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Sample records for pineal region tumors

  1. Papillary tumor of the pineal region

    Vandergriff, Clayton; Opatowsky, Michael; O'Rourke, Brian; Layton, Kennith

    2012-01-01

    Presented is a patient with papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR), an uncommon and recently recognized neoplasm. As its name implies, PTPR does not arise from the pineal gland itself. The cell of origin is thought to be the specialized ependymocytes of the subcommissural organ. Primary tumors of the pineal region include pineal parenchymal neoplasms, germ cell neoplasms, and tumors arising from adjacent structures, including meningiomas, astrocytomas, and ependymomas. Like other masses ...

  2. Diagnosis of pineal region tumors; Imagerie des tumeurs de la region pineale

    Gauvrit, J.Y.; Soto Ares, G.; Hamon-Kerautret, M.; Pruvo, J.P.; Blond, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 59 - Lille (France)

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain the different radio-clinical presentations of pineal region tumors. Although MR images provide a important help to diagnosis, because of topographic analysis and evaluation of MR characteristics in the tumors, clinic, presentation tumors markers and the stereotaxic surgery are also of great importance. Radiological appearances, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnostic of pineal region tumours. (authors). 44 refs.

  3. Pineal region tumors: computed tomographic-pathologic spectrum

    Futrell, N.N.; Osborn, A.G.; Cheson. B.D.

    1981-11-01

    While several computed tomographic (CT) studies of posterior third ventricular neoplasms have included descriptions of pineal tumors, few reports have concentrated on these uncommon lesions. Some authors have asserted that the CT appearance of many pineal tumors is virtually pathognomonic. A series of nine biopsy-proved pineal gland and eight other presumed tumors is presented that illustrates their remarkable heterogeneity in both histopathologic and CT appearance. These tumors included germinomas, teratocarcinomas, hamartomas, and other varieties. They had variable margination, attentuation, calcification, and suprasellar extension. Germinomas have the best response to radiation therapy. Biopsy of pineal region tumors is now feasible and is recommended for treatment planning.

  4. MR imaging in tumors of the pineal region

    Ten patients with tumors of the pineal region underwent CT and MRI investigations. There were 3 germinomas, 3 teratomas and 1 of each of the following: Pineocytoma, PNET, ependymoma and meningioma. Not only were tumor size and growth compared to CT, but an attempt was made to obtain knowledge of the histology of the tumor by special T2 calculations. The investigations did not lead to an improvement in type specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  5. MR imaging in tumors of the pineal region

    Mueller-Forell, W.; Schroth, G.; Egan, P.J.

    1988-06-01

    Ten patients with tumors of the pineal region underwent CT and MRI investigations. There were 3 germinomas, 3 teratomas and 1 of each of the following: Pineocytoma, PNET, ependymoma and meningioma. Not only were tumor size and growth compared to CT, but an attempt was made to obtain knowledge of the histology of the tumor by special T/sub 2/ calculations. The investigations did not lead to an improvement in type specific diagnosis.

  6. Papillary tumor of the pineal region: report of a rapidly progressive tumor with possible multicentric origin

    Sato, Takashi S. [University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Kirby, Patricia A. [University of Iowa, Department of Pathology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Buatti, John M. [University of Iowa, Department of Radiation Oncology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Moritani, Toshio [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is an uncommon tumor recently added to the WHO classification of CNS tumors. We report a case of PTPR in a young boy that was noteworthy for early CSF dissemination and relentless progression. In spite of intensive chemotherapy and comprehensive radiotherapy, the boy died. The neuroimaging appearance is unique with possible multicentric origin of the tumor and intense uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-pentetreotide. (orig.)

  7. Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors - quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma

    Awa, Ryuji; Campos, Francia; Arita, Kazunori; Karki, Prasanna; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Oyoshi, Tatsuki; Hirano, Hirofumi [Kagoshima University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuhiko [Hiroshima University, Department of Clinical Oncology and Neuro-oncology Program, Hiroshima (Japan); Tominaga, Atsushi; Kurisu, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki [Hiroshima University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Fukukura, Yoshihiko [Kagoshima University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Fujii, Yukihiko [Niigata University, Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Our study aimed to elucidate the imaging features for the differentiation of pineal germinoma and other pineal region tumors. Image data sets of computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 93 pineal region tumors including 33 germinomas, 30 nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), and 10 miscellaneous tumors of pineal region were reviewed. Imaging features on CT and MRI were qualitatively assessed by three readers. To know the reasons for morphological differences between germinomas and NGGCTs, histological investigation was done. Localized calcification was seen in more than 70 % of germ cells tumors (GCTs: germinomas and NGGCTs) while it was scattered in more than half of PPTs. Cystic components in tumors were most frequent in NGGCTs (62 %). Multiplicity of lesion was restricted to GCTs: 39.4 % in germinoma and 10.0 % in NGGCTs. Thick peritumoral edema was more frequent in germinoma than in NGGCT: 40.6 vs. 14.8 % (p = 0.0433, Fisher's test). Bithalamic extension of tumor was seen in 78.8 % of germinomas. It was significantly rare in other groups of tumors (p < 0.0001, Fisher's test). The relative collagen amount per unit area was significantly lower in germinoma than in NGGCTs. By paying attention to characteristic features as bithalamic extension, thick peritumoral edema, calcification pattern, multiplicity, and their combination, the preoperative differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma will become more accurate. (orig.)

  8. Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors - quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma

    Our study aimed to elucidate the imaging features for the differentiation of pineal germinoma and other pineal region tumors. Image data sets of computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 93 pineal region tumors including 33 germinomas, 30 nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), and 10 miscellaneous tumors of pineal region were reviewed. Imaging features on CT and MRI were qualitatively assessed by three readers. To know the reasons for morphological differences between germinomas and NGGCTs, histological investigation was done. Localized calcification was seen in more than 70 % of germ cells tumors (GCTs: germinomas and NGGCTs) while it was scattered in more than half of PPTs. Cystic components in tumors were most frequent in NGGCTs (62 %). Multiplicity of lesion was restricted to GCTs: 39.4 % in germinoma and 10.0 % in NGGCTs. Thick peritumoral edema was more frequent in germinoma than in NGGCT: 40.6 vs. 14.8 % (p = 0.0433, Fisher's test). Bithalamic extension of tumor was seen in 78.8 % of germinomas. It was significantly rare in other groups of tumors (p < 0.0001, Fisher's test). The relative collagen amount per unit area was significantly lower in germinoma than in NGGCTs. By paying attention to characteristic features as bithalamic extension, thick peritumoral edema, calcification pattern, multiplicity, and their combination, the preoperative differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma will become more accurate. (orig.)

  9. The clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor in the pineal region

    Zhang, Yun-xiang; Zhong, Ding-Rong; HU, MING-MING; Yuan, Tao; LI Gui-lin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor (ITT) in the pineal region. Methods A retrospective study was performed to analyse the diagnostic and therapeutic process of 1 case with ITT in the pineal region. The specimen obtained from the surgery was dealt with common tissue processing mode and cut into slices. HE staining was performed to observe histophathological features. Immunohistochemical staining (SP two-step method) was performed to analy...

  10. Papillary tumor of the pineal region-report of three cases with literature review

    Debajyoti Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR is a rare tumor of the pineal region. Not much is known about the pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment protocol of this uncommon entity. We present three cases of PTPR with follow-up from 8 months to 98 months. All patients presented with headache and visual disturbance. One patient also had amenorrhea. Radiology revealed an heterogeneously enhancing mass arising from the pineal region with associated hydrocephalus. Histopathologically, all cases showed the papillary architecture, strong pan cytokeratin and cytokeratin 18 positivity, and faint positivity for synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase. All cases received postoperative radiotherapy. One case showed tumor recurrence after 7 years. Other two cases did not show any recurrence till the last follow-up.

  11. Papillary tumor of the pineal region with extended clinical and radiologic follow-up

    Shakir, Hakeem J.; Jingxin Qiu; Dheerendra Prasad; Mechtler, Laszlo L.; Fenstermaker, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a rare neoplasm with only anecdotal data to guide the treatment. Results of treatment with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have been reported to have varying degrees of success. Here we report a patient with a PTPR, who underwent subtotal resection, gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery, and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy. Case Description: During 9 years of clinical and radiographic follow-up, the patient has had...

  12. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Peng Wang; Qing Mao; Wei Wang; Liang-Xue Zhou; Yan-Hui Liu

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method : Seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6–9 months after GKS. Results : Sixteen of 17 cases w...

  13. Gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region: uncommon localization and rare tumors.

    Sugita, Yasuo; Terasaki, Mizuhiko; Tanigawa, Ken; Ohshima, Koichi; Morioka, Motohiro; Higaki, Koichi; Nakagawa, Setsuko; Shimokawa, Shoko; Nakashima, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Gliosarcomas are a variant of glioblastomas and present a biphasic pattern, with coexisting glial and mesenchymal components. In this study, two unusual cases are presented. Case 1 is a 52-year-old woman with a headache and memory disturbance for a month. Case 2 is an 18-year-old man with a headache lasting two weeks. In both cases, an MRI revealed enhancing T1-low to iso, T2-iso to high intensity lesions in the pineal gland region. Histologically, in case 1, the tumor showed spindle cell proliferation with disorganized fascicles and cellular pleomorphism. Tumor cells variously exhibited oncocytic transformation. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for myoglobin and desmin. Some of the tumor cells were positive for GFAP and S-100 protein. On the other hand, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1, and SOX-2 which are the markers of neural stem cells. In case 2, the tumor showed monotonous proliferation of short spindle cells with disorganized fascicles and cellular atypism. The morphological distinction between glial and mesenchymal components was not apparent. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for desmin. Glial tumor cells that were dispersed within the sarcoma as single cells were positive for GFAP. In addition, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1 and SOX-2. Based on these microscopic appearances, and immunohistochemical findings, these cases were diagnosed as gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region. These results also indicated that pluripotential cancer stem cells differentiated into glial and muscle cell lines at the time of tumor growth. In a survey of previous publications on gliosarcoma arising from the pineal gland, these cases are the second and third reports found in English scientific writings. PMID:26183264

  14. The clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor in the pineal region

    ZHANG Yun-xiang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor (ITT in the pineal region. Methods A retrospective study was performed to analyse the diagnostic and therapeutic process of 1 case with ITT in the pineal region. The specimen obtained from the surgery was dealt with common tissue processing mode and cut into slices. HE staining was performed to observe histophathological features. Immunohistochemical staining (SP two-step method was performed to analyse the expression of tumor markers. Related literatures were reviewed. Results A 6-year old boy with clinical manifestations of penis enlargement and rapid growth for more than one year, presented a mass in his pineal region through MRI. The tumor was surgically excised after it is refractory to 10 times experimental radiotherapy as germinoma. The level of β-human chorionic gonadotropin ( β-hCG in his postoperative blood was decreased to normal, but gradually increased, once again followed to normal after three times chemotherapy. Patient was normal almost postoperative 6 months later by follow -up. Pathological examination showed sheets necrosis with multiple calcification and scattered fresh blood cells, epithelioid tumor cells with solid growth pattern. The tumor cells were atypical mononuclear cells with relative uniform (between heterotypic cells and partially surrounding and invasing the vascular walls. The cytoplasm of tumor cells was eosinophilic or clear, the nucleus was round or irregular in shape and some with intranuclear pseudoinclusions, and its mitotic figures were rarely seen under light microscopy. The tumor cells showed strong positive for AE1/AE3, cell adhesion molecules 5.2 (CAM5.2, human placental lactogen (hPL, octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (Oct3/4, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and E-cadherin. P53 was also expressed. The positive rate of Ki-67 was about 10%, and β-hCG was expressed in the extremely tumor cells. The

  15. Differentiation of germinomas from other tumors in the pineal region with CT and MR imaging, with special reference to extension patterns to the thalami

    Furusawa, Tetsuya [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-03-01

    To determine the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) characteristics of pineal region germinomas, the author reviewed images from 40 patients with pineal region tumors. These tumors were divided into two groups: those with germinomas (n=17), and those with other tumors in the pineal region (5 with a germ cell tumor other than germinoma; 8, mixed germ cell tumor; 8, pineal parenchymal tumor; and 2, miscellaneous tumors; n=23). All cases were investigated with CT; 31 of the cases were also investigated with MR imaging. The following parameters comprised statistically significant differences between the two groups: maximum size of the tumor, tumor density of the precontrast CT, signal intensity of precontrast T1-weighted spin-echo images, and homogeneity of the tumor on both precontrast and postcontrast studies. This study found that extension patterns of pineal region tumors into the thalamus have significant implications in differentiating germinomas from other tumors of this region. Germinomas are characterized by thalamic extension without lateral displacement of the third ventricle walls due to direct compression by tumors (p=0.0034). The analysis of tumor extension patterns, combined with the parameters mentioned above, may provide a more accurate differential diagnosis in pineal region tumors, leading to prompt and appropriate treatment. (author)

  16. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Wang, Peng [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu (China); Mao, Qing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Liu, Yan-Hui, E-mail: liuyanhui9@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2014-03-01

    Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

  17. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Peng Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Pineal region tumors (PRTs are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method : Seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6–9 months after GKS. Results : Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion : The findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications.

  18. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

  19. Retractorless surgery for a pineal region tumor through an occipital transtentorial approach.

    Nakao, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    This video demonstrates surgical techniques of the occipital transtentorial approach to a pineal region tumor without using a fixed brain retractor, which may cause functional impairment or even tissue injury to the occipital visual cortex. There are several ways to facilitate retractorless surgery through this approach. A lateral-semiprone positioning of the patient can induce gravity retraction. The brain is relaxed by draining CSF fluid through lumbar drainage or lateral ventricular tap in the case of obstructive hydrocephalus. Dynamic retraction with handheld instruments after extensive dissection of the deep venous system, including basal veins, can provide a sufficient working space. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/kQvEHiNcRow . PMID:26722684

  20. Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation

    Meena Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2007 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system identified "pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation" (PPTID as a new pineal parenchymal neoplasm, located between pineocytoma and pineoblastoma as grade II or III. Because of the small number of reported cases, the classification of PPT is still a matter of controversy. We report a case of PPTID. A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital with complaints of a headache, nausea, vomiting since 1-year. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed well-defined, mildly enhancing lesion in the region of the pineal gland with areas of calcification. The tumor was excised. After 3 years, she presented with metastasis in thoracic and lumbosacral spinal region. This is a rare event.

  1. Lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach for microsurgical resection of large midline pineal region tumors: techniques to expand the operative corridor.

    Kulwin, Charles; Matsushima, Ken; Malekpour, Mahdi; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2016-01-01

    Pineal region tumors pose certain challenges in regard to their resection: a deep surgical field, associated critical surrounding neurovascular structures, and narrow operative working corridor due to obstruction by the apex of the culmen. The authors describe a lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach that was successfully used in the treatment of 10 large (> 3 cm) midline pineal region tumors. The patients were placed in a modified lateral decubitus position. A small lateral suboccipital craniotomy exposed the transverse sinus. Tentorial retraction sutures were used to gently rotate and elevate the transverse sinus to expand the lateral supracerebellar operative corridor. This approach placed only unilateral normal structures at risk and minimized vermian venous sacrifice. The surgeon achieved generous exposure of the caudal midline mesencephalon through a "cross-court" oblique trajectory, while avoiding excessive retraction on the culmen. All patients underwent the lateral approach with no approach-related complication. The final pathological diagnoses were consistent with meningioma in 3 cases, pilocytic astrocytoma in 3 cases, intermediate grade pineal region tumor in 2 cases, and pineoblastoma in 2 cases. The entire extent of these tumors was readily reachable through the lateral supracerebellar route. Gross-total resection was achieved in 8 (80%) of the 10 cases; in 2 cases (20%) near-total resection was performed due to adherence of these tumors to deep diencephalic veins. Large midline pineal region tumors can be removed through a unilateral paramedian suboccipital craniotomy. This approach is simple, may spare some of the midline vermian bridging veins, and may be potentially less invasive and more efficient. PMID:26275000

  2. Papillary tumor of pineal region: Prolonged control rate after gamma knife radiosurgery - A case report and review of literature

    Cardenas Raul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPR are very rare. We describe the first report of a PTPR empirically managed with gamma knife radiosurgery. The patient was initially shunted and referred for empirical gamma knife radiosurgery. After initially showing some improvement, he had recurrence of tumor after 7 years. For recurrence he underwent a gross total resection and the biopsy established the diagnosis of PTPR. Further research needs to be done as to the efficacy of gamma knife surgery for PTPR. In addition, the role of stereotactic biopsy for eligible patients should be considered as the initial step to direct the treatment of choice.

  3. Primary malignant melanoma in the pineal region treated without chemotherapy

    SHINSATO, Yoshinari; Hanada, Tomoko; Kisanuki, Takao; Yonezawa, Hajime; Yunoue, Shunji; Yoshioka, Takako; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Hirano, Hirofumi; ARITA, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    Background: Primary pineal malignant melanomas are uncommon intracranial tumor. Here we discuss and review a case of primary pineal malignant melanoma over its feature of imaging studies, pathological findings, and management. Case Description: A 49-year-old woman receiving renal dialysis underwent computed tomography due to a 4-month history of tinnitus and hearing disturbance. A high-density 35-mm diameter tumor was detected in the pineal region; there was obstructive hydrocephalus. The tum...

  4. Surgical therapy of benign pineal tumors

    Currently, there is no way that the author knows to satisfactorily distinguish the benign lesions from their malignant cousins without a shadow of doubt. This includes preoperative evaluation of the clinical history, biological markers in serum and CSF, CT scans with and without contrast in various projections including the horizontal, coronal and sagittal cuts, and arteriography. Because the author has personally encountered difficulty in precisely diagnosing these tumors at routine light microscopy, especially when fragments are small, he has a personal aversion to the technique of diagnosis which enlists the use of a stereotactically placed biopsy needle. The author feels that virtually all of the pineal tumors require surgical exposure and sufficient tissue removal to ensure an accurate histological diagnosis. With experience, the author believes the surgeon can tell as he exposes the posterior and lateral aspects of these tumors whether or not they are encapsulated and therefore potentially resectable. This anatomical variation may be identified prior to operative intervention by an arteriogram especially with injection of large quantities of dye into the carotid system. With the advent of the CUSA (Cavitron Lasersonics, Cooper Medical Device Corporation, Stamford, CT), the author has used this instrument with increased facility and benefit in the removal of benign relatively avascular tumors of the pineal region. This instrument is ideal in coring out the interior of the tumor while creating little displacement of the tumor capsule. Some of the benign tumors, especially the meningiomas may be partially or heavily calcified and this instrument exhibits particular usefulness in these cases

  5. PINEAL GLAND TUMORS: EXPERIENCE FROM THE SEER DATABASE

    Al-Hussaini, Maysa; Sultan, Iyad; Gajjar, Amar J.; Abuirmileh, Najyah; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Pineal gland tumors are rare and account for less than 1% of all primary brain tumor diagnoses. Also, they are more commonly seen in pediatric patients than in adults. We analyzed the available SEER data on pineal gland tumors that were diagnosed during the period 1973–2005. The cohort was subdivided into groups on the basis of tumor histology: germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, gliomas, and other pineal tumors. Analyses of incidence, survival, factors influencing survival, and trea...

  6. Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report

    Gasparetto Emerson Leandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only few cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized hypotony, hypotrophy and hyper-reflexia, Babinski sign and left VI cranial par palsy. CT scan examination revealed a ill-defined hypodense lesion at the pineal region with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. MRI showed a lesion at the pineal region infiltrating the right thalamic region. The patient underwent a right craniotomy with partial resection of the mass. The histological examination of paraffin-embedded material defined the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. Post-operative radiotherapy was indicated but the patient refused the treatment and died two months afterwards. CONCLUSION: in spite of its rarity at this location, glioblastoma multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aggressive lesions at the pineal region.

  7. Multiple remote epidural hematomas following pineal gland tumor resection

    Jeong-Wook Lim; Seung-Hwan Yang; Jong-Soo Lee; Shi-Hun Song

    2010-01-01

    In cases of pineal tumor combined with obstructive hydrocephalus, preoperative ventriculostomy or ventriculoperitoneal shunting is typically required prior to tumor resection. The objectives of preoperative ventriculostomy are gradual reduction of intracranial pressure and consequent preoperative brain protection. Here we report a case of pineal tumor resection with preoperative ventriculostomy that was complicated by multiple epidural hematomas. While postoperative intracranial hemorrhage ma...

  8. Conservative management of pineal tumors - Mayo clinic experience

    The typical pineal tumor occurs in an adolescent boy with subacute increased intracranial pressure and Parinaud's syndrome. Diagnosis is confirmed by CT scanning, and long-term survival usually following shunting and radiation therapy. Direct surgical methods for successful treatment of suitable pineal tumors have evolved and may be utilized with relatively low risk in appropriate cases

  9. Endodermal cyst in pineal region: Rare location

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Dolan, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pineal tumors are very uncommon intracranial lesions, and endodermal cysts in this location are extremely rare. Case Description: A 49-year-old right-handed female presented with 3 weeks history of progressive dizziness and imbalance. Imaging studies showed 1.8 cm × 1.7 cm × 1.8 cm pineal lesion with small enhancing mural component displacing ventrally the quadrigeminal plate and narrowing of aqueduct of Sylvius without hydrocephalus. In addition, she was found with small interhemispheric lipoma, and small posterior falx possible meningioma. Cerebrospinal fluid markers obtained by lumbar puncture were all negative. She underwent tumor resection, and final pathology reported endodermal cyst. No new deficits were encountered, and her gait imbalance improved significantly by 3 months follow-up. Conclusions: With evidence of enlargement or symptomatic pineal lesions, surgical consideration is necessary. Among pineal lesions, endodermal cysts are extremely uncommon and although benign pathology, long-term follow-up is advised due to unknown chronic behavior. PMID:27217965

  10. Radiotherapy of pineal tumors and ectopic pinealomas

    Shirato, Hiroki; Matsuoka, Yoshisuke; Miyamoto, Miyako; Kamada, Tadashi; Arimoto, Takuro; Mizoe, Junetsu; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Irie, Goro

    1985-02-01

    The results of radiation treatment of 63 patients with pineal tumors and ectopic pinealomas are analysed. The histopathological diagnosis has been verified in 17 cases, and they consist of 9 germinoma, 3 teratoma and 5 embryonal carcinoma. The overall 5 year survival rate was 79.5%. Survival rate was different according to histology and site of tumor involvement. Local control was achieved more frequently with doses of over 45 Gy in five to six weeks. Marginal relapse (4 cases) and spinal metastasis (7 cases) were occured with ports under 10 x 10cm/sup 2/, but not over 10 x 10 cm/sup 2/. Prophylactic spinal irradiation were undertaken in 7 patients, and there were no spinal metastases in these patients. Tumor response detected by CT scan at 10-20 Gy was well related to relapse pattern and histopathological classification. There were no in-field relapse in patients with tumors which responded well at 10-20 Gy and disappeared at more than 40 Gy. Teratomas were demonstrated as radioresistant tumors at 10-20 Gy. Therapuetic diagnosis by CT scan seems to be a reliable procedure to determine indication of tumorectomy. (author).

