12:12-hr LD cycle (0800 light on, 2000 light off) melatonin secretion was suppressed during the day and highly active at night, with larger amplitudes at 20 than at 10 degrees. In DD at 10 degrees no circadian rhythmicity in secretion was found in October or January, whereas at 20 degrees a circadian-like pattern was detected in pineals which were derived from animals reared at either 10 degrees or 20 degrees for 1 week prior to the experiment in October or January. The pineals in the DD experiment still responded to an additional 24-hr LD cycle at both temperatures even after 6 or more days. These results clearly reveal the influence of photoperiod and temperature on melatonin secretion of organ-cultured pineal glands. The existence of a circadian oscillator for melatonin secretion in the pineal gland of the white sucker is suggested. PMID:1505727

Zachmann, A; Falcon, J; Knijff, S C; Bolliet, V; Ali, M A

1992-04-01

304

Retrieval of Brain Tumors with Region-Specific Bag-of-Visual-Words Representations in Contrast-Enhanced MRI Images  

Science.gov (United States)

A content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system is proposed for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images of brain tumors. In this CBIR system, spatial information in the bag-of-visual-words model and domain knowledge on the brain tumor images are considered for the representation of brain tumor images. A similarity metric is learned through a distance metric learning algorithm to reduce the gap between the visual features and the semantic concepts in an image. The learned similarity metric is then used to measure the similarity between two images and then retrieve the most similar images in the dataset when a query image is submitted to the CBIR system. The retrieval performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain CE-MRI dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). The experimental results demonstrate that the mean average precision values of the proposed method range from 90.4% to 91.5% for different views (transverse, coronal, and sagittal) with an average value of 91.0%.

Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Yu, Mei; Lu, Zhentai; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

2012-01-01

305

Cytochrome oxidase activity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland in rats with portacaval shunt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhythmic behavioral and biochemical changes have been observed in both human and animal models with hepatic insufficiency. The basis of all these alterations is the principal endogenous pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The aim of this work, therefore, is to determine cytochrome c oxidase activity, a marker of neuronal activity and oxidative metabolism, in this nucleus in rats with portacaval shunt. In order to do this, this enzyme was histochemically marked and quantified by computer-assisted optical densitometry. Results show a reduced cytochrome oxidase activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in animals with portacaval shunts and, inversely, an increase in oxidative metabolism in the pineal gland, another circadian structure. However, the activity measured in a noncircadian brain structure, the hippocampus, which served as a control, showed no changes with surgery. Additionally, locomotor activity was assessed by actimeters and revealed a clearly reduced activity in animals with portacaval shunt. We conclude that the suprachiasmatic nucleus is possibly involved in the rhythmic changes associated with hepatic insufficiency. PMID:11822891

López, Laudino; González-Pardo, Héctor; Cimadevilla, José Manuel; Cavas, María; Aller, María A; Arias, Jaime; Arias, Jorge L

2002-02-01

306

Regions '  

...The 'European Regions Energy Day', organised by the Assembly of European Regions (AER), a body independent from EU institutions, brought together ...The 'European Regions Energy Day', organised by the Assembly of European Regions (AER), a body independent from EU institutions, brought together ...EU's drive towards a sustainable energy sector, but some actors -notably the AER -feel that the European Commission is yet to grasp this (... In response, AER President Michèle Sabban told EurActiv that while she agreed ldquo;completelyrdquo; with Commissioner Hahnrsquo;s sentiments, ldquo;I ...

307

The effects of postoperative irradiation on loco-regional tumor control and survival in patients with head and neck carcinomas by tumor subsites and relative risk factors for recurrence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose/Objective: This study reports on a unique experience in the management of patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in which, between 1982 and 1990, patients with varied risk for recurrence were either referred for immediate postoperative irradiation by one surgical group or offered radiotherapy after surgical failure by the other. We have previously demonstrated in patients with high risk for recurrence that combined surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (S/RT) resulted in improved loco-regional tumor control (LRC) and overall patient survival (OS) for the entire patient cohort. This updated and expanded analysis describes the benefit of postoperative irradiation for patients with HNSCC depending upon relative risk factors for recurrence and different subsites of primary tumors. Materials and Methods: Of 219 patients, 190 were evaluable because of tumor locations in the major subsites analyzed, i.e. oral cavity (OC), oropharynx (OP), hypopharynx (HP), and larynx (L). Depending upon the philosophy of the two surgical groups, 79 patients were treated with combined S/RT and 111 with S alone with a >90% compliance. Minimum 2-year follow-up applies to all data reported. The two patient groups were well balanced with respect to tumor stages (AJCC 1983) and other patient characteristics. Histopathological review revealed 88 cases with one risk factor for recurrence, 49 patients with positive resection margin (PRM) and 39 with extracapsular extension (ECE); an additional 22 patients presented with both risk factors and 80 patients were found to have no risk factors. S, consisting of wide local excisions or radical resections including neck dissections, and postoperative RT with doses between 50 and 70 Gy were similar for both groups. Statistical evaluations consisted of Kaplan-Meier analyses to calculate LRC and OS rates and of multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models to estimate significance of treatment effects including S vs. S/RT and the risk factors under investigation. Results: Initial analysis concentrated on two major risk groups consisting of patients with PRM +/- ECE or ECE +/- PRM as risk factors. The effects of these risk factors by treatment on LCR and OS were analyzed by tumor subsites of OC, OP, HP, and L. For all subsites, PRM +/- ECE revealed a significant improvement in LRC and OS, p=.0005 and .016, respectively, for S/RT vs. S. Even greater significance levels were found for the ECE +/- PRM cohort of patients. In patients with PRM S/RT conferred a significant LRC advantage for subsites of OC, OP, and HP (p=.011 - .063). While there was a significant survival advantage for the entire patient cohort only, OC and HP tumors showed a marginally significant OS benefit of p=.056 - .063, respectively. More detailed analyses divided the patients into four groups by relative risk factors, PRM-/ECE-, PRM+/ECE-, PRM-/ECE+, and PRM+/ECE+, and examined the effects of treatment by tumor subsite on LRC and OS. Combined S/RT demonstrates improvements in LRC, with different levels of significance, for all groups except PRM-/ECE-; this translated into an OS advantage for the PRM-/ECE+ HP and all subsites with findings of PRM+/ECE+, p=.039 and .003, respectively. This analysis also allowed to identify low, intermediate and high risk groups correlating with the need for and the benefit from postoperative radiotherapy. Conclusions: This expanded and updated outcome analysis of patients with HNSCC emphasizes the importance of immediate combined S/RT for tumors with risk features for recurrence, such as ECE and PRM, because of the benefit on LRC but also on OS in selected tumor subsites with intermediate risk for recurrence and all patients with high risk (ECE+/PRM+). The data presented provides detailed guidance regarding expected benefits from combined S/RT by tumor subsite and by relative risk factors

1997-01-01

308

The evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics in patients with intracranial tumors by stable xenon CT; The effect of glycerol administration on regional cerebral blood flow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In evaluating cerebral regional blood flow (rCBF), stable xenon-enhanced tomography (XeCT) study associated with simultaneous blood sampling was applied in 15 cases of intracranial neoplasms. The effect of intravenous glycerol infusion on rCBF was also investigated. The results indicated that intratumoral rCBF values were not only variable and unrelated to their histological types and grades, but also were not correlated with the vascularity of the lesion as demonstrated by angiography. When a tumor mass was enhanced after the injection of iodinated contrast media, it proved to be useful in distinguishing tumor mass and its associated edema that the rCBF of the peritumoral edematous region was predominantly low (10{plus minus}5 ml/100 g/min). The regional cerebral blood flow in remote areas, both ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion, was low in value, and there was no statistical significance between affected and sound sides. Following glycerol administration, rCBF was increased in the whole intracranial region, but not inside of the neoplasm, particularly when the intracranial pressure (ICP) was increased. It was assumed that the elevated rCBF after glycerol administration was due to the increase in the cerebral perfusion pressure resulting from the ICP reduction, the hemodilution effect, cerebral vessel dilatation after metabolic acidosis, and/or mechanically rectified microcirculation after edema reduction. (author).

Shimoda, Masami; Kawamata, Fumio; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ohsuga, Hitoshi; Hidaka, Mitsuru; Oda, Shinri; Shibuya, Naoki; Yamamoto, Isao; Sato, Osamu (Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

1989-04-01

309

Meta-analysis of cancer gene expression signatures reveals new cancer genes, SAGE tags and tumor associated regions of co-regulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer is among the major causes of human death and its mechanism(s) are not fully understood. We applied a novel meta-analysis approach to multiple sets of merged serial analysis of gene expression and microarray cancer data in order to analyze transcriptome alterations in human cancer. Our methodology, which we denote ‘COgnate Gene Expression patterNing in tumours’ (COGENT), unmasked numerous genes that were differentially expressed in multiple cancers. COGENT detected well-known tumor-associated (TA) genes such as TP53, EGFR and VEGF, as well as many multi-cancer, but not-yet-tumor-associated genes. In addition, we identified 81 co-regulated regions on the human genome (RIDGEs) by using expression data from all cancers. Some RIDGEs (28%) consist of paralog genes while another subset (30%) are specifically dysregulated in tumors but not in normal tissues. Furthermore, a significant number of RIDGEs are associated with GC-rich regions on the genome. All assembled data is freely available online (www.oncoreveal.org) as a tool implementing COGENT analysis of multi-cancer genes and RIDGEs. These findings engender a deeper understanding of cancer biology by demonstrating the existence of a pool of under-studied multi-cancer genes and by highlighting the cancer-specificity of some TA-RIDGEs.

