WorldWideScience
1

Diagnosis of pineal region tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to explain the different radio-clinical presentations of pineal region tumors. Although MR images provide a important help to diagnosis, because of topographic analysis and evaluation of MR characteristics in the tumors, clinic, presentation tumors markers and the stereotaxic surgery are also of great importance. Radiological appearances, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnostic of pineal region tumours. (authors)

2

Papillary tumor of the pineal region  

OpenAIRE

Presented is a patient with papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR), an uncommon and recently recognized neoplasm. As its name implies, PTPR does not arise from the pineal gland itself. The cell of origin is thought to be the specialized ependymocytes of the subcommissural organ. Primary tumors of the pineal region include pineal parenchymal neoplasms, germ cell neoplasms, and tumors arising from adjacent structures, including meningiomas, astrocytomas, and ependymomas. Like other masses ...

Vandergriff, Clayton; Opatowsky, Michael; O Rourke, Brian; Layton, Kennith

2012-01-01

3

The challenge of pineal region tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These preceding case studies serve to emphasize various facets of pineal region tumors. The first case highlights the possible effect of such tumors on pineal physiology. A clear relationship between pineal function and diurnal rhythms is noted. While the pineal gland has been studied extensively in various mammals, basic investigation in man is somewhat lacking. However, with the development of an accurate, sensitive, and specific melatonin assay, more can be learned in the clinical setting. Application of this basic work is seen in the second case. Another aspect of clinical investigation focuses on the immunopathology of pineal tumors. Tumors of the pineal region can be ''benign'' and/or radio-insensitive. Some require surgical treatment, others do not. Lipomas may well be diagnosed radiographically and do not necessarily require surgical intervention, while meningiomas can often be surgically cured

4

Diagnosis and treatment of pineal region tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this volume is to review the pertinent literature dealing with pineal tumors and thus aid in the handling of these rather uncommon lesions. After the first, introductory, chapter, three chapters treat the pathology and diagnosis of pineal tumors. There is also one chapter on intracranial germ cell tumors (natural history and pathogenesis) and one on the normal function of the pineal gland. With the exception of the chapter on diagnostic radiology of pineal tumors, which seems somewhat superficial, these five chapters summarize current knowledge about the nature of these complex lesions and their symptomatology very well. The next nine chapters deal with biopsy and surgery of these tumors and how to manage the patient. The first of these gives a historical review of the development of surgical techniques - from the first attempt by Horsley in 1905 to the microsurgical techniques of today. It is followed by a very important and detailed description of the microsurgical anatomy of the pineal region

5

CT and MR of pineal region tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging features of pineal region tumors were analyzed in 14 oncologic cases. The tumors were classified as germ-cell tumors, glial tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, meningiomas, and cysts. They demonstrated different MR signal characteristics on precontrast scans and nodular or ring type enhancement with occasional central lucencies, except for benign cysts, which have not shown enhancement. MR images were useful in defining the relationship of the tumor to the posterior third ventricle, sylvian aqueduct, vein of Galen, and tentorium. Although CT can demonstrate in more evident fashion displacement of the original pineal calcification as well as tumor calcifications, MR imaging demonstrates different signal characteristics in germinomas and pineoblastomas which can be a useful adjunct in the evaluation and differential diagnosis of these tumors. PMID:8295504

Gouliamos, A D; Kalovidouris, A E; Kotoulas, G K; Athanasopoulou, A K; Kouvaris, J R; Trakadas, S J; Vlahos, L J; Papavasiliou, C G

1994-01-01

6

[Tumors of the sellar and pineal regions].  

Science.gov (United States)

The (supra) sellar and pineal regions are relatively common sites for pediatric brain tumors; however, the distinct spectrum of space-occupying lesions is in marked contrast to that of the adult population. Craniopharyngeoma represents the most common intrasellar and/or suprasellar lesion in children, whereas the pituitary adenoma typical for adults- is generally rare. The pineal region is a predilection site for germ cell tumors in pediatric patients, while in adults this cancer category is largely confined to the gonads. The role of imaging is in the early detection of lesions, adequate demonstration of the characteristics and delineation of the complex anatomical relationship to adjacent vital structures. PMID:25081918

Zimmer, A; Reith, W

2014-08-01

7

Tumors of the pineal region: radiological findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To consider the different radiological findings that, together with age, sex, clinical picture and serum markers, indicate a presumed or even definitive diagnosis in tumors of the pineal region. We reviewed retrospectively 18 patients diagnosed as having pineal region tumors. The lesions in this series consisted of seven germinoma, three meningiomas, one pineoblastoma. two ependymomas, one teratoma, two glial cysts, and arachnoid cyst and a lipoma. All but the arachnoid cysts and the lipoma were confirmed histologically. We took into account mainly the epidemiological data, tumor markers and CT and MR features. The germinoma was the most common lesions, representing 38.8% of the tumors in our series. All developed in men (mean age: 21 years). Small non tumoral calcifications were present in pineal gland in six of these cases. This tumor usually invades adjacent structures and produces metastatic seeding in CSF. The pineoblastoma contained prominent tumor calcifications. Meningiomas were detected only in middle-aged women. In addition to the fact that the behavior of these lesions was typical of that meningiomas in other locations, meningeal enhancement in the vicinity of the extraaxial tumor aided in the diagnosis. The teratoma showed variable attenuation, ranging from a fatty substance to calcium, and elevated fetoprotein levels. The glial cyst is a cyst lesion that does not be-have exactly like the CSF, while the arachnoid cyst was isointense with respect to the CSFyst was isointense with respect to the CSF in all sequences. Enhancement was observed in the glial cysts, one peripheral and the other nodular. The assessment of age, sex, clinical picture and tumor markers, together with the features observed in CT an MR images are suggestive of the histological diagnosis of pineal region tumors. We recommend the use of CT because of its availability and its ability detect calcifications, thus indicating a specific histological type, and of MR because of its greater anatomical definition and its, ability to determine the degree of tumor extension or invasion. (Author) 19 refs

8

Transcallosal approach to pineal tumors and the hospital for sick children series of pineal region tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Direct surgery on a pineal region mass can be carried out safely and is justified in that the pineal region harbors many benin tumors which would not benefit from radiotherapy. Furthermore, this region contains some highly malignant tumors that need more than just local radiotherapy. In order to discern between these various groups of tumors, histologic proof of the nature of the entire tumor is necessary. The author has found the posterior transcallosal approach to the pineal region a safe and satisfactory approach to tumors in this region and also found this approach particularly advantageous when the tumor extends upwards and forwards into the third ventricle. Direct surgery on pineal tumors can now be carried out confidently and safely and in many cases, radical if not total removal of the neoplasm can be achieved

9

Diagnosis of pineal region tumors; Imagerie des tumeurs de la region pineale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper is to explain the different radio-clinical presentations of pineal region tumors. Although MR images provide a important help to diagnosis, because of topographic analysis and evaluation of MR characteristics in the tumors, clinic, presentation tumors markers and the stereotaxic surgery are also of great importance. Radiological appearances, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnostic of pineal region tumours. (authors). 44 refs.

Gauvrit, J.Y.; Soto Ares, G.; Hamon-Kerautret, M.; Pruvo, J.P.; Blond, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 59 - Lille (France)

1997-09-01

10

Pineal region tumors: computed tomographic-pathologic spectrum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While several computed tomographic (CT) studies of posterior third ventricular neoplasms have included descriptions of pineal tumors, few reports have concentrated on these uncommon lesions. Some authors have asserted that the CT appearance of many pineal tumors is virtually pathognomonic. A series of nine biopsy-proved pineal gland and eight other presumed tumors is presented that illustrates their remarkable heterogeneity in both histopathologic and CT appearance. These tumors included germinomas, teratocarcinomas, hamartomas, and other varieties. They had variable margination, attentuation, calcification, and suprasellar extension. Germinomas have the best response to radiation therapy. Biopsy of pineal region tumors is now feasible and is recommended for treatment planning

11

History of the pineal region tumor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal gland has interested humans from millenniums. In this paper we review back in the history and the evolution of the pineal gland surgery. Originally, this surgery used to carry a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Nowadays the development of the anesthetic, radiological, surgical and intensive care techniques have been responsible of an improvement of the surgical results and better quality of life. It is always interesting to know from where we come. PMID:25016433

Mottolese, C; Szathmari, A

2014-07-01

12

Diagnostic radiation and its prognosis of pineal region tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

20 Gy of local irradiation was performed for the patients with pineal region tumor. We evaluated the tumor volume on X-CT in the pre-radiation and 20 Gy of post-radiation state. If tumor is sensitive enough to radiation therapy, we add 40 Gy of whole brain and 30 to 40 Gy of whole spine irradiation. If not, we transfer patients to neurosurgeons for the purpose of tumor ressection. We call this procedure ''Diagnostic Radiation.'' We proposed the concept of TRR (Tumor Regression Ratio) in order to evaluate our protocol more objctively. TRR is as follows: TRR (%) = [1-Total Tumor Volume (at each dose) / Total Tumor Volume (at o Gy)] x 100 (%) Total Tumor Volume(mm3) = slice thickness(mm) x siguma HDA (mm2) on each slice: where HDA is high density area on enhanced CT. Eleven patients were studied and TRR of each patients was calculated. The relations between TRR, tumor markers, CSF seeding and prognoiss was discussed. From our study, (1) TRR at 20Gy was important and might predict approximate prognosis of each cae case. A) TRR = 100 ? very good B) TRR < 20 ? poor C) 20 <= TRR < 100 ? high possibility (2) Majority of TRR < 100 cases have turned out to be histologically in teratoma category. (3) Good correlation between the level of tumor markers and prognosis was observed. Cases with elevated level of AFP and/or HCG were radio- resistant and had poor prognosis. (4) Distant metastasis must also be kept in mind in the treatment of pineal region tuin the treatment of pineal region tumor. (author)

13

Is CRX protein a useful marker in differential diagnosis of tumors of the pineal region?  

Science.gov (United States)

The cone-rod homeobox (CRX) is a gene that belongs to the member of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx) family, with important function in development and differentiation of retinal and pineal cells. Moreover, CRX appears to be specifically expressed in pineal tumors and retinoblastomas. We performed an immunohistochemical study on 91 pediatric and adult central nervous system tumors, plus 2 normal brain samples. Our results demonstrated that CRX is expressed not only in pineal parenchymal tumors and retinoblastoma, but also in a some medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors. None of the glial tumors screened were positive for CRX. In conclusion, CRX could be useful in surgical neuropathology for the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors, in particular to discriminate pineal tumors from glial tumors. PMID:24555912

Manila, Antonelli; Mariangela, Novello; Libero, Lauriola; Francesca, Gianno; Romana, Buttarelli Francesca; Felice, Giangaspero

2014-01-01

14

Radiotherapy of pineal tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiotherapy has universally been used in the treatment of pineal tumors and suprasellar germinomas. Recently however, major technical advances related to the use of the operating microscope and development of microsurgical techniques have prompted a renewed interest in the direct surgical approach for biopsy and/or excision. This interest has resulted in a controversy regarding the role of surgery prior to radiotherapy. Because of the heterogeneity of tumors occurring in the pineal region (i.e., germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, glial tumors, and cysts) and their differing biological behavior, controversy also surrounds aspects of radiotherapy such as: the optimal radiation dose, the volume to be irradiated, and indications for prophylactic spinal irradiation. A review of the available data is presented in an attempt to answer these questions

15

Lung carcinoma metastasis presenting as a pineal region tumor / Metástasis del carcinoma de pulmón que se presenta como tumor de la región pineal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish La región pineal es un sitio inusual para el depósito de metástasis y la mayoría de las metástasis pineales son asintomáticas. Un hombre de 53 años debutó con una cefalea intensa, limitación en la supraversión y diplopia. La exploración neurológica fue irrelevante. La resonancia magnética (RM) cereb [...] ral demostró una lesión solitaria de 1,5 x 2 cm bien delimitada, en la región pineal con hidrocefalia. Fue intervenido quirúrgicamente siendo el diagnóstico anatomopatológico de adenocarcinoma. Un estudio sistémico descubrió un adenocarcinoma de pulmón como tumor primario. Aunque muy raramente, las metástasis deben considerarse en el diagnóstico diferencial de tumores de la región pineal. Abstract in english The pineal region is an unusual site for brain metastasis and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. A 53 year-old man presented with severe headache, limitation of upward gaze and diplopia. The patient's neurological examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of [...] the brain demonstrated a 1,5 x 2 cm well demarcated solitary mass in the pineal region with hydrocephalus. Surgery was performed and adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. A systemic investigation revealed adenocarcinoma of the lung as primary lesion. Although rare, metastatic tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors.

Y., Samanci; C., Iplikcioglu; E., Ozek; D., Ozcan; B., Marangozoglu.

2011-12-01

16

Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors - quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our study aimed to elucidate the imaging features for the differentiation of pineal germinoma and other pineal region tumors. Image data sets of computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 93 pineal region tumors including 33 germinomas, 30 nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), and 10 miscellaneous tumors of pineal region were reviewed. Imaging features on CT and MRI were qualitatively assessed by three readers. To know the reasons for morphological differences between germinomas and NGGCTs, histological investigation was done. Localized calcification was seen in more than 70 % of germ cells tumors (GCTs: germinomas and NGGCTs) while it was scattered in more than half of PPTs. Cystic components in tumors were most frequent in NGGCTs (62 %). Multiplicity of lesion was restricted to GCTs: 39.4 % in germinoma and 10.0 % in NGGCTs. Thick peritumoral edema was more frequent in germinoma than in NGGCT: 40.6 vs. 14.8 % (p = 0.0433, Fisher's test). Bithalamic extension of tumor was seen in 78.8 % of germinomas. It was significantly rare in other groups of tumors (p < 0.0001, Fisher's test). The relative collagen amount per unit area was significantly lower in germinoma than in NGGCTs. By paying attention to characteristic features as bithalamic extension, thick peritumoral edema, calcification pattern, multiplicity, and their combination, the preoperative differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma will become more accurate. (orig.)

17

Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors - quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our study aimed to elucidate the imaging features for the differentiation of pineal germinoma and other pineal region tumors. Image data sets of computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 93 pineal region tumors including 33 germinomas, 30 nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), and 10 miscellaneous tumors of pineal region were reviewed. Imaging features on CT and MRI were qualitatively assessed by three readers. To know the reasons for morphological differences between germinomas and NGGCTs, histological investigation was done. Localized calcification was seen in more than 70 % of germ cells tumors (GCTs: germinomas and NGGCTs) while it was scattered in more than half of PPTs. Cystic components in tumors were most frequent in NGGCTs (62 %). Multiplicity of lesion was restricted to GCTs: 39.4 % in germinoma and 10.0 % in NGGCTs. Thick peritumoral edema was more frequent in germinoma than in NGGCT: 40.6 vs. 14.8 % (p = 0.0433, Fisher's test). Bithalamic extension of tumor was seen in 78.8 % of germinomas. It was significantly rare in other groups of tumors (p < 0.0001, Fisher's test). The relative collagen amount per unit area was significantly lower in germinoma than in NGGCTs. By paying attention to characteristic features as bithalamic extension, thick peritumoral edema, calcification pattern, multiplicity, and their combination, the preoperative differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma will become more accurate. (orig.)

Awa, Ryuji; Campos, Francia; Arita, Kazunori; Karki, Prasanna; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Oyoshi, Tatsuki; Hirano, Hirofumi [Kagoshima University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuhiko [Hiroshima University, Department of Clinical Oncology and Neuro-oncology Program, Hiroshima (Japan); Tominaga, Atsushi; Kurisu, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki [Hiroshima University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Fukukura, Yoshihiko [Kagoshima University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Fujii, Yukihiko [Niigata University, Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

2014-07-15

18

The clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor in the pineal region  

OpenAIRE

Objective To evaluate the clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor (ITT) in the pineal region. Methods A retrospective study was performed to analyse the diagnostic and therapeutic process of 1 case with ITT in the pineal region. The specimen obtained from the surgery was dealt with common tissue processing mode and cut into slices. HE staining was performed to observe histophathological features. Immunohistochemical staining (SP two-step method) was performed to analy...

Zhang, Yun-xiang; Zhong, Ding-rong; Hu, Ming-ming; Yuan, Tao; Li, Gui-lin

2012-01-01

19

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor located in the pineal region following prophylactic irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare entity. In the central nervous system, AT/RT generally arises from the posterior fossa of infants and behaves aggressively. AT/RT is reported to arise from the infratentorial region (63%) and other sites, such as the suprasellar region, cerebellopontine angle, and spinal cord. The pineal region is rare (6%) as a site of origin. Radiation-induced brain tumors are well known. In this report, we present a case of a pineal region tumor causing acute hydrocephalus that could be pathologically diagnosed as AT/RT following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (author)

20

Radiotherapy of Pineal and Ectopic Pineal Tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From December 1984 to February 1990, 16 patients with tumors of pineal and suprasellar location were treated with radiation therapy. Tissue diagnoses were obtained before radiation therapy in 5 patients and 11 were irradiated without histologic confirmation. Initial treatments for these patients were craniospinal plus boost primary irradiation(six), whole brain plus boost primary irradiation(nine), primary tumor site irradiation(one). The 5 year actuarial survival rate is 71%. Three cases with elevated beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) responded favorably to radiation, but pineal tumors with elevated alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) did not respond well. Spinal metastasis developed in 2 cases (2/15) with elevated AFP : one received prophylactic spinal irradiation, another did not. Our studies suggest that more aggressive treatment would be necessary in patient with elevated AFP and in this patient, radiation therapy may be initiate without pathologic confirmation. From the result of our study, routine use of prophylactic spinal irradiation for all patients with pineal region tumor is not indicated and use of prophylactic spinal irradiation is considered for the patients with positive craniospinal fluid cytology, meningeal seeding, disease extension along the ventricular wall and biopsy proven germinoma

21

Microarray analysis reveals differential gene expression patterns in tumors of the pineal region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several types of tumors are known to originate from the pineal region, among them pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPRs), probably derived from the subcommissural organ. As a result of their rarity, their histologic diagnosis remains difficult. To identify molecular markers, using CodeLink oligonucleotide arrays, gene expression was studied in 3 PPTs (2 pineocytomas and one pineoblastoma), 2 PTPRs, and one chordoid glioma, another rare tumor of the third ventricle. Because PTPR and chordoid glioma may present ependymal differentiation, gene expression was also analyzed in 4 ependymomas. The gene patterns of the 3 PPTs fell in the same cluster. The pineocytomas showed high expression of TPH, HIOMT, and genes related to phototransduction in the retina (OPN4, RGS16, and CRB3), whereas the pineoblastoma showed high expression of UBEC2, SOX4, TERT, TEP1, PRAME, CD24, POU4F2, and HOXD13. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on 13 PPTs, we demonstrated that PRAME, CD24, POU4F2, and HOXD13 might be candidates for grading PPT with intermediate differentiation. PTPRs, classified with chordoid glioma and separately from ependymomas, showed high expression of SPEDF, KRT18, and genes encoding proteins reported to be expressed in the subcommissural organ, namely ZFH4, RFX3, TTR, and CGRP. Our results highlight the usefulness of gene expression profiling for classify tumors of the pineal region and identify genes with potential use as diagnostic markers. PMID:16825954

Fèvre-Montange, Michelle; Champier, Jacques; Szathmari, Alexandru; Wierinckx, Anne; Mottolese, Carmine; Guyotat, Jacques; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Jouvet, Anne; Lachuer, Joël

2006-07-01

22

Pineal region tumors: results of radiation therapy and indications for elective spinal irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighteen patients with pineal region tumors seen from November 1960 to November 1978 were reviewed. Thirteen patients treated with radiation therapy received tumor doses in the 4000 to 5500 rad range. The five year survival and five year disease-free survival were 73 and 63% respectively. Spinal cord metastasis occurred in 2 of 13 (15%) patients. Attempts at salvage radiotherapy for these patients were unsuccessful. Computerized tomography (CT) scan provides an excellent method of evaluating the response of pineal region tumors to radiation. Rapid regression of the tumor mass on CT scan reflects the highly radioresponsive nature of germinomas, the tumor type most likely to disseminate throughout the neuraxis. This principle can be exploited to select unbiopsied patients with a high risk of spinal cord metastasis for prophylactic spinal radiation at an early stage of treatment

23

Endoscopic surgery for tumors of the pineal region via a paramedian infratentorial supracerebellar keyhole approach (PISKA).  

Science.gov (United States)

The tumors of the pineal region represent a significant challenge in terms of patient selection and surgical approach. Traditional surgical options were commonly used to approach this area causing considerable surgical morbidity and mortality. We report for the first time on a series of endoscopic procedures for lesions of the pineal region performed via an infratentorial supracerebellar keyhole approach (PISKA) in the prone position using endoscope-assisted and endoscope-controlled technique. A single-institution series of 11 consecutive patients (five male and six female patients [11 total cases]; mean age 21 years, range 1-75 years) treated via the endoscope-assisted and endoscope-controlled PISKA for a pathological entity in the pineal region was retrospectively reviewed. The mean follow-up time was 24 months. The endoscopic PISKA was successfully used to approach a variety of pineal lesions, including pineocytoma (three patients), pineal cysts (four patients), germinoma, lipoma, medulloblastoma, and glioblastoma (one patient each). Gross total resection was achieved in ten cases and subtotal resection in one case. The mean preoperative tumor volumes were approximately 2 × 2 cm. Five patients developed postoperatively transient Parinaud's syndrome. One patient underwent surgical revision for cerebrospinal fluid leak. There was no mortality. Ten patients had an uneventful postoperative course with restitutio ad integrum after a mean follow-up duration of 13.5 months. The endoscopically PISKA is a safe and effective minimally invasive approach that enables endoscopic treatment of different lesions of the pineal region with comparable results to standard microsurgical technique but less morbidity. PMID:25106132

Thaher, Firas; Kurucz, Peter; Fuellbier, Lars; Bittl, Markus; Hopf, Nikolai J

2014-10-01

24

Stereotactic techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of pineal region tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The marked diversity of pathological lesions arising in the pineal region supports the increasing need to obtain a definitive tissue diagnosis. In the pre-CT era, radiographic studies rarely allowed for anything more than the outlining of a mass lesion. Contrast ventriculography could not distinguish between a non-neoplastic cyst and an astrocytoma. This limitation illustrates the difficulty of interpreting the results of previous retrospective series in which the majority of patients treated had neither a tissue diagnosis nor a CT scan to confirm the clinical impression of a pineal region tumor. Computerized tomography now offers a much improved definition of the pathological process. The utilization of computerized tomography, angiography, biochemical markers, and the clinical presentation all contribute to the establishment of the correct diagnosis. Prior to the widespread application of microsurgical techniques, exploration of the pineal region had proved hazardous even in the best of hands. More recently, several experienced neurosurgeons have reported satisfactory results in the microsurgical exploration of the pineal region. Stereotactic needle biopsy has been used predominantly in European centers as an alternative to either open surgical exploration or blind radiation therapy. Their published series have demonstrated both a high degree of efficacy in establishing the diagnosis while avoiding some of the risk associated with direct surgical visualization of thd with direct surgical visualization of the pineal region. In this chapter the author describe the technique of CT/stereotactic biopsy at the M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute and review the results obtained at several major centers. The use of, and indications for, stereotactic radiosurgery and interstitial brachytherapy is discussed

25

DNA copy number alterations in central primitive neuroectodermal tumors and tumors of the pineal region: an international individual patient data meta-analysis  

OpenAIRE

Little is known about frequency, association with clinical characteristics, and prognostic impact of DNA copy number alterations (CNA) on survival in central primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CNS-PNET) and tumors of the pineal region. Searches of MEDLINE, Pubmed, and EMBASE-after the original description of comparative genomic hybridization in 1992 and July 2010-identified 15 case series of patients with CNS-PNET and tumors of the pineal region whose tumors were investigated for genome-wide C...

Von Bueren, Andre? O.; Gerss, Joachim; Hagel, Christian; Cai, Haoyang; Remke, Marc; Hasselblatt, Martin; Feuerstein, Burt G.; Pernet, Sarah; Delattre, Olivier; Korshunov, Andrey; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pfister, Stefan M.; Baudis, Michael

2012-01-01

26

Pre- and postoperative management of pineal region tumors and the occipital transtentorial approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the use of the operating microscope, a variety of malignant as well as benign lesions of the pineal region can be excised safely. In cases in which complete excision is impossible, obtaining tissue for a histological diagnosis has been extremely helpful in planning appropriate postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Reducing tumor bulk may also be beneficial, as has been shown to be the case in medulloblastoma. As adjunctive modes of therapy for malignant pineal tumors become available, such as chemotherapy and possibly immunotherapy, the authors believe that the burden will be on the neurosurgeon to provide a tissue diagnosis. Complete myelography should be considered preoperatively or postoperatively to detect asymptomatic meningeal implants. The presence of such metastases makes postoperative craniospinal irradiation essential. The authors advocate liberal dosages of corticosteroids (i.e. 10-20 mg dexamethasone/day) for 24-48 hr prior to surgery. The authors recommend postoperative radiotherapy in all patients with malignant pineal region lesions regardless of whether or not complete excision was possible. The lowest incidence of recurrence in the literature seems to occur following 5,000-5,500 rads. In the face of negative myelography and CSF cytology, there is controversy regarding prophylactic spinal axis irradiation. The use of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy is probably the initial therapy of choice in such a patient. Following this, if a small, loca patient. Following this, if a small, localized tumor burden remains, it can be removed surgically, as is done with localized residual tumor in testicular cancer. Failure to adequately assess the presence of meningeal seeding by cytology and melography may make certain patients vulnerable to spinal recurrence of disease in the face of complete local remission

27

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the pineal region in an adult.  

Science.gov (United States)

An atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant embryonal tumor most often occurring in the posterior fossa in children younger than 3 years of age. Adult cases of AT/RT are very rare, and 27 cases with a diagnosis of either AT/RT or (malignant) rhabdoid tumor have been reported to date. The authors report an adult case of an AT/RT occurring in the pineal region with molecular cytogenetic and immunohistochemical confirmation. A 33-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of headache and blurred vision progressing to diplopia, and was admitted emergently due to deteriorating mental status. An MR image showed a heterogeneously enhancing mass involving the posterior third ventricle and pineal region with mild hydrocephalus. She underwent a subtotal resection of the tumor and was then treated with chemoradiation. Thirteen months after surgery, she was still alive with radiological evidence of recurrence/residual lesions. Histological sections showed epithelioid cellular sheets of rhabdoid tumor cells with scattered mitotic figures. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were diffusely and strongly positive for epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin, and showed focal expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, pancytokeratin, and neurofilament protein. Loss of nuclear immunoreactivity for INI1 protein was observed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed monosomy 22. Histologically, this tumor consisted exclusively of epithelioid tumor cells with rhabdoid features. The differential diagnoses include rhabdoid glioblastoma, metastatic carcinoma, and rhabdoid meningioma. Molecular testing to identify monosomy 22 or deletions of the chromosome 22q11 containing the INI1/hSNF5 gene and/or immunohistochemical staining with INI1 antibody is of great importance for the diagnosis of this tumor. PMID:19911885

Takei, Hidehiro; Adesina, Adekunle M; Mehta, Vidya; Powell, Suzanne Z; Langford, Lauren A

2010-08-01

28

Germinomas and other pineal tumors: Chemotherapeutic responses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results and potential future role of chemotherapy in the treatment of pineal region tumors are reviewed in this paper. To date only a small number of patients with pineal region tumors have been treated with chemotherapy and this has commonly been done in association with radiation therapy. Very few patients have had a chemotherapy-induced tumor response that can clearly be attributed to only that therapy. In this paper the authors review 5 patients from our series in whom a therapeutic response was observed that was clearly attributable to drug administration and nor surgery, radiotherapy, or adrenal corticosteroids. Four of these patients had tumors of germ cell origin. These observations added to a limited number of other case reports suggest a promising therapeutic role for chemotherapeutic agents in the management of pineal region tumors. In particular, germ cell tumors of the pinear region appear to be especially responsive to chemotherapeutic agents. The pattern and responses of the pineal region tumors suggest that an important factor in therapeutic effectiveness is the absence of the blood-brain barrier in this area, thereby permitting appropriate drug delivery. An exciting prospect is that the Japanese are currently conducting a national cooperative study on the use of chemotherapy in the treatment of pineal tumors. Because of the high incidence of these tumors in Japan, these studies will undoubtedly be of great value value

29

Spontaneous pineal apoplexy in a pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pineal apoplexy is a rare clinical presentation of pineal parenchymal tumors. We report the curative treatment of a case of pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation with spontaneous apoplectic hemorrhage. This case is shown through computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and is confirmed via histopathological studies. Recurrent upward gaze paresis was observed after the stereotactic biopsy. The paresis required an expeditious tumor resection. The mechanism of the pineal apoplectic hemorrhage remains unclear although it has been observed in different pineal region lesions. Clinical and radiological evidence of the cure 5 years post-surgery is available.

Timothy Steel

2013-03-01

30

Differentiation of germinomas from other tumors in the pineal region with CT and MR imaging, with special reference to extension patterns to the thalami  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) characteristics of pineal region germinomas, the author reviewed images from 40 patients with pineal region tumors. These tumors were divided into two groups: those with germinomas (n=17), and those with other tumors in the pineal region (5 with a germ cell tumor other than germinoma; 8, mixed germ cell tumor; 8, pineal parenchymal tumor; and 2, miscellaneous tumors; n=23). All cases were investigated with CT; 31 of the cases were also investigated with MR imaging. The following parameters comprised statistically significant differences between the two groups: maximum size of the tumor, tumor density of the precontrast CT, signal intensity of precontrast T1-weighted spin-echo images, and homogeneity of the tumor on both precontrast and postcontrast studies. This study found that extension patterns of pineal region tumors into the thalamus have significant implications in differentiating germinomas from other tumors of this region. Germinomas are characterized by thalamic extension without lateral displacement of the third ventricle walls due to direct compression by tumors (p=0.0034). The analysis of tumor extension patterns, combined with the parameters mentioned above, may provide a more accurate differential diagnosis in pineal region tumors, leading to prompt and appropriate treatment. (author)

Furusawa, Tetsuya [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

1998-03-01

31

Differentiation of germinomas from other tumors in the pineal region with CT and MR imaging, with special reference to extension patterns to the thalami  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) characteristics of pineal region germinomas, the author reviewed images from 40 patients with pineal region tumors. These tumors were divided into two groups: those with germinomas (n=17), and those with other tumors in the pineal region (5 with a germ cell tumor other than germinoma; 8, mixed germ cell tumor; 8, pineal parenchymal tumor; and 2, miscellaneous tumors; n=23). All cases were investigated with CT; 31 of the cases were also investigated with MR imaging. The following parameters comprised statistically significant differences between the two groups: maximum size of the tumor, tumor density of the precontrast CT, signal intensity of precontrast T1-weighted spin-echo images, and homogeneity of the tumor on both precontrast and postcontrast studies. This study found that extension patterns of pineal region tumors into the thalamus have significant implications in differentiating germinomas from other tumors of this region. Germinomas are characterized by thalamic extension without lateral displacement of the third ventricle walls due to direct compression by tumors (p=0.0034). The analysis of tumor extension patterns, combined with the parameters mentioned above, may provide a more accurate differential diagnosis in pineal region tumors, leading to prompt and appropriate treatment. (author)

32

Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

Wang, Peng [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu (China); Mao, Qing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Liu, Yan-Hui, E-mail: liuyanhui9@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

2014-03-01

33

Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

34

Radiotherapy Results of pineal Tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective analysis was performed on 23 patients with pineal region tumors treated with radiation from 1979 through 1985 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Histologic confirmation was done in only one case by surgical removal, and in the remaining 22 patients, the diagnosis was based on clinical and radiological findings. The radiation volume was the primary tumor site in 1 case, whole brain in 14 cases, and the whole craniospinal axis in 8 cases. The overall 5 year survival was 71.5%. The 5 year survival was 69. 3% for whole brain treated group and 73.3% for craniospinal axis treated group. The survival for the two groups did not differ significantly. In two cases sites of recurrence were detected. One in supratentorial area, and the other in the lung. The results from this retrospective analysis and the review of other reports indicate that routine use of prophlatic spinal irradiation is not warranted in pineal region tumor, and the craniospinal irradiation is recommended in cases with high risk for subarachnoid seeding such as positive CSF cytology, surgical removal or biopsy

35

DNA copy number alterations in central primitive neuroectodermal tumors and tumors of the pineal region: an international individual patient data meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about frequency, association with clinical characteristics, and prognostic impact of DNA copy number alterations (CNA) on survival in central primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CNS-PNET) and tumors of the pineal region. Searches of MEDLINE, Pubmed, and EMBASE--after the original description of comparative genomic hybridization in 1992 and July 2010--identified 15 case series of patients with CNS-PNET and tumors of the pineal region whose tumors were investigated for genome-wide CNA. One additional case study was identified from contact with experts. Individual patient data were extracted from publications or obtained from investigators, and CNAs were converted to a digitized format suitable for data mining and subgroup identification. Summary profiles for genomic imbalances were generated from case-specific data. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and by univariable and multivariable Cox regression models. In their overall CNA profiles, low grade tumors of the pineal region clearly diverged from CNS-PNET and pineoblastoma. At a median follow-up of 89 months, 7-year OS rates of CNS-PNET, pineoblastoma, and low grade tumors of the pineal region were 22.9 ± 6, 0 ± 0, and 87.5 ± 12 %, respectively. Multivariable analysis revealed that histology (CNS-PNET), age (?2.5 years), and possibly recurrent CNAs were associated with unfavorable OS. DNA copy number profiling suggests a close relationship between CNS-PNET and pineoblastoma. Low grade tumors of the pineal region differed from CNS-PNET and pineoblastoma. Due to their high biological and clinical variability, a coordinated prospective validation in future studies is necessary to establish robust risk factors. PMID:22772606

von Bueren, André O; Gerss, Joachim; Hagel, Christian; Cai, Haoyang; Remke, Marc; Hasselblatt, Martin; Feuerstein, Burt G; Pernet, Sarah; Delattre, Olivier; Korshunov, Andrey; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pfister, Stefan M; Baudis, Michael

2012-09-01

36

Histopathology of pineal germ cell tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) classically occur in gonads. However, they are the most frequent neoplasms in the pineal region. The pineal location of GCTs may be caused by the neoplastic transformation of a primordial germ cell that has mismigrated. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes 5 histological types of intracranial GCTs: germinoma and non-germinomatous tumors including embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma and mature or immature teratoma. Germinomas and teratomas are frequently encountered as pure tumors whereas the other types are mostly part of mixed GCTs. In this situation, the neuropathologist has to be able to identify each component of a GCT. When diagnosis is difficult, use of recent immunohistochemical markers such as OCT(octamer-binding transcription factor)3/4, Glypican 3, SALL(sal-like protein)4 may be required. OCT3/4 is helpful in the diagnosis of germinomas, Glypican 3 in the diagnosis of yolk sac tumors and SALL4 in the diagnosis of the germ cell nature of an intracranial tumor. When the germ cell nature of a pineal tumor is doubtful, the finding of an isochromosome 12p suggests the diagnosis of GCT. The final pathological report should always be confronted with the clinical data, especially the serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels of ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha-fetoprotein. PMID:24726316

Vasiljevic, A; Szathmari, A; Champier, J; Fèvre-Montange, M; Jouvet, A

2014-04-01

37

Diagnostic radiology of pineal tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contrast enhanced CT scan of the head and full column myelography using a water-soluble agent (after controlling increased intracranial pressure) are the screening methods of choice in evaluating patients with tumors of the pineal region. Angiography retains an important role in these patients: to document the degree of vascularity of the mass seen on CT scan; to rule out the possibility that the enhancing mass is a benign vascular lesion such as vein of Galen aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, etc.; to provide the surgeon with a clear image of displaced normal arteries and veins prior to biopsy, and to show the position of cortical veins at the site of the planned surgical approach. Data now being accumulated regarding the use of CT-guided stereotaxic biopsy methods may demonstrate that needle biopsy of lesions of this area can be performed with much less risk to the patient than was the case with open biopsy methods. This new technique, along with microscopic surgical resection methods, may produce better treatment results than have been possible in the past

38

Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report Glioblastoma multiforme de região pineal: relato de caso  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only few cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized ...

Emerson Leandro Gasparetto; Danny Warszawiak; Guilherme Pradi Adam; Luiz Fernando Bleggi-Torres; Arnolfo Carvalho Neto

2003-01-01

39

Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor: a pineal region case with IDH1 and IDH2 mutation analyses and literature review of 43 cases  

OpenAIRE

Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) of the fourth ventricle is a mixed glio-neuronal neoplasm recently codified by the World Health Organization WHO Classification of Central Nervous System (CNS) Tumors (2007). To date, 43 cases have been described in the literature; most occurring in the fourth ventricle region. We report the fourth case involving the pineal region in a 16-year-old female with signs of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). A stereotactic biopsy of the mass was followe...

Solis, Orestes E.; Mehta, Rupal I.; Lai, Albert; Mehta, Rashi I.; Farchoukh, Lama O.; Green, Richard M.; Cheng, Jerry C.; Natarajan, Sathima; Vinters, Harry V.; Cloughesy, Timothy; Yong, William H.

2011-01-01

40

Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only few cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized ...

Gasparetto Emerson Leandro; Warszawiak Danny; Adam Guilherme Pradi; Bleggi-Torres Luiz Fernando; Carvalho Neto Arnolfo de

2003-01-01

41

PINEAL GLAND TUMORS: EXPERIENCE FROM THE SEER DATABASE  

OpenAIRE

Pineal gland tumors are rare and account for less than 1% of all primary brain tumor diagnoses. Also, they are more commonly seen in pediatric patients than in adults. We analyzed the available SEER data on pineal gland tumors that were diagnosed during the period 1973–2005. The cohort was subdivided into groups on the basis of tumor histology: germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, gliomas, and other pineal tumors. Analyses of incidence, survival, factors influencing survival, and tr...

Al-hussaini, Maysa; Sultan, Iyad; Gajjar, Amar J.; Abuirmileh, Najyah; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim

2009-01-01

42

Primary malignant melanoma in the pineal region.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 59-year-old male patient had 5-month history of gait disturbance and memory impairment. His initial brain computed tomography scan showed 3.5×2.8 cm sized mass with high density in the pineal region. The tumor was hypointense on T2 weighted magnetic resonance images and hyperintense on T1 weighted magnetic resonance images with heterogenous enhancement of central portion. The tumor was totally removed via the occipital transtentorial approach. Black mass was observed in the operation field, and after surgery, histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Whole spine magnetic resonance images and whole body 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography could not demonstrate the primary site of this melanoma. Scrupulous physical examination of his skin and mucosa was done and dark pigmented lesion on his left leg was found, but additional studies including magnetic resonance images and skin biopsy showed negative finding. As a result, final diagnosis of primary pineal malignant melanoma was made. He underwent treatment with the whole brain radiotherapy and extended local boost irradiation without chemotherapy. His preoperative symptoms were disappeared, and no other specific neurological deficits were founded. His follow-up image studies showed no recurrence or distant metastasis until 26 weeks after surgery. Primary pineal malignant melanomas are extremely rare intracranial tumors, and only 17 cases have been reported since 1899. The most recent case report showed favorable outcome by subtotal tumor resection followed by whole brain and extended local irradiation without chemotherapy. Our case is another result to prove that total tumor resection with radiotherapy can be the current optimal treatment for primary malignant melanoma in the pineal region. PMID:25628812

Park, Jae-Hyun; Hong, Yong-Kil

2014-12-01

43

Surgical therapy of benign pineal tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently, there is no way that the author knows to satisfactorily distinguish the benign lesions from their malignant cousins without a shadow of doubt. This includes preoperative evaluation of the clinical history, biological markers in serum and CSF, CT scans with and without contrast in various projections including the horizontal, coronal and sagittal cuts, and arteriography. Because the author has personally encountered difficulty in precisely diagnosing these tumors at routine light microscopy, especially when fragments are small, he has a personal aversion to the technique of diagnosis which enlists the use of a stereotactically placed biopsy needle. The author feels that virtually all of the pineal tumors require surgical exposure and sufficient tissue removal to ensure an accurate histological diagnosis. With experience, the author believes the surgeon can tell as he exposes the posterior and lateral aspects of these tumors whether or not they are encapsulated and therefore potentially resectable. This anatomical variation may be identified prior to operative intervention by an arteriogram especially with injection of large quantities of dye into the carotid system. With the advent of the CUSA (Cavitron Lasersonics, Cooper Medical Device Corporation, Stamford, CT), the author has used this instrument with increased facility and benefit in the removal of benign relatively avascular tumors of the pineal region. This instrument is ideal in coring out the interistrument is ideal in coring out the interior of the tumor while creating little displacement of the tumor capsule. Some of the benign tumors, especially the meningiomas may be partially or heavily calcified and this instrument exhibits particular usefulness in these cases

44

Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report Glioblastoma multiforme de região pineal: relato de caso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only few cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized hypotony, hypotrophy and hyper-reflexia, Babinski sign and left VI cranial par palsy. CT scan examination revealed a ill-defined hypodense lesion at the pineal region with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. MRI showed a lesion at the pineal region infiltrating the right thalamic region. The patient underwent a right craniotomy with partial resection of the mass. The histological examination of paraffin-embedded material defined the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. Post-operative radiotherapy was indicated but the patient refused the treatment and died two months afterwards. CONCLUSION: in spite of its rarity at this location, glioblastoma multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aggressive lesions at the pineal region.OBJETIVO: Os tumores da região pineal são incomuns e podem ser divididos em três categorias de acordo com a sua origem: células germinativas, células do parênquima e células gliais. Em sua maioria, os gliomas de pineal são astrocitomas de baixo grau, sendo que o seu correspondente maligno, glioblastoma multiforme, é o mais comum e agressivo tumor encefálico e é extremamente raro nesta localização, com apenas alguns casos relatados na literatura. CASO: Mulher com 29 anos apresentando há 2 meses cefaléia, nucalgia, febre, náuseas e crises convulsivas. O exame físico mostrou rigidez de nuca, hipotonia, hipotrofia e hiperreflexia generalizadas, sinal de Babinski e paralisia do VI nervo craniano. A tomografia computadorizada revelou lesão hipodensa mal delimitada na topografia de pineal, com captação heterogênea de contraste. A ressonância magnética demonstrou lesão na região pineal com infiltração de tálamo à direita. A paciente foi submetida a craniotomia direita com ressecção parcial do tumor. O exame histológico definiu o diagnóstico de glioblastoma multiforme. No pós-operatório foi indicada radioterapia, mas a paciente recusou o tratamento e morreu dois meses depois. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de raro nesta topografia, os glioblastomas multiformes devem ser considerados no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões agressivas localizadas na glândula pineal.

Emerson Leandro Gasparetto

2003-06-01

45

Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report / Glioblastoma multiforme de região pineal: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Os tumores da região pineal são incomuns e podem ser divididos em três categorias de acordo com a sua origem: células germinativas, células do parênquima e células gliais. Em sua maioria, os gliomas de pineal são astrocitomas de baixo grau, sendo que o seu correspondente maligno, glioblast [...] oma multiforme, é o mais comum e agressivo tumor encefálico e é extremamente raro nesta localização, com apenas alguns casos relatados na literatura. CASO: Mulher com 29 anos apresentando há 2 meses cefaléia, nucalgia, febre, náuseas e crises convulsivas. O exame físico mostrou rigidez de nuca, hipotonia, hipotrofia e hiperreflexia generalizadas, sinal de Babinski e paralisia do VI nervo craniano. A tomografia computadorizada revelou lesão hipodensa mal delimitada na topografia de pineal, com captação heterogênea de contraste. A ressonância magnética demonstrou lesão na região pineal com infiltração de tálamo à direita. A paciente foi submetida a craniotomia direita com ressecção parcial do tumor. O exame histológico definiu o diagnóstico de glioblastoma multiforme. No pós-operatório foi indicada radioterapia, mas a paciente recusou o tratamento e morreu dois meses depois. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de raro nesta topografia, os glioblastomas multiformes devem ser considerados no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões agressivas localizadas na glândula pineal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only f [...] ew cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized hypotony, hypotrophy and hyper-reflexia, Babinski sign and left VI cranial par palsy. CT scan examination revealed a ill-defined hypodense lesion at the pineal region with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. MRI showed a lesion at the pineal region infiltrating the right thalamic region. The patient underwent a right craniotomy with partial resection of the mass. The histological examination of paraffin-embedded material defined the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. Post-operative radiotherapy was indicated but the patient refused the treatment and died two months afterwards. CONCLUSION: in spite of its rarity at this location, glioblastoma multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aggressive lesions at the pineal region.

Emerson Leandro, Gasparetto; Danny, Warszawiak; Guilherme Pradi, Adam; Luiz Fernando, Bleggi-Torres; Arnolfo de, Carvalho Neto.

2003-06-01

46

Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology / Cirurgia com gamma knife como tratamento experimental para tumores da região da pineal: uma estratégia alternativa quando os dados anatomopatológicos são negativos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Tumores da região da pineal (TRP) são pouco frequentes e as propostas de tratamento são bastante variadas. Os autores relatam sua experiência em cirurgias com uso gamma knife (CGK) como tratamento experimental inicial em séries de TRP que não têm diagnóstico anatomopatológico ou nos quais o diagnóst [...] ico não ficou claro. Foram estudados retrospectivamente 17 pacientes com TRP nestas condições e que foram submetidos a CGK. Destes, 9 pacientes foram submetidos posteriormente a radioterapia de todo o encéfalo e medula espinhal entre 6 e 9 meses depois da CGK. Dezesseis dos 17 pacientes foram acompanhados por um período médio de 33,3 meses. A taxa total de resposta nos pacientes foi de 75% e a taxa dos controles, 81,3%. Não houve nenhum déficit neurológico evidente que pudesse ser atribuído à CGK. A CGK como tratamento experimental pode ser uma estratégia alternativa no grupo específico de pacientes com TRP em que não há diagnóstico anatomopatológico, podendo ser obtida uma boa qualidade de vida com poucas complicações para esse grupo de pacientes. Abstract in english Objective : Pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method : Seventeen PRT patients with negative [...] pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6–9 months after GKS. Results : Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion : The findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications.

Peng, Wang; Qing, Mao; Wei, Wang; Liang-Xue, Zhou; Yan-Hui, Liu.

2014-02-01

47

Multiple remote epidural hematomas following pineal gland tumor resection  

OpenAIRE

In cases of pineal tumor combined with obstructive hydrocephalus, preoperative ventriculostomy or ventriculoperitoneal shunting is typically required prior to tumor resection. The objectives of preoperative ventriculostomy are gradual reduction of intracranial pressure and consequent preoperative brain protection. Here we report a case of pineal tumor resection with preoperative ventriculostomy that was complicated by multiple epidural hematomas. While postoperative intracranial hemorrhage ma...