  11. CRX is a diagnostic marker of retinal and pineal lineage tumors.

    Sandro Santagata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CRX is a homeobox transcription factor whose expression and function is critical to maintain retinal and pineal lineage cells and their progenitors. To determine the biologic and diagnostic potential of CRX in human tumors of the retina and pineal, we examined its expression in multiple settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we show that Crx RNA and protein expression are exquisitely lineage restricted to retinal and pineal cells during normal mouse and human development. Gene expression profiling analysis of a wide range of human cancers and cancer cell lines also supports that CRX RNA is highly lineage restricted in cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of 22 retinoblastomas and 13 pineal parenchymal tumors demonstrated strong expression of CRX in over 95% of these tumors. Importantly, CRX was not detected in the majority of tumors considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors (n = 78. The notable exception was medulloblastoma, 40% of which exhibited CRX expression in a heterogeneous pattern readily distinguished from that seen in retino-pineal tumors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings describe new potential roles for CRX in human cancers and highlight the general utility of lineage restricted transcription factors in cancer biology. They also identify CRX as a sensitive and specific clinical marker and a potential lineage dependent therapeutic target in retinoblastoma and pineoblastoma.

  12. 松果体区乳头状肿瘤临床病理学分析%Clinicopathologic features of papillary tumors of the pineal region

    方静宜; 王军梅; 崔云; 李敬军; 苏玉金; 刘朝霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨松果体区乳头状肿瘤的临床表现、病理诊断、鉴别诊断、组织发生、术后治疗及与生存相关因素.方法 收集松果体区及第三脑室后部肿瘤386例,新生儿松果体组织2例,成人松果体组织2例.HE染色、过碘酸雪夫(PAS)组织化学染色、16种抗体免疫组织化学染色(EnVision法).结果 确诊松果体区乳头状肿瘤5例,患者4例男性,1例女性.1例为复发病例,组织病理学表现为乳头状结构及实性细胞区,乳头状结构特征为单层、假复层柱状或立方上皮细胞围绕血管排列,朝向血管的细胞表面和血管形成明显的界限,乳头中心血管玻璃样变,实性细胞区细胞排列呈巢片状,可见核分裂象及坏死.5例PAS染色胞质内均偶见粉色黏蛋白样物质.免疫组织化学染色细胞角蛋白(CK)、CK8/18、突触素、巢蛋白、微管相关蛋白、S-100蛋白、波形蛋白5例均阳性,嗜铬粒素A、神经元特异性烯醇化酶4例阳性,神经丝蛋白2例阳性,Ki-67阳性指数1% ~6%,上皮细胞膜抗原、CK5/6、癌胚抗原、NeuN 5例均阴性.除病例5随访失败外,其余4例患者中,3例健在,1例死亡,死亡病例为复发病例.结论 松果体区乳头状肿瘤从儿童到成人均可发病,男性居多;组织病理学表现为乳头状结构及实性细胞区,肿瘤细胞具有上皮细胞学特征;应注意与乳头状结构肿瘤鉴别,特别是室管膜瘤;可能来源于联合下器官室管膜细胞;早诊断、肿瘤小、及早手术、争取全切、术后放疗有助于延长患者生存期.%Objective To study the clinicopathologic features of papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR).Method Three hundred and eighty six cases of pineal region and posterior third ventricle tumors,two newborn and two adult pineal glands were analyzed by HE,PAS and immunohistochemistry of 16 antibodies (EnVision method).Results Five cases of PTPR were diagnosed with mixed papillary

  13. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal region

    Gorhan, C.; Soto-Ares, G.; Pruvo, J.P. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, Lille (France); Ruchoux, M.M. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France); Blond, S. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France)

    2001-11-01

    We describe CT and MR findings in a 23-month-old infant with a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal gland. The tumour has been stereotactically biopsied and surgically resected. The pathological diagnosis was made on the resected piece. Embryology of the pineal gland and the histology of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery of pineal and related tumors

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Mori, Yoshimasa; Yamada, Yasushi; Kida, Yoshihisa [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan). Gamma Knife Center

    2001-06-01

    The role of gamma radiosurgery as an additional therapy after conventional treatments for pineal and related tumors was studied in 30 out of 33 cases with a mean follow-up of 23.3 months. Overall results showed that complete response (CR) was obtained in 8 cases (26.7%) and response rate was 73.3%. However, enlargement of the tumors was noted in 8 cases, of which 7 (23.3%) died of tumor progression (PG). Germinomas and pineocytomas showed higher response and control rates of 100%, and no tumor enlargement or death occurred after gamma knife treatment. In germinoma with STGC (syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell) which has been thought to have intermediate prognosis, two cases showed partial response (PR), but another died from progression of the disease. Malignant germ cell tumors and pineoblastomas showed unfavorable response and prognosis; the response and progression rates were 50%. However, complete response was obtained in 3 cases (25%) after gamma radiosurgery. Gamma knife was the initial treatment in three cases without pathological diagnosis in which one obtained CR and two showed partial response (PR). Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery is expected to be an effective and novel treatment for pineal and related tumors not only as an adjuvant, but also as an initial therapy. (author)

  15. Patofysiologiske mekanismer bag øjensymptomer ved primaere tumorer i corpus pineale

    Illum, N O; Møller, M; Garde, E

    1993-01-01

    Primary tumors of the pineal body can produce dyscoordinative movements of the eye, pupillary dilatation, paralysis of adduction during convergence and nystagmus. Obstruction of the aqueduct can cause hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure and papilledema. Diabetes insipidus may be a...

  16. Atypical pleomorphic neoplasms of the pineal gland: Case report and review of the literature

    M Praver

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The present case highlights the exotic nature of pineal region tumors with pleomorphic cell histology. Given the diverse range of tumors encountered in the pineal region, pathological confirmation is mandatory. Favorable clinical outcomes demonstrate that surgical resection alone can yield excellent long-term results for tumors falling within the spectrum of pleomorphic lesions of the pineal gland.

  17. Pineal germinoma with extracranial metastases: case report

    Lee, Young Rang; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Park, Moon Hyang; Ko, Yong [College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    Pineal germinoma is the commonest pineal region tumor of childhood and adolescence. Metastatic germinoma most commonly occurs via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and it is usually limited to the cerebrospinal axis. ExtacraniaI hematogenous metastasis is known to be very rare. We report here on a case of pineal germinoma with gradual extracranial metastases that occurred both through the CSF pathway and by hematogenous spread. The patient had multifocal CSF seeding after his surgery for pineal germinoma, and the left iliac metastasis and lung metastasis then occurred.

  18. MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma: focus on differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Ho Kyu; Kim, Jae Kyun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Myung Jun; Ham, Soo Youn; Lee, Jong Hwa; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    To determine the characteristic MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma, and differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors. MR images of patients with histopathologically proven pineal germinoma(n=3D14) and other pineal germ cell tumors(n=3D10) were retrospectively analyzed with regard to size, signal intensity and homogeneity, enhancing features, cyst formation, and multiplicity of lesions. Other pineal germ cell tumors were the mixed germ cell tumors (n=3D4), malignant teratomas (n=3D3), choriocarcinoma(n=3D1), embryonal carcinoma(n=3D1), and endodermal sinus tumor(n=3D1). Tumor markers were evaluated. On T1-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(86%) or iso signal intensity (93%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or iso signal intensity(70%). On T2-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(64%) or iso signal intensity(57%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or high signal intensity(80%). On Gd-DTPA enhanced images, germinomas showed homogeneous (93%) or strong enhancement (64%), while other germ cell tumors showed homogeneous(60%) or strong enhancement (70%). Cyst formation was noted in ten Patients (71%) with germinoma and in six (60%) with other germ cell tumors. Invasion on surrounding structures was seen in 11 patients (79%) with germinoma and in five (50%) with other germ cell tumors. Lesions were multiple in three patients(21%) with germinoma. Thirteen of 14 patients with germinoma had normal serum {alpha}-FP(tetoprotein) and {beta}-HCG(human chononic gonafotrophin) levels. Two of four patients with mixed germ cell tumors had elevated serum {beta}-FP and {alpha}-HCG levels; in the ther two, elevated serum {alpha}-FP or {beta}-HCG levels were noted. In the malignant teratoma and embryonal carcinoma patients, serum {alpha}-FP and {beta}-HCG levels were normal. The patient with choriocarcinoma had an elevated serum {beta}-HCG level. On T1W1, the only significant differential point (p<0.01) between

  19. Pineal gland in rats with 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene-induced mammary tumors subjected to manipulations known as enhancers of pineal actions

    Cos, S.; Bardasano, J. L.; Mediavilla, M D; Sánchez Barceló, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of pinealocytes was studied in rats with 7,17-dimethylbenz (a) anthraceneinduced manimary tumors which were subjected to experimental manipulations known as enhancers of pineal actions (anosmia, underfeeding or cold exposure). In these aniinals we found: (1) - more nuclei with deep nuclear invaginations; (11) - a large number of cytoplasmic organelles, including lipid droplets. myeloid bodies, synaptic ribbons and lysosomes; (111) - numer...

  20. Incidence of calcification in the pineal gland, habenular commissure and choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Ishikawa, Masatsune; Miyake, Hidenori; Aoki, Michio; Takeuchi, Juji

    1984-04-01

    CT scans of 3,000 consecutive normal persons were examined to verify the incidence of calcification in the pineal body, the habenular commissure, and the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle. In people over 10 years old, pineal calcification was found in 83% (male 83%, female 81%), habenular calcification in 18% (male 22%, female 60%). In people over 30 years of age, pineal calcification was found in 86%, habenular calcification in 20%, and choroid plexus calcification in 69%. There was a preponderance of male cases in almost all decades. The size and shape of the calcification in the pineal region were examined in 29 pineal-region tumors and other germinoma cases. There were no specific differences in calcification between normal persons and the pineal region tumor cases. However, there was a tendency for the pineal body calcification in the pineal teratoma to deviate unilaterally.

  1. Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation: Treatment outcomes of five cases

    WATANABE, TSUBASA; Mizowaki, Takashi; ARAKAWA, YOSHIKI; IIZUKA, YUSUKE; Ogura, Kengo; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Miyamoto, Susumu; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation (PPTID) is a rare disease, first classified by the World Health Organization in 2000. The number of available studies on the treatment of PPTID is currrently limited and the optimal management for this disease has not yet been determined. We retrospectively evaluated the treatment outcomes for PPTID at our institute and analyzed the roles of radiation therapy and chemotherapy for this disease. The clinical data on five patients diagnose...

  2. Molecular Basis for Defining the Pineal Gland and Pinealocytes as Targets for Tumor Necrosis Factor

    Cláudia Emanuele Carvalho-Sousa; Sanseray eda Silveira Cruz-Machado; Eduardo Koji Tamura; Pedro A C. M. Fernandes; Luciana ePinato; Muxel, Sandra M.; Erika eCecon; Markus, Regina P.

    2011-01-01

    The pineal gland, which is the gland that translates darkness into an endocrine signal by releasing melatonin at night, is now considered a key player in the mounting of an innate immune response. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), the first pro-inflammatory cytokine to be released by an inflammatory response, suppresses the translation of the key enzyme of melatonin synthesis (arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase-alkyl-N-acetyltransferase, Aa-nat). Here we show that TNF receptors of the subtype 1 (T...

  3. Pineal Gland Lymphoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Akshya Gupta; Mahlon Johnson; Ali Hussain

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old male presented to our institution with acute-onset headache. Imaging studies demonstrated a mass in the region of the pineal gland, with subsequent histopathology findings being consistent with large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with methotrexate, but ultimately did not survive. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma rarely involves the pineal gland, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal gland tumors in the appropriate clinical setting.

  4. Pineal Gland Lymphoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Akshya Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old male presented to our institution with acute-onset headache. Imaging studies demonstrated a mass in the region of the pineal gland, with subsequent histopathology findings being consistent with large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with methotrexate, but ultimately did not survive. Primary central nervous system (CNS lymphoma rarely involves the pineal gland, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal gland tumors in the appropriate clinical setting.

  5. Analysis of clinical features and treatment in mature teratomas at pineal region

    QI Gui-jun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment through occipital tentorium of cerebellum approach was performed in nine cases of mature teratoma at the pineal region. Diagnosis was confirmed by postoperative pathological examination. No perioperative death occurred. Surgery-related complications (visual difficulties, visual field defects, seizures were seen in 4 cases. All cases were followed for 3 months-7 years (mean 3.70 years. The mature teratoma at the pineal region are more common in male children. The main clinical manifestations are intracranial hypertension and ataxia. Neurosurgical treatment may provide satisfactory outcome.

  6. MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures

    Satoh, H. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Uozumi, T. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Arita, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Sumida, M. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Germinomas cerebrais (teratomas atípicos da pineal Cerebral germinomas (atipical teratomas of the pineal region

    Alexandre Alencar

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available São estudados três casos de germinomas cerebrais, sendo um tópico, da região pineal, e dois ectópicos, chamados germinomas supra-selares ou quiasmáticos. Estes últimos parecem ser mais agressivos que os seus congeneres tópicos, pois alem de se disseminarem pelas cisternas basais, costumam infiltrar as paredes do III ventrículo, fórnix, hipotálamo, nervos e quiasma ópticos. Caracteristicamente produzem um enorme aumento das proteínas liquóricas, desacompanhado de uma pleocitose proporcional. As proteínas liquóricas aumentadas sao globulinas cujas reações mostram-se fortemente positivas, possivelmente produzidas pelas celulas de aspecto linfocitario que constituem parte desta neoplasia. O aumento das proteinas liquoricas e tao acentuado que em presenca de uma crianca ou adolescente com sindrome de hipertensão intracraniana, hiperproteinoraquia sem pleocitose e sinais clínicos ou radiológicos sugestivos de localização na base do crânio a possibilidade de um germinoma quiasmático deve ser seriamente considerada, pois o quadro e muito sugestivo.Three cases of Cerebral Germinomas, one of them situated in the pineal region (topical and two ectopical of the so called suprasellar or chiasmal Germinomas are studied. These last ones may be more aggressive than the congeneral topical ones, since besides it's dissemination throughout the basal cisternas they usually infilstrate into de walls of the III Ventricle, Fornix, Hypothalamus, Chiasma and Optic nervs. A high level of proteins in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells is characteristic. Globulins are the predominant fraction of the increased spinal fluid proteins, as indicated by the highly positive laboratory test. These globulins are possibly produced by the lymphocytes which are part of this neoplasm. The high level of protein in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells, in the presence of intracranial syndrome in a child or

  8. Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples Magnetic resonance study of the pineal region: normal pineal gland, simple cysts

    JOSÉ GUILHERME CALDAS; DOMINIQUE DOYON; HENRIQUE LEDERMAN; ROBERT CARLIER

    1998-01-01

    Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo) identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4%) e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu maior diâmetro. Os cistos simples ...

  9. Molecular basis for defining pineal gland and pinealocytes as targets for tumor necrosis factor (TNF

    ReginaP.Markus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland, which is the gland that translates darkness into an endocrine signal by releasing melatonin at night, is now considered a key player in the mounting of an innate immune response. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, the first pro-inflammatory cytokine to be released by an inflammatory response, suppresses the translation of the key enzyme of melatonin synthesis (arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase-alkyl-N-acetyltransferase, Aa-nat. Here we show that TNF receptors of the subtype 1 (TNF-R1 are expressed by astrocytes, microglia and pinealocytes. We also show that the activation of TNF triggers the nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB pathway in pinealocytes by reducing the cytoplasmic level of the inhibitory nuclear factor kappa B protein of the subtype A (NFKBIA. The TNF-induced nuclear translocation of the p50/p50 NFKB transcription factor lacks a transactivation domain, and this phenomenon explains how TNF blocks the transcription of Aa-nat. In addition, the p65/RelA nuclear translocation was read-out following the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and the synthesis of nitric oxide NO. The increase in the transcription of genes activated by NFKB opens a new perspective for understanding the implication of the pineal gland in pathophysiological conditions.

  10. Isodense epidermoid cyst in the pineal region. Case report

    Yamanouchi, Yasuo; Takahara, Nobuhiko; Kawamura, Yasuo; Matsumura, Hiroshi

    1985-02-01

    A 69-year-old male was admitted complaining of gait disturbances and diplopia, 2.5 years after an episode of serous meningitis. Neurological examination on admission disclosed Parinaud's sign, unsteady gait and dysdiadochokinesis on the left side. A striking finding on the computerized tomography (CT) was the left to right shift of the posterior portion of the third ventricle without visualization of the quadrigeminal and ambient cisterns, which were almost completely occupied by an isodense mass accompanied by high dense flecks and a low dense part. Enhanced CT showed positive enhancement in the vicinity of the pineal calcification. By the suboccipital supracerebellar approach, an encapsulated mass containing brownish yellow fluid was subtotally removed and a histological examination of it revealed epidermoid tissue and hemosiderin deposits in the solid portion. Few reports of isodense epidermoid cysts have so far been found in the literature giving a full explanation for this unusual CT attenuation value. Based on the clinical course and histology of this case, the pathogenesis of the unusual density is discussed along the following lines: The mixture of the low dense factor due to cholesterin and the high dense factor due to prior bleeding is believed to result in the isodense attenuation value in the liquid portion. Also, in the solid part, a microscopically mixed texture of deposited hemosiderin and cholesterin clefts in the inflammatory granulomatous tissue could explain its density on the CT scan.

  11. Intracranial physiological calcification on computed tomography, 1. Calcification of pineal region

    Kwak, Ryungchan; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Ito, Shotaro; Kadoya, Satoru

    1988-06-01

    Of intracranial physiological calcification, common calcification of pineal region, choroid plexus of lateral ventricles and of basal ganglia was examined based on the frequency of occurence of age and sex and type of CT scanners. Consecutive cases of 2877 (1450 males and 1427 females) underwent plain CT scanning were studied. Pathological calcification was excluded from this study. Three types of CT scanners (SCN-200, Somatom 2 and TCT-10 A) were used. As a whole, calcification was shown in 67.7 % in pineal region, 57.6 % in choroid plexus of lateral ventricles and 7.5 % in basal ganglia. First, we reported in detail the calcification of pineal region, in which calcification occurred most frequently. Calcification in pineal region had a close relation with age by increasing with aging. The youngest patient was 8 years old. There was a striking increase in number of patients aged from 10 to 39 years. There was a gradual increase in those aged over 40 years. Of patients aged from 70 to 79 years, calcification was found in 81.5 %. The incidence was noted no changes in patients aged over 80 years. As for patients aged over 20 years, calcification was observed in 75.1 % (82.6 % males and 68.0 % females). In patients aged from 20 to 79 years, the calcification was significantly higher in male than female. Although there was a different incidence of calcification examined by three types of CT scanners, it was not significant. There was no significant difference between thickness of 8 mm section and 10 mm.

  12. Pineal and Pituitary Glands

    ... Registries Review Brain & CNS Tumors Signs & Symptoms Anatomy Neurons & Glial Cells Brain Meninges Spinal Cord Cranial Nerves Pineal and Pituitary Glands Abstracting, Coding, & Staging Topographic Sites Histological Types Grading Staging Multiple Primaries Malignant Transformation Coding Sequence ...

  13. Pituitary Tumors

    ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ...

  14. Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful?

    Quantitative values of CT attenuation, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standardized uptake value (SUV) were investigated for differentiation between pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and germinomas. Differences in age, sex, and calcification pattern were also evaluated. Twenty-three patients with PPTs and germinomas in 20 years were retrospectively enrolled under the approval of the institutional review board. CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV (20, 13, and 10 patients, respectively) were statistically compared between the two tumors. Differences in sex and patterns of calcification (''exploded'' or ''engulfed'') were also examined. Mean patient ages were compared among three groups of pineoblastoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, (PPTID) and pineocytoma and germinoma. None of the quantitative values of CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p >.05). However, there was a significant difference in age (p <.05) among the three groups of pineoblastoma (mean age ± standard deviation 7.0 ± 8.7 years), PPTID, and pineocytoma (53.7 ± 11.4 years) and germinoma (19.1 ± 8.1 years). Sex also showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p =.039). Exploded pattern of calcification was found in 9 of 11 PPT patients and engulfed pattern in 7 of 9 patients with germinomas. No reverse pattern was observed, and the patterns of calcification were considered highly specific of tumor types. None of the quantitative imaging values could differentiate PPTs from germinomas. Age, sex, and calcification patterns were confirmed useful in differentiating these tumors to some degree. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of pineal calcification in children. Using both CT and plain radiographs

    Ando, Kazuo; Odagiri, Kunio; Fujiwara, Takuya; Tanohata, Kazunori; Matsui, Kengo; Okano, Shigeki

    1987-07-01

    The study cases were 804 patients who had received either CT or plain radiographs for some reasons. Their ages ranged from newborn to 15 years old. Twenty four patients had the pineal calcification, in which one patient had the pineal region tumor and 4 patients had precocious puberty. The incidence of the pineal calcification was observed on CT as 0.2, 5.8, and 14 % in their age of 0 to 5, 6 to 10, and 11 to 15 years old, respectively. On the other hand, this finding was detected only in 0, 1.1, and 1.2 % on plain radiographs. In conclusion, pineal calcification on CT may suggest the pathological state in children. Although it is observed in a minority of normal children, such a calcification could be looked upon as not only pineal region tumor but precocious puberty and other intracranial disorders with suspicion.