Kavak, Ersen; Unlu, Mustafa; Nister, Monica; Koman, Ahmet

2010-01-01

310

Meta-analysis of cancer gene expression signatures reveals new cancer genes, SAGE tags and tumor associated regions of co-regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer is among the major causes of human death and its mechanism(s) are not fully understood. We applied a novel meta-analysis approach to multiple sets of merged serial analysis of gene expression and microarray cancer data in order to analyze transcriptome alterations in human cancer. Our methodology, which we denote 'COgnate Gene Expression patterNing in tumours' (COGENT), unmasked numerous genes that were differentially expressed in multiple cancers. COGENT detected well-known tumor-associated (TA) genes such as TP53, EGFR and VEGF, as well as many multi-cancer, but not-yet-tumor-associated genes. In addition, we identified 81 co-regulated regions on the human genome (RIDGEs) by using expression data from all cancers. Some RIDGEs (28%) consist of paralog genes while another subset (30%) are specifically dysregulated in tumors but not in normal tissues. Furthermore, a significant number of RIDGEs are associated with GC-rich regions on the genome. All assembled data is freely available online (www.oncoreveal.org) as a tool implementing COGENT analysis of multi-cancer genes and RIDGEs. These findings engender a deeper understanding of cancer biology by demonstrating the existence of a pool of under-studied multi-cancer genes and by highlighting the cancer-specificity of some TA-RIDGEs. PMID:20621981

Kavak, Ersen; Unlü, Mustafa; Nistér, Monica; Koman, Ahmet

2010-11-01

311

Chromosome alteration and the development of tumors. XXIII. Banding karyotype analyses of methylcholanthrene-induced tumors in the Indian spiny mouse, Mus platythrix, with special regard to the anomalies of chromosomes with nucleolar organizer regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Indian spiny mouse, Mus platythrix (2n = 26), six tumors were induced by 3-methylcholanthrene, and their karyotypes were analyzed in the primary state by G-banding. The chromosome numbers of these tumors were widely distributed ranging from diploid to tetraploid, but the frequency of cells exhibiting diploidy was the highest. Among these cells, the frequency of the cells with a normal diploid karyotype was only 27%, but the remaining cells (73%) showed pseudo- or near-diploid karyotypes. Although several numerical and structural anomalies of the chromosomes were observed in these tumor cells, centric fusion and translocation was most commonly seen, and that of trisomy and monosomy ranked second. Among 13 chromosome pairs, higher frequencies of chromosome anomalies were observed in the chromosomes No. 5, 8, and 12. Anomalies of the other autosomes were related primarily to centric fusion with chromosomes No, 5, 8, or 12, those of the X chromosome were mainly numerical changes. Taking into account the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), which always occurred in chromosome pairs No. 5, 8 and 12 in this species, a possible relationship between the anomalies of those chromosomes containing NORs and the malignant transformation of cells is proposed. PMID:7284983

Yosida, T H

1981-04-01

312

An agent-based model identifies MRI regions of probable tumor invasion in a patient with glioblastoma  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an application of a previously developed agent-based glioma model (Chen et al 2009 Biosystems 95 234-42) for predicting spatio-temporal tumor progression using a patient-specific MRI lattice derived from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) data. Agents representing collections of migrating glioma cells are initialized based upon voxels at the outer border of the tumor identified on T1-weighted (Gd+) MRI at an initial time point. These simulated migratory cells exhibit a specific biologically inspired spatial search paradigm, representing a weighting of the differential contribution from haptotactic permission and biomechanical resistance on the migration decision process. ADC data from 9 months after the initial tumor resection were used to select the best search paradigm for the simulation, which was initiated using data from 6 months after the initial operation. Using this search paradigm, 100 simulations were performed to derive a probabilistic map of tumor invasion locations. The simulation was able to successfully predict a recurrence in the dorsal/posterior aspect long before it was depicted on T1-weighted MRI, 18 months after the initial operation.

Chen, L. Leon; Ulmer, Stephan; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

2010-01-01

313

Toward the gene(s) for Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome and associated tumors in two different regions of 11p15  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS) is a malformation syndrome associated with predisposition to different types of tumors (WT, ADCC). Cytogenetic and familial studies mapped the WBS locus to 11p15.5. Genomic imprinting has been implicated in the expression of the syndrome. Using 11p15 specific markers we have determined the parental origin of both chromosomes 11 in sporadic WBS cases. Probands in 5 out of 26 informative families (25%) displayed uniparental disomy (UPD) corresponding to a paternal isodisomy for region 11p15.5. Mosaic phenotypes reflect the timing of their origin and the fate of cells involved as well as the cell-specific pattern of imprinting. Somatic mosaicism for UPD may thus explain the incomplete forms of WBS, the association of hemihypertrophy in sporadic WBS and even some cases of isolated hemihypertrophy. Moreover, the risk (60%) of developing a tumor seems higher for patients with paternal 11p UPD than for WBS patients in general (7.5%). Two different genomic libraries specific for region 11p15.5 were constructed and screened to isolate and characterize the gene(s) responsible for WBS and/or tumor progression. The characterization and and the localization of these cDNAs are in progress. 5 CA repeats genetically mapped in 11p15 were used to isolate YACs (CEPH). These CA repeats are now physically mapped using a panel of hybrids specific for the 11p15 region, and the contigs of YACs mapping in the regions of interest will be used to isolate coding sequences.

Henry, J.; Chehenase, V.; Boulevin, C. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [and others

1994-09-01

314

Evaluación del olfato en pacientes con patología tumoral en la región selar, intervenidos mediante abordaje endoscópico transesfenoidal transnasal / Assessment of smell in patients with tumor pathology in the sellar region, operated by transnasal transsphenoidal endoscopic approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Para acceder a la región selar, podemos utilizar las técnicas transcraneal, transeptal, o transnasal endoscópica, pudiendo provocar diferentes grados de hiposmia. Se ha descrito menor morbilidad al utilizar la técnica endoscópica, pero faltan estudios dirigidos a los resultados olfator [...] ios. Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de deterioro olfatorio en los pacientes sometidos a un abordaje transnasal endoscópico. Material y método: Se reclutaron 12 pacientes con tumores en la región selar durante 8 meses. Se les realizó un test de olfato preoperatorio, fueron intervenidos mediante abordaje transnasal endoscópico y controlados al mes posoperatorio. Resultados: Se logró seguimiento a 10 pacientes. Seis (60%) presentaron un test de olfato preoperatorio normal. Al mes posoperatorio, se constató mejoría olfatoria en 1 (10%) paciente, 8 (80%) se mantuvieron en la misma categoría y 1 (10%) presentó deterioro olfatorio. En suma, 9 de 10 pacientes (90%) mantienen o mejoran su olfato al mes posoperatorio. Conclusión: Nuestros resultados sugieren que el abordaje transnasal endoscópico utilizado en este estudio no produce deterioro olfatorio. Dado que además es una técnica de abordaje efectiva y relativamente segura, consideramos que constituye una alternativa factible para utilizar en pacientes con patología tumoral en la región selar. Abstract in english Introduction: To access the sellar region we can use the transcranial, transeptal, or transnasal endoscopic approaches, which may cause different degrees of hyposmia. It has described less morbidity to use the endocopic technique, however, there are few studies directed at olfactory outcomes. Aim: T [...] o determine the presence of olfactory impairment secondary to endoscopic transnasal approach. Material and method: 12 patients with tumors in the sellar region were enrolled during 8 months. They were underwent a smell test preoperatively, operated by endoscopic transnasal approach, and controlled with postoperative retesting, after one month. Results: Follow-up was achieved to 10 patients. 6 (60%) presented a normal preoperative smell test. Within one postoperative month, olfactory improvement was found in 1 (10%) patient, 8 (80%) remained in the same category and 1 (10%) had olfactory impairment. In all, 9 out of 10 patients (90%) maintain or improve their sense of smell after surgery. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the transnasal endoscopic approach used in this study, doesn't produce olfactory impairment. Given that is also an effective and relatively safe approach, we believe that is a feasible alternative for use in patients with tumor pathology in the sellar region.

Vega A, Nadia Karin; Walker J, Katherine; Boettiger B, J. Paul.

315

X-ray diagnosis of the neoplasms of the hard palate region. Pt. 2. Tumors extending from the region anatomically adjacent to the hard palate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 65 patients X-ray surveys of the skulls, pantomography, occlusal, tomographic, CT and TMR examinations were performed due to malignant and bening tumors extending from the organs adjacent to the hard palate. On the basis of X-ray as well as histological examinations, changes in the bone structures were found in 47 patients, in 21 the image of the structure being normal. The applicability of CT and TMR for evaluating malignant processes of soft tissues and bone structures was disclosed to be of great value. The usefulness of occlusal X-rays for estimating the hard palate structure was emphasized. (author)

1993-01-01

316

A Multiprotein Binding Interface in an Intrinsically Disordered Region of the Tumor Suppressor Protein Interferon Regulatory Factor-1*  

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The interferon-regulated transcription factor and tumor suppressor protein IRF-1 is predicted to be largely disordered outside of the DNA-binding domain. One of the advantages of intrinsically disordered protein domains is thought to be their ability to take part in multiple, specific but low affinity protein interactions; however, relatively few IRF-1-interacting proteins have been described. The recent identification of a functional binding interface for the E3-ubiquitin ligase CHIP within ...