Lim Jeong-Wook; Yang Seung-Hwan; Lee Jong-Soo; Song Shi-Hun

2010-01-01

48

Conservative management of pineal tumors - Mayo clinic experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The typical pineal tumor occurs in an adolescent boy with subacute increased intracranial pressure and Parinaud's syndrome. Diagnosis is confirmed by CT scanning, and long-term survival usually following shunting and radiation therapy. Direct surgical methods for successful treatment of suitable pineal tumors have evolved and may be utilized with relatively low risk in appropriate cases

49

Failure pattern of pineal and ectopic pineal germ cell tumor after gamma knife radiosurgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed to determine the optimal treatment volume of patients treating with radiation therapy for intracranial germ cell tumor. From 1993 to 1998, 19 patients with intracranial germ cell tumors treated by gamma knife radiosurgery were analyzed. The location of tumor was as follows; 9 cases on pineal region, 1 case on suprasellar region, and 9 cases of multiple lesion. 7 patients were pathologically verified; 5 cases of germ cell tumor and 2 cases of non germinomatous germ cell tumor. Tumor volume was ranged from 2.4 cm3 to 74 cm3. Irradiation dose was 10 Gy to 20 Gy with 50% isodose curve. Follow up period was 10 months to 54 months. Recurrences were observed in 14 cases among 19 (74%) patients. Complete remission and partial remission were achieved in 2 (11%) and 10 (53%) respectively. No response was observed in 7 (36%). 2 cases were recurred within original tumor bed. 6 cases were recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed. Bentricular relapses separated from pretreatment tumor bed were 3. Spinal recurrences were 4. Among 8 recurred cases of which tumor volume is smaller than 20 cm3, 2 were recurred within original tumor bed, 4 were recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed, and 1 spinal recurrence. Meanwhile, 6 cases of which tumor volume larger than 20 cm3, 1 case was recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed, 2 ventricular recurrences separated with original tumor bed, and 3 spinal recurrencoriginal tumor bed, and 3 spinal recurrences. 5 cases which did not show any recurrence sign show any recurrence sign showed characteristics of single lesion, tumor volume smaller than 20 cm3 and normal tumor marker. All of 4 cases of spinal recurrences happened in the case having ventricular invasion or lesion. Among 9 cases having multiple lesion, only 3 cases recurred within original tumor bed or around tumor bed, the other 6 cases recurred separated from pretreatment tumor bed. Gamma knife radiosurgery is not recommended for the treatment of intracranial germ cell tumor. It is because of small treatment volume and inadequate radiation dose that are characteristics of gamma knife radiosurgery. Tumor volume, ventricular lesion or invasion, and normal tumor marker are ideal indications for small involved field radiation therapy. Prophylactic spinal irradiation seems to be necessary when there is ventricular lesion, ventricular invasion, and multiple lesions. When the tumor volume is larger than 20 cm3, multiple lesions, abnormal tumor marker, and whole ventricular irradiation or partial brain irradiation would be possible and neoadjuvant chemotherapy would be most beneficial in these group

50

Tumours of the pineal region in childhood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

36 patients with tumours in the pineal region were treated between 1980 and 1986, 19 of whom were under 20 years of age. Diagnosis was based on cranial CT, supplemented to by MRI as from 1986. Preoperative angiography was peformed on all patients to demonstrate tumour vascularization and type of vascular supply. Stereotactic biopsies were complemented by intraoperative ventriculography. Stereotactic biopsy only was performed in 13 patients out of the total group to verify tumour histology. 23 patients were directly operated on primarily. 3 of these died postoperative. In cases of germ-cell tumours and pineal blastomas the total brain and the vertebral canal were irradiated. (orig./MG)

51

A case of teratoma which developed 5 years after radiotherapy for pineal tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of pineal teratoma which developed 5 years after radiotherapy for a pineal tumor at 9 years of age was presented. The patient had been admitted with increased intracranial pressure at 9 years of age. Computerized tomography (CT) scans at that time showed pineal and suprasellar tumors with ventricular dissemination. From the CT scan findings, germinoma was diagnosed and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt followed by radiotherapy was performed. 5550 rads for the brain and 1300 rads for the spinal axis were given. The tumors seemed to have almost disappeared after this therapy, and the patient continued to do well until he complained of severe headache and general fatigue in September 1984. CT scans after infusion of contrast media showed a ringed enhanced tumor at the pineal region with extension to the left thalamus. With a preoperative diagnosis of teratoma, he was operated for the subtotal removal of the tumor and was discharged with slight mental dullness two months post-operatively. Histological diagnosis of the specimen was a mature teratoma. From the response of the tumor to radiotherapy in the first admission and from the histological findings, the tumor was thought to be a mixed germ cell tumor. The authors summarized the characteristic findings of mixed germ cell tumor on CT scan and discussed the treatment for pineal tumor. (author)

52

Radiotherapy for tumours of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas (by Glanzmann and Seelentag)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this letter to the editor the authors agree with Glanzmann and Seelentag that, for tumors of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas, empirical radiotherapy after ventriculoperitoneal shunting can give gratifying results, particularly in patients under the age of 30. On the other hand they strongly recommend an aggressive surgical approach as the initial therapeutic manoever for pineal tumors. The authors further clearly indicate in which cases radiotherapy or chemotherapy is recommended as the next therapeutic option. (author). 4 refs

53

Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor: a pineal region case with IDH1 and IDH2 mutation analyses and literature review of 43 cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) of the fourth ventricle is a mixed glio-neuronal neoplasm recently codified by the World Health Organization WHO Classification of Central Nervous System (CNS) Tumors (2007). To date, 43 cases have been described in the literature; most occurring in the fourth ventricle region. We report the fourth case involving the pineal region in a 16-year-old female with signs of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). A stereotactic biopsy of the mass was followed by a debulking procedure. Both specimens revealed classic RGNT histology. The patient had stable scans 7 months post-resection. The clinical, radiological and histopathologic features of the previously described 43 cases are reviewed along with our illustrative case. Mean age of patients was 30 ± 12.8 years with 1.9:1 female to male ratio. The most common presenting signs related to increased ICP and posterior fossa involvement, including: headache (62.8%), ataxia (39.5%) and vomiting and vertigo (both 16.3%). This tumor usually presents with cystic changes (54.5%) with focal enhancement (60.9%) and hydrocephalus (43.2%). Microcalcifications and satellite lesions were common radiographic observations. All reported cases had the classic biphasic pattern. Rosenthal fibers and eosinophilic granular bodies are each present in approximately two thirds of cases. Ki-67 labeling index is consistently low (mean (%): 1.8 ± 0.75 SD). The isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 mutation found in low grade diffuse gliomas is not identified in this RGNT case. Reported outcome is nearly uniformly excellent after complete or subtotal resection. A solitary report of recurrence after 10 years and the limited experience with this entity suggest that long term follow up is advisable. PMID:20872044

Solis, Orestes E; Mehta, Rupal I; Lai, Albert; Mehta, Rashi I; Farchoukh, Lama O; Green, Richard M; Cheng, Jerry C; Natarajan, Sathima; Vinters, Harry V; Cloughesy, Timothy; Yong, William H

2011-05-01

54

Differential somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human normal pineal gland and pineal parenchymal tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Somatostatin is a potent antiproliferative signal in both tumoral and normal mammalian cells, and altered somatostatin receptor (sst) expression is associated with carcinogenesis in human tissues. In this study, two normal and three tumoral human pineal glands were analyzed using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of mRNA coding for the five different somatostatin receptors (sst1-sst5). Pineal parenchymal tumor (PPT) differentiation was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin, neurofilaments, and chromogranin A). The presence of mRNA coding for c-myc, a proto-oncogene, and for tryptophan hydroxylase (TPOH), serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT), and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), enzymes of the melatonin pathway, was also analyzed by RT-PCR. Only the tumoral tissues contained c-myc mRNA. All five tissues contained TPOH, NAT, and HIOMT mRNA, the levels of HIOMT mRNA being lower in PPT than in the normal pineal gland, suggesting that PPT retain the ability to synthesize melatonin. All tissues contained sst1, sst2, and sst3 transcripts, but not sst4, while small amounts of sst5 mRNA were only found in normal pineal glands. Real-time PCR, performed only with the most abundant subtpe sst2, evidenced an about sixfold higher level in in normal pineal glands. These results demonstrate the presence of somatostatin receptors in the human pineal gland, as described in other species, and point to a differential expression of the sst2 and sst5 subtypes associated with carcinogenesis. PMID:12701886

Champier, J; Jouvet, A; Rey, C; Guyotat, J; Fevre-Montange, M

2003-02-01

55

Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples / Magnetic resonance study of the pineal region: normal pineal gland, simple cysts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo) identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4%) [...] e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu maior diâmetro. Os cistos simples da pineal aparecem com frequência de 2,6% em relação a toda a série (762 casos) elevando-se essa frequência para 6,1% se forem consideradas somente as pineais visiblizadas (329 casos). Os cistos simples não se correlacionam nem com a idade nem com o sexo e os cistos sintomáticos são raros. Os critérios para diagnóstico diferencial dos cistos simples versus tumores da região da pineal são: dimensões menores ou iguais a 20 milímetros; espessura da parede abaixo de 2 milímetros; ausência de efeito expansivo; sinal igual ao líquido cefalorraquidiano e ausência de crescimento dos cistos. Abstract in english A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the normal pineal gland and pineal simple cysts was performed in 762 cases. A fine section technique (maximum 3 millimeters) enabled most of the times the identifying of a normal pineal in addition to demonstrating that a pineal without any cyst shows an i [...] sointense signal in Tl and T2 which, in turn, is enhanced following gadolinium. The measure of the normal pineal was of about 6.1 millimeters in its diameter length. Pineal simple cysts were observed in a 2.6% frequency in relation to the whole series (762 cases); however reaches 6.1% when only the visualized pineals were considered (329 cases). Also, it was found out that simple cysts were not correlated to age or gender. Simple cysts characteristics are: dimension less or equal to 20 millimeters; absence of expansive effect; similar signal to that of the cerebrospinal fluid; absence of cyst growth.

JOSÉ GUILHERME, CALDAS; DOMINIQUE, DOYON; HENRIQUE, LEDERMAN; ROBERT, CARLIER.

1998-06-01

56

Pineal yolk sac tumor: correlation between neuroimaging and pathological findings / Tumor do seio endodérmico da pineal: correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um menino de 17 anos de idade apresentou-se com sonolência e confusão mental. O exame físico demonstrou distúrbios motores. A investigação laboratorial revelou aumento dos níveis de alfafetoproteína no soro e no líquor. A TC de crânio revelou massa heterogênea na região pineal. À RM, a lesão era hip [...] ointensa em T1 e hiperintensa em T2, com realce após a administração de contraste. O paciente foi submetido a biópsia cirúrgica, a qual definiu o diagnóstico de tumor do seio endodérmico. Enfatizamos a correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem deste raro tumor da região pineal. Abstract in english A 17-year-old boy presented with somnolence and mental confusion. Physical examination demonstrated motor disturbances. Laboratorial investigation showed elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The CT scan revealed a heterogeneous mass at the pineal region. At the MRI, [...] this lesion was hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, enhancing after contrast administration. The patient underwent a surgical biopsy, which defined the diagnosis of yolk sac tumor. We emphasize the correlation of neuroimaging and pathological findings of this rare pineal region tumor.

Taísa, Davaus; Emerson L., Gasparetto; Arnolfo de, Carvalho Neto; Juliana Elizabeth, Jung; Luiz Fernando, Bleggi-Torres.

2007-06-01

57

Pineal yolk sac tumor: correlation between neuroimaging and pathological findings Tumor do seio endodérmico da pineal: correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 17-year-old boy presented with somnolence and mental confusion. Physical examination demonstrated motor disturbances. Laboratorial investigation showed elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The CT scan revealed a heterogeneous mass at the pineal region. At the MRI, this lesion was hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, enhancing after contrast administration. The patient underwent a surgical biopsy, which defined the diagnosis of yolk sac tumor. We emphasize the correlation of neuroimaging and pathological findings of this rare pineal region tumor.Um menino de 17 anos de idade apresentou-se com sonolência e confusão mental. O exame físico demonstrou distúrbios motores. A investigação laboratorial revelou aumento dos níveis de alfafetoproteína no soro e no líquor. A TC de crânio revelou massa heterogênea na região pineal. À RM, a lesão era hipointensa em T1 e hiperintensa em T2, com realce após a administração de contraste. O paciente foi submetido a biópsia cirúrgica, a qual definiu o diagnóstico de tumor do seio endodérmico. Enfatizamos a correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem deste raro tumor da região pineal.

Taísa Davaus

2007-06-01

58

Brain CT of non-pineal intracranial germ cell tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

19 cases of non-pineal intracranial germ cell tumors were reviewed retrospectively with both radiologic and clinical features. The results were as follows: 1. The age distribution was 8 to 32 year old (16 year old of mean age) and the sex distribution shows male predominance (15:4). 2. The histopathologic diagnosis includes 11 cases of germinoma, 2 case of mixed germ cell tumor, 1 case of embryonal cell carcinoma and 5 cases of unknown. 3. The location of tumors was the sarsaparilla region in 8 cases, the left basal ganglia and thalamus in 5 cases, and the right frontal lobe in 1 case. Among 11 cases of germinoma, 6 cases involve the sarsaparilla region and 3 cases the left basal ganglia and thalamus. 4. In clinical features, there were visual disturbance, diabetes indispose, increased ICP signs, motor weakness, hormonal disorders, and personal changes in order. 5. In tumor marker study of 6 cases of germinoma, 5 cases show increase in HCG titer, but all 6 cases were normal in AFP titer. 6. In brain CT, most of all revealed well-defined homogeneous high density with or without small central low density and homogeneous enhancement at solid portion, and there was calcification in only case with mixed germ cell tumor.

59

Brain CT of non-pineal intracranial germ cell tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

19 cases of non-pineal intracranial germ cell tumors were reviewed retrospectively with both radiologic and clinical features. The results were as follows: 1. The age distribution was 8 to 32 year old (16 year old of mean age) and the sex distribution shows male predominance (15:4). 2. The histopathologic diagnosis includes 11 cases of germinoma, 2 case of mixed germ cell tumor, 1 case of embryonal cell carcinoma and 5 cases of unknown. 3. The location of tumors was the sarsaparilla region in 8 cases, the left basal ganglia and thalamus in 5 cases, and the right frontal lobe in 1 case. Among 11 cases of germinoma, 6 cases involve the sarsaparilla region and 3 cases the left basal ganglia and thalamus. 4. In clinical features, there were visual disturbance, diabetes indispose, increased ICP signs, motor weakness, hormonal disorders, and personal changes in order. 5. In tumor marker study of 6 cases of germinoma, 5 cases show increase in HCG titer, but all 6 cases were normal in AFP titer. 6. In brain CT, most of all revealed well-defined homogeneous high density with or without small central low density and homogeneous enhancement at solid portion, and there was calcification in only case with mixed germ cell tumor.

Lee, Hang Young; Chung, Eun Cheul; Lee, Dong Ho; Choo, In Wook; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1986-02-15

60

Radiation therapy for pineal tumors: 30-year experience at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighteen tumors of the pineal region were treated at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital since 1957. Preoperative evaluation included CT scan in 11 patients and cerebrospinal fluid cytology in four. Histologic diagnosis was obtained in nine patients. Diagnosis in two other patients was based on CT scan response at 2,000 cGY. Fifteen patients received whole-brain irradiation with a boost, one each with limited-field and whole-brain irradiation only. One patient with melanoma received craniospinal irradiation. Median pineal dose was 55 Gy; range, 50-60 Gy. Five treatment failures occurred, four local and one distant. Actuarial survival was 80%, 70%, and 65% at 5, 10, and 20 years. Median follow-up was 8.8 years. Cranial radiotherapy alone appears to control the majority of pineal tumors

61

Radiation Therapy of Midline Pineal Tumors and Suprasellar Germinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

20 cases of midline pineal tumors and 3 suprasellar germinomas received radiation therapy at Yonsei University Medical College, Severance hospital from 1971 to 1982 were reviewed. 12 cases were pathologically proved; 10 germinomas, 1 pineoblastoma, and 1 pineocytoma. 11 cases received radiotherapy without biopsy confirmation. Although treatment fields varied from small field to whole brain irradiation, but not to the spinal cord, most patients received 4000-5000 rads irradiation to the primary tumor site. 17 patients are alive without evidence of disease and 5 year actuarial NED survival is 73.2%. 9 of 10 biopsy proved germinomas and all 6 presumed germinomas are alive and well. Optimum radiation dose, adequate irradiation field, tumor response to radiation observed in serial CT scan and role of radiation therapy in the management of pineal tumors are also discussed

62

RAdiotherapy for tumours of the pineal region and suprasellar germinomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 1960 and 1985, 42 patinets with pineal region tumors and two patients with suprasellar germinomas were treated by irradiation after shuntin gwith biopsy in five cases and subtotal resection in three cases. Ten year survival rates are: 79% in patients less than 31 years old and unbiopsied tumours, 25% in patients older than 30 years and unbiopsied tumours, 3/4 in patients with germinomas. Target volumes varied, but only three cases had craniospinal irradiation. Cumulative risk of spinal seeding in patients with germinomas and unbiolsied tumors is about 6% after cranal radiotherapy. The low risk of spinal seeding in patients with pineal tumours of unknown histology or germinomas without signs of dissemination in the CT/MR, myelography, examination of the CSF (cytology and markers) do not justify prophylactic spinal irradiation. Our data do not show a clear association between cranial target volume (whole brain or local fields) and recurrence rate 41 of 44 cases had target doses higher than 4400 cGy. There is a small but definite risk of major complications after a dose of about 5500 cGy with conventional fractionation. (author). 27 refs.; 5 figs

63

Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe CT and MR findings in a 23-month-old infant with a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal gland. The tumour has been stereotactically biopsied and surgically resected. The pathological diagnosis was made on the resected piece. Embryology of the pineal gland and the histology of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy are discussed. (orig.)

Gorhan, C.; Soto-Ares, G.; Pruvo, J.P. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, Lille (France); Ruchoux, M.M. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France); Blond, S. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France)

2001-11-01

64

Intracranial germinomas with simultaneous lesions at pineal and suprasellar regions: diagnostics and therapeutics considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germinomas are the most common intracranial germ cell tumor. Germinomas comprise 65% of this type of tumor and represent a less malignant form. This neoplasm constitutes approximately 0.1% to 3.4% of all intracranial tumors. The embryologic origin remains a mystery. Ninety-five percent of germinomas arise in the region of the third ventricle, along an axis from the suprasellar cistern (48%) to the pineal region (37%, involvement of both sites, either sequentially or simultaneously, ocurred rarely (6%). Clinical presentation depends on tumor location and may involve endocrine, hypothalamic, visual and cognitive dysfunction. We report two cases of patients with germinomas with simultaneous lesions in both the suprasellar and pineal regions and review on the clinical presentation, means of diagnosis, treatment using radiotherapy and outcome of this rate treatable neoplasm. (The author)

65

Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery of pineal and related tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of gamma radiosurgery as an additional therapy after conventional treatments for pineal and related tumors was studied in 30 out of 33 cases with a mean follow-up of 23.3 months. Overall results showed that complete response (CR) was obtained in 8 cases (26.7%) and response rate was 73.3%. However, enlargement of the tumors was noted in 8 cases, of which 7 (23.3%) died of tumor progression (PG). Germinomas and pineocytomas showed higher response and control rates of 100%, and no tumor enlargement or death occurred after gamma knife treatment. In germinoma with STGC (syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell) which has been thought to have intermediate prognosis, two cases showed partial response (PR), but another died from progression of the disease. Malignant germ cell tumors and pineoblastomas showed unfavorable response and prognosis; the response and progression rates were 50%. However, complete response was obtained in 3 cases (25%) after gamma radiosurgery. Gamma knife was the initial treatment in three cases without pathological diagnosis in which one obtained CR and two showed partial response (PR). Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery is expected to be an effective and novel treatment for pineal and related tumors not only as an adjuvant, but also as an initial therapy. (author)

Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Mori, Yoshimasa; Yamada, Yasushi; Kida, Yoshihisa [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan). Gamma Knife Center

2001-06-01

66

Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery of pineal and related tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of gamma radiosurgery as an additional therapy after conventional treatments for pineal and related tumors was studied in 30 out of 33 cases with a mean follow-up of 23.3 months. Overall results showed that complete response (CR) was obtained in 8 cases (26.7%) and response rate was 73.3%. However, enlargement of the tumors was noted in 8 cases, of which 7 (23.3%) died of tumor progression (PG). Germinomas and pineocytomas showed higher response and control rates of 100%, and no tumor enlargement or death occurred after gamma knife treatment. In germinoma with STGC (syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell) which has been thought to have intermediate prognosis, two cases showed partial response (PR), but another died from progression of the disease. Malignant germ cell tumors and pineoblastomas showed unfavorable response and prognosis; the response and progression rates were 50%. However, complete response was obtained in 3 cases (25%) after gamma radiosurgery. Gamma knife was the initial treatment in three cases without pathological diagnosis in which one obtained CR and two showed partial response (PR). Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery is expected to be an effective and novel treatment for pineal and related tumors not only as an adjuvant, but also as an initial therapy. (author)

67

Nonsurgical pineal tumor therapy - The Japanese experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biological characteristics of intracranial germ cell tumors have gradually been clarified in recent years. Germ cell tumors are divided into three major histological types; radiation sensitive germinoma, radiation resistant mature teratoma, and malignant teratoma. Radiation, surgery, or chemotherapy as the principal therapeutic procedure for each type is selected based on the tumor's biological nature. Mature teratomas are surgically treated. Most germinomas can usually be treated by simple radiation even though a shunting procedure is sometimes required. Since malignant teratomas often produce HCG or AFP, these tumors can be diagnosed by the presence of such tumor markers in the serum without histological verification. Patients having functioning germ cell tumors can not be completely cured today by surgery alone and/or by simple radiation; they definitely require adjuvant chemotherapy or immunotherapy. In this paper, the statistical analysis of germ cell tumors in Japan and the results of treatment mainly by radiotherapy for germinoma and functioning germ cell tumors treated in the authors' clinic are summarized

68

Meningioma of the pineal region: a surgical series of 10 cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten cases of meningioma of the pineal region were histologically verified at a single institution during an 8-year period. These represented 0.3% of 3061 intracranial meningiomas, as well as 6.2% of 164 pineal tumors. Patients were predominantly women. Symptoms and signs of increased intracranial pressure were most common, whereas Parinaud's syndrome was observed in only one case. Computerized tomography (CT) was the main diagnostic test used in the present series. It usually revealed a hyperdense mass with high-intensity contrast enhancement and a calcified mass eccentrically located at the periphery, which returned to its central location postsurgically and was likely to represent a calcified pineal gland. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in the more recent cases and confirmed the suspicion raised by CT of a meningioma with a calcified mass at its periphery. Surgery was performed using an occipital transtentorial microsurgical approach with the patient placed in the semisitting position. Gross-total tumor removal was achieved in all cases, although this required sacrifice of the vein of Galen in six patients. Venous occlusion was performed only after adequate intraoperative verification of functional occlusion and blood flow diversion from the galenic system and had no consequences in any case but one. This latter patient had an infiltrative meningioma that was removed at the expense of intraoperative sacrifice of the two internal cerebral veins, as well as unavoidable trauma to the region of the quadrigeminal plate. All the remaining patients improved postsurgery, and only one had a permanent visual field deficit as a result of the surgical approach. Pineal meningiomas represent a rare subgroup of pineal tumors that can be treated surgically with reasonably good results. Sacrifice of major basal veins may be required to achieve radical tumor removal and can be tolerated by the patient provided that functional occlusion of the galenic system, as indicated by preoperative angiography, is verified during surgery. PMID:8814160

Konovalov, A N; Spallone, A; Pitzkhelauri, D I

1996-10-01

69

Masses in the pineal region - MRI with Gd-DTPA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results obtained from contrast-enhanced MRI in 21 patients with masses in the pineal region are reported. The use of gadolinium-DTPA results in intensive contrast uptake by the tumour; this produces better definition of the tumour and more exact delineation from neighbouring structures. This is of importance in judging resectability and in choosing the operative approach. During chemotherapy or radiotherapy, it provides reliable demonstration of the success of treatment and accurately demonstrates the size of the tumour and the presence of necrosis. On the other hand, histologic classification of pineal tumours is possible only occasionally. (orig.)

70

Correlación cito-histológica del tumor papilar de la glándula pineal. Presentación de un caso / Papillary pineal tumor: cyto-histological correlation. Case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la última revisión de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en relación a los tumores del sistema nervioso central (SNC), se describieron nuevas entidades, como el Tumor Papilar de la Glándula Pineal. Esta lesión de rara aparición, se ha identificado en adultos jóvenes. El diagnóstico de esto [...] s tumores es complejo ya que depende de su ubicación, edad de aparición y el aspecto histológico; éste último tiene similitudes con otras lesiones como el ependimoma papilar o el papiloma/carcinoma de plexos coroides. Citológicamente presentan características claras que pueden ayudar al diagnóstico a través de la impronta en el estudio intraoperatorio; reconocer ciertos criterios con éste importante y sencillo método diagnóstico ha sido la motivación principal para el estudio de entidades poco frecuentes del SNC, además de corroborar el necesario trabajo de un equipo multidisciplinar. Abstract in english In the latest revision of the central nervous system tumors (CNS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), new entities has been described, as papillary tumor of the pineal region. This rare lesion has been identified in young adults. The diagnosis of these tumors is complex, depends on the location, [...] age of onset and histological appearance. Histological characteristics have similarities with other lesions such as papillary ependymoma, papiloma / choroid plexus carcinoma. Cytologically have clear characteristics that can aid in the diagnosis through the smears on the intraoperative study. Certain criteria for recognize this important and simple diagnostic method has been the main motivation for the study of CNS rare entities, as our case, in addition to corroborating the necessary work of a multidisciplinary team.

Rosa A, Barbella-Aponte; Nohelia, Rojas-Ferrer; JP, García de la Torre; Roberto, Vera-Berón.

2014-01-01

71

Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples Magnetic resonance study of the pineal region: normal pineal gland, simple cysts  

OpenAIRE

Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo) identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4%) e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu maior diâmetro. Os ...

JOSÉ GUILHERME CALDAS; DOMINIQUE DOYON; HENRIQUE LEDERMAN; ROBERT CARLIER

1998-01-01

72

Isodense epidermoid cyst in the pineal region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 69-year-old male was admitted complaining of gait disturbances and diplopia, 2.5 years after an episode of serous meningitis. Neurological examination on admission disclosed Parinaud's sign, unsteady gait and dysdiadochokinesis on the left side. A striking finding on the computerized tomography (CT) was the left to right shift of the posterior portion of the third ventricle without visualization of the quadrigeminal and ambient cisterns, which were almost completely occupied by an isodense mass accompanied by high dense flecks and a low dense part. Enhanced CT showed positive enhancement in the vicinity of the pineal calcification. By the suboccipital supracerebellar approach, an encapsulated mass containing brownish yellow fluid was subtotally removed and a histological examination of it revealed epidermoid tissue and hemosiderin deposits in the solid portion. Few reports of isodense epidermoid cysts have so far been found in the literature giving a full explanation for this unusual CT attenuation value. Based on the clinical course and histology of this case, the pathogenesis of the unusual density is discussed along the following lines: The mixture of the low dense factor due to cholesterin and the high dense factor due to prior bleeding is believed to result in the isodense attenuation value in the liquid portion. Also, in the solid part, a microscopically mixed texture of deposited hemosiderin and cholesterin clefts in the inflammatory granulomatous tissue coulthe inflammatory granulomatous tissue could explain its density on the CT scan. (author)

73

The role of computed tomography in the management of pineal area tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eleven patients with pathology-proven pineal area tumors were evaluated by computed tomography before and after treatment. There were 3 germinomas, 3 gliomas, 2 metastases, and 1 each of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, epidermoid tumor, and neuroblastoma. An accurate CT diagnosis was made in 9 of the 11 cases. Although CT findings are not pathognomonic, an accurate diagnosis is possible in most cases if the CT information is combined with the age, sex, clinical findings, and, in some patients, tumor response to irradiation. CT, a noninvasive procedure, can help in evaluating the effects of various treatment modalities on pineal tumors

74

Germinomas cerebrais (teratomas atípicos da pineal Cerebral germinomas (atipical teratomas of the pineal region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available São estudados três casos de germinomas cerebrais, sendo um tópico, da região pineal, e dois ectópicos, chamados germinomas supra-selares ou quiasmáticos. Estes últimos parecem ser mais agressivos que os seus congeneres tópicos, pois alem de se disseminarem pelas cisternas basais, costumam infiltrar as paredes do III ventrículo, fórnix, hipotálamo, nervos e quiasma ópticos. Caracteristicamente produzem um enorme aumento das proteínas liquóricas, desacompanhado de uma pleocitose proporcional. As proteínas liquóricas aumentadas sao globulinas cujas reações mostram-se fortemente positivas, possivelmente produzidas pelas celulas de aspecto linfocitario que constituem parte desta neoplasia. O aumento das proteinas liquoricas e tao acentuado que em presenca de uma crianca ou adolescente com sindrome de hipertensão intracraniana, hiperproteinoraquia sem pleocitose e sinais clínicos ou radiológicos sugestivos de localização na base do crânio a possibilidade de um germinoma quiasmático deve ser seriamente considerada, pois o quadro e muito sugestivo.Three cases of Cerebral Germinomas, one of them situated in the pineal region (topical and two ectopical of the so called suprasellar or chiasmal Germinomas are studied. These last ones may be more aggressive than the congeneral topical ones, since besides it's dissemination throughout the basal cisternas they usually infilstrate into de walls of the III Ventricle, Fornix, Hypothalamus, Chiasma and Optic nervs. A high level of proteins in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells is characteristic. Globulins are the predominant fraction of the increased spinal fluid proteins, as indicated by the highly positive laboratory test. These globulins are possibly produced by the lymphocytes which are part of this neoplasm. The high level of protein in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells, in the presence of intracranial syndrome in a child or adolescent, with anatomical signs of basal localization make the possibility of a Chiasmal Germinona highly probable.

Alexandre Alencar

1981-12-01

75

Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the pineal region: Cytopathological features and differential diagnostic considerations by intraoperative smear preparation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified type of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) with shorter progression-free and overall survival, higher rate of recurrence, and higher risk of leptomeningeal spread compared to pilocytic tumors (WHO grade 2 designation). A case is presented here in which intraoperative imprint smears of a pineal region tumor in a 14-year-old girl revealed cytologic monomorphism, elongated cells with bland nuclei embedded in a myxoid background. The tumor cells possessed uniformly round nuclei with a smooth nuclear outline, fine granular chromatin, and small nucleoli. Slender cytoplasmic fibrillary processes and angiocentric arrangement were observed but Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies were absent. A cytologic diagnosis of PMA of the pineal region was suggested by intraoperative smear preparation. Histology and immunohistochemical results confirmed the final diagnosis. This report shows that smear preparation can be trustworthy for the intraoperative diagnosis of PMA, helping to determine the appropriate neurosurgical procedure and therapeutic implications. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:121-124. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24578310

Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Haba, Reiji; Kushida, Yoshio; Katsuki, Naomi; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Kadota, Kyuichi; Matsunaga, Toru; Miyake, Keisuke; Tamiya, Takashi

2015-02-01

76

Cystic lesions of the pineal region - MRI and pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pineal lesions are rare. Tumours in this location comprise 0.4-1% of intracranial tumours. They grow mainly as solid-mass lesions, and cystic tumours are not common. On MRI, a cystic configuration is associated usually with non-neoplastic pineal lesions rather than with a tumour, but analysis does not allow cystic pineal tumours to be distinguished from glial cysts with certainty. We compared neuroradiological and pathological data from 13 cystic pineal lesions, analysing preoperative MRI. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens were stained routinely and immunocytochemically, using the streptavidin-biotin-complex method. Histology revealed six pineocytomas, four glial cysts, an arachnoid cyst, a low-grade astrocytoma and a teratoma. Signal characteristics of pineocytomas were similar in many respects to those of glial pineal cysts. Histomorphological analysis allowed unambiguous discrimination between pineocytomas and glial pineal cysts. (orig.)

Engel, U. [Department of Neuropathology, Benjamin-Franklin-Klinikum, Faculty of Medicine, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Gottschalk, S.; Niehaus, L.; Lehmann, R. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Radiological Diagnosis, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); May, C.; Vogel, S. [Neurosurgical Clinic, St. Gertraud' s Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Jaenisch, W. [Department of Neuropathology, Landesklinik Brandenburg (Germany)

2000-06-01

77

MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma: focus on differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the characteristic MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma, and differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors. MR images of patients with histopathologically proven pineal germinoma(n=3D14) and other pineal germ cell tumors(n=3D10) were retrospectively analyzed with regard to size, signal intensity and homogeneity, enhancing features, cyst formation, and multiplicity of lesions. Other pineal germ cell tumors were the mixed germ cell tumors (n=3D4), malignant teratomas (n=3D3), choriocarcinoma(n=3D1), embryonal carcinoma(n=3D1), and endodermal sinus tumor(n=3D1). Tumor markers were evaluated. On T1-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(86%) or iso signal intensity (93%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or iso signal intensity(70%). On T2-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(64%) or iso signal intensity(57%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or high signal intensity(80%). On Gd-DTPA enhanced images, germinomas showed homogeneous (93%) or strong enhancement (64%), while other germ cell tumors showed homogeneous(60%) or strong enhancement (70%). Cyst formation was noted in ten Patients (71%) with germinoma and in six (60%) with other germ cell tumors. Invasion on surrounding structures was seen in 11 patients (79%) with germinoma and in five (50%) with other germ cell tumors. Lesions were multiple in three patients(21%) with germinoma. Thirteen of 14 patients with germinoma had normal serum {alpha}-FP(tetoprotein) and {beta}-HCG(human chononic gonafotrophin) levels. Two of four patients with mixed germ cell tumors had elevated serum {beta}-FP and {alpha}-HCG levels; in the ther two, elevated serum {alpha}-FP or {beta}-HCG levels were noted. In the malignant teratoma and embryonal carcinoma patients, serum {alpha}-FP and {beta}-HCG levels were normal. The patient with choriocarcinoma had an elevated serum {beta}-HCG level. On T1W1, the only significant differential point (p<0.01) between germinomas and other germ cell tumors was homogeneity. Germinomas were frequently homogeneous, and iso signal intensity on T1WI and T2WI, strong enhancement, and the formation of small cysts(<3mm) was noted. This MR imaging finding, combined with assay for tumor markers, is helpful for the differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma and other germ cell tumors.=20.

Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Ho Kyu; Kim, Jae Kyun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Myung Jun; Ham, Soo Youn; Lee, Jong Hwa; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1998-10-01

78

MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma: focus on differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the characteristic MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma, and differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors. MR images of patients with histopathologically proven pineal germinoma(n=3D14) and other pineal germ cell tumors(n=3D10) were retrospectively analyzed with regard to size, signal intensity and homogeneity, enhancing features, cyst formation, and multiplicity of lesions. Other pineal germ cell tumors were the mixed germ cell tumors (n=3D4), malignant teratomas (n=3D3), choriocarcinoma(n=3D1), embryonal carcinoma(n=3D1), and endodermal sinus tumor(n=3D1). Tumor markers were evaluated. On T1-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(86%) or iso signal intensity (93%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or iso signal intensity(70%). On T2-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(64%) or iso signal intensity(57%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or high signal intensity(80%). On Gd-DTPA enhanced images, germinomas showed homogeneous (93%) or strong enhancement (64%), while other germ cell tumors showed homogeneous(60%) or strong enhancement (70%). Cyst formation was noted in ten Patients (71%) with germinoma and in six (60%) with other germ cell tumors. Invasion on surrounding structures was seen in 11 patients (79%) with germinoma and in five (50%) with other germ cell tumors. Lesions were multiple in three patients(21%) with germinoma. Thirteen of 14 patients with germinoma had normal serum patients with germinoma had normal serum ?-FP(tetoprotein) and ?-HCG(human chononic gonafotrophin) levels. Two of four patients with mixed germ cell tumors had elevated serum ?-FP and ?-HCG levels; in the ther two, elevated serum ?-FP or ?-HCG levels were noted. In the malignant teratoma and embryonal carcinoma patients, serum ?-FP and ?-HCG levels were normal. The patient with choriocarcinoma had an elevated serum ?-HCG level. On T1W1, the only significant differential point (p<0.01) between germinomas and other germ cell tumors was homogeneity. Germinomas were frequently homogeneous, and iso signal intensity on T1WI and T2WI, strong enhancement, and the formation of small cysts(<3mm) was noted. This MR imaging finding, combined with assay for tumor markers, is helpful for the differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma and other germ cell tumors.=20

79

Precocious Puberty due to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin-Secreting Pineal Tumor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a 9-year-old boy with central precocious puberty and hydrocephalus causedby a human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG secreting pineal tumor. High levels of ?-hCGin the serum and cerebrospinal fluid were observed in this patient. The patient receivedradiotherapy and chemotherapy without surgical intervention. Subsequently, significanttumor regression was observed and the serum ?-hCG level normalized. There was no evidenceof tumor recurrence at follow-up one year after treatment. The role of tissue biopsy toestablish a diagnosis in pineal germ cell tumors remains controversial because it can be adifficult procedure and may be dangerous, causing severe complications. In this patient, theelevated ?-hCG level indicated the presence of a tumor and was considered sufficient evidenceto warrant initiating treatment.

Ho-Chang Kuo

2006-04-01

80

Pineal germinoma with extracranial metastases: case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pineal germinoma is the commonest pineal region tumor of childhood and adolescence. Metastatic germinoma most commonly occurs via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and it is usually limited to the cerebrospinal axis. ExtacraniaI hematogenous metastasis is known to be very rare. We report here on a case of pineal germinoma with gradual extracranial metastases that occurred both through the CSF pathway and by hematogenous spread. The patient had multifocal CSF seeding after his surgery for pineal germinoma, and the left iliac metastasis and lung metastasis then occurred.

Lee, Young Rang; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Park, Moon Hyang; Ko, Yong [College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2004-08-01

81

Pineal germinoma with extracranial metastases: case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal germinoma is the commonest pineal region tumor of childhood and adolescence. Metastatic germinoma most commonly occurs via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and it is usually limited to the cerebrospinal axis. ExtacraniaI hematogenous metastasis is known to be very rare. We report here on a case of pineal germinoma with gradual extracranial metastases that occurred both through the CSF pathway and by hematogenous spread. The patient had multifocal CSF seeding after his surgery for pineal germinoma, and the left iliac metastasis and lung metastasis then occurred

82

Significant anti-tumor effect of bevacizumab in treatment of pineal gland glioblastoma multiforme.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive subtype of malignant gliomas. Current standard treatment for GBM involves a combination of cytoreduction through surgical resection, followed by radiation with concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy (temozolomide). The role of bevacizumab in the treatment of GBM continues to be a topic of ongoing research and debate. Despite aggressive treatment, these tumors remain undoubtedly fatal, especially in the elderly. Furthermore, tumors present in the pineal gland are extremely rare, accounting for only 0.1-0.4 % of all adult brain tumors, with this location adding to the complexity of treatment. We present a case of GBM, at the rare location of pineal gland, in an elderly patient who was refractory to initial standard of care treatment with radiation and concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide, but who developed a significant response to anti-angiogenic therapy using bevacizumab. PMID:24998223

Mansour, Joshua; Fields, Braxton; Macomson, Samuel; Rixe, Olivier

2014-12-01

83

Pineal gland in rats with 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene-induced mammary tumors subjected to manipulations known as enhancers of pineal actions  

OpenAIRE

The ultrastructure of pinealocytes was studied in rats with 7,17-dimethylbenz (a) anthraceneinduced manimary tumors which were subjected to experimental manipulations known as enhancers of pineal actions (anosmia, underfeeding or cold exposure). In these aniinals we found: (1) - more nuclei with deep nuclear invaginations; (11) - a large number of cytoplasmic organelles, including lipid droplets. myeloid bodies, synaptic ribbons and lysosomes; (111) - numer...

Cos, S.; Bardasano, J. L.; Mediavilla, M. D.; Sa?nchez Barcelo?, E. J.

1989-01-01

84

Evaluation of pineal calcification in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study cases were 804 patients who had received either CT or plain radiographs for some reasons. Their ages ranged from newborn to 15 years old. Twenty four patients had the pineal calcification, in which one patient had the pineal region tumor and 4 patients had precocious puberty. The incidence of the pineal calcification was observed on CT as 0.2, 5.8, and 14 % in their age of 0 to 5, 6 to 10, and 11 to 15 years old, respectively. On the other hand, this finding was detected only in 0, 1.1, and 1.2 % on plain radiographs. In conclusion, pineal calcification on CT may suggest the pathological state in children. Although it is observed in a minority of normal children, such a calcification could be looked upon as not only pineal region tumor but precocious puberty and other intracranial disorders with suspicion. (author)

85

Pineal and Pituitary Glands  

Science.gov (United States)

... Brain & Other Nervous System Tumors » Brain & CNS Tumors » Anatomy » Pineal and Pituitary Glands Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Site-specific Modules Brain & Other Nervous System Tumors Non-malignant Brain Tumors History of CNS Tumor Surveillance & Registration BTWG Recommendations Public ...

86

Pineal region tumours treated with interstitial brachytherapy with low activity sources (192-iridium)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three patients with tumours of the pineal region underwent interstitial Ir-192 brachytherapy. Histological diagnoses were obtained in all patients, by stereotactic biopsy and included one germinoma, one mixed pineoblastomapincocytoma, and one astrocytoma grade III. Our approach to pineal region neoplasms is first to decide whether sterotactic biopsy or surgery should be performed. When a pineal lesion is thought to be benign on the basis of imaging, such as benign teratoma, surgery is performed to resect the entire lesion. When a definitive diagnosis is not possible, stereotactic biopsy is performed to obtain a histological diagnosis for treatment planning, using a Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) stereotactic apparatus with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). When a lesion is malignant and localized, stereotactic implantation of catheters for interstitial brachytherapy is performed simultaneously. Radioactive Ir-192 seeds are inserted into the catheters and maintained for 5-10 days to give 36 Gy of irradiation at the tumour periphery. Sequential CT scans and MRI after treatment revealed tumour disappearance in two patients with germinoma and high grade astrocytoma and tumour reduction in the patient with mixed pineoblastoma/pineocytoma. No significant morbidity or mortality occurred in any of these patients after stereotactic biopsy and brachytherapy. The technique and the advantages of this therapeutic approach to selected pineal region tumours arroach to selected pineal region tumours are described and discussed. (author)

87

Analysis of clinical features and treatment in mature teratomas at pineal region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surgical treatment through occipital tentorium of cerebellum approach was performed in nine cases of mature teratoma at the pineal region. Diagnosis was confirmed by postoperative pathological examination. No perioperative death occurred. Surgery-related complications (visual difficulties, visual field defects, seizures were seen in 4 cases. All cases were followed for 3 months-7 years (mean 3.70 years. The mature teratoma at the pineal region are more common in male children. The main clinical manifestations are intracranial hypertension and ataxia. Neurosurgical treatment may provide satisfactory outcome.

QI Gui-jun

2012-04-01

88

Use of 3D-computed tomography angiography for planning the surgical removal of pineal region meningiomas using Poppen's approach: a report of ten cases and a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several treatment approaches for pineal region meningiomas, such as Poppen's approach, Krause's approach and combinations of the two approaches. We present our experience with the use of 3D-computed tomography angiography for planning the surgical removal of pineal region meningiomas using a suboccipital transtentorial approach (Poppen's approach and evaluate the role of Poppen's approach. Methods During the period from January 2005 to June 2010, ten patients presented to us with pineal region meningioma. MRI was routinely used to define the tumor size, position, and its relevant complications while 3D-CTA was applied to define the blood supply of the tumor and the venous complex (VC shift before operations. Most of the meningiomas had developed at both sides of the tentorial plane and extended laterally with typical characteristics of a pineal region tumor. Results All tumors were completely removed surgically without any injury to the VC. Postoperative intracranial infection occurred in one case who recovered after antibiotics were given. Postoperative intraventricular hemorrhage and pneumocephalus were found in one case, but fully recovered after conservative treatment. In the nine cases of concurrent hydrocephalus, this was gradually relieved in eight patients and the single case that became aggravated was successfully treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Moreover, the follow-up MRI examinations did not indicate any recurrence of the meningiomas. Conclusion We found that the use of Poppen's approach is strongly supported for the successful removal of pineal region meningiomas without serious complications.

Li Ye

2011-06-01

89

MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Satoh, H. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Uozumi, T. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Arita, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Sumida, M. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

1995-11-01

90

MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs

91

Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor pineal gland and tectum: an intraoperative diagnosis on smear preparation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an extremely rare case of newly described entity called rosette forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT), involving the pineal gland, tectum, and the adjacent thalamus in a 22-year-old male. Interestingly, the ventricular system was not involved in this case. The tumor was diagnosed intraoperatively on smear preparation on cytomorphology. If sampled adequately, it is fairly easy to diagnose RGNT on smear preparation as it has a very distinctive cytomorphology of being composed of two population of cell. One of the components is pilocytic astrocytoma and the other is composed of small cells with scant cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei, arranged around neuropil-like material forming "neurocytic rosettes." To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of RGNT in this rare location being diagnosed intraoperatively on smear preparation. PMID:19941371

Ghosal, Nandita; Furtado, Sunil V; Hegde, A S

2010-08-01

92

Isodense epidermoid cyst in the pineal region. Case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 69-year-old male was admitted complaining of gait disturbances and diplopia, 2.5 years after an episode of serous meningitis. Neurological examination on admission disclosed Parinaud's sign, unsteady gait and dysdiadochokinesis on the left side. A striking finding on the computerized tomography (CT) was the left to right shift of the posterior portion of the third ventricle without visualization of the quadrigeminal and ambient cisterns, which were almost completely occupied by an isodense mass accompanied by high dense flecks and a low dense part. Enhanced CT showed positive enhancement in the vicinity of the pineal calcification. By the suboccipital supracerebellar approach, an encapsulated mass containing brownish yellow fluid was subtotally removed and a histological examination of it revealed epidermoid tissue and hemosiderin deposits in the solid portion. Few reports of isodense epidermoid cysts have so far been found in the literature giving a full explanation for this unusual CT attenuation value. Based on the clinical course and histology of this case, the pathogenesis of the unusual density is discussed along the following lines: The mixture of the low dense factor due to cholesterin and the high dense factor due to prior bleeding is believed to result in the isodense attenuation value in the liquid portion. Also, in the solid part, a microscopically mixed texture of deposited hemosiderin and cholesterin clefts in the inflammatory granulomatous tissue could explain its density on the CT scan.

Yamanouchi, Yasuo; Takahara, Nobuhiko; Kawamura, Yasuo; Matsumura, Hiroshi

1985-02-01

93

Malformación cavernosa de la región pineal: Caso clínico y revisión de la literatura / Cavernous malformation of the pineal region: Case report and review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las malformaciones cavernosas de la región pineal son raras, con solamente 21 casos publicados hasta el momento en la literatura. A pesar de la dificultad de su diagnóstico debido a su extrema rareza, la presencia de esta lesión puede ser sospechada basándonos en sus características radiológicas. Pr [...] esentamos el caso de una paciente de 57 años de edad, con un cuadro clínico de instauración aguda de desorientación, somnolencia y diplopia. La TC cerebral mostró una hemorragia aguda en la región pineal e hidrocefalia triventricular asociada y la RM cerebral fue sugestiva de que se tratase de una malformación cavernosa. La paciente fue operada con escisión total de la lesión y el estudio histológico confirmó el diagnóstico de angioma cavernoso. Concluimos que la cirugía para extracción total de la lesión es el tratamiento de elección cuando, basados en la imagen, sospechamos un angioma cavernoso de la región pineal. Abstract in english Cavernous malformations rarely occur in the pineal region with only 21 reported to date. Although its diagnosis is not easy because of the extreme rareness of this condition, the presence of this lesion can be suspected based on its typical radiological findings. We report the case of a 57-year-old [...] woman presented with desorientation, somnolence and diplopy. The CT-scan showed an acute hemorrhage in the pineal region and triventricular hydrocephalus. An MRI suggested a cavernous malformation. The patient was operated with total en-bloc removal of the lesion. We conclude that surgical exploration and total resection is the treatment of choice when the diagnosis of cavernous angioma is suspected of the basis of neuroimaging.

C., Chamadoira; A., Cerejo; A., Vilarinho; L., Castro; R., Vaz.