  16. 经胼胝体-穹窿间入路切除第三脑室内部及其后部肿瘤的临床治疗探讨%Experiences of transcallosal-interforniceal approach for resection of the third ventrical and the pineal region tumors: report of 24 cases

    张宏伟; 张明山; 夏雷; 曲彦明; 李建华; 任铭; 王浩然; 于春江

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨经胼胝体-穹窿间入路显微手术切除第三脑室内部及后部肿瘤的优缺点及手术技巧.方法 回顾性分析2008年7月至2011年3月24例显微镜下经胼胝体-穹窿间入路切除第三脑室内部及后部肿瘤的患者资料,其中男性14例,女性10例;年龄17~65岁,平均32岁.病程范围:1个月至10年.分析讨论手术切口、引流静脉的处理、胼胝体切开、颅高压情况下肿瘤的暴露、如何预防术中并发症、肿瘤切除、合并梗阻性脑积水术中的处理、术后管理等问题.结果 病理结果证实松果体实质细胞瘤5例、生殖细胞瘤4例、星形细胞瘤3例、下丘脑错构瘤2例、室管膜瘤2例、混合生殖细胞瘤2例、淋巴瘤2例、松果体母细胞瘤1例、皮样囊肿1例、脊索瘤样胶质瘤1例、颅咽管瘤1例.其中9例肿瘤镜下全切除,6例次全切除,4例大部分切除,5例部分切除,无死亡病例;术中同时行第三脑室底造瘘术13例.术中发现额顶部硬膜外血肿1例;术后短期内记忆力下降3例,2例1个月恢复,1例3个月恢复;术后额顶部硬膜下积液1例,保守治疗后好转;术后行脑室腹腔分流术1例.结论 在熟练掌握胼胝体-穹窿间入路手术技术的前提下,该入路是切除第三脑室内部肿瘤及大多数第三脑室后部肿瘤的理想入路.术中同时行第三脑室底造瘘术是此入路的显著优势.%Objective To discuss the advantages and disadvantages of transcallosal-interforniceal approach for resection of the third ventrical and the pineal region tumors.Methods The clinical data of 24 cases from July 2008 to March 2011 were retrospectively analyzed.All 24 patients operated by transcallosal-interforniceal approach,among them,there were 14 males and 10 females,with a average age of 32 years ranged from 17 to 65 years and with medical history from 1 month to 10 years.Issues of managements were analyzed and discussed,including reasonable

  17. Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful?

    Kakigi, Takahide; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Ryo; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C. [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto (Japan); Mikami, Yoshiki [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Kyoto (Japan); Shimono, Taro [Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Quantitative values of CT attenuation, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standardized uptake value (SUV) were investigated for differentiation between pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and germinomas. Differences in age, sex, and calcification pattern were also evaluated. Twenty-three patients with PPTs and germinomas in 20 years were retrospectively enrolled under the approval of the institutional review board. CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV (20, 13, and 10 patients, respectively) were statistically compared between the two tumors. Differences in sex and patterns of calcification (''exploded'' or ''engulfed'') were also examined. Mean patient ages were compared among three groups of pineoblastoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, (PPTID) and pineocytoma and germinoma. None of the quantitative values of CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p >.05). However, there was a significant difference in age (p <.05) among the three groups of pineoblastoma (mean age ± standard deviation 7.0 ± 8.7 years), PPTID, and pineocytoma (53.7 ± 11.4 years) and germinoma (19.1 ± 8.1 years). Sex also showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p =.039). Exploded pattern of calcification was found in 9 of 11 PPT patients and engulfed pattern in 7 of 9 patients with germinomas. No reverse pattern was observed, and the patterns of calcification were considered highly specific of tumor types. None of the quantitative imaging values could differentiate PPTs from germinomas. Age, sex, and calcification patterns were confirmed useful in differentiating these tumors to some degree. (orig.)

  18. Atypical pleomorphic neoplasms of the pineal gland: Case report and review of the literature

    Praver, M.; R D′Amico; Arraez, C.; B E Zacharia; Varma, H.; Goldman, J. E.; Bruce, J N; Canoll, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pineal region tumors are rare and diverse. Among them exist reports of pleomorphic xanthroastrocytoma (PXA) and pleomorphic granular cell astrocytoma (PGCA) of the pineal gland. These related tumors are remarkably similar sharing pleomorphic histologic features with only minor immunohistochemical and ultrastructural differences. Case Description: We present a case of a 42-year old right-handed woman presented with a longstanding history of migraine headaches which had worsened...

  19. 松果体区畸胎瘤的诊断和治疗%Diagnosis and treatment of pineal region teratomas

    漆松涛; 邱炳辉; 方陆雄; 张喜安

    2008-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical diagnosis and treatment method of pineal region teratomas. Methods 16 cases of pineal region teratomas were surgically treated. The clinical data and long-term follow-up of these patients were reviewed. Results All 16 patients complained of intracranial hypertension. 14 cases with calcification on CT scan, 7 cases with cystic change and all with distinct degree enhancement on MRI scan. 2 cases with high levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in serum. All cases were received microneurosurgical operations via occipital transtentorial approach and were achieved total resection. There were 6 cases with mature teratomas and 10 with immature teratomas. There was no operative death, only 3 cases complicated with defect of field vision. During followed-up period, there were 5 cases with tumor recurrence and 3 cases of death. Conclusion Pineal region teratomas patients were predominantly boy and children. Signs of intracranial hypertension and ataxia are the common clinical manifestation. There are some special appearance on imaging, such as irregular shape, calcification, cystic change and uneven enhancement. Imaging and serum examination can be useful to distinguish mature and immature types. When radiation therapy is not effective, the patient should be actively received surgical treatment. Early diagnosis and early operative treatment with postoperative adjacent treatment can provide a good prognosis in pineal region teratomas.%目的 探讨松果体区畸胎瘤的临床特征和治疗方法.方法 对16例开颅手术的松果体区畸胎瘤的临床资料及其随访结果进行回顾性分析.结果 以颅高压起病16例,CT扫描钙化14例,MRI囊变7例,血清学甲胎蛋白(AFP)增高2例.行枕部经小脑幕入路手术,成熟畸胎瘤6例,未成熟畸胎瘤10例,无手术死亡,术后并发视野缺损3例,随访6个月至5年,复发5例,死亡3例.结论 松果体区畸胎瘤多见于儿童男性,常见临床表现是颅高压

  20. Imaging of brain tumors

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  1. Radiation Is an Important Component of Multimodality Therapy for Pediatric Non-Pineal Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors

    Purpose: To review a historical cohort of pediatric patients with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET), to clarify the role of radiation in the treatment of these tumors. Patients and Methods: Fifteen children aged <18 years with non-pineal sPNETs diagnosed between 1992 and 2006 were identified. Initial therapy consisted of surgical resection and chemotherapy in all patients and up-front radiotherapy (RT) in 5 patients. Five patients had RT at the time of progression, and 5 received no RT whatever. Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival were then calculated. Results: The median follow-up from diagnosis for all patients was 31 months (range, 0.5-165 months) and for surviving patients was 49 months (range, 10-165). Of the 5 patients who received up-front RT, all were alive without evidence of disease at a median follow-up of 50 months (range, 25-165 months). Only 5 of the 10 patients who did not receive up-front RT were alive at last follow-up. There was a statistically significant difference in overall survival between the patient group that received up-front RT and the group that did not (p = 0.048). In addition, we found a trend toward a statistically significant improvement in overall survival for those patients who received gross total resections (p = 0.10). Conclusions: Up-front RT and gross total resection may confer a survival benefit in patients with sPNET. Local failure was the dominant pattern of recurrence. Efforts should be made to determine patients most likely to have local failure exclusively or as a first recurrence, in order to delay or eliminate craniospinal irradiation

  2. Pathological features and origin of primary pineal mixed germ cell tumors%原发性松果体区混合性生殖细胞肿瘤病理特点及其起源探讨

    肖罡; 方陆雄; 邱炳辉; 漆松涛

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过影像学表现、术中所见及病理成分探讨松果体区混合性生殖细胞肿瘤的起源.方法 回顾分析我院2000年1月致2010年9月间经术后病理证实的15例松果体区混合性生殖细胞肿瘤的术前影像学表现和病理标本.结果 影像学表现,12例存在钙化,10例含有囊变,5例含有脂质.矢状位类圆或类椭圆状6例,边缘均较光滑,不规则形状9例,边缘多突起;术中所见,所有肿瘤均位于大脑大静脉蛛网膜袖套包绕形成的松果体隐窝内;病理成分,13例含有生殖细胞成分,9例含有畸胎瘤成分,4例含有胚胎性癌成分,3例含有绒癌成分,7例含有卵黄囊瘤成分,3例含有横纹肌瘤成分.在7例标本边缘发现牛殖细胞瘤,10例患者生殖细胞瘤成分与其余成分相互穿插或被其它成分包绕.结论 松果体区混合性生殖细胞肿瘤起源于松果体周围残余生殖细胞,其极有可能来自单一的原始生殖细胞.%To investigate the origin of mixed germ cell tumors in the pineal region based on the image data,surgical findings and pathological examination of the tumor. Methods The preoperative CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and tumor specimens were retrospectively analyzed in 15 cases of pineal mixed germ cell tumors confirmed by postoperative histological examination between January 2000 and September 2010. Results Radiographic examination of the tumor revealed calcification in 12 cases, cystic changes in 10 cases, and the presence of lipid in 5 cases. On the anteroposterior images, the tumors appeared round or elliptic with smooth edge in 6 cases,and showed irregular shape with multiple processes on the edge in 9 cases. Surgical exploration found all the tumors located in the the suprapineal recess enclosed by the arachnoidal envelope of the Galen vein. Pathologically, 13 specimens contained germinoma component, 9 contained teratoma component, 4 had embryonic carcinoma component, 3 had

  3. MR imaging of pineal cysts

    Ahn, Yong Sik; Yu, Hyeon; Kim, Wan Tae; Bae, Jin Woo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors.

  4. Probing Pineal-specific Gene Expression with Transgenic Zebrafish†

    Kojima, Daisuke; Dowling, John E.; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2008-01-01

    The pineal gland of zebrafish (Danio rerio) contains lightsensitive photoreceptor cells and plays an important role in the neuroendocrine system. The zebrafish exorhodopsin gene encodes a pineal-specific photoreceptive protein, whose promoter region harbors a cis-acting element, pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), directing pineal-specific gene expression. For in vivo genetic studies on PIPE-binding proteins and their regulatory mechanisms, we generated a transgenic zebrafish line, Tg...

  5. Pineal teratoma and its relationship to intracerebral development: case report.

    Sekhon, L H; Morgan, M K

    1991-04-01

    A teratoma of the pineal region in a 20-year-old Australian Aborigine is presented in which an unusual location of the straight sinus and tentorium cerebelli suggests that the tumor arose before 4 months of gestation. In addition, this case provides some insight into the development of the falx cerebri, which might arise from the midline fusion of the left and right tentoria cerebelli caused by the dorsal development of the telencephalon. PMID:2034357

  6. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma.

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma.The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland with significant enhancement.The patient underwent surgical treatment for removal of the neoplastic lesion in the pineal gland. Histopathological examination confirmed invasion of the pineal gland by metastatic urothelial carcinoma.This case highlighted that the presence of pineal lesions in patient with known malignancy should raise suspicion of metastatic involvement. PMID:27149501

  7. Long term outcome of adolescent and adult patients with pineal parenchymal tumors treated with fractionated radiotherapy between 1982 and 2003 -- a single institution's experience

    To evaluate the effectivity of fractionated radiotherapy in adolescent and adult patients with pineal parenchymal tumors (PPT). Between 1982 and 2003, 14 patients with PPTs were treated with fractionated radiotherapy. 4 patients had a pineocytoma (PC), one a PPT with intermediate differentiation (PPTID) and 9 patients a pineoblastoma (PB), 2 of which were recurrences. All patients underwent radiotherapy on the primary tumor site with a median total dose of 54 Gy. In 9 patients with primary PB treatment included whole brain irradiation (3 patients) or irradiation of the craniospinal axis (6 patients) with a median total dose of 35 Gy. Median follow-up was 123 months in the PC patients and 109 months in the patients with primary PB. 7 patients were free from relapse at the end of follow-up. One PC patient died from spinal seeding. Among 5 PB patients treated with radiotherapy without chemotherapy, 3 developed local or spinal tumor recurrence. Both patients treated for PB recurrences died. The patient with PPTID is free of disease 7 years after radiotherapy. Local radiotherapy seems to be effective in patients with PC and some PPTIDs. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with more aggressive variants of PPTIDs as well as treatment of PB needs to be further improved, since local and spinal failure even despite craniospinal irradiation (CSI) is common. As PPT are very rare tumors, treatment within multi-institutional trials remains necessary

  8. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma. The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland wi...

  9. Comparison of Three Methods for the Estimation of Pineal Gland Volume Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Niyazi Acer; Ahmet Turan Ilıca; Ahmet Tuncay Turgut; Özlem Özçelik; Birdal Yıldırım; Mehmet Turgut

    2012-01-01

    Pineal gland is a very important neuroendocrine organ with many physiological functions such as regulating circadian rhythm. Radiologically, the pineal gland volume is clinically important because it is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although many studies have estimated the pineal gland volume using different techniques, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no stereological work done on this subject. The objective of t...

  10. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    Levidou Georgia; Korkolopoulou Penelope; Agrogiannis George; Paidakakos Nikolaos; Bouramas Dimos; Patsouris Efstratios

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histologi...

  11. 松果体区脑池和蛛网膜的显微解剖研究%Microsurgical anatomy of cisterns and arachnoid membranes in pineal region

    樊俊; 漆松涛; 张喜安; 石瑾

    2011-01-01

    目的 系统研究松果体区脑池及其蛛网膜结构的显微解剖学特点,为手术入路及手术操作提供解刮学依据.方法 在手术显微镜下观察20例尸头松果体区各个脑池的形态、边界、内容物及相关蛛网膜结构.结果 松果体区的蛛网膜结构包括蛛网膜袖套、环中脑后膜和小脑前中央膜.其中蛛网膜袖套由枕叶底、内侧面及小脑上表面蛛网膜在幕尖处汇合而成,包裹Galen静脉系统、松果体及松果体七隐窝;环中脑后膜由枕叶底面及小脑上表面蛛网膜在幕切迹处汇合形成,环绕并附着于中脑背侧;小脑前中央膜由小脑上表面蛛网膜和蛛网膜袖套汇合处发出,前下方附着于下丘.四叠体池与小脑上池通过小脑前中央膜分隔,与后胼周池通过蛛网膜袖套分隔.与环池后部通过环中脑后膜的升段分隔,环池后部与小脑中脑裂池通过环中脑后膜的水平段分隔.结论 重新划分了松果体区各个脑池的范围与交通情况,明确了蛛网膜的形态与分布.%Objective To study micro-anatomical features of cisterns and their arachnoid membranes in pineal region. Methods Cisterns in pineal region including their shapes, borders, contents and arachnoidal membranes were observed in 20 cadaveric brains using an operating microscope. Results Arachnoid membranes of the pineal region include the arachnoidal envelope, the posterior perimesencephalic membrane and the cerebellar precentral membrane. At the level of the tentorial apex, arachnoid membranes covering the inferior-medial surface of occipital lobe and the superior surface of cerebellum converge to form the arachnoidal envelope, which encloses the vein of Galen with its tributaries, the pineal gland and the suprapineal recess. The posterior perimesencephalic membrane arises from the outer arachnoid membranes covering the inferior occipital lobe and the superior cerebellum at the tentorial edge. It surrounds and is attached

  12. Primary pineal melanoma presenting with leptomeningeal spreading in a 22-year-old woman: a case report

    Azimi Parisa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region is exceedingly rare. We report a case of primary pineal malignant melanoma and review the literature. Case presentation Our patient was a 22-year-old Iranian woman without any significant past medical history, who was referred to our center with a four-week history of headache and gait disturbance. A magnetic resonance imaging study showed a solid mass in the pineal region causing obstructive hydrocephalus. A brain biopsy was performed and the histological examination indicated melanoma. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. Our patient underwent gross total resection. At the time of discharge she had fully recovered without any neurological deficits. Three weeks after discharge, she was readmitted to hospital with the diagnosis of distal deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism; 12 weeks after the onset of her illness she died of cardiopulmonary arrest. Conclusion We have presented here a rare tumor, a primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second-youngest patient with such a tumor reported in the literature.

  13. Contrasted study between thin coronal sectional anatomy of the pineal region and MRI image%松果体区的薄层冠状断层解剖与MRI的对照研究

    孙博; 刘树伟; 汤煜春; 樊令仲; 林祥涛; 李振平; 亓恒涛

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the morphology and relationships with the adjacent structures in the pineal region on the thin sections and to provide anatomic data for imaging diagnosis and surgical treatment of diseases in this region. Methods By CT and MRI examination, one normal head specimen was selected for this study. Using the computerized freezing milling technique, the specimen was sliced from anterior to posterior. The in vivo MR images were obtained from ten normal Chinese male adult volunteers using a 3.0 T GE scanner. The base lines of the sectioning and the MR scan were perpendicular to the AC-PC line. Then primary sections were contrasted with the corresponding MR images. Results By the appearance of the pineal peduncle and the disappearance of the pineal gland, the pineal region could be divided into three parts from anterior to posterior, and the shape changed from an inverted triangle to a trapezoid and a triangle gradually. The first interspace was getting wider in the anterior and middle parts of the pineal region, while in the posterior part of the pineal region, it was getting narrower and disappeared finally. From anterior to posterior, the bilateral internal cerebral veins were always in the midline of the pineal region and descended gradually.Conclusion By the computerized freezing milling technique, the anatomic details and adjacent relationships of the pineal region could be exhibited clearly in the thin serial sections, which could help the imaging diagnosis and surgical treatments for minute diseases in this region.%目的 探讨松果体区结构在连续薄层冠状断面上形态结构的变化规律,为该区病变的影像学诊断和外科治疗提供解剖学依据. 方法 选择1例成人头部标本,应用冷冻数控铣削技术由前向后垂直于连合间线(AC-PC线)进行铣削.另选择健康成年男性10名,应用3D SPGR序列行与标本基线一致的3.0 T MR扫描.选取典型的断面标本图像与相应活体的MRI图

  14. Peculiarities in the CT findings of germ cell tumors in various tumor localizations

    The CT findings of 17 germ cell tumors were studied in relation to the locations of the tumor, the pathological diagnoses, and the tumor markers (AFP and HCG). Generally, the CT findings of germ cell tumors depended on the pathological diagnoses more strongly than on the location of the tumors. On plain CT of 7 germ cell tumors in the pineal region, all of them demonstrated heterogeneous findings. Hydrocephalus was seen in 6 cases (86%) and calcification in 6 cases (86%) of the germ cell tumors in the pineal region. Calcification and hydrocephalus that appeared more often than in other regions were characteristic of germ cell tumors of the pineal region. The germ cell tumors in the basal ganglia had a slightly homogenous high density, with small cysts and calcification in most of them on plain CT. On enhanced CT, the tumors were moderately enhanced in all cases located in the basal ganglia. Four cases of germ cell tumors located in the basal ganglia revealed the dilatation of lateral ventricle due to hemispheric atrophy in the tumor side. The germ cell tumors showing an increase in the tumor markers such as AFP and HCG, which were usually malignant germ cell tumors, were strongly enhanced on enhanced CT. (author)

  15. Biosynthesis of taurine by rat pineals in vitro

    Pineal glands from adult, male rats were incubated in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer buffer containing 14C-cystine. After three hours the incubation media and pineal gland extracts were placed separately on Dowex AG W50-X-4 columns. In the elution volume where 14C-labeled taurine is found a labeled peak was recovered. However, when subjected to one or two dimensional paper chromatography especially the eluants from pineal gland extracts yielded two 14C-labeled substances one located in the region where unlabeled taurine is detected by ortho-phthalaldehyde reagent. These results were confirmed utilizing a method developed in our laboratory based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pineals, as well as their respective incubation medium, were shown to contain radioactive taurine. These results demonstrate that rat pineal glands are capable of taurine synthesis. Also a high degree of labeling was associated with an area on paper chromatograms, migrating more rapidly than the standards, using acidic solvent systems. If represented by a single pineal compound, the substance must be rapidly synthesized from 14C-cystine to account for the radioactivity observed. Future studies of sulfur metabolism within the pineal gland could be of significant interest. (author)

  16. Pineal calcification on computed tomography

    Kwon, S. H.; Kang, M. S.; Zeon, S. K.; Park, S. K. [Keimyung University Medical College and Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    Pineal gland visible in plain skull radiography when calcified had been an important indicator for evaluation of any space, occupying lesion within cranium according to displacement of it from normal midline position. Since the pineal gland is more frequently demonstrated on CT scan than plain skull radiography, it seems helpful to define the incidence and localization of pineal gland. 324 patients, performed head CT scan are analyzed incidence and localization of calcified pineal gland. The results were as follows: 1. The overall incidence of pineal calcification was 51%. 2. The male and female ratio in pineal calcification was 56% to 43%. 3. 1) In the AP localization of pineal gland, the ratio of distance from anterior inner table of the skull to the pineal gland and that from pineal gland to the posterior inner table was 1.46 {+-} 0.20. 2) In the lateral localization of pineal gland, according to 'Lateral Percentage Shift' by Hahn and Rim (1976), the result was 0.98% shift in 80 normal cases, but 2.20% shift in 38 cases with S.O.L.

  17. Pinealitis accompanying equine recurrent uveitis.

    Kalsow, C M; Dwyer, A E; Smith, A. W.; Nifong, T P

    1993-01-01

    There is no direct verification of pineal gland involvement in human uveitis. Specimens of pineal tissue are not available during active uveitis in human patients. Naturally occurring uveitis in horses gives us an opportunity to examine tissues during active ocular inflammation. We examined the pineal gland of a horse that was killed because it had become blind during an episode of uveitis. The clinical history and histopathology of the eyes were consistent with post-leptospiral equine recurr...

  18. Structure and ultrastructure of the pigmented cells in the adult dog pineal gland.

    Calvo, J.; Boya, J; Garcia-Mauriño, J E; Lopez-Carbonell, A

    1988-01-01

    The light and electron microscopic features of pigmented cells in the adult dog pineal gland have been described. The presence of pigmented cells was a constant characteristic of the dog pineal gland, though wide variations in the amount of pigment could be found among different animals. Conversely, the localisation of pigmented cells was very constant on the basal surface of the proximal region of the pineal gland. Frequently, clusters of pigmented cells were seen in the posterior commissure...