Narayan, Vikram; Halada, Petr; Hernychova?, Lenka; Chong, Yuh Ping; Z?a?kova?, Jitka; Hupp, Ted R.; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Ball, Kathryn L.

2011-01-01

317

Regulated expression of chimaeric genes containing the 5'-flanking regions of human growth hormone-related genes in transiently transfected rat anterior pituitary tumor cells.  

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The expression and hormonal regulation of chimaeric genes containing the 5'-flanking regions of the normal human growth hormone (hGH-1), the variant hGH (hGH-2) and chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS-1) genes fused to the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene has been examined after transient transfection into cultured rat pituitary (GC), and non-pituitary (HeLa and Rat 2) tumor cells. As assessed by levels of CAT activity, the hGH-1 and hCS-1 gene hybrids were expressed at 5- to 25-fol...

1987-01-01

318

Determination of regional blood-tissue transfer constants and initial (plasma) volume in brain and brain tumors using 68Ga-EDTA and dynamic positron emission tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beagle dogs with Avian Sarcoma Virus induced brain tumors were studied under pentobarbital anesthesia at 8 to 10 wks of age when they demonstrated contrast enhancing lesions on CT scans of 1.5 cm or greater diameter. Four to 6 mCi of /sup 68/Ga-EDTA in saline was intravenously infused over 3 min, arterial blood rapidly sampled, and serial 30 sec scans obtained on the Neuro-PET. The scanning period and interval between blood sampling was gradually increased after 5-6 min; 25 min scans were obtained from 30 min until the end of the experiments (2 to 4 hrs). Fifteen min prior to the end of the experiments, 1 mCi of /sup 14/C-?-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) was intravenously injected, arterial blood sampled, the animal killed with intravenous KCl, and the brain rapidly frozen for later processing of histology and quantitative autoradiography. Regions of interest could be outlined on the basis of histology image overlays and directly compared with the /sup 14/C-AIB autoradiographic images. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant blood-tumor barrier in these experimental animals and suggest that similar studies could be performed in patients with brain tumors in order to individualize their chemotherapy

1984-06-05

319

Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in brain tumors and cervical region. Experience of the Dean Funes Medical Center, first experience in stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery inside the country  

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Purpose: A retrospective study to analyze the results of 53 patients treated with stereotactic radiotherapy in 'Centro Medico Dean Funes' was performed. The patients had brain and head and neck tumors. Patients and methods: From November 1997 to March 2003, 53 patients were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy in 'Centro Medico Dean Funes'. The daily dose administered varied from 1.8 to 2 Gy and the total dose from 30 to 70 Gy. The minimal follow up was 2 months, and the medium follow up 32 months. Local control and survival were analyzed in all patients, as well as tolerance and the complications of the treatment. Results: Since these series represented a very heterogeneous group of patients, the final results were very difficult to compare with other alternative treatments. However, an excellent tolerance to therapy was observed. Some subsets of patients had good results to treatment: patients with metastasis to the orbit, patients with lesions to the sellar and parasellar regions and some who relapsed following conventional radiotherapy, mainly lymphomas. Conclusions: Stereotactic radiotherapy is a valid therapeutic method to treat tumors of the brain and head and neck, as long as the tumor has a moderate size (6 cm. or less) and the shape is cylindrical or ellipsoid. Stereotactic radiation improves the therapeutic ratio as compared with the conventional radiotherapy. It has advantages over the 3D technique, and could compete with IMRT (Intensity modulated radiation therapy). (author)

2004-01-01

320

Enhanced Growth of Primary Tumors in Cancer-Prone Mice after Immunization against the Mutant Region of an Inherited Oncoprotein  

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One major objective of tumor immunologists is to prevent cancer development in individuals at high risk. (TG.AC × C57BL/6)F1 mice serve as a model for testing the feasibility of this objective. The mice carry in the germline a mutant ras oncogene that has an arginine at codon 12 instead of glycine present in the wild-type, and after physical (wounding) or chemical promotion, these mice have a high probability for developing papillomas that progress to cancer. Furthermore, F1 mice immunized w...

Siegel, Christopher T.; Schreiber, Karin; Meredith, Stephen C.; Beck-engeser, Gabriele B.; Lancki, David W.; Lazarski, Christopher A.; Fu, Yang-xin; Rowley, Donald A.; Schreiber, Hans

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Polymorphism in the thymidylate synthase promoter enhancer region is not an efficacious marker for tumor sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil-based oral adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer.  

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Thymidylate synthase (TS) is the target enzyme of 5-fluoropyrimidines. The TS gene promoter enhancer region (TSER) possesses tandem, repeated, regulatory sequences that are polymorphic in humans. This polymorphism has been reported to influence TS expression in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we assessed whether or not the TSER genotype is an efficacious marker for tumor sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based oral adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. One hundred and thirty-five Japanese patients who received curative resection and 5-FU-based oral adjuvant chemotherapy were studied. TSER genotypes of the tumors were analyzed by PCR. The numbers of repeated sequences of representative bands were determined by direct sequence. The genotypes of two-/two-repeats (TSER 2/2), two-/three-repeats (TSER 2/3), three-/three-repeats (TSER 3/3), and three-/five-repeats (TSER 3/5) were found in 11 (8.1%), 32 (23.7%), 85 (63.0%), and 7 (5.2%) tumors, respectively. Patients were classified into two groups: TSER 2/2 or 2/3 group; and the TSER 3/3 group. The relationship between the TSER genotype group and disease-free intervals was analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Five-year disease-free survivals of the TSER 2/2 or 2/3 group and the TSER 3/3 group were 77% and 75%, respectively (P = 0.89). Multivariate analysis revealed that stage was the only independent prognostic factor and that the TSER genotype did not have a prognostic significance (hazard ratio for TSER 3/3, 0.91; P = 0.84). In conclusion, TSER genotype is not an efficacious marker for tumor sensitivity to 5-FU-based oral adjuvant chemotherapy for Japanese colorectal cancer patients after curative resection. PMID:14506161

Tsuji, Takashi; Hidaka, Shigekazu; Sawai, Terumitsu; Nakagoe, Tohru; Yano, Hiroshi; Haseba, Masatoshi; Komatsu, Hideaki; Shindou, Hisakazu; Fukuoka, Hidetoshi; Yoshinaga, Megumi; Shibasaki, Shinichi; Nanashima, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Yasutake, Tohru; Tagawa, Yutaka

2003-09-01

322

Association of nucleolar organizing regions and Ki-67 expression with recurrence rate of hair follicle tumor in dogs Associação das regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e da expressão do Ki-67 com a taxa de recorrência dos tumores de folículo piloso em cães  

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Mitotic index, nuclear diameter, number of nucleolar organizing regions, and Ki-67 expression, in hair follicle tumors of 82 dogs were evaluated. Tissue specimens were used to prepare sections for histological staining for number of nucleolar organizing region and immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67. Tumors were classified as trichoblastoma (n=32), benign trichoepithelioma (n=30), pilomatricoma (n=7), malignant trichoepithelioma (n=6), infundibular keratinizing acanthoma (n=5), and trichol...

Souza, P. C.; Ocarino, N. M.; Tavares, W. L. F.; Boeloni, J. N.; Cassali, G. D.; Serakides, R.

2008-01-01

323

Soft tissue mixed tumor  

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Full Text Available Mixed tumors are relatively common in the skin and salivary glands, but extremely rare in soft tissues, often resulting in diagnostic problems. The occurrence of these tumors in the hand is especially limited. In this article we report the clinical, radiological, and histological features of a mixed tumor of the hypothenar region of the right hand.

Eiichi Hiraishi

2009-12-01

324

The tumor suppressor p53 associates with gene coding regions and co-traverses with elongating RNA polymerase II in an in vivo model.  

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Sequence-specific transcriptional regulators function by stably binding cognate DNA sequences followed by recruitment of both general and specialized factors to target gene promoters. The tumor suppressor p53 mediates its anti-oncogenic effect on cells by functioning as a sequence-specific regulator. p53 employs a secondary mechanism to suppress tumor formation by permeabilizing the outer mitochondrial membrane, thereby releasing pro-apoptotic factors. Here, we report a potential third biological function of p53: as a transcriptional elongation factor. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that human p53 robustly associates with RNA polymerase II (Pol II), but neither Pol I- nor Pol III-transcribed regions in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. p53's association with open reading frames is mediated by its physical interaction with elongating Pol II, with which p53 travels in vivo and co-immunoprecipitates in vitro. When similarly expressed, the potent acidic activator VP16 cannot be cross-linked to Pol II coding regions. p53 levels comparable to those found in induced mammalian cells confer synthetic sickness or lethality in combination with deletions in genes encoding transcription elongation factors; p53 likewise confers hypersensitivity to the anti-elongation drug 6-azauracil. Collectively, our results indicate that p53 can physically interact with the transcription elongation complex and influence transcription elongation, and open up new avenues of investigation in mammalian cells. PMID:18026140

Balakrishnan, S K; Gross, D S

2008-04-24

325

Implication of tryptophan in the stimulatory effect of delta-sleep-inducing peptide on indole secretion from perifused rat pineal glands.  