2010-04-01

94

Expression of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase enzyme in the human central nervous system and in pineal parenchymal cell tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal parenchymal tumor (PPT) cells usually show immunoreactivity for synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament protein, class III beta-tubulin, tau protein, PGP9.5, chromogranin, serotonin, retinal S-antigen, and rhodopsin, but these markers are not specific for PPTs. Melatonin is produced and secreted mainly bypineal parenchymal cells; hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) catalyzes the final reaction in melatonin biosynthesis. We hypothesized that HIOMT could serve as a tumor marker of PPTs, and we investigated HIOMT localization and HIOMT expression in samples of normal human tissue and in PPTs, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and medulloblastomas. In normal tissue, HIOMT was expressed in retinal cells, pineal parenchymal cells, neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, microglia, macrophages, thyroid follicular epithelium, principal and oxyphil cells of parathyroid gland, adrenal cortical cells, hepatic parenchymal cells, renal tubule epithelium, and enteroendocrine cells of stomach and duodenum. The HIOMT was also expressed in all 46 PPTs studied. The proportions of HIOMT-immunoreactive cells successively decreased in the following tumors: pineocytoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, and pineoblastoma. A few HIOMT-immunoreactive cells were observed in one of 6 primitive neuroectodermal tumors and 23 of 42 medulloblastomas. These results indicate that HIOMT immunohistochemistry may be useful for the diagnosis of PPTs and be a prognostic factor in PPTs. PMID:20418777

Fukuda, Takahiro; Akiyama, Nobutake; Ikegami, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Atsushi; Oka, Hidehiro; Komori, Takashi; Tanaka, Yuko; Nakazato, Youichi; Akimoto, Jiro; Tanaka, Masahiko; Okada, Yoshikazu; Saito, Saburo

2010-05-01

95

Intracranial physiological calcification on computed tomography, 1. Calcification of pineal region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Of intracranial physiological calcification, common calcification of pineal region, choroid plexus of lateral ventricles and of basal ganglia was examined based on the frequency of occurence of age and sex and type of CT scanners. Consecutive cases of 2877 (1450 males and 1427 females) underwent plain CT scanning were studied. Pathological calcification was excluded from this study. Three types of CT scanners (SCN-200, Somatom 2 and TCT-10 A) were used. As a whole, calcification was shown in 67.7 % in pineal region, 57.6 % in choroid plexus of lateral ventricles and 7.5 % in basal ganglia. First, we reported in detail the calcification of pineal region, in which calcification occurred most frequently. Calcification in pineal region had a close relation with age by increasing with aging. The youngest patient was 8 years old. There was a striking increase in number of patients aged from 10 to 39 years. There was a gradual increase in those aged over 40 years. Of patients aged from 70 to 79 years, calcification was found in 81.5 %. The incidence was noted no changes in patients aged over 80 years. As for patients aged over 20 years, calcification was observed in 75.1 % (82.6 % males and 68.0 % females). In patients aged from 20 to 79 years, the calcification was significantly higher in male than female. Although there was a different incidence of calcification examined by three types of CT scanners, it was not significant. There was no significant difference between thickness of 8 mm section and 10 mm.

Kwak, Ryungchan; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Ito, Shotaro; Kadoya, Satoru

1988-06-01

96

Incidence of calcification in the pineal gland, habenular commissure and choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CT scans of 3,000 consecutive normal persons were examined to verify the incidence of calcification in the pineal body, the habenular commissure, and the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle. In people over 10 years old, pineal calcification was found in 83% (male 83%, female 81%), habenular calcification in 18% (male 22%, female 60%). In people over 30 years of age, pineal calcification was found in 86%, habenular calcification in 20%, and choroid plexus calcification in 69%. There was a preponderance of male cases in almost all decades. There were four types of calcification patterns in the pineal region, including the pineal body and the habenular commissure: 1) The first type was the P type, in which the pineal body only was calcified. This type was the most frequent one. 2) The second type was the hP type. Both the habenular commissure and the pineal body were calcified, but the latter was larger. 3) The third type was the Hp type. Both the habenular commissure and the pineal body were calcified, but the former was larger. 4) The fourth type was the HP conjugated type. The calcifications of the habenular commissure and the pineal body were fused, in contrast to the three above-mentioned types, in which the two calcifications were separated. The fourth type was then classified into four subtypes. The size and shape of the calcification in the pineal region were examined in 29 pineal-region tumors and other germinoma cases. There were no specific differences in es. There were no specific differences in calcification between normal persons and the pineal region tumor cases. However, there was a tendency for the pineal body calcification in the pineal teratoma to deviate unilaterally. (author)

97

Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor in the pineal gland and the third ventricle: a case with radiological and clinical implications  

OpenAIRE

A 39-year-old man presented with more than 20 years history of episodic headache and one year history of dizziness, impaired vision and memory disorders. Computed tomography and Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic mass involving the pineal gland, tectum and the third ventricle and obstruction of the aqueduct. Interestingly, the fourth ventricle was not involved in this case. The pathological diagnosis was rosette forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT). These lesions are considered low-gra...

Xu, Junqing; Yang, Yong; Liu, Ying; Wei, Mengqi; Ren, Jing; Chang, Yingjuan; Huan, Yi; Yin, Hong; Xue, Yan

2012-01-01

98

Evaluation of pineal calcification in children. Using both CT and plain radiographs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study cases were 804 patients who had received either CT or plain radiographs for some reasons. Their ages ranged from newborn to 15 years old. Twenty four patients had the pineal calcification, in which one patient had the pineal region tumor and 4 patients had precocious puberty. The incidence of the pineal calcification was observed on CT as 0.2, 5.8, and 14 % in their age of 0 to 5, 6 to 10, and 11 to 15 years old, respectively. On the other hand, this finding was detected only in 0, 1.1, and 1.2 % on plain radiographs. In conclusion, pineal calcification on CT may suggest the pathological state in children. Although it is observed in a minority of normal children, such a calcification could be looked upon as not only pineal region tumor but precocious puberty and other intracranial disorders with suspicion.

Ando, Kazuo; Odagiri, Kunio; Fujiwara, Takuya; Tanohata, Kazunori; Matsui, Kengo; Okano, Shigeki

1987-07-01

99

Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quantitative values of CT attenuation, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standardized uptake value (SUV) were investigated for differentiation between pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and germinomas. Differences in age, sex, and calcification pattern were also evaluated. Twenty-three patients with PPTs and germinomas in 20 years were retrospectively enrolled under the approval of the institutional review board. CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV (20, 13, and 10 patients, respectively) were statistically compared between the two tumors. Differences in sex and patterns of calcification (''exploded'' or ''engulfed'') were also examined. Mean patient ages were compared among three groups of pineoblastoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, (PPTID) and pineocytoma and germinoma. None of the quantitative values of CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p >.05). However, there was a significant difference in age (p <.05) among the three groups of pineoblastoma (mean age ± standard deviation 7.0 ± 8.7 years), PPTID, and pineocytoma (53.7 ± 11.4 years) and germinoma (19.1 ± 8.1 years). Sex also showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p =.039). Exploded pattern of calcification was found in 9 of 11 PPT patients and engulfed pattern in 7 of 9 patients with germinomas. No reverse pattern was observed, and the patterns of calcification were considered highly specific of tumor types. None of the quantitative imaging values could differentiate PPTs from germinomas. Age, sex, and calcification patterns were confirmed useful in differentiating these tumors to some degree. (orig.)

Kakigi, Takahide; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Ryo; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C. [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto (Japan); Mikami, Yoshiki [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Kyoto (Japan); Shimono, Taro [Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

2014-04-15

100

Radiation Is an Important Component of Multimodality Therapy for Pediatric Non-Pineal Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To review a historical cohort of pediatric patients with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET), to clarify the role of radiation in the treatment of these tumors. Patients and Methods: Fifteen children aged <18 years with non-pineal sPNETs diagnosed between 1992 and 2006 were identified. Initial therapy consisted of surgical resection and chemotherapy in all patients and up-front radiotherapy (RT) in 5 patients. Five patients had RT at the time of progression, and 5 received no RT whatever. Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival were then calculated. Results: The median follow-up from diagnosis for all patients was 31 months (range, 0.5-165 months) and for surviving patients was 49 months (range, 10-165). Of the 5 patients who received up-front RT, all were alive without evidence of disease at a median follow-up of 50 months (range, 25-165 months). Only 5 of the 10 patients who did not receive up-front RT were alive at last follow-up. There was a statistically significant difference in overall survival between the patient group that received up-front RT and the group that did not (p = 0.048). In addition, we found a trend toward a statistically significant improvement in overall survival for those patients who received gross total resections (p = 0.10). Conclusions: Up-front RT and gross total resection may confer a survival benefit in patients with sPNET. Local failure was the dominant pattern of recurrence. Efforts should be made to def recurrence. Efforts should be made to determine patients most likely to have local failure exclusively or as a first recurrence, in order to delay or eliminate craniospinal irradiation

101

Late spinal metastases from an isolated pineal region germinoma mimicking a schwannoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 20-year-old male with a prior history of germinoma presented 8 years after the initial diagnosis with progressive lower back pain. The preoperative diagnosis was schwannoma based on the appearances of a tumor in the lumbosacral region on MRI; however, histologically, a germinoma "drop" metastasis was seen. This report emphasizes the need for long-term follow-up in patients with germinoma. In addition, this patient is unusual in that the preoperative assessment favored schwannoma. PMID:21600775

Morrison, Alan L; Smith, Alice B; Benjamin, Vallo; Allen, Jeffrey C; Rushing, Elisabeth J

2011-08-01

102

General Information about Adult Brain Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

... pineal astrocytic tumor forms in tissue around the pineal gland and may be any grade. The pineal gland is a tiny organ in the brain that ... the cells that make up most of the pineal gland. These tumors are different from pineal astrocytic tumors. ...

103

Brain and Spinal Tumors: Hope through Research  

Science.gov (United States)

... in the center of the brain, near the pineal gland, and can spread elsewhere in the brain and ... meningiomas. Pineal Tumors Tumors that form in the pineal gland, a small structure located between the cerebellum and ...

104

MR imaging of pineal cysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors.

Ahn, Yong Sik; Yu, Hyeon; Kim, Wan Tae; Bae, Jin Woo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1999-09-01

105

Probing Pineal-specific Gene Expression with Transgenic Zebrafish†  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland of zebrafish (Danio rerio) contains lightsensitive photoreceptor cells and plays an important role in the neuroendocrine system. The zebrafish exorhodopsin gene encodes a pineal-specific photoreceptive protein, whose promoter region harbors a cis-acting element, pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), directing pineal-specific gene expression. For in vivo genetic studies on PIPE-binding proteins and their regulatory mechanisms, we generated a transgenic zebrafish line, Tg...

Kojima, Daisuke; Dowling, John E.; Fukada, Yoshitaka

2008-01-01

106

Pineal lesions: a multidisciplinary challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal region is a complex anatomical compartment, harbouring the pineal gland surrounded by the quadrigeminal plate and the confluents of the internal cerebral veins to form the vein of Galen. The complexity of lesions in that region, however, goes far beyond the pineal parenchyma proper. Originating in the pineal gland, there are not only benign cysts but also numerous different tumour types. In addition, lesions such as tectal gliomas, tentorial meningiomas and choroid plexus papillomas arise from the surrounding structures, occupying that regions. Furthermore, the area has an affinity for metastatic lesions. Vascular lesions complete the spectrum mainly as small tectal arteriovenous malformations or cavernous haemangiomas.Taken together, there is a wide spectrum of lesions, many unique to that region, which call for a multidisciplinary approach. The limited access and anatomical complexity have generated a spectrum of anatomical approaches and raised the interest for neuroendoscopic approaches. Equally complex is the spectrum of treatment modalities such as microsurgery as the main option but stereotactic radiosurgery as an alternative or adjuvant to surgery for selected cases, radiation as for germinoma (see below) and or combinatorial chemotherapy, which may need to precede any other ablative technique as constituents.In this context, we review the current literature and our own series to obtain a snapshot sentiment of how to approach pineal lesions, how to interrelate alternative/competing concepts and review the recent technological advances. PMID:25411146

Westphal, Manfred; Emami, Pedram

2015-01-01

107

Incidence of pineal tumours. A review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

The knowledge of the incidence of pineal tumours is important not only for diagnostic care but also for its therapeutic programme. We reviewed the incidence of pineal tumours reported in literature in an attempt to establish if a difference existed between pineal gland tumours and the pineal region tumours as different authors use both expressions to indicate the same thing. The rate of frequency of these tumours is useful to guide the therapeutic choice for patients as the decisional tree is completely different for either germ cell tumours, pineal gland tumours or pineal gliomas and eventually papillary tumours of the pineal region. According to the French Register of pineal tumours, true pineal tumours represent: 27% pineal parenchymal tumours (PPT), 27% germ cell tumours, 17% gliomas, 8% papillary tumours. True pineal gland tumours are represented by: pineocytomas - (13%), pineal parenchymal tumours with intermediary differentiation PTT-ID - (66%) and pinealoblastomas - (21%). There was no statistical difference found between the French register and the Lyon series concerning histological diagnosis. It seemed to us important to discover its true incidence by comparing the data published in the literature and to stress the utility of the French Register for these uncommon tumours not only for recording new histological cases but also to document clinical symptomatology, therapeutic programmes, length of follow-up and clinical results for each patient treated. A better understanding of their natural history and improved evaluation of different treatments and their complications should contribute to improve clinical results. PMID:25113513

Mottolese, C; Szathmari, A; Beuriat, P-A

2014-08-01

108

Space-occupying lesions in the pineal gland region in MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preoperative CT and MRI studies of 24 patients with space occupying lesions of the pinealis region were analysed. MRI demonstrated all 24 lesions, whereas CT could detect only 20 out of 24. MRI was superior to CT in assessment of size, localisation and relation to adjacent structures. No significant difference was found between CT and MRI in preoperative prediction of tumour histology. (orig.)

109

Comparison of Three Methods for the Estimation of Pineal Gland Volume Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

OpenAIRE

Pineal gland is a very important neuroendocrine organ with many physiological functions such as regulating circadian rhythm. Radiologically, the pineal gland volume is clinically important because it is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although many studies have estimated the pineal gland volume using different techniques, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no stereological work done on this subject. The objective of t...

Acer, Niyazi; Il?ca, Ahmet Turan; Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; O?zc?elik, O?zlem; Y?ld?r?m, Birdal; Turgut, Mehmet

2012-01-01

110

Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resect...

Levidou Georgia; Korkolopoulou Penelope; Agrogiannis George; Paidakakos Nikolaos; Bouramas Dimos; Patsouris Efstratios

2010-01-01

111

What Are Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children?  

Science.gov (United States)

... to take hormones to make up for this. Pineal gland: The pineal gland is not really part of the brain. It ... in light. The most common tumors of the pineal gland are called pineoblastomas . Blood-brain barrier: The inner ...

112

Peculiarities in the CT findings of germ cell tumors in various tumor localizations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The CT findings of 17 germ cell tumors were studied in relation to the locations of the tumor, the pathological diagnoses, and the tumor markers (AFP and HCG). Generally, the CT findings of germ cell tumors depended on the pathological diagnoses more strongly than on the location of the tumors. On plain CT of 7 germ cell tumors in the pineal region, all of them demonstrated heterogeneous findings. Hydrocephalus was seen in 6 cases (86%) and calcification in 6 cases (86%) of the germ cell tumors in the pineal region. Calcification and hydrocephalus that appeared more often than in other regions were characteristic of germ cell tumors of the pineal region. The germ cell tumors in the basal ganglia had a slightly homogenous high density, with small cysts and calcification in most of them on plain CT. On enhanced CT, the tumors were moderately enhanced in all cases located in the basal ganglia. Four cases of germ cell tumors located in the basal ganglia revealed the dilatation of lateral ventricle due to hemispheric atrophy in the tumor side. The germ cell tumors showing an increase in the tumor markers such as AFP and HCG, which were usually malignant germ cell tumors, were strongly enhanced on enhanced CT. (author).

Tazoe, Makoto; Miyagami, Mitsusuke; Tsubokawa, Takashi (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

1991-10-01

113

Peculiarities in the CT findings of germ cell tumors in various tumor localizations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CT findings of 17 germ cell tumors were studied in relation to the locations of the tumor, the pathological diagnoses, and the tumor markers (AFP and HCG). Generally, the CT findings of germ cell tumors depended on the pathological diagnoses more strongly than on the location of the tumors. On plain CT of 7 germ cell tumors in the pineal region, all of them demonstrated heterogeneous findings. Hydrocephalus was seen in 6 cases (86%) and calcification in 6 cases (86%) of the germ cell tumors in the pineal region. Calcification and hydrocephalus that appeared more often than in other regions were characteristic of germ cell tumors of the pineal region. The germ cell tumors in the basal ganglia had a slightly homogenous high density, with small cysts and calcification in most of them on plain CT. On enhanced CT, the tumors were moderately enhanced in all cases located in the basal ganglia. Four cases of germ cell tumors located in the basal ganglia revealed the dilatation of lateral ventricle due to hemispheric atrophy in the tumor side. The germ cell tumors showing an increase in the tumor markers such as AFP and HCG, which were usually malignant germ cell tumors, were strongly enhanced on enhanced CT. (author)

114

Elements in the human pineal body  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

100 human pineal bodies (=epiphyses, =pineal glands) were examined by neutron activation analysis for the concentration of Ca, K, Na, Rb, Fe, Co, Se and Zn. Comparing the results with the values from other brain areas, the Ca-content was 90 times higher, Co-content was double and Zn-concentration three times as high as those in the brain. The K, Na, Rb, Fe and Se values were found to be similar to those of other brain regions. Element concentration and age gave no significant correlation for the elements investigated. The K-content was taken as a parameter for cellular vitality and the pineal bodies were grouped into three classes of vitality. The normal K and Na, and the varying trace element concentrations refer to some specific biochemical and physiological functions of the organ. (author)

115

Pinealitis accompanying equine recurrent uveitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no direct verification of pineal gland involvement in human uveitis. Specimens of pineal tissue are not available during active uveitis in human patients. Naturally occurring uveitis in horses gives us an opportunity to examine tissues during active ocular inflammation. We examined the pineal gland of a horse that was killed because it had become blind during an episode of uveitis. The clinical history and histopathology of the eyes were consistent with post-leptospiral equine recurrent uveitis. The pineal gland of this horse had significant inflammatory infiltration consisting mainly of lymphocytes with some eosinophils. This observation of pinealitis accompanying equine uveitis supports the animal models of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis with associated pinealitis and suggests that the pineal gland may be involved in some human uveitides. PMID:8435400

Kalsow, C M; Dwyer, A E; Smith, A W; Nifong, T P

1993-01-01

116

Tumor Types  

Science.gov (United States)

... Named for its location in or around the pineal gland (near the center of the brain) Can range from low grade to high grade Can produce an excess of melatonin, a hormone that ... High-grade pineal tumors can spread to the spinal cord through ...

117

Double Glomus Tumors Originating in the Submandibular and Parotid Regions  

OpenAIRE

Glomus tumors are rare neoplasms that originate from the glomus bodies, an arteriovenous anastomosis with a specialized vascular structure. The most common site for these tumors is the subungal region of the fingers. Occasionally, glomus tumors are found in the middle ear, trachea, nasal cavities, stomach, and lungs. The occurrence in the parotid regions is very rare. While multiple glomus tumors in the whole body are thought to represent only 10% of all cases, instances of multiple tumors in...

Yoo, Young Sam; Choi, Jeong Hwan; Heo, Geon; Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Hyun-jung

2011-01-01

118

Biosynthesis of taurine by rat pineals in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal glands from adult, male rats were incubated in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer buffer containing 14C-cystine. After three hours the incubation media and pineal gland extracts were placed separately on Dowex AG W50-X-4 columns. In the elution volume where 14C-labeled taurine is found a labeled peak was recovered. However, when subjected to one or two dimensional paper chromatography especially the eluants from pineal gland extracts yielded two 14C-labeled substances one located in the region where unlabeled taurine is detected by ortho-phthalaldehyde reagent. These results were confirmed utilizing a method developed in our laboratory based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pineals, as well as their respective incubation medium, were shown to contain radioactive taurine. These results demonstrate that rat pineal glands are capable of taurine synthesis. Also a high degree of labeling was associated with an area on paper chromatograms, migrating more rapidly than the standards, using acidic solvent systems. If represented by a single pineal compound, the substance must be rapidly synthesized from 14C-cystine to account for the radioactivity observed. Future studies of sulfur metabolism within the pineal gland could be of significant interest. (author)

119

Pineal calcification on computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal gland visible in plain skull radiography when calcified had been an important indicator for evaluation of any space, occupying lesion within cranium according to displacement of it from normal midline position. Since the pineal gland is more frequently demonstrated on CT scan than plain skull radiography, it seems helpful to define the incidence and localization of pineal gland. 324 patients, performed head CT scan are analyzed incidence and localization of calcified pineal gland. The results were as follows: 1. The overall incidence of pineal calcification was 51%. 2. The male and female ratio in pineal calcification was 56% to 43%. 3. 1) In the AP localization of pineal gland, the ratio of distance from anterior inner table of the skull to the pineal gland and that from pineal gland to the posterior inner table was 1.46 ± 0.20. 2) In the lateral localization of pineal gland, according to 'Lateral Percentage Shift' by Hahn and Rim (1976), the result was 0.98% shift in 80 normal cases, but 2.20% shift in 38 cases with S.O.L

120

Benign and malignant tumors of the rectum and perirectal region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although most rectal masses are histologically characterized as adenocarcinomas, the rectum and perirectal region can be affected by a wide variety of tumors and tumor-like conditions that can mimic the symptoms caused by rectal adenocarcinoma, including mucosal or submucosal rectal tumors such as lymphoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, leiomyosarcoma, neuroendocrine tumor, hemangioma, and melanoma, as well as tumors of the perirectal region such as developmental cyst, neurogenic tumor, osseous tumor, and other miscellaneous conditions. As a group, tumors of the rectum are considerably different from the group of tumors that arise in the perirectal region: they are most often neoplastic, symptomatic, and malignant, whereas tumors arising in the perirectal region are most commonly congenital, asymptomatic, and benign. Proctoscopy with biopsy is the most important method for the diagnosis of rectal tumors, but this procedure cannot determine the precise intramural extension of a rectal tumor and cannot accurately distinguish submucosal and intramural tumors from extramural tumors. Cross-sectional imaging, especially transrectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, allows evaluation of the entire bowel wall thickness and the perirectal tissues, helping further characterize these tumors. Recognition of the existence of these masses and their key clinical and imaging features is crucial for clinicians to accurately diagnose and appropriately manage these conditions. PMID:24663381

Purysko, Andrei S; Coppa, Christopher P; Kalady, Mathew F; Pai, Rish K; Leão Filho, Hilton M; Thupili, Chakradhar R; Remer, Erick M

2014-08-01

121

The function of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mammalian pineal gland is a prominent secretory organ with a high metabolic activity. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the main secretory product of the pineal gland, efficiently scavenges both the hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals counteracting lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. Approximately 25% of the total fatty acids present in the rat pineal lipids are represented by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). These very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play important roles in the pineal gland. In addition to the production of melatonin, the mammalian pineal gland is able of convert these polyunsaturated fatty acids into bioactive lipid mediators. Lipoxygenation is the principal lipoxygenase (LOX) activity observed in the rat pineal gland. Lipoxygenation in the pineal gland is exceptional because no other brain regions express significant LOX activities under normal physiological conditions. The rat pineal gland expresses both 12- and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, producing 12- and 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12- and 15-HpETE) from arachidonic acid and 14- and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14- and 17-HdoHE) from docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. The rat pineal also produces hepoxilins via LOX pathways. The hepoxilins are bioactive epoxy-hydroxy products of the arachidonic acid metabolism via the 12S-lipoxygenase (12S-LOX) pathway. The two key pineal biochemical functions, lipoxygenation and melatonin synthesis, may be synergistically regulated by the status of n-3 essential fatty acids. PMID:19879958

Catalá, Angel

2010-02-01

122

Pinealitis accompanying equine recurrent uveitis.  

OpenAIRE

There is no direct verification of pineal gland involvement in human uveitis. Specimens of pineal tissue are not available during active uveitis in human patients. Naturally occurring uveitis in horses gives us an opportunity to examine tissues during active ocular inflammation. We examined the pineal gland of a horse that was killed because it had become blind during an episode of uveitis. The clinical history and histopathology of the eyes were consistent with post-leptospiral equine recurr...

Kalsow, C. M.; Dwyer, A. E.; Smith, A. W.; Nifong, T. P.

1993-01-01

123

Structure and ultrastructure of the pigmented cells in the adult dog pineal gland.  

OpenAIRE

The light and electron microscopic features of pigmented cells in the adult dog pineal gland have been described. The presence of pigmented cells was a constant characteristic of the dog pineal gland, though wide variations in the amount of pigment could be found among different animals. Conversely, the localisation of pigmented cells was very constant on the basal surface of the proximal region of the pineal gland. Frequently, clusters of pigmented cells were seen in the posterior commissure...

Calvo, J.; Boya, J.; Garcia-maurin?o, J. E.; Lopez-carbonell, A.

1988-01-01

124

Prognostic Significance of P53 Protein, Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in Pineal Parenchymal Tumours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pineal parenchymal tumours are very rare consisting less than 0.1% of all central nervous system tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of Ki-67, cyclin D1 and p53 protein expressions in pineal parenchymal tumours. Ten pineal parenchymal tumours were investigated: 2 pineocytomas, 5 pineal parenchymal tumour of intermediate differentiation and 3 pineoblastomas . Immunohistochemical staining was performed using avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The number of mitoses ranged from 0-25 in pineal parenchymal tumour of intermediate differentiation and 2-30 in pineoblastomas. In general, Ki-67 was found between 0-53.5 %, cyclin D1 was found between 0-40%, p53 was found between 0-4% in pineal parenchymal tumors. In pineal parenchymal tumour of intermediate differentiation, positive staining rates for Ki-67, cyclin D1 and p53 were found as 4-17.5%, 2-30% and 0-4%, respectively. In pineoblastomas, Ki-67, cyclin D1 and p53 were found as 9.2-53.5%, 5-40% and 1-2%, respectively. The number of mitoses was not significant for the prognosis in pineal parenchymal tumors. The very low level of p53 protein made us think that it does not play an active role in the development of these tumours

Nagihan YALCIN

2009-12-01

125

Intrathecal and intraperitoneal germinomas occurring 20 years after total removal of a pineal teratoma. Case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1980, a 10-year-old boy was admitted to the authors' hospital with consciousness disturbance and vomiting. Computerized tomography (CT) scans revealed a pineal mass lesion and hydrocephalus. The tumor was totally removed and a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt was inserted. Histological investigation of a surgical specimen revealed that it was a teratoma. Five years later, the patient was readmitted to the same institution with polyuria. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a mass lesion in the suprasellar region. The patient received systemic chemotherapy, and the tumor disappeared; however, 2 years after the chemotherapy, MR imaging demonstrated a right lateral ventricular mass. The tumor was totally resected, and histopathological investigation revealed a teratocarcinoma. Three years after the chemotherapy, CT scanning revealed suprasellar and right lateral ventricular tumor recurrences, for which the patient received irradiation and chemotherapy. The tumors disappeared and the patient achieved complete remission that lasted longer than 10 years. On January 25, 2000, however, he noticed hip pain. Lumbar MR imaging demonstrated a spinal tumor below L-4 and also an abdominal tumor. The abdominal tumor was totally removed, and the histological findings identified it as a germinoma. The patient received systemic chemotherapy and the tumor disappeared completely. The authors believe that the suprasellar tumor was a metachronous germinoma and that it had metastasized through the intrathecal route and the VP shunt. PMID:11838813

Iwamuro, Yasushi; Seo, Satoru; Hirose, Yuki; Jito, Junya; Shirahata, Mitsuaki; Tokime, Tomoo; Hosotani, Kazuo; Tokuriki, Yasuhiko

2002-02-01

126

Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demon...

Kazuyoshi Tsutsui

2014-01-01

127

The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk are also reduced in size. Although the brains of neonatal Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice appear normal, severe hydrocephalus develops in about 70 % of the Lhx9 (-/-) mice at 5-8 weeks of age; these observations are the first to document that deletion of Lhx9 results in hydrocephalus and as such indicate that Lhx9 contributes to the maintenance of normal brain structure. Whereas hydrocephalus is absent in neonatal Lhx9 (-/-)mutant mice, the neonatal pineal gland in these animals is hypoplastic. Accordingly, it appears that Lhx9 is essential for early development of the mammalian pineal gland and that this effect is not secondary to hydrocephalus.

Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; MØller, Morten

2014-01-01

128

A case of pineal teratoma with intraventricular free fat on CT scan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detection of an intraventricular or intratumoral fat-fluid level on the plain craniograms has been known as a characteristic sign indicating the presence of intracranial teratomatous tumors. On CT scans, however, only thirteen cases have been previously reported to be found an intraventricular and/or subarachnoid free fat associated with spontaneous ruptures of these tumors. We reported a case of pineal teratoma with intraventricular free-fat seen on CT scans. A nine-year-old male with precocious puberty was admitted to our hospital complaining a moderate nonpulsatile headache. Neurological examinations were normal without signs of meningeal irritation. The serum and CSF titer of HCG were raised markedly. The laboratory data of the CSF were normal and there were no pathological cells in the CSF. The CT scans revealed a large heterogeneous mass containing multiple areas of negative density in the pineal region. There were negative density droplets in the bilateral frontal horn on the same CT scans indicating a presence of free fats. At surgery, an yellowish oily material was drained from the tumor, but there was no sign of meningitis over the cortical surface of the occipital lobe. An intraventricular free fat on CT scan have been reported in fourteen cases including ours following the first case described by Fawcitt in 1976. Although most of the cases presented headache, only two cases was diagnosed clinically as chemical meningitis. Pathological changes indicating grngitis. Pathological changes indicating granulomatous meningitis, however, were noted in five cases, all of them presenting seizure attacks. (author)

129

Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity. PMID:25487536

Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

2014-12-01

130

Morphological findings relating to the problem of cortex and medulla in the pineal glands of rat and hamster.  

OpenAIRE

Because, in previous investigations on the rat pineal gland, karyometric studies of pinealocytes from cortical and medullary regions had yielded contradictory results, experiments were carried out to resolve this problem. In immersion-fixed, paraffin-embedded pineal glands, nuclear size of cortical regions was invariably larger than that in the medulla, the nuclear size clearly depending on the plane of sectioning. The differences between cortex and medulla were abolished in (a) pineal glands...

Heidbu?chel, U.; Vollrath, L.

1983-01-01

131

Imaging appearance of bone tumors of the maxillofacial region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the imaging appearance of benign and malignant bone tumors of the maxillofacial region. A benign bone tumor commonly appears as a well circumscribed lesion. The matrix of the tumor may be calcified or sclerotic. Malignancies often display aggressive characteristics such as cortical breakthrough, bone destruction, a permeative pattern and associated soft-tissue masses. Computed tomography scan is an excellent imaging modality for accurate localization of the lesion, characterization of the tumor matrix and detection of associated osseous changes such as bone remodeling, destruction or periosteal reaction. Magnetic resonance imaging is of limited value in the evaluation of maxillofacial bone tumors.

Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel Razek

2011-01-01

132

General Information About Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

... germ cell tumors to form is near the pineal gland and in an area of the brain that ... of the inside of the brain, showing the pineal and pituitary glands, optic nerve, ventricles (with cerebrospinal fluid shown in ...

133

Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors)  

Science.gov (United States)

... germ cell tumors to form is near the pineal gland and in an area of the brain that ... of the inside of the brain, showing the pineal and pituitary glands, optic nerve, ventricles (with cerebrospinal fluid shown in ...

134

Comparative histology of pineal calcification  

OpenAIRE

The pineal organ (pineal gland, epiphysis cerebri) contains several calcified concretions called "brain sand7' or acervuli (corpora arenacea). These concretions are conspicuous with imaging techniques and provide a useful landmark for orientation in the diagnosis of intracranial diseases. Predominantly composed of calcium and magnesium salts, corpora arenacea are numerous in old patients. In smaller number they can be present in children as well. The degree...

Vigh, B.; Sze?l, A.; Debreceni, K.; Feje?r, Z.; Manzano E Silva, M. J.; Vigh-teichmann, I.

1998-01-01

135

Pinealitis coincident with recurrent uveitis: immunohistochemical studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although experimental models of autoimmune uveitis predict pinealitis coincident with uveitis, there is no direct evidence of pineal pathology accompanying a human uveitis. Horses with naturally occurring uveitis are a potential source of eye and pineal tissues that are not available from human patients with active uveitis. We have observed pinealitis in a mare with equine recurrent uveitis. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrated immunoglobulin and MHC Class II antigen on infiltrating and resident cells of eye and pineal gland. These results support the relevance of the animal models and suggest that pinealitis may be coincident with some human uveitides. PMID:1424740

Kalsow, C M; Dwyer, A E; Smith, A W; Nifong, T P

1992-01-01

136

Imaging appearance of bone tumors of the maxillofacial region  

OpenAIRE

This paper reviews the imaging appearance of benign and malignant bone tumors of the maxillofacial region. A benign bone tumor commonly appears as a well circumscribed lesion. The matrix of the tumor may be calcified or sclerotic. Malignancies often display aggressive characteristics such as cortical breakthrough, bone destruction, a permeative pattern and associated soft-tissue masses. Computed tomography scan is an excellent imaging modality for accurate localization of the lesion, characte...

Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel Razek

2011-01-01

137

Comparative histology of pineal calcification.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal organ (pineal gland, epiphysis cerebri) contains several calcified concretions called "brain sand" or acervuli (corpora arenacea). These concretions are conspicuous with imaging techniques and provide a useful landmark for orientation in the diagnosis of intracranial diseases. Predominantly composed of calcium and magnesium salts, corpora arenacea are numerous in old patients. In smaller number they can be present in children as well. The degree of calcification was associated to various diseases. However, the presence of calcified concretions seems not to reflect a specific pathological state. Corpora arenacea occur not only in the actual pineal tissue but also in the leptomeninges, in the habenular commissure and in the choroid plexus. Studies with the potassium pyroantimonate (PPA) method on the ultrastructural localization of free calcium ions in the human pineal, revealed the presence of calcium alongside the cell membranes, a finding that underlines the importance of membrane functions in the production of calcium deposits. Intrapineal corpora arenacea are characterized by a surface with globular structures. Meningeal acervuli that are present in the arachnoid cover of the organ, differ in structure from intrapineal ones and show a prominent concentric lamination of alternating dark and light lines. The electron-lucent lines contain more calcium than the dark ones. There is a correlation between the age of the subject and the number of layers in the largest acervuli. This suggests that the formation of these layers is connected to circannual changes in the calcium level of the organ. The histological organization of the human pineal is basically the same as that of mammalian experimental animals. Pineal concretions present in mammalian animal species are mainly of the meningeal type. Meningeal cells around acervuli contain active cytoplasmic organelles and exhibit alkaline phosphatase reaction in the rat and mink, an indication of a presumable osteoblast-like activity. Using Kossa's method for the staining of calcium deposits, a higher calcium concentration was detected in the rat pineal than in the surrounding brain tissue. Since in parathyroidectomised rats calcified deposits are larger and more numerous than in controls, the regulation of the production of acervuli by the parathyroid gland has also been postulated. In most of submammalian species, the pineal organs (pineal-, parapineal organ, frontal organ, parietal eye) are photoreceptive and organized similarly to the retina. Acervuli were found in the pineal of some birds. The pineal organs of lower vertebrates (fish, amphibians, reptiles) exhibit a high calcium content by ultrastructural calcium histochemistry (PPA-method). However, concrements are not formed. The accumulation of Ca2+ seems to depend on the receptor function of the organ. Comparing pineal and retinal photoreceptors in the frog, the photoreceptor outer segments of pinealocytes as well as retinal cones and rods show a large amount of Capyroantimonate deposits. In dark adapted animals calcium ions are present in both sides of the photoreceptor membranes of the outer segment, whereas calcium is shifted extra-cellularly following light adaptation. Overviewing the data available about the pineal calcification, we can conclude that a multifactorial mechanism may be responsible for the calcification. The pineal of higher vertebrates is not just a simple endocrine gland, rather, its histological organization resembles a folded retina having both hormonal and neural efferentation. Mammalian pinealocytes preserve several characteristics of submammalian receptor cells and accumulate free Ca2+ on their membranes (1). In the thin walled retina and in the similarly organized pineal of submammalian species, the diffusion of extracellular calcium is probably easy and there is a lesser tendency to form concrements. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:9690142

Vígh, B; Szél, A; Debreceni, K; Fejér, Z; Manzano e Silva, M J; Vígh-Teichmann, I

1998-07-01

138

Pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase: expression cloning and molecular analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, or AA-NAT) generates the large circadian rhythm in melatonin, the hormone that coordinates daily and seasonal physiology in some mammals. Complementary DNA encoding ovine AA-NAT was cloned. The abundance of AA-NAT messenger RNA (mRNA) during the day was high in the ovine pineal gland and somewhat lower in retina. AA-NAT mRNA was found unexpectedly in the pituitary gland and in some brain regions. The night-to-day ratio of ovine pineal AA-NAT mRNA is less than 2. In contrast, the ratio exceeds 150 in rats. AA-NAT represents a family within a large superfamily of acetyltransferases. PMID:7502081

Coon, S L; Roseboom, P H; Baler, R; Weller, J L; Namboodiri, M A; Koonin, E V; Klein, D C

1995-12-01

139

Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor Arising on the Scapular Region  

Science.gov (United States)

Tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TSGCT) is a benign soft tissue tumor arising from the synovial membrane that composes the lining of joints, tendons and bursae. TSGCT is a common tumor occurring in the hands and fingers, and also consecutively in the knees, ankles, feet and hips. It is rarely found in the scapular region. To the best of our knowledge, only 2 cases arising on the upper back have been reported. This report presents the case of a 44-year-old Japanese female with a TSGCT arising on her right scapular region. PMID:24403889

Fukuda, Asako; Ueno, Takashi; Takayama, Ryoko; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Futagami, Ayako; Kawana, Seiji

2013-01-01

140

A pineal regulatory element (PIRE) mediates transactivation by the pineal/retina-specific transcription factor CRX  

OpenAIRE

The circadian hormone melatonin is synthesized predominantly in the pineal gland by the actions of two pineal-specific enzymes: serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT). Pineal night-specific ATPase (PINA), another pineal- and night-specific protein we recently identified, is produced as a truncated form of the Wilson disease gene (Atp7b) product. To identify the regulatory elements required for pineal-specific gene expression, we isolated sequences up...

Li, Xiaodong; Chen, Shiming; Wang, Qingliang; Zack, Donald J.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Borjigin, Jimo

1998-01-01

141

An improved liquid chromatographic method with electrochemical detection for direct determination of serotonin in microdialysates from Caudate-putamen and pineal gland regions of rat brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

A liquid chromatography method coupled with electrochemical detection has been developed for the direct measurement 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in brain microdialysates. The separation conditions have been optimized to detect only the 5-HT and 5-HIAA in dialysates and elute the other monoamines and their metabolites in the void. Linear regression analysis of chromatographic peak area as a function of concentration in the range 5-1000 pg/mL gave correlation coefficients over 0.995. Sample stability and an assay validation for precision and accuracy were also performed. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) for 5-HT was 12 femtomol/mL. The method has been applied to simultaneously measure extracellular 5-HT and 5-HIAA in brain microdialysates from the pineal gland and caudate-putamen of awake and freely-moving rats under basal conditions. PMID:16567001

Gunaratna, P Chandrani; Cadle, Karen K; Kissinger, Candice B

2006-07-15

142

[Aging of the pineal gland].  

Science.gov (United States)

The age-related changes in the pineal gland are functional rather than organic, which makes their correction or prevention more tenable. The amelioration or inhibition of some age-related impairments of the pineal gland were observed with dietary restriction and the use of S-adenosylmethionine or MAO-A inhibitors. A threefold increase in nocturnal melatonin peaks occurs in old rhesus monkeys treated with a synthetic peptide Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly (Epithalon) designed basing on the amino acid content of a pineal peptide extract Epithalamin. Other effects of Epithalon markedly overlap with melatonin effects. Besides life extension in mice and fruit flies, Epithalon effects include the postponing vision loss in Campbell rats with hereditary pigmental dystrophy. A uniting aspect of such a range of activities might be the participation of transcription factors, since they are often highly conservative in evolution and, on the other hand, may be strictly tissue-specific. The targets of Epithalon may include transfactors that in mammals are specific for the pineal gland and retina and exhibit impaired functions in the aged pineal gland. PMID:12096440

Khavinson, V Kh; Golubev, A G

2002-01-01

143

Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland.

Levidou Georgia

2010-09-01

144

Advances in the management of central nervous system germ cell tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intracranial germ cell tumors represent a relatively small portion of pediatric central nervous system tumors, with a reported incidence ranging from 3.6% in North America to 15.3% in parts of Asia. They are known to arise in midline locations, most frequently the pineal gland and suprasellar regions, and affect males twice to three times more frequently than females, especially in the case of pineal-region tumors. The median age of diagnosis is 10-12 years. The treatment of intracranial germ cells tumors is complicated by their relative rarity, histologic heterogeneity, and a lack of widespread consensus on their optimal management. Despite these challenges, important progress continues to be made, with a move toward multicenter and international collaborative efforts that offer potential for clinical advancements. This review focuses on recent developments in the management of intracranial germ cell tumors, including updates in diagnosis, surveillance, biology, treatment, and outcomes. PMID:24838613

Millard, Nathan E; Dunkel, Ira J

2014-07-01

145

DETECTION OF TUMOR REGION USING FAST FUZZY CLUSTERING ALGORITHM  

OpenAIRE

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique for measuring the anatomy and functions of the body in detail to providing information of the brain and the brain stem. To understand the complex segmentation among the brain regions we propose a fuzzy clustering algorithm. The algorithm starts with globally denoising the brain images using Kernel algorithm. Next, region will be segmented using the FFC (Fast Fuzzy Clustering) algorithms and detecting the tumor region ...

Dhivya, Ms A.; Mrs.D.Anitha ME (AP/IT),

2014-01-01

146

Autoradiographic demonstration of target cells for the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in the rat pineal gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Male rats received [3H]aldosterone 30 min before sacrifice. Autoradiograms were prepared from brain and pineal gland by a thaw-mount technique. Grain counting revealed that the pineal retained 4 times as much radioactivity as brain regions with tight capillaries. Using an appropriate method of quantitative autoradiogram evaluation, it was shown that in adrenalectomized animals, but not after shamoperiation, 28% of the pinealocytes concentrated the steroid in their nuclei. This is the first demonstration of saturable mineralocorticoid binding in the pineal gland. (author)

147

Malignant tumors of head and neck region - a retrospective analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the spectrum of malignant tumors of head and neck region. The data of total 375 neoplastic lesions of both the sexes between 8-70 years of age was collected and compared with the findings reported from centers in other parts of the country. Among the total 375 cases of neoplastic lesions, 148 were benign whereas 227 proved to be malignant histologically in 155 male and 72 female patients. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most frequently encountered histological category (45.8%) followed by lymphoma (14.5%), basal cell carcinoma (10.5%), carcinoma thyroid (10.5%) and salivary gland tumors (8.80%). These were followed by infrequently encountered tumors including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (n=5), small blue round cell tumors (n=3), undifferentiated carcinoma (n=3), retinoblastoma (n=2) and transitional carcinoma nose (n=1). The anatomical regions involved with this tumor were larynx (53.5% of all SCC) followed by pharynx (18.7%) tongue (10.71%) oral cavity (4.4%) metastasis (5.3%) and skin (2.60%). (author)

148

Circadian Regulation of Pineal Gland Rhythmicity  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (1) local control of serotonin and melatonin rhythms; (2) neurotransmitters involved in central control of melatonin; (3) plasticity o...

Borjigin, Jimo; Zhang, L. Samantha; Calinescu, Anda-alexandra

2012-01-01

149

Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome  

OpenAIRE

Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. Here, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse p...

Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M.; Rohde, Kristian; Coon, Steven L.; Litman, Thomas; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

2011-01-01

150

Transcriptome analysis of the zebrafish pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

The zebrafish pineal gland (epiphysis) is a site of melatonin production, contains photoreceptor cells, and functions as a circadian clock pace maker. Here we have used microarray technology to study the zebrafish pineal transcriptome. Analysis of gene expression at three larval and two adult stages revealed a highly dynamic transcriptional profile, revealing many genes that are highly expressed in the zebrafish pineal gland. Statistical analysis of the data based on Gene Ontology annotation ...

Toyama, Reiko; Chen, Xiongfong; Jhawar, Nupur; Aamar, Emil; Epstein, Jonathan; Reany, Nir; Alon, Shahar; Gothilf, Yoav; Klein, David; Dawid, Igor B.

2009-01-01

151

Hibernoma of the axillary region: a rare benign adipocytic tumor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hibernoma is a rare benign tumor considered to arise from remnants of fetal brown adipose tissue. It tends to occur in sites where brown fat persists beyond fetal life, such as the interscapular region, but can occur in sites where brown fat is usually absent in adults. Clinically, hibernomas are slow-growing, asymptomatic tumors. However, unlike lipomas, MRI findings sometimes mislead clinicians to diagnose a malignant neoplasm. We describe a 63-year-old male with an axillary hibernoma involving the brachial neurovascular bundles and mimicking a well-differentiated liposarcoma, from which it should be distinguished.

Yasuhito Tanaka

2010-03-01

152

Cystic benign phyllodes tumor in the inguinal region.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present lesion was the first reported case of a benign intracystic phyllodes tumor in the inguinal region. We report the case of a 51-year-old female patient who presented with an inguinal mass. A clinical diagnosis of malignant lymphoma was considered in this case. The resected tumor was well-circumscribed and showed numerous papillary nodular protrusions into a central cystic cavity (3.5×2.5 cm). The microscopic findings showed hyperplastic epithelium-lined cysts with leaf-like intraluminal epithelium-lined bland stromal projections. The epithelial cell linings were strongly positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors. PMID:24421854

Go, Jai Hyang

2013-12-01

153

DETECTION OF TUMOR REGION USING FAST FUZZY CLUSTERING ALGORITHM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is a medical imaging technique for measuring the anatomy and functions of the body in detail to providing information of the brain and the brain stem. To understand the complex segmentation among the brain regions we propose a fuzzy clustering algorithm. The algorithm starts with globally denoising the brain images using Kernel algorithm. Next, region will be segmented using the FFC (Fast Fuzzy Clustering algorithms and detecting the tumor region and type of disease will be detected.. The results suggest that the proposed algorithms provide improved performance and segmentation accuracy compared to the existing algorithms.

Ms.A.Dhivya (ME

2014-04-01

154

Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a > 2-fold down-regulation of 543 genes and a > 2-fold up-regulation of 745 genes (p < 0.05). Of these, one of the most highly up-regulated (18-fold) was Hoxc4, a member of the Hox gene family, members of which are known to control gene expression cascades. During a 24-h period, a set of 51 genes exhibited differential day/night expression in pineal glands of wild-type animals; only eight of these were also day/night expressed in the Crx-/- pineal gland. However, in the Crx-/- pineal gland 41 genes exhibited differential night/day expression that was not seen in wild-type animals. These findings indicate that Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome and also influences differential night/day gene expression in this tissue. Some effects of Crx deletion on the pineal transcriptome might be mediated by Hoxc4 up-regulation.

Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel

2011-01-01

155

Intramedullary recurrence of germinoma in the spinal cord 15 years after complete remission of a pineal lesion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present a case of germinoma that was initially found in the pineal region and recurred 15 years later in the intramedullary cervical spinal cord after intensive chemo- and radiotherapy and diagnosis of complete remission. This 28-year-old man initially presented with seizures. Hydrocephalus and a pineal tumor were found on radiological examination, and partial resection of the tumor was performed. Histological diagnosis showed a pure germinoma. Following surgery, the patient received a combination of chemo- and radiotherapy, and a complete remission was shown. However, after 15 years of follow-up, he presented with gait disturbances. Spinal MRI showed an intramedullary mass lesion in the cervical spinal cord. The cervical lesion was biopsied, and histological examination again revealed a pure germinoma. With germinomas, the possibility of a drop metastasis from an intracranial lesion to the spinal cord must be considered during follow-up. However, in the present case, analysis of a CSF sample showed no abnormalities as in previously published cases. In recent years, multidisciplinary treatments have demonstrated good event-free survival rates in cases of pure germinomas, but long-term outcomes over the decades are not fully known. Continual follow-up of such cases is recommended even after complete remission has been achieved. PMID:22360562

Hanakita, Shunya; Takenobu, Atumi; Kambe, Atsushi; Watanabe, Takashi; Shin, Masahiro; Teraoka, Akira

2012-05-01

156

CT and MRI of germ-cell tumors with metastasis or multi-located tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-seven cases of germ-cell tumors were examined with a CT scan in our clinic. In the 11 cases of metastasis or multi-localized tumors, the CT findings were studied in connection with the MRI findings. There were 6 cases of germ-cell tumors which had broad infiltrating tumors with multiple lesions on first admission. Their tumor sites were different from that in cases of malignant glioma, being frequently localized in the pineal and/or the suprasellar region, on the wall of the third and/or lateral ventricle, and in the region of the basal ganglia. Five of the cases of germ-cell tumors had metastasis with various patterns connected to a remote area - that is, to spinal cords, to the ventricular wall and basal cistern of the brain stem by CSF dissemination, to a lung by hematogeneous metastasis, and to the peritoneal wall or organs by a V-P shunt. The CT findings of germ-cell tumors were correlated mainly with the results of the histological diagnosis; they were found not to differ with the tumor site. The germinoma in the suprasellar region had less calcification than in the pineal region. Cysts, calcification, and an enlargement of the lateral ventricle on the tumor side were frequently seen in the germinoma of the basal ganglia. On the MRI of 5 cases of germinoma, the T1-weighted image revealed a slightly low or iso signal intensity, while the T2-weighted image showed a high signal intensity. In the case of multiple tumor lesions, some case case of multiple tumor lesions, some cases demonstrated different CT findings and radiosensitivities for each tumor. The possibility of a multicentric origin for the tumors is thus suggested in some cases of germ-cell tumors. (author)

157

Endoscopically Assisted Removal of Tumors in the Frontal Region.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Advancements in endoscopic surgery, due in part to patient demands and inpart to provision of superior medical care by surgeons, have significantlycontributed to improvements in patients' quality of life. An endoscopic operationis minimally invasive, associated with faster recovery, and producesless postoperative morbidity. It is a well-accepted procedure in the field ofplastic surgery. By applying the principle of endoscopic surgery used infacelift operations, we performed tumor excision in the forehead region.Methods: Two 1.5-cm slit incisions were made in the anterior hairline. One incisionwas to allow access for the 4.0-mm, 30° endoscope, and the other was forsurgical instrumentation. These incisions, determined by the plane of dissection,were more superficial and below the subgaleal layer for soft tissuetumors and deeper into the subperiosteal layer for bone tumors. With goodillumination and magnified monitor viewing, the tumors could clearly bevisualized and were completely excised.Results: Seven patients with either dermoid cysts (3, osteomas (2, or lipomas (2underwent endoscopically assisted procedures. In all cases, tumors were successfullyexcised with no acute or chronic complications. The average postoperativefollow-up period was 7 months. No incidence of tumor recurrencewas reported. All patients were satisfied with the resultant forehead contourand surgical scars.Conclusions: The main advantage of this procedure is the fact that it is minimally invasive,thus reducing the incidence of injury to the neurovascular structures of theforehead as well as minimization of scar visibility. In conclusion, an endoscope-assisted approach is a good alternative method for managing benignsoft-tissue and bone tumors in the forehead and brow region.

Chien-Tzung Chen

2004-10-01

158

Malignant tumors arising in the maxillary region after radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although radiotherapy has proven of great therapeutic value in the treatment of malignant tumors, it should also be borne in mind that radiation has a serious potential risk of giving rise to a secondary malignancy. We recently experienced 2 cases each of carcinoma and sarcoma arising in the irradiated areas long after radiation therapy for malignant tumors. In these 4 cases, 2 males and 2 females, the primary neoplastic diseases were squamous cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, carcinoma of unknown pathology and malignant lymphoma, and the secondary tumors were epidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, respectively. The sites of occurrence of these malignancies were invariably in the maxillary region; the mean latent period was 15 years, aside from an infantile case with a latent period of 5 years. In view of the primary diseases being malignant tumors the following criteria were set up for the diagnosis of radiation-induced malignancies: (1) the site of occurrence is within the confines of a previously irradiated area, (2) the latent period is prolonged and (3) the malignancy occurs as a double tumor. Therapy was primarily by operation. The prognosis was exceedingly ominous, the average survival time being 22 months. This was probably and mainly because of rapidity of tumor growth. Thus, the secondary tumors had already spread back to inward by the time they were first discovered. This should be kept in mind during a long-term should be kept in mind during a long-term follow-up of patients receiving radiotherapy for malignancy. (author)

159

Regional perfusion and oxygenation of tumors upon methylxanthine derivative administration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The use of methylxanthine derivatives has been postulated as a means of increasing tumor perfusion and thus ameliorating tumor hypoxia. The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the effects of three methylxanthine derivatives: pentoxifylline (PX), torbafylline (TB), and HWA 138 (HW) on tumor perfusion and oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats with DS-sarcomas implanted subcutaneously onto the hind foot dorsum were used in this study. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was measured throughout experiments. Regional red blood cell (RBC) flux was monitored using a multichannel laser Doppler device and tumor oxygenation on a more global level was assessed polarographically using an O2-sensitive catheter electrode. The methylxanthine derivatives were administered as a single dose intraperitoneally (for PX 50 mg/kg; for TB and HW 75 mg/kg). Results: Following drug administration, initial decreases in MABP down to 75% of baseline values were observed for all three substances. PX, HW, and TB caused initial transient reductions in mean RBC flux followed by gradual increases to values of 137 ± 27 %, 139 ± 14 %, and 122 ± 14 % respectively at t = 60 min. Following a small initial decrease upon drug administration, O2 partial pressure (pO2) rose to 160 ± 31 %, 153 ± 34 %, and 121 ± 11 % for PX, HW, and TB, respectively at t = 60 min. At the end of the observation period (t = 90 min), increases tion period (t = 90 min), increases in RBC flux and pO2 were still evident. When individual tumors were considered, a variety of patterns (including opposing effects) for changes in RBC flux were seen, not necessarily reflected in the mean values. Thus, while the methylxanthine derivatives caused an increased average tumor perfusion, there is evidence suggesting that a redistribution of tumor blood flow occurs which may amplify preexisting heterogeneity. Conclusions: Substantial improvements in tumor oxygenation and perfusion were observed after administration of the methylxanthine derivatives. These substances may therefore be of use during tumor therapies in which the outcome may be detrimentally affected by the presence of hypoxia

160

CT and MRI of germ-cell tumors with metastasis or multi-located tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty-seven cases of germ-cell tumors were examined with a CT scan in our clinic. In the 11 cases of metastasis or multi-localized tumors, the CT findings were studied in connection with the MRI findings. There were 6 cases of germ-cell tumors which had broad infiltrating tumors with multiple lesions on first admission. Their tumor sites were different from that in cases of malignant glioma, being frequently localized in the pineal and/or the suprasellar region, on the wall of the third and/or lateral ventricle, and in the region of the basal ganglia. Five of the cases of germ-cell tumors had metastasis with various patterns connected to a remote area - that is, to spinal cords, to the ventricular wall and basal cistern of the brain stem by CSF dissemination, to a lung by hematogeneous metastasis, and to the peritoneal wall or organs by a V-P shunt. The CT findings of germ-cell tumors were correlated mainly with the results of the histological diagnosis; they were found not to differ with the tumor site. The germinoma in the suprasellar region had less calcification than in the pineal region. Cysts, calcification, and an enlargement of the lateral ventricle on the tumor side were frequently seen in the germinoma of the basal ganglia. On the MRI of 5 cases of germinoma, the T{sub 1}-weighted image revealed a slightly low or iso signal intensity, while the T{sub 2}-weighted image showed a high signal intensity. In the case of multiple tumor lesions, some cases demonstrated different CT findings and radiosensitivities for each tumor. The possibility of a multicentric origin for the tumors is thus suggested in some cases of germ-cell tumors. (author).

Miyagami, Mitsusuke; Tazoe, Makoto; Tsubokawa, Takashi (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

1989-08-01

161

Non-pancreatic cancer tumors in the pancreatic region  

OpenAIRE

Most of tumors found in the pancreas are adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. A small number of tumors in the pancreas, such as islet cell tumors or neuroendocrine tumors, papillary cystic neoplasms, lymphoma, acinar cell tumors, metastatic tumors to the pancreas often, have a far better prognosis, and the majority of these tumors are non-malignant or benign. The author reviewed the recent literatures, and summarized where the tumor comes originally in the pancreas, what is the type of the tumor, ...

Åke Andrén-Sandberg

2011-01-01

162

Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demonstrated the biological action of pineal allopregnanolone on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum during development in juvenile birds. Pinealectomy (Px induces apoptosis of Purkinje cells, whereas allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks prevents cell death. Furthermore, Px increases the number of Purkinje cells that express active caspase-3, a crucial mediator of apoptosis, and allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks decreases the number of Purkinje cells expressing active caspase-3. It thus appears that pineal allopregnanolone prevents cell death of Purkinje cells by suppressing the activity of caspase-3 during development. This paper highlights new aspects of the biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone.

Kazuyoshi Tsutsui

2014-05-01

163

Non-pancreatic cancer tumors in the pancreatic region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of tumors found in the pancreas are adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. A small number of tumors in the pancreas, such as islet cell tumors or neuroendocrine tumors, papillary cystic neoplasms, lymphoma, acinar cell tumors, metastatic tumors to the pancreas often, have a far better prognosis, and the majority of these tumors are non-malignant or benign. The author reviewed the recent literatures, and summarized where the tumor comes originally in the pancreas, what is the type of the tumor, and how to treat the tumor.

Åke Andrén-Sandberg

2011-02-01

164

[MRI of the pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists. New studies suggest a correlation between CP-morphology and melatonin secretion as well as a connection between melatonin, disturbed circadian rhythm, and the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, underlining the need for a standardized approach to CP on MRI. PMID:25394927

Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Siebner, Hartwig; Garde, Ellen

2014-11-10

165

Histological features and expression of enzymes implicated in melatonin synthesis in pineal parenchymal tumours and in cultured tumoural pineal cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal parenchymal tumours (PPT) are rare neoplasms and there have been few in vitro studies. Their capacity for synthesizing and secreting melatonin has been only partially examined. We investigated the presence of messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), hydroxyindol-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), three enzymes involved in melatonin synthesis, and c-myc, a tumoural marker, in 10 PPT, one papillary tumour of the pineal region (PTPR), cell cultures derived from four PPTs and from three other tumours of the pineal region, and in normal pineal gland. Moreover, protein expression of TPH was investigated in three PPT and PTPR. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used and the melatonin production by tumoural cells in vitro was analysed by radioimmunoassay. We showed that all the tumoural tissues and cells contained c-myc mRNA. mRNAs encoding TPH, AANAT and HIOMT were detected in all PPT, suggesting that tumour cells can synthesize melatonin. Only PPT expressed TPH protein. Cultured cells lost expression of transcripts throughout passages even if ultrastructural study revealed the presence of characteristic organelles in these tumoural cells. Nevertheless, the basal secretion of melatonin observed in one PPT culture is in favour of a maintained melatonin production and secretion by tumoural pinealocytes, but melatonin production was not stimulated by a beta noradrenergic agonist. Moreover, PTPR never expressed mRNA encoding TPH, AANAT and HIOMT. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the biology of PTT and PTPR and may help to the diagnosis of these rare tumours. PMID:17971073

Fevre-Montange, M; Champier, J; Szathmari, A; Brisson, C; Reboul, A; Mottolese, C; Fauchon, F; Claustrat, B; Jouvet, A

2008-06-01

166

Pineal thyroid relationship in psychic stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal hormone and thyroid functions, were studied simultaneously in rats after the induction of acute psychic stress as well as exogenous administration of melatonin, thyroxine and also after thyroidectomy. A gradual increase in 131I uptake, serum PBI and melatonin levels were observed in blood, reaching maximum on 8th day of psychic stress. Melatonin administration resulted in hypothyroidism whereas thyroxine increased the activity of pineal qland. Thyroidectomy revealed a gradual decrease in melatonin content of pineal gland whereas supplementation with thyroxine resulted in a melatonin content similar to that observed in sham operated (control) group. (author)

167

CT and MRI findings in patients with suprasellar germ cell tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a retrospective analysis of CT and MRI findings in suprasellar germ cell tumors. The study population was comprised of 6 patients with germinomas, one with embryonal carcinoma, and one with mature teratoma. Suprasellar germinoma tended to have intratumoral low density on CT or intensity area on MRI, indicating tumor necrosis or occasionally cyst formation. Germinoma tissue may extend into the pituitary fossa. Sagittal MRI revealed that the extension was limited to the posterior part of the pituitary gland. MRI of the teratoma did not demonstrate extension of the tumor into the pituitary fossa. No germ cell tumor in this region was seen as calcification. Germinoma in this region did not always show marked homogeneous enhancement. These neuroradiological findings failed to determine subtypes of germ cell tumors. Two patients had germinomas in both the pineal and suprasellar areas. Two years after the total removal of pineal teratoma, it recurred in the suprasellar region that was not seen on the first MRI. In these two patients, germinomas called 'double midline tumors' seemed to have originated by CSF dissemination or subependymal seeding, which was not demonstrated on neuroradiological images. The teratoma case was thought to be one form of double midline tumor, because the first tumor tissue in the pineal region had been totally and extracapsulary removed two years earlier and the suprasellar lesion could not be demonstrated on sagittal MRI or CT scans. In costrated on sagittal MRI or CT scans. In conclusion, not only neuroradiological findings but also clinical findings such as tumor markers may be required in preoperative diagnosis of suprasellar germ cell tumors. (N.K.)

168

NeuroD1: developmental expression and regulated genes in the rodent pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

NeuroD1/BETA2, a member of the bHLH transcription factor family, is known to influence the fate of specific neuronal, endocrine and retinal cells. We report here that NeuroD1 mRNA is highly abundant in the developing and adult rat pineal gland. Pineal expression begins in the 17-day embryo at which time it is also detectable in other brain regions. Expression in the pineal gland increases during the embryonic period and is maintained thereafter at levels equivalent to those found in the cerebellum and retina. In contrast, NeuroD1 mRNA decreases markedly in non-cerebellar brain regions during development. Pineal NeuroD1 levels are similar during the day and night, and do not appear to be influenced by sympathetic neural input. Gene expression analysis of the pineal glands from neonatal NeuroD1 knockout mice identifies 127 transcripts that are down-regulated (>twofold, p twofold, p <0.05). According to quantitative RT-PCR, the most dramatically down-regulated gene is kinesin family member 5C ( approximately 100-fold) and the most dramatically up-regulated gene is glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 ( approximately fourfold). Other impacted transcripts encode proteins involved in differentiation, development, signal transduction and trafficking. These findings represent the first step toward elucidating the role of NeuroD1 in the rodent pinealocyte.

Muñoz, Estela M; Bailey, Michael J

2007-01-01

169

Melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

Poster presentation: The mammalian pineal organ is a peripheral oscillator, depending on afferent information from the so-called master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. One of the best studied outputs of the pineal gland is the small and hydrophobic molecule melatonin. In all vertebrates, melatonin is synthesized rhythmically with high levels at night, signalling the body the duration of the dark period. Changes or disruptions of melatonin rhythms in humans are related...

Stehle Jörg H; Kauert Gerold; Rüb Udo; Bux Roman; Ackermann Katrin

2007-01-01

170

Tumor regionality in the mouse intestine reflects the mechanism of loss of Apc function  

OpenAIRE

Inherited colorectal cancer syndromes in humans exhibit regional specificity for tumor formation. By using mice with germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene (Apc) and/or DNA mismatch repair genes, we have analyzed the genetic control of tumor regionality in the mouse small intestine. In C57BL/6 mice heterozygous for the Apc multiple intestinal neoplasia mutation (ApcMin), in which tumors are initiated by loss of heterozygosity by means of somatic recombination, tumors form p...

Haigis, Kevin M.; Hoff, Peter D.; White, Alanna; Shoemaker, Alex R.; Halberg, Richard B.; Dove, William F.

2004-01-01

171

Regional measurements of 14Cmisonidazole distribution and blood flow in subcutaneous RT-9 experimental tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regional [14C]misonidazole-derived radioactivity (MISO*) was measured by quantitative autoradiography in s.c. RT-9 experimental tumors 0.5, 2, and 4 h after an i.v. bolus (25 mg) and constant infusion (10 mg/h) in rats. Misonidazole (MISO) concentration in plasma, tumor, and other tissues was also measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The distribution of MISO* in the tumors always resulted in a characteristic pattern with high peripheral and low central values. The high-activity regions in the tumor rim achieved tissue: plasma MISO* activity ratios of 0.97 and 2.2 by 0.5 and 4 h, respectively; for central tumor regions, this ratio was 0.20 and 0.32 for the same periods, respectively. The limited distribution of MISO* to central tumor regions could be correlated to low values of blood flow (measured with [131I]iodoantipyrine) and to diffusion from peripheral tumor regions. Low blood flow in the central regions of these tumors will significantly limit the distribution of MISO and other drugs to viable-appearing cells in these areas and could account in part for the failures of chemotherapy in certain solid tumors. Pharmacokinetic modeling indicates that 1 to 9 h may be necessary for MISO concentrations in some tumor regions to reach 50% of that in plasma

172

Postnatal development of the dog pineal gland. Light microscopy  

OpenAIRE

The light microscopical morphology of the dog pineal gland from the first postnatal day to maturity is described. In the first postnatal week, the pineal parenchyma shows immature cells and many mitotic figures. In this week, pigmented cells are obsemed for the first time, both in the pineal gland and in extrapineal nodules. Throughout the second week, the pineal parenchyma shows a cordonal pattern that disappears progressively in the following stages. From the...

Calvo, J. L.; Boya, J.; Garci?a-maurin?o, A.; Lo?pez Carbonell, A.

1990-01-01

173

Pineal proteins upregulate specific antioxidant defense systems in the brain  

OpenAIRE

The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL), the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins (PP) on the antioxidant defense sys...

Bharti, Vijay K.; Srivastava, R. S.

2009-01-01

174

Two components of the pineal organ in the mink (Mustela vison): their structural similarity to submammalian pineal complexes and calcification.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal complex in the mink (Mustela vison) consists of a larger ventral and a smaller dorsal pineal. Both organs contain pinealocytes, neurons, glial cells, nerve fibers and synapses in an organization characteristic of nervous tissue. The cellular elements are arranged circularly around strait lumina. These lumina correspond to the photoreceptor spaces of submammalian pineals. A 9 + 0-type cilium marks the receptory pole of the pinealocytes which may form an inner-segment-like dendrite terminal in the pineal lumina. The cilia correspond to outer segments which form photoreceptor membrane multiplications in the pineal of submammalians and in certain insectivorous and mustelid mammals (bat, hedgehog, ferret). Axonal processes of the pinealocytes contain synaptic ribbons and terminate on intrapineal neurons of both organs. This pattern represents a neural efferentation of the pineal nervous tissue. The axonal processes of pinealocytes also form neurohormonal endings which pierce the perivascular limiting glial membrane in the ventral as well as in the dorsal pineal. The upper pineal ("epipineal") of the mink may correspond to the parapineal, frontal, or parietal organs of submammalian pineal complexes. Both pineals are encapsulated by the meningeal tissue of the brain stem. Afferent vasomotor axons of the meninges innervate smooth muscle cells of pineal arterioles. There are corpora arenacea in the pineal arachnoid and in the pineal nervous tissue, primarily in the ventral pineal. The localization of calcium ions detected around the membrane of pineal cells by pyroantimonate cytochemistry suggests membrane activity as the source of the calcium ions. The accumulation of calcium by the pinealocytes may be due to their neurosensory character. The mink is the first animal described to have both intrapineal and meningeal concrements like the human pineal. PMID:1295547

Vigh, B; Vigh-Teichmann, I

1992-12-01

175

Pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), a cis-acting element, directs pineal-specific gene expression in zebrafish  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland, sharing morphological and biochemical similarities with the retina, plays a unique and central role in the photoneuroendocrine system. The unique development of the pineal gland is directed by a specific combination of the expressed genes, but little is known about the regulatory mechanism underlying the pineal-specific gene expression. We isolated a 1.1-kbp fragment upstream of the zebrafish exo-rhodopsin (exorh) gene, which is expressed specifically in the pineal gland. Tr...

Asaoka, Yoichi; Mano, Hiroaki; Kojima, Daisuke; Fukada, Yoshitaka

2002-01-01

176

Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Otx2 is a vertebrate homeobox gene, which has been found to be essential for the development of rostral brain regions and appears to play a role in the development of retinal photoreceptor cells and pinealocytes. In this study, the temporal expression pattern of Otx2 was revealed in the rat brain, with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages. Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland. Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression pattern similar to that of Otx2, although there was a distinct lag in time of onset. Otx2 protein was identified in pineal extracts and found to be localized in pinealocytes. Total pineal Otx2 mRNA did not show day-night variation, nor was it influenced by removal of the sympathetic input, indicating that the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland. Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes associated with phototransduction and melatonin synthesis.

Rath, Martin F; Muñoz, Estela

2006-01-01

177

Homeobox-clock protein interaction in zebrafish. A shared mechanism for pineal-specific and circadian gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

In non-mammalian vertebrates, the pineal gland is photoreceptive and contains an intrinsic circadian oscillator that drives rhythmic production and secretion of melatonin. These features require an accurate spatiotemporal expression of an array of specific genes in the pineal gland. Among these is the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, a key enzyme in the melatonin production pathway. In zebrafish, pineal specificity of zfaanat2 is determined by a region designated the pineal-restrictive downstream module (PRDM), which contains three photoreceptor conserved elements (PCEs) and an E-box, elements that are generally associated with photoreceptor-specific and rhythmic expression, respectively. Here, by using in vivo and in vitro approaches, it was found that the PCEs and E-box of the PRDM mediate a synergistic effect of the photoreceptor-specific homeobox OTX5 and rhythmically expressed clock protein heterodimer, BMAL/CLOCK, on zfaanat2 expression. Furthermore, the distance between the PCEs and the E-box was found to be critical for PRDM function, suggesting a possible physical feature of this synergistic interaction. OTX5-BMAL/CLOCK may act through this mechanism to simultaneously control pineal-specific and rhythmic expression of zfaanat2 and possibly also other pineal and retinal genes. PMID:15657039

Appelbaum, Lior; Anzulovich, Ana; Baler, Ruben; Gothilf, Yoav

2005-03-25

178

Pineal control of aging: effect of melatonin and pineal grafting on aging mice.  

OpenAIRE

Dark-cycle, night administration of the pineal hormone melatonin in drinking water to aging mice (15 months of age) prolongs survival of BALB/c females from 23.8 to 28.1 months and preserves aspects of their youthful state. Similar results were seen in New Zealand Black females beginning at 5 months and C57BL/6 males beginning at 19 months. As melatonin is produced in circadian fashion from the pineal, we grafted pineals from young 3- to 4-month-old donors into the thymus of 20-month-old syng...

Pierpaoli, W.; Regelson, W.

1994-01-01

179

Pineal cyst: study with magnetic resonance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of magnetic resonance (MR) as a diagnostic technique in central nervous system pathology has made possible the detection of structures that are hard to view with other diagnostic methods. In 21 patients in whom the existence of pineal cyst was detected by chance, we describe the study technique employed and present the MR characterization. In the absence of specific clinical symptoms and sings, the differential diagnosis of this pathology, with respect to other neoplastic formations located in the pineal gland, is based on its typical location behind the third ventricle, its size, which does not vary in the different serial studies, and its signal intensity. (author)

180

[Pathological analysis of 1458 cases of tumor in the sella turcica region].  

Science.gov (United States)

The sella turcica region is an anatomical site preferential for various types of intracranial tumors. Pathological analysis of 1458 cases of tumor in this region is presented. They comprised 20.16% of the intracranial tumors. Among them, 846(59.1%) were pituitary adenomas, 433(29.7%) craniopharyngiomas, 91(6.2%) meningiomas and 42(2.9%) germinomas. In pituitary adenomas, chromophobe adenoma was predominant, mixed cell adenoma next and no basophilic adenoma was observed. Of craniopharyngiomas they were divided into cystic, partly solid and cystic, and calcified types grossly and histologically into adamantinomatous, squamous and calcified types. In this kind of tumor, well differentiated cells were consistent to the clinical benign course. For meningiomas, histologically meningotheliomatous type was most common in this region. In previous reports, germinomas in the sella turcica region were so-called ectopic pinealoma. Now it is well known that this tumor arises from germ cells, hence, the synonym "ectopic pinealoma" is obsolete. The germinomas in the sella turcica region accounted for 44.68% of all intracranial germinomas. Microscopic picture of this tumor was similar to those of seminoma of the testicle and dysgerminoma of the ovary. Although gliomas, teratomas, giant cell tumors and chondromas were uncommon in the sella turcica region, the authors believe that they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors in the sella turcica region. PMID:3219981

Lu, D H; Xu, Q Z

1988-05-01

181

Trg-deficient Salmonella colonize quiescent tumor regions by exclusively penetrating or proliferating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemotherapeutics fail to effectively treat tumors because they cannot reach quiescent regions far from blood vessels. Motile Salmonella are an attractive delivery system that could break this therapeutic barrier. However, little is known about the dissemination and tissue penetration of individual bacteria in tumors after intravenous administration. We hypothesized that eliminating the Trg receptor would improve accumulation in tumor quiescence. To test this hypothesis, we deleted the trg gene from nonpathogenic Salmonella. To quantify individual bacterial behavior, we measured tissue penetration in a tumor-on-a-chip device and measured colony localization in mouse tumors using immunofluorescence. In tumors in vitro and in mice, trg(-) Salmonella penetrated farther into tissue than control bacteria. This difference in localization was caused by the inability to sense sugars in well perfused tissue. Three distinct bacterial phenotypes were observed: proliferating, penetrating, and inactive. Large proliferating colonies, containing more than 40% of individual bacteria, only formed less than 60?m from blood vessels. Small colonies, in comparison, were present both near (inactive) and far (penetrating) from vessels. The farthest was 361.2?m from a vessel, demonstrating the ability to target avascular regions. In addition, colonization was most pronounced in poorly vascularized tumor regions. We show that deletion of trg amplifies Salmonella accumulation in quiescent tumor regions, and, for the first time, identify biological processes that control bacterial distribution in tumors. Understanding how Salmonella penetrate tissue, target quiescence and specifically replicate in tumors are essential steps toward creating a tightly controlled, tunable bacterial therapy. PMID:25523033

Zhang, Miaomin; Forbes, Neil S

2015-02-10

182

Comparison of some peptidic and proteic ovine pineal fractions with a bovine pineal E5 fraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using rather simple and mild extraction and separation methods, three ovine pineal fractions (XM 300R - PP 7.2, PP 7.2' and PP 7.2S) were obtained, which contain peptidic/proteic substances and which show fluorescence characteristics of indoles. The ovine fractions were compared with the bovine pineal E5-fraction. The ovine fractions are chemically sensitive to normal laboratory light and stable in red light (#betta# > 600 nm). Immunologically, these fractions and the bovine E5 fraction are stable. From the results of radioimmunological experiments it was concluded that the bovine pineal E5 fraction as well as the ovine pineal fraction XM 300R - PP 7.2 and PP 7.2S may contain (a) peptide(s) ending by the same carboxy terminal tripeptide Pro-Arg-Gly(NH2). (Author)

183

Malignant giant cell tumor of soft parts in lumbosacral region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Giant cell tumor of soft parts is a rare neoplasm that mainly affects adulst and the elderly and is usually located in the extremities. Here we report a child with giant cell tumor of soft tissue, which is a very rare condition in childhood. Clinical presentation : A 5 year old girl presented with a 5 month history of left lower extremity pain. She had developed paraplegia before admission. On examination, mild left lumbosacral swelling and tenderness was found. Abdominal and pelvic CT-Scan revealed an expansile lytic lesion of the left side of sacrum with significant soft tissue component extending toward the left iliac bone. Lumbar MRI revealed a space occupying lesion originating from posterior L5 elements, projecting toward the L1. Intervention : The patient underwent surgery. A firm epidural hemorrhagic tumor of L5, S1, and S2 with no spinal cord involvement was found. Partial tumor resection (measuring 3*1*0.5 cm in maximal diameter and laminectomy was done. Conclusion : Primary giant cell tumors of soft tissue are distinctive, rare neoplasms that exhibit a wide clinicopathologic spectrum similar to osseous GCTs and need to be differentiated from other giant cell rich soft tissue tumors. Recognition of this tumor is important due to its behavior as a low grade malignancy, but this cannot be predicted and metastasis does occur rarely

Jadali F

2008-04-01

184

Tumor odontógeno adenomatoide en región mandibular Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in mandibular region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El tumor odontogénico adenomatoide es un tumor poco frecuente derivado del epitelio odontontogénico, que contiene estructuras canaliculares con modificaciones inductivas de intensidad variable en el tejido conjuntivo. Es una lesión de crecimiento lento y poco invasiva pero que se puede asemejar a otras lesiones odontógenas de mayor agresividad como el quiste dentígero y el ameloblastoma entre otros. Su localización clásica (área de caninos superiores nos orienta al diagnóstico y su patrón histológico ductiforme es muy propio de este tumor. Otros tumores que se encuentran dentro de este grupo son el fibroma ameloblástico, el odontoameloblastoma, el quiste odontógeno calcificante y los odontomas compuesto y complejo. Este grupo de lesiones puede o no tener formaciones de tejido duro dental dentro de ellos. Por esta razón, se presenta un paciente con este tipo de tumor, al que se le realizó estudio histopatológico, se revisó la literatura acerca de este tumor odontogénico benigno y sus características clínicas, radiográficas, tratamiento, así como los diagnósticos diferenciales que se deben tener en cuenta.The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon neoplasm derivative of the odontogenic epithelium containing canalicular structures with inductor modifications of variable intensity in the conjunctival tissue. It is a slow growth lesion and no much invasive but that may to be similar to other odontogenic lesions more aggressive including the dentigerous cyst and the ameloblastoma among others. Its classical location (upper canine area guides us to diagnosis and its duct histological pattern is very typical of this tumor. Other tumors included in this group are the ameloblastic fibroma, the ameloblastic odontoma, the calcified odontogenic cyst and composed and complex odontomas. This group of lesions may or not to have formations of hard tissue inside. Thus, authors present the case of a patient presenting with this type of tumor making a histopathology study, a literature review on this benign odontogenic tumor and its clinical radiographic features, treatment, as well as the differential diagnoses to be into account.

Ernesto Sánchez Cabrales

2010-12-01

185

Distribution of pediatric bone and soft tissue tumors in the central Black Sea region.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to evaluate pediatric cases treated surgically for an initial diagnosis of bone and soft tissue tumor between January 1987 and January 2012. This retrospective study evaluated 328 patients with pathologically confirmed tumor from a total of 374 patients hospitalized with an initial diagnosis of tumor. The cases were analyzed with respect to frequency, age, gender, and localization. One hundred and eighty (54.8%) males and 148 (45.2%) females, with a mean age of 13 years (range: 1-18 years), were included in the study. The tumors were determined as 258 (78.6%) bone tumors and 70 (21.4%) soft tissue tumors. The most common benign bone tumor was observed to be osteochondroma (n=61, 30.7%), and the most common malignant bone tumor was osteosarcoma (n=31, 52.6%). The most common benign soft tissue tumor was hemangioma, which is a vascular tumor (n=28, 43.8%), and the most common malignant soft tissue tumor was rhabdomyosarcoma (n=5, 83.3%). It is thought that similar studies will serve to form larger series and facilitate inter-regional comparisons by collecting data from centers that surgically treat bone and soft tissue tumors, thereby benefitting both pediatric and public health. PMID:25341592

Ç?rakl?, Alper; Dabak, Nevzat; Ç?rakl?, Sevgi; Sezgin, Hicabi; Göçer, Hasan; Bar??, Sancar

2014-01-01

186

Tumor odontógeno adenomatoide en región mandibular / Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in mandibular region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El tumor odontogénico adenomatoide es un tumor poco frecuente derivado del epitelio odontontogénico, que contiene estructuras canaliculares con modificaciones inductivas de intensidad variable en el tejido conjuntivo. Es una lesión de crecimiento lento y poco invasiva pero que se puede asemejar a ot [...] ras lesiones odontógenas de mayor agresividad como el quiste dentígero y el ameloblastoma entre otros. Su localización clásica (área de caninos superiores) nos orienta al diagnóstico y su patrón histológico ductiforme es muy propio de este tumor. Otros tumores que se encuentran dentro de este grupo son el fibroma ameloblástico, el odontoameloblastoma, el quiste odontógeno calcificante y los odontomas compuesto y complejo. Este grupo de lesiones puede o no tener formaciones de tejido duro dental dentro de ellos. Por esta razón, se presenta un paciente con este tipo de tumor, al que se le realizó estudio histopatológico, se revisó la literatura acerca de este tumor odontogénico benigno y sus características clínicas, radiográficas, tratamiento, así como los diagnósticos diferenciales que se deben tener en cuenta. Abstract in english The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon neoplasm derivative of the odontogenic epithelium containing canalicular structures with inductor modifications of variable intensity in the conjunctival tissue. It is a slow growth lesion and no much invasive but that may to be similar to other odont [...] ogenic lesions more aggressive including the dentigerous cyst and the ameloblastoma among others. Its classical location (upper canine area) guides us to diagnosis and its duct histological pattern is very typical of this tumor. Other tumors included in this group are the ameloblastic fibroma, the ameloblastic odontoma, the calcified odontogenic cyst and composed and complex odontomas. This group of lesions may or not to have formations of hard tissue inside. Thus, authors present the case of a patient presenting with this type of tumor making a histopathology study, a literature review on this benign odontogenic tumor and its clinical radiographic features, treatment, as well as the differential diagnoses to be into account.

Ernesto, Sánchez Cabrales; Dadonim, Vila Morales; Ángel Mario, Felipe Garmendia; Alain, Serra Ortega; Alma, Torres Gómez de Cádiz.

2010-12-01

187

Histology and ultrastructure of the pineal organ in the domestic goose.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal organs of 14-week-old domestic geese were investigated with light and electron microscopy. The pineals consisted of a wide distal part and a narrow middle-proximal one. The glands were attached to the intercommissural region via the choroid plexus. The pineal parenchyma was formed by round or elongated follicles. The follicular wall was composed predominantly by cells immunoreactive with antibodies against hydroxyindolo-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) or glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP). They formed two or more layers. HIOMT-positive elements were represented by elongated cells bordering the follicular lumen and oval cells located in the external layer of the follicular wall. These cells were identified in ultrastructural studies as rudimentary-receptor pinealocytes and secretory pinealocytes, respectively. Among rudimentary-receptor pinealocytes two types of cells, designed as A and B, were distinguished due to structural differences. Type A cells extended through the whole follicular wall and showed regular stratified distribution of organelles in well-recognizable zones with rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria. Type B cells, like type A pinealocytes, contacted the pineal lumen and showed polarity of their internal structure. However, they were markedly shorter than the cells of type A and lacked stratified distribution of organelles. Secretory pinealocytes contained irregularly dispersed organelles. A prominent feature of all types of goose pinealocytes was the presence of numerous dense core vesicles. The population of GFAP-positive cells consisted of ependymal-like supporting cells and astrocyte-like cells. PMID:16835830

Prusik, M; Lewczuk, B; Nowicki, M; Przybylska-Gornowicz, B

2006-10-01

188

Tumor odontógeno adenomatoide en región mandibular Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in mandibular region  

OpenAIRE

El tumor odontogénico adenomatoide es un tumor poco frecuente derivado del epitelio odontontogénico, que contiene estructuras canaliculares con modificaciones inductivas de intensidad variable en el tejido conjuntivo. Es una lesión de crecimiento lento y poco invasiva pero que se puede asemejar a otras lesiones odontógenas de mayor agresividad como el quiste dentígero y el ameloblastoma entre otros. Su localización clásica (área de caninos superiores) nos orienta al diagnóstico y su ...

Ernesto Sánchez Cabrales; Dadonim Vila Morales; Ángel Mario Felipe Garmendia; Alain Serra Ortega; Alma Torres Gómez de Cádiz

2010-01-01

189

Stereoscopic virtual reality models for planning tumor resection in the sellar region  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background It is difficult for neurosurgeons to perceive the complex three-dimensional anatomical relationships in the sellar region. Methods To investigate the value of using a virtual reality system for planning resection of sellar region tumors. The study included 60 patients with sellar tumors. All patients underwent computed tomography angiography, MRI-T1W1, and contrast enhanced MRI-T1W1 image sequence scanning. The CT and MRI scanning data were c...

Wang Shou-sen; Zhang Shang-ming; Jing Jun-jie

2012-01-01

190

Possible role of pineal allopregnanolone in Purkinje cell survival  

OpenAIRE

It is believed that neurosteroids are produced in the brain and other nervous systems. Here, we show that allopregnanolone (ALLO), a neurosteroid, is exceedingly produced in the pineal gland compared with the brain and that pineal ALLO acts on the Purkinje cell, a principal cerebellar neuron, to prevent apoptosis in the juvenile quail. We first demonstrated that the pineal gland is a major organ of neurosteroidogenesis. A series of experiments using molecular and biochemical techniques has fu...

Haraguchi, Shogo; Hara, Sakurako; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Mita, Masatoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

2012-01-01

191

Induction of photosensitivity in neonatal rat pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

Pineal glands removed from neonatal rats at 5, 7, and 9 days of age and explanted into short-term culture, synthesized melatonin when stimulated with norepinephrine (NE); their melatonin synthesis could not be suppressed with bright white light. Dispersed pineal cell cultures or pineal explants prepared from 1-day-old neonates and held in culture for 7 or 9 days also synthesized melatonin when stimulated with NE, but in these cases melatonin synthesis was significantly...

Tosini, Gianluca; Doyle, Susan; Geusz, Mike; Menaker, Michael

2000-01-01

192

The reno-pineal axis: A novel role for melatonin  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland is a tiny endocrine gland whose physiologic role has been the focus of much research and much more speculation over the past century. This mini-review discusses recent findings which correlate melatonin and renal physiology, and postulates the presence of a “reno-pineal axis.” Drawing lessons from comparative endocrinology, while quoting human data, it advocates the need to study the “reno-pineal axis” in greater detail.

Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Swati; Sahay, Manisha

2012-01-01

193

Analysis of MRI appearance of aggressive soft tissue tumor in hip joint region: compared with pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To analyze the MRI appearance of soft tissue tumor in hip joint region, and compare it with pathological features. Methods: MR appearance of 19 soft tissue tumor in hip joint region were retrospectively analyzed, including 12 male and 7 female, 45.2 years averaged. All patients had taken common MR scanning and Gd-DTPA contrast scanning. Results: There was 5 aggressive fibromatosis, 5 malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 2 synovial sarcoma, 4 liposarcoma, 1 lymphoma, 1 primitive neuroectodermal tumor and 1 metastatic tumor. Of 19 cases, 13 with hemorrhage and necrosis, 14 with peripheral edema, nerve and vessel involved in 11. Aggressive fibromatosis appeared as isointensity or hypointensity on T1WI, and moderate hyperintensity on T2WI with low signal inside. Malignant tumor were mostly ill-defined. After contrast scanning, tumors enhanced apparently. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma showed isointensity and heter-hypointensity on T1WI, and heter-hypointensity on T2WI. Necrosis and hemorrhage occurred. All cases showed strong enhancement, except for the areas of necrosis. Edema around tumor can be seen in most cases. Conclusion: MRI can demonstrate the from and internal and peripheral structure of soft tissue tumor in hip joint region, and can contribute to the diagnosis before operation. (authors)

194

Arthroscopic resection of an extra-articular tenosynovial giant cell tumor from the ankle region.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the case of a 31-year-old man with a tenosynovial giant cell tumor in the left ankle region. The tumor developed over a period of 5 months. A conservatively treated fracture of the leg in the patient's history was important. The presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination allowed a specific diagnosis and the exclusion of infiltrative properties of the tumor. The tumor was excised using an exclusively arthroscopic technique. The procedure included treatment of intra-articular pathologies and the removal of 2 loose bodies. The excision was complete and no recurrence or complication was seen in 5 months' follow-up. In view of the possible recurrence (in about 50% of patients) and the unknown development of malignant tumors, arthroscopic excision can be advantageous. This procedure includes small scars and lower risks of infection and necrosis. Therefore, arthroscopic treatment of soft tissue tumors near the ankle joint may by an alternative to open excision. PMID:12966401

Spahn, Gunter; Bousseljot, Frank; Schulz, Hans-Joachim; Bauer, Thomas

2003-09-01

195

Glia-Pinealocyte Network: The Paracrine Modulation of Melatonin Synthesis by Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland, a circumventricular organ, plays an integrative role in defense responses. The injury-induced suppression of the pineal gland hormone, melatonin, which is triggered by darkness, allows the mounting of innate immune responses. We have previously shown that cultured pineal glands, which express toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), produce TNF when challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here our aim was to evaluate which cells present in ...

Da Silveira Cruz-machado, Sanseray; Pinato, Luciana; Tamura, Eduardo Koji; Carvalho-sousa, Cla?udia Emanuele; Markus, Regina P.

2012-01-01

196

The megachiropteran pineal organ: a comparative morphological and volumetric investigation with special emphasis on the remarkably large pineal of Dobsonia praedatrix.  

OpenAIRE

This investigation is based upon the pineal organs of 92 specimens of 36 species of the family Pteropodidae (Mammalia, Chiroptera). The size of the megachiropteran pineal correlates well with body size (r = 0.864), confirming the former conclusions that generally larger bodied bats have larger pineals. The range of the pineal size index in 36 megachiropteran species is from 33 to 4393. In most species the pineal organs are small, deeply recessed under the cerebral hemispheres and of Type A (e...

Bhatnagar, K. P.; Frahm, H. D.; Stephan, H.

1990-01-01

197

Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

Gizewski, E.R.; Forsting, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Essen (Germany)

2001-08-01

198

Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

199

Oxytalan fibres in the rat pineal gland.  

OpenAIRE

The present study shows the existence of oxytalan fibres in the connective tissue spaces of the rat pineal gland. The identification of these fibres with light microscopy is based on their ability to stain with aldehyde-fuchsin and orcein after oxidation with peracetic acid. Using the electron microscope, oxytalan fibres appear as bundles of fibrils of 12-15 nm without transverse striation. Oxytalan fibres increase with age, being most abundant in the old rat.

Calvo, J.; Boya, J.

1983-01-01

200

Nitric oxide synthase in the pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

The recent discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as a biological messenger molecule with unique characteristics has opened a new field in pineal research. This free radical gas is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. The activation of adrenoreceptors in the membrane of the pinealocytes mediates the increase in NO through a mechanism that involves G proteins. In the pinealocyte, NO stimulates guanylyl cyclase resulting in an increased ...

Lopez-figueroa, M. O.; Moller, M.

1996-01-01

201

Pineal Function: Impact of Microarray Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-hour schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity to the retina and has provided reason to explore new avenues of study including intracellular signaling, signal transduction, transcriptional cascades, thyroid/retinoic acid hormone signaling, metal biology...

Klein, David C.; Bailey, Michael J.; Carter, David A.; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Ho, Anthony; Chik, Constance; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G.; Munson, Peter J.

2009-01-01

202

Pineal cyst: study with magnetic resonance. Quistes pineales simples: estudio con resonancia magnetica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of magnetic resonance (MR) as a diagnostic technique in central nervous system pathology has made possible the detection of structures that are hard to view with other diagnostic methods. In 21 patients in whom the existence of pineal cyst was detected by chance, we describe the study technique employed and present the MR characterization. In the absence of specific clinical symptoms and sings, the differential diagnosis of this pathology, with respect to other neoplastic formations located in the pineal gland, is based on its typical location behind the third ventricle, its size, which does not vary in the different serial studies, and its signal intensity. (author)

Paniagua, J.C.; Aleixandre, A.; Esteban, M.J.; Marti-Bomati, L.; Poyatos, C. (Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia (Spain))

1992-01-01

203

Segmental duplications and evolutionary plasticity at tumor chromosome break-prone regions  

OpenAIRE

We have previously found that the borders of evolutionarily conserved chromosomal regions often coincide with tumor-associated deletion breakpoints within human 3p12-p22. Moreover, a detailed analysis of a frequently deleted region at 3p21.3 (CER1) showed associations between tumor breaks and gene duplications. We now report on the analysis of 54 chromosome 3 breaks by multipoint FISH (mpFISH) in 10 carcinoma-derived cell lines. The centromeric region was broken in five lines. In lines with h...

Darai-ramqvist, Eva; Sandlund, Agneta; Mu?ller, Stefan; Klein, George; Imreh, Stefan; Kost-alimova, Maria

2008-01-01

204

Human chorionic gonadotrophin secreting pineal germinoma and precocious puberty.  

OpenAIRE

A 10 1/2 year old boy presented with raised intracranial pressure and precocious puberty caused by a human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) secreting pineal germinoma. After craniospinal irradiation he improved clinically and his HCG concentration fell to an undetectable value. Two years later he remains well. Pineal germinomas are highly radiosensitive obviating the need for difficult surgery associated with high mortality.

Ahmed, S. R.; Shalet, S. M.; Price, D. A.; Pearson, D.

1983-01-01

205

Recurrent giant cell tumor of bone with simultaneous regional lymph node and pulmonary metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Giant cell tumors of bone are known for their unpredictable behavior characterized occasionally even by metastases. Most metastases lodge in the lungs but other rare sites are regional lymph nodes, mediastinum, skin, scalp and the pelvis. In this case report we document a case of giant cell tumor of the patella in which, associated with local recurrence, there were simultaneous metastases to lymph nodes and lungs. (orig.)

206

Diagnostic value of silver nitrate staining for nucleolar organizer regions in selected head and neck tumors  

OpenAIRE

Background: The present study is aimed to assess the usefulness of silver nitrate staining of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) as a quantitative criterion for the diagnosis of selected head and neck tumors. Materials and Methods: The silver nitrate staining technique was used on 195 paraffin blocks collected from 85 patients. The samples consisted of 21 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of larynx, 28 SCC of oral mucosa and 36 samples of most common salivary gland tumors. Mann-...

Eslami Behnam; Rahimi Hessam; Rahimi Farzaneh; Khiavi Monir; Ebadifar Asghar

2006-01-01

207

Malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor of the pelvic paravertebral region: case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a rare but distinctive neoplasm of unknown histogenesis, occurring primarily in children. It has a characteristic histologic pattern and aggressive clinical behavior, and was originally thought to be a malignant sarcomatous variant of Wilms tumor; numerous cases of MRT arising from extrarenal sites have, however, been reported. We describe the radiologic findings of two cases of malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor that arose in the pelvic paravertebral region of two children. Both were confirmed by surgical excision and pathologic examination

208

Malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor of the pelvic paravertebral region: case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a rare but distinctive neoplasm of unknown histogenesis, occurring primarily in children. It has a characteristic histologic pattern and aggressive clinical behavior, and was originally thought to be a malignant sarcomatous variant of Wilms tumor; numerous cases of MRT arising from extrarenal sites have, however, been reported. We describe the radiologic findings of two cases of malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor that arose in the pelvic paravertebral region of two children. Both were confirmed by surgical excision and pathologic examination.