  19. Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui; Shogo eHaraguchi

    2014-01-01

    The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demon...

  20. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2015-10-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity. PMID:25487536

  1. Morphological findings relating to the problem of cortex and medulla in the pineal glands of rat and hamster.

    Heidbüchel, U; Vollrath, L.

    1983-01-01

    Because, in previous investigations on the rat pineal gland, karyometric studies of pinealocytes from cortical and medullary regions had yielded contradictory results, experiments were carried out to resolve this problem. In immersion-fixed, paraffin-embedded pineal glands, nuclear size of cortical regions was invariably larger than that in the medulla, the nuclear size clearly depending on the plane of sectioning. The differences between cortex and medulla were abolished in (a) pineal glands...

  2. Comparative histology of pineal calcification

    Vigh, B.; Szél, A; Debreceni, K.; Fejér, Z.; Manzano e Silva, M.J.; Vigh-Teichmann, I.

    1998-01-01

    The pineal organ (pineal gland, epiphysis cerebri) contains several calcified concretions called "brain sand7' or acervuli (corpora arenacea). These concretions are conspicuous with imaging techniques and provide a useful landmark for orientation in the diagnosis of intracranial diseases. Predominantly composed of calcium and magnesium salts, corpora arenacea are numerous in old patients. In smaller number they can be present in children as well. The degree...

  3. Intracranial germ cell tumor

    Kreutz, J; Rausin, L.; Weerts, E; Tebache, M; Born, J; Hoyoux, C

    2010-01-01

    Germ cell tumours represent about 3 to 8% of pediatric brain tumours. Occurrence of diabetes insipidus is common in the case of suprasellar germ cell tumors. The diagnosis may be advanced by MRI owing to the location and relatively univocal characteristics of the lesion signal. The existence of a bifocal mass developed in both suprasellar region and pineal zone is highly suggestive of a germinoma. The most important notion is to recognize that at the time of diabetes insipidus diagnosis in a ...

  4. A pineal regulatory element (PIRE) mediates transactivation by the pineal/retina-specific transcription factor CRX

    Li, Xiaodong; Chen, Shiming; Wang, Qingliang; Zack, Donald J.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Borjigin, Jimo

    1998-01-01

    The circadian hormone melatonin is synthesized predominantly in the pineal gland by the actions of two pineal-specific enzymes: serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT). Pineal night-specific ATPase (PINA), another pineal- and night-specific protein we recently identified, is produced as a truncated form of the Wilson disease gene (Atp7b) product. To identify the regulatory elements required for pineal-specific gene expression, we isolated sequences up...

  5. General Information About Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors

    ... germ cell tumors to form is near the pineal gland and in an area of the brain that ... of the inside of the brain, showing the pineal and pituitary glands, optic nerve, ventricles (with cerebrospinal fluid shown in ...

  6. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    Levidou Georgia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland.

  7. Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C;

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for...... normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental...... functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function...

  8. Corpus pineale og MR billeddiagnostik

    Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Siebner, Hartwig;

    2014-01-01

    The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists...

  9. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M.; Rohde, Kristian; Steven L Coon; Litman, Thomas; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. Here, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse p...

  10. Circadian Regulation of Pineal Gland Rhythmicity

    Borjigin, Jimo; Zhang, L. Samantha; Calinescu, Anda-Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (1) local control of serotonin and melatonin rhythms; (2) neurotransmitters involved in central control of melatonin; (3) plasticity o...

  11. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in mandibular region

    The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon neoplasm derivative of the odontogenic epithelium containing canalicular structures with inductor modifications of variable intensity in the conjunctival tissue. It is a slow growth lesion and no much invasive but that may to be similar to other odontogenic lesions more aggressive including the dentigerous cyst and the ameloblastoma among others. Its classical location (upper canine area) guides us to diagnosis and its duct histological pattern is very typical of this tumor. Other tumors included in this group are the ameloblastic fibroma, the ameloblastic odontoma, the calcified odontogenic cyst and composed and complex odontomas. This group of lesions may or not to have formations of hard tissue inside. Thus, authors present the case of a patient presenting with this type of tumor making a histopathology study, a literature review on this benign odontogenic tumor and its clinical radiographic features, treatment, as well as the differential diagnoses to be into account. (author)

  12. Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demonstrated the biological action of pineal allopregnanolone on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum during development in juvenile birds. Pinealectomy (Px induces apoptosis of Purkinje cells, whereas allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks prevents cell death. Furthermore, Px increases the number of Purkinje cells that express active caspase-3, a crucial mediator of apoptosis, and allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks decreases the number of Purkinje cells expressing active caspase-3. It thus appears that pineal allopregnanolone prevents cell death of Purkinje cells by suppressing the activity of caspase-3 during development. This paper highlights new aspects of the biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone.

  13. Frequency of central nervous system tumors in delta region, Egypt

    Khaled R Zalata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim of Work: Central nervous system (CNS tumors represent a major public health problem, and their epidemiological data in Egypt have been rather incomplete except for some regional reports. There are no available frequency-based data on CNS tumors in our locality. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of CNS tumors in east delta region, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The data were collected during the 8-year period from January 1999 to December 2007 from Pathology Department, Mansoura University, and other referred pathology labs. Examination of HandE stained sections from retrieved paraffin blocks were done in all cases for histopathologic categorization of C.N.S. tumors. Immunohistochemical studies were applied to confirm final histopathologic diagnosis in problematic cases. Results: Intracranial tumors represented 86.7% of cases in comparison to only 13.3% for spinal tumors. Gliomas were the CNS tumors of the highest frequency (35.2%, followed by meningioma (25.6%, pituitary adenoma (11.6% and nerve sheath tumors (6.6%. 10.25% of tumors were of children <15 years. Conclusion: This study provides the largest series of the relative frequency of CNS tumors in Delta region in Egypt till now and may help to give insight into the epidemiology of CNS tumors in our locality.

  14. Imaging appearance of bone tumors of the maxillofacial region

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the imaging appearance of benign and malignant bone tumors of the maxillofacial region. A benign bone tumor commonly appears as a well circumscribed lesion. The matrix of the tumor may be calcified or sclerotic. Malignancies often display aggressive characteristics such as cortical breakthrough, bone destruction, a permeative pattern and associated soft-tissue masses. Computed tomography scan is an excellent imaging modality for accurate localization of the lesion, characte...

  15. Pineal function: impact of microarray analysis

    Klein, David C; Bailey, Michael J; Carter, David A;

    2009-01-01

    retina and has provided reason to explore new avenues of study including intracellular signaling, signal transduction, transcriptional cascades, thyroid/retinoic acid hormone signaling, metal biology, RNA splicing, and the role the pineal gland plays in the immune/inflammation response. The new......Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-h schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity to the...... foundation that microarray analysis has provided will broadly support future research on pineal function....

  16. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M;

    2011-01-01

    microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a > 2-fold down-regulation of 543 genes and a > 2-fold up-regulation...... of 745 genes (p < 0.05). Of these, one of the most highly up-regulated (18-fold) was Hoxc4, a member of the Hox gene family, members of which are known to control gene expression cascades. During a 24-h period, a set of 51 genes exhibited differential day/night expression in pineal glands of wild...... influences differential night/day gene expression in this tissue. Some effects of Crx deletion on the pineal transcriptome might be mediated by Hoxc4 up-regulation....

  17. Tumors of the posterior third ventricular region in pediatric patients: The Indian perspective and a review of literature

    Sanjay Behari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diverse tumors in the posterior third ventricular region (TPTVR frequently occur in children. A decade′s experience with pediatric TPTVR is presented, focusing on the Indian perspective. Materials and Methods: 25 children (age range: 3-18 years; mean age: 13.32 years; presentation range: 7 days-2.5 years had clinico-radiological assessment with contrast computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The ventricular/lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF alpha feto protein (AFP/beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG estimation was done when radiological suspicion of a germ cell tumor was present. Extent of resection was deemed partial when some tumor mass remained at the end of surgery, near total when <10% was retained over vital neurovascular structures, and total when complete resection was attained. Results: Operations included infratentorial supracerebellar approach (n = 12, occipito-transtentorial approach (n = 2, endoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy (n = 1, frontal parasagittal craniotomy, interhemispheric transcallosal subchoroidal approach (n = 2, middle temporal gyrus transcortical transventricular approach (n = 1, fronto-temporo-zygomatic combined transylvian and subtemporal approach (n = 1 and right ventriculoperitoneal shunt and stereotactic biopsy (n = 1. Only CSF diversion was performed for five patients with a small TPTVR. CSF diversion was required in 12 (48% patients. Tumor pathology included pinealoblastoma (n = 4; one with pineocytic differentiation, nongerminomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT; n = 3, germinoma (n = 3, pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 2, epidermoid (n = 3 and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET, fibrillary astrocytoma, glioblastoma, teratoma, and meningioma (n = 1, respectively. A patient with neurocysticercosis was diagnosed solely on MRI (four did not undergo biopsy. Fractionated radiotherapy was administered in 13 patients with primary pineal tumors, PNET, NGGCT, fibrillary astrocytoma

  18. Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland

    Rath, Martin F; Muñoz, Estela; Ganguly, Surajit;

    2006-01-01

    Otx2 is a vertebrate homeobox gene, which has been found to be essential for the development of rostral brain regions and appears to play a role in the development of retinal photoreceptor cells and pinealocytes. In this study, the temporal expression pattern of Otx2 was revealed in the rat brain......, with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages. Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland. Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression...... the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland. Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes...

  19. Postnatal development of the dog pineal gland. Light microscopy

    Calvo, J.L.; Boya, J; García-Mauriño, A.; López Carbonell, A.

    1990-01-01

    The light microscopical morphology of the dog pineal gland from the first postnatal day to maturity is described. In the first postnatal week, the pineal parenchyma shows immature cells and many mitotic figures. In this week, pigmented cells are obsemed for the first time, both in the pineal gland and in extrapineal nodules. Throughout the second week, the pineal parenchyma shows a cordonal pattern that disappears progressively in the following stages. From the...

  20. Pineal Proteins Upregulate Specific Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Brain

    Vijay K. Bharti; Srivastava, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL), the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins (PP) on the antioxidant defense sys...

  1. Malignant tumors arising in the maxillary region after radiation therapy

    Although radiotherapy has proven of great therapeutic value in the treatment of malignant tumors, it should also be borne in mind that radiation has a serious potential risk of giving rise to a secondary malignancy. We recently experienced 2 cases each of carcinoma and sarcoma arising in the irradiated areas long after radiation therapy for malignant tumors. In these 4 cases, 2 males and 2 females, the primary neoplastic diseases were squamous cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, carcinoma of unknown pathology and malignant lymphoma, and the secondary tumors were epidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, respectively. The sites of occurrence of these malignancies were invariably in the maxillary region; the mean latent period was 15 years, aside from an infantile case with a latent period of 5 years. In view of the primary diseases being malignant tumors the following criteria were set up for the diagnosis of radiation-induced malignancies: (1) the site of occurrence is within the confines of a previously irradiated area, (2) the latent period is prolonged and (3) the malignancy occurs as a double tumor. Therapy was primarily by operation. The prognosis was exceedingly ominous, the average survival time being 22 months. This was probably and mainly because of rapidity of tumor growth. Thus, the secondary tumors had already spread back to inward by the time they were first discovered. This should be kept in mind during a long-term follow-up of patients receiving radiotherapy for malignancy. (author)

  2. Pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), a cis-acting element, directs pineal-specific gene expression in zebrafish

    Asaoka, Yoichi; Mano, Hiroaki; Kojima, Daisuke; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2002-01-01

    The pineal gland, sharing morphological and biochemical similarities with the retina, plays a unique and central role in the photoneuroendocrine system. The unique development of the pineal gland is directed by a specific combination of the expressed genes, but little is known about the regulatory mechanism underlying the pineal-specific gene expression. We isolated a 1.1-kbp fragment upstream of the zebrafish exo-rhodopsin (exorh) gene, which is expressed specifically in the pineal gland. Tr...

  3. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies: A Case Report.

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-02-01

    This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma.A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL.Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma. PMID:26937937

  4. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma. A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL. Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma. PMID:26937937

  5. CT and MRI of germ-cell tumors with metastasis or multi-located tumors

    Twenty-seven cases of germ-cell tumors were examined with a CT scan in our clinic. In the 11 cases of metastasis or multi-localized tumors, the CT findings were studied in connection with the MRI findings. There were 6 cases of germ-cell tumors which had broad infiltrating tumors with multiple lesions on first admission. Their tumor sites were different from that in cases of malignant glioma, being frequently localized in the pineal and/or the suprasellar region, on the wall of the third and/or lateral ventricle, and in the region of the basal ganglia. Five of the cases of germ-cell tumors had metastasis with various patterns connected to a remote area - that is, to spinal cords, to the ventricular wall and basal cistern of the brain stem by CSF dissemination, to a lung by hematogeneous metastasis, and to the peritoneal wall or organs by a V-P shunt. The CT findings of germ-cell tumors were correlated mainly with the results of the histological diagnosis; they were found not to differ with the tumor site. The germinoma in the suprasellar region had less calcification than in the pineal region. Cysts, calcification, and an enlargement of the lateral ventricle on the tumor side were frequently seen in the germinoma of the basal ganglia. On the MRI of 5 cases of germinoma, the T1-weighted image revealed a slightly low or iso signal intensity, while the T2-weighted image showed a high signal intensity. In the case of multiple tumor lesions, some cases demonstrated different CT findings and radiosensitivities for each tumor. The possibility of a multicentric origin for the tumors is thus suggested in some cases of germ-cell tumors. (author)

  6. Atypical rhabdoid tumor of lateral ventricle: Report of an unusual tumor.

    Singh, Jasmit; Kharosekar, Hrushikesh; Velho, Vernon; Survashe, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Supratentorial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) of infancy and childhood are rare, highly malignant neoplasms, most common in the first 2 years of life. In spite of multiple treatment regimens consisting of surgical resection, radiation therapy, and multi-agent chemotherapy, the prognosis is very poor. The majority of these tumors are located in the cerebellum, cerebellopontine angle, pineal gland, spinal cord, and the suprasellar region; supratentorial location is relatively uncommon, and the intraventricular location is extremely rare. We report a rare case of AT/RT arising in the lateral ventricle in a 4-year-old patient. PMID:27195038

  7. Histamine in the chick pineal gland: origin, metabolism, and effects on the pineal function.

    Nowak, J Z; Zawilska, J B; Woldan-Tambor, A; Sek, B; Voisin, P; Lintunen, M; Panula, P

    1997-01-01

    The chick pineal gland contains histamine and tele-methylhistamine. The levels of both substances are elevated after treatment of chicks with the amino acid precursor of histamine, L-histidine (1 g/kg, ip). In control and L-histidine-loaded animals the pineal levels of histamine and tele-methylhistamine are higher in light-exposed than in dark-adapted animals (measured at the end of the light phase and in the middle of the dark phase of 12 hr light, 12 hr dark illumination cycle, respectively). The chick pineal gland contains histamine-immunofluorescent cells displaying mast cell morphology; they are seen in the vicinity of the capsule and in the parenchyma. Enzymatic studies showed the presence of the activity of histamine synthesizing and inactivating enzyme, i.e., L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and histamine-methyltransferase (HMT). The detected enzyme activities were sensitive to specific inhibitors of HDC (alpha-fluoromethylhistidine and alpha-hydrazinohistidine) and HMT (quinacrine and metoprine); inhibitors of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase alpha-methyl-DOPA and NSD-1015 were inactive on HDC. Exogenous histamine added to organ-cultured chick pineals strongly stimulated endogenous cyclic AMP accumulation and moderately increased melatonin secretion. The data, considered collectively, suggest that in avians histamine, probably originating from the pineal mast cell compartment, may function as a regulator of pineal gland activity. PMID:9062867

  8. CT and MRI findings in patients with suprasellar germ cell tumors

    Kasamo, Shizuya; Asakura, Tetsuhiko; Nakamura, Katsumi; Nakayama, Masaki; Hirano, Hirobumi; Ohyama, Hiroshi (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of CT and MRI findings in suprasellar germ cell tumors. The study population was comprised of 6 patients with germinomas, one with embryonal carcinoma, and one with mature teratoma. Suprasellar germinoma tended to have intratumoral low density on CT or intensity area on MRI, indicating tumor necrosis or occasionally cyst formation. Germinoma tissue may extend into the pituitary fossa. Sagittal MRI revealed that the extension was limited to the posterior part of the pituitary gland. MRI of the teratoma did not demonstrate extension of the tumor into the pituitary fossa. No germ cell tumor in this region was seen as calcification. Germinoma in this region did not always show marked homogeneous enhancement. These neuroradiological findings failed to determine subtypes of germ cell tumors. Two patients had germinomas in both the pineal and suprasellar areas. Two years after the total removal of pineal teratoma, it recurred in the suprasellar region that was not seen on the first MRI. In these two patients, germinomas called 'double midline tumors' seemed to have originated by CSF dissemination or subependymal seeding, which was not demonstrated on neuroradiological images. The teratoma case was thought to be one form of double midline tumor, because the first tumor tissue in the pineal region had been totally and extracapsulary removed two years earlier and the suprasellar lesion could not be demonstrated on sagittal MRI or CT scans. In conclusion, not only neuroradiological findings but also clinical findings such as tumor markers may be required in preoperative diagnosis of suprasellar germ cell tumors. (N.K.).

  9. Global daily dynamics of the pineal transcriptome

    Bustos, Diego M; Bailey, Michael J; Sugden, David;

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome profiling of the pineal gland has revealed night/day differences in the expression of a major fraction of the genes active in this tissue, with two-thirds of these being nocturnal increases. A set of over 600 transcripts exhibit two-fold to >100-fold daily differences in abundance...

  10. SURGICAL INTERVENTION OF SYMPTOMATIC PINEAL CYST : CASE REPORT

    Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Yonezawa, Taiji; Iida, Junichi; Masui, Katsuya; Sakaki, Toshisuke

    1996-01-01

    We report a rare case of symptomatic pineal cyst detected by magnetic resonance imaging. This patient presented with intermittent headache and gaze paresis. Subtotal resection of the pineal cyst was performed by the occipital transtentorial approach. It was proved histologically that the surgical specimen was composed of reactive glial tissue and normal tissue of the pineal gland with calcification. The procedure completely relieved the patient of refractory symptoms. Surgical management shou...

  11. Possible role of pineal allopregnanolone in Purkinje cell survival

    Haraguchi, Shogo; Hara, Sakurako; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Mita, Masatoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    It is believed that neurosteroids are produced in the brain and other nervous systems. Here, we show that allopregnanolone (ALLO), a neurosteroid, is exceedingly produced in the pineal gland compared with the brain and that pineal ALLO acts on the Purkinje cell, a principal cerebellar neuron, to prevent apoptosis in the juvenile quail. We first demonstrated that the pineal gland is a major organ of neurosteroidogenesis. A series of experiments using molecular and biochemical techniques has fu...

  12. The reno-pineal axis: A novel role for melatonin

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland is a tiny endocrine gland whose physiologic role has been the focus of much research and much more speculation over the past century. This mini-review discusses recent findings which correlate melatonin and renal physiology, and postulates the presence of a "reno-pineal axis." Drawing lessons from comparative endocrinology, while quoting human data, it advocates the need to study the "reno-pineal axis" in greater detail.

  13. The reno-pineal axis: A novel role for melatonin

    Sanjay Kalra; Swati Agrawal; Manisha Sahay

    2012-01-01

    The pineal gland is a tiny endocrine gland whose physiologic role has been the focus of much research and much more speculation over the past century. This mini-review discusses recent findings which correlate melatonin and renal physiology, and postulates the presence of a “reno-pineal axis.” Drawing lessons from comparative endocrinology, while quoting human data, it advocates the need to study the “reno-pineal axis” in greater detail.

  14. Vascularization of the Pineal Gland in the Crow

    Nasu, Tetsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Murakami, Noboru

    1994-01-01

    The blood vascularization in the pineal gland of the crow was investigated in detail using a vascular corrosion cast technique and by scanning electron microscopy. The pineal gland received two afferent arteries on either side, each artery arising from the A. Cerebra{is Caudalis (CC) which supplied its branches to the hemisphere. The pineal gland of the crow was so highly vascularized as to be suggestive of its high metabolic and endocrine activities. The efferent veins drained into the Sinus...

  15. Malignant Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumor in the Right Post Auricular Region

    Lihong Cao; Huifang Zhou; Hua Chen

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To report a case of a malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor (PTT) in the right postauricular region, and to describe the clinical and histopathologic findings.METHODS Interventional case report and literature review.RESULTS A 46-year-old woman presented with a 15-year history of a nodule of 30×30×10 mm in diameter in the right postauricular region. It was diagnosed as a sebaceous cyst. A local mass excision was performed. Histopathologic examination revealed proliferation of the outer hair sheath epithelium with multiple central areas of trichilemmal keratinization. The presence of marked cellular atypia and frequent mitoses indicated a malignant transformation. A second operation employing an enlarged excision was conducted followed by a histopathologic examination showing that there was no malignant tumor remaining. Two weeks after the second operation, 50 cGy of regional prophylactic radiotherapy was applied. The patient was well after 26 months of follow-up and neither recurrences nor metastases were observed.CONCLUSION Malignant PTT is a rare skin neoplasm, with its diagnosis depending on a histopathologic examination. An extend excision is the main treatment after diagnosis.

  16. Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour

    We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  17. Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour

    Gizewski, E.R.; Forsting, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Essen (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  18. Nitric oxide synthase in the pineal gland

    Lopez-Figueroa, M.O.; Moller, M.

    1996-01-01

    The recent discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as a biological messenger molecule with unique characteristics has opened a new field in pineal research. This free radical gas is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. The activation of adrenoreceptors in the membrane of the pinealocytes mediates the increase in NO through a mechanism that involves G proteins. In the pinealocyte, NO stimulates guanylyl cyclase resulting in an increased ...

  19. Pineal Function: Impact of Microarray Analysis

    Klein, David C.; Bailey, Michael J; Carter, David A.; Kim, Jong-So; Shi, Qiong; Ho, Anthony; Chik, Constance; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G.; Peter J Munson

    2009-01-01

    Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-hour schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity to the retina and has provided reason to explore new avenues of study including intracellular signaling, signal transduction, transcriptional cascades, thyroid/retinoic acid hormone signaling, metal biology...