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We have recently demonstrated that delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) stimulates indolamine secretion from rat pineal glands. In the present study, we show that tryptophan (TRP), as well as DSIP, stimulate melatonin (MEL) and 5-methoxy-tryptophol (5-ML) secretion in a dose-dependent manner between 5 x 10(-6) and 10(-4) M. The kinetic characteristics of the MEL and 5-ML secretion and the response induced by the two substances were similar. The increase in MEL secretion in response to 10(-4) M DSIP was completely inhibited by pretreatment of the pineals with 10(-5) M phenanthroline (amino-peptidase inhibitor), suggesting that stimulatory effect of DSIP was due to TRP liberated by peptide degradation. This mechanism occurring in the pineal was confirmed using 10(-4) M para-chlorophenylalamine (TRP hydroxylase inhibitor), which reduced the pineal response to 10(-4) and 10(-5) M DSIP by 50 and 100%, respectively. PMID:1307916

Ouichou, A; Pévet, P

1992-01-01

326

Thyroid transcription factor-1 in primary CNS tumors.  

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In diagnostic pathology thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is used as a relatively specific and sensitive diagnostic marker of thyroid and lung adenocarcinomas and lung carcinoids but has also been demonstrated in minor proportions of carcinomas from other organs as well as nonepithelial neoplasms. Two antibody clones are widely used for TTF-1 demonstration, 8G7G3/1 and SPT24, the latter being the most sensitive. Few studies have addressed the occurrence of TTF-1 in central nervous system (CNS) tumors with highly divergent results, a major reason for which seems to be use of different clones. Based on multitissue blocks we analyzed the TTF-1 expression in a series of 155 CNS tumors comparing antibody clones 8G7G3/1 and SPT24 in optimized protocols on the Benchmark Ultra stainer. With clone SPT24 TTF-1 staining was observed in 13 cases (8%). Among astrodendroglial and oligodendroglial tumors, TTF-1 expression was found in 10 of 56 grades III to IV tumors (18%), as opposed to 0 of 47 grades I to II tumors (0%). The TTF-1 expression in positive tumors was generally weak to moderate and focal (mean histoscore 28, range: 2 to 120). TTF-1 positivity was inversely correlated to the expression of nestin. Among 52 other CNS tumors, TTF-1 expression was found in 1 of 3 central neurocytoma (the only CNS tumor with a moderate, diffuse staining), 1 of 18 ependymal tumors, and 1 of 5 choroid plexus tumors, whereas 4 pineal tumors, 11 meningiomas, 8 embryonal tumors, and 4 mixed neuronal-glial tumors all were negative. None of the 155 tumors stained with the 8G7G3/1 antibody clone. TTF-1 expression in primary brain tumors should be taken into consideration when interpreting brain tumors of uncertain origin. PMID:21325940

Kristensen, Marianne Højsgaard; Nielsen, Søren; Vyberg, Mogens

2011-10-01

327

Incase of Same Region Treatment by using a Tomotherapy and a Linear Accelerator Absorbed Dose Evaluation of Normal Tissues and a Tumor  

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Treating same region with different modalities there is a limit to evaluate the total absorbed dose of normal tissues. The reason is that it does not support to communication each modalities yet. In this article, it evaluates absorbed dose of the patients who had been treated same region by a tomotherapy and a linear accelerator. After reconstructing anatomic structure with a anthropomorphic phantom, administrate 45 Gy to a tumor in linac plan system as well as prescribe 15 Gy in tomotherapy plan system for make an ideal treatment plan. After the plan which made by tomoplan system transfers to the oncentra plan system for reproduce plan under the same condition and realize total treatment plan with summation 45 Gy linac treatment plan. To evaluate the absorbed dose of two different modalities, do a comparative study both a simple summation dose values and integration dose values. Then compare and analyze absorbed dose of normal tissues and a tumor with the patients who had been exposured radiation by above two different modalities. The result of compared data, in case of minimum dose, there are big different dose values in spleen (12.4%). On the other hand, in case of the maximum dose, it reports big different in a small bowel (10.2%) and a cord (5.8%) in head and neck cancer patients, there presents that oral (20.3%), right lens (7.7%) in minimum dose value. About maximum dose, it represents that spinal (22.5), brain stem (12%), optic chiasm (8.9%), Rt lens (11.5%), mandible (8.1%), pituitary gland (6.2%). In case of Rt abdominal cancer patients, there represents big different minimum dose as Lt kidney (20.3%), stomach (8.1%) about pelvic cancer patients, it reports there are big different in minimum dose as a bladder (15.2%) as well as big different value in maximum dose as a small bowel (5.6%), a bladder (5.5%) in addition, making treatment plan it is able us to get. In case of comparing both simple summation absorbed dose and integration absorbed dose, the minimum dose are represented higher as well as the maximum dose come out lower and the average dose are revealed similar with our expected values data. It is able to evaluate tumor and normal tissue absorbed dose which could had been not realized by treatment plan system. The DVH of interesting region are prescribed lower dose than expected. From now on, it needs to develop the new modality which are able to realize exact dose distribution as well as integration absorbed dose evaluation in same treatment region with different modalities.

Cheon, Geum Seong; Kim, Chang Uk; Kim, Hoi Nam; Heo, Gyeong Hun; Song, Jin Ho; Hong, Joo Yeong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Catholic University Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-09-15

328

Afferent and efferent connections of the pineal organ in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax: a carbocyanine dye tract-tracing study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal organ of fish is a photosensitive structure that receives light information from the environment and transduces it into hormonal (rhythmic melatonin secretion) and neural (efferent projections/neurotransmitters) signals. In this study, we focused on this neural output. Thus, we performed a tract-tracing study using 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), a fluorescent carbocyanine dye, in order to elucidate the efferent and afferent connections of the pineal organ in the European sea bass. The axonal transport of DiI revealed extensive bilateral projections in the sea bass brain. The efferent projections of the sea bass pineal organ reach the habenula, ventral thalamus, periventricular pretectum, central pretectal area, posterior tubercle and medial and dorsal tegmental areas. In addition, in this study we also examined the pinealopetal system in sea bass. This analysis demonstrated that the sea bass pineal organ receives central projections from neurons located, to a large extent, in brain areas innervated by pineal efferent projections, i.e. the thalamic eminence, habenula, ventral thalamus, dorsal thalamus, periventricular pretectum, posterior commissure, posterior tubercle and medial tegmental area. This study is the first description of pinealofugal projections in a representative of Perciformes, which constitutes a derived order within teleosts. Moreover, it represents the first evidence for the presence of pinealopetal neurons in the brain of a teleost species. Our findings, together with the analysis of retinal connections, represent a step forward in the understanding of the integration of photoperiodic signals into the central nervous system of sea bass. PMID:21921581

Servili, Arianna; Herrera-Pérez, Patricia; Yáñez, Julián; Muñoz-Cueto, José Antonio

2011-01-01

329

The role of the pineal gland in the photoperiodic control of bird song frequency and repertoire in the house sparrow, Passer domesticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperate zone birds are highly seasonal in many aspects of their physiology. In mammals, but not in birds, the pineal gland is an important component regulating seasonal patterns of primary gonadal functions. Pineal melatonin in birds instead affects seasonal changes in brain song control structures, suggesting the pineal gland regulates seasonal song behavior. The present study tests the hypothesis that the pineal gland transduces photoperiodic information to the control of seasonal song behavior to synchronize this important behavior to the appropriate phenology. House sparrows, Passer domesticus, expressed a rich array of vocalizations ranging from calls to multisyllabic songs and motifs of songs that varied under a regimen of different photoperiodic conditions that were simulated at different times of year. Control (SHAM) birds exhibited increases in song behavior when they were experimentally transferred from short days, simulating winter, to equinoctial and long days, simulating summer, and decreased vocalization when they were transferred back to short days. When maintained in long days for longer periods, the birds became reproductively photorefractory as measured by the yellowing of the birds' bills; however, song behavior persisted in the SHAM birds, suggesting a dissociation of reproduction from the song functions. Pinealectomized (PINX) birds expressed larger, more rapid increases in daily vocal rate and song repertoire size than did the SHAM birds during the long summer days. These increases gradually declined upon the extension of the long days and did not respond to the transfer to short days as was observed in the SHAM birds, suggesting that the pineal gland conveys photoperiodic information to the vocal control system, which in turn regulates song behavior. PMID:24589991

Wang, Gang; Harpole, Clifford E; Paulose, Jiffin; Cassone, Vincent M

2014-04-01

330

Gamma knife treatment of pediatric brain tumors  

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Gamma knife radiosurgery was performed on 386 patients with intracranial lesions at Komaki City Hospital from May 1991 through December 1992. Forty three of the patients were under 15 years of age. Twenty six patients had arteriovenous malformations and 17 had brain tumors: 9 gliomas and 8 non-gliomatous tumors. The gliomas included 3 ependymomas, 2 benign astrocytomas, one ganglioglioma, one oligodendroglioma; one medulloblastoma and one glioblastoma multiforme. The non-gliomatous tumors included 3 pineal tumors, 2 craniopharyngiomas, 2 acoustic neurinomas, and one C-P angle epidermoid tumor. The male/female ratio was 12:5 and the mean diameter of the tumors was 19.3 mm. They were treated with a mean maximum dose of 32.5 Gy and a marginal dose of 17.1 Gy with a mean isocenter number of 4.9. The early results of single session treatment with Gamma knife of pediatric brain tumors were evaluated by repeated MRIs and changes of neurological signs during a mean follow-up period of 6.4 months. It was found that 5 of the 17 responded to treatment (29.5%), with partical response (PR) in 2 with craniopharyngioma and one with ganglioglioma. Central necrosis (CN) was present with optic glioma and one with neurinoma. In three patients (17.6%) the treatment was not effective. One with medulloblastoma and one with glioblastoma died at 4 and 6 months and the one with ependymoma was reoperated on after 3 months because of progression of the tumor (PG). The other nine patients (52.9%) were unchanged (NC). We must follow more patients to determine the effectiveness of gamma radiosurgery on these tumors. (author).

Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takayuki; Oyama, Hirofumi (Komaki City Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan))

1994-02-01

331

Gamma knife treatment of pediatric brain tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma knife radiosurgery was performed on 386 patients with intracranial lesions at Komaki City Hospital from May 1991 through December 1992. Forty three of the patients were under 15 years of age. Twenty six patients had arteriovenous malformations and 17 had brain tumors: 9 gliomas and 8 non-gliomatous tumors. The gliomas included 3 ependymomas, 2 benign astrocytomas, one ganglioglioma, one oligodendroglioma; one medulloblastoma and one glioblastoma multiforme. The non-gliomatous tumors included 3 pineal tumors, 2 craniopharyngiomas, 2 acoustic neurinomas, and one C-P angle epidermoid tumor. The male/female ratio was 12:5 and the mean diameter of the tumors was 19.3 mm. They were treated with a mean maximum dose of 32.5 Gy and a marginal dose of 17.1 Gy with a mean isocenter number of 4.9. The early results of single session treatment with Gamma knife of pediatric brain tumors were evaluated by repeated MRIs and changes of neurological signs during a mean follow-up period of 6.4 months. It was found that 5 of the 17 responded to treatment (29.5%), with partical response (PR) in 2 with craniopharyngioma and one with ganglioglioma. Central necrosis (CN) was present with optic glioma and one with neurinoma. In three patients (17.6%) the treatment was not effective. One with medulloblastoma and one with glioblastoma died at 4 and 6 months and the one with ependymoma was reoperated on after 3 months because of progression of the tumor (PG). The other nine patients (52.9%) were unchanged (NC). We must follow more patients to determine the effectiveness of gamma radiosurgery on these tumors. (author)

1994-02-01

332

Mediastinal tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In our practice the mediastinal tumors are infrequent. The mediastinum is the portion of the thoracic cavity that contains numerous organs and structures which makes a crossroad for the diagnostic process. Within which congenital cysts, inflammatory and benign tumors, malignant neoplasms may develop. In the superior compartment are found: thymoma and thymic cysts, germ cell tumors, thyroid lesions, parathyroid adenomas, malignant lymphomas, paragangliomas, hemangiomas, lipomas, and inflammatory lesions such as fibrosing mediastinitis. In the middle portion: pericardial cysts, bronchial cysts, malignant lymphomas. In the posterior region: neurogenic tumors such as Shawnomas, neurofibromas, ganglioneuroblastomas, neuroblastomas, paragangliomas, and gastro enteric cysts. We describe two cases. One of a female patient with a prominent tumor in the anterior compartment of the mediastinum, detected by the x-ray films. Initially a cardiac lesion was excluded by echographic, angiographic studies. The biopsy exhibited a prominent fibrosis that suggested fibrosing mediastinitis (sclerosing). Whoever the immunohistochemical phenotype was positive for lambda chains, determining the diagnosis of lymphoma. The other case is of a young male with a thymoma associated to a pure red cell aplasia, which was the initial clinical symptom. Computerized tomography and thyroid scintigraphy was used. (The author)

2005-01-01

333

Iridium-192 brachytherapy in the management of recurrent or secondary tumors of the head and neck region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to improve the poor results of treatment of local relapses and secondary tumors interstitial radiotherapy with low-dose-rate Iridium 192 was used. Between 1986 and 1993 68 patients (pts) were treated within multimodality treatment concepts. The staging according to UICC was as follows: I: 13 pts., II: 12 pts., III: 14 pts.; IV: 28 pts. Interstitial hyperthermia was performed in 19 pts. At(11(95)) median follow up was 40 months. Nearly the same 5-year survival rates were achieved by surgery and interstitial radiotherapy alone (N = 18 pts; 38 %), surgery, external beam and interstitial radiotherapy (N = 24 pts., 36 %) or external beam and interstitial radiotherapy ± chemotherapy (N = 14 pts., 36 %), but 5-year local control was slightly better in the surgical group (66 - 68%) compared with the pts., treated by external beam and interstitial radiotherapy (40 %). Patients treated by interstitial radiotherapy alone had the worst results. Only 1 of 12 pts. survived 40 months, 7 of 12 pts relapsed locally until death. Treatment complications were acceptable: (4(68)) (6 %) pts. developed soft tissue necrosis; (3(68)) (5 %) pts. osteoradionecrosis. Our results show that interstitial radiotherapy within a multimodality treatment concept yields sufficient local control and survival with an acceptable complication rate

1996-05-01

334

A Comparison between ROI Extract and FCM Algorithms in Segmentation of Tumor Region from MR Brain Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Segmentation of brain images based on Magnetic Resonance (MR is used to segment and analyse the slices of brain to indicate the presence of tumour. Region of interest (ROI extract is used to select the exact spot in an image where the tumour is present. Primary area of interest (tumour region is chosen by the algorithm. The chosen region is completely extracted out from the input image.Fuzzy c-means algorithm is a soft clustering method in which the data elements (pixel values are divided and clustered into two or more clusters. FCM is carried out by clustering the similar pixel values into one cluster and dissimilar pixel values into another cluster. A comparison is carried out between these two algorithms with the help of parameters such as Mean Square Error (MSE, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, segmentation accuracy, Jaccard index, computational time and memory requirement for processing the algorithm. The efficiency of either algorithm is proved using the comparison parameters

A.Almusthaliba

2014-04-01

335

In vitro effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan, indoleamines and leptin on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity in pineal organ of the fish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) during different phases of the breeding cycle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme of melatonin biosynthetic pathway. In vitro effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and indoleamines (serotonin, N-acetylserotonin and melatonin) were studied on AA-NAT activity in the pineal organ of the fish, C. gariepinus during different phases of its annual breeding cycle. Further, in vitro effects of leptin on AA-NAT activity in the pineal organ were studied in fed and fasted fishes during summer and winter seasons. Treatments with 5-HTP and indoleamines invariably stimulated pineal AA-NAT activity in a dose-dependent manner during all the phases. However, leptin increased AA-NAT activity in a dose-dependent manner only in the pineal organ of the fed fishes, but not of the fasted fishes irrespective of the seasons. PMID:21341536

Gupta, B B P; Yanthan, L; Singh, Ksh Manisana

2010-08-01

336

Therapeutic strategy for lower limb lymphedema and lymphatic fistula after resection of a malignant tumor in the hip joint region: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lymphatic fistula complicating lymphedema is thought to occur due to communication between lymph vessels and the skin, which has yet to be shown objectively. The objective of this case report is to show the pathology and treatment using simultaneous lymphatic fistula resection and lymphatico-venous anastomosis (LVA). A 40-year-old woman underwent extended resection and total hip arthroplasty for primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the right proximal femur 23 years ago. Right lower limb lymphedema developed immediately after surgery and lymphatic fistula appeared in the posterior thigh. On ICG lymphography, lymph reflux toward the distal side dispersing in a fan-shape reticular pattern from the lymphatic fistula region was noted after intracutaneous injection of ICG into the foot. We performed simultaneous lymphatic fistula resection and of LVA. Pathological examination showed that the epidermis and stratum corneum of the healthy skin were lost in the lymphatic fistula region. Dilated lymph vessels were open in this region. The examinations provide the first objective evidence that the cause of lymphatic fistula may be lymph reflux from lymphatic stems to precollectors through lymphatic perforators. PMID:23908155

Hara, H; Mihara, M; Hayashi, A; Kanemaru, M; Todokoro, T; Yamamoto, T; Iida, T; Hino, R; Koshima, I

2014-03-01

337

Identification of the promoter region required for human adiponectin gene transcription: Association with CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-? and tumor necrosis factor-?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-specific plasma protein, is involved in insulin sensitizing and has anti-atherosclerotic properties. Plasma levels of adiponectin are decreased in obese individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes with insulin resistance. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) decreases the expression of adiponectin in adipocytes. The aims of the present study were: (1) to identify the promoter region responsible for basal transcription of the human adiponectin gene, and (2) to investigate the mechanism by which adiponectin was regulated by TNF-?. The human adiponectin promoter (2.1 kb) was isolated and used for luciferase reporter analysis by transient transfection into 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Deletion analysis demonstrated that the promoter region from -676 to +41 was sufficient for basal transcriptional activity. Mutation analysis of putative response elements for sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) (-431 to -423) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) (-230 to -224) showed that both elements were required for basal promoter activity. Adiponectin transcription was increased 3-fold in cells that over-expressed constitutively active C/EBP-?. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, using nuclear extract from 3T3-L1 cells and the -258 to -199 region as a probe, demonstrated specific DNA-protein binding, which was abolished by TNF-? treatment. The present data indicate that the putative response elements for SREBP and C/EBP are required for human adiponectin promoter activity, and that suppression by TNF-? may, at least in part, be associated with inactivation of C/EBP-?