Park, Jae Seong; Kim, Dong Jin; Lee, Myeong Sub; Kim, Myung Soon; Hong, In Soo; Lee, Kwang Gil; Kim, Tae Heon [Yonsei Univ., Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

2001-11-01

209

Morfología de la Glándula Pineal: Revisión de la Literatura / Pineal Gland Morphology: A Literature Review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La glándula pineal es una pequeña estructura ubicada en el techo del diencéfalo, su principal función es la de regular los ritmos circadianos, tales como sueño-vigilia, secretar melatonina, hormona con fuerte efecto sobre la acción gonadal, además de oncostática, geroprotectora y antioxidante. La pr [...] esente revisión tiene por objetivo conocer los aspectos morfológicos de la glándula pineal, desde su desarrollo a nivel embriológico como su descripción anatómica e histológica con el fin de comprender su función desde un punto de vista integral. Abstract in english Pineal gland is a small structure located on the roof of the diencephalon, and its principal function is to play an important role in circadian rhythm regulation, such as sleep/wake, besides secreting melatonin, a hormone with a strong effect on gonadal action, and playing oncostatic, geroprotector [...] and antioxidant roles. This review aims to know the morphological aspects of the pineal gland, from its embryological development, its anatomic and histological description, in order to understand its function from an integral view.

Ignacio, Roa; Mariano, del Sol.

2014-06-01

210

Demonstration of an orexinergic central innervation of the pineal gland of the pig  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Orexins/hypocretins, two isoforms of the same prepropeptide, are widely distributed throughout the brain and are involved in several physiological and neuroendocrine regulatory patterns, mostly related to feeding, sleep, arousal, and cyclic sleep-wake behaviors. Orexin-A and orexin-B bind with different affinities to two G-protein-coupled transmembrane receptors, orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptors (OR-R1 and OR-R2, respectively). Because of the similarities between the human and the swine brain, we have studied the pig to investigate the orexinergic system in the diencephalon, with special emphasis on the neuroanatomical projections to the epithalamic region. By using antibodies against orexin-A and orexin-B, immunoreactive large multipolar perikarya were detected in the hypothalamic periventricular and perifornical areas at the light and electron microscopic levels. In the region of the paraventricular nucleus, the orexinergic neurons extended all the way to the lateral hypothalamic area. Immunoreactive nerve fibers, often endowed with large varicosities, were found throughout the hypothalamus and the epithalamus. Some periventricular immunoreactive nerve fibers entered the epithalamic region and continued into the pineal stalk and parenchyma to disperse among the pinealocytes. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of orexinergic nerve fibers in the pig pineal gland. After extraction of total mRNA from the hypothalamus and pineal gland, we performed RT-PCR and nested PCR using primers specific for porcine orexin receptors. PCR products were sequenced, verifying the presence of both OR-R1 and OR-R2 in the tissues investigated. These findings, supported by previous studies on rodents, suggest a hypothalamic regulation of the pineal gland via central orexinergic nervous inputs.

Fabris, Chiara; Cozzi, Bruno

2004-01-01

211

Zebrafish serotonin-N-acetyltransferase-2 gene regulation: pineal-restrictive downstream module contains a functional E-box and three photoreceptor conserved elements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal function is defined by a set of very narrowly expressed genes that encode proteins required for photoperiodic transduction and rhythmic melatonin secretion. One of these proteins is serotonin N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, AANAT), which controls the daily rhythm in melatonin production. Here, pineal-specific expression of the zebrafish aanat-2 (zfaanat-2) was studied using in vivo transient expression analyses of promoter-reporter constructs; this revealed that specificity is determined by two regions located 12 kb away from each other. One is the 5'-flanking region, and the other is a 257-bp sequence, located 6 kb downstream of the transcribed region. This 3'-sequence, designated pineal-restrictive downstream module (PRDM), has a dual function: enhancement of pineal expression and inhibition of extrapineal expression. The former is an autonomic property of PRDM whereas the later function requires interaction with the upstream regulatory region of zfaanat-2. Functional analyses of the PRDM sequence revealed that three photoreceptor conserved elements (TAATC) and a single perfect E-box (CACGTG) are crucial for the dual function of PRDM. These results indicate that pineal specificity of zfaanat-2 is determined by the dual functionality of the PRDM and the interaction between upstream regulatory region and downstream photoreceptor conserved elements and E-box element. PMID:14988431

Appelbaum, Lior; Toyama, Reiko; Dawid, Igor B; Klein, David C; Baler, Ruben; Gothilf, Yoav

2004-05-01

212

Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.  

Science.gov (United States)

As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis. PMID:24692343

Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

2014-11-01

213

Stereoscopic virtual reality models for planning tumor resection in the sellar region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background It is difficult for neurosurgeons to perceive the complex three-dimensional anatomical relationships in the sellar region. Methods To investigate the value of using a virtual reality system for planning resection of sellar region tumors. The study included 60 patients with sellar tumors. All patients underwent computed tomography angiography, MRI-T1W1, and contrast enhanced MRI-T1W1 image sequence scanning. The CT and MRI scanning data were collected and then imported into a Dextroscope imaging workstation, a virtual reality system that allows structures to be viewed stereoscopically. During preoperative assessment, typical images for each patient were chosen and printed out for use by the surgeons as references during surgery. Results All sellar tumor models clearly displayed bone, the internal carotid artery, circle of Willis and its branches, the optic nerve and chiasm, ventricular system, tumor, brain, soft tissue and adjacent structures. Depending on the location of the tumors, we simulated the transmononasal sphenoid sinus approach, transpterional approach, and other approaches. Eleven surgeons who used virtual reality models completed a survey questionnaire. Nine of the participants said that the virtual reality images were superior to other images but that other images needed to be used in combination with the virtual reality images. Conclusions The three-dimensional virtual reality models were helpful for individualized planning of surgery in the sellar region. Virtual reality appears to be promising as a valuable tool for sellar region surgery in the future.

Wang Shou-sen

2012-11-01

214

Diagnosis of tumors of the pituitary region by two-plane CT scans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty five cases of tumors in the pituitary region were analysed by two-plane CT (ordinary sections and reverse sections) in order to obtain a more accurate image of the tumor and thus establish an appropriate indication for the subnasal transsphenoidal approach. The tumors of pituitary region were classified into six groups (types I-VI) according to their degree of extension and direction of growth. Small tumors such as types I and II were detected more clearly by the reverse section than by the ordinary section. In cases of large tumors (types III-VI) relation of the tumor to the surrounding structures such as the sphenoid sinus, third ventricle, lateral ventricule, middle fossa and brain stem was accurately demonstrated by the reverse section. In the differential diagnosis of tumors in the pituitary regions, tumors showing mixed density or slightly high density and widening of the anteroposterior diameter of the sella in the precontrast reverse section and homogeneous enhancement by infusion were likely to be pituitary adenomas. One third of the pituitary adenomas showed ring-like high density in the post-contrast reverse section. Calcification was not seen in the pituitary adenomas by CT scans. All craniopharyngiomas belonged to types III-VI. Craniopharyngiomas showed high and/or low density, and various degrees of calcification in plain CT scans. Ring-like high density was seen in two thirds of the craniopharyngiomas. About one third of the craniopharyngiomas shout one third of the craniopharyngiomas showed widening of the antero-posterior diameter of the sella. (J.P.N.)

215

Circadian rhythms in the pineal organ persist in zebrafish larvae that lack ventral brain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, located in the ventral hypothalamus, is a major regulator of circadian rhythms in mammals and birds. However, the role of the SCN in lower vertebrates remains poorly understood. Zebrafish cyclops (cyc mutants lack ventral brain, including the region that gives rise to the SCN. We have used cyc embryos to define the function of the zebrafish SCN in regulating circadian rhythms in the developing pineal organ. The pineal organ is the major source of the circadian hormone melatonin, which regulates rhythms such as daily rest/activity cycles. Mammalian pineal rhythms are controlled almost exclusively by the SCN. In zebrafish and many other lower vertebrates, the pineal has an endogenous clock that is responsible in part for cyclic melatonin biosynthesis and gene expression. Results We find that pineal rhythms are present in cyc mutants despite the absence of an SCN. The arginine vasopressin-like protein (Avpl, formerly called Vasotocin is a peptide hormone expressed in and around the SCN. We find avpl mRNA is absent in cyc mutants, supporting previous work suggesting the SCN is missing. In contrast, expression of the putative circadian clock genes, cryptochrome 1b (cry1b and cryptochrome 3 (cry3, in the brain of the developing fish is unaltered. Expression of two pineal rhythmic genes, exo-rhodopsin (exorh and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (aanat2, involved in photoreception and melatonin synthesis, respectively, is also similar between cyc embryos and their wildtype (WT siblings. The timing of the peaks and troughs of expression are the same, although the amplitude of expression is slightly decreased in the mutants. Cyclic gene expression persists for two days in cyc embryos transferred to constant light or constant dark, suggesting a circadian clock is driving the rhythms. However, the amplitude of rhythms in cyc mutants kept in constant conditions decreased more quickly than in their WT siblings. Conclusion Our data suggests that circadian rhythms can be initiated and maintained in the absence of SCN and other tissues in the ventral brain. However, the SCN may have a role in regulating the amplitude of rhythms when environmental cues are absent. This provides some of the first evidence that the SCN of teleosts is not essential for establishing circadian rhythms during development. Several SCN-independent circadian rhythms have also been found in mammalian species. Thus, zebrafish may serve as a model system for understanding how vertebrate embryos coordinate rhythms that are controlled by different circadian clocks.

Goldstein-Kral Lauren

2011-01-01

216

Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

MØller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri

2014-01-01

217

Specific distribution pattern of nerve fibers containing catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY (CPON) in the pineal gland of the chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger)--an immunohistochemical study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sympathetic nerve fibers originating from the superior cervical ganglia and supplying the pineal gland play the most important role in the control of the pineal activity in mammals. NPY and CPON are also present in the majority of the pinealopetal sympathetic neurons. In this study, immunohistochemical techniques were used to demonstrate the existence and coexistence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH) as well as NPY and CPON in the nerve fibers supplying the chinchilla pineal gland. Ten two-year-old female chinchillas housed in natural light conditions were used in the study. The pineals were fixed by perfusion. ABC immunohistochemical technique and immunofluorescence labelling method were employed. TH-immunoreactive (TH-IR) varicose nerve fibers were observed in the pineal gland as well as in the posterior commissural area. Within the chinchilla pineal gland, TH-IR nerve fibers were located in the capsule and connective tissue septa. Numerous varicose TH-IR branches penetrated into the parenchyma and formed a network showing the highest density in the proximal region of the gland. In the central and distal parts of the pineal parenchyma, a subtle network, composed of thin varicose nerve branches, was observed. Double immunostaining revealed that the majority of TH-IR nerve fibers was positive for DbetaH or NPY. TH- and DbetaH-positive neuron-like cells were observed in the proximal region of the gland. The pattern of pineal innervation immunoreactive to CPON was similar to the innervation containing NPY, TH and DbetaH. The chinchilla intrapineal innervation containing TH, DbetaH, NPY and CPON is characterized by the higher density in the proximal part of the gland than in the middle and distal ones. The specific feature of the chinchilla pineal is also the presence of single TH/DbetaH-immunoreactive neuron-like cells in the proximal part of the gland. PMID:14677758

Nowicki, Marcin; Wojtkiewicz, Joanna; Seremak, Beata; Sulik, Magorzata; Ostaszewski, Jacek; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Majewski, Mariusz; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara

2003-01-01

218

Tumor extragonadal de células germinales en mediastino: aportación de un caso / Extragonadal germ cell tumor in mediastinum: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los tumores de células germinales de origen extragonadal son descritos infrecuentemente en la literatura, siendo menos de 1.000 casos. Los sitios de origen por orden de frecuencia son mediastino, retroperitoneo, región sacro coccígea y glándula pineal. Este caso es de un germinoma primario en medias [...] tino en un paciente de 27 años de edad. En los estudios de imagen se demostró una masa mediastinal, se tomo una biopsia para llegar al diagnóstico. Marcadores tumorales normales, el ultrasonido testicular reportó la presencia de microlitiasis bilateral. El paciente fue tratado con poliquimioterapia y resección de masa residual. La evolución fue satisfactoria con respuesta completa. Abstract in english The Germ Cell tumors of extragonadal origin are infrequent cases being described in literature less than 1000 cases. The frequent origin sites are mediastinum, retroperitoneum, sacrococcygeal region, and the pineal gland. There was a primary case of germinoma in mediastinum in a 27 years patient. In [...] the image studies a mediastinal mass was demonstrated, a biopsy was taken arriving at the diagnosis. Normal tumor markers, testicular ultrasonography reported the presence of bilateral microlitiasis. It was treating with polychemotherapy and later residual mass was dried. The evolution was satisfactory with complete answer.

A., Zavala Elizondo; R., Martínez Montelongo; J.E., González.

2008-03-01

219

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PINEAL ACERVULI DURING THE HUMAN AGING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acervuli of 30 human pineal gland, were investigated during our research. They were collected during the autopsies at the Institut for forensic medicine of the Faculty of Medicine in Niš. Pineal tissue was processed with standard histologic procedure. Then, it was cut into 10 mm thick sections which were stained with HE, PAS, AB PAS and Mallory’s trichrome connective tissue stain. After that they were analyzed with light microscope. Morphometric analysis was performed by astereologic method. The B100 double square lattice test system was used. Average area, average perimeter, average diameter and contour index were calculated for the pineal acervuli of each age group. Obtained morphometric parameters were statisticaly analyzed. Acervuli were colored blue on HE stained sections. They were PAS and AB PAS positive structures which had red colored center and blue colored periphery on Mallory’s trichrome stained sections. Laminate structure was present, but it was not so concentric as it was in pineal capsula acervuli. Acervuli of the first age group had regular shape. They were localized at the pineal gland periphery. Acervuli of the second and the third age group obtained larger dimensions and more irregular shape, which finally led to mulberry structures formation in the core of the pineal gland. They were probably the result of the conglomeration of just formed with already formed ones. The increase of the average area, average parimeter, average diameter and contour index confirmed the increase of pineal acervuli dimensions and their shape irregularity during the aging process.Therefore, pineal acervuli show the increase of dimensions and shape irregularity. Finally, the process of conglomeration leads to mulberry like structures formation, in the second and the third age group which dominate pineal tissue in these age groups.

Dejan Zdravkovic

2004-01-01

220

Pineal gland calcification and defective sense of direction.  

OpenAIRE

Calcification of the pineal gland is shown to be closely related to defective sense of direction. In a tricentre prospective study of 750 patients lateral skull radiographs showed that 394 had calcified pineal glands. Sense of direction was assessed by subjective questioning and objective testing and the results noted on a scale of 0-10 (where 10 equals perfect sense of direction). The average score for the 394 patients with pineal gland calcification was 3.7 (range 0-8), whereas the 356 pati...

Bayliss, C. R.; Bishop, N. L.; Fowler, R. C.

1985-01-01

221

Two Synchronous and Different Salivary Gland Tumors Located in the Parotid Gland and Parapharyngeal Region: A Case Report  

OpenAIRE

The majority of salivary gland tumors presents as a single mass in one gland. The occurrence of synchronous distinct tumors in salivary glands is rare. We report a case of two distinct salivary gland tumors localized in the parotid gland and parapharyngeal area. The first mass was in the left parapharyngeal region and the second was partially embedded in the caudal region of the left parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration was done for the parotid gland mass and cytological findings were consis...

Kefeli?, Mehmet; Akpolat, I?lkser; C?engel, Senem; Karago?z, Filiz; Kandemi?r, Bedri

2009-01-01

222

Effects of reoxygenation on cells from hypoxic regions of solid tumors: Analysis of transplanted murine tumors for evidence of DNA overreplication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transient exposure of cultured cells to conditions of extreme hypoxia can induce DNA overreplication and the generation of cellular variants. This effect may be important for the development of tumor heterogeneity, since hypoxia may arise in solid tumors as a result of vascular insufficiency. We have investigated whether reoxygenation of cancer cells obtained from hypoxic regions of solid tumors is associated with DNA overreplication. Murine tumor cells were isolated from i.m. transplants as a function of their distance from the vasculature using a technique which involves in vivo staining of tumor tissues with the fluorochrome Hoechst 33342. Studies which determined the radiation sensitivity and cell cycle distribution of cells in the subpopulations indicated that cells were isolated from regions of the tumor which differed in oxygen levels. When KHT fibrosarcoma cells were isolated from hypoxic regions of tumors and introduced into culture (i.e., were reoxygenated), flow cytometric analysis revealed that they did not undergo any large scale DNA overreplication. These results indicate that hypoxic conditions which exist in transplanted tumors do not induce cells to undergo DNA overreplication to the same extent that is achieved after in vitro exposure of cells to hypoxia. We also found that at high concentrations (10 microM) the Hoechst dye itself induced DNA overreplication. These concentrations are frequently used to vitally stain cells for sorting according to DNA content, and this effect must be considered in the interpretation of such experiments.

Young, S.D.; Hill, R.P. (Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto (Canada))

1990-08-15

223

Effects of reoxygenation on cells from hypoxic regions of solid tumors: Analysis of transplanted murine tumors for evidence of DNA overreplication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transient exposure of cultured cells to conditions of extreme hypoxia can induce DNA overreplication and the generation of cellular variants. This effect may be important for the development of tumor heterogeneity, since hypoxia may arise in solid tumors as a result of vascular insufficiency. We have investigated whether reoxygenation of cancer cells obtained from hypoxic regions of solid tumors is associated with DNA overreplication. Murine tumor cells were isolated from i.m. transplants as a function of their distance from the vasculature using a technique which involves in vivo staining of tumor tissues with the fluorochrome Hoechst 33342. Studies which determined the radiation sensitivity and cell cycle distribution of cells in the subpopulations indicated that cells were isolated from regions of the tumor which differed in oxygen levels. When KHT fibrosarcoma cells were isolated from hypoxic regions of tumors and introduced into culture (i.e., were reoxygenated), flow cytometric analysis revealed that they did not undergo any large scale DNA overreplication. These results indicate that hypoxic conditions which exist in transplanted tumors do not induce cells to undergo DNA overreplication to the same extent that is achieved after in vitro exposure of cells to hypoxia. We also found that at high concentrations (10 microM) the Hoechst dye itself induced DNA overreplication. These concentrations are frequently used to vitally stain cells for sorting according to DNAy stain cells for sorting according to DNA content, and this effect must be considered in the interpretation of such experiments

224

Pineal and cortical melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 are decreased in Alzheimer’s disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pineal hormone melatonin is involved in physiological transduction of temporal information from the light dark cycle to circadian and seasonal behavioural rhythms, as well as possessing neuroprotective properties. Melatonin and its receptors MT1 and MT2, which belong to the family of G protein- coupled receptors, are impaired in Alzheimer’s disease (AD with severe consequences to neuropathology and clinical symptoms. The present data provides the first immunohistochemical evidence for the cellular localization of the both melatonin receptors in the human pineal gland and occipital cortex, and demonstrates their alterations in AD.We localized MT1 and MT2 in the pineal gland and occipital cortex of 7 elderly controls and 11 AD patients using immunohistochemistry with peroxidase-staining. In the pineal gland both MT1 and MT2 were localized to pinealocytes, whereas in the cortex both receptors were expressed in some pyramidal and non-pyramidal cells. In patients with AD, parallel to degenerative tissue changes, there was an overall decrease in the intensity of receptors in both brain regions. In line with our previous findings, melatonin receptor expression in AD is impaired in two additional brain areas, and may contribute to disease pathology.

P Brunner

2009-06-01

225

The dielectric properties of human pineal gland tissue and RF absorption due to wireless communication devices in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human pineal gland, the dielectric properties of a sample of 20 freshly removed pineal glands were measured less than 20 h after death. Furthermore, a corresponding high resolution numerical model of the brain region surrounding the pineal gland was developed, based on a real human tissue sample. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices, the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland when compared to SAR limits according to international safety standards. The highest absorption was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case the RF power absorbed inside the pineal gland (organ mass 96 mg) was as low as 11 ?W, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland were found to be lower by a factor of 4.2 and 36, respectively. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the pineal gland induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mob the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices are unlikely

226

The dielectric properties of human pineal gland tissue and RF absorption due to wireless communication devices in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human pineal gland, the dielectric properties of a sample of 20 freshly removed pineal glands were measured less than 20 h after death. Furthermore, a corresponding high resolution numerical model of the brain region surrounding the pineal gland was developed, based on a real human tissue sample. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices, the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland when compared to SAR limits according to international safety standards. The highest absorption was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case the RF power absorbed inside the pineal gland (organ mass 96 mg) was as low as 11 {mu}W, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland were found to be lower by a factor of 4.2 and 36, respectively. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the pineal gland induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices are unlikely.

Schmid, Gernot [Austrian Research Centers GmbH-ARC, ITM, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Ueberbacher, Richard [Austrian Research Centers GmbH-ARC, ITM, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Samaras, Theodoros [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tschabitscher, Manfred [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mazal, Peter R [Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

2007-09-07

227

Asymptomatic intraventricular lipid leak from a primary pineal teratoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a case of pineal teratoma in a symptomatically stable 6-year-old child in which MRI revealed intraventricular lipid accumulation in the absence of any primary tumour growth, metastatic disease or tumour degeneration. (orig.)

Harrison, R.L.; Abernethy, L.J. [Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom)

2001-02-01

228

Asymptomatic intraventricular lipid leak from a primary pineal teratoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a case of pineal teratoma in a symptomatically stable 6-year-old child in which MRI revealed intraventricular lipid accumulation in the absence of any primary tumour growth, metastatic disease or tumour degeneration. (orig.)

229

Conservatively managed pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated patient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a case of pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated and hypertensive 56-year-old Hispanic male. At presentation, the patient's international normalized ratio (INR) was 10.51 and his blood pressure was 200/130 mmHg. His presenting symptoms included acute onset of headache, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and visual disturbance. Neuroimaging demonstrated hemorrhage into a morphologically normal pineal gland. Under conservative management, the patient experienced gradual resolution of all symptoms excluding the disturbance of upward gaze

230

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PINEAL ACERVULI DURING THE HUMAN AGING  

OpenAIRE

Acervuli of 30 human pineal gland, were investigated during our research. They were collected during the autopsies at the Institut for forensic medicine of the Faculty of Medicine in Niš. Pineal tissue was processed with standard histologic procedure. Then, it was cut into 10 mm thick sections which were stained with HE, PAS, AB PAS and Mallory’s trichrome connective tissue stain. After that they were analyzed with light microscope. Morphometric analysis was performed by astereologic metho...

Dejan Zdravkovic; Slobodan Vlajkovic; Vesna Stojanovic; Svetlana Antic; Ivan Jovanovic; Natalija Stefanovic; Rade Cukuranovic; Sladana Ugrenovic

2004-01-01

231

Diencephalic origin of the pineal gland of the chicken embryo  

OpenAIRE

In the present paper, the diencephalic origin of the chick pineal gland was analyzed by a series of experiments: prosencephalic substitution; in vitro culture of isolated diencephalons; and total or partial excission of the diencephalic roof. The results indicate that the differentiation of the chick pineal gland in the rooof of the third ventricle is not influenced by the neighbouring brain vesicles and is of diencephalic origin. Moreover, in order to obtain c...

Aige-gil, Vicente; Murillo-ferrol, Narciso

1991-01-01

232

Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland  

OpenAIRE

Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passag...

Xf Ller, Morten M.; Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito; Corin Badiu

2014-01-01

233

Global daily dynamics of the pineal transcriptome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transcriptome profiling of the pineal gland has revealed night/day differences in the expression of a major fraction of the genes active in this tissue, with two-thirds of these being nocturnal increases. A set of over 600 transcripts exhibit two-fold to >100-fold daily differences in abundance. These changes appear to be primarily attributable to adrenergic-cyclic-AMP-dependent mechanisms, which are controlled via a neural pathway that includes the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master circadian oscillator. In addition to melatonin synthesis, night/day differences in gene expression impact genes associated with several specialized functions, including the immune/inflammation response, photo-transduction, and thyroid hormone/retinoic acid biology. The following nonspecialized cellular features are also affected: adhesion, cell cycle/cell death, cytoskeleton, DNA modification, endothelium, growth, RNA modification, small molecule biology, transcription factors, vesicle biology, signaling involving Ca(2+), cyclicnucleotides, phospholipids, mitogen-activated protein kinases, the Wnt signaling pathway, and protein phosphorylation.

Bustos, Diego M; Bailey, Michael J

2011-01-01

234

An historical view of the pineal gland and mental disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since Classical Antiquity numerous authors have linked the origin of some mental disorders to physical and functional changes in the pineal gland because of its attributed role in humans as the connection between the material and the spiritual world. The pineal organ was seen as a valve-like structure that regulated the flow of animal spirits through the ventricular system, a hypothesis that took on more vigour during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The framework for this theory was "the three cells of the brain", in which the pineal gland was even called the "appendix of thought". The pineal gland could also be associated with the boom, during this period, of certain legends about the "stone of folly". But the most relevant psychopathological role of this organ arrived with Descartes, who proposed that it was the seat of the human soul and controlled communications between the physical body and its surroundings, including emotions. After a period of decline during which it was considered as a mere vestigial remnant of evolution, the link between the pineal gland and psychiatric disorders was definitively highlighted in the 20th century, first with the use of glandular extracts in patients with mental deficiency, and finally with the discovery of melatonin in 1958. The physiological properties of melatonin reawakened interest in the relationship between the pineal gland and mental disorders, fundamentally the affective and sleep disorders, which culminated in the development of new pharmacological agents acting through melatonergic receptors (ramelteon and agomelatine). PMID:21715172

López-Muñoz, F; Molina, J D; Rubio, G; Alamo, C

2011-08-01

235

Tumors in the region of the sella turcica; Tumoren der Sellaregion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tumors of the pituitary gland can lead to limitation of hypophysis function (hypophysis insufficiency) or hypersecretion of different hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, prolactinoma, TSH-secreting adenoma). The optic chiasma lies in close proximity to the pituitary gland and can be compressed by tumors leading to visual disturbances (bilateral hemianopsia). Tumors can be separated into hormone secreting and hormone inactive tumors, as well as into microadenoma with a diameter <10 mm and macroadenomas >10 mm. A rare group of tumors of the hypophysis region are craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germinomas, gliomas, metastases and granulomotous inflammations, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. (orig.) [German] Bei Tumoren der Hypophysenregion kann es zu einer Einschraenkung der Hypophysenfunktion (Hypophyseninsuffizienz) kommen, aber auch zu einem Hypersekretionssyndrom (Akromegalie, Cushing-Syndrom, Prolaktinom, TSH-sezernierendes Adenom). Unmittelbar ueber der Hypophysenregion liegt das Chiasma opticum, wodurch es bei Tumoren der Hypophysenregion zur Beeintraechtigung des Sehens kommen kann, meist als Verschlechterung des Sehfeldes beider Augen nach lateral (bitemporale Hemianopsie). Man unterscheidet hormonaktive und -inaktive Tumoren. Es werden Mikroadenome mit einem Durchmesser bis 10 mm und Makroadenome, die groesser als 10 mm sind, unterschieden. Eine seltenere Gruppe von Tumoren der Hypophysenregion sind die Kraniopharyngeome, Meningeome, Germinome, Gliome, Metastasen und granulomatoese Entzuendungen (Sarkoidose, Tuberkulose). (orig.)

Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostischeund Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

2009-07-15

236

Megaendoprosthesis in the treatment of bone tumors in the knee and hip region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. For almost two decades extremity amputation has not been the only viable option for patients with from bone cancer in the region of the hip and knee. Remarkable advances in implant technology, surgical reconstructive technique and adoption of new chemotherapy protocols provide a new option for surgeons who diagnose and treat bone tumors. Megaendoprosthesis has become widely accepted alternative in limb salvage surgery of the extremities. The aim of this study was to present an outcome of the treatment of bone tumors in the knee and hip region by the use of custom made megaendoprothesis. Methods. In the period 2006-2008 we adopted new clinical practice protocols for preoperative management in candidates for tumor megaprostheses of the hip and knee including: surgical tumor staging, histopathological verification, determinants of anatomical-mechanical defect, status of soft tissues, CT evaluation of the referent measures of pelvis, femur and tibia necessary for creation of custom made endoprosthesis and surgery plan, as well as modern, less invasive surgical approach. The patients were monitored during ? 24 months after the surgery for detecting possible complications. Results. All procedures were performed without complications during and immediately after the surgery. During the follow-up period not less than 24 months we failed to record any significant complications. Conclusion. Custom made megaendoprosthesis are the method of choice in the treatment of bone tumors in the region of the hip and knee at the Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. The greatest challenge - ensuring longevity of a prosthesis can be achieved not only by prevention of common complications of arthroplasty procedures but, certainly, with the introduction of new methods for preoperative planning - computer-assisted technique of measuring referent sizes and software solutions for the selection and design of custom-made components of an endoprosthesis.

Barjaktarovi? Radoslav

2011-01-01

237

Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physical properties of charged particles such as protons are uniquely suited to target the radiation dose precisely in the tumor. In proton therapy, the Bragg peak is spread out by modulating or degrading the energy of the particles to cover a well defined target volume at a given depth. Due to heterogeneity in the various tumors and end-points as well as in the physical properties of the beams considered, it is difficult to fit the various results into a clear general description of the biological effect of proton in tumor therapy. Tumor hypoxia is a main obstacle to radiotherapy, including gamma-ray. Survived tumor cells under hypoxic region are resistant to radiation and more aggressive to be metastasized. To investigate the dose of proton beam to induce cell death of various tumor cells and hypoxic tumor cells at the Bragg peak in vitro, we used 3 kinds of tumor cells, lung cancer, leukemia and hepatoma cells. Proton beam induces apoptosis in Lewis lung carcinoma cells dose dependently and, slightly in leukemia but not in hepatoma cells at all. Above 1000 gray of proton beam, 60% of cells died even the hypoxic cells in Lewis lung carcinoma cells. But the Molt-4 leukemia cells showed milder effect, 20% cell death by the above 1000 Gray of proton beam and typical resistant pattern (5-10%) of hypoxia in desferrioxamine treated cells. Hepatoma cells (HepG2) were not responsive to proton beam even in rather higher dose (4000G). However, by the gamma-irradiation, Molt-4 was more sensitive than hepatoma or lung cancer cells, but still showed hypoxic resistance. The cell death by proton beam in Lewis lung carcinoma cells was confirmed by PARP cleavage and may be mediated by increased p53. Pro-caspases were also activated and cleaved by the proton beam irradiations for lung cancer cell death. In conclusion, high dose of proton beam (above 1000 gray) may be a good therapeutic radiation even in hypoxic region at the Bragg peak, but further investigations about the cancer cell specificity and the mechanism of resistance as well as in vivo study should be performed

238

Is a neuronal chain between the pineal body and the retina in rats and hamsters? Transneural tracing studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuronal chains between the retina and the pineal body were investigated. Transneuronal tracers, retrograde spreading pseudorabies virus (labeled with green fluorescent protein, memGreen-RV) and virus spreading in both ante- and retrograde directions (labeled with red fluorescent protein, Ka-VHS-mCherry-A-RV) were injected into the right eye of vitreous body of intact or bilaterally sympathectomized Wistar male rats. Intact golden hamsters also received memGreen-RV into the eye and Ka-VHS-mCherry-A-RV into the pineal body. Four-five days later the animals were sacrificed. Frozen sections were prepared from the removed structures. In intact rats memGreen-RV resulted in green fluorescent labeling in the trigeminal and the superior cervical ganglia, the lateral horn of the spinal cord, the paraventricular and the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the perifornical region, the ventrolateral medulla, the locus ceruleus, and the raphe nuclei. In sympathectomized rats the labeling was missing from the brainstem but further existed in the hypothalamus. This observation indicates that the hypothalamic labeling is not mediated by the sympathetic system. One labeled neuron in the pineal body was only observed in 2/13 rats. It was independent from the sympathectomy. When the animals received Ka-VHS-mCherry-A-RV the distribution of the labeling was very similar to that of the intact group receiving retrograde virus. In golden hamsters the memGreen-RV labeled structures were seen in similar places as in rats, but virus labeled nerve cell bodies were always seen in the pineal body. Injection of Ka-VHS-mCherry-A-RV into the pineal body of hamsters resulted in labeling of the retina at both sides. It was concluded that the retinopetal neuronal chain in golden hamsters is always present but in rats it is stochastic. PMID:25543029

Csáki, Ágnes; Vígh, Béla; Boldogk?i, Zsolt; Vereczki, Viktoria; Szél, Ágoston; Köves, Katalin

2015-02-19

239

Molecular characterization of circumventricular organs and third ventricle ependyma in the rat: potential markers for periventricular tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are specialized ventricular structures around the third and fourth ventricles of the brain. In humans, these structures are present during the fetal period and some become vestigial after birth. Some of these organs, such as the pineal gland (PG), subcommissural organ (SCO), and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, might be the sites of origin of periventricular tumors, notably pineal parenchymal tumors, papillary tumor of the pineal region and chordoid glioma. In contrast to the situation in humans, CVOs are present in the adult rat and can be dissected by laser capture microdissection (LCM). In this study, we used LCM and microarrays to analyze the transcriptomes of three CVOs, the SCO, the subfornical organ (SFO), and the PG and the third ventricle ependyma in the adult rat, in order to better characterize these organs at the molecular level. Several genes were expressed only, or mainly, in one of these structures, for example, Erbb2 and Col11a1 in the ependyma, Epcam and Claudin-3 (CLDN3) in the SCO, Ren1 and Slc22a3 in the SFO and Tph, Aanat and Asmt in the PG. The expression of these genes in periventricular tumors should be examined as evidence for a possible origin from the CVOs. Furthermore, we performed an immunohistochemical study of CLDN3, a membrane protein involved in forming cellular tight junctions and found that CLDN3 expression was restricted to the apical pole of ependymocytes in the SCO. This microarray study provides new evidence regarding the possible origin of some rare periventricular tumors. PMID:22537279

Szathmari, Alexandru; Champier, Jacques; Ghersi-Egea, Jean-François; Jouvet, Anne; Watrin, Chantal; Wierinckx, Anne; Fèvre Montange, Michelle

2013-02-01

240

Major chromosomal breakpoint intervals in breast cancer tumors co-localize with differentially methylated regions.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solid tumors exhibit chromosomal rearrangements resulting in gain or loss of multiple loci (copy number variation and translocations that occasionally result in the creation of novel chimeric genes. In the case of breast cancer, although most individual tumors each have unique CNV landscape the breakpoints, as measured over large datasets, appear to be non-randomly distributed in the genome. Breakpoints show a significant regional concentration at genomic loci spanning perhaps several megabases. The proximal cause of these breakpoint concentrations is a subject of speculation but is, as yet, largely unknown. To shed light on this issue, we have performed a bio-statistical analysis on our previously published data for a set of 119 breast tumors and normal controls, where each sample has both high resolution CNV and methylation data. The method examined the distribution of closeness of breakpoint regions with differentially methylated regions, coupled with additional genomic parameters, such as repeat elements and designated fragile sites in the reference genome. Through this analysis, we have identified a set of 91 regional loci called breakpoint enriched differentially methylated regions (BEDMRs characterized by altered DNA methylation in cancer compared to normal cells that are associated with frequent breakpoint concentrations within a distance of 1Mb. BEDMR loci are further associated with local hypomethylation (66% concentrations of the Alu SINE repeats within 3Mb and tend to occur near a number of cancer related genes such as the protocadherins, AKT1, DUB3, GAB2. BEDMRs seem to deregulate members of the histone gene family and chromatin remodeling factors e.g JMJD1B which might affect the chromatin structure and disrupt coordinate signaling and repair. From this analysis we propose that preference for chromosomal breakpoints is related to genome structure coupled with alterations in DNA methylation and hence chromatin structure associated with tumorigenesis.

Man-Hung EricTang

2012-12-01

241

Age-related incidence of pineal calcification detected by computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The age-related incidence of detectable pineal calcification in 725 patients (age range, newborn-20 yrs) suggests that there is a relationship between calcification and the hormonal role played by the pineal gland in the regulation of sexual development. Pineal calcification (demonstrated by computed tomography [CT] on 8-mm-thick sections) in patients less than 6 years old should be looked upon with suspicion, and follow-up CT should be considered to exclude the possible development of a pineal neoplasm

242

Sudden death due to a glial cyst of the pineal gland.  

OpenAIRE

Asymptomatic cysts of the pineal gland are found frequently by radiological examination of the brain or at postmortem examination. Symptomatic cysts are rare, and may require surgical intervention. Sudden death due to a cystic lesion of the pineal gland is very rare. A case of a 22 year old man who collapsed and died unexpectedly is reported. Postmortem examination revealed a glial cyst of the pineal gland and evidence of chronic obstructive hydrocephalus. Deaths from colloid cysts and pineal...

Milroy, C. M.; Smith, C. L.

1996-01-01

243

Homeobox genes in the rodent pineal gland: roles in development and phenotype maintenance  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene e...

Rath, Martin F.; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C.; Møller, Morten

2012-01-01

244

Levels of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 are higher in proliferating regions of A549 tumor cells grown as tumor xenografts in vivo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

3’-Fluoro-3’-deoxythymidine (FLT) has been proposed for positron emission tomography (PET)-based identification of tumor chemosensitivity that is mediated by the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (ENT1). ENT1 facilitates transport of FLT into cells and elevated levels of FLT are associated with both larger FLT-PET signals and increased response to nucleoside-based chemotherapies. FLT-PET is also used as a measure of tumor proliferation. The present study examined the extent to which ENT1 levels vary in a proliferation-dependent manner in tumor cells in vivo. Methods: The human adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was used to establish tumor xenografts in nude mice. FLT uptake was measured in vivo using PET, and further examined ex vivo using autoradiography. FLT uptake patterns were compared to immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of ENT1 and the proliferation markers Ki67 and BrdU. Results: Regional differences in FLT uptake matched differences in IHC proliferation markers. All cells stained for ENT1, but the staining intensity was twice as high for Ki67+ cells than for Ki67? cells. Conclusions: Under in vivo conditions, proliferating regions of tumors show increased FLT uptake and higher ENT1 levels than nonproliferating tumor regions.

245

Correlación topográfica y anatomopatológica en los tumores de la región selar / Topographic and anatomopathological correlation in the sellar region tumors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realización de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fundamental fue demostrar el valor de la tomografía computadorizada en el diagnóstico presuntivo de la variedad histológica de los macroadenomas hipofisarios así como de otros [...] tumores menos frecuentes de la región selar, teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes operados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomográfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar. Se registró la edad, sexo, clínica, signos tomográficos, resultados anatomopatológicos posquirúrgicos. Se observó mayor incidencia de los adenomas hipofisarios (110), con predominio de los no secretores (41,1 %). El grueso de los pacientes se ubicó en las edades entre 30 y 50 años. El sexo femenino prevaleció en los adenomas adrenocorticotrópicos y los meningiomas, y el masculino en los productores de gonadotropina y prolactina. Dentro de los signos tomográficos, la erosión de las clinoides y el dorso selar, así como la hidrocefalia predominaron en los adenomas no secretores y los tumores no adenohipofisarios. Los adenomas productores de gonadotropina se destacaron en la erosión del piso y en el balonamiento selar al igual que los adrenocorticotrópicos. Las calcificaciones fueron frecuentes en los teratomas y craneofaringiomas, al igual que la captación no homogénea del contraste, la cual fue característica en estos casos como en los quistes de la bolsa de Rathke. La TC demostró ser de gran valor diagnóstico en los macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico del paciente. Abstract in english The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas worlwide motivated us to carry out this research, whose fundamental aim was to demonstrate the value of CT in the presumptive diagnosis of the histological variety of hypophyseal macroadenomas, as well as of other less frequent tumours of the sellar r [...] egion, considering the clinical picture. To this end, 124 patients operated on with a clinical and tomographic diagnosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumours were studied. Age, sex, hospital stay, tomographic signs, and postsurgical anatomopathological results were registered. The highest incidence was found in the hypophyseal adenomas (110), with predominance of the non-secreting adenomas (41.1 %). Most of the patients were 30-50. The female sex prevailed in the adrenocorticotropic adenomas and meningiomas, and the male sex in gonadotropin and prolactin-producing adenomas. Within the tomographic signs the erosion of the clinoid and sellar dorsum, and hydrocephalus, predominated in the non-secreting adenomas and in the non-adenohypohyseal tumours. The gonadotropin-producing adenomas stood out in the erosion of the floor and in sellar ballooning as well as the adrenocorticotropic adenomas. The calcifications were more common in teratomas and craniopharyngiomas, as well as and the non-homogenous capture of the contrast agent, which was characteristic in these cases, as in Rathke's pouch cysts. CT showed its great diagnostic value in hypophyseal macroadenomas, and other tumours of the sellar region, taking into account the patient's clinical picture.

Tania, Garcia Moreira; Fernando, Piedra Chávez; Omar, López Arbolay; Luis, Garcia Ferrer; Dénise, Delgado Gutiérrez; Hilca, Navarro Miranda.

2008-09-01

246

A new identified complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal gland cysts are typically asymptomatic, benign cysts most commonly found incidentally in adults. In rare cases, a large pineal gland cyst can be complicated by intracystic hemorrhage, which could then manifest with neurological symptoms. We report a new complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst in a 40-year-old man with new onset seizures. PMID:24746445

Mehrzad, Raman; Mishra, Suprav; Feinstein, Alexander; Ho, Michael G

2014-01-01

247

Intracranial tumors in children less than 2 years of age  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyzed the characteristic CT findings in twelve cases of intracranial tumors in children under 2 years of age. The histological classification of them was as follows: 2 were teratomas, 3 ependymoma and ependymoblastomas, 2 medulloblastomas, 2 craniopharyngiomas, and 3 were other gliomas, including a pontine glioma. 1. Ten cases were located along the central neural axis. The supratentorial/infratentorial ratio became nearly equal at each age before and after the first year. 2. With regard to tumor size, approximately 70 % out of the brain tumors were more than 5 cm in diameter; especially, four cases had diameters of more than 7 cm. In the case of the teratomas, the cranial cavity was filled with several nodular tumors of varying densities. On admission, an ependymoblastoma in the posterior fossa had already invaded the pineal region. 3. Hydrocephalus was a frequent finding except for the two craniopharyngiomas and the pontine glioma. Some demonstrated an eminent ventricular collapse and a displacement of the midline structures because of the large size of the tumor masses. 4. The malignant gliomas had less peritumoral edemas in proportion to the large sizes of the tumor masses. The prognosis of some brain tumors in our cases less than 2 years of age was extremely poor, but an aggressive approach to them with surgical treatment, irradiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy may improve their chances of survival. (author)

248

Meningioma: The role of a foreign body and irradiation in tumor formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of meningioma is reported. At the age of 18 years, the patient had undergone insertion of a Torkildsen shunt through a posteroparietal burr hole for obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a tumor of the pineal region, of which no biopsy had been made. After the hydrocephalus was relieved, he underwent irradiation of the tumor. Thirty years later, he was treated for an intracranial meningioma wrapped around the shunt. The tumor followed the shunt in all of its intracranial course. Microscopy disclosed pieces of the shunt tube within the meningioma. The role of a foreign body and irradiation in the induction of meningiomas is discussed, and a comprehensive review of the literature is presented. 47 references

249

The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

250

Immunoreactive opsin in the pineal organ of reptiles and birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of opsin was investigated with light microscopic immunocytochemistry in pinealocytes of reptiles and birds (Emys orbicularis, Pseudemys scripta elegans, Lacerta agilis et viridis, Gallus domesticus, Columba livia, Melopsittacus undulatus, Serinus canaria, Taeniopyga punctate). The outer segments of pinealocytes selectively bound antiopsin antibody as revealed by indirect immunocytochemical techniques, indicating the occurrence of a rhodopsin-like photopigment in these structures. The results were compared with those obtained in retinal photoreceptors of the same species as well as in the pineal organ of fishes and amphibians (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Rana esculenta). Corresponding to immunoreactive structures seen in the light microscope, we found typical outer segments on a large number of pinealocytes in most of the reptiles and birds studied. The presence of opsin in the numerous well developed pineal outer segments of these reptilian and avian species contradicts the earlier hypothesis on the gradual regression of pineal sensitive structures in the avian line of evolution. PMID:6213109

Vigh, B; Vigh-Teichmann, I; Röhlich, P; Aros, B

1982-01-01

251

LHRH incorporation in normal and denervated pineal gland, and in pineal gland of rats with constant estrous-anovulatory syndrome: a preliminary study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal gland and superior sympathetic cervical ganglia accumulated intravenously injected 3H-LHRH in an amount significantly higher than anterior and posterior hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and pituitary gland, the latter a specific target for LHRH. The prior administration of unlabelled LHRH significantly decreased the 3H-LHRH incorporation only in pineal and pituitary gland. Autoradiography showed that the radiolabel was localized at the level of the pinealocytes, with a seemingly, prevalent distribution of grains on the cellular contours. Pineal incorporation of LHRH was not significantly modified by either acute or chronic bilateral cervical ganglionectomy, although acute ganglioectomy resulted in a slight decrease in LHRH accumulation by pineal gland. Constant estrous anovulatory syndromes induced by either frontal hypothalamic deafferentation, or continuous illumination or neonatal androgenization did not appear to modify the LHRH incorporation in either pineal gland or cervical ganglia. Basing on these results, the pineal gland is supposed to be a target organ for LHRH. (author)

252

3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. PMID:24480576

Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian; Ansari, Nariman; Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc; Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H; Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan; Steigemann, Patrick

2014-04-15

253

Night/Day Changes in Pineal Expression of >600 Genes  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal gland plays an essential role in vertebrate chronobiology by converting time into a hormonal signal, melatonin, which is always elevated at night. Here we have analyzed the rodent pineal transcriptome using Affymetrix GeneChip® technology to obtain a more complete description of pineal cell biology. The effort revealed that 604 genes (1,268 probe sets) with Entrez Gene identifiers are differentially expressed greater than 2-fold between midnight and mid-day (false discovery rate <0.20). Expression is greater at night in ?70%. These findings were supported by the results of radiochemical in situ hybridization histology and quantitative real time-PCR studies. We also found that the regulatory mechanism controlling the night/day changes in the expression of most genes involves norepinephrine-cyclic AMP signaling. Comparison of the pineal gene expression profile with that in other tissues identified 334 genes (496 probe sets) that are expressed greater than 8-fold higher in the pineal gland relative to other tissues. Of these genes, 17% are expressed at similar levels in the retina, consistent with a common evolutionary origin of these tissues. Functional categorization of the highly expressed and/or night/day differentially expressed genes identified clusters that are markers of specialized functions, including the immune/inflammation response, melatonin synthesis, photodetection, thyroid hormone signaling, and diverse aspects of cellular signaling and cell biology. These studies produce a paradigm shift in our understanding of the 24-h dynamics of the pineal gland from one focused on melatonin synthesis to one including many cellular processes. PMID:19103603

Bailey, Michael J.; Coon, Steven L.; Carter, David A.; Humphries, Ann; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Hogenesch, John B.; Weller, Joan L.; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Baler, Ruben; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G.; Munson, Peter J.; Klein, David C.

2009-01-01

254

Conservatively managed pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated patient  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a case of pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated and hypertensive 56-year-old Hispanic male. At presentation, the patient's international normalized ratio (INR) was 10.51 and his blood pressure was 200/130 mmHg. His presenting symptoms included acute onset of headache, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and visual disturbance. Neuroimaging demonstrated hemorrhage into a morphologically normal pineal gland. Under conservative management, the patient experienced gradual resolution of all symptoms excluding the disturbance of upward gaze.

Werder, Gabriel M. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology, 3600 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, MI 48073 (United States); St Christopher Iba Mar Diop College of Medicine, Luton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gabriel_werder@yahoo.com; Razdan, Rahul S.; Gagliardi, Joseph A.; Chaddha, Shashi K.B. [St Vincent' s Medical Center, Bridgeport, CT (United States)

2008-02-15

255

Sympathetic neural control of indoleamine metabolism in the rat pineal gland  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanisms responsible for the acceleration in rat pineal biosynthetic activity in response to prolonged exposure to darkness or to immobilization were investigated in animals whose pineals were surgically denervated. Some animals were adrenalectomized to remove one potential source of circulating catecholamines, and some were subjected to a partial chemical sympathectomy accomplished by a series of intravenous injections of 6-hydroxydopamine. Results suggest that N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity can be enhanced either by release of norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals within the pineal or from sympathetic nerve terminals elsewhere. The stress of immobilization stimulates the pineal by increasing circulating catecholamines. Photic control of pineal function requires intact pineal sympathetic innervation, since the onset of darkness apparently does not cause a sufficient rise in circulating catecholamines to stimulate the pineal. The present studies suggest that nonspecific stress triggers increased biosynthesis and secretion of melatonin; it is possible that this hormone may participate in mechanisms of adaptation.