  20. Pineal cyst: study with magnetic resonance. Quistes pineales simples: estudio con resonancia magnetica

    Paniagua, J.C.; Aleixandre, A.; Esteban, M.J.; Marti-Bomati, L.; Poyatos, C. (Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia (Spain))

    1992-01-01

    The use of magnetic resonance (MR) as a diagnostic technique in central nervous system pathology has made possible the detection of structures that are hard to view with other diagnostic methods. In 21 patients in whom the existence of pineal cyst was detected by chance, we describe the study technique employed and present the MR characterization. In the absence of specific clinical symptoms and sings, the differential diagnosis of this pathology, with respect to other neoplastic formations located in the pineal gland, is based on its typical location behind the third ventricle, its size, which does not vary in the different serial studies, and its signal intensity. (author)

  1. Quantifying metabolic heterogeneity in head and neck tumors in real time: 2-DG uptake is highest in hypoxic tumor regions.

    Erica C Nakajima

    Full Text Available Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity may increase the likelihood of treatment failure due to the presence of a subset of resistant tumor cells. Using a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC xenograft model and a real-time fluorescence imaging approach, we tested the hypothesis that tumors are metabolically heterogeneous, and that tumor hypoxia alters patterns of glucose uptake within the tumor.Cal33 cells were grown as xenograft tumors (n = 16 in nude mice after identification of this cell line's metabolic response to hypoxia. Tumor uptake of fluorescent markers identifying hypoxia, glucose import, or vascularity was imaged simultaneously using fluorescent molecular tomography. The variability of intratumoral 2-deoxyglucose (IR800-2-DG concentration was used to assess tumor metabolic heterogeneity, which was further investigated using immunohistochemistry for expression of key metabolic enzymes. HNSCC tumors in patients were assessed for intratumoral variability of (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18F-FDG uptake in clinical PET scans.IR800-2-DG uptake in hypoxic regions of Cal33 tumors was 2.04 times higher compared to the whole tumor (p = 0.0001. IR800-2-DG uptake in tumors containing hypoxic regions was more heterogeneous as compared to tumors lacking a hypoxic signal. Immunohistochemistry staining for HIF-1α, carbonic anhydrase 9, and ATP synthase subunit 5β confirmed xenograft metabolic heterogeneity. We detected heterogeneous (18F-FDG uptake within patient HNSCC tumors, and the degree of heterogeneity varied amongst tumors.Hypoxia is associated with increased intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity. (18F-FDG PET scans may be used to stratify patients according to the metabolic heterogeneity within their tumors, which could be an indicator of prognosis.

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow alterations remote from the site of intracranial tumors

    Endo, H; Larsen, B; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was investigated in 12 patients with brain tumors, using a 254-channel dynamic gamma camera. In nine of the 12 cases, hyperemic regions with loss of autoregulation were seen in sites remote from the tumor (the area around the tumor was in most cases also...

  3. Astrocitoma de grado I en glándula pineal

    Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-

    1985-01-01

    Tres imágenes de un astrocitoma de grado I situado en la glándula pineal de un paciente de 10 años. Three pictures of a grade I astrocytoma located in the pineal gland of a 10-year-old male patient.

  4. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland...

  5. A Locus on Chromosome 8 Controlling Tumor Regionality -- a New Type of Tumor Diversity in the Mouse Lung

    Quan, Lei; Hutson, Alan; Demant, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Regional specificity of lung tumor formation has rarely been studied in mouse or human. By using crosses of strains semi-congenic for lung cancer susceptibility locus Sluc20, we have analyzed the genetic influences of Sluc20 and five other loci on tumor regionality in the mouse lung. We have mapped Sluc20 to a 27.92MB proximal region of chromosome 8 and found that it controls the number and load of only those tumors that surround or are directly adjacent to the bronchi or bronchioli (peribron...

  6. GABAergic signaling in the rat pineal gland.

    Yu, Haijie; Benitez, Sergio G; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Kruse, Martin; Seo, Jong Bae; Koh, Duk-Su; Muñoz, Estela M; Hille, Bertil

    2016-08-01

    Pinealocytes secrete melatonin at night in response to norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerve terminals in the pineal gland. The gland also contains many other neurotransmitters whose cellular disposition, activity, and relevance to pineal function are not understood. Here, we clarify sources and demonstrate cellular actions of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of the gland and electrical recording from pinealocytes. GABAergic cells and nerve fibers, defined as containing GABA and the synthetic GAD67, were identified. The cells represent a subset of interstitial cells while the nerve fibers were distinct from the sympathetic innervation. The GABAA receptor subunit α1 was visualized in close proximity of both GABAergic and sympathetic nerve fibers as well as fine extensions among pinealocytes and blood vessels. The GABAB 1 receptor subunit was localized in the interstitial compartment but not in pinealocytes. Electrophysiology of isolated pinealocytes revealed that GABA and muscimol elicit strong inward chloride currents sensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxin, clear evidence for functional GABAA receptors on the surface membrane. Applications of elevated potassium solution or the neurotransmitter acetylcholine depolarized the pinealocyte membrane potential enough to open voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels leading to intracellular calcium elevations. GABA repolarized the membrane and shut off such calcium rises. In 48-72-h cultured intact glands, GABA application neither triggered melatonin secretion by itself nor affected norepinephrine-induced secretion. Thus, strong elements of GABA signaling are present in pineal glands that make large electrical responses in pinealocytes, but physiological roles need to be found. PMID:27019076

  7. MR-billeddiagnostik af corpus pineale

    Langevad, Line; Gøbel Madsen, Camilla; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Garde, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Tilgængeligheden af højopløselige MR-teknikker har ført til større opmærksomhed på og nye spørgsmål vedrørende corpus pineales (CP) funktion og kliniske betydning. Dertil kommer en stigende interesse for hormonet melatonins kliniske betydning og relation til forandringer i CP. I denne statusartikel...... fokuseres der på ikkeneoplastiske forandringer i CP, aktuel viden fra patologi- og MR-studier samt skanningspraksis....

  8. Automatic extraction of tumor region on x-ray image of animals

    Diagnosis by CT images is increasing. But we often use X-ray images because of scanning time and scan cost. It is difficult to extract tumor region of X-ray images, and pathologists have to diagnose many images of tumor. Therefore, demand for the development of CAD system is increasing to support pathologists. Images that we use are dog images. Many people research human Images, but animal images are not researched well. In this paper, automatic extraction of tumor region is studied. We used operation of normalized correlation. Template of this filter looks like mountain. We also used Quoit-filter, that detected region that had possibility of tumor. We calculated edge of tumor to see easily tumors. Our method detected some tumor candidate edge. As future work, we should extract bone region, and some fixed value, including filter size should be automatically determined. (author)

  9. Effect of Tumor Deposits on Overall Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients with Regional Lymph Node Metastases

    Yabata, Eiichi; Udagawa, Masaru; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The staging system of the International Union Against Cancer considers tumor deposits to be N1c in patients with no regional lymph node metastasis, but the significance of tumor deposits in patients with regional lymph node metastases is unclear. We investigated the effect of tumor deposits on overall survival in colorectal cancer patients with regional lymph node metastases. Patients and Methods: From 2000 to 2008, 551 patients underwent resections for colorectal cancer at our me...

  10. Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland

    Morten Møller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  11. Supratentorial tumors; Supratentorielle Tumoren

    Grunwald, I.; Dillmann, K.; Roth, C.; Backens, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

  12. The pineal Gland, melatonin and hormones rythms regulation

    VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The pineal gland, melatonin, and the regulation of hormonal rhythms Dr. H Valdés-Socin. Head of clinic. Department of Endocrinology. CHU de Liège The pineal gland is known by Anatomists since the middle ages. Andrea Vesalius described it in the chap VII of his monumental book "De humani corporis fabrica (1555)". René Descartes had the intuition that the pineal gland is a "third eye" and that is how his illustrator Florent Schuyl represented it in figure 34 of Descartes book "De Homi...

  13. Pineal gland calcification and defective sense of direction.

    Bayliss, C. R.; Bishop, N L; Fowler, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Calcification of the pineal gland is shown to be closely related to defective sense of direction. In a tricentre prospective study of 750 patients lateral skull radiographs showed that 394 had calcified pineal glands. Sense of direction was assessed by subjective questioning and objective testing and the results noted on a scale of 0-10 (where 10 equals perfect sense of direction). The average score for the 394 patients with pineal gland calcification was 3.7 (range 0-8), whereas the 356 pati...

  14. X-刀治疗颅内疾病44例疗效分析%Analysis of Therapeutic Effect of X-knife on Intracranial Tumors in 44 Cases

    张海江; 麦洁文; 梁艺湖; 张瑞澜; 温尊北; 陈宗友; 林启富; 曾业辉

    2001-01-01

    Objective to investigate therapeutic methods and effect of X-knife for on intracranial diseases. Method Recent effect of 44pqtients with cranial diseases by X-knife was observed. Radiological follow-up was performed on 40 cases with mean 5.65 months of followup time. Result 92.5% of tumors were controlled locally, stability and recovery rate was 90.0%. The local control of metastatic tumors of brain was higher, but most patients with metastatic tumors died of primary lesion. New metastatic lesions appeared in patients without panencephalic radiotherapy in 1~5months. Tumors of pineal region were sensitive to X-knife. Conclusion X-knife has a definite effect on intracranial diseases. For patients with tumors of pineal region complicated by serious hydrocephalus, shunting should be conducted before X-knife treatment. For patients with mild or morderate hydrocephalus, X-knife chould be utilized only under correct interventions such as dehydration. The local control rate of intracranial metastatic tumors was high, but survival time postoperation depended on panencephalic radiotherapy or control of primafry lision. For tumors with diameter> 3cm, pituitary tumors, brains stem tumors and tumors in cerebellopontine angle region repeated X-knife were suggested, which could improve cure rate and decrease complications.

  15. Mutation Screening in the Mitochondrial D-Loop Region of Tumoral and Non-tumoral Breast Cancer in Iranian Patients

    Mansour Heidari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations in mitochondrial coding and non coding regions seem to be important in carcinogenesis. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate coding region (mt-tRNAPhe and tRNAPro and non-coding sequence, mitochondrial displacement loop (mtDNA D-loop, in the cancerous and non-cancerous lesions of Iranian patients with breast cancer (BC. Genomic DNA was extracted from 50 breast tumors and surrounding normal tissue pairs as well as from 50 unrelated normal breast tissues from Iranian Kurdish population. Subsequently, PCR amplification was performed using specific primers, and then PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing. 41 genetic variants were identified in mtDNA D-loop among tumoral and non-tumoral tissues but not in tRNAPhe and tRNAPro sequences. Our findings indicated that C182T, 194insT, 285insA and 16342delT were just found in BC tumors whereas 302insC, C309T and C16069T found in both tumors and surrounding normal tissues. Although our findings showed that the observed genetic variations were not restricted to breast cancer tissues, some genetic changes were found only in BC tumors. Our results, in agreement with the evidence from earlier studies, confirm that the mtDNA genetic alterations might be implicated in tumor initiation, progression and development. text-align: justify;

  16. Rhythmic control of endocannabinoids in the rat pineal gland.

    Koch, Marco; Ferreirós, Nerea; Geisslinger, Gerd; Dehghani, Faramarz; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids modulate neuroendocrine networks by directly targeting cannabinoid receptors. The time-hormone melatonin synchronizes these networks with external light condition and guarantees time-sensitive and ecologically well-adapted behaviors. Here, the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) showed rhythmic changes in rat pineal glands with higher levels during the light-period and reduced amounts at the onset of darkness. Norepinephrine, the essential stimulus for nocturnal melatonin biosynthesis, acutely down-regulated AEA and other endocannabinoids in cultured pineal glands. These temporal dynamics suggest that AEA exerts time-dependent autocrine and/or paracrine functions within the pineal. Moreover, endocananbinoids may be released from the pineal into the CSF or blood stream. PMID:26061461

  17. Tumors and tumor - like lesions of the oro - facial region at Mayo hospital, Lahore - a five year study

    The oro-facial region including the oral cavity, the maxilla and mandible and related tissues can be the site of a multitude of neoplastic conditions. These tumours have a predilection for the entire facial region; however, odontogenic tumours tend to affect the mandible more than the maxilla. We report results from a retrospective study spanning five years on the frequency, clinical presentation, sites and character of orofacial tumors seen in the main referral hospital of Pakistan. Patients and Methods: Records of consecutive patients of all age and sex seen by the author's team at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Mayo Hospital with tumours affecting the oro-facial region from January 2005 to December 2009 were retrieved, coded and entered into a database. The data were then analyzed by age, sex, presenting signs and symptoms, site of lesion, and their histology. Results: A total of 237 patients with oro-facial swellings were retrieved from the registry. The complete data set was obtained for 189 patients, comprising 108 (57.9%) males and 81 (42%) females. The most common clinical presenting features were mandibular facial swelling (63%), intra-oral swelling (55%), and ulceration (29%). The tumors were found in the mandible 67 (35%), buccal mucosa 33 (17%), floor of the mouth 22 (11%) and tongue 29 (15%). The remainder making up almost 20% was found in the palate, submandibular region, pre auricular region and lips. Ninety three (49.2%) of the patients presented with lesions that were classified as malignant of which 64 (69%) were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). seventy (37.0%) had benign odontogenic tumors and twenty six (13.7%) had non-odontogenic tumor - like lesions. Sixty - four (69%) of malignant tumors were squamous cell carcinoma; sixty four (86.4%) of the benign odontogenic tumors were classified as ameloblastoma. The mean age at presentation of all lesions was 40.4 years with over 50% of benign lesions in patients aged

  18. Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI

    Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 ± 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

  19. Diencephalic origin of the pineal gland of the chicken embryo

    Aige-Gil, Vicente; Murillo-Ferrol, Narciso

    1991-01-01

    In the present paper, the diencephalic origin of the chick pineal gland was analyzed by a series of experiments: prosencephalic substitution; in vitro culture of isolated diencephalons; and total or partial excission of the diencephalic roof. The results indicate that the differentiation of the chick pineal gland in the rooof of the third ventricle is not influenced by the neighbouring brain vesicles and is of diencephalic origin. Moreover, in order to obtain c...

  20. Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Oh, Christopher C. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Choudhri, Asim F. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 {+-} 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

  1. Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland

    Morten Møller; Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito; Corin Badiu

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passag...

  2. The dielectric properties of human pineal gland tissue and RF absorption due to wireless communication devices in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz

    In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human pineal gland, the dielectric properties of a sample of 20 freshly removed pineal glands were measured less than 20 h after death. Furthermore, a corresponding high resolution numerical model of the brain region surrounding the pineal gland was developed, based on a real human tissue sample. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices, the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland when compared to SAR limits according to international safety standards. The highest absorption was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case the RF power absorbed inside the pineal gland (organ mass 96 mg) was as low as 11 μW, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland were found to be lower by a factor of 4.2 and 36, respectively. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the pineal gland induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices are unlikely

  3. The dielectric properties of human pineal gland tissue and RF absorption due to wireless communication devices in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz

    Schmid, Gernot [Austrian Research Centers GmbH-ARC, ITM, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Ueberbacher, Richard [Austrian Research Centers GmbH-ARC, ITM, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Samaras, Theodoros [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tschabitscher, Manfred [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mazal, Peter R [Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-09-07

    In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human pineal gland, the dielectric properties of a sample of 20 freshly removed pineal glands were measured less than 20 h after death. Furthermore, a corresponding high resolution numerical model of the brain region surrounding the pineal gland was developed, based on a real human tissue sample. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices, the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland when compared to SAR limits according to international safety standards. The highest absorption was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case the RF power absorbed inside the pineal gland (organ mass 96 mg) was as low as 11 {mu}W, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland were found to be lower by a factor of 4.2 and 36, respectively. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the pineal gland induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices are unlikely.

  4. Pineal Proteins Upregulate Specific Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Brain

    Vijay K. Bharti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL, the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pineal proteins (PP on the antioxidant defense system in the brain of female rats. The twenty-four rats were taken in present study and were divided into four groups: control (0 day, control (28 day, vehicle control and buffalo PP. The PP was injected 100 µg/kg BW intraperitoneal (i.p. daily for 28 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR and reduced glutathione (GSH concentration and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO in the brain tissue were measured to assess the antioxidant systems. These enzymes protect from adverse effects of free radicals and help in amelioration of oxidative stress. Buffalo pineal proteins administration did not cause any effect on brain LPO, whereas GPx, GR and GSH were significantly (p < 0.05 decreased. However, SOD and CAT activities were increased to significant levels than the control in PP treated rats. Our study herein suggested that buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pineal proteins upregulates specific antioxidant defense systems and can be useful in control of various oxidative stress-induced neuronal diseases.

  5. Age-related incidence of pineal calcification detected by computed tomography

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1982-03-01

    The age-related incidence of detectable pineal calcification in 725 patients (age range, newborn-20 yrs) suggests that there is a relationship between calcification and the hormonal role played by the pineal gland in the regulation of sexual development. Pineal calcification (demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) on 8-mm-thick sections) in patients less than 6 years old should be looked upon with suspicion, and follow-up CT should be considered to exclude the possible development of a pineal neoplasm.

  6. Sudden death due to a glial cyst of the pineal gland.

    Milroy, C M; Smith, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    Asymptomatic cysts of the pineal gland are found frequently by radiological examination of the brain or at postmortem examination. Symptomatic cysts are rare, and may require surgical intervention. Sudden death due to a cystic lesion of the pineal gland is very rare. A case of a 22 year old man who collapsed and died unexpectedly is reported. Postmortem examination revealed a glial cyst of the pineal gland and evidence of chronic obstructive hydrocephalus. Deaths from colloid cysts and pineal...

  7. Homeobox genes in the rodent pineal gland: roles in development and phenotype maintenance

    Rath, Martin F.; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C.; Møller, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene e...

  8. Dynamic studies of positron-emitting putative tumor marker 132Cs in mice show differential tumor and regional uptake

    Positron-emitting 132Cs (t1/2 = 6.47 days) was generated from stable 133CsCl via the 133Cs (p,pn) 132Cs reaction. BALB/c mice, bearing implanted MT296 mammary tumors, were given 4.6 mEq kg-1 of 132CsCl via a single intraperitoneal injection. Postinjection uptake of 132Cs into body regions was monitored in vivo with external detectors. Positron emission from the tumor region was continuously greater than that from the head, the numerical ratio of mean emission intensities being fourfold at 10 min postinjection. Tissues excised from these mice postmortem showed sequence of relative tissue cesium uptake rates to be kidney 1.8, small intestine 1.7, tumor 1.0, skin 0.75, liver 0.75, skeletal muscle 0.4, and brain 0.28. Comparative studies with multiple injections of stable cesium and rubidium showed this sequence to be ion-specific. These observations suggest that positron-emitting isotopes of cesium could provide useful markers for tumors of several tissues

  9. Intra-tumor Heterogeneity in Localized Lung Adenocarcinomas Delineated by Multi-region Sequencing

    Zhang, Jianjun; Fujimoto, Junya; Zhang, Jianhua; Wedge, David C.; Song, Xingzhi; Zhang, Jiexin; Seth, Sahil; Chow, Chi-Wan; Cao, Yu; Gumbs, Curtis; Gold, Kathryn A.; Kalhor, Neda; Little, Latasha; Mahadeshwar, Harshad; Moran, Cesar; Protopopov, Alexei; Sun, Huandong; Tang, Jiabin; Wu, Xifeng; Ye, Yuanqing; William, William N.; Lee, Jack J.; Heymach, John V.; Hong, Waun Ki; Swisher, Stephen; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Futreal, P. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Cancers are composed of populations of cells with distinct molecular and phenotypic features, a phenomenon termed intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH). ITH in lung cancers has not been well studied. We applied multi-region whole exome sequencing (WES) on 11 localized lung adenocarcinomas. All tumors showed clear evidence of ITH. On average, 76% of all mutations and 20/21 known cancer gene mutations were identified in all regions of individual tumors suggesting single-region sequencing may be adequate to identify the majority of known cancer gene mutations in localized lung adenocarcinomas. With a median follow-up of 21 months post-surgery, 3 patients have relapsed and all 3 patients had significantly larger fractions of subclonal mutations in their primary tumors than patients without relapse. These data indicate larger subclonal mutation fraction may be associated with increased likelihood of postsurgical relapse in patients with localized lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:25301631

  10. Conservatively managed pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated patient

    Werder, Gabriel M. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology, 3600 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, MI 48073 (United States); St Christopher Iba Mar Diop College of Medicine, Luton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gabriel_werder@yahoo.com; Razdan, Rahul S.; Gagliardi, Joseph A.; Chaddha, Shashi K.B. [St Vincent' s Medical Center, Bridgeport, CT (United States)

    2008-02-15

    We present a case of pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated and hypertensive 56-year-old Hispanic male. At presentation, the patient's international normalized ratio (INR) was 10.51 and his blood pressure was 200/130 mmHg. His presenting symptoms included acute onset of headache, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and visual disturbance. Neuroimaging demonstrated hemorrhage into a morphologically normal pineal gland. Under conservative management, the patient experienced gradual resolution of all symptoms excluding the disturbance of upward gaze.

  11. Sympathetic neural control of indoleamine metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    Lynch, H. J.; Hsuan, M.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the acceleration in rat pineal biosynthetic activity in response to prolonged exposure to darkness or to immobilization were investigated in animals whose pineals were surgically denervated. Some animals were adrenalectomized to remove one potential source of circulating catecholamines, and some were subjected to a partial chemical sympathectomy accomplished by a series of intravenous injections of 6-hydroxydopamine. Results suggest that N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity can be enhanced either by release of norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals within the pineal or from sympathetic nerve terminals elsewhere. The stress of immobilization stimulates the pineal by increasing circulating catecholamines. Photic control of pineal function requires intact pineal sympathetic innervation, since the onset of darkness apparently does not cause a sufficient rise in circulating catecholamines to stimulate the pineal. The present studies suggest that nonspecific stress triggers increased biosynthesis and secretion of melatonin; it is possible that this hormone may participate in mechanisms of adaptation.