2005-06-03

338

Hypofractionated Boost to the Dominant Tumor Region With Intensity Modulated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: A Sequential Dose Escalation Pilot Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, tolerability, and preliminary outcomes in patients with prostate cancer treated according to a hypofractionated dose escalation protocol to boost the dominant tumor-bearing region of the prostate. Methods and Materials: After conventional fractionated external radiotherapy to 64 to 64.4Gy, 50 patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer were treated with an intensity-modulated radiotherapy hypofractionated boost under stereotactic conditions to a reduced prostate volume to the dominant tumor region. A rectal balloon inflated with 60cc of air was used for internal organ immobilization. Five, 8, and 8 patients were sequentially treated with two fractions of 5, 6, or 7Gy, respectively (normalized total dose in 2Gy/fraction [NTD2Gy] 2Gy > 100Gy, high-dose group). Androgen deprivation was given to 33 patients. Acute and late toxicities were assessed according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) scoring system. Results: Two patients presented with Grade 3 acute urinary toxicity. The 5-year probabilities of ?Grade 2 late urinary and late low gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity-free survival were 82.2% ± 7.4% and 72.2% ± 7.6%, respectively. The incidence and severity of acute or late toxicities were not correlated with low- vs. high-dose groups, pelvic irradiation, age, or treatment with or without androgen deprivation. The 5-year biochemical disease-free survival (b-DFS) and disease-specific survival were 98% ± 1.9% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy hypofractionated boost dose escalation under stereotactic conditions was feasible, and showed excellent outcomes with acceptable long-term toxicity. This approach may well be considered an alternative to high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

2010-09-01

339

Conserved Region 3 of Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 Contributes to Deregulation of the Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 oncoprotein binds cellular factors, preventing or retargeting their function and thereby making the infected cell conducive for viral replication. A key target of E7 is the product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility locus (pRb). This interaction results in the release of E2F transcription factors and drives the host cell into the S phase of the cell cycle. E7 binds pRb via a high-affinity binding site in conserved region 2 (CR2) and also targets a portion o...

Todorovic, Biljana; Hung, Katherine; Massimi, Paola; Avvakumov, Nikita; Dick, Frederick A.; Shaw, Gary S.; Banks, Lawrence; Mymryk, Joe S.

2012-01-01

340

Electron microscopic evidence that bretylium and pargyline delay adrenergic nerve degeneration after sympathectomy of the pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventeen and twenty four hours after sympathetic denervation, noradrenaline stores of the rat pineal gland were depleted to 50% and 10% of controls, respectively. Electron microscopic studies showed the coexistence of normal and altered nerve endings 17 h after denervation, while 24 h after denervation, only degenerated nerve terminals were observed. Treatment with pargyline (512 mumoles/kg) or bretylium (24 mumoles/kg) significantly delayed the loss of noradrenaline from denervated glands. In pargyline treated rats, 17 h after denervation, noradrenaline stores were 90% of control glands. After bretylium, values obtained 24 h after denervation, declined to 36% of innervated glands. Persistence of neurotransmitter coincided with the presence of normal nerve endings as observed electron microscopically. It is concluded that both, pargyline and bretylium, prolonged the survival of nerve endings severed from the cell body. PMID:7110375

Sanz, N R; Gomez-Dumm, G L; Perec, C J; Stefano, F J

1982-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

The effect of radioactive radiation of the neurotransmitter levels in the hypothalamus, pituitary and pineal glands of sheeps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of the exposure of the whole body to continuous radiation was studied of catecholamines (epinephrine and unepinephrine) in the hypothalamus, pineal and pituitary glands of ewes during the anestric period with synchronized oestrus. The radiation was provided at the rate 0.020 Gy per hour. Catecholamines were separated from the tissue supernatants by the absorption chromatographic method and the catecholamine contents in the eluates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Protracted exposure to gamma radiation and hormone stimulation with SG reduces the concentration of unepinephrine (P<0.001) in the whole hypothalamus of the sheep. A statistically significant decrease (P<0.001) was recorded in the medial and caudal hypothalamus of ewes. If is assumed that the decrease in catecholamine concentration after irradiation (2.4 Gy) is associated with the destroyed metabolism of catecholamines in nervous tissue and activity its degradation enzyme monoaminooxidase. (authors)

2006-05-01

342

Studies of cell kinetics in vital and necrotic tumor regions: Measurement of loss rate using 125iododeoxyuridine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of determining cell losses in situ from the decrease in radioactivity after a single i.p. injection of the thymidine-analogue, 125iododeoxyuridine was tested for its applicability in different development stages of the solid mammary adenocarcinoma EO 771 on male C57 N1/6J mice. Invasive studies on activity distributions in vital and necrotic tumour regions were carried out after injection of Light Green SF. The following results were obtained: 1) External measurement of activity loss register the removal of labelled cells and decay products rather than cell death. The total activity of the tumour at any time following injection corresponds to the sum of radioactivity in the proliferating, non-growing and necrotic compartments. 2) In solid tumours, there are regions with differing transport capacity. 3) The method using 125J-UdR does not allow determination of loss rates as a function of a given volume but rather yields an averaged value. 4) Activity losses of vital tumour cells largely correspond to the cell loss. (orig./MG)

1981-01-01

343

Localization of the MEN1 gene to a small region within chromosome 11q13 by deletion mapping in tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gene for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), and inherited predisposition to neuroendocrine neoplasm of the parathyroid glands, the pancreatic islet parenchyma, and the anterior pituitary gland, was recently mapped to chromosome 11q13 based on genetic linkage in families. The authors now show that the pathogenesis of MEN1-associated parathyroid lesions involves unmasking of a recessive mutation at the disease locus and that sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism shares the same mechanisms. By examination of allele losses in MEN1-associated lesions, they could define deletions of chromosome 11 and map the MEN1 locus to a small region within chromosome band 11q13, telomeric to the PYGM locus. In contrast, a low incidence of deletions involving the MEN1 gene was found in sporadic pituitary adenomas

1990-01-01

344

Bone tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

1988-01-01

345

Bone tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease.

Unni, K.K. (Dept. of Pathology, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, MN (US))

1988-01-01

346

Evaluation of reserved hepatic function in patients with hepatobiliary tumor by 99mTc-GSA. Effect of hyperbilirubinemia and usefulness of regional reserved hepatic functional imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evaluation of the reserved hepatic function was performed by 99mTc-galactosyl serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) in 70 patients with hepatobiliary tumor. The dynamic study was performed to evaluate global reserved hepatic function following the intravenous bolus injection of 99mTc-GSA, and the hepatic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was obtained to assess the regional reserved hepatic function. The functional hepatic index (LHL15) was derived from liver time-activity data, and it was compared with serum total-bilirubin level, serum albumin level and plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green (ICG15). In the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, LHL15 value agreed well with ICG15 value, serum total-bilirubin level, and serum albumin level. Moderate or severe hepatic dysfunction was observed at 65.4% of these patients. In the patients with cholangiocellular carcinoma, a discrepancy of LHL15 value and ICG15 value was observed. Increment of the ICG15 value was correlated with that of the serum total-bilirubin level, whereas the correlation was not observed between the LHL15 value and the serum total-bilirubin level. These results indicate that 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy can evaluate the reserved hepatic function without the embellishment of jaundice. This method is useful for assessing the global and regional reserved hepatic function. (author)

1996-02-01

347

Evaluation of reserved hepatic function in patients with hepatobiliary tumor by {sup 99m}Tc-GSA. Effect of hyperbilirubinemia and usefulness of regional reserved hepatic functional imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The evaluation of the reserved hepatic function was performed by {sup 99m}Tc-galactosyl serum albumin ({sup 99m}Tc-GSA) in 70 patients with hepatobiliary tumor. The dynamic study was performed to evaluate global reserved hepatic function following the intravenous bolus injection of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA, and the hepatic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was obtained to assess the regional reserved hepatic function. The functional hepatic index (LHL{sub 15}) was derived from liver time-activity data, and it was compared with serum total-bilirubin level, serum albumin level and plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green (ICG{sub 15}). In the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, LHL{sub 15} value agreed well with ICG{sub 15} value, serum total-bilirubin level, and serum albumin level. Moderate or severe hepatic dysfunction was observed at 65.4% of these patients. In the patients with cholangiocellular carcinoma, a discrepancy of LHL{sub 15} value and ICG{sub 15} value was observed. Increment of the ICG{sub 15} value was correlated with that of the serum total-bilirubin level, whereas the correlation was not observed between the LHL{sub 15} value and the serum total-bilirubin level. These results indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-GSA scintigraphy can evaluate the reserved hepatic function without the embellishment of jaundice. This method is useful for assessing the global and regional reserved hepatic function. (author).