Lynch, H. J.; Hsuan, M.; Wurtman, R. J.

1975-01-01

256

Do intra-tumor alkaline micro-regions represent additional therapeutically privileged sites?  

Science.gov (United States)

We briefly review some implications for therapeutic resistance in solid cancers that could be associated with more alkaline intra-tumor micro-regions reported to exist. Regions of increased alkalinity may provide a proliferative advantage for cancer "stem" or other cells, as more alkaline intra- and extra-cellular environments often are associated with increased cellular proliferation. If increased alkalinity is present in aerobic, but perhaps more especially in hypoxic micro-environments, proliferation of cells less susceptible to programmed cell death, with reduced expression of multi-drug resistance membrane proteins and altered efficacy of some therapeutic drugs should develop. Such cells are also more likely to generate aberrant clones resistant to additional therapy, particularly those dependent upon mitochondrial oxidative processes with greater generation of free radicals, compared to cells reliant on anaerobic glycolysis for metabolic energy. The interplay between alkalinity and normoxia, hypoxia or anoxia may differentially advantage some cancer "stem" cells. PMID:18364249

Anderson, K M; Jajeh, A; Guinan, P; Tsui, P; Rubenstein, M

2008-01-01

257

Controladores del Tiempo y el Envejecimiento: Núcleo Supraquiasmático y Glándula Pineal / Aging Process Entrainment: Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Pineal Gland  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El núcleo supraquiasmático (NSQ) es el principal reloj biológico de los mamíferos y sincroniza la actividad de la glándula pineal al ciclo luz-oscuridad a través de una vía polisináptica. El efecto de asa de retroalimentación neuroendocrina se lleva a cabo por la melatonina. El presente trabajo pret [...] ende demostrar que la glándula pineal modula la sensibilidad a la luz en el NSQ. Se utilizaron ratas Wistar, y se asignaron a 3 grupos: grupo A (falsa pinealectomía -sham-, sin luz), grupo B (falsa pinealectomía -sham- + luz) y grupo C al cual se le realizó la pinealectomía + luz, después de la manipulación se sacrifican para realizar inmunohistoquímica para c-Fos y al final conteo celular por técnica de estereología. Se obtuvo una reducción del 46,8% del promedio de células inmunorreactivas a c-Fos en el grupo C en comparación del grupo B. Este trabajo muestra que la sensibilidad a la luz está modulada por la actividad de la glándula pineal. Abstract in english The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the main and major biological clock in mammals and is responsible for the synchronization of the pineal gland to the light/darkness cycle through a polysynaptic pathway. The neuroendocrine feedback loop effect is carried out by melatonin. This study was carried o [...] ut to demonstrate that the pineal gland adjusts the sensibility to light in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Wistar rats were allocated in 3 groups: Group A (sham pinalectomy, without light), group B (sham pinealectomy + light) and group C which underwent real pinalectomy + light. After the intervention the animals were slain to perform immunohistochemistry for c-Fos and cell counting by stereology technique. A 46.8% average reduction in c-Fos immunoreactive cells was achieved in-group C as compared with group B. The present work shows that sensibility to the light is modulate by the activity of the pineal gland.

Parménides, Guadarrama-Ortiz; Ricardo, Ramírez-Aguilar; Alejandro, Madrid-Sánchez; Carlos, Castillo-Rangel; Diana, Carrasco-Alcántara; Raúl, Aguilar-Roblero.

2014-06-01

258

Minimally Invasive-Endoscopic Intraventricular Neurosurgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... taking out tumors such as colloid cysts, pineal region tumors. And then lastly we're now exploring ... about removal of brain tumors in the pineal region, or colloid system, the third ventricle. Without question, ...

259

Lipocalin2 as a plasma marker for tumors with hypoxic regions  

OpenAIRE

Hypoxic tumors have been identified as appropriate indicators of tumor malignancy. However, no convenient plasma marker for hypoxic tumors has been described. Therefore, to identify a novel, convenient plasma marker for hypoxic tumors, we used microarray analysis to compare gene expression profiles of normoxic and hypoxic tumor tissues of mice bearing melanomas. Among the upregulated genes detected in hypoxic tumors, we chose to study the secretory protein lipocalin2 (LCN2) as a marker for hy...

Nakamura, Ibuki; Hama, Susumu; Itakura, Shoko; Takasaki, Ichiro; Nishi, Takayuki; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kogure, Kentaro

2014-01-01

260

Pineal gland of a nocturnal bird, Indian spotted owlet, Athene brama: morphological and endocrine observations.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been reported that owls (Strigiformes) do not have a pineal gland. However, our light microscopy study revealed an intermediate form of tubulofollicular and solid-type large pineal gland in a tropical owlet, Athene brama. The epithelial cells forming follicles (6-8) in the distal region and the solid cluster of parenchymal cells of different diameters in the proximal region anteriorly tapered with a long cylindrical stalk and continued into commissural organs and choroid plexus. The intrapineal localization of perivascular nerve fibers and blood vessels clearly explained the sympathetic innervation as well as vascularization of this neuroendocrine gland. Further, electron microscopy revealed a developed intracellular structure of the pinealocytes with a large number of mitochondria, Golgi bodies, and granular as well as clear vesicles in the process terminals. The evidence of intrapinealocyte lipid droplets and dense bodies and a moderate amount of melatonin in plasma (ranging from 100-365 pg/mL) during different reproductive phases finally proved a defined secretory activity of the gland in this tropical, nocturnal bird. PMID:10900433

Haldar, C; Guchhait, P

2000-07-01

261

Effect of TNF-alpha on the melatonin synthetic pathway in the rat pineal gland: basis for a 'feedback' of the immune response on circadian timing.  

Science.gov (United States)

A retino-hypothalamic-sympathetic pathway drives the nocturnal surge of pineal melatonin production that determines the synchronization of pineal function with the environmental light/dark cycle. In many studies, melatonin has been implicated in the modulation of the inflammatory response. However, scant information on the feedback action of molecules present in the blood on the pineal gland during the time course of an inflammatory response is available. Here we analyzed the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and corticosterone on the transcription of the Aa-nat, hiomt and 14-3-3 protein genes in denervated pineal glands of rats stimulated for 5 hr with norepinephrine, using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The transcription of Aa-nat, a gene encoding the key enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis, together with the synthesis of the melatonin precursor N-acetylserotonin, was inhibited by TNF-alpha. This inhibition was transient, and a preincubation of TNF-alpha for more than 24 hr had no detectable effect. In fact, a protein(s) transcribed, later on, as shown by cycloheximide, was responsible for the reversal of the inhibition of Aa-nat transcription. In addition, corticosterone induced a potentiation of norepinephrine-induced Aa-nat transcription even after 48 hr of incubation. These data support the hypothesis that the nocturnal surge in melatonin is impaired at the beginning of an inflammatory response and restored either during the shutdown of an acute response or in a chronic inflammatory pathology. Here, we introduce a new molecular pathway involved in the feedback of an inflammatory response on pineal activity, and provide a molecular basis for understanding the expression of circadian timing in injured organisms. PMID:17014691

Fernandes, Pedro A C M; Cecon, Erika; Markus, Regina P; Ferreira, Zulma S

2006-11-01

262

A novel PET tumor delineation method based on adaptive region-growing and dual-front active contours  

OpenAIRE

To more accurately and precisely delineate a tumor in a 3D PET image, we proposed a novel, semi-automatic, two-stage method by utilizing an adaptive region-growing algorithm and a dual-front active contour model. First, a rough region of interest (ROI) is manually drawn by a radiation oncologist that encloses a tumor. The voxel having the highest intensity in the ROI is chosen as a seed point. An adaptive region growing algorithm successively appends to the seed point all neighboring voxels w...

Li, Hua; Thorstad, Wade L.; Biehl, Kenneth J.; Laforest, Richard; Su, Yi; Shoghi, Kooresh I.; Donnelly, Eric D.; Low, Daniel A.; Lu, Wei

2008-01-01

263

Testicular seminoma in a patient with pineal germinoma.  

OpenAIRE

A case is reported of a 30 year old man with a testicular seminoma. He had presented 16 years previously with a pineal germinoma, followed two years later by intracranial metastases. This is an unusual occurrence of double pathology in the germ cell line.

Peat, D. S.; Trowell, J. E.

1994-01-01

264

3H-retinol derived photopigment in chick pineal membranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal glands display a day-night rhythm in the synthesis and secretion of melatonin. Dispersed chick pinealocytes retain their ability to respond to light in vitro for at least a week. Pinealocytes incubated overnight with 3H-retinol in the dark incorporate radioactivity predominantly into retinyl esters. To identify the chick pineal photopigment, SDS-PAGE was performed on radiolabelled preparations of pinealocytes and (intraocularly injected) rat retina. When intact cells or membrane preparations of cultured cells were incubated with NaCNBH3, in the dark, a single radioactive peak with an apparent molecular weight of 32,000 daltons was observed. Rat retina preparations revealed a major peak at approximately 40,000 daltons. Protease inhibitors were present in the workup, and radioactivity corresponding to the smaller peak from pineal was not observed in retina. There was no radioactive peak when NaCNBH3 was omitted. When samples were boiled in SDS the radioactivity shifted to the origin. These data suggest a protein in pinealocyte membranes which binds retinoid via a Schiff's base. Exposure to light of deoxycholate solubilized pineal membranes reduced the radioactivity associated with the protein. These findings raise the possibility that this protein is the pinealocyte's photopigment. Photopigments smaller than those observed in mammals have been reported in invertebrates

265

Two Synchronous and Different Salivary Gland Tumors Located in the Parotid Gland and Parapharyngeal Region: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The majority of salivary gland tumors presents as a single mass in one gland. The occurrence of synchronous distinct tumors in salivary glands is rare. We report a case of two distinct salivary gland tumors localized in the parotid gland and parapharyngeal area. The first mass was in the left parapharyngeal region and the second was partially embedded in the caudal region of the left parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration was done for the parotid gland mass and cytological findings were consistent with Warthin's tumor. The parapharyngeal mass was excised and pleomorphic adenoma was diagnosed histopathologically. In this paper, cytological and histological findings of this rare patient are presented, and the literature is reviewed.

Mehmet KEFEL?

2009-06-01

266

Cytogenetic analysis of tumoral thyroid tissues of thyroid glands of people from Gomel region as against Brest one  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis in vivo of histologically normal and tumoral thyroid tissues has shown that in organism of examined patients with thyroid cancer mutation process taken place not only in tumor but in histologically normal tissue. As a result of investigations pursued a significant increase in the level of aberrant cells in thyroid cell populations was revealed in people from Gomel regions as against Brest one

267

Fully Automated Approach to Identify Brain Tumors in 2D MRI Using Thresholding and Region Growing Method?  

OpenAIRE

Automated brain tumor segmentation and detection are vastly important in medical diagnostics because it provides information related to anatomical structures as well as potential abnormal tissue necessary to delineate appropriate surgical planning. As the segmentation of anatomical regions of the brain is the basic problem in medical image analysis. Segmentation of Brain tumor appropriately is a difficult task in MRI. The MRI image is an image that produces a high contrast images ...

Yogesh Dewangan; Choubey?, Aakanksha S.

2014-01-01

268

Circadian genomics of the chick pineal gland in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chick pinealocytes exhibit all the characteristics of a complete circadian system, comprising photoreceptive inputs, molecular clockworks and an easily measured rhythmic output, melatonin biosynthesis. These properties make the in vitro pineal a particularly useful model for exploring circadian control of gene transcription in a pacemaker tissue, as well as regulation of the transcriptome by primary inputs to the clock (both photic and noradrenergic. Results We used microarray analysis to investigate the expression of approximately 8000 genes within cultured pinealocytes subjected to both LD and DD. We report that a reduced subset of genes was rhythmically expressed in vitro compared to those previously published in vivo, and that gene expression rhythms were lower in amplitude, although the functional distribution of the rhythmic transcriptome was largely similar. We also investigated the effects of 6-hour pulses of light or of norepinephrine on gene expression in free-running cultures during both subjective day and night. As expected, both light and norepinephrine inhibited melatonin production; however, the two treatments differentially enhanced or suppressed specific sets of genes in a fashion that was dependent upon time of day. Conclusion Our combined approach of utilizing a temporal, photic and pharmacological microarray experiment allowed us to identify novel genes linking clock input to clock function within the pineal. We identified approximately 30 rhythmic, light-responsive, NE-insensitive genes with no previously known clock function, which may play a role in circadian regulation of the pineal. These are candidates for future functional genomics experiments to elucidate their potential role in circadian physiology. Further, we hypothesize that the pineal circadian transcriptome is reduced but functionally conserved in vitro, and supports an endogenous role for the pineal in regulating local rhythms in metabolism, immune function, and other conserved pathways.

Thomas Terry L

2008-05-01

269

Role of the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions in tumor detection and prognosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The expression of the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) has been analyzed in renal, bladder, and pharyngeal carcinomas, multiple myeloma (MM), and skin melanocytic lesions to clarify their role in tumor detection and prognosis. Sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies were stained with the method of Ploton; the mean AgNOR number per nucleus (AgNOR count) and their distribution (configuration) were assessed examining 100 neoplastic cells. AgNOR counts and histologic grade were highly associated in bladder urotheliomas (6.01 for grade 1 [G1], 7.69 for G2, 13.35 for G3; p 50; p 10.31 AgNORs) and MM (5-year survival: 46% for cases with 4.62 AgNORs; in MM the configuration too was related to prognosis: median of survival 72 months for tightly grouped, 16 for partially grouped, and 11 for dispersed AgNORs). Our results indicate that AgNOR number and configuration are useful in detection and prognosis of some neoplasias. They permit a rapid evaluation of morphology and tumor cell kinetics even on small biopsies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7750118

Pich, A; Chiusa, L; Margaria, E

1995-01-01

270

The pineal gland: a comparative MR imaging study in children and adults with respect to normal anatomical variations and pineal cysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was undertaken to evaluate the variations in appearance of the normal pineal gland. The findings of 1000 consecutive MR imaging examinations obtained at 0.5 T were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 1 day to 83 years, and findings in children and adults were compared. In all age groups the pineal gland appeared mainly in three forms: (1) nodule-like, (2) crescent-like and (3) ring-like. Overall prevalences of these forms were 52 %, 26 % and 22 %, respectively. Apparent differences in frequencies were evident in children and adults with respect to the crescent-and ring-like types. Cystiform pineal lesions 5 mm or larger in one diameter (anteroposterior, sagittal or transverse) were taken to be true pineal cysts, when compared with the gland`s ring-like appearance (less than 5 mm). Pineal cysts had a prevalence of 0.6 % in children and 2.6 % in adults. No symptomatic pineal cyst with mass effect on the lamina tecti was detected in the series. Besides identifying the three anatomical types of the pineal gland as seen on MR imaging and addressing the potential significance of differences in their frequencies in children and adults, the author tries to explain the previous discrepancy between the MR imaging and autopsy series findings with respect to frequencies of the pineal cysts. (orig.)

Sener, R.N. [Dept. of Radiology, Ege Univ. Hospital, Izmir (Turkey)

1995-06-01

271

The pineal gland: a comparative MR imaging study in children and adults with respect to normal anatomical variations and pineal cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was undertaken to evaluate the variations in appearance of the normal pineal gland. The findings of 1000 consecutive MR imaging examinations obtained at 0.5 T were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 1 day to 83 years, and findings in children and adults were compared. In all age groups the pineal gland appeared mainly in three forms: (1) nodule-like, (2) crescent-like and (3) ring-like. Overall prevalences of these forms were 52 %, 26 % and 22 %, respectively. Apparent differences in frequencies were evident in children and adults with respect to the crescent-and ring-like types. Cystiform pineal lesions 5 mm or larger in one diameter (anteroposterior, sagittal or transverse) were taken to be true pineal cysts, when compared with the gland's ring-like appearance (less than 5 mm). Pineal cysts had a prevalence of 0.6 % in children and 2.6 % in adults. No symptomatic pineal cyst with mass effect on the lamina tecti was detected in the series. Besides identifying the three anatomical types of the pineal gland as seen on MR imaging and addressing the potential significance of differences in their frequencies in children and adults, the author tries to explain the previous discrepancy between the MR imaging and autopsy series findings with respect to frequencies of the pineal cysts. (orig.)

272

Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proton beam has been applied to treat various tumor patients in clinical studies. However, it is still undefined whether proton radiation can inhibit the blood vessel formation and induce the cell death in vascular endothelial cells in growing organs. The aim of this study are first, to develop an optimal animal model for the observation of blood vessel development with low dose of proton beam and second, to investigate the effect of low dose proton beam on the inhibition of blood vessel formation induced by hypoxic conditions. In this study, flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos were used to directly visualize and determine the inhibition of blood vessels by low dose (1, 2, 5 Gy) of proton beam with spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). And we observed cell death by acridine orange staining at 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) stage of embryos after proton irradiation. We also compared the effects of proton beam with those of gamma-ray. An antioxidant, N-acetyl cystein (NAC) was used to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the cell deaths induced by proton irradiation. Irradiated flk-1-GFP transgenic embryos with proton beam irradiation (35 MeV, spread out Bragg peak, SOBP) demonstrated a marked inhibition of embryonic growth and an altered fluorescent blood vessel development in the trunk region. When the cells with DNA damage in the irradiated zebrafish were stained with acridine orange, green fluorescent cell death spots were increased in trunk regions compared to non-irradiated control embryos. Proton beam also significantly increased the cell death rate in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but pretreatment of N-acetyl cystein (NAC), an antioxidant, recovered the proton-induced cell death rate (p<0.01). Moreover, pretreatment of NAC abrogated the effect of proton beam on the inhibition of trunk vessel development and malformation of trunk truncation. From this study, we found that proton radiation therapy can inhibit the blood vessel growth which is probably induced in hypoxic region in vivo in zebrafish embryos. The inhibition of blood vessel formation by proton beam might be caused by vascular cell death through the increased ROS generation. Therefore, proton therapy can be applied to treat tumor angiogenesis as well as abnormal vessel formation developing in hypoxic region

Lee, Y. M.; Heo, T. R.; Lee, K. B.; Jang, K. H.; Kim, H. N.; Lee, S. H.; Jeong, M. H. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2008-04-15

273

Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proton beam has been applied to treat various tumor patients in clinical studies. However, it is still undefined whether proton radiation can inhibit the blood vessel formation and induce the cell death in vascular endothelial cells in growing organs. The aim of this study are first, to develop an optimal animal model for the observation of blood vessel development with low dose of proton beam and second, to investigate the effect of low dose proton beam on the inhibition of blood vessel formation induced by hypoxic conditions. In this study, flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos were used to directly visualize and determine the inhibition of blood vessels by low dose (1, 2, 5 Gy) of proton beam with spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). And we observed cell death by acridine orange staining at 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) stage of embryos after proton irradiation. We also compared the effects of proton beam with those of gamma-ray. An antioxidant, N-acetyl cystein (NAC) was used to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the cell deaths induced by proton irradiation. Irradiated flk-1-GFP transgenic embryos with proton beam irradiation (35 MeV, spread out Bragg peak, SOBP) demonstrated a marked inhibition of embryonic growth and an altered fluorescent blood vessel development in the trunk region. When the cells with DNA damage in the irradiated zebrafish were stained with acridine orange, green fluorescent cell death spots were increased in trunk regions compared to non-irradiated control embryos. Proton beam also significantly increased the cell death rate in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but pretreatment of N-acetyl cystein (NAC), an antioxidant, recovered the proton-induced cell death rate (p<0.01). Moreover, pretreatment of NAC abrogated the effect of proton beam on the inhibition of trunk vessel development and malformation of trunk truncation. From this study, we found that proton radiation therapy can inhibit the blood vessel growth which is probably induced in hypoxic region in vivo in zebrafish embryos. The inhibition of blood vessel formation by proton beam might be caused by vascular cell death through the increased ROS generation. Therefore, proton therapy can be applied to treat tumor angiogenesis as well as abnormal vessel formation developing in hypoxic region

274

The CI findings of 6 cases of the pineal cyst. Consideration on neuroradiological images and the mechanism of occurrence of pineal cysts in childhood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In comparison to adult individuals over the age of 50, pineal cysts do rarely occur in children and adolescents. Here we report on four young patients who had pineal cysts in combination with hypophyseal dwarfism. We studied an 8-year-old girl with chiasmal germinoma, an 8-year-old boy with epilepsy, a 17-year-old male with spontaneous hypophyseal dwarfism and a 11-year-old female with craniopharyngioma. We also investigated a 29-year-old man with pontine glioma and a 48-year-old women with prolactinoma. The comparison of neuroimaging the pineal cysts in children and adults revealed the characteristics of their location in the pineal gland and the presence of residual normal gland. The etiology of pineal cysts in combination with pituitary dwarfism is unclear. However, our cases would suggest that they may be related to endocrinological disorders of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (author).

Nakajou, Takahito; Kurisaka, Masahiro; Mori, Koreaki [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

1995-03-01

275

The CI findings of 6 cases of the pineal cyst. Consideration on neuroradiological images and the mechanism of occurrence of pineal cysts in childhood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In comparison to adult individuals over the age of 50, pineal cysts do rarely occur in children and adolescents. Here we report on four young patients who had pineal cysts in combination with hypophyseal dwarfism. We studied an 8-year-old girl with chiasmal germinoma, an 8-year-old boy with epilepsy, a 17-year-old male with spontaneous hypophyseal dwarfism and a 11-year-old female with craniopharyngioma. We also investigated a 29-year-old man with pontine glioma and a 48-year-old women with prolactinoma. The comparison of neuroimaging the pineal cysts in children and adults revealed the characteristics of their location in the pineal gland and the presence of residual normal gland. The etiology of pineal cysts in combination with pituitary dwarfism is unclear. However, our cases would suggest that they may be related to endocrinological disorders of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (author)

276

Lipocalin2 as a plasma marker for tumors with hypoxic regions  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypoxic tumors have been identified as appropriate indicators of tumor malignancy. However, no convenient plasma marker for hypoxic tumors has been described. Therefore, to identify a novel, convenient plasma marker for hypoxic tumors, we used microarray analysis to compare gene expression profiles of normoxic and hypoxic tumor tissues of mice bearing melanomas. Among the upregulated genes detected in hypoxic tumors, we chose to study the secretory protein lipocalin2 (LCN2) as a marker for hypoxic tumors. LCN2 protein levels in the plasma of mice bearing hypoxic tumors were significantly increased compared with those in mice bearing normoxic tumors. Interestingly, LCN2 mRNA levels were 17-fold higher in HIF-1?-positive hypoxic tumors than in HIF-1?-negative normoxic tumors. Furthermore, LCN2 mRNA levels were significantly higher in the B16-F1 cells and various human tumor cells cultured under hypoxic conditions than in cells cultured under normoxic conditions, while no changes in mRNA expression were observed in nontumor NIH-3T3 cells, even under hypoxic conditions. In cultured cells, the expression pattern of LCN2 was mostly consistent with that of HIF-1?, whereas that of a conventional hypoxic marker, carbonic anhydrase IX, was not. Collectively, our data suggested that LCN2 was a useful plasma marker for hypoxic tumors. PMID:25467539

Nakamura, Ibuki; Hama, Susumu; Itakura, Shoko; Takasaki, Ichiro; Nishi, Takayuki; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kogure, Kentaro

2014-01-01

277

Development and regeneration of the pineal region of the diencephalon  

OpenAIRE

Organizer is a group of cells that induces and patterns surrounding tissues during embryo development. Previous studies of organizers were mainly based on transplantation of various pieces of tissues. This project first aimed to find out putative organizers using a novel method, which was to characterize organizers based on patterns of syn-expression genes. The differential microarray assays selected a list of gene that are enriched or depleted in three known organizers (Hensen’s node, noto...

Liu, J.

2014-01-01

278

An autopsy case of sudden unexpected death due to a glial cyst of the pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal cysts are usually asymptomatic; however, they may rarely cause symptoms such as chronic headache, paroxysmal headache with gaze paresis, postural syncope, loss of consciousness, and sudden death. A 30-year-old woman with no specific medical history except chronic headache was found collapsed in a public toilet per se. Postmortem examination revealed no external injuries or internal diseases except a cystic lesion of the pineal gland. Histologic examination showed an internal cyst surrounded by glial tissues and pineal parenchyma that was diagnosed as a glial cyst of the pineal gland. Although the pineal cyst cannot be confirmed as the cause of death, it was considered, as no other cause was evident. Herein, we report a pineal cyst considered as an assumed cause of death. PMID:25062343

Na, Joo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Park, Jong-Tae

2014-09-01

279

Sagittal MR images of normal pineal glands after Gd-DTPA injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated normal pineal glands on Gd-DTPA enhanced MR images on a 1.5 Tesla superconducting unit. On enhanced sagittal MR images with a 3-mm slice thickness, pineal glands were identified as solid or cystic structures. The solid and cystic pineal glands were divided into two subgroups according to the degree of enhancement. The solid pineal glands showed diffuse or subtle enhancement and cystic ones showed peripheral enhancement either completely or incompletely. Of the 50 patients, 19 (38%) had solid pineal glands and 31 (62%) had cystic ones. In male, 7 out of 12 (63%) showed solid pineal glands and in female, 27 out of 39 (70%) showed cystic ones. (author)

280

Depression of nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in castrate male rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity was examined in intact rats, castrated rats, and in rats that had been castrated and had received testosterone proprionate. Castration resulted in significantly depressing nocturnal levels of pineal NAT (p<0.05) when compared to enzyme activity in intact rats. Testosterone proprionate administration restored plasma LH levels to normal values in castrate rats but did not induce nocturnal pineal enzyme activity to levels seen in the pineal glands of intact rats. The data substantiate the existence of a feedback control of pineal biosynthetic activity by the hypophyseal-gonadal system, but the identity of the hormone(s) responsible for regulation of pineal NAT activity is not known. (author)

281

Análisis epidemiológico de la mortalidad por tumores sólidos en la Región Metropolitana, Chile, 1999 / Mortality caused by solid tumors in the Metropolitan Region, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Chronic diseases are the leading cause of mortality in Chile and, among these, tumors are the second most frequent cause of death. The langest number of deaths occur in the Metropolitan Region. Aim: To describe the rates of mortality caused by solid tumors in the Metropolitan Region. Mat [...] erial and methods: Analysis of deaths that occurred in 1999 in the Metropolitan Region. Data from death certificates, gathered by the Ministry of Health, were used. Crude mortality rates and Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL) caused by solid tumors were calculated. Results: Among men, gastric cancer accounts for the higher rate of mortality, followed by lung cancer. Among women, gallbladder cancer is the most frequent cause of death, followed by breast cancer. Gastric cancer also accounts for the higher amount of PYLL among men, but among women, breast cancer outweighs gallbladder cancer in this parameter. Conclusions: Gastric cancer continues to be an important cause of mortality in Chile and there is a worrysome increase in the mortality caused by gallbladder cancer (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 641-9)

Jorge, Szot M.

2003-06-01

282

Buschke-Löwenstein tumor: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anogenital region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Buschke-Lcwenstein tumor (BLT, as a rare form of condylomata acuminatum, was firstly described by Buschke in 1886 as a "carcinoma-like condyloma acuminatum of the penis”. BLT is generally considered to be a low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma of the anogenital region. Case Outline. We describe a case of BLT in a 56-year-old male patient who was referred to our institute due to a large defect in the gluteal region. The biopsy of the lesion was performed and the diagnosis of BLT was made on histopathological examination. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis showed the extensive vegetant lesion that significantly infiltrated pelvic organs accompanied with an enlargement of para-iliac lymph nodes. Sygmoidostomy for fecal diversion was done and chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin was initiated. Unfortunately, the patient’s severe condition caused fatal outcome. Conclusion. Our case points out that BLT should be treated at the initial stage in order to prevent untreatable condition which happened in our patient. Therefore, early diagnostics and staging of the disease using modern technologies are crucial in order to treat patients effectively.

Turkalj Ivan

2014-01-01

283

New crystal in the pineal gland : characterization and potential role in electromechano-transduction  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine transducer secreting melatonin, responsible for the physiological circadian rhythm control. A new form of biomineralization has been studied in the human pineal gland. It consists of small crystals that are less than 20 µm in length. These crystals could be responsible for an electromechanical biological transduction mechanism in the pineal gland due to their structure and piezoelectric properties. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispe...

Baconnier, Simon; Lang, Sidney B.; Seze, Rene?

2002-01-01

284

Pineal Photoreceptor Cells Are Required for Maintaining the Circadian Rhythms of Behavioral Visual Sensitivity in Zebrafish  

OpenAIRE

In non-mammalian vertebrates, the pineal gland functions as the central pacemaker that regulates the circadian rhythms of animal behavior and physiology. We generated a transgenic zebrafish line [Tg(Gnat2:gal4-VP16/UAS:nfsB-mCherry)] in which the E. coli nitroreductase is expressed in pineal photoreceptor cells. In developing embryos and young adults, the transgene is expressed in both retinal and pineal photoreceptor cells. During aging, the expression of the transgene in retinal photorecept...

Li, Xinle; Montgomery, Jake; Cheng, Wesley; Noh, Jung Hyun; Hyde, David R.; Li, Lei

2012-01-01

285

Radiologic and laboratory diagnosis of the pineal gland state in some neuroendocrinal syndromes in women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiological and functional examinations of the pineal gland state and changes of bones of the vault and base of the skull are performed in 114 women. The data on melatonin excretion, calcification frequency of the pineal gland in different syndromes, signs of endocrinopathy, endocraniosis, intracranial hypertension in the observed persons of all groups are given. It is suggested that the retardation of calcification of the pineal gland is connected with humoral and hormonal status disorder

286

Delayed intra-tumoural haemorrhage in pineal germinoma: Case report and review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intraparenchymal haemorrhage in a pineal germinoma is a very rare, though clinically significant event. We report the first case of a significantly delayed intraparenchymal haemorrhage in a pineal germinoma, 14 days after endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV, causing precipitous patient deterioration. We discuss potential contributing pathophysiological factors, and seek to illustrate that knowledge of its occurrence, and associated morbidity, is clinically significant in managing pineal germinoma patients with acute deterioration post obstructive hydrocephalus CSF diversion.

Michael Colditz

2013-07-01

287

Immunohistochemical characterization of a parapinopsin-containing photoreceptor cell involved in the ultraviolet/green discrimination in the pineal organ of the river lamprey Lethenteron japonicum.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the pineal organ, two types of ganglion cell exhibit antagonistic chromatic responses to UV and green light, and achromatic responses to visible light. In this study, we histologically characterized UV-sensitive photoreceptor cells that contain a unique non-visual UV pigment, lamprey parapinopsin, in order to elucidate the neural network that is associated with antagonistic chromatic responses. These characteristics were compared with those of lamprey rhodopsin-containing cells, most of which are involved in achromatic responses. RT-PCR analysis revealed that lamprey parapinopsin was expressed in the pineal organ but not in the retina, unlike lamprey rhodopsin, which was expressed in both. Lamprey parapinopsin and lamprey rhodopsin were immunohistochemically localized in the dorsal and ventral regions of the pineal organ, respectively. The two pigments were localized in distinct photoreceptor cells throughout the pineal organ, namely the dorsal and ventral regions as well as the peripheral region, which corresponds to the dorso-ventral border region. The ratio of the number of lamprey parapinopsin-containing cells to lamprey rhodopsin-containing cells around the peripheral region was higher than in the central region. Electron-microscopic analysis revealed that lamprey parapinopsin-containing dorsal cells have outer segments and synaptic ribbons similar to those of ventral photoreceptor cells. However, unlike lamprey rhodopsin-containing cells, lamprey parapinopsin-containing cells connected with each other in a wide area of dorsal and peripheral portions and made direct contact with ganglion cells, mainly in the peripheral portion. These results suggest that UV light information captured by lamprey parapinopsin-containing photoreceptor cells is converged and directly transmitted to chromatic-type ganglion cells in the peripheral region to generate antagonistic chromatic responses. PMID:17951423

Kawano-Yamashita, Emi; Terakita, Akihisa; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Shichida, Yoshinori; Oishi, Tadashi; Tamotsu, Satoshi

2007-11-01

288

Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamic nucleus paraventricularis mimics the effects of light on pineal melatonin synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an attempt to clarify further the role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in the control of pineal function, the effects of 2 min electrical stimulation of these nuclei were investigated in acutely blinded, adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Pineal serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, melatonin content and catecholamine levels were measured by means of radio-enzymatic, radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid-chromatography methods, respectively. All three pineal parameters underwent significant declines following brief PVN stimulation during the night time. These observations lend credence to the view that the neural pathways transmitting light information to the sympathetic innervation controlling pineal melatonin synthesis. 22 references, 1 figure

289

Pineal gland volume in primary insomnia and healthy controls: a magnetic resonance imaging study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the relation between pineal volume and insomnia. Melatonin promotes sleep processes and, administered as a drug, it is suitable to improve primary and secondary sleep disorders in humans. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that human plasma and saliva melatonin levels are partially determined by the pineal gland volume. This study compares the pineal volume in a group of patients with primary insomnia to a group of healthy people without sleep disturbance. Pineal gland volume (PGV) was measured on the basis of high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in 23 patients and 27 controls, matched for age, gender and educational status. Volume measurements were performed conventionally by manual delineation of the pineal borders in multi-planar reconstructed images. Pineal gland volume was significantly smaller (P Pineal volume appears to be reduced in patients with primary insomnia compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to clarify whether low pineal volume is the basis or the consequence of functional sleep changes to elucidate the molecular pathology for the pineal volume loss in primary insomnia. PMID:24456088

Bumb, Jan M; Schilling, Claudia; Enning, Frank; Haddad, Leila; Paul, Franc; Lederbogen, Florian; Deuschle, Michael; Schredl, Michael; Nolte, Ingo

2014-06-01

290

Leptin Modulates Norepinephrine-Mediated Melatonin Synthesis in Cultured Rat Pineal Gland  

OpenAIRE

Pineal melatonin synthesis can be modulated by many peptides, including insulin. Because melatonin appears to alter leptin synthesis, in this work we aimed to investigate whether leptin would have a role on norepinephrine- (NE-)mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal glands. According to our data, cultured rat pineal glands express leptin receptor isoform b (Ob-Rb). Pineal expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was also observed in vivo. Administration of leptin (1?nM) associated with NE (1?...

Carla Roberta de Oliveira Carvalho; José Cipolla-Neto; Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari-Garcia; Amp Xe Ssica Andrade-silva, J.

2013-01-01

291

Orphan nuclear receptor RZRbeta: cyclic AMP regulates expression in the pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nuclear orphan receptor RZRbeta is highly expressed in the rat pineal gland. Recent studies proposed that melatonin, the pineal hormone which regulates a wide variety of circadian-linked phenomena, may be the natural ligand of this receptor. These provocative reports prompted us to learn more about RZRbeta and how it might function in circadian physiology. Here we confirm high expression of this receptor in the pineal gland, and report that pineal RZRbeta expression exhibits a strong daily rhythm. Expression is under photoneural regulation and involves an adrenergic --> cAMP mechanism. PMID:8607878

Baler, R; Coon, S; Klein, D C

1996-03-27

292

Cell loss from viable and necrotic tumor regions after local gamma irradiation measured by /sup 125/I-UdR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using a tracer technique, loss of cells from perivascular and average tumor cells of the syngenic mammary adenocarcinoma EO 771 in male C57 BL/6J mice may be measured in the living animal, by the use of 125-labelled 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (/sup 125/I-UdR). It was the purpose of this paper to compare measurements in vivo with those made in vitro following local /sup 60/Co-gamma irradiation in the absorbed dose range from 10 to 27.5 Gy, incorporation of radioactivity into DNA of tumor cells and activity loss from labelled tumor cells were measured externally by a special scintillation counter device. In addition, by injecting the vital dye 'light green' into the mice the I-125-activity of the stained viable and unstained necrotic regions were separately measured for loss of activity following gamma irradiation. A comparison was made between radiation induced growth delay and the depression of /sup 125/I-UdR incorporation into DNA of the proliferating tumor cells. After local tumor irradiation with a dose of 27.5 Gy /sup 60/Co gamma rays an enhancement of the activity loss by 0.5% per hour was externally observed for the perivascular tumor cell population. A lower enhancement of 0.4% per hour was externally registered in the average tumor cell population. Both values were evaluated relative to sham-irradiated control tumors. The measurements on isolated tumors were in comparatively good agreement with the external values. The activity loss rate from the viable, euoxic tissue increased by 0.4% per hour after 27.5 Gy /sup 60/Co gamma rays and by 0.3% per hour in the average cell population, the latter representing a mixture of euoxic and hypoxic cells. The results demonstrate, that the external measurements are a good indicator for radiation effects under in vivo-conditions.

Bornschein, R.; Porschen, R.; Porschen, W.; Muehlensiepen, H.; Feinendegen, L.E.

1987-02-01

293

Cell loss from viable and necrotic tumor regions after local gamma irradiation measured by 125I-UdR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a tracer technique, loss of cells from perivascular and average tumor cells of the syngenic mammary adenocarcinoma EO 771 in male C57 BL/6J mice may be measured in the living animal, by the use of 125-labelled 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (125I-UdR). It was the purpose of this paper to compare measurements in vivo with those made in vitro following local 60Co-gamma irradiation in the absorbed dose range from 10 to 27.5 Gy, incorporation of radioactivity into DNA of tumor cells and activity loss from labelled tumor cells were measured externally by a special scintillation counter device. In addition, by injecting the vital dye 'light green' into the mice the I-125-activity of the stained viable and unstained necrotic regions were separately measured for loss of activity following gamma irradiation. A comparison was made between radiation induced growth delay and the depression of 125I-UdR incorporation into DNA of the proliferating tumor cells. After local tumor irradiation with a dose of 27.5 Gy 60Co gamma rays an enhancement of the activity loss by 0.5% per hour was externally observed for the perivascular tumor cell population. A lower enhancement of 0.4% per hour was externally registered in the average tumor cell population. Both values were evaluated relative to sham-irradiated control tumors. The measurements on isolated tumors were in comparatively good agreement with the external values. The activity loss rate from trnal values. The activity loss rate from the viable, euoxic tissue increased by 0.4% per hour after 27.5 Gy 60Co gamma rays and by 0.3% per hour in the average cell population, the latter representing a mixture of euoxic and hypoxic cells. The results demonstrate, that the external measurements are a good indicator for radiation effects under in vivo-conditions. (orig.)

294

Primary atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the clival region. Case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

An atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare, aggressive neoplasm found in infants and children that has similar characteristics to CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumors/medulloblastomas. The authors present the case of a patient with an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor and discuss the imaging, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and cytogenetic findings. Tumor cells displayed positive reactions for vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen, and cytokeratin, and they displayed no reaction for glial fibrillary acidic protein, desmin, and actin. The karyotype was 46, XY. The phenotype of an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor appears heterogeneous when examined by histological, immunohistochemical, and genetic analysis. The authors describe the case of a 4-year-old boy who harbored an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in the clivus, which appeared as a chordoma on neuroimages. To their knowledge, this location of an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor has not been described in the literature. PMID:17465367

Kazan, Saim; Göksu, Ethem; Mihci, Ercan; Gökhan, Güzide; Keser, Ibrahim; Gürer, Inanc

2007-04-01

295

Histologic evaluation of necrosis in osteosarcoma induced by chemotherapy. Regional mapping of viable and nonviable tumor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The predominant sites of viable and nonviable tumor were determined in the primary lesions of 50 patients with osteosarcoma after initial treatment with preoperative chemotherapy. The degree of tumor destruction was classified as good, fair, and poor and a map of the sites revealing viable and nonviable tumor was constructed. The study revealed several preferential sites where viable tumor was likely to persist: soft tissues, cortex, subcortex, ligaments, and areas in contact with cartilage (growth plate and/or articular cartilage). Localized areas of hemorrhage and necrosis, designated "lacunae," were noted within the tumor. They were frequently surrounded by bundles of viable tumor and appeared to correlate with open surgical biopsies. Factors responsible for this phenomenon and the persistence of viable tumor are discussed. The findings have important implications in the design of surgical treatment and in the use of needle biopsies to determine the effects of preoperative treatment. PMID:3861228

Picci, P; Bacci, G; Campanacci, M; Gasparini, M; Pilotti, S; Cerasoli, S; Bertoni, F; Guerra, A; Capanna, R; Albisinni, U

1985-10-01

296

A glândula pineal e o metabolismo de carboidratos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A influência da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos vem sendo investigada há décadas. Entretanto, resultados contraditórios não esclarecem, até o momento, o verdadeiro papel da melatonina sobre a homeostasia dos carboidratos. Através de estudos recentes, contribuímos de maneira ineqü [...] ívoca para a caracterização do papel da glândula pineal como moduladora do metabolismo de carboidratos. Além disso, à luz dos conhecimentos atuais, demonstramos quais passos do mecanismo de ação da insulina estão envolvidos nessa modulação. Nossos estudos revelaram que a pinealectomia promove um quadro de resistência à insulina, sem obesidade. A captação máxima de 2-deoxi-glicose, estimulada por insulina, em adipócitos isolados está diminuída, sem entretanto modificar a capacidade da insulina ligar-se ao seu receptor e estimular a fosforilação dos substratos intracelulares representados pela pp 185. Por outro lado, em vários tecidos sensíveis à insulina, observou-se uma diminuição no conteúdo da proteína transportadora de glicose GLUT4, mas diminuição no mRNA do GLUT4 apenas em alguns desses tecidos, sugerindo uma regulação tecido-específica. Adicionalmente, foi demonstrado que a regulação da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos é mediado pela melatonina: o hormônio aumentou a sensibilidade à insulina de adipócitos isolados e o tratamento de reposição com melatonina restaurou o conteúdo de GLUT4 no tecido adiposo branco. Em síntese, os estudos aqui relatados evidenciam um importante papel da glândula pineal na modulação da homeostasia de carboidratos. Essa regulação é dependente da melatonina e pode ser resumida, até o presente momento, como um aumento da sensibilidade tecidual à insulina, que envolve alterações na expressão gênica do GLUT4. Abstract in english For decades, the influence of the pineal gland on carbohydrate metabolism has been investigated. However, contradictory results have not yet elucidated the role played by melatonin in carbohydrate homeostasis. In our recent studies, we have contributed to characterize the role of the pineal gland as [...] a modulator of carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, based on present-day knowledge, we have demonstrated the steps of insulin action mechanism involved in this modulation. Our studies reveal that pinealectomy causes a condition of obesity-free insulin resistance. The maximum uptake of 2-deoxi-glucose prompted by insulin in isolated adipocytes is diminished, without however changing the insulin capacity to bind to its receptor, and to stimulate the phosphorilation of intracellular substrates represented by pp 185. Conversely, in several insulin-sensitive tissues, our studies detected a decrease in the amount of glucose transporter protein GLUT4, and a decrease in GLUT4 mRNA in only some of these tissues, suggesting a tissue-specific regulation. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the pineal gland regulation influences carbohydrate metabolism through melatonin, by our demonstration that the hormone increased insulin sensitivity of isolated adipocytes, and that melatonin replacement therapy restored the amount of GLUT4 in white adipose tissue. In summary, the studies reported here evidence an important role played by the pineal gland in the modulation of carbohydrate homeostasis. This regulation seems to be melatonin-dependent and can be described, so far, as an increase in tissue sensitivity to insulin, which involves changes in GLUT4 gene expression.

Patrícia Monteiro, Seraphim; Doris Hissako, Sumida; Fabiana Tumi, Nishide; Fábio Bessa, Lima; José, Cipolla Neto; Ubiratan Fabres, Machado.

2000-08-01

297

The pineal neurohormone melatonin and its physiologic opiatergic immunoregulatory role  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pineal gland functions as a neuroendocrine transducer that coordinate the organism response to changing environmental stimuli such as light and temperature. The main and best known pineal neurohormone is melatonin that is synthesized and released in a circadian fashion with a peak during the night darkness hours. We have recently reported that melatonin exerts important immuno regulatory functions. Here we describe the astonishing property of exogenous melatonin which is able to counteract completely the depressive effect of anxiety-restraint stress and/or of corticosterone on thymus weight, andibody production and antiviral responses. This effect seems to be mediated by antigen-activated T cells via an opiatergic mechanism.

Georges J. M. Maestroni

1987-01-01

298

The pineal neurohormone melatonin and its physiologic opiatergic immunoregulatory role  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The pineal gland functions as a neuroendocrine transducer that coordinate the organism response to changing environmental stimuli such as light and temperature. The main and best known pineal neurohormone is melatonin that is synthesized and released in a circadian fashion with a peak during the nig [...] ht darkness hours. We have recently reported that melatonin exerts important immuno regulatory functions. Here we describe the astonishing property of exogenous melatonin which is able to counteract completely the depressive effect of anxiety-restraint stress and/or of corticosterone on thymus weight, andibody production and antiviral responses. This effect seems to be mediated by antigen-activated T cells via an opiatergic mechanism.

Georges J. M., Maestroni; Ario, Conti; Walter, Pierpaoli.

299

A glândula pineal e o metabolismo de carboidratos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A influência da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos vem sendo investigada há décadas. Entretanto, resultados contraditórios não esclarecem, até o momento, o verdadeiro papel da melatonina sobre a homeostasia dos carboidratos. Através de estudos recentes, contribuímos de maneira ineqüívoca para a caracterização do papel da glândula pineal como moduladora do metabolismo de carboidratos. Além disso, à luz dos conhecimentos atuais, demonstramos quais passos do mecanismo de ação da insulina estão envolvidos nessa modulação. Nossos estudos revelaram que a pinealectomia promove um quadro de resistência à insulina, sem obesidade. A captação máxima de 2-deoxi-glicose, estimulada por insulina, em adipócitos isolados está diminuída, sem entretanto modificar a capacidade da insulina ligar-se ao seu receptor e estimular a fosforilação dos substratos intracelulares representados pela pp 185. Por outro lado, em vários tecidos sensíveis à insulina, observou-se uma diminuição no conteúdo da proteína transportadora de glicose GLUT4, mas diminuição no mRNA do GLUT4 apenas em alguns desses tecidos, sugerindo uma regulação tecido-específica. Adicionalmente, foi demonstrado que a regulação da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos é mediado pela melatonina: o hormônio aumentou a sensibilidade à insulina de adipócitos isolados e o tratamento de reposição com melatonina restaurou o conteúdo de GLUT4 no tecido adiposo branco. Em síntese, os estudos aqui relatados evidenciam um importante papel da glândula pineal na modulação da homeostasia de carboidratos. Essa regulação é dependente da melatonina e pode ser resumida, até o presente momento, como um aumento da sensibilidade tecidual à insulina, que envolve alterações na expressão gênica do GLUT4.For decades, the influence of the pineal gland on carbohydrate metabolism has been investigated. However, contradictory results have not yet elucidated the role played by melatonin in carbohydrate homeostasis. In our recent studies, we have contributed to characterize the role of the pineal gland as a modulator of carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, based on present-day knowledge, we have demonstrated the steps of insulin action mechanism involved in this modulation. Our studies reveal that pinealectomy causes a condition of obesity-free insulin resistance. The maximum uptake of 2-deoxi-glucose prompted by insulin in isolated adipocytes is diminished, without however changing the insulin capacity to bind to its receptor, and to stimulate the phosphorilation of intracellular substrates represented by pp 185. Conversely, in several insulin-sensitive tissues, our studies detected a decrease in the amount of glucose transporter protein GLUT4, and a decrease in GLUT4 mRNA in only some of these tissues, suggesting a tissue-specific regulation. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the pineal gland regulation influences carbohydrate metabolism through melatonin, by our demonstration that the hormone increased insulin sensitivity of isolated adipocytes, and that melatonin replacement therapy restored the amount of GLUT4 in white adipose tissue. In summary, the studies reported here evidence an important role played by the pineal gland in the modulation of carbohydrate homeostasis. This regulation seems to be melatonin-dependent and can be described, so far, as an increase in tissue sensitivity to insulin, which involves changes in GLUT4 gene expression.