  12. Mutation Screening in the Mitochondrial D-Loop Region of Tumoral and Non-tumoral Breast Cancer in Iranian Patients

    Mansour Heidari; Samira Saee-Rad; Kazem Zendehdel; Reza Raoofian; Ramesh Omranipour; Cyrus Azimi; Babak Rahmani

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in mitochondrial coding and non coding regions seem to be important in carcinogenesis. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate coding region (mt-tRNAPhe and tRNAPro) and non-coding sequence, mitochondrial displacement loop (mtDNA D-loop), in the cancerous and non-cancerous lesions of Iranian patients with breast cancer (BC). Genomic DNA was extracted from 50 breast tumors and surrounding normal tissue pairs as well as from 50 unrelated normal brea...

  13. Recurrent giant cell tumor of bone with simultaneous regional lymph node and pulmonary metastases

    Qureshi, Sajid S.; Puri, Ajay; Agarwal, Manish [Tata Memorial Hospital, Department of Bone and Soft Tissue, Bombay (India); Desai, Saral; Jambhekar, Nirmala [Tata Memorial Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bombay (India)

    2005-04-01

    Giant cell tumors of bone are known for their unpredictable behavior characterized occasionally even by metastases. Most metastases lodge in the lungs but other rare sites are regional lymph nodes, mediastinum, skin, scalp and the pelvis. In this case report we document a case of giant cell tumor of the patella in which, associated with local recurrence, there were simultaneous metastases to lymph nodes and lungs. (orig.)

  14. Diagnosis of tumors of the pituitary region by two-plane CT scans

    Thirty five cases of tumors in the pituitary region were analysed by two-plane CT (ordinary sections and reverse sections) in order to obtain a more accurate image of the tumor and thus establish an appropriate indication for the subnasal transsphenoidal approach. The tumors of pituitary region were classified into six groups (types I-VI) according to their degree of extension and direction of growth. Small tumors such as types I and II were detected more clearly by the reverse section than by the ordinary section. In cases of large tumors (types III-VI) relation of the tumor to the surrounding structures such as the sphenoid sinus, third ventricle, lateral ventricule, middle fossa and brain stem was accurately demonstrated by the reverse section. In the differential diagnosis of tumors in the pituitary regions, tumors showing mixed density or slightly high density and widening of the anteroposterior diameter of the sella in the precontrast reverse section and homogeneous enhancement by infusion were likely to be pituitary adenomas. One third of the pituitary adenomas showed ring-like high density in the post-contrast reverse section. Calcification was not seen in the pituitary adenomas by CT scans. All craniopharyngiomas belonged to types III-VI. Craniopharyngiomas showed high and/or low density, and various degrees of calcification in plain CT scans. Ring-like high density was seen in two thirds of the craniopharyngiomas. About one third of the craniopharyngiomas showed widening of the antero-posterior diameter of the sella. (J.P.N.)

  15. Neurogenic tumors and tumor-like lesions of the oral and maxillofacial region: A clinicopathological study

    Ohoud Alotaibi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: This analysis showed that neural lesions affecting the oral and maxillofacial region were rare and mostly benign in nature. Such lesions should be carefully diagnosed because of their association with life-threatening syndromes and the possibility of malignant transformation.

  16. The pineal gland: a comparative MR imaging study in children and adults with respect to normal anatomical variations and pineal cysts

    Sener, R.N. [Dept. of Radiology, Ege Univ. Hospital, Izmir (Turkey)

    1995-06-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the variations in appearance of the normal pineal gland. The findings of 1000 consecutive MR imaging examinations obtained at 0.5 T were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 1 day to 83 years, and findings in children and adults were compared. In all age groups the pineal gland appeared mainly in three forms: (1) nodule-like, (2) crescent-like and (3) ring-like. Overall prevalences of these forms were 52 %, 26 % and 22 %, respectively. Apparent differences in frequencies were evident in children and adults with respect to the crescent-and ring-like types. Cystiform pineal lesions 5 mm or larger in one diameter (anteroposterior, sagittal or transverse) were taken to be true pineal cysts, when compared with the gland`s ring-like appearance (less than 5 mm). Pineal cysts had a prevalence of 0.6 % in children and 2.6 % in adults. No symptomatic pineal cyst with mass effect on the lamina tecti was detected in the series. Besides identifying the three anatomical types of the pineal gland as seen on MR imaging and addressing the potential significance of differences in their frequencies in children and adults, the author tries to explain the previous discrepancy between the MR imaging and autopsy series findings with respect to frequencies of the pineal cysts. (orig.)

  17. Pineal Gland Calcification in Kurdistan: A Cross-Sectional Study of 480 Roentgenograms

    Mohammed, Kahee A.; Ismail, Honer A.; Geneus, Christian J.; Tobo, Betelihem B.; Buchanan, Paula M.; Zelicoff, Alan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to compare the incidence of Pineal Gland Calcification (PGC) by age group and gender among the populations living in the Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Methods This prospective study examined skull X-rays of 480 patients between the ages of 3 and 89 years who sought care at a large teaching public hospital in Duhok, Iraq from June 2014 to November 2014. Descriptive statistics and a binary logistic regression were used for analysis. Results The overall incidence rate of PGC among the study population was 26.9% with the 51–60 age group and males having the highest incidence. PGC incidence increased after the first decade and remained steady until the age of 60. Thereafter the incidence began to decrease. Logistic regression analysis revealed that both age and gender significantly affected the risk of PGC. After adjusting for age, males were 1.94 (95% CI, 1.26–2.99) times more likely to have PGC compared to females. In addition, a one year increase in age increases the odds of developing PGC by 1.02 (95% CI, 1.01–1.03) units after controlling for the effects of gender. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrated a close relationship between PGC and age and gender, supporting a link between the development of PGC and these factors. This study provides a basis for future researchers to further investigate the nature and mechanisms underlying pineal gland calcification. PMID:27415622

  18. Two unique cases of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor in the maxillary posterior region.

    Chindasombatjaroen, Jira; Poomsawat, Sopee; Boonsiriseth, Kiatanant

    2014-10-01

    A calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) is an uncommon odontogenic tumor with a predilection for the anterior part of the jaws. We report on 2 cases of CCOT in the posterior maxilla involving the maxillary sinus. In the first case, conventional radiography found a well-defined unilocular lesion. Internal calcification was identified on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Radiographically, the second case showed 2 large locules with a large complex odontoma and an embedded third molar. By revealing the internal calcification of the lesion, CBCT was helpful in the differential diagnosis of the first case. In both cases, CBCT illustrated the tumor extension and the relationship of the tumor to the maxillary sinus. Therefore, CBCT was an important tool for developing effective treatment plans for lesions in the posterior maxillary region. PMID:25201118

  19. The CI findings of 6 cases of the pineal cyst. Consideration on neuroradiological images and the mechanism of occurrence of pineal cysts in childhood

    Nakajou, Takahito; Kurisaka, Masahiro; Mori, Koreaki [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    In comparison to adult individuals over the age of 50, pineal cysts do rarely occur in children and adolescents. Here we report on four young patients who had pineal cysts in combination with hypophyseal dwarfism. We studied an 8-year-old girl with chiasmal germinoma, an 8-year-old boy with epilepsy, a 17-year-old male with spontaneous hypophyseal dwarfism and a 11-year-old female with craniopharyngioma. We also investigated a 29-year-old man with pontine glioma and a 48-year-old women with prolactinoma. The comparison of neuroimaging the pineal cysts in children and adults revealed the characteristics of their location in the pineal gland and the presence of residual normal gland. The etiology of pineal cysts in combination with pituitary dwarfism is unclear. However, our cases would suggest that they may be related to endocrinological disorders of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (author).

  20. Depression of nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in castrate male rats

    Pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity was examined in intact rats, castrated rats, and in rats that had been castrated and had received testosterone proprionate. Castration resulted in significantly depressing nocturnal levels of pineal NAT (p<0.05) when compared to enzyme activity in intact rats. Testosterone proprionate administration restored plasma LH levels to normal values in castrate rats but did not induce nocturnal pineal enzyme activity to levels seen in the pineal glands of intact rats. The data substantiate the existence of a feedback control of pineal biosynthetic activity by the hypophyseal-gonadal system, but the identity of the hormone(s) responsible for regulation of pineal NAT activity is not known. (author)

  1. Melatonin changes in the pineal gland of sleep-deprived rats following habenular nucleus lesion

    Huijuan Jin; Meiying Song; Min Huang; Manli Wang; Hua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The habenular nucleus (Hb) is an important structure that regulates the function of the pineal gland,which may affect melatonin content in the pineal gland after sleep deprivation (SD). In the present study, high performance liquid chromatography showed that the melatonin content in the pineal gland was significantly reduced, and Y-aminobutyric acid content in the Hb was significantly increased after SD. Furthermore, the melatonin content in the pineal gland was markedly reduced after Hb lesion under normal sleep and SD conditions. Immunohistochemistry showed that the number of Fos-positive neurons was significantly decreased in the lateral and medial Hb after SD.The findings demonstrate that the reduction of melatonin in the pineal gland after SD is related to decreased activity of Hb neurons, and that the Hb can regulate sleep-wake rhythm by influencing melatonin secretion in the pineal gland.

  2. The modulatory effect of substance P on rat pineal norepinephrine release and melatonin secretion

    Mukda, Sujira; Ebadi, Manuchair; Govitrapong, Piyarat;

    2009-01-01

    Secretion of melatonin by the mammalian pineal gland is primarily regulated by the release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerve terminals that originate from the superior cervical ganglia. Peptidergic nerves that originate in the perikarya located in the sensory trigeminal ganglia also...... innervate the pineal gland. Some of these peptidergic nerve fibers contain substance P. Previously, we have characterized neurokinin 1 type substance P receptors in the pineal gland. However, the function of this receptor in the pineal gland remains unclear. Here, we examined the modulatory effect of...... melatonin secretion in rat pineal organ cultures. However, in the presence of NE, substance P inhibited the NE-induced increase in AANAT activity and melatonin secretion. This is the first time that a function for substance P in the mammalian pineal gland has been demonstrated....

  3. Localization and diurnal expression of mRNA encoding the β1-adrenoceptor in the rat pineal gland: an in situ hybridization study

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Morgan, K.C.;

    1997-01-01

    Anatomy, neurobiology, adrenoceptors, diurnal rhythms, in situ hybridization, pineal gland, rat (Wistar)......Anatomy, neurobiology, adrenoceptors, diurnal rhythms, in situ hybridization, pineal gland, rat (Wistar)...

  4. Pineal concretions in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) as a result of collagen-mediated calcification

    Przybylska-Gornowicz, B.; Lewczuk, B.; Prusik, M.; Bulc, M.

    2009-01-01

    The intra-pineal calcification is a well-known phenomenon in mammals, however it is almost completely unknown in birds. The aim of the present work was to analyze morphology and genesis of the pineal concretions in the turkey. The studies were performed on the pineals collected from one-year-old turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). In addition to standard morphological methods, the alizarin red S and potassium pyroantimonate methods were employed for localization of calci...

  5. Pineal Structures and Functions in Mammalian Body Mechanisms Coping with Exogenous and Endogenous Changes

    Kachi, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Various aspects of pineal structures and functions have been reviewed. mainly relating to our ownobservations and experiments. The pineal gland shows high amplitude circadian rhythms in cellular and metabolicactivities. which are changeable under various circumstances. The pineal hormone appears to participate in the body'sadaptive regulatory system mostly by cooperative and modulatory mechanisms. particularly in relation to environmentalchanges including stress/invasion. timing of physiologi...

  6. The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten; Fu, Cong; Clokie, Samuel J.; Zykovich, Artem; Steven L Coon; Klein, David C.; Rath, Martin F.

    2014-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the ad...

  7. Cell proliferation in the developing rat pineal gland.A bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemical study

    Calvo, J.L.; Boya, J; Carbonell, A L; García-Mauriño, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The immunohistochemical detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to study the cell proliferation in the developing rat pineal gland, from the appearance of pineal primordium in the embryonic day 15 (E15) until 30 days after birth. The results showed three different proliferative phases. From E15 to E21, the pineal gland shows a phase of rapid proliferation. The second phase corresponds to the first postnatal week, in which the number of labeled cells per ...

  8. An evaluation on the level of retinoids in the bovine pineal body

    TSIN, ANDREW T.C.; Phillips, Theresa S.; Reiter, Russel J.

    1989-01-01

    Using high performance liquid chromatography, the level of retinoids was determined in the bovine pineal gland, retina, retinal pigment epithelium, cortical and subcortical brain tissues, skeletal muscle and the liver. Similar to the retina, the bovine pineal gland possesses levels of retinol and retinyl esters significantly higher than other brain tissues and muscle. These results are in agreement with the suggestion that the mammalian pineal gland and the retina may be of similar phylogenet...

  9. New crystal in the pineal gland : characterization and potential role in electromechano-transduction

    Baconnier, Simon; Lang, Sidney.B.; De Seze, René

    2002-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine transducer secreting melatonin, responsible for the physiological circadian rhythm control. A new form of biomineralization has been studied in the human pineal gland. It consists of small crystals that are less than 20 µm in length. These crystals could be responsible for an electromechanical biological transduction mechanism in the pineal gland due to their structure and piezoelectric properties. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy disper...

  10. Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamic nucleus paraventricularis mimics the effects of light on pineal melatonin synthesis

    In an attempt to clarify further the role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in the control of pineal function, the effects of 2 min electrical stimulation of these nuclei were investigated in acutely blinded, adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Pineal serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, melatonin content and catecholamine levels were measured by means of radio-enzymatic, radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid-chromatography methods, respectively. All three pineal parameters underwent significant declines following brief PVN stimulation during the night time. These observations lend credence to the view that the neural pathways transmitting light information to the sympathetic innervation controlling pineal melatonin synthesis. 22 references, 1 figure

  11. Demonstration of an orexinergic central innervation of the pineal gland of the pig

    Fabris, Chiara; Cozzi, Bruno; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    and continued into the pineal stalk and parenchyma to disperse among the pinealocytes. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of orexinergic nerve fibers in the pig pineal gland. After extraction of total mRNA from the hypothalamus and pineal gland, we performed RT-PCR and nested PCR using...... primers specific for porcine orexin receptors. PCR products were sequenced, verifying the presence of both OR-R1 and OR-R2 in the tissues investigated. These findings, supported by previous studies on rodents, suggest a hypothalamic regulation of the pineal gland via central orexinergic nervous inputs....

  12. Leptin Modulates Norepinephrine-Mediated Melatonin Synthesis in Cultured Rat Pineal Gland

    Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari-Garcia; Jéssica Andrade-Silva; José Cipolla-Neto; Carla Roberta de Oliveira Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Pineal melatonin synthesis can be modulated by many peptides, including insulin. Because melatonin appears to alter leptin synthesis, in this work we aimed to investigate whether leptin would have a role on norepinephrine- (NE-)mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal glands. According to our data, cultured rat pineal glands express leptin receptor isoform b (Ob-Rb). Pineal expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was also observed in vivo. Administration of leptin (1 nM) associated with NE (1 µM)...

  13. Leptin Modulates Norepinephrine-Mediated Melatonin Synthesis in Cultured Rat Pineal Gland

    Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineal melatonin synthesis can be modulated by many peptides, including insulin. Because melatonin appears to alter leptin synthesis, in this work we aimed to investigate whether leptin would have a role on norepinephrine- (NE-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal glands. According to our data, cultured rat pineal glands express leptin receptor isoform b (Ob-Rb. Pineal expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was also observed in vivo. Administration of leptin (1 nM associated with NE (1 µM reduced melatonin content as well as arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase (AANAT activity and expression in cultured pineal glands. Leptin treatment per se induced the expression of STAT3 in cultured pineal glands, but STAT3 does not participate in the leptin modulation of NE-mediated pineal melatonin synthesis. In addition, the expression of inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER was further induced by leptin challenge when associated with NE. In conclusion, leptin inhibition of pineal melatonin synthesis appears to be mediated by a reduction in AANAT activity and expression as well as by increased expression of Icer mRNA. Peptidergic signaling within the pineal gland appears to be one of the most important signals which modulates melatonin synthesis; leptin, as a member of this system, is not an exception.

  14. Proteomic analysis of day-night variations in protein levels in the rat pineal gland

    Møller, Morten; Sparre, Thomas; Bache, Nicolai;

    2007-01-01

    The pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin. This secretion exhibits a circadian rhythm with a zenith during night and a nadir during day. We have performed proteome analysis of the superficial pineal gland in rats during daytime and nighttime. The proteins were extracted and subjected to 2-DE...... the protein levels in the rat pineal gland. Some proteins are up-regulated during the night concomitant with the melatonin secretion of the gland. Other proteins are up-regulated during the day indicating a pineal metabolism not related to the melatonin synthesis....

  15. Correlation between histologic diagnosis mean nucleolar organizer region count and prognosis in canine mammary tumors.

    Bostock, D E; Moriarty, J; Crocker, J

    1992-09-01

    In this study, surgically excised mammary tumors from 98 bitches were graded histologically, and the grade was compared with the mean nucleolar organizer region (NOR) count in silver-stained paraffin-embedded sections. Histologically benign tumors, papillary adenocarcinomas, and intraductal carcinomas showed relatively little variation; the mean count for each category was between three and four NOR per nucleus. There was, however, a significant increase in the NOR counts in tubular and solid carcinomas. This increase was most pronounced for tumors that showed evidence of infiltration into the surrounding connective tissues. The mean NOR count for noninfiltrative carcinomas was 5.1, and that for invasive carcinomas was 7.3 (P less than 0.03). The mean NOR count for individual carcinomas ranged from 2.0 to 12.3, and a significant correlation was found between an increased NOR count and tumor-related death during the first post-surgical year. The 39 bitches in which the tumor had an NOR count less than 8.0 had a generally favorable prognosis; only six (15%) died as a result of the original neoplasm. In contrast, 18/21 dogs (85%) with a carcinoma having an NOR count greater than 8.0 died from the tumor during the first post-surgical year. A similar, although less pronounced result was obtained specifically for invasive carcinomas, in which 3/12 (25%) tumors with an NOR count less than 6.0 resulted in the death of the host, compared with 17/20 (85%) that had an NOR count greater than 6. By using this technique, it is possible to identify a subgroup of bitches with invasive mammary carcinomas that have a very poor prognosis following apparently adequate surgical ablation of the primary tumor. PMID:1413404

  16. A case report of Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor in the mandibular anterior region

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Paeng, Jun Young [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Department of Pathology, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a tumor of odontogenic epithelium with varying degrees of inductive changes in the connective tissue. The common radiographic appearance of AOT is a unilocular radiolucency associated with an unerupted tooth. Detectable radiopacities are reported in many cases. We present a case of AOT in a 9-year old-female patient. Cystic lesion with numerous, punctuate radiopaque foci was seen on the anterior region of the mandible. These radiopacities mostly were situated on the buccal side of impacted tooth on the multiplanar images of cone beam computed tomograph. Characteristic duct like structures and amyloid like material were observed on histopathologic finding.

  17. A case report of Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor in the mandibular anterior region

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a tumor of odontogenic epithelium with varying degrees of inductive changes in the connective tissue. The common radiographic appearance of AOT is a unilocular radiolucency associated with an unerupted tooth. Detectable radiopacities are reported in many cases. We present a case of AOT in a 9-year old-female patient. Cystic lesion with numerous, punctuate radiopaque foci was seen on the anterior region of the mandible. These radiopacities mostly were situated on the buccal side of impacted tooth on the multiplanar images of cone beam computed tomograph. Characteristic duct like structures and amyloid like material were observed on histopathologic finding.

  18. The pineal neurohormone melatonin and its physiologic opiatergic immunoregulatory role

    Georges J. M. Maestroni

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland functions as a neuroendocrine transducer that coordinate the organism response to changing environmental stimuli such as light and temperature. The main and best known pineal neurohormone is melatonin that is synthesized and released in a circadian fashion with a peak during the night darkness hours. We have recently reported that melatonin exerts important immuno regulatory functions. Here we describe the astonishing property of exogenous melatonin which is able to counteract completely the depressive effect of anxiety-restraint stress and/or of corticosterone on thymus weight, andibody production and antiviral responses. This effect seems to be mediated by antigen-activated T cells via an opiatergic mechanism.

  19. Tachykinins and tachykinin-receptors in the rat pineal gland

    Mukda, S; Chetsawang, B; Govitrapong, P;

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography of extracts of rat pineal glands, followed by radio immunological analysis with antibodies against tachykinins, demonstrated the presence of substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B in the superficial rat pineal gland. Immunohistochemistry on perfusion...... specific for NK1-, NK2- and NK3-receptors, agarose gel analysis of the reaction products showed the presence of mRNA encoding all three neurokinin receptors. Immunohistochemical analysis showed NK1 receptor to be located in the interstitial cells of the gland. This location was confirmed by use of in situ...... hybridization using radioactively labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Double immunohistochemical stainings showed that the NK1-immunoreactive cells were not a part of the macrophages or antigen-presenting cells of the gland. Our study suggests that tachykinins, after release from intrapineal nerve fibers...

  20. Minimally Invasive-Endoscopic Intraventricular Neurosurgery

    Full Text Available ... taking out tumors such as colloid cysts, pineal region tumors. And then lastly we're now exploring ... about removal of brain tumors in the pineal region, or colloid system, the third ventricle. Without question, ...

  1. Fibrous Calcareous Concretions in the Capsules of Human Pineal Glands

    Kodaka Tetsuo; Mori Ryoichi; Ezure Hiromitsu; Ito Junji; Otsuka Naruhito

    2013-01-01

    We examined calcareous concretions in the capsule of 15 human pineal glands containing a large amount of the concretions in the matrix. The capsule concretions, brown to blackish-brown in color and/or translucent, were smaller than the matrix concretions, which were yellowish-white. The matrix concretions showed the typical mulberry-shaped overall appearance with scallop-shaped concentric laminations of non-fibrous structures, but the capsule concretions, which also contained Ca and P, showed...

  2. Cellular proliferation in the rat pineal gland during postnatal development

    Carvajal, J.C.; Carbajo, S.; Gómez Esteban, M.B.; Alvarez-Morujo Suárez, A.J.; Muñoz Barragan, L.

    1998-01-01

    To establish a possible correlation between the rate of cellular proliferation and already documented functional and morphological characteristics of the rat pineal gland during postnatal development, the bromodeoxyuridine labelling method was used to evaluate the fraction of cells at the S phase of the cell cycle in paraffin sections from I-, 7-, 14- and 28-day-old rats. Numerical density, taken as an indirect measure of cell hypertrophy, was also evaluated. D...