Jin Wu; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Tohoru; Sato, Motohiro; Todoroki, Takeshi; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Hatakeyama, Rokurou

1996-02-01

348

Six cases of malignant germ-cell tumors (grade 4)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CT patterns of six malignant germ-cell tumors other than germinomas (one embryonal carcinoma, one choriocarcinoma, one yolk sac tumor, and three immature teratomas) were compared with those of 12 germinomas (ten suprasellar, one pineal, and one basal ganglia). The effects of irradiation and the changes in the concentration of serum ?-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) were compared by means of serial studies. 1. Pre-contrast CT Four of the six (67%) malignant germ-cell tumors showed isodense masses with irregular margins that contained calcified dots and small necrotic cavities. All 12 germinomas showed round, high-density masses with smooth margins without necrotic cavities. The suprasellar germinomas showed no calcification on CT. 2. Post-contrast CT Both malignant germ-cell tumors and germinomas showed a strong enhancement after contrast administration. 3. Change in size after irradiation Malignant germ-cell tumors did not show a decrease in size after radiotherapy (20 - 40 Gy), although the necrotic cavities enlarged in three out of four tumors. Germinomas were highly radiosensitive and showed a remarkable change in size on follow-up CT after irradiation. 4. Serum AFP and HCG The concentrations of serum AFP and/or HCG before therapy were abnormally high in five malignant germ-cell tumors. In three out of four patients, the concentration of serum AFP was normalized, but in one patient the concentration of AFP increased even after irradiation. (author)

1981-01-01

349

Conserved Region 3 of Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 Contributes to Deregulation of the Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor  

Science.gov (United States)

The human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 oncoprotein binds cellular factors, preventing or retargeting their function and thereby making the infected cell conducive for viral replication. A key target of E7 is the product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility locus (pRb). This interaction results in the release of E2F transcription factors and drives the host cell into the S phase of the cell cycle. E7 binds pRb via a high-affinity binding site in conserved region 2 (CR2) and also targets a portion of cellular pRb for degradation via the proteasome. Evidence suggests that a secondary binding site exists in CR3, and that this interaction influences pRb deregulation. Additionally, evidence suggests that CR3 also participates in the degradation of pRb. We have systematically analyzed the molecular mechanisms by which CR3 contributes to deregulation of the pRb pathway by utilizing a comprehensive series of mutations in residues predicted to be exposed on the surface of HPV16 E7 CR3. Despite differences in the ability to interact with cullin 2, all CR3 mutants degrade pRb comparably to wild-type E7. We identified two specific patches of residues on the surface of CR3 that contribute to pRb binding independently of the high-affinity CR2 binding site. Mutants within CR3 that affect pRb binding are less effective than the wild-type E7 in overcoming pRb-induced cell cycle arrest. This demonstrates that the interaction between HPV16 E7 CR3 and pRb is functionally important for alteration of the cell cycle.

Todorovic, Biljana; Hung, Katherine; Massimi, Paola; Avvakumov, Nikita; Dick, Frederick A.; Shaw, Gary S.; Banks, Lawrence

2012-01-01

350

Melatonin-synthesizing enzymes in pineal, retina, liver, and gut of the goldfish (Carassius): mRNA expression pattern and regulation of daily rhythms by lighting conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Melatonin is currently proposed to be synthesized in non-photosensitive organs of vertebrates, besides its well-known sites of synthesis, the pineal gland and the retina. However, very few studies have demonstrated gene expression of MEL synthesizing enzymes in extrapineal and extraretinal locations. In the present study, present study focuses on the circadian expression of the two key enzymes of the melatoninergic pathway, the AANAT and the HIOMT in central and peripheral locations of the go...

Velarde, Elena; Cerda?-reverter, Jose? Miguel; Alonso-go?mez, A?ngel Luis; Sa?nchez, Elena; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, Mari?a Jesu?s

2010-01-01

351

Light-Emitting Diodes and Cool White Fluorescent Light Similarly Suppress Pineal Gland Melatonin and Maintain Retinal Function and Morphology in the Rat. Part 1  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, the light sources most commonly used in animal habitat lighting are cool white fluorescent or incandescent lamps. We evaluated a novel light-emitting diode (LED) light source for use in animal habitat lighting by comparing its effectiveness to cool white fluorescent light (CWF) in suppressing pineal gland melatonin and maintaining normal retinal physiology and morphology in the rat. Results of pineal melatonin suppression experiments showed equal suppression of pineal melatonin concentrations for LED light and CWF light at five different light illuminances (100, 40, 10, 1 and 0.1 lux). There were no significant differences in melatonin suppression between LED and CWF light when compared to unexposed controls. Retinal physiology was evaluated using electroretinography. Results show no differences in a-wave implicit times and amplitudes or b-wave implicit times and amplitudes between 100-lux LED-exposed rats and 100-lux CWF-exposed rats. Results of retinal histology assessment show no differences in retinal thickness rod outer segment length and number of rod nuclei between rats exposed to 100-lux LED and 100-lux CWF for days. Furthermore, the retinal pigmented epithelium and rod outer segments of all eyes observed were in good condition and of normal thickness. This study indicates that LED light does not cause retinal damage and can suppress pineal melatonin at similar intensities as a conventional CWF light source. These data suggest that LED light sources may be suitable replacements for conventional light sources used in the lighting of rodent vivariums while providing many mechanical and economical advantages.

Holley, Daniel C.; Heeke, D.; Mele, G.

1999-01-01

352

Immunotherapy with subcutaneous low-dose interleukin-2 and the pineal indole melatonin as a new effective therapy in advanced cancers of the digestive tract.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The advanced tumours of the digestive tract are generally less responsive to conventional chemotherapies. Moreover, preliminary results with IL-2 immunotherapy also seem to show a low efficacy. On the basis of our previous studies suggesting s synergistic action between IL-2 and some neurohormones, such as the pineal indole MLT, a clinical trial was performed to investigate the clinical efficacy and tolerability of an immunotherapy with IL-2 plus MLT in patients with advanced neoplasms of the...

Lissoni, P.; Barni, S.; Tancini, G.; Ardizzoia, A.; Rovelli, F.; Cazzaniga, M.; Brivio, F.; Piperno, A.; Aldeghi, R.; Fossati, D.

1993-01-01

353

Cloning, Sequencing and Analysis of Melatonin Receptor Subtype MT1 in Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis and Pineal of Female Bactrian Camel  

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It is well known that melatonin is a coordinating signal for mammalian reproduction. In order to confirm the presence of melatonin receptors in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and pineal of female Bactrian camel, the researchers used a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) procedure to examine receptor MT1 expression. The length of MT1 gene was 452 bp. RT-PCR assaying revealed the presence of the mt1 (Mel1a) melatonin receptor subtype in rep...

Hu Junjie; Zhang Yong; Wang Junying; Zhao Xingxu; Zhang Hairong

2012-01-01

354

Loss of chromosome 1p/19q in oligodendroglial tumors: refinement of chromosomal critical regions and evaluation of internexin immunostaining as a surrogate marker.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Loss of chromosome 1p\\/19q in oligodendrogliomas represents a powerful predictor of good prognosis. Expression of internexin (INA), a neuronal specific intermediate filament protein, has recently been proposed as a surrogate marker for 1p\\/19q deletion based on the high degree of correlation between both parameters in oligodendrogliomas. The aim of this study was to assess further the diagnostic utility of INA expression in a set of genetically well-characterized oligodendrogliomas. On the basis of a conservative approach for copy number determination, using both comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescent in situ hybridization, INA expression as a surrogate marker for 1p\\/19q loss had both reduced specificity (80%) and sensitivity (79%) compared with respective values of 86% and 96% reported in the previous report. The histologic interpretation and diagnostic value of INA expression in oligodendrogliomas should therefore be assessed with greater caution when compared with 1p\\/19q DNA copy number analysis. In addition, DNA copy number aberrations of chromosomes 10, 16, and 17 were detected exclusively in 1p\\/19q codeleted samples, suggesting that other regions of the genome may contribute to the 1p\\/19q-deleted tumor phenotype inthese samples.

Buckley, Patrick G

2011-03-01

355

Association of nucleolar organizing regions and Ki-67 expression with recurrence rate of hair follicle tumor in dogs / Associação das regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e da expressão do Ki-67 com a taxa de recorrência dos tumores de folículo piloso em cães  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o índice mitótico, o diâmetro nuclear, o número de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e a expressão do Ki-67 em 82 tumores de folículo piloso de cães, entre 2000 e 2006. Os tumores foram classificados como tricoblastoma (n=32), tricoepitelioma benigno (n=30), tr [...] icoepitelioma maligno (n=6), pilomatricoma (n=7), acantoma infundibular ceratinizante (n=5) e tricolemoma (n=2). A cabeça, o dorso e os membros foram os locais mais frequentemente acometidos. O tricoepitelioma maligno apresentou índice mitótico, número de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e expressão do Ki-67 significativamente maiores quando comparado aos outros tipos de tumores. Dentre as neoplasias benignas, o tricoblastoma apresentou índice mitótico e número de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos significativamente maiores. A expressão do Ki-67 não diferiu entre os tumores benignos de folículo piloso. A recorrência foi observada apenas em dois casos, incluindo um tricoepitelioma benigno e um tricoepitelioma maligno. Em dois casos, os nódulos não foram removidos com margem cirúrgica completa. Desta forma, conclui-se que nas neoplasias benignas de folículo piloso, o número das regiões organizadoras de nucléolo e da expressão de Ki-67 foram significativamente menores que em neoplasias malignas. Além disto, sugere-se que a margem cirúrgica completa está mais associada à recorrência dos tumores que as regiões organizadoras de nucléolo, a expressão de Ki-67 e o índice mitótico. Abstract in english Mitotic index, nuclear diameter, number of nucleolar organizing regions, and Ki-67 expression, in hair follicle tumors of 82 dogs were evaluated. Tissue specimens were used to prepare sections for histological staining for number of nucleolar organizing region and immunohistochemical staining for Ki [...] -67. Tumors were classified as trichoblastoma (n=32), benign trichoepithelioma (n=30), pilomatricoma (n=7), malignant trichoepithelioma (n=6), infundibular keratinizing acanthoma (n=5), and tricholemmoma (n=2). Head, dorsum, and limbs were the most affected sites. Malignant trichoepithelioma presented significantly higher mitotic index, number of nucleolar organizing regions and Ki-67 expression. Regarding benign neoplasms, trichoblastoma presented significantly higher mitotic index and number of nucleolar organizing regions. Ki-67 expression did not differ among hair follicle benign neoplasms. Recurrence was only observed in two cases, with one benign trichoepithelioma and one malignant trichoepithelioma. In the two cases, nodules have not been removed with clean surgical margin. It was concluded that in benign neoplasms of hair follicles, the number of nucleolar organizing regions and Ki-67 expression were significantly smaller than in malignant neoplasm. Clean surgical margins are suggested to be more responsible to tumor recurrences than the number of nucleolar organizing regions, expression of Ki-67, and the mitotic index.