Patrícia Monteiro Seraphim

2000-08-01

300

Depressive symptomatology and pineal epidermoid cyst: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Intracranial epidermoid cysts are congenital cysts. They comprise 0.2-1.8% of primary intracranial tumours and are four to nine times as common as dermoid cysts. Case report We here in present the case of a 32-year-old man who reported sudden onset of symptoms of a depressive symptomatology and particularly severe headache, accompanied by fatigue, depressed mood most of the day, marked diminished interest or pleasure in all or almost all activities, insomnia and diminished ability to think or concentrate. Brain magnetic resolution imaging examination revealed a pineal epidermoid cystic lesion, visualised in the posterior part of the third ventricle, with a maximum diameter of ?2.8 cm and obstructing the aqueduct of Sylvius, causing obstructive hydrocephalus. Discussion Pineal cysts may enlarge over time, because of either increased cyst fluid or intracystic haemorrhage, and become symptomatic. Brain radiological investigations in patients with depressive symptomatology may be substantial. PMID:25287638

Kontoangelos, Konstantinos; Economou, Marina; Maltezou, Maria; Kandaraki, Anna; Papadimitriou, George N

2013-08-01

301

Ultrastructure of the pineal gland in the adult rat.  

OpenAIRE

The ultrastructure of the rat pineal gland was studied from 75 days until 10 months of age. Type I pinealocytes of young adults showed nuclei with dispersed chromatin, numerous infoldings of the nuclear envelope and well developed nucleoli. The cytoplasm displayed many mitochondria and clusters of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. With increasing age, there was a clear increase in the number of dense bodies or lysosomes in the Type I pinealocyte. The changes in the Type II pinealocytes with age w...

Calvo, J.; Boya, J.

1984-01-01

302

Postnatal evolution of the rat pineal gland: light microscopy.  

OpenAIRE

The postnatal development and morphology of the adult albino rat pineal gland was studied from one day up to ten months of age. During postnatal life there was a marked increase in gland and pinealocyte volume, more intense during the first 45 days. After ten days, the differences in nuclear morphology of parenchymal cells showed two different types of pinealocyte. The characteristic adult arrangement of pinealocytes in cords and pseudo-rosettes was observed after 15-20 days. After 75 days th...

Calvo, J.; Boya, J.

1984-01-01

303

The pineal gland - Its possible roles in human reproduction  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses the role of the pineal gland in controlling mammalian reproduction, with particular attention given to the role of melatonin in polyestrus mammals, like humans and laboratory rodents. Evidence is cited indicating the influence of melatonin production and blood content on the age of puberty, the timing of the ovulatory cycle, gonadal steriodogenesis, and patterns of reproductive behavior. It is suggested that abnormal patterns of melatonin might be associated with amenorrhea, anovulation, unexplained infertility, premature menopause, and habitual abortions.

Brzezinski, Amnon; Wurtman, Richard J.

1988-01-01

304

Characterization of human melatonin synthesis using autoptic pineal tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes rhythmically the hormone melatonin, which provides the body with a signal coding the duration of the night period. The ultimate enzymatic step in melatonin synthesis is achieved by the hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase (HIOMT); the rate-limiting enzyme is, however, the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT). In contrast to the central importance of a transcriptional regulation of the Aa-nat gene for rodent melatonin synthesis, mechanisms in the human pineal gland are elusive. Therefore, pineal tissue, taken from regular autopsies (n = 69; postmortem intervals ranging from 9 to 147 h) was analyzed simultaneously for Aa-nat and Hiomt mRNA levels by PCR, AA-NAT activity using (14)C-acetyl-coenzyme A, HIOMT activity using S-adenosyl-l-[(14)C]-methionine, and melatonin content using an ELISA. Results were allocated to asserted time-of-death groups (day, 1,000 to 1,630 h; dusk, 1,630 to 2,200 h; night, 2,200 to 0730 h; dawn, 0730 to 1,000 h). RNA degradation rates of genes of interest ran in parallel, and, therefore, data normalization could be established, regardless of postmortem delay in tissue sampling. Aa-nat and Hiomt mRNA and HIOMT activity showed no diurnal rhythm. In contrast, a significant rhythm was found for the correlation between time of death and both AA-NAT activity and melatonin content, with elevated values during dusk and night. Presented data demonstrate that postmortem brain tissue can be used to detect the remnant of premortem adaptive changes in neuronal activity. In particular, our results give strong experimental support for the idea that transcriptional mechanisms are not dominant for the generation of rhythmic melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland. PMID:16556767

Ackermann, Katrin; Bux, Roman; Rüb, Udo; Korf, Horst-Werner; Kauert, Gerold; Stehle, Jörg H

2006-07-01

305

Assessing tumor response after loco-regional liver cancer therapies: the role of 3D MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessing the tumor response of liver cancer lesions after intraarterial therapies is of major clinical interest. Over the last two decades, tumor response criteria have come a long way from purely size-based, anatomic methods such as the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors towards more functional, enhancement- and diffusion-based parameters with a strong emphasis on MRI as the ultimate imaging modality. However, the relatively low reproducibility of those one- and 2D techniques (modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors and the European Association for the Study of the Liver criteria) provided the rationale for the development of new, 3D quantitative assessment techniques. This review will summarize and compare the existing methodologies used for 3D quantitative tumor analysis and provide an overview of the published clinical evidence for the benefits of 3D quantitative tumor response assessment techniques. PMID:25371052

Chapiro, Julius; Lin, MingDe; Duran, Rafael; Schernthaner, Rüdiger E; Geschwind, Jean-François

2015-02-01

306

Expression, purification, and characterization of the 4 zinc finger region of human tumor suppressor WT1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wilm's Tumor gene 1 (WT1) encodes a zinc finger protein with four distinct splice isoforms. WT1 has a critical role in genesis of various cancer types both at the DNA/RNA and the protein level. The zinc-finger DNA-binding capacity of the protein is located in the C-terminal domain. Two recombinant proteins, 6HIS-ZN-wt1 and 6HIS-ZN+wt1, corresponding to two alternative splice variants of the C-terminal regions of human WT1 (-KTS) and WT1 (+KTS), respectively, were over-expressed with hexa-histidine fusion tags in inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli for crystallization studies. A combination of Ni2+-NTA affinity and size-exclusion chromatography was applied for purification of the proteins in denaturing conditions. The effects of various buffers, salts and other additives were scrutinized in a systematic screening to establish the optimal conditions for solubility and refolding of the recombinant WT1 proteins. Circular dichroism analysis revealed the expected betabetaalpha content for the refolded proteins, with a notable degradation of the alpha-helical segment in the DNA-free state. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay with double-stranded DNA containing the double Egr1 consensus site 5'-GCG-TGG-GCG-3' confirmed that 6HIS-ZN-wt1 has higher DNA binding affinity than 6HIS-ZN+wt1. PMID:16343939

Nurmemmedov, Elmar; Thunnissen, Marjolein

2006-04-01

307

Content of microelements in the rat pineal gland at different ages and the effects of selenium supplementation  

OpenAIRE

The mammalian pineal gland regulates a number of important physiological processes. In this paper we report changes in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) in the male rat pineal glands at 4, 5, 8, and 12 months of age. The effect of Se supplementation in drinking water on the content of pineal gland microelements was also studied. Selenium (Se)-dependent changes in pineal gland reported in this study suggest novel physicochemical and biochemical properties of S...

Demajo M.; Jozanov-Stankov Olga; ?uji? Ivana

2006-01-01

308

Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

2012-09-28

309

Correlación tomográfica y anatomopatológica en los tumores de la región selar / Tomographic and anatomopathological correlation in sellar region tumors Ischemic stroke  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realización de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fundamental fue demostrar el valor de la tomografía computadorizada en el diagnóstico presuntivo de la variedad histológica de los macroadenomas hipofisarios así como de otros [...] tumores menos frecuentes de la región selar, teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes operados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomográfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar. Se registró la edad, sexo, clínica, signos tomográficos, resultados anatomopatológicos posquirúrgicos. Se observó mayor incidencia de los adenomas hipofisarios (110); los no secretores resultaron los predominantes (41,1 %). La mayoría de los pacientes se ubicó en las edades entre 30 y 50 años. El sexo femenino prevaleció en los adenomas adrenocorticotrópicos y los meningiomas; el masculino, en los productores de GH y de prolactina. Dentro de los signos tomográficos, la erosión de las clinoides y el dorso selar, así como la hidrocefalia predominó en los adenomas no secretores y los tumores no adenohipofisarios. Los adenomas (GH) se destacaron en la erosión del piso y en el balonamiento selar al igual que los de ACTH. Las calcificaciones fueron frecuentes en los teratomas y craneofaringiomas, al igual que la captación no homogénea del contraste, la cual fue característica en estos casos como en los quistes de la bolsa de Rathke. La tomografía computadorizada demostró ser de gran valor diagnóstico en los macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico del paciente. Abstract in english The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas in the world motivated the conduction of this research, whose main objective was to show the value of computerized tomography in the presumptive diagnosis of the histological variety of hypophyseal macroadenomas, as well as of other less common tumors [...] of the sellar region, taking into account the clinical picture.To this end, 124 patients operated on with the clinical and tomographic diagnosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumors of the sellar region, were studied. Age, sex, clinic, tomographic signs, and anatomopathological results were registered. It was observed a higher incidence of the hypophyseal adenomas (110). The non-secreting adenomas proved to be the predominant (41.1 %). Most of the patients were 30-50 years old. The female sex prevailed in the adrenocorticotropic adenomas and meningiomas, whereas males predominated in the GH and prolactin-producing adenomas. Within the tomographic signs, the erosion of the clinoids and the dorsum sellae, as well as hydrocephalus predominated in the non-secreting adenomas and the non-adenohypophyseal tumors. The adenomas (GH) stood out in the erosion of the floor and in the sellar ballooning, the same as the ACTH. The calcifications were frequent in the teratomas and craniopharyngiomas, as well as the non-homogenous capture of contrast, which was characteristic in these cases, as in Rathke's pouch cysts. Computarized tomography proved to have a great diagnostic value in the hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumors of the sellar region, taking into consideration the clinical picture of the patient.

Tania, García Moreira; Fernando, Piedra Chávez; Omar, López Arbolay; Luis, García Ferrer; Hilca, Navarro Miranda; Denise, Delgado Gutiérrez.

2007-12-01

310

Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland : Roles in Development and Phenotype Maintenance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function. A working model is proposed for understanding the sequential action of homeobox genes in controlling development and mature circadian function of the mammalian pinealocyte based on knowledge from detailed developmental and daily gene expression analyses in rats, the pineal phenotypes of homebox gene-deficient mice and studies on development of the retinal photoreceptor; the pinealocyte and retinal photoreceptor share features not seen in other tissues and are likely to have evolved from the same ancestral photodetector cell.

Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian

2013-01-01

311

The modulatory effect of substance P on rat pineal norepinephrine release and melatonin secretion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Secretion of melatonin by the mammalian pineal gland is primarily regulated by the release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerve terminals that originate from the superior cervical ganglia. Peptidergic nerves that originate in the perikarya located in the sensory trigeminal ganglia also innervate the pineal gland. Some of these peptidergic nerve fibers contain substance P. Previously, we have characterized neurokinin 1 type substance P receptors in the pineal gland. However, the function of this receptor in the pineal gland remains unclear. Here, we examined the modulatory effect of substance P on rat pineal NE transmission. We show that at the presynaptic level, substance P stimulates the KCl-induced [(3)H]NE release from the pineal nerve ending. However, we found that substance P did not affect the basal levels of either arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity or melatonin secretion in rat pineal organ cultures. However, in the presence of NE, substance P inhibited the NE-induced increase in AANAT activity and melatonin secretion. This is the first time that a function for substance P in the mammalian pineal gland has been demonstrated.

Mukda, Sujira; MØller, Morten

2009-01-01

312

Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effect upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity

313

Effect of low dose radiation on cell cycle of pineal gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: In the present study the authors observed the effect of low dose radiation (LDR) on cell cycle of pineal gland in mice. Methods: The distribution in the phase of the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry after staining of pineal gland with prospidium iodine (PI) after WBI with 75 mGy X-rays. Results: It was shown that the percentage of G0/G1 phase and G2 + M phase of pineal gland cells decreased after irradiation (P < 0.05), and meanwhile the percentage of S-phase of pineal gland cells increased after irradiation (P < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicated that WBI with LDR could promote DNA synthesis of pineal gland cells in mice

314

Allogeneic inhibitory activity of regional lymph node cells in the mouse isografted with methylcholanthrene-induced tumor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In mouse bearing progressive cancer a decrease was present in the allogeneic inhibitory activity of T-lymphocytes, which constitutes the core of immunological surveillance system in mammalians. For tests, methylcholanthrene-induced tumor (MC-tumor was isografted subcutaneously on the back between scapulae of C3H mice, and the lymphocytes were prepared from the regional axillary lymph nodes removed from these mice at 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks after grafting. These lymph nodes cells were cultured together with 40-fold numbers of allogeneic JTC-11 cells derived from Ehrlich cancer cells in a culture medium containing 2.0% (v/v PHA for 24 or 48 hours. The proliferation rate of JTC-11 cells (increased numbers at weekly interval was considered the allogeneic inhibitory activity of lymph node cells. As a result it was demonstrated that in the early stage after tumor transplantation, i.e., in the first or second week, regional lymph node cells showed a strong allogeneic inhibitory activity, as in the case with lymph-node cells from normal mice, but at progressive stage of cancer, i.e., the third or fourth week when tumors were larger, such activity was completely lost. It seems that mice with progressive cancer showed a decrease of allogeneic inhibitory activity, i.e., a disruption of homeostasis was present.

Orita,Kunzo

1975-06-01

315

A Texture based Tumor detection and automatic Segmentation using Seeded Region Growing Method  

OpenAIRE

Detection and segmentation of Brain tumor accurately is a challenging task in MRI. The MRI image is an image that produces a high contrast images indicating regular and irregular tissues that help to distinguish the overlapping in margin of each limb. All automatic seed finding methods may suffer with the problem if there is no growth of tumor and any small white part is there. But when the edges of tumor is not sharped then the segmentation results are not accurate i.e. segmentation may be ...

Mukesh Kumar,; Mehta, Kamal K.

2011-01-01

316

Automatic Diagnosis of Abnormal Tumor Region from Brain Computed Tomography Images Using Wavelet Based Statistical Texture Features  

CERN Document Server

The research work presented in this paper is to achieve the tissue classification and automatically diagnosis the abnormal tumor region present in Computed Tomography (CT) images using the wavelet based statistical texture analysis method. Comparative studies of texture analysis method are performed for the proposed wavelet based texture analysis method and Spatial Gray Level Dependence Method (SGLDM). Our proposed system consists of four phases i) Discrete Wavelet Decomposition (ii) Feature extraction (iii) Feature selection (iv) Analysis of extracted texture features by classifier. A wavelet based statistical texture feature set is derived from normal and tumor regions. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to select the optimal texture features from the set of extracted texture features. We construct the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifier and evaluate the performance of classifier by comparing the classification results of the SVM based classifier with the Back Propagation Neural network classifier(BPN...

Padma, A

2011-01-01

317

Tumores de células germinativas intracranianos na infância: avaliação de 14 casos / Primary intracranial germ cell tumors in children: evaluation of fourteen cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avalia o diagnóstico, a terapia e a sobrevida de 14 pacientes com tumor de células germinativas intracraniano durante o período entre 1991 e 2001. Onze pacientes eram do sexo masculino e três do feminino. A média de idade do grupo foi 12,5 anos (20 dias-18 anos). Na admissão, os mais com [...] uns sintomas foram cefaléia (10/14), vômitos (6/14) e visuais (6/14). Os tumores estavam localizados em região hipotalâmica/hipofisária em 10 casos, suprasselar em 3 casos e intraparenquimatosa em 1 caso. Histologicamente, havia 1 caso de carcinoma embrionário, 5 de germinomas, 2 de teratoma maduro, 1 de teratoma imaturo e 5 de tumores mistos. O tratamento foi variável, dependendo da histologia da lesão. Três pacientes morreram após a progressão tumoral ou recidiva e um paciente morreu devido causa não relacionada ao tumor. Os demais estão vivos e sem doença. Abstract in english This study evaluates the diagnosis, therapy and survival of 14 patients with primary intracranial germ cell tumors during the period from 1991 to 2001. There were 11 males and 3 females. Mean age was 12.2 years old (20 days-18 years). On admission, the most common symptoms were headache (10/14), vom [...] iting (6/14) and visual (6/14). The tumor was in pineal and hypothalamic region in 10 cases, suprasellar in 3 cases, and in the cerebral parenchyma in 1 case. Histologically there were 1 embryonal carcinoma, 5 germinomas, 2 mature teratomas, 1 immature teratoma and 5 mixed germ cell tumors. Treatment differed among the patients according to the type of tumor. Three patients died after tumor progression or relapse and one patient died from another condition. The remaining patients are alive and without disease.

Patrícia Imperatriz Porto, Rondinelli; Carlos Alberto Martinez, Osório; Luís Fernando, Lopes.

2005-09-01

318

Regional variation in histopathologic features of tumor specimens from treatment-naive glioblastoma correlates with anatomic and physiologic MR Imaging  

OpenAIRE

Histopathologic evaluation of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) at initial diagnosis is typically performed on tissue obtained from regions of contrast enhancement (CE) as depicted on gadolinium-enhanced, T1-weighted images. The non-enhancing (NE) portion of the lesion, which contains both reactive edema and infiltrative tumor, is only partially removed due to concerns about damaging functioning brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate histopathologic and physiologic MRI features of image...

Barajas, Ramon F.; Phillips, Joanna J.; Parvataneni, Rupa; Molinaro, Annette; Essock-burns, Emma; Bourne, Gabriela; Parsa, Andrew T.; Aghi, Manish K.; Mcdermott, Michael W.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Cha, Soonmee; Chang, Susan M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

2012-01-01

319

Breast Tumor Diagnosis Using Diode Laser in NearInfrared Region  

OpenAIRE

In the last years, new non-invasively laser methods were used to detect breast tumors for pre- and postmenopausal females. The methods based on using laser radiation are safer than the other daily used methods for breast tumor detection like X-ray mammography, CT-scanner, and nuclear medicine. One of these new methods is called FDPM (Frequency Domain Photon Migration). It is based on the modulation of laser beam by variable frequency sinusoidal waves. The modulated laser radiations illu...

Ahmed Ali Mohammed; Dawood And Ahmed Ali Mohammed, Munqith S.

2009-01-01

320

Brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism involving craniomaxillofacial region: a rare case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign, non-odontogenic bone lesion of jaw. The condition is relatively infrequent and affects mainly children and young adults with a certain predominance among females and exhibits variable aggressiveness. Giant cell lesion associated with hyperparathyroidism is known as Brown tumor. Brown tumor is one of the bony complications of hyperparathyroidism. It is a giant cell granuloma which occurs in osteitis fibrosis cystica. It represents the terminal stage of the bone remodelling processes occurring as a result of peritrabecular fibrosis and osteoclastic activity. The mandible is the predominantly affected site in the maxillofacial area. Maxillary involvement is rare. The incidence of Brown tumor associated with hyperparathyroidism is rare (0.1%). Here, an extremely rare case of a 20 year old female patient with Brown tumor in her maxilla and mandible associated with primary hyperparathyroidism was presented. A thorough diagnostic work up showed presence of tumor mass in mandible and maxilla and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and parathormone level and the patient was treated for both hyperparathyroidism and Brown tumor were discussed. The importance of different radiological evaluation methods and the consultation between the oral and maxillofacial surgeons, dentists, endocrinologists and radiologists were emphasized. PMID:24126600

Chowdhury, S; Aggarwal, A; Mittal, N; Shah, A

2013-09-01

321

Correlación tomográfica y clínica, pre y posquirúrgica en los tumores de la región selar / Pre- and postsurgical tomographic and clinical correlation in the tumors of the sellar region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realización de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fue demostrar el valor diagnóstico de la tomografía computadorizada y su utilidad para definir la técnica quirúrgica en estos casos. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes oper [...] ados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomográfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar menos frecuentes. El 100 % de los tumores con crecimiento C-E y C-D se abordaron por vía transcraneal y el 99 restante con crecimiento A, B ó C se utilizó la vía transesfenoidal. Las complicaciones tomográficas y clínicas fueron superiores en la primera vía y se destacaron los restos tumorales (40 %), las recidivas (28 %) y daño de los nervios craneales (28 %). La mejoría clínica posoperatoria alcanzada fue ostensible al igual que el grado de control de los adenomas, lo cual demostró el alto valor diagnóstico de la tomografía computadorizada y su utilidad para trazar la estrategia quirúrgica correcta, esto muestra una alta sensibilidad en la detección de algunas complicaciones posoperatorias que se pueden valorar con este método. Abstract in english The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas in the world motivated us to conduct this research aimed at demonstrating the value of computerized tomography and its usefulness to define the surgical technique in these cases. To this end, 124 patients operated on with the clinical tomographic diag [...] nosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumors of the sellar region that were less common were studied. 100 % of the tumors with C-E and C-D growth were approached by transcranial route, whereas in the other 99 with A, B or C growth, it was used the transsphenoidal route. The tomographic and clinical complications were higher in the first route, and the tumor debris (40 %), the relapses (28 %) and the damage of the cranial nerves (28 %) stood out. The postoperative clinical improvement attained was significant the same as the degree of control of the adenomas, which showed the high diagnostic value of computerized tomography and its usefulness to establish the suitable surgical strategy. This shows a high sensitivity in the detection of some postoperative complications that may be assessed by using this method.

Tania, García Moreira; Fernando, Piedra Chávez; Omar, López Arbolay; Luis, García Ferrer; Hilca, Navarro Miranda; Denise, Delgado Gutiérrez.

2008-03-01

322

Correlación tomográfica y clínica, pre y posquirúrgica en los tumores de la región selar Pre- and postsurgical tomographic and clinical correlation in the tumors of the sellar region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realización de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fue demostrar el valor diagnóstico de la tomografía computadorizada y su utilidad para definir la técnica quirúrgica en estos casos. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes operados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomográfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar menos frecuentes. El 100 % de los tumores con crecimiento C-E y C-D se abordaron por vía transcraneal y el 99 restante con crecimiento A, B ó C se utilizó la vía transesfenoidal. Las complicaciones tomográficas y clínicas fueron superiores en la primera vía y se destacaron los restos tumorales (40 %, las recidivas (28 % y daño de los nervios craneales (28 %. La mejoría clínica posoperatoria alcanzada fue ostensible al igual que el grado de control de los adenomas, lo cual demostró el alto valor diagnóstico de la tomografía computadorizada y su utilidad para trazar la estrategia quirúrgica correcta, esto muestra una alta sensibilidad en la detección de algunas complicaciones posoperatorias que se pueden valorar con este método.The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas in the world motivated us to conduct this research aimed at demonstrating the value of computerized tomography and its usefulness to define the surgical technique in these cases. To this end, 124 patients operated on with the clinical tomographic diagnosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumors of the sellar region that were less common were studied. 100 % of the tumors with C-E and C-D growth were approached by transcranial route, whereas in the other 99 with A, B or C growth, it was used the transsphenoidal route. The tomographic and clinical complications were higher in the first route, and the tumor debris (40 %, the relapses (28 % and the damage of the cranial nerves (28 % stood out. The postoperative clinical improvement attained was significant the same as the degree of control of the adenomas, which showed the high diagnostic value of computerized tomography and its usefulness to establish the suitable surgical strategy. This shows a high sensitivity in the detection of some postoperative complications that may be assessed by using this method.

Tania García Moreira

2008-03-01

323

Postnatal development of cell types in the rat pineal gland.  

OpenAIRE

The morphological development of the rat pineal gland has been studied from 1 to 60 days of age. During the first days, undifferentiated cells (pinealoblasts) with scanty cytoplasm and frequent mitotic figures were observed. The differentiation of cell types (Types I and II pinealocytes) began on the third day after birth and was completed by days 15-20. At 3 days of age, nerve fibres were first observed, both in the connective spaces and in the parenchyma. After 5 days, an important hypertro...

Calvo, J.; Boya, J.

1983-01-01

324

Circadian changes in long noncoding RNAs in the pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a broad range of biological roles, including regulation of expression of genes and chromosomes. Here, we present evidence that lncRNAs are involved in vertebrate circadian biology. Differential night/day expression of 112 lncRNAs (0.3 to >50 kb) occurs in the rat pineal gland, which is the source of melatonin, the hormone of the night. Approximately one-half of these changes reflect nocturnal increases. Studies of eight lncRNAs with 2- to >100-fold daily rhy...

Coon, Steven L.; Munson, Peter J.; Cherukuri, Praveen F.; Sugden, David; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Clokie, Samuel J. H.; Fu, Cong; Olanich, Mary E.; Rangel, Zoila; Werner, Thomas; Mullikin, James C.; Klein, David C.; Benjamin, Betty; Blakesley, Robert

2012-01-01

325

Comparative expressed sequence hybridization to chromosomes for tumor classification and identification of genomic regions of differential gene expression  

Science.gov (United States)

Altered expression of genes can have phenotypic consequences in cancer development and treatment, developmental abnormalities, and differentiation processes. Here we describe a rapid approach, termed comparative expressed sequence hybridization (CESH), which gives a genome-wide view of relative expression patterns within tissues according to chromosomal location. No prior knowledge of genes or cloning is required, and minimal amounts of tissue can be used. Expression profiles are achieved in a manner similar to the identification of chromosomal imbalances by comparative genomic hybridization analysis. The approach is demonstrated to indicate a chromosomal region that harbors overexpressed genes that may be associated with a drug-resistant phenotype. In addition, known and new regions of differential gene expression in both normal tissues and tumor samples from the soft tissue sarcoma group of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are indicated. These regions included 2p24; overexpression of MYCN at 2p24 was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription–PCR for all of the alveolar RMS cases and did not necessarily correspond to genomic amplification. Evidence including region specific microarray analysis indicated that overexpression of several genes from a region may be required for detection by CESH. This evidence is consistent with clusters of functionally related genes and mechanisms that affect the expression of a number of genes at a particular genomic location. The distinctive CESH profiles demonstrated in different subtypes of RMS show potential for tumor classification. PMID:11481483

Lu, Yong-Jie; Williamson, Daniel; Clark, Jeremy; Wang, Rubin; Tiffin, Nicki; Skelton, Lorraine; Gordon, Tony; Williams, Richard; Allan, Barry; Jackman, Ann; Cooper, Colin; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Shipley, Janet

2001-01-01

326

Scintigraphy of the bones with sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate for the diagnosis of tumor spread in the head and neck region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 105 patients with primary, recurrent and metastatic head and neck tumors, benign tumors and inflammatory processes in this region were examined by using scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc- pyrophosphate. Scintigraphy was found superior over radiography in the diagnosis of head and neck soft tissue tumors involving cranial bones. Examination with sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate is a highly informative method in the diagnosis of metastases of head and neck tumors to the skeleton and of metastatic involvement of the cranium in patients with tumors of other anatomical regions. Scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate permits early diagnosis of radiation osteomyelities of the cranial bones and control over the results of its treatment. Recommendations have been issued to prevent errors in the diagnosis of bone lesions. Indications to the use of scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate for patients with head and neck tumors have been defined

327

A radiologic study by CT scan of pineal size in cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alterations in size of the pineal body and melatonin secretion have been observed in cancer patients. The present study was carried out to evaluate pineal dimension in a group of cancer patients and their relation to melatonin blood levels. The study included 70 oncologic patients. As controls, 41 patients with acute or chronic disease other than cancer entered the study. Melatonin serum levels were measured by radioimmunoassay on venous blood samples collected at 9:00 a.m. Pineal size was determined by brain CT scan, by considering the product of the two longest perpendicular diameters, multiplied by the thickness of the stratum. The volume of the pineal body was found to be enlarged in 12/70 (17%) cancer patients, and its mean value was significantly higher than that observed in controls. Melatonin levels were also significantly higher in oncologic patients than in controls. However, there was no correlation between melatonin levels and pineal size in cancer patients. Finally, cancer patients did not show a higher degree of pineal calcifications than controls. The clinical significance of pineal enlargement in cancer patients remains to be understood

328

The frequency of pineal calcification during the first 18 years of life  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are sparse or contradictory data on frequency and pathological significance of pineal calcifications in childhood. This is particularly so for children younger than 6 years of age. We therefore looked for pineal gland calcifications in 1044 consecutive a.p. and lateral skull films. Pineal calcification was diagnosed, if accepted by both authors, and if the calcified spot fitted into at least 2 of 4 localisation methods. 80 patients with pineal calcifications were detected using this method. In 40 of these patients CCT confirmed the calcification. The frequency of pineal calcification was 3% in the first 12 months of life rising gradually to 7.1% in children of 10 years of age. From 10 years onwards, there is a marked increase of frequency of calcifications of the pineal gland up to 33% in the group of children of 18 years of age. In contrast to some statements in literature, pineal calcifications seem to be physiological in a limited percentage even below the age of 6 years. (orig.)

329

Diurnal and circadian rhythms in melatonin synthesis in the turkey pineal gland and retina.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal gland and retina of the turkey rhythmically produce melatonin. In birds kept under a daily light-dark (LD) illumination cycle melatonin concentrations in the pineal gland and retina were low during the light phase and high during the dark phase. A similar melatonin rhythm with high night-time values was also observed in the plasma. The pineal and retinal melatonin rhythms mirror oscillations in the activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT; the penultimate enzyme in the melatonin biosynthetic pathway). In contrast, in both the pineal gland and retina the activity of the enzyme hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) did not exhibit significant changes throughout the 24-h period. Acute exposure of turkeys to light at night dramatically decreased melatonin levels in the pineal gland, retina and plasma. The rhythms in AANAT activity and melatonin concentrations in the turkey pineal gland and retina were circadian in nature as they persisted under conditions of constant darkness (DD). Under DD, however, the amplitudes of AANAT and melatonin rhythms were significantly lower (by 50-80%) than those found under the LD cycle. The findings indicate that melatonin rhythmicity in the turkey pineal gland and retina is regulated both by light and the endogenous circadian clock. The rapid dampening of the rhythms under DD suggests that of these two regulatory factors, environmental light may be the primary stimulus in the maintenance of the high amplitude melatonin rhythms in the turkey. PMID:16226264

Zawilska, Jolanta B; Lorenc, Anna; Berezi?ska, Ma?gorzata; Vivien-Roels, Berthe; Pévet, Paul; Skene, Debra J

2006-01-15

330

Factors other than light affecting the pineal gland: hypophysectomy, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, cryptorchidism, and stress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article reviews those factors other than light that affect the activity of the pineal gland. Both testosterone and dihydroterosterone were shown to have tissue-specific inhibitory effects on pineal MAO activity concomitant with an increased activity of the gland. The effect also was tissue-specific. Bilateral and unilateral experimental cryptorchidism also decreased pineal MAO activity 3 to 4 weeks after surgery. Acute stresses appear to increase adrenal catecholamine output (epinephrine and norepinephrine) as well as to stimulate local adrenergic pathways, while chronic stress, such as starvation, appears to act through the adrenal corticosteroids by decreasing pineal MAO activity thereby indirectly increasing melatonin synthesis. Thus, both components of the adrenal gland appear to act in concert to increase effectively melatonin synthesis by the pineal function----the latter specifically inhibits HIOMT activity. These observations indicate that many factors other than light affect pineal morphology and melatonin synthesis. The pineal appears to be a true neuroendocrine organ that is affected by hypophysectomy and is responsive to feedback and control from other organs within the mammalian organism. (auth)

Urry, R.L.; Dougherty, K.A.; Frehn, J.L.; Ellis, L.C.

1976-01-01

331

Tachykinins and tachykinin-receptors in the rat pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-pressure liquid chromatography of extracts of rat pineal glands, followed by radio immunological analysis with antibodies against tachykinins, demonstrated the presence of substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B in the superficial rat pineal gland. Immunohistochemistry on perfusion-fixed rat brain sections showed substance P and neurokinin A to be present in nerve fibers located both in the perivascular spaces as well as intraparenchymally between the pinealocytes. After extracting total RNA, followed by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers specific for NK1-, NK2- and NK3-receptors, agarose gel analysis of the reaction products showed the presence of mRNA encoding all three neurokinin receptors. Immunohistochemical analysis showed NK1 receptor to be located in the interstitial cells of the gland. This location was confirmed by use of in situ hybridization using radioactively labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Double immunohistochemical stainings showed that the NK1-immunoreactive cells were not a part of the macrophages or antigen-presenting cells of the gland. Our study suggests that tachykinins, after release from intrapineal nerve fibers, are involved in an up to now unknown function, different from that of melatonin synthesis.

Mukda, S; Chetsawang, B

2005-01-01

332

Sex-related differences in the nuclear population of postpubertal rat pineal gland. A quantitative study  

OpenAIRE

Male and female parenchymal pineal cell types have been studied throughout postpubertal development to determine the existence of sex-related differences on a time basis. Six age groups (2, 3,4, 8, 15 and 24 months) of eight rats (4 males and 4 females) were used in this study. Nuclei of both parenchymal pineal cell types were counted in 5 areas of 26.377 pm' per pineal gland on semithin sections. Nonparametric statistics of our results (Mann-Whitney U-test and...

Lo?pez Mun?oz, F.; Boya, J.; Calvo, J. L.

1991-01-01

333

The projection of the calcified pineal gland on slightly rotated AP films as a reliable landmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The projection of the pineal gland between the two outer tables of the skull in the AP film has been reconstructed on the basis of the CT print of the head, with and without lateral rotation. In this experimental approach it is proven that rotation up to 50 does not influence the position of the pineal gland on the AP film. The range of the normal position of the pineal in the frontal plane is defined and the normal distribution is given. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MB

334

Effect of low dose radiation on cGMP levels of pineal gland in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The change of cGMP of pineal gland in mice were observed with low dose radiation (LDR). The time-course changes of cGMP were detected by radioimmunoassay after WBI with 75 mGy X rays. It was shown that the levels of cGMP of pineal gland in mice began to decrease and reached its lowest peak at 18 h (p < 0.01) after WBI. And began to increase at 24 h and reached its highest peak at 72 h (p < 0.05). These results indicated that WBI with LDR could reduce to the cGMP levels of pineal gland cells in mice

335

Chick pineal clock regulates serotonin N-acetyltransferase mRNA rhythm in?culture  

OpenAIRE

Melatonin production in the chick pineal gland is high at night and low during the day. This rhythm reflects circadian changes in the activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, AA-NAT; EC 2.3.1.87), the penultimate enzyme in melatonin synthesis. In contrast to the external regulation of pineal rhythms in mammals by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, rhythmic changes in AA-NAT activity in cultured chick pineal cells are controlled by an oscillator located in the p...

Bernard, Marianne; Klein, David?C; Zatz, Martin

1997-01-01

336

Regional hyperthermia in the treatment of recurrent deep-seated tumors: Preliminary analysis of phase I trial  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a preliminary report on a phase I pilot study of regional hyperthermia of advanced tumors, using annular phased array system (APAS) in combination with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. All patients were treated without anesthesia. In all hyperthermia sessions, physiological parameters such as blood pressure, cardiac rate, respiratory rate, and EKG were monitored throughout the treatment. Tumor temperature was monitored with intratumoral probe with an additional probe either in the esophagus or rectum for monitoring systemic temperature. Present reports are on analysis of the first 30 patients; a total of 139 treatment sessions were analyzed. The results indicate local discomfort, anxiety, systemic temperature elevation, and tachycardia were the predominant factors limiting the number of sessions, the duration of sessions, and the deposition of power, in 18, 6, 6, and 2 patients, respectively. The complications were rare. No injuries to visceral organs clearly attributed to the hyperthermia have been recorded. (orig.)

337

Regional hyperthermia in the treatment of recurrent deep-seated tumors: preliminary analysis of phase I trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a preliminary report on a phase I pilot study of regional hyperthermia of advanced tumors, using annular phased array system (APAS) in combination with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. All patients were treated without anesthesia. In all hyperthermia sessions, physiological parameters such as blood pressure, cardiac rate, respiratory rate, and EKG were monitored throughout the treatment. Tumor temperature was monitored with intratumoral probe with an additional probe either in the esophagus or rectum for monitoring systemic temperature. Present reports are on analysis of the first 30 patients: a total of 139 treatment sessions were analyzed. The results indicate local discomfort, anxiety, systemic temperature elevation, and tachycardia were the predominant factors limiting the number of sessions, the duration of sessions, and the deposition of power, in 18, 6, 6, and 2 patients, respectively. The complications were rare. No injuries to visceral organs clearly attributed to the hyperthermia have been recorded. PMID:2814806

Emami, B; Myerson, R J; Pilepich, M V; Perez, C A; Sathiaseelan, V; Leybovich, L; Straube, W; Von Gerichten, D

1989-10-01

338

Automated contouring of tumor regions in treatment planning CT images using PET/CT images based on a localized level set method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to develop an automated method for contouring lung tumor regions in treatment planning computed tomography (CT) images using positron emission tomography (PET)/CT images. The initial regions of lung tumors were identified by thresholding the PET images at a certain percentage of maximum standardized uptake value (SUV). A localized level set method (LLSM), which we proposed in this study, was applied for the initial tumor region, and the proposed method determines an optimum contour of the gross tumor volume (GTV) region by searching a minimum point of average speed function on the contours of the LSM function with changing evolution time. For performance evaluation were employed the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), which denotes the degree of a region similarity between the gold standard of the GTV determined by radiation oncologists and the GTV region obtained by our proposed method. We applied our proposed method to data sets of planning CT and PET/CT image sets for six lung cancer patients. The average DSC was 0.77, which seems to be feasible for segmentation of lung tumors. Preliminary results show that the proposed method may be useful for assisting treatment planners in delineation of the tumor region. (author)

339

Analysis of canine transmissible veneral tumor genotypes using the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is the only neoplasm that can be spread among dogs through cell transplantation. Therefore, this tumor does not originate from host cell transformation. Although CTVT has a monophyletic origin, several studies have shown the presence of genetic diversity which was probably acquired after the development of its original clone. To investigate the genetic diversity of CTVT in Mexico and its relation with CTVTs disseminated worldwide, we sequenced a fragment of mitochondrial DNA in 50 tumor samples and matched blood samples from dog hosts from Mexico. We found ten new haplotypes in tumor samples, which were all distinct from their matched host. The TVT1 haplotype was the most frequent in our samples, suggesting that it could be the origin of the others. We found that haplotypes in Mexico and other countries are distributed in two well-defined clusters. Our data also suggest a close relationship among American haplotypes (Mexico, USA, Chile and Brazil). Interestingly, these American haplotypes were also closely related to Asian haplotypes. Taking into account the estimated timing of the origin of CTVT, we propose that CTVT might have originated in Asia; consequently, haplotypes currently present in America could descend from Asiatic lineages. PMID:22362033

Bautista-Gómez, Linda G; Martínez-Castañeda, Simón; Córdova-Alarcón, Emilio; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos

2011-01-01

340

Functional evidence of decreased tumorigenicity associated with monochromosome transfer of chromosome 14 in esophageal cancer and the mapping of tumor-suppressive regions to 14q32.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the abundant evidence of high allelic loss of chromosome arm 14q in human cancers, tumor-suppressor genes mapped to this chromosome have yet to be identified. To narrow the search for candidate genes, we performed monochromosome transfer of chromosome 14 into an esophageal carcinoma cell line, SLMT-1 S1. Statistically significant suppression of the tumorigenic potential of microcell hybrids containing the transferred chromosome 14 provided functional evidence that tumor-suppressive regions of chromosome 14 are essential for esophageal cancer. Tumor segregants emerging in nude mice during the tumorigenicity assay were analyzed by detailed PCR-microsatellite typing to identify critical nonrandomly eliminated regions (CRs). A 680-kb CR mapped to 14q32.13 and an approximately 2.2-Mb CR mapped to 14q32.33 were delineated. Dual-color BAC FISH analysis of microcell hybrids and tumor segregants verified the selective loss of the 14q32.13 region. In contrast, similar transfers of an intact chromosome 11 into SLMT-1 S1 did not significantly suppress tumor formation. These functional complementation studies showing the correlation of tumorigenic potential with critical regions of chromosome 14 validated the importance of the 14q32 region in tumor suppression in esophageal cancer. The present study also paved the path for further identification of novel tumor-suppressor genes that are relevant to the molecular pathogenesis of esophageal cancer. PMID:15834943

Ko, Josephine Mun Yee; Yau, Wing Lung; Chan, Pui Ling; Lung, Hong Lok; Yang, Lichun; Lo, Paulisally H Y; Tang, Johnny C O; Srivastava, Gopesh; Stanbridge, Eric J; Lung, Maria Li

2005-07-01

341

p18Ink4cand p53 act as tumor suppressors in Cyclin D1-driven primitive neuroectodermal tumor  

OpenAIRE

The RB tumor suppressor pathway is likely important in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the brain. In fact, 10-15% of children born with RB mutations develop brain PNETs, commonly in the pineal gland. Cyclin D1, which in association with Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) 4 and 6 phosphorylates and inactivates the RB protein, is expressed in 40% of sporadic medulloblastoma, a PNET of the cerebellum. To understand tumorigenic events cooperating with RB pathway disruption in brain PNET, w...

Saab, Raya; Rodriguez-galindo, Carlos; Matmati, Kelly; Rehg, Jerold E.; Baumer, Shannon H.; Khoury, Joseph D.; Billups, Catherine; Neale, Geoffrey; Helton, Kathleen J.; Skapek, Stephen X.

2009-01-01

342

In vivo measurement of regional brain and tumor pH using [14C]dimethyloxazolidinedione and quantitative autoradiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using [14C]dimethyloxazolidinedione ([14C]-DMO) and quantitative autoradiography, the authors estimated tissue pH (pHt) and intracellular pH (pHi) in nine regions of the normal rat brain and in intracerebrally implanted RG-2 gliomas. Calculations of regional pHt, based on equilibrium tissue and arterial plasma [14C]DMO concentration, ranged from 6.83 to 6.94; pHi, calculated assuming an extracellular water volume of 0.15 ml/g for gray matter and 0.11 ml/g for white matter, ranged from 6.61 to 6.78. No consistent difference was found in pHt or pHi between white and gray matter regions. Tumor tissue water content was determined by drying to constant weight, and extracellular space water volume (Ve) was estimated with [14C]sucrose in nephrectomized rats using quantitative autoradiography. Tumor pHt ranged from 7.08 to 7.18. For Ve = 0.17 (measured), pHi was 6.94-7.06; for Ve = 0.30 (assumed), the corresponding range for pHi was 6.63-6.90. Thus, the RG-2 glioma is not more ''acidic'' than adjacent brain tissue and its ''alkaline'' pHt probably reflects a large extracellular water content and plasma-like extracellular pH

343

Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease  

OpenAIRE

Background. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) gene polymorphisms have been implicated in the manifestation of atherosclerosis. Controversy exists regarding the link between the cytokine's variant genotype and CHD among different ethnic groups. There have been fewer studies on the TNF-? gene ?1031T>C and ?863C>A polymorphisms in relation to CHD. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the association of the TNF-? gene ?1031T>C and ?863C>A polymorphisms with CHD in...

Gul Zareen Asifa; Afrose Liaquat; Iram Murtaza; Syed Ali Raza Kazmi; Qamar Javed

2013-01-01

344

Effect of electric field exposure on melatonin and enzyme circadian rhythms in the rat pineal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of chronic 30-day electric field exposure on pineal serotonin N-acetyl transferase (EC 2.1.15) activity as well as melatonin and 5-methoxy tryptophol (5-MTOL) concentrations in rats, were assessed.

Wilson, B.; Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.

1980-11-01

345

Age-related changes in the intact and sympathetically denervated gerbil pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal gland of four-month-old gerbils contains numerous calcareous deposits (corpora arenacea or concretions). Also, the tissue appears vacuolated due to the presence of a number of large rounded spaces. The deposits are usually associated with or lying within these "vacuoles". By eight months of age, the number of both the corpora arenacea and the "vacuoles" are increased over those present in the pineals of four-month-old gerbils. Bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy at one month of age prevents the formation of both the concretions and "vacuoles". The cells in the sympathetically denervated pineal glands are smaller than those in pineal glands of animals that possess intact superior cervical ganglia. PMID:941859

Reiter, R J; Welsh, M G; Vaughan, M K

1976-08-01

346

The perivascular phagocyte of the mouse pineal gland: An antigen-presenting cell  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The perivascular space of the rat pineal gland is known to contain phagocytic cells that are immunoreactive for leukocyte antigens, and thus they appear to belong to the macrophage/microglial cell line. These cells also contain MHC class II proteins. We investigated this cell type in the pineal gland of mice. Actively phagocytosing cells with a prominent lysosomal system were found in the pericapillary spaces of the mouse pineal gland following intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase. The cells also exhibited strong acid phosphatase activity. Perivascular cells were immunopositive for MHC class II protein and for CD68, a marker of monocytes/phagocytes. This study verifies that perivascular phagocytes with antigen-presenting properties are present in the mouse pineal gland.

MØller, Morten; Rath, Martin F

2006-01-01

347

Effects of low dose irradiation on cAMP levels of pineal gland in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To observe the effects of low dose radiation on cAMP levels of pineal gland. The authors examined the cAMP contents of pineal gland after whole-body irradiation with 50, 75, 100, 200, 500 mGy X-ray on Kunming male mice. The results showed that the cAMP levels of pineal gland after WBI with 50?100 mGy X-ray in mice was higher than sham irradiation mice, especially, 75 mGy group was marked higher than that of sham irradiation group (p<0.001). Whereas, high dose radiation may reduced to the cAMP levels of pineal gland in mice, among 2, 4 Gy groups was lower than that of sham irradiation group

348

Effect of noradrenaline on production of methoxyindoles by rat pineal gland in organ culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report examined the effect of noradrenaline on production of methoxyindoles by the pineal gland in organ culture. Pineal glands were incubated in pairs in 95?l culture medium containing 5-hydroxy [2-14C]tryptamine creatinine sulphate (0,1 mM) and noradrenaline (NA) (0,5-100 ?M). The results indicated that noradrenaline appeared to have a characteristic action on pineal metabolism. An increase in production of both N-acetylserotonin and melatonin by the pineal after noradrenaline treatment was observed. The overall production of methoxyindoles followed a very similar trend to that of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin, which suggests some degree of noradrenergic control over HIOMT levels

349

COSMOS 2044. Experiment K-7-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function  

Science.gov (United States)

It is now known that the pineal organ can interact with many endocrine and nonendocrine tissues in a regulatory fashion. Given its key role in the regulation of melatonin synthesis, its high concentration, and that its levels may persist longer than the more rapidly changing melatonin, it was felt that serotonin might give a more accurate assessment of the effects of microgravity on pineal function following recovery of animals from flight. Five-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), a major metabolite of serotonin metabolism, was also measured. One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, pineal calcium content was examined following spaceflight.

Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

1989-01-01

350

Morphological Characteristics and Embryological Development of Pineal Gland and Experimental Grafting Procedures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pineal gland is a major neuroendocrine organ both in human and animals and its principal product is melatonin. It has been implicated in a number of physiological functions (circadian rhytms, sleep, reproduction, and immune system. It is notable that transplantation of the pineal gland into different anatomical locations (the third or fourth cerebral ventricle, hypothalamus, cortical cerebral tissue, and anterior chamber of the eye appears to evoke a degree of functional recovery. The present review focuses upon the morphological characteristics and the embryological development of the pineal gland as well as experimental grafting procedures into some structures in pinealectomized animals. It has been demonstrated that pinealocytes survive transplantation into these sites and exhibit ultrastructural features of active secretion. Recent investigations have shown that the transplanted pineal gland in the anterior chamber of the eye is reinnervated by neurons. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(1.000: 65-76

Mehmet Turgut

2003-02-01

351

Effects of white light on the pineal gland of the chick embryo  

OpenAIRE

Chick embryos were directly exposed to a source of white light during incubation and sacrificed before hatching. The light caused a number of teratological effects such as high mortality, delay in development, celosomy, hepatomegaly, auricular dilation and micrognatia. The pineal gland of the illuminated embryos showed an increase in number and size of the intracytoplasmic lipid droplets of the follicular pinealocytes. These findings suggest that the pineal...