  3. The pineal gland - Its possible roles in human reproduction

    Brzezinski, Amnon; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the pineal gland in controlling mammalian reproduction, with particular attention given to the role of melatonin in polyestrus mammals, like humans and laboratory rodents. Evidence is cited indicating the influence of melatonin production and blood content on the age of puberty, the timing of the ovulatory cycle, gonadal steriodogenesis, and patterns of reproductive behavior. It is suggested that abnormal patterns of melatonin might be associated with amenorrhea, anovulation, unexplained infertility, premature menopause, and habitual abortions.

  4. Postnatal evolution of the rat pineal gland: light microscopy.

    Calvo, J.; Boya, J

    1984-01-01

    The postnatal development and morphology of the adult albino rat pineal gland was studied from one day up to ten months of age. During postnatal life there was a marked increase in gland and pinealocyte volume, more intense during the first 45 days. After ten days, the differences in nuclear morphology of parenchymal cells showed two different types of pinealocyte. The characteristic adult arrangement of pinealocytes in cords and pseudo-rosettes was observed after 15-20 days. After 75 days th...

  5. Microsurgical decompression of tumor of a rare posterior third ventricular pathology.

    Nanda, Anil; Konar, Subhas; Kalakoti, Piyush; Maiti, Tanmoy

    2016-01-01

    Of the posterior third ventricular tumors, a papillary tumor of the pineal gland is a rare entity that originates from specialized ependymoma of the subcommissural organ. In this video narration, we present a case of a 33-year-old male with headaches and recent cognitive decline due to a posterior third ventricular lesion. The patient underwent a posterior interhemispheric approach, and a gross-total decompression was achieved with no signs of recurrence in a 2-year follow-up period. With this case we highlight the microsurgical technique employed for decompressing tumors of the posterior third ventricular region with preservation of eloquent structures and draining veins. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/o0WbyOqmtX0 . PMID:26722689

  6. Developmental and Diurnal Expression of the Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25 (Snap25) in the Rat Pineal Gland

    Karlsen, Anna S; Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian;

    2013-01-01

    pineal gland but the biological importance of this is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a high expression of mRNA encoding Snap25 in all parts of the rat pineal complex, the superficial-, and deep-pineal gland, as well as in the pineal stalk. Snap25 showed a low pineal expression during embryonic...... stages with a strong increase in expression levels just after birth. The expression showed no day/night variations. Neither removal of the sympathetic input to the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy nor bilateral decentralization of the superior cervical ganglia significantly affected the...... expression of Snap25 in the gland. The pineal expression levels of Snap25 were not changed following intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. The strong expression of Snap25 in the pineal gland suggests the presence of secretory granules and microvesicles in the rat pinealocyte supporting the concept of a...

  7. The presence of opioidergic pinealocytes in the pineal gland of the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus): an immunocytochemical study

    Coto-Montes, A.; Masson-Pévet, M.; Pévet, P.;

    1994-01-01

    Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)......Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)...

  8. Tumoral calcinosis in the neck region involving an unusual site in a hemodialysis patient.

    Pan, Chien-Wei; Chen, Rong-Fong

    2016-05-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare disorder characterized by calcium salt deposition in the periarticular soft tissue region. It often occurs in the hip, elbow, shoulder, foot, and wrist. Soft tissue calcification associated with tumoral calcinosis is rare in the head and neck. The present case describes a 65- year-old male who had been on hemodialysis for 3 years. A bulky mass, containing chalky amorphous calcified material, occurred at the lower neck and superior mediastinum. Chronic renal failure is a common condition associated with secondary tumoral calcinosis. The pathogenesis has been progressively unraveled, which indicates that secondary hyperparathyroidism and tissue injury play a part in multifactorial calcification. Laryngoscope, 126:E196-E198, 2016. PMID:26608820

  9. Development and regeneration of the pineal region of the diencephalon

    Liu, J

    2014-01-01

    Organizer is a group of cells that induces and patterns surrounding tissues during embryo development. Previous studies of organizers were mainly based on transplantation of various pieces of tissues. This project first aimed to find out putative organizers using a novel method, which was to characterize organizers based on patterns of syn-expression genes. The differential microarray assays selected a list of gene that are enriched or depleted in three known organizers (Hensen’s node, notoch...

  10. Intracranial tumors in children less than 2 years of age

    We analyzed the characteristic CT findings in twelve cases of intracranial tumors in children under 2 years of age. The histological classification of them was as follows: 2 were teratomas, 3 ependymoma and ependymoblastomas, 2 medulloblastomas, 2 craniopharyngiomas, and 3 were other gliomas, including a pontine glioma. 1. Ten cases were located along the central neural axis. The supratentorial/infratentorial ratio became nearly equal at each age before and after the first year. 2. With regard to tumor size, approximately 70 % out of the brain tumors were more than 5 cm in diameter; especially, four cases had diameters of more than 7 cm. In the case of the teratomas, the cranial cavity was filled with several nodular tumors of varying densities. On admission, an ependymoblastoma in the posterior fossa had already invaded the pineal region. 3. Hydrocephalus was a frequent finding except for the two craniopharyngiomas and the pontine glioma. Some demonstrated an eminent ventricular collapse and a displacement of the midline structures because of the large size of the tumor masses. 4. The malignant gliomas had less peritumoral edemas in proportion to the large sizes of the tumor masses. The prognosis of some brain tumors in our cases less than 2 years of age was extremely poor, but an aggressive approach to them with surgical treatment, irradiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy may improve their chances of survival. (author)

  11. Tumors in the region of the sella turcica; Tumoren der Sellaregion

    Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostischeund Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Tumors of the pituitary gland can lead to limitation of hypophysis function (hypophysis insufficiency) or hypersecretion of different hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, prolactinoma, TSH-secreting adenoma). The optic chiasma lies in close proximity to the pituitary gland and can be compressed by tumors leading to visual disturbances (bilateral hemianopsia). Tumors can be separated into hormone secreting and hormone inactive tumors, as well as into microadenoma with a diameter <10 mm and macroadenomas >10 mm. A rare group of tumors of the hypophysis region are craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germinomas, gliomas, metastases and granulomotous inflammations, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. (orig.) [German] Bei Tumoren der Hypophysenregion kann es zu einer Einschraenkung der Hypophysenfunktion (Hypophyseninsuffizienz) kommen, aber auch zu einem Hypersekretionssyndrom (Akromegalie, Cushing-Syndrom, Prolaktinom, TSH-sezernierendes Adenom). Unmittelbar ueber der Hypophysenregion liegt das Chiasma opticum, wodurch es bei Tumoren der Hypophysenregion zur Beeintraechtigung des Sehens kommen kann, meist als Verschlechterung des Sehfeldes beider Augen nach lateral (bitemporale Hemianopsie). Man unterscheidet hormonaktive und -inaktive Tumoren. Es werden Mikroadenome mit einem Durchmesser bis 10 mm und Makroadenome, die groesser als 10 mm sind, unterschieden. Eine seltenere Gruppe von Tumoren der Hypophysenregion sind die Kraniopharyngeome, Meningeome, Germinome, Gliome, Metastasen und granulomatoese Entzuendungen (Sarkoidose, Tuberkulose). (orig.)

  12. Night/day changes in pineal expression of >600 genes: central role of adrenergic/cAMP signaling

    Bailey, Michael J; Coon, Steven L; Carter, John David;

    2009-01-01

    The pineal gland plays an essential role in vertebrate chronobiology by converting time into a hormonal signal, melatonin, which is always elevated at night. Here we have analyzed the rodent pineal transcriptome using Affymetrix GeneChip(R) technology to obtain a more complete description of pineal...

  13. Frequency and position of pineal gland calcification in a Japanese population

    Hattori, Fumio; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Russell, W.J.; Kogure, Takashi

    1964-04-23

    A review of all skull roentgenograms of 525 normal patients was conducted to determine the incidence of pineal gland and habenular nucleus calcification, and to compile normal values for pineal gland calcification in a Japanese population. These data are presented as tables and graphs for use in roentgenological interpretation. 17 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  14. The human pineal gland and melatonin in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Wu, Y.-H.; Swaab, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    The pineal gland is a central structure in the circadian system which produces melatonin under the control of the central clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN and the output of the pineal gland, i.e. melatonin, are synchronized to the 24-hr day by environmental light, received by the re

  15. The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten; Fu, Cong;

    2015-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. L...

  16. Buschke-Lowenstein tumor of the inguinal region: A rare entity in a rarer location

    Priyanka Aggarwal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Buschke–Lowenstein tumor (BLT, also known as giant condyloma accuminata, first described in 1896 by Buschke, is a rare, slow‑growing, locally invasive, mass lesion commonly affecting the anogenital region in immunocompromised males. This florid type of verrucous carcinoma is known for its high rate of recurrence as well as malignant conversion to squamous cell carcinoma. BLTs have been commonly reported to involve the penis, scrotum, bladder, vulva and perianal or anorectal regions. Our index case remains distinguished on the account of the rare anatomical location, causing a diagnostic dilemma, and once diagnosed managed adequately via surgery alone

  17. Buschke-Löwenstein tumor: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anogenital region

    Turkalj Ivan; Đilas-Ivanović Dragana; Boškov Nedeljka; Petrov Branislav; Štajer Laszlo; Ivković-Kapicl Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Buschke-Lcwenstein tumor (BLT), as a rare form of condylomata acuminatum, was firstly described by Buschke in 1886 as a "carcinoma-like condyloma acuminatum of the penis”. BLT is generally considered to be a low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma of the anogenital region. Case Outline. We describe a case of BLT in a 56-year-old male patient who was referred to our institute due to a large defect in the gluteal region. The biopsy of the l...

  18. Hypofractionation Results in Reduced Tumor Cell Kill Compared to Conventional Fractionation for Tumors With Regions of Hypoxia

    Purpose: Tumor hypoxia has been observed in many human cancers and is associated with treatment failure in radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of different radiation fractionation schemes on tumor cell killing, assuming a realistic distribution of tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: A probability density function for the partial pressure of oxygen in a tumor cell population is quantified as a function of radial distance from the capillary wall. Corresponding hypoxia reduction factors for cell killing are determined. The surviving fraction of a tumor consisting of maximally resistant cells, cells at intermediate levels of hypoxia, and normoxic cells is calculated as a function of dose per fraction for an equivalent tumor biological effective dose under normoxic conditions. Results: Increasing hypoxia as a function of distance from blood vessels results in a decrease in tumor cell killing for a typical radiotherapy fractionation scheme by a factor of 105 over a distance of 130 μm. For head-and-neck cancer and prostate cancer, the fraction of tumor clonogens killed over a full treatment course decreases by up to a factor of ∼103 as the dose per fraction is increased from 2 to 24 Gy and from 2 to 18 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: Hypofractionation of a radiotherapy regimen can result in a significant decrease in tumor cell killing compared to standard fractionation as a result of tumor hypoxia. There is a potential for large errors when calculating alternate fractionations using formalisms that do not account for tumor hypoxia.

  19. Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity

    The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effect upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity

  20. Levels of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 are higher in proliferating regions of A549 tumor cells grown as tumor xenografts in vivo

    3’-Fluoro-3’-deoxythymidine (FLT) has been proposed for positron emission tomography (PET)-based identification of tumor chemosensitivity that is mediated by the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (ENT1). ENT1 facilitates transport of FLT into cells and elevated levels of FLT are associated with both larger FLT-PET signals and increased response to nucleoside-based chemotherapies. FLT-PET is also used as a measure of tumor proliferation. The present study examined the extent to which ENT1 levels vary in a proliferation-dependent manner in tumor cells in vivo. Methods: The human adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was used to establish tumor xenografts in nude mice. FLT uptake was measured in vivo using PET, and further examined ex vivo using autoradiography. FLT uptake patterns were compared to immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of ENT1 and the proliferation markers Ki67 and BrdU. Results: Regional differences in FLT uptake matched differences in IHC proliferation markers. All cells stained for ENT1, but the staining intensity was twice as high for Ki67+ cells than for Ki67− cells. Conclusions: Under in vivo conditions, proliferating regions of tumors show increased FLT uptake and higher ENT1 levels than nonproliferating tumor regions.

  1. Frequency of pineal calcification during the first 18 years of life

    Helmke, K.; Winkler, P.

    1986-02-01

    There are sparse or contradictory data on frequency and pathological significance of pineal calcifications in childhood. This is particularly so for children younger than 6 years of age. We therefore looked for pineal gland calcifications in 1044 consecutive a.p. and lateral skull films. Pineal calcification was diagnosed, if accepted by both authors, and if the calcified spot fitted into at least 2 of 4 localisation methods. 80 patients with pineal calcifications were detected using this method. In 40 of these patients CCT confirmed the calcification. The frequency of pineal calcification was 3% in the first 12 months of life rising gradually to 7.1% in children of 10 years of age. From 10 years onwards, there is a marked increase of frequency of calcifications of the pineal gland up to 33% in the group of children of 18 years of age. In contrast to some statements in literature, pineal calcifications seem to be physiological in a limited percentage even below the age of 6 years.

  2. A radiologic study by CT scan of pineal size in cancer patients

    Alterations in size of the pineal body and melatonin secretion have been observed in cancer patients. The present study was carried out to evaluate pineal dimension in a group of cancer patients and their relation to melatonin blood levels. The study included 70 oncologic patients. As controls, 41 patients with acute or chronic disease other than cancer entered the study. Melatonin serum levels were measured by radioimmunoassay on venous blood samples collected at 9:00 a.m. Pineal size was determined by brain CT scan, by considering the product of the two longest perpendicular diameters, multiplied by the thickness of the stratum. The volume of the pineal body was found to be enlarged in 12/70 (17%) cancer patients, and its mean value was significantly higher than that observed in controls. Melatonin levels were also significantly higher in oncologic patients than in controls. However, there was no correlation between melatonin levels and pineal size in cancer patients. Finally, cancer patients did not show a higher degree of pineal calcifications than controls. The clinical significance of pineal enlargement in cancer patients remains to be understood

  3. Pineal photoreceptor cells are required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity in zebrafish.

    Xinle Li

    Full Text Available In non-mammalian vertebrates, the pineal gland functions as the central pacemaker that regulates the circadian rhythms of animal behavior and physiology. We generated a transgenic zebrafish line [Tg(Gnat2:gal4-VP16/UAS:nfsB-mCherry] in which the E. coli nitroreductase is expressed in pineal photoreceptor cells. In developing embryos and young adults, the transgene is expressed in both retinal and pineal photoreceptor cells. During aging, the expression of the transgene in retinal photoreceptor cells gradually diminishes. By 8 months of age, the Gnat2 promoter-driven nitroreductase is no longer expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells, but its expression in pineal photoreceptor cells persists. This provides a tool for selective ablation of pineal photoreceptor cells, i.e., by treatments with metronidazole. In the absence of pineal photoreceptor cells, the behavioral visual sensitivity of the fish remains unchanged; however, the circadian rhythms of rod and cone sensitivity are diminished. Brief light exposures restore the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity. Together, the data suggest that retinal photoreceptor cells respond to environmental cues and are capable of entraining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity; however, they are insufficient for maintaining the rhythms. Cellular signals from the pineal photoreceptor cells may be required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity.

  4. Roles of DNA mutation in the coding region and DNA methylation in the 5' flanking region of BRCA1 in canine mammary tumors.

    Qiu, Hengbin; Lin, Deigui

    2016-07-01

    The Breast cancer 1, early onset gene (BRCA1) is known to be significantly associated with human familial breast cancer and is identified to play an important role in canine mammary tumors. Here, genetic variations in the coding region and DNA methylation in the 5' flanking region of BRCA1 in canine mammary tumor samples, 15 each of benign and malignant against 10 normal canine mammary tissue samples, were analyzed using the direct sequencing method. The results indicated two point mutations each in the coding region of canine BRCA1 in one benign mammary tumor sample (4702G >T and 4765G >T) and in one malignant canine mammary tumor sample (3619A >G and 4006G >A). No mutations were detected in the normal canine mammary tissue samples. The 4702G >T mutation was found to terminate further translation. The physical effect of the 4765G >T mutation was found to be the repalacement of the glutamate residue with glutamine. The physical effect of the 3619A >G mutation was found to be the replacement of the threonine residue with alanine, and that of mutation 4006G >A was the replacement of the valine residue with isoleucine in the BRCA1 protein. Bisulfite sequencing detected methylated CpG sites in one canine malignant mammary tumor sample. In conclusion, the present study elucidated the mutational status of the BRCA1 coding region and methylation status of the 5' flanking region of BRCA1 in canine mammary tumors. PMID:26888582

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow in various types of brain tumor. Effect of the space-occupying lesion on blood flow in brain tissue close to and remote from tumor site

    Kuroda, K; Skyhøj Olsen, T; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 23 patients with brain tumors using the 133Xe intra-carotid injection method and a 254 channel gamma camera. The glioblastomas (4) and astrocytomas (4) all showed hyperemia in the tumor and tumor-near region. This was also seen in several...

  6. Brain tumors in children; Hirntumoren beim Kind

    Harting, I.; Seitz, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

    2009-06-15

    Brain tumors are common in children; in Germany approximately 400 children are diagnosed every year. In the posterior fossa, cerebellar neoplasms outnumber brainstem gliomas. In contrast to their rarity in adults, brainstem gliomas are not uncommon in children. Supratentorial tumors can be subdivided by location into neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres, suprasellar and pineal tumors. Astrocytoma is the most common pediatric brain tumor followed by medulloblastoma, ependymoma and craniopharyngeoma. The combination of imaging morphology, tumor localisation and patient age at manifestation form the basis of the neuroradiological differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of Pineal Gland Volume and Calcification in Healthy Subjects: Is it Related to Aging?

    Beker-Acay, Mehtap; Turamanlar, Ozan; Horata, Erdal; Unlu, Ebru; Fidan, Nurdan; Oruc, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The human pineal gland is a small neuroendocrine organ which produces melatonin. The main goal of this study was to provide a reference range for pineal volume in all age groups and to determine calcified and noncalcified tissue and their proportions, which may be a reflection of melatonin production in all age groups, by using very thin computerized tomography (CT) slices.Materials and methods: A total of 167 outpatients had undergone cranial CT. Each of the subject’s total pineal v...

  8. Sex-related differences in the nuclear population of postpubertal rat pineal gland. A quantitative study

    López Muñoz, F.; Boya, J; Calvo, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Male and female parenchymal pineal cell types have been studied throughout postpubertal development to determine the existence of sex-related differences on a time basis. Six age groups (2, 3,4, 8, 15 and 24 months) of eight rats (4 males and 4 females) were used in this study. Nuclei of both parenchymal pineal cell types were counted in 5 areas of 26.377 pm' per pineal gland on semithin sections. Nonparametric statistics of our results (Mann-Whitney U-test and...

  9. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions

    Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Ansari, Nariman [Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, High-Throughput Technology Development Studio (TDS), Dresden (Germany); Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H. [Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Steigemann, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Steigemann@bayer.com [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. - Highlights: • Establishment of a novel method for 3D cell culture based high-content screening. • First reported high

  10. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. - Highlights: • Establishment of a novel method for 3D cell culture based high-content screening. • First reported high

  11. The perivascular phagocyte of the mouse pineal gland: An antigen-presenting cell

    Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F; Klein, David C

    2006-01-01

    The perivascular space of the rat pineal gland is known to contain phagocytic cells that are immunoreactive for leukocyte antigens, and thus they appear to belong to the macrophage/microglial cell line. These cells also contain MHC class II proteins. We investigated this cell type in the pineal...... gland of mice. Actively phagocytosing cells with a prominent lysosomal system were found in the pericapillary spaces of the mouse pineal gland following intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase. The cells also exhibited strong acid phosphatase activity. Perivascular cells were immunopositive for...... MHC class II protein and for CD68, a marker of monocytes/phagocytes. This study verifies that perivascular phagocytes with antigen-presenting properties are present in the mouse pineal gland....

  12. Rax: Developmental and Daily Expression Patterns in the Rat Pineal Gland and Retina

    Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change...... significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day (E) 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until E20. In both tissues, Rax is expressed throughout postnatal development into adulthood. In the mature rat pineal gland, the abundance of Rax...... transcripts increases 2-fold during the light period with a peak occurring at dusk. These findings are consistent with the evidence that Rax is of functional importance in eye development and suggest a role of Rax in the developing pineal gland. In addition, it would appear possible that Rax contributes to...

  13. COSMOS 2044. Experiment K-7-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function

    Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

    1989-01-01

    It is now known that the pineal organ can interact with many endocrine and nonendocrine tissues in a regulatory fashion. Given its key role in the regulation of melatonin synthesis, its high concentration, and that its levels may persist longer than the more rapidly changing melatonin, it was felt that serotonin might give a more accurate assessment of the effects of microgravity on pineal function following recovery of animals from flight. Five-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), a major metabolite of serotonin metabolism, was also measured. One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, pineal calcium content was examined following spaceflight.

  14. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    2015-07-27

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  15. A Two Dimensional Infinite Element Model to Study Temperature Distribution in Human Dermal Regions due to Tumors

    K. R. pardasani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a two dimensional infinite element model has been developed to study thermal effect in human dermal regions due to tumors. This model incorporates the effect of blood mass flow rate, metabolic heat generation and thermal conductivity of the tissues.The dermal region is divided into three natural layers, namely, epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues. A uniformly perfused tumor is assumed to be present in the dermis. The domain is assumed to be finite along the depth and infinite along the breadth. The whole dermis region involving tumor is modelled with the help of triangular finite elements to incorporate the geometry of the region. These elements are surrounded by infinite domain elements along the breadth. Appropriate boundary conditions has been incorporated. A computer program has been developed to obtain the numerical results.

  16. Circadian and seasonal variations in pineal gland intercellular canaliculi in the white rat

    Martínez Soriano, F.; Cimas García, C.; Ruíz Torner, A.

    1991-01-01

    Seventy Wistar rats are used to study the changes in pineal intercellular canaliculi over a 21-hour period and for two different photoperiods (pre-autumn, first week of September, and winter, first week of February). The study considers these changes at pineal body, cortical and medullar level separately, and compares the values obtained. The results show variations in canalicular surface at different point times (10:00, 14:00,18:00) and for both photoperiods. ...