P.C., Souza; N.M., Ocarino; W.L.F., Tavares; J.N., Boeloni; G.D., Cassali; R., Serakides.

356

Association of nucleolar organizing regions and Ki-67 expression with recurrence rate of hair follicle tumor in dogs Associação das regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e da expressão do Ki-67 com a taxa de recorrência dos tumores de folículo piloso em cães  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mitotic index, nuclear diameter, number of nucleolar organizing regions, and Ki-67 expression, in hair follicle tumors of 82 dogs were evaluated. Tissue specimens were used to prepare sections for histological staining for number of nucleolar organizing region and immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67. Tumors were classified as trichoblastoma (n=32, benign trichoepithelioma (n=30, pilomatricoma (n=7, malignant trichoepithelioma (n=6, infundibular keratinizing acanthoma (n=5, and tricholemmoma (n=2. Head, dorsum, and limbs were the most affected sites. Malignant trichoepithelioma presented significantly higher mitotic index, number of nucleolar organizing regions and Ki-67 expression. Regarding benign neoplasms, trichoblastoma presented significantly higher mitotic index and number of nucleolar organizing regions. Ki-67 expression did not differ among hair follicle benign neoplasms. Recurrence was only observed in two cases, with one benign trichoepithelioma and one malignant trichoepithelioma. In the two cases, nodules have not been removed with clean surgical margin. It was concluded that in benign neoplasms of hair follicles, the number of nucleolar organizing regions and Ki-67 expression were significantly smaller than in malignant neoplasm. Clean surgical margins are suggested to be more responsible to tumor recurrences than the number of nucleolar organizing regions, expression of Ki-67, and the mitotic index.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o índice mitótico, o diâmetro nuclear, o número de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e a expressão do Ki-67 em 82 tumores de folículo piloso de cães, entre 2000 e 2006. Os tumores foram classificados como tricoblastoma (n=32, tricoepitelioma benigno (n=30, tricoepitelioma maligno (n=6, pilomatricoma (n=7, acantoma infundibular ceratinizante (n=5 e tricolemoma (n=2. A cabeça, o dorso e os membros foram os locais mais frequentemente acometidos. O tricoepitelioma maligno apresentou índice mitótico, número de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e expressão do Ki-67 significativamente maiores quando comparado aos outros tipos de tumores. Dentre as neoplasias benignas, o tricoblastoma apresentou índice mitótico e número de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos significativamente maiores. A expressão do Ki-67 não diferiu entre os tumores benignos de folículo piloso. A recorrência foi observada apenas em dois casos, incluindo um tricoepitelioma benigno e um tricoepitelioma maligno. Em dois casos, os nódulos não foram removidos com margem cirúrgica completa. Desta forma, conclui-se que nas neoplasias benignas de folículo piloso, o número das regiões organizadoras de nucléolo e da expressão de Ki-67 foram significativamente menores que em neoplasias malignas. Além disto, sugere-se que a margem cirúrgica completa está mais associada à recorrência dos tumores que as regiões organizadoras de nucléolo, a expressão de Ki-67 e o índice mitótico.

P.C. Souza

2008-10-01

357

Prognostic Value of Microvessel Density in Tumor and Peritumoral Area as Evaluated by CD31 Protein Expression and Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organizer Region Count in Endothelial Cells in Uterine Leiomyosarcoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of microvessel density (MVD) in uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) and peritumoral area (PA) as evaluated by CD31 expression and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) count in endothelial cells. Tissue specimens from 66 patients with uterine LMS were examined. There were no significant differences in the mean MVD between tumor itself and the PA (P = 0.9); moreover, the MVD in the PA often exceeded that in the tumor. No co...

Avdalyan, Ashot; Bobrov, Igor; Klimachev, Vladimir; Lazarev, Alexander

2012-01-01

358

Synthesis and evaluation of "1"1C-amino acids for pancreatic imaging, tumor localization, and regional amino acid transport measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to synthesize (1-"1"1C)-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, DL-valine-1-"1"1C and related compounds, to evaluate these compounds and optical isomers as potential tumor or pancreatic scanning agents, and for measurement of tumor and other organ amino acid transport rates

1980-09-01

359

Effectiveness of four different clinical fMRI paradigms for preoperative regional determination of language lateralization in patients with brain tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has demonstrated its capability to provide comparable results to gold standard intracarotid sodium amobarbital (Wada) testing for preoperative determination of language hemispheric dominance. However, thus far, no consensus has been established regarding which fMRI paradigms are the most effective for the determination of hemispheric language lateralization in specific categories of patients and specific regions of interest (ROIs). Forty-one brain tumor patients who performed four different language tasks - rhyming (R), silent word generation (SWG) sentence completion, and sentence listening comprehension (LC) - for presurgical language mapping by fMRI were included in this study. A statistical threshold-independent lateralization index (LI) was calculated and compared among the paradigms in four different ROIs for language activation: functional Broca's (BA) and Wernicke's areas (WA) as well as larger anatomically defined expressive (EA) and receptive (RA) areas. The two expressive paradigms evaluated in this study are very good lateralizing tasks in expressive language areas; specifically, a significantly higher mean LI value was noted for SWG (0.36 ± 0.25) compared to LC (0.16 ± 0.24, p = 0.009) and for R (0.40 ± 0.22) compared to LC (0.16 ± 0.24, p = 0.001) in BA. SWG LI (0.28 ± 0.19) was higher than LC LI (0.12 ± 0.16, p = 0.01) also in EA. No significant differences in LI were found among these paradigms in WA or RA. SWG and R are sufficient for the determination of lateralization in expressive language areas, whereas new semantic or receptive paradigms need to be designed for an improved assessment of lateralization in receptive language areas. (orig.)

2012-09-01

360

Effectiveness of four different clinical fMRI paradigms for preoperative regional determination of language lateralization in patients with brain tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has demonstrated its capability to provide comparable results to gold standard intracarotid sodium amobarbital (Wada) testing for preoperative determination of language hemispheric dominance. However, thus far, no consensus has been established regarding which fMRI paradigms are the most effective for the determination of hemispheric language lateralization in specific categories of patients and specific regions of interest (ROIs). Forty-one brain tumor patients who performed four different language tasks - rhyming (R), silent word generation (SWG) sentence completion, and sentence listening comprehension (LC) - for presurgical language mapping by fMRI were included in this study. A statistical threshold-independent lateralization index (LI) was calculated and compared among the paradigms in four different ROIs for language activation: functional Broca's (BA) and Wernicke's areas (WA) as well as larger anatomically defined expressive (EA) and receptive (RA) areas. The two expressive paradigms evaluated in this study are very good lateralizing tasks in expressive language areas; specifically, a significantly higher mean LI value was noted for SWG (0.36 {+-} 0.25) compared to LC (0.16 {+-} 0.24, p = 0.009) and for R (0.40 {+-} 0.22) compared to LC (0.16 {+-} 0.24, p = 0.001) in BA. SWG LI (0.28 {+-} 0.19) was higher than LC LI (0.12 {+-} 0.16, p = 0.01) also in EA. No significant differences in LI were found among these paradigms in WA or RA. SWG and R are sufficient for the determination of lateralization in expressive language areas, whereas new semantic or receptive paradigms need to be designed for an improved assessment of lateralization in receptive language areas. (orig.)

Zaca, Domenico; Deib, Gerard; Pillai, Jay J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Nickerson, Joshua P. [University of Vermont School of Medicine/Fletcher Allen Healthcare, Department of Radiology, Burlington, VT (United States)

2012-09-15

 
 
 
 
361

[The new WHO classification of tumors of the nervous system 2000. Pathology and genetics].  

Science.gov (United States)

New developments in neuro-oncology have prompted an update of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the nervous system. Major changes include the addition of new entities and the refinement of criteria for the diagnosis and grading of various neoplasms, in particular the meningiomas. As novel clinico-pathological entities, the chordoid glioma of the third ventricle, the atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), the solitary fibrous tumor, and the perineurioma have been listed. The former lipomatous medulloblastoma of the cerebellum, previously incorporated in the family of embryonal tumors, is now classified as cerebellar liponeurocytoma. The term mixed pineocytoma/pineoblastoma has been replaced by pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation. Furthermore, the large cell medulloblastoma and the tanycytic ependymoma were established as novel tumor variants. A separate chapter on the peripheral neuroblastic tumors has now been included in the classification. Substantial revisions were introduced in the meningioma chapter. For both atypical meningioma WHO grade II and anaplastic meningioma WHO grade III, histopathological criteria are now precisely defined. An important new addition to the WHO 2000 classification of nervous system tumors is the inclusion of molecular pathology findings. With this combination of pathology and genetics it has set the stage for a new format of the WHO tumor classification series. PMID:12185780

Radner, H; Blümcke, I; Reifenberger, G; Wiestler, O D

2002-07-01

362

Cardiac Tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metastases are the most frequent tumors of the heart even though they seldom are recognized