Aige-gil, Vicente; Murillo-ferrol, Narciso

1992-01-01

352

Morphological Characteristics and Embryological Development of Pineal Gland and Experimental Grafting Procedures  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland is a major neuroendocrine organ both in human and animals and its principal product is melatonin. It has been implicated in a number of physiological functions (circadian rhytms, sleep, reproduction, and immune system). It is notable that transplantation of the pineal gland into different anatomical locations (the third or fourth cerebral ventricle, hypothalamus, cortical cerebral tissue, and anterior chamber of the eye) appears to evoke a degree of functional recovery. The p...

Mehmet Turgut; Aysegul Uysal; Mine Yurtseven

2003-01-01

353

Cell populations in the pineal gland of the viscacha (Lagostomus maximus). Seasonal variations  

OpenAIRE

Pineal samples of the viscacha, which were taken in winter and in summer, were analysed using both light and electron microscopy. The differences found between the two seasons were few in number but significant. The parenchyma showed two main cell populations. Type I cells occupied the largest volume of the pineal and showed the characteristics of typical pinealocytes. Many processes, some of which were filled with vesicles, could be seen in intimate contact wi...

Cernuda-cernuda, R.; Piezzi, R. S.; Domi?nguez, S.; Alvarez-uri?a, M.

2003-01-01

354

Ultrastructural changes in the rat pineal gland after sympathetic denervation. Quantitative study  

OpenAIRE

Ultrastructural changes in the rat pineal gland were studied quantitatively 7 and 60 days after the sympathetic denervation by bilateral excission or decentralization of superior cervical ganglia. The surface occupied by pineal parenchymal cells decreased in rats of experimental groups with respect to the control group. Furthermore, profile areas of the cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus of the pinealocytes were also diminished. Cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the ...

Calvo, J. L.; Boya, J.; Garci?a-maurin?o, J. E.

1990-01-01

355

Rhodopsin Kinase Activity in the Mammalian Pineal Gland and Other Tissues  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhodopsin kinase, an enzyme involved in photochemical transduction in the retina, has been found in the mammalian pineal gland in amounts equal to those in the retina; other tissues had 7 percent of this amount, or less. This finding suggests that, in mammals, rhodopsin kinase functions in the pineal gland and other tissues to phosphorylate rhodopsin-like integral membrane receptors and is thereby involved in signal transduction.

Somers, Robert L.; Klein, David C.

1984-10-01

356

Circadian rhythm of pineal uptake of 32P in domestic fowl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of radioactive phosphorus by the pineal gland in White Leghorn cockerels (Gallus domesticus) showed a diurnal variation with maxima in the light phase and minima in the dark phase of the light: dark cycle. Constant light caused the rhythm to disappear while constant dark had no effect other than lowering the amplitude of the variations. These data indicate that the rhythm in pineal uptake of 32P is circadian. (author)

357

Circadian and seasonal changes of synaptic bodies in different parts of the rabbit pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

In the mammalian pineal gland, synaptic bodies (SBs) are poorly understood organelles. Previous studies in rabbits have shown that the organelles are rather heterogeneous in shape, are few in number during the day and increase in number at night. No studies are currently available on seasonal changes in this species and it is unknown whether the biological rhythms are identical in the proximal, intermediate and distal parts of the elongated pineal. To this end,...

Marti?nez Soriano, F.; Hernandez-gil Tejadal, T.; Lopez Bigorra, M.; Ballester Carmona, S.; Vollrath, L.

1999-01-01

358

Rax: Developmental and Daily Expression Patterns in the Rat Pineal Gland and Retina  

OpenAIRE

Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day (E) 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until E20. In both tissues, Rax is e...

Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C.; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F.

2011-01-01

359

Quantitative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the human pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

Rationale and Objectives Increasing pineal calcification can cause a relative melatonin deficite. Computed tomography can be used for quantifying the uncalcified pineal tissue volume (UCPT). Earlier studies had shown that the UCPT is positively and significantly associated with the excretion of the melatonine metabolite aMT6s in urine. The main purpose of this study was to estimate the influence of slice thickness on the repeatability of such CT-assisted measurements. Another aim of t...

Platzek, Ivan Johannes

2010-01-01

360

Circadian and seasonal variations in pineal gland intercellular canaliculi in the white rat  

OpenAIRE

Seventy Wistar rats are used to study the changes in pineal intercellular canaliculi over a 21-hour period and for two different photoperiods (pre-autumn, first week of September, and winter, first week of February). The study considers these changes at pineal body, cortical and medullar level separately, and compares the values obtained. The results show variations in canalicular surface at different point times (10:00, 14:00,18:00) and for both photoperiods. ...

Marti?nez Soriano, F.; Cimas Garci?a, C.; Rui?z Torner, A.

1991-01-01

361

On the participation of the pineal gland in the response of rat testes to ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was aimed to determine influence of pineal stimulation by light restriction on the response of rat testes to single, locally administered exposure dose of 7.79x10-2 C/kg of X-rays. Different arrangements of light-dark cycles before and after irradiation were used. It was found that stimulation of the pineal by light deprivation before and after irradiation may be accelerated by displacing the animals after irradiation to normal conditions. (author)

362

Macro-microscopical aspects of the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus, 1758) pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

Gross and microscopical aspects of the buffalo pineal gland were described in seasonal parturition animals, since this gland is responsible for melatonin secretion which acts upon the hypothalamus-hypophysis reproductive axis feedback system. (Hafez, 1995). For the present study, 11 cross-bred buffaloes, predominantly of the Mediterranean breed, from the Pirassununga Campus - USP (University of São Paulo), were killed in different photoperiods in the slaughterhouse. The pineal glands were ob...

Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez; Celina Almeida Furlanetto Mançanares; Maria Angélica Miglino; Carlos Eduardo. Ambrósio; Ana Flávia de Carvalho

2009-01-01

363

Comparative histomorphological study of the pineal gland in human and fowl  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: Comparative histological studies of pineal gland of man and fowl has been made to observe structural differences if any between these two species. Background: Some works have been done sporadically on laboratory animals and on birds and also in human correlating with other parameters. In this investigation an approach has been made to observe the cellular organization of the pineal gland parenchyma in these two vertebrates, having different physiological aspects. Methods: Some spe...

Pal, B.; Ghosal, A. K.; Minj, A. P.; Ghosh, R. K.

2013-01-01

364

Melatonin-like immunoreactivity in the pineal gland of the cow: an immunohistochemical study  

OpenAIRE

With a view to checking the presence of melatonin in the pineal gland of the cow, in the present work we used six adult animals, ranging in age from one to six years, which were sacrificed at dawn. Sections of 6 µm thickness of Bouin-fixed and paraffin-embedded pineal glands were incubated in an anti-melatonin serum, which was provided by the Institute for Molecular and Cellular Recognition, Gunma University, Maebshi, Japan. After incubation and successive was...

Carvajal, J. C.; Go?mez Esteban, M. B.; Carbajo, S.; Mun?oz Barragan, L.

2004-01-01

365

Bioelectric Activity in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus—Pineal Gland System in Children with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this work is to identify a role of the pineal gland/suprachiasmatic nucleus system in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) aetiology and pathogenesis. To analyze electroencephalograms of 292 children with AIS and in 46 healthy subjects, a processing method was used to assess three-dimensional coordinates of electric equivalent dipole sources (EEDSs) within the brain. Amounts of EEDSs in the pineal gland and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) area were assessed in different age grou...

Pinchuk, Dmitry Yu; Bekshaev, Sergey S.; Bumakova, Svetlana A.; Dudin, Mikhail G.; Pinchuk, Olga D.

2012-01-01

366

RGS2 is a feedback inhibitor of melatonin production in the pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

The 24-h rhythmic production of melatonin by the pineal gland is essential for coordinating circadian physiology. Melatonin production increases at night in response to the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve processes which innervate the pineal gland. This signal is transduced through G-protein-coupled adrenergic receptors. Here, we found that the abundance of regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) increases at night, that expression is increased by norepinephrine and that th...

Matsuo, Masahiro; Coon, Steven L.; Klein, David C.

2013-01-01

367

Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Changes Related To Methylphenidate In Rat Pituitary and Pineal Glands  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The presence of a dopaminergic function in pituitary and pineal glands is well known. Methylphenidate (MPH), a widely prescribed psychostimulant for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, is an indirect dopamine agonist which could have the capacity of influencing the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system with the pineal gland. Our aim is to investigate dose-dependent immunohistochemical dopamine 2 expression, possible cell apoptosis and ultrastructural changes of the rat pituitar...

Elmas, C?ig?dem; Bahceliog?lu, Meltem; Erdog?an, Deniz; Go?zi?l, Rabet; Take, Gu?lnur; C?algu?ner, Engin; S?ener, Dila

2012-01-01

368

Modified forms of vasopressin and oxytocin in a bovine pineal preparation  

OpenAIRE

A bovine pineal acid extract displays a vasotocin-like bioactivity in several bioassays, and is recognized by antibodies against the Pro-Arg-Gly-amide ending common to vasopressin and vasotocin. By using molecular sieve filtration and reversed-phase HPLC, a vasopressin- and oxytocin-like peptide was isolated from this pineal preparation, while no evidence for a vasotocin-like peptide was obtained. The isolated neuropeptides contain a modified amino acid at position 2. This structural differen...

Noteborn, H. P. J. M.; Burbach, J. P. H.; Ebels, I.

1987-01-01

369

Shadow response in the blind cavefish Astyanax reveals conservation of a functional pineal eye  

OpenAIRE

The blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus undergoes bilateral eye degeneration during embryonic development. Despite the absence of light in the cave environment, cavefish have retained a structurally intact pineal eye. We show here that contrary to visual degeneration in the bilateral eyes, the cavefish pineal eye has conserved the ability to detect light. Larvae of two different Astyanax cavefish populations and the con-specific sighted surface-dwelling form (surface fish) respond similarly to ...

Yoshizawa, Masato; Jeffery, William R.

2008-01-01

370

Nucleolus-like bodies in the pineal gland of the adult yak (Bos grunniens)  

OpenAIRE

The pineal glands of adult yak were studied electron microscopically. Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) were found mostly in the pinealocytes and the interstitial cells of the pineal glands of the yak. The NLBs were electron-dense, round or ovoid bodies with a diameter of 50 nm – 500 nm. Two types of granules were identified as melanin. These may correspond to different stages of a progressive storage of melanin. Rough endoplasmic reticula with abundant ribosomes were observed. There was no corr...

Xie, Zhaohui H.; Ping Gan

2013-01-01

371

Homeobox genes and melatonin synthesis : regulatory roles of the cone-rod homeobox transcription factor in the rodent pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a cAMP-based induction of Aanat transcription. However, additional transcriptional control mechanisms exist. Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processes, are also expressed in the mature rodent pineal gland. Among these, the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor is believed to control pineal-specific Aanat expression. Based on recent advances in our understanding of Crx in the rodent pineal gland, we here suggest that homeobox genes play a role in adult pineal physiology both by ensuring pineal-specific Aanat expression and by facilitating cAMP response element-based circadian melatonin production.

Rohde, Kristian; MØller, Morten

2014-01-01

372

Pineal corpora arenacea produced by arachnoid cells in the bat Myotis blythi oxygnathus.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are corpora arenacea among the cell layers of the arachnoid on the dorsal surface of the pineal organ of the bat (Myotis blythi oxygnathus). The pineal arachnoid consists of electron lucent cells connected by cell injunctions to flat sheets and sandwiched on both sides by electron-dense cell rows. Among the superficial cell layers, collagen fibrils form loose bundles. In the electron-lucent cells, pinocytotic vesicles, rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, active Golgi areas and granular vesicles of various sizes can be found. Electron dense cells display fewer cytoplasmic organelles than the light ones. Lying between and below the hemispheres and cerebellum the pineal arachnoid does not contact the dura mater directly, therefore it continues on its both sides into arachnoid trabeculae. Corpora arenacea occur in lacunar enlargements of the arachnoid, first of all in the thickened dorsal portion of the pineal leptomeninx. The acervuli are insulated by collagen fibrils and exhibit concentric layers of various density. Needle-shaped structures resembling hydroxyapatite crystals were found in these concentric layers. There was no sign of formation of acervuli in the pinealocytes or elsewhere in the pineal nervous tissue proper. These findings confirm that view that corpora arenacea can be produced by the pineal arachnoid. The formation of acervuli is accompanied by secretory and resorptive phenomena of arachnoid cells. PMID:2756745

Vigh, B; Vigh-Teichmann, I; Aros, B

1989-01-01

373

Rax: Developmental and Daily Expression Patterns in the Rat Pineal Gland and Retina  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day (E) 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until E20. In both tissues, Rax is expressed throughout postnatal development into adulthood. In the mature rat pineal gland, the abundance of Rax transcripts increases 2-fold during the light period with a peak occurring at dusk. These findings are consistent with the evidence that Rax is of functional importance in eye development and suggest a role of Rax in the developing pineal gland. In addition, it would appear possible that Rax contributes to phenotype maintenance in the mature retina and pineal gland and may facilitate 24-h changes in the pineal transcriptome.

Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C

2011-01-01

374

A novel pineal night-specific ATPase encoded by the Wilson disease gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have identified a pineal night-specific ATPase (PINA), a novel splice variant of the ATP7B gene disrupted in Wilson disease (WD). PINA expression exhibits a dramatic diurnal rhythm in both pineal gland and retina with 100-fold greater expression at night than at day. PINA is expressed in pinealocytes and a subset of photoreceptors in adult rats and is transiently expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium and the ciliary body during retinal development. Nocturnal pineal expression of PINA is under the control of a suprachiasmatic nucleus clock mediated by superior cervical ganglion innervation of the pineal. In vitro, PINA expression in pineal cells can be stimulated by agents activating the cAMP signal transduction pathway. PINA is able to restore copper transport activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in the homologous copper-transporting ATPase CCC2, suggesting that this protein may function as a copper transporter in rat pinealocytes. These studies suggest a potential role of rhythmic copper metabolism in pineal and/or retina circadian function. PMID:9920665

Borjigin, J; Payne, A S; Deng, J; Li, X; Wang, M M; Ovodenko, B; Gitlin, J D; Snyder, S H

1999-02-01

375

The pineal complex in the cichlid Cichlasoma dimerus: effect of different photoperiods on its cell morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research describes the pineal complex histology in juvenile and adult Cichlasoma dimerus, and the effect of different photoperiods on its cell morphology. In both juveniles and adults, the pineal complex of C. dimerus has three components: the pineal organ, consisting of a pineal vesicle (PV) and a pineal stalk, the parapineal organ and the dorsal sac. Although a strong morphological resemblance exists between the two stages, different synthesis patterns of cone and rod opsins were detected in the two life stages. An effect of the photoperiod length was observed on putative pinealocytes' activity from the PV, measured indirectly through nuclear area morphometry. Individuals exposed to a natural photoperiod (14L:10D) had smaller nuclear areas (mean?±?s.e. = 13·82?±?1·52 µm(2) ) than those exposed to a short photoperiod (8:16) (21·45?±?2·67 µm(2) ; P?melatonin synthesis in fishes where it is difficult to obtain plasma samples, e.g. due to its small size or age. This work constitutes one of the few comparative descriptions of the pineal complex of juvenile and adult teleost and suggests potential approaches for the study of melatonin synthesis in fish larvae or small adult fishes. PMID:24976599

Birba, A; Ramallo, M R; Morandini, L; Villafañe, V; Tubert, C; Guimarães Moreira, R; Pandolfi, M

2014-09-01

376

Role of magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of tumors in the cardiac region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to review the role of MRI in the assessment of heart neoplasm, 25 cases with heart neoplasm (10 myxoma, 6 rhabdomyoma, 5 angiosarcoma, 2 mesothelioma, 1 lymphoma, and 1 fibroma) were examined with MRI and echocardiography. Multislice T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images and static gradient-echo images were taken in appropriate directions with electrocardiogram gating. Gadolinium enhancement was performed in 21 cases. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in all cases. Except for the 5 patients with rhabdomyoma, the pathological diagnosis was obtained. MRI proved to be useful for tissue characterization of myxoma, angiosarcoma, mesothelioma, and fibroma in cases with tuberous sclerosis. MRI also proved to be useful for detection of the tumor, depiction of contour, relation with other cardiac structures, in cases with myxoma, angiosarcoma, mesothelioma, lymphoma, and fibroma. In the differential diagnosis, MRI provided important information in cases with myxoma, rhabdomyoma, angiosarcoma, and fibroma. In cases with tumors expanding into the mediastinum, such as mesothelioma and fibroma in this report, MRI was useful in determining the location and border. In cases with tumors adjacent to pericardium, MRI was useful in detecting pericardial invasion. Gadolinium enhancement added useful information in cases with myxoma, rhabdomyoma, angiosarcoma, and mesothelioma. The role of MRI with and without Gd enhancement differs somewhat in individual types of heart neoplasm, and adaptation must be considered in each kind of neoplasm. On the other hand, MRI is an essential examination in all cases with a cardiac mass, which has not been diagnosed, since it may provide useful information for the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

Kaminaga, T.; Takeshita, T.; Kimura, I. [Dept. of Radiology/Pathology, Teikyo Univ. Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

2003-12-01

377

Role of magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of tumors in the cardiac region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to review the role of MRI in the assessment of heart neoplasm, 25 cases with heart neoplasm (10 myxoma, 6 rhabdomyoma, 5 angiosarcoma, 2 mesothelioma, 1 lymphoma, and 1 fibroma) were examined with MRI and echocardiography. Multislice T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images and static gradient-echo images were taken in appropriate directions with electrocardiogram gating. Gadolinium enhancement was performed in 21 cases. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in all cases. Except for the 5 patients with rhabdomyoma, the pathological diagnosis was obtained. MRI proved to be useful for tissue characterization of myxoma, angiosarcoma, mesothelioma, and fibroma in cases with tuberous sclerosis. MRI also proved to be useful for detection of the tumor, depiction of contour, relation with other cardiac structures, in cases with myxoma, angiosarcoma, mesothelioma, lymphoma, and fibroma. In the differential diagnosis, MRI provided important information in cases with myxoma, rhabdomyoma, angiosarcoma, and fibroma. In cases with tumors expanding into the mediastinum, such as mesothelioma and fibroma in this report, MRI was useful in determining the location and border. In cases with tumors adjacent to pericardium, MRI was useful in detecting pericardial invasion. Gadolinium enhancement added useful information in cases with myxoma, rhabdomyoma, angiosarcoma, and mesothelioma. The role of MRI with and without Gd enhancement differs somewhat in individud enhancement differs somewhat in individual types of heart neoplasm, and adaptation must be considered in each kind of neoplasm. On the other hand, MRI is an essential examination in all cases with a cardiac mass, which has not been diagnosed, since it may provide useful information for the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

378

Night/day changes in pineal expression of >600 genes: central role of adrenergic/cAMP signaling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The pineal gland plays an essential role in vertebrate chronobiology by converting time into a hormonal signal, melatonin, which is always elevated at night. Here we have analyzed the rodent pineal transcriptome using Affymetrix GeneChip(R) technology to obtain a more complete description of pineal cell biology. The effort revealed that 604 genes (1,268 probe sets) with Entrez Gene identifiers are differentially expressed greater than 2-fold between midnight and mid-day (false discovery rate

Bailey, Michael J; Coon, Steven L

2009-01-01

379

Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland  

OpenAIRE

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a precursor for melatonin production, is produced abundantly in the pineal gland of all vertebrate animals. The synthesis of 5-HT in the pineal gland is rate limited by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) whose activity displays a twofold increase at night. Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrate that pineal 5-HT secretion exhibits dynamic circadian rhythms with elevated levels during the early night, and that the increase is controlled by adrenergic...

Huang, Zheping; Liu, Tiecheng; Chattoraj, Asamanja; Ahmed, Samreen; Wang, Michael M.; Deng, Jie; Sun, Xing; Borjigin, Jimo

2008-01-01

380

Differential effect of benserazide (Ro4-4602) on the concentration of indoleamines in rat pineal and hypothalamus.  

OpenAIRE

1 Low doses (50 and 80 mg/kg) of benserazide (Ro4-4602), an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, markedly reduced 5-hydroxytryptamine and melatonin in the rat pineal gland without affecting hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine. 2 This differential effect shows that inhibition of the pineal gland decarboxylase activity is possible, and confirms that the rat pineal gland is accessible to peripherally acting agents.

Arendt, J.; Ho, A. K.; Laud, C.; Marston, A.; Nohria, V.; Smith, J. A.; Symons, A. M.

1981-01-01

381

Night/Day Changes in Pineal Expression of >600 Genes: CENTRAL ROLE OF ADRENERGIC/cAMP SIGNALING*S?  

OpenAIRE

The pineal gland plays an essential role in vertebrate chronobiology by converting time into a hormonal signal, melatonin, which is always elevated at night. Here we have analyzed the rodent pineal transcriptome using Affymetrix GeneChip® technology to obtain a more complete description of pineal cell biology. The effort revealed that 604 genes (1,268 probe sets) with Entrez Gene identifiers are differentially expressed greater than 2-fold between midnight and mid-day...

Bailey, Michael J.; Coon, Steven L.; Carter, David A.; Humphries, Ann; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Hogenesch, John B.; Weller, Joan L.; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Baler, Ruben; Sugden, David

2009-01-01

382

Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proton beam induced apoptosis significantly in Lewis lung carcinoma cells and hepatoma HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but slightly in leukemia Molt-4 cells. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for death rate relative to gamma ray were ranged from 1.3 to 2.1 in LLC or HepG2 but 0.7 in Molt-4 cells at 72h after irradiation. The typical apoptosis was observed by nuclear DNA staining with DAPI. By FACS analysis after stained with PI, sub-G1 cell fraction was significantly increased but G2/M phase was not altered by proton beam irradiation measured at 24 h after irradiation. Proton beam-irradiated tumor cells induced cleavage of PARP-1 and procaspases (-3 and -9) and increased the level of p53 and p21. decreased pro-lamin B. Acitivity of caspases was significantly increased after proton beam irradiation. Furthermore, ROS were significantly increased and N-acetyl cystein (NAC) pretreatment restored the apoptotic cell death induced in proton beam-irradiated cells. In conclusion, single treatment of low energy proton beam with SOBP induced apoptosis of solid tumor cells via increased ROS, active caspase -3,-9 and p53, p2.

Lee, Y. M.; Hur, T. R.; Lee, K. B.; Jeong, M. H.; Park, J. W. [Kyungbook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2007-04-15

383

Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proton beam induced apoptosis significantly in Lewis lung carcinoma cells and hepatoma HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but slightly in leukemia Molt-4 cells. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for death rate relative to gamma ray were ranged from 1.3 to 2.1 in LLC or HepG2 but 0.7 in Molt-4 cells at 72h after irradiation. The typical apoptosis was observed by nuclear DNA staining with DAPI. By FACS analysis after stained with PI, sub-G1 cell fraction was significantly increased but G2/M phase was not altered by proton beam irradiation measured at 24 h after irradiation. Proton beam-irradiated tumor cells induced cleavage of PARP-1 and procaspases (-3 and -9) and increased the level of p53 and p21. decreased pro-lamin B. Acitivity of caspases was significantly increased after proton beam irradiation. Furthermore, ROS were significantly increased and N-acetyl cystein (NAC) pretreatment restored the apoptotic cell death induced in proton beam-irradiated cells. In conclusion, single treatment of low energy proton beam with SOBP induced apoptosis of solid tumor cells via increased ROS, active caspase -3,-9 and p53, p2

384

Content of microelements in the rat pineal gland at different ages and the effects of selenium supplementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mammalian pineal gland regulates a number of important physiological processes. In this paper we report changes in the content of iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, and selenium (Se in the male rat pineal glands at 4, 5, 8, and 12 months of age. The effect of Se supplementation in drinking water on the content of pineal gland microelements was also studied. Selenium (Se-dependent changes in pineal gland reported in this study suggest novel physicochemical and biochemical properties of Se, an important element essential in the antioxidative processes, yet known to influence a number of endocrine processes.

Demajo M.

2006-01-01

385

The pineal complex of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): I. histological, immunohistochemical and qPCR study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal organ of fish is a photosensory and neuroendocrine epithalamic structure that plays a key role in the temporal organisation of physiological and behavioural processes. In this study performed in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, we provided an in-depth description of the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the pineal organ and identified the presence of photoreceptor and presumed melatonin-producing cells using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. In addition, we analysed in the pineal the day-night expression (using quantitative real-time PCR) of two key enzymes in the melatonin-synthesising pathway; arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT). The pineal complex of sea bass consisted of a narrow and short pineal stalk that adopts a vertical disposition, a small-sized pineal end vesicle firmly attached to the skull by connective tissue, a parapineal organ and a convoluted dorsal sac. Immunohistochemical study showed the presence of abundant serotonin-positive cells. Cone opsin-like and rod opsin-like photoreceptor cells were also evidenced in the pineal stalk and vesicle. Both Aanat2 and Hiomt were expressed in sea bass pineal organ. Aanat2 exhibited higher nocturnal transcript levels, while no significant day-night differences were found for Hiomt. These results, together with ongoing studies analysing neural and neurohormonal outputs from the pineal organ of sea bass, provide the basic framework to understand the transduction integration of light stimulus in this relevant species for marine aquaculture. PMID:21310229

Herrera-Pérez, P; Servili, A; Rendón, M C; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J; Falcón, J; Muñoz-Cueto, J A

2011-04-01

386

Staging Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

... more information. Pineoblastomas form in cells of the pineal gland. The pineal gland is a tiny organ in the center of ... sleep cycle. Pineoblastomas form in cells of the pineal gland and are usually malignant. Pineoblastomas are fast-growing ...

387

Deletion mapping of gliomas suggests the presence of two small regions for candidate tumor-suppressor genes in a 17-cM interval on chromosome 10q  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The loss of genetic material on chromosome 10q is frequent in different tumors and particularly in malignant gliomas. We analyzed 90 of these tumors and found loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in > 90% of the informative loci in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Initial studies restricted the common LOH region to 10q24-qter. Subsequently, the study of a pediatric GBM suggested D10S221 and D10S209, respectively, as centromeric and telomeric markers of a 4-cM LOH region. It is interesting to note that, in one subset of cells from this tumor, locus D10S209 seems involved in the allelic imbalance of a larger region, with D10S214 as telomeric marker. This 17-cM region contains the D10S587-D10S216 interval of common deletion recently defined on another set of gliomas. 31 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Albarosa, R.; Colombo, B.M.; Roz, L. [Istituto Nazionale Neurologico C., Besta (Italy)] [and others

1996-06-01

388

Regional white matter volume and the relation with attentional functioning in survivors of malignant pediatric brain tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantitative assessment of MR examinations in 37 survivors of childhood cancer treated with central nervous system prophylaxis revealed that normal appearing white matter (NAWM) volume is associated with attention-related problems, localized specifically in the right prefrontal region. T1-, T2-, and PD-weighted images were segmented and divided into pre-frontal, frontal, parietal/temporal, and parietal/occipital regions for each hemisphere. These eight regions were analyzed in five slices centered at the level of the basal ganglia. The patient's age at diagnosis and time elapsed from diagnosis were used as covariates in the regressions. Attentional measures showed significant deficiency when compared to age and gender normative values. Total, frontal and/or prefrontal NAWM volumes from the range of slices examined were significantly associated with 5 of the 8 attentional measures. The frontal/prefrontal region of the brain is associated with executive functioning tasks and could potentially be spared as much as possible during therapy planning. The results of the present study further support the contention that NAWM is an important substrate for treatment-induced neurocognitive problems among survivors of malignant brain tumors of childhood.

Glass, John O.; Mulhern, Raymond K.; White, Holly A.; Wilkinson, Gina M.; Reddick, Wilburn E.

2003-05-01

389

Radiation Treatment for Malignant Small Cell Tumor of the Thoracopulmonary Region Primitive Pluripotent Histogenesis and Differential Diagnosis-A Case Report and Review of Literatures-  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malignant small round cell tumor (SRCT) of the thoracopulmonary region appears to originate in the soft tissues of the chest wall or the peripheral lung. A differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated small round cell tumors which include Ewing's sarcoma of bone and soft tissue, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, Askin tumor, neuroblastoma, peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, small cell osteogenic sarcoma and lymphoma are after difficult by light microscopy alone. In recent, by the extensive studies electron microscopic examination, histochemical study, immunochemical study, cytogenetics and gene analysis, these tumors may be derived from the primitive and pluripotential cells, differentiating into mesenchymal, epithelial and neural features in variable proportions. Treatment for SRCT of thoracopulmonary regin is not determined because of massive involvement of the lung, pleura or soft tissues of the chest wall resulted in a dismal outcome despite aggressive surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy.

Oh, Won Young; Yang, Jin Yeong; Whang, In Soon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1991-06-15

390

Radiation Treatment for Malignant Small Cell Tumor of the Thoracopulmonary Region Primitive Pluripotent Histogenesis and Differential Diagnosis-A Case Report and Review of Literatures-  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malignant small round cell tumor (SRCT) of the thoracopulmonary region appears to originate in the soft tissues of the chest wall or the peripheral lung. A differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated small round cell tumors which include Ewing's sarcoma of bone and soft tissue, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, Askin tumor, neuroblastoma, peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, small cell osteogenic sarcoma and lymphoma are after difficult by light microscopy alone. In recent, by the extensive studies electron microscopic examination, histochemical study, immunochemical study, cytogenetics and gene analysis, these tumors may be derived from the primitive and pluripotential cells, differentiating into mesenchymal, epithelial and neural features in variable proportions. Treatment for SRCT of thoracopulmonary regin is not determined because of massive involvement of the lung, pleura or soft tissues of the chest wall resulted in a dismal outcome despite aggressive surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy

391

Caracterización de las regiones organizadoras nucleolares en las células del tumor venéreo transmisible en caninos: Estudio histoquímico / Characterization of nucleolar organizer regions in cells of transmissible venereal tumor in canine: Histochemical study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue visualizar y caracterizar las Regiones Organizadoras Nucleolares Argénticas (AgNORs) en células neoplásicas del tumor venéreo transmisible (TVT) de caninos a través de la impregnación con nitrato de plata. Se trabajó con una muestra tomada al azar de tejido paraf [...] inado de 30 caninos diagnosticados histológicamente (con coloración de Hematoxilina y Eosina) como TVT canino entre el 2000 al 2006. En 100 células por muestra se visualizó la presencia y ubicación de los AgNORs en las células neoplásicas. Se encontró un número medio de AgNORs por célula de 1.53, por núcleo de 0.91 y por nucléolo de 0.62. La distribución de los AgNORs en el total de células evaluadas fue de 60.7% (1821/3000) en el núcleo, 34.3% (1029/3000) en el nucléolo y 5% (150/3000) en ambas estructuras. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to visualize and characterize the Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNORs) in Cells of Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT) in the canine through the impregnation with silver nitrate. One sample was collected at random from paraffin tissue of 30 canine tissue samples [...] that were histological diagnosed (using Hematoxylin and Eosin stain) as TVT during the period of 2000-2006. The AgNORs were visualized and localized in 100 cells per sample. The average number of AgNORs per cell was 1.53, per cell nucleus was 90.91 and per nucleolus was 0.62. The distribution of AgNORs in the total number of cells was 60.7% (1821/ 3000) in the nucleus, 34.3% (1029/ 3000) in the nucleolus, and 5% (150/3000) in both structures.

Luis, Rodríguez I.; Rosa, Perales C.; Alfonso, Chavera C.; César, Gavidia Ch.; Diego, Díaz C..

392

Interactive segmentation of brain tumors in MR images using 3D region growing  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed an interactive software package designed to assist the radiologist in tissue segmentation for volumetric determination. Our algorithms treat a group of stacked images as a single volume, extending the concepts of traditional region growing and thresholding into three dimensions. Preliminary results from phantom studies indicate that, relative to conventional manual tracking techniques, the benefits of 3D region growing and thresholding include reduced time expenditure and improved determination of contiguous regions. However, heterogeneous signals and poor contrast may limit the usefulness of the automated segmentation algorithm alone. Therefore, several manual editing tools are included. When the automated segmentation tools are coupled with simple editing tools, accuracy of tissue segmentation in the phantom is equal or better than manual tracing alone with significant time savings.

Cabral, James E., Jr.; White, Keith S.; Kim, Yongmin; Effmann, Eric L.

1993-09-01

393

Changes in regional body volume and gross tumor volume affect dose distribution during IMRT for head and neck cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many patients experience tumor shrinkage and/or weight loss during the course of radiotherapy. Our aim is to evaluate the dosimetric changes in tumors and organs at risk (OAR) during the course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck (H and N) cancer. We compared the volume and dose parameters at the dose of 0 Gy and 40 Gy in ten patients. By using a commercial inverse IMRT planning system, the 0 Gy IMRT plan for each patient was generated based on the original planning CT scan acquired before the start of treatment. The 40 Gy IMRT plan was generated by applying the beam configurations of the 0 Gy IMRT plan to the anatomy of the CT scan obtained at the doses of 40 Gy. The dose-volume histograms of the 0 Gy and 40 Gy IMRT plans were compared. All patients had locally advanced, nonmetastatic diseases including 3 cervical esophagus, 3 oropharynx, 2 epipharynx and 2 unknown primary site. The regional body volume and body weight decreased in all patients. Gross tumor volume (GTV) decreased by 32% at most. Conformity index (C.I.) increased with decrease of GTV. Parotid gland volume decreased but the dose to 50% of the volume (D50) did not change. The maximum dose (Dmax.) to the spinal cord significantly increased in all patients (mean: 12%, p=0.0013). The 40 Gy IMRT plan is a hybrid plan without planning a new IMRT plan and should be generated several times during the course of IMRT for H and N cancer. (author)hor)

394

Extraparotid Warthin's tumor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Warthin's tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum) is a well-known benign tumor of the parotid gland. Extraparotid tumors occasionally arise in the cervical region, where they may well be seen by the dermatologist. The following is a case report of an extraparotid Warthin's tumor encountered in a dermatology practice, with a review of the important clinical and histopathologic features of this tumor. PMID:10071320

Patterson, J W; Wright, E D; Camden, S

1999-03-01

395

Regulation of tumor suppressor gene FUS1 expression by the untranslated regions of mRNA in human lung cancer cells  

OpenAIRE

FUS1, also known as tumor suppressor candidate 2 (TUSC2), is a tumor suppressor gene located in the human chromosome 3p21.3 region. FUS1 mRNA transcripts could be detected on Northern blots in both normal lung and some lung cancer cell lines, but no endogenous FUS1 protein could be detected in a majority of lung cancer cell lines and small cell and non-small cell lung tumor tissues. However, mechanisms regulating FUS1 protein expression and its inactivation in primary lung cancer cells are la...

Lin, Jing; Xu, Kai; Gitanjali, Jayachandran; Roth, Jack A.; Ji, Lin

2011-01-01

396

Three dimensional culture of pineal cell aggregates: a model of cell-cell co-operation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three dimensional (3-D) cultures of pineal cell aggregates were obtained by constant gyratory shaking the heterogenous cell populations, obtained from the rat pineals, in the DMEM (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium). Within 4 days, the pineal cells became organized into a tissue like configuration appearing as a compact ball, evidenced by the scanning electron microscopy. The 3-D aggregates seemed to be mainly composed of pinealocytes (round-oval cells), glial (elongated cells) and other unknown cells. The heterogenous cells were separated by intercellular spaces. The ultrastructural characteristics revealed by transmission electron microscopy exhibited the presence of granular lysosomes, typical of pinealocytes actively involved in the secretion. These pineal cell aggregates secreted melatonin and other indole amines i.e. 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT), indole acetic acid (IAA), 5-methoxy-3-indole acetic acid (5-MIAA), tryptophol (TOL) and 5-methoxytryptophol (5-MTL) in the culture medium, indicating the functional aspect of pinealocytes. The 3-D aggregates cultures had advantages over the pineal monolayer cultures as, after 4 days of culture, the amounts of indole amines secreted by 3-D aggregates were higher than those secreted by monolayer cultures. Besides, the 3-D aggregates remained functional till 24 days in the gyratory culture conditions. In the continuous perifusion system, the 3-D aggregates secreted melatonin while challanged with isoproterenol. This 3-D model of pineal cell aggregates might be useful, in future, to perform other kinetic studies of the release of indole amines in perifusion experiments as this system allows the maintenance of pineal cells for a long period of time. PMID:7550281

Khan, N A; Shacoori, V; Havouis, R; Querné, D; Moulinoux, J P; Rault, B

1995-05-01

397

Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Gene Promoter Region Polymorphism and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) gene polymorphisms have been implicated in the manifestation of atherosclerosis. Controversy exists regarding the link between the cytokine's variant genotype and CHD among different ethnic groups. There have been fewer studies on the TNF-? gene ?1031T>C and ?863C>A polymorphisms in relation to CHD. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the association of the TNF-? gene ?1031T>C and ?863C>A polymorphisms with CHD in a Pakistani population. Methods. Patients with CHD (n = 310) and healthy individuals (n = 310) were enrolled in this study. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results. A significant difference was observed in the ?863C>A polymorphism between patients with CHD and control subjects (P C polymorphism and CHD risk in the study population. Haplotypes A-T and A-C of the TNF-alpha gene loci at ?863 and ?1031 showed higher frequency in the patient group compared with controls (P A gene polymorphism was associated with the pathogenesis of CHD while the ?1031T>C polymorphism did not show any link with the disease in a Pakistani population. PMID:24381514

Asifa, Gul Zareen; Kazmi, Syed Ali Raza; Javed, Qamar

2013-01-01

398

Regional Lung Density Changes After Radiation Therapy for Tumors in and Around Thorax  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To study the temporal nature of regional lung density changes and to assess whether the dose-dependent nature of these changes is associated with patient- and treatment-associated factors. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 118 patients with interpretable pre- and post-radiation therapy (RT) chest computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated. Changes in regional lung density were related to regional dose to define a dose-response curve (DRC) for RT-induced lung injury using three-dimensional planning tools and image fusion. Multiple post-RT follow-up CT scans were evaluated by fitting linear-quadratic models of density changes on dose with time as the covariate. Various patient- and treatment-related factors were examined as well. Results: There was a dose-dependent increase in regional lung density at nearly all post-RT follow-up intervals. The population volume-weighted changes evolved over the initial 6-month period after RT and reached a plateau thereafter (p < 0.001). On univariate analysis, patient age greater than 65 years (p = 0.003) and/or the use of pre-RT surgery (p < 0.001) were associated with significantly greater changes in CT density at both 6 and 12 months after RT, but the magnitude of this effect was modest. Conclusions: There appears to be a temporal nature for the dose-dependent increases in lung density. Nondosimetric clinical factors tend to have no, or a modest, impact on these changes.ges.

399

Morphologic Changes in Rat's Pineal Gland After Eliminating Retinal Photic Stimulation Cambios Morfológicos en la Glándula Pineal de Ratas Luego de la Eliminación de la Estimulación Fótica Retiniana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melatonin secretion from mammalian pineal glands is regulated by light stimulation by means of a complex neuroanatomical pathway that includes the retina, hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, intermediolateral nucleus of the thoracic spinal cord, and finally, the superior cervical ganglia. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in the pinealocytes and the blood vessel density of the pineal gland after eliminating photic stimulation in rats. Thirteen adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups, Group I acted as control, and Group II was subjected to a retinal lesión, by means of alcohol injected bilaterally to both ocular bulbs. After 3 weeks, the glands of both groups were processed with hematoxilin-eosin (HE and observed with an optic microscope. Group II results presented higher valúes in the number of pinealocytes and in the blood vessels observed. The differences with Group I was significant at p La secreción de melatonina por parte de glándula pineal de los mamíferos es regulada por la estimulación luminosa mediante complejas vías neuro anatómicas que incluyen la retina, el núcleo supraquiasmático hipotalámico, el núcleo intermediolateral de la médula torácica y finalmente el ganglio cervical superior. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar los cambios en la densidad de pinealocitos y vasos sanguíneos de la glándula pineal, luego de eliminar la estimulación fótica en ratas. Se utilizaron 13 ratas adultas Sprague Dawley divididas en 2 grupos, Grupo I actuó como control, y el Grupo II fue sometido a una lesión retiniana, por medio de alcoholización bilateral de ambos bulbos oculares. Luego de tres semanas las glándulas de ambos grupos fueron procesadas para hematoxilina-eosina y observadas al microscopio óptico. El grupo II presentó valores mayores en el número de pinealocitos y de vasos sanguíneos observados, las diferencias con el Grupo I fueron significativas con p<0.01. Estos resultados entregan una evidencia indirecta del efecto que la supresión de la estimulación fótica tiene en la glándula pineal en ratas.

Ignacio Roa Henriquez

2008-09-01

400

Labelling of the pineal gland with 99mTc-glucose-6-phosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lately, the pineal body has been the subject of a large variety of studies. Only recently it has been understood the role played by this endocrine gland to maintain the balance of the human body and also in animal models. Although small in dimensions, the pineal body is a very active organ, able to transmit precise temporal information. It probably participates in the synchronization of several organic functions. The present work aims to study a possible use of 99mTc-glucose-6-P as a tracer for the pineal gland. Histoautoradiographic studies have been performed in Wistar rats. Tomoscintigraphic studies were acquired in patients and in albine rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus hyplus). The labelling efficiency and the radiochemical purity of the labelled products have always been tested. Animal and human SPECT exams, show an activity focus projected over the area corresponding to the pineal body localization. Autoradiographic studies using [1-14C]-glucose-6-P did not reveal a more relevant activity at the pineal level, probably due to its hepatic conversion to 14C-glucose. (author)

401

Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Changes Related To Methylphenidate In Rat Pituitary and Pineal Glands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The presence of a dopaminergic function in pituitary and pineal glands is well known. Methylphenidate (MPH, a widely prescribed psychostimulant for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, is an indirect dopamine agonist which could have the capacity of influencing the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system with the pineal gland. Our aim is to investigate dose-dependent immunohistochemical dopamine 2 expression, possible cell apoptosis and ultrastructural changes of the rat pituitary and pineal gland tissue, to demonstrate possible toxicity of the chronic extended use of the MPH.Material and Methods: In this study, 27 female prepubertal Wistar albino rats, divided into three different dose groups (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, were treated orally with MPH dissolved in saline solution for 5 days per week during three months. At the end of the third month, after perfusion fixation, pituitary and pineal glands were removed and sections were collected for immunohistochemical, TUNEL assay and ultrastructural studies.Results: We observed that methylphenidate induced dose-related ultrastructural changes in pituitary and pineal glands.Conclusion: High dose administration of this drug could influence the functions of these glands. Thus, we suggest that the therapeutic dose of methylphenidate must be kept in minimum level.

Çi?dem ELMAS

2012-09-01

402

Cysteamine effects on somatostatin, catecholamines, pineal NAT and melatonin in rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thiol reagent cysteamine was administered to adult male rats with the aim of investigating its effect on different neural and pineal components. As expected, immunoreactive somatostatin decreased in the median eminence (ME) (p less than 0.05) and gastric antrum (p less than 0.05) after cysteamine; however, no significant change was observed in the pineal IRS content after drug treatment. A decrease in norepinephrine was observed in the ME (p less than 0.001), hypothalamus (p less than 0.001) and pineal gland (p less than 0.05), together with a rise in ME (p less than 0.005) and hypothalamic dopamine (p less than 0.005) content; these results are consistent with a dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibiting effect of cysteamine. No effect was observed on hypothalamic serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid content. Pineal N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) after cysteamine than after saline, but no statistically significant effect was observed on pineal melatonin content. The mechanism involved in the NAT rise is presumably not related to the known stimulatory effect of norepinephrine, which fell after cysteamine. It is suggested that cysteamine may act at an intracellular level, inhibiting NAT degradation, an effect demonstrated in vitro and thought to be related to a thiol:disulfide exchange mechanism.

Webb, S.M.; Champney, T.H.; Steger, R.W.; Vaughan, M.K.; Reiter, R.J.

1986-03-01

403

Developmental and Diurnal Expression of the Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25 (Snap25) in the Rat Pineal Gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Snap25 (synaptosomal-associated protein) is a 25 kDa protein, belonging to the SNARE-family (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) of proteins, essential for synaptic and secretory vesicle exocytosis. Snap25 has by immunohistochemistry been demonstrated in the rat pineal gland but the biological importance of this is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a high expression of mRNA encoding Snap25 in all parts of the rat pineal complex, the superficial-, and deep-pineal gland, as well as in the pineal stalk. Snap25 showed a low pineal expression during embryonic stages with a strong increase in expression levels just after birth. The expression showed no day/night variations. Neither removal of the sympathetic input to the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy nor bilateral decentralization of the superior cervical ganglia significantly affected the expression of Snap25 in the gland. The pineal expression levels of Snap25 were not changed following intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. The strong expression of Snap25 in the pineal gland suggests the presence of secretory granules and microvesicles in the rat pinealocyte supporting the concept of a vesicular release. At the transcriptional level, this Snap25-based release mechanism does not exhibit any diurnal rhythmicity and is regulated independently of the sympathetic nervous input to the gland.

Karlsen, Anna S; Rath, Martin Fredensborg

2013-01-01

404

Influence of low-dose x-rays on the ways of biosynthesis and indole metabolism in pineal gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pineal gland is a radiosensitive organ which reacts even to low doses of radiation. Having gone through the stages of activating, normalizing and exhausting indoles biosynthesis suffers from different changes in the pineal gland in response to the influence of ionizing radiation in low doses

405

Prioritization of brain MRI volumes using medical image perception model and tumor region segmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study is to explore prioritization methods in diagnostic imaging modalities to automatically determine the contents of medical images. In this paper, we propose an efficient prioritization of brain MRI. First, the visual perception of the radiologists is adapted to identify salient regions. Then this saliency information is used as an automatic label for accurate segmentation of brain lesion to determine the scientific value of that image. The qualitative and quantitative results prove that the rankings generated by the proposed method are closer to the rankings created by radiologists. PMID:24034739

Mehmood, Irfan; Ejaz, Naveed; Sajjad, Muhammad; Baik, Sung Wook

2013-10-01

406

[Limb-preserving resection operations in the management of bone tumors of the shoulder region].  

Science.gov (United States)

Authors describe the frequency of bone tumours in the shoulder region and the anatomical characteristics of this region, that are important, regarding tumour surgery. Six cases are reported in whom resection was performed for malignant, semimalignant and benign bone tumours. In their material one primary and two secondary chondrosarcomas, one Ewing's sarcoma, one osteoclastoma and one benign chondroblastoma were found. Follow-up range was 3-7 years. In two patients partial and total scapulectomy was performed, in the later the proximal end of the humerus was resected only, in three of them endoprosthesis was given, and in one case the missing bone was replaced with a fibular graft. The function of the limbs was in every case, even in those in which the replacement of the bone segment was not carried out, adequate. Metastases developed in three patients, two of them were lost, one is alive. The rest of the patients was free of tumour at the follow-up. PMID:2571754

Gáspár, L; Szepesi, K; Mandi, A; Mórocz, I

1989-01-01

407

Circadian changes in long noncoding RNAs in the pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a broad range of biological roles, including regulation of expression of genes and chromosomes. Here, we present evidence that lncRNAs are involved in vertebrate circadian biology. Differential night/day expression of 112 lncRNAs (0.3 to >50 kb) occurs in the rat pineal gland, which is the source of melatonin, the hormone of the night. Approximately one-half of these changes reflect nocturnal increases. Studies of eight lncRNAs with 2- to >100-fold daily rhythms indicate that, in most cases, the change results from neural stimulation from the central circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (dou