  17. Bioelectric Activity in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus—Pineal Gland System in Children with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Dmitry Yu Pinchuk; Bekshaev, Sergey S.; Bumakova, Svetlana A.; Dudin, Mikhail G.; Pinchuk, Olga D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to identify a role of the pineal gland/suprachiasmatic nucleus system in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) aetiology and pathogenesis. To analyze electroencephalograms of 292 children with AIS and in 46 healthy subjects, a processing method was used to assess three-dimensional coordinates of electric equivalent dipole sources (EEDSs) within the brain. Amounts of EEDSs in the pineal gland and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) area were assessed in different age grou...

  18. Morphofunctional and signaling molecules overlap of the pineal gland and thymus: role and significance in aging

    Paltsev, Michael A.; Polyakova, Victoria O; Kvetnoy, Igor M.; Anderson, George; Kvetnaia, Tatiana V.; Linkova, Natalia S.; Paltseva, Ekaterina M.; Rubino, Rosa; De Cosmo, Salvatore; De Cata, Angelo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in neuroendocrine-immune system functioning, including alterations in pineal and thymic glands, contribute to aging-associated diseases. This study looks at ageing-associated alterations in pineal and thymic gland functioning evaluating common signaling molecules present in both human and animal pinealocytes and thymocytes: endocrine cell markers (melatonin, serotonin, pCREB, AANAT, CGRP, VIP, chromogranin A); cell renovation markers (p53, AIF, Ki67), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2,...

  19. Rax: Developmental and Daily Expression Patterns in the Rat Pineal Gland and Retina

    Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C.; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day (E) 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until E20. In both tissues, Rax is e...

  20. Effects of white light on the pineal gland of the chick embryo

    Aige-Gil, Vicente; Murillo-Ferrol, Narciso

    1992-01-01

    Chick embryos were directly exposed to a source of white light during incubation and sacrificed before hatching. The light caused a number of teratological effects such as high mortality, delay in development, celosomy, hepatomegaly, auricular dilation and micrognatia. The pineal gland of the illuminated embryos showed an increase in number and size of the intracytoplasmic lipid droplets of the follicular pinealocytes. These findings suggest that the pineal...

  1. Morphological Characteristics and Embryological Development of Pineal Gland and Experimental Grafting Procedures

    Mehmet Turgut; Aysegul Uysal; Mine Yurtseven

    2003-01-01

    The pineal gland is a major neuroendocrine organ both in human and animals and its principal product is melatonin. It has been implicated in a number of physiological functions (circadian rhytms, sleep, reproduction, and immune system). It is notable that transplantation of the pineal gland into different anatomical locations (the third or fourth cerebral ventricle, hypothalamus, cortical cerebral tissue, and anterior chamber of the eye) appears to evoke a degree of functional recovery. The p...

  2. RGS2 is a feedback inhibitor of melatonin production in the pineal gland

    Matsuo, Masahiro; Steven L Coon; Klein, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The 24-h rhythmic production of melatonin by the pineal gland is essential for coordinating circadian physiology. Melatonin production increases at night in response to the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve processes which innervate the pineal gland. This signal is transduced through G-protein-coupled adrenergic receptors. Here, we found that the abundance of regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) increases at night, that expression is increased by norepinephrine and that th...

  3. Ultrastructural changes in the rat pineal gland after sympathetic denervation. Quantitative study

    Calvo, J.L.; Boya, J; García-Mauriño, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes in the rat pineal gland were studied quantitatively 7 and 60 days after the sympathetic denervation by bilateral excission or decentralization of superior cervical ganglia. The surface occupied by pineal parenchymal cells decreased in rats of experimental groups with respect to the control group. Furthermore, profile areas of the cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus of the pinealocytes were also diminished. Cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the ...

  4. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library

    Stefanie Hartman; Greg Touchton; Jessica Wynn; Tuoyu Geng; Chong, Nelson W.; Ed Smith

    2005-01-01

    The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences d...

  5. Rhodopsin Kinase Activity in the Mammalian Pineal Gland and Other Tissues

    Somers, Robert L.; Klein, David C.

    1984-10-01

    Rhodopsin kinase, an enzyme involved in photochemical transduction in the retina, has been found in the mammalian pineal gland in amounts equal to those in the retina; other tissues had 7 percent of this amount, or less. This finding suggests that, in mammals, rhodopsin kinase functions in the pineal gland and other tissues to phosphorylate rhodopsin-like integral membrane receptors and is thereby involved in signal transduction.

  6. Homeobox Genes and Melatonin Synthesis: Regulatory Roles of the Cone-Rod Homeobox Transcription Factor in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    Kristian Rohde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a cAMP-based induction of Aanat transcription. However, additional transcriptional control mechanisms exist. Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processes, are also expressed in the mature rodent pineal gland. Among these, the cone-rod homeobox (CRX transcription factor is believed to control pineal-specific Aanat expression. Based on recent advances in our understanding of Crx in the rodent pineal gland, we here suggest that homeobox genes play a role in adult pineal physiology both by ensuring pineal-specific Aanat expression and by facilitating cAMP response element-based circadian melatonin production.

  7. Morphofunctional and signaling molecules overlap of the pineal gland and thymus: role and significance in aging

    Paltsev, Michael A.; Polyakova, Victoria O.; Kvetnoy, Igor M.; Anderson, George; Kvetnaia, Tatiana V.; Linkova, Natalia S.; Paltseva, Ekaterina M.; Rubino, Rosa; De Cosmo, Salvatore; De Cata, Angelo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in neuroendocrine-immune system functioning, including alterations in pineal and thymic glands, contribute to aging-associated diseases. This study looks at ageing-associated alterations in pineal and thymic gland functioning evaluating common signaling molecules present in both human and animal pinealocytes and thymocytes: endocrine cell markers (melatonin, serotonin, pCREB, AANAT, CGRP, VIP, chromogranin A); cell renovation markers (p53, AIF, Ki67), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9) and lymphocytes markers (CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20). Pineal melatonin is decreased, as is one of the melatonin pathway synthesis enzymes in the thymic gland. A further similarity is the increased MMPs levels evident over age in both glands. Significant differences are evident in cell renovation processes, which deteriorate more quickly in the aged thymus versus the pineal gland. Decreases in the number of pineal B-cells and thymic T-cells were also observed over aging. Collected data indicate that cellular involution of the pineal gland and thymus show many commonalities, but also significant changes in aging-associated proteins. It is proposed that such ageing-associated alterations in these two glands provide novel pharmaceutical targets for the wide array of medical conditions that are more likely to emerge over the course of ageing. PMID:26943046

  8. Morphofunctional and signaling molecules overlap of the pineal gland and thymus: role and significance in aging.

    Paltsev, Michael A; Polyakova, Victoria O; Kvetnoy, Igor M; Anderson, George; Kvetnaia, Tatiana V; Linkova, Natalia S; Paltseva, Ekaterina M; Rubino, Rosa; De Cosmo, Salvatore; De Cata, Angelo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-03-15

    Deficits in neuroendocrine-immune system functioning, including alterations in pineal and thymic glands, contribute to aging-associated diseases. This study looks at ageing-associated alterations in pineal and thymic gland functioning evaluating common signaling molecules present in both human and animal pinealocytes and thymocytes: endocrine cell markers (melatonin, serotonin, pCREB, AANAT, CGRP, VIP, chromogranin А); cell renovation markers (p53, AIF, Ki67), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9) and lymphocytes markers (CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20). Pineal melatonin is decreased, as is one of the melatonin pathway synthesis enzymes in the thymic gland. A further similarity is the increased MMPs levels evident over age in both glands. Significant differences are evident in cell renovation processes, which deteriorate more quickly in the aged thymus versus the pineal gland. Decreases in the number of pineal B-cells and thymic T-cells were also observed over aging. Collected data indicate that cellular involution of the pineal gland and thymus show many commonalities, but also significant changes in aging-associated proteins. It is proposed that such ageing-associated alterations in these two glands provide novel pharmaceutical targets for the wide array of medical conditions that are more likely to emerge over the course of ageing. PMID:26943046

  9. The relative frequency of odontogenic tumors in the Black Sea region of Turkey: an analysis of 86 cases

    ŞENEL, Figen ÇİZMECİ; DAYISOYLU, Ezher Hamza; ERSÖZ, Şafak; ALTINTAŞ, Nuray YILMAZ; TOSUN, Emre; Üngör, Cem; Taşkesen, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relative frequency and distribution of different types of odontogenic tumors in southeastern Europe, focusing on the Black Sea region of Turkey. Materials and methods: In total 1165 oromaxillofacial biopsy records were evaluated for histologic diagnosis of odontogenic tumors over a 7-year period from patients referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Department of Pathology, Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry and Medicine, Trabzon, T...

  10. Evidence of Pineal Gland Calcification on CBCT is Not Insignificant: What Else You Might Discover about Your Patient.

    Fore, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    The use of CBCT technology in the dental office is increasing rapidly. These scans provide information on anatomy not previously evaluated with traditional 2D films. One structure often mentioned in a CBCT radiology report is the pineal gland. The pineal gland will show evidence of calcification, but this calcification is often dismissed as a normal aging process. This review of the function and influence of the pineal gland may influence the doctor to complete further evaluation of the patient. PMID:27319034

  11. The Effects of Constant Darkness and Constant Light on the Pineal Gland and Thymus Morphology in the Rats

    İÇTEN, Nihal

    1998-01-01

    It is known that periods of constant darkness and constant light cause stim-ulation and inhibition of melatonin secretion from the pineal gland. It is also suggested that neuroendocrine responses to environmental stimuli, such as light, can influence immune responses through the pineal gland. For these reasons, in this study the effects of the alterations in the photoperiod rhythm on the pineal gland and thymus morphology were experimentally investigated. 30 Swiss albino rats, aged...

  12. Differential effect of benserazide (Ro4-4602) on the concentration of indoleamines in rat pineal and hypothalamus.

    Arendt, J; Ho, A K; Laud, C.; Marston, A; Nohria, V.; Smith, J. A.; Symons, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    1 Low doses (50 and 80 mg/kg) of benserazide (Ro4-4602), an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, markedly reduced 5-hydroxytryptamine and melatonin in the rat pineal gland without affecting hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine. 2 This differential effect shows that inhibition of the pineal gland decarboxylase activity is possible, and confirms that the rat pineal gland is accessible to peripherally acting agents.

  13. Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland

    Huang, Zheping; Liu, Tiecheng; Chattoraj, Asamanja; Ahmed, Samreen; Michael M Wang; Deng, Jie.; Sun, Xing; Borjigin, Jimo

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a precursor for melatonin production, is produced abundantly in the pineal gland of all vertebrate animals. The synthesis of 5-HT in the pineal gland is rate limited by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) whose activity displays a twofold increase at night. Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrate that pineal 5-HT secretion exhibits dynamic circadian rhythms with elevated levels during the early night, and that the increase is controlled by adrenergic...

  14. Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region

    Proton beam has been applied to treat various tumor patients in clinical studies. However, it is still undefined whether proton radiation can inhibit the blood vessel formation and induce the cell death in vascular endothelial cells in growing organs. The aim of this study are first, to develop an optimal animal model for the observation of blood vessel development with low dose of proton beam and second, to investigate the effect of low dose proton beam on the inhibition of blood vessel formation induced by hypoxic conditions. In this study, flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos were used to directly visualize and determine the inhibition of blood vessels by low dose (1, 2, 5 Gy) of proton beam with spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). And we observed cell death by acridine orange staining at 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) stage of embryos after proton irradiation. We also compared the effects of proton beam with those of gamma-ray. An antioxidant, N-acetyl cystein (NAC) was used to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the cell deaths induced by proton irradiation. Irradiated flk-1-GFP transgenic embryos with proton beam irradiation (35 MeV, spread out Bragg peak, SOBP) demonstrated a marked inhibition of embryonic growth and an altered fluorescent blood vessel development in the trunk region. When the cells with DNA damage in the irradiated zebrafish were stained with acridine orange, green fluorescent cell death spots were increased in trunk regions compared to non-irradiated control embryos. Proton beam also significantly increased the cell death rate in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but pretreatment of N-acetyl cystein (NAC), an antioxidant, recovered the proton-induced cell death rate (p<0.01). Moreover, pretreatment of NAC abrogated the effect of proton beam on the inhibition of trunk vessel development and malformation of trunk truncation. From this study, we found that proton radiation therapy can inhibit the

  15. Content of microelements in the rat pineal gland at different ages and the effects of selenium supplementation

    Demajo M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian pineal gland regulates a number of important physiological processes. In this paper we report changes in the content of iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, and selenium (Se in the male rat pineal glands at 4, 5, 8, and 12 months of age. The effect of Se supplementation in drinking water on the content of pineal gland microelements was also studied. Selenium (Se-dependent changes in pineal gland reported in this study suggest novel physicochemical and biochemical properties of Se, an important element essential in the antioxidative processes, yet known to influence a number of endocrine processes.

  16. Contrast enhancement and morphological findings of hematopoietic regions of bone marrow on MR imaging. Comparative study with spondylitis and vertebral tumors

    The enhanced MR findings of hematopoietic regions in aplastic anemia were compared with those of spondylitis, metastatic vertebral tumors and hematologic neoplasms. The enhanced MR images showed hematopoietic regions to homogeneously enhance and occupy the margin of vertebral bodies, while spondylitis and metastatic tumors appeared as round, inhomogeneously enhancing lesions. MR images of leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome showed homogeneous enhancement at the margins of vertebrae that was difficult to differentiate from hematopoietic regions. Enhanced MR images were useful in detecting the hematopoietic areas in marrow and differentiating them from spondylitis and metastatic tumors, although further experience is needed to distinguish between tumorous hyperplastic regions and benign hematopoietic regions in marrow. (author)

  17. Contrast enhancement and morphological findings of hematopoietic regions of bone marrow on MR imaging. Comparative study with spondylitis and vertebral tumors

    Amano, Yasuo; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Matsuura, Maki; Watari, Jun; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The enhanced MR findings of hematopoietic regions in aplastic anemia were compared with those of spondylitis, metastatic vertebral tumors and hematologic neoplasms. The enhanced MR images showed hematopoietic regions to homogeneously enhance and occupy the margin of vertebral bodies, while spondylitis and metastatic tumors appeared as round, inhomogeneously enhancing lesions. MR images of leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome showed homogeneous enhancement at the margins of vertebrae that was difficult to differentiate from hematopoietic regions. Enhanced MR images were useful in detecting the hematopoietic areas in marrow and differentiating them from spondylitis and metastatic tumors, although further experience is needed to distinguish between tumorous hyperplastic regions and benign hematopoietic regions in marrow. (author).

  18. Buschke-Löwenstein tumor: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anogenital region

    Turkalj Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Buschke-Lcwenstein tumor (BLT, as a rare form of condylomata acuminatum, was firstly described by Buschke in 1886 as a "carcinoma-like condyloma acuminatum of the penis”. BLT is generally considered to be a low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma of the anogenital region. Case Outline. We describe a case of BLT in a 56-year-old male patient who was referred to our institute due to a large defect in the gluteal region. The biopsy of the lesion was performed and the diagnosis of BLT was made on histopathological examination. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis showed the extensive vegetant lesion that significantly infiltrated pelvic organs accompanied with an enlargement of para-iliac lymph nodes. Sygmoidostomy for fecal diversion was done and chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin was initiated. Unfortunately, the patient’s severe condition caused fatal outcome. Conclusion. Our case points out that BLT should be treated at the initial stage in order to prevent untreatable condition which happened in our patient. Therefore, early diagnostics and staging of the disease using modern technologies are crucial in order to treat patients effectively.

  19. Degranulating mast cells in fibrotic regions of human tumors and evidence that mast cell heparin interferes with the growth of tumor cells through a mechanism involving fibroblasts

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mast cells that are present in fibrotic regions of cancer can suppress the growth of tumor cells through an indirect mechanism involving peri-tumoral fibroblasts. We first immunostained a wide variety of human cancers for the presence of degranulated mast cells. In a subsequent series of controlled in vitro experiments, we then co-cultured UACC-812 human breast cancer cells with normal fibroblasts in the presence or absence of different combinations and doses of mast cell tryptase, mast cell heparin, a lysate of the human mast cell line HMC-1, and fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7), a powerful, heparin-binding growth factor for breast epithelial cells. Degranulating mast cells were localized predominantly in the fibrous tissue of every case of breast cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease that we examined. Mast cell tryptase and HMC-1 lysate had no significant effect on the clonogenic growth of cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. By contrast, mast cell heparin at multiple doses significantly reduced the size and number of colonies of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, especially in the presence of FGF-7. Neither heparin nor FGF-7, individually or in combination, produced any significant effect on the clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells cultured without fibroblasts. Degranulating mast cells are restricted to peri-tumoral fibrous tissue, and mast cell heparin is a powerful inhibitor of clonogenic growth of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. These results may help to explain the well-known ability of heparin to inhibit the growth of primary and metastatic tumors

  20. Minute gastric carcinoid tumor with regional lymph node metastasis:A case report and review of literature

    Sbu-Duo Xie; Lin-Bo Wang; Xiang-Yang Song; Tao Pan

    2004-01-01

    We have encountered an unusual case of gastric carcinoid tumor. Gastroscopic examination of this 32-year-old male patient showed a smooth protrusion at the greater curvature of the gastric body with a central depression,identified by subsequent biopsy as carcinoma. The patient had a normal serum gastrin level and was negative for anti-parietal cell antibody. Histological examination of the resected gastric tissues showed that the tumor was a carcinoid, 0.3 cm×0.3 cm in size with only one regional lymph node metastasis. We reviewed the pathogenesis,clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of gastric carcinoids and raise the possibility of being a lymph vesselrelated metastasis even for a minute carcinoid tumor.Sentinel lymph node biopsy is recommended for surgery of minute carcinoid tumors.

  1. Prevention and treatment of the effects of radiation treatment of tumors in the oral and maxillo-facial regions

    The headings of this book are: Indications for and therapeutic value of radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy of head and neck tumors; literature review of radiation injuries and side effects of radiotherapy in the orofacial region; peri-radiotherapeutic regimen; radiation induced caries; radiation induced xerostomia; radiation induced changes of the jaw and osteoradionecrosis

  2. Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Changes Related To Methylphenidate In Rat Pituitary and Pineal Glands

    Çiğdem ELMAS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The presence of a dopaminergic function in pituitary and pineal glands is well known. Methylphenidate (MPH, a widely prescribed psychostimulant for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, is an indirect dopamine agonist which could have the capacity of influencing the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system with the pineal gland. Our aim is to investigate dose-dependent immunohistochemical dopamine 2 expression, possible cell apoptosis and ultrastructural changes of the rat pituitary and pineal gland tissue, to demonstrate possible toxicity of the chronic extended use of the MPH.Material and Methods: In this study, 27 female prepubertal Wistar albino rats, divided into three different dose groups (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, were treated orally with MPH dissolved in saline solution for 5 days per week during three months. At the end of the third month, after perfusion fixation, pituitary and pineal glands were removed and sections were collected for immunohistochemical, TUNEL assay and ultrastructural studies.Results: We observed that methylphenidate induced dose-related ultrastructural changes in pituitary and pineal glands.Conclusion: High dose administration of this drug could influence the functions of these glands. Thus, we suggest that the therapeutic dose of methylphenidate must be kept in minimum level.

  3. Labelling of the pineal gland with 99mTc-glucose-6-phosphate

    Lately, the pineal body has been the subject of a large variety of studies. Only recently it has been understood the role played by this endocrine gland to maintain the balance of the human body and also in animal models. Although small in dimensions, the pineal body is a very active organ, able to transmit precise temporal information. It probably participates in the synchronization of several organic functions. The present work aims to study a possible use of 99mTc-glucose-6-P as a tracer for the pineal gland. Histoautoradiographic studies have been performed in Wistar rats. Tomoscintigraphic studies were acquired in patients and in albine rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus hyplus). The labelling efficiency and the radiochemical purity of the labelled products have always been tested. Animal and human SPECT exams, show an activity focus projected over the area corresponding to the pineal body localization. Autoradiographic studies using [1-14C]-glucose-6-P did not reveal a more relevant activity at the pineal level, probably due to its hepatic conversion to 14C-glucose. (author)

  4. Diurnal cycles in serotonin acetyltransferase activity and cyclic GMP content of cultured chick pineal glands.

    Wainwright, S D

    1980-06-12

    Levels of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT: acetul CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.5.) activity in the chick pineal gland exhibit a marked diurnal variation in birds kept under a diurnal cycle of ilumination. Activity begins to rise rapidly at the start of the dark phase of the cycle and reaches maximum levels at mid-dark phase about 25-fold greater than the minimum basal level at mid-light phase. Thereafter, the level of activity declines to the basal level about the start of the light phase. This diurnal cycle in chick pineal NAT activity found in vivo has recently been reproduced in vitro with intact glands incubated in organ culture. The mechanism of the 'biological clock' which regulates these variations in level of chick pineal NAT activity is unknown. However, I now report that chick pineal glands cultured under a diurnal cycle of illumination exhibit a diurnal cycle in content of cyclic GMP which roughly parallels the cycles in NAT activity. In contrast, there was no correlation between variations in pineal content of cyclic AMP and in level of NAT activity. PMID:6250035

  5. Small Tumor Virus Genomes Are Integrated near Nuclear Matrix Attachment Regions in Transformed Cells

    Shera, Katherine A.; Shera, Christopher A.; McDougall, James K

    2001-01-01

    More than 15% of human cancers have a viral etiology. In benign lesions induced by the small DNA tumor viruses, viral genomes are typically maintained extrachromosomally. Malignant progression is often associated with viral integration into host cell chromatin. To study the role of viral integration in tumorigenesis, we analyzed the positions of integrated viral genomes in tumors and tumor cell lines induced by the small oncogenic viruses, including the high-risk human papillomaviruses, hepat...

  6. Leptomeningite e tumor da região optoquiasmática Meningitis and tumor of the opto-chiasmatic region. Report of two cases

    J. A. Gonçalves da Silva

    1967-03-01

    search of intracranial focuses of infection through radiologic examinations. The nature of the leptomeningitic episodes is discussed. Their relation to possible communications between the oropharyngeal cavity and the subarachnoid space, secundary to the changes in the anatomic structures of the region provoked by the tumors, is emphasized since these communications make possible the invasion of the subarachnoid space by bacteria. Although this opinion is acceptable in respect to the cases related, it is not possible to exclude the aseptic nature of meningitic episodes observed as no pathogenic micro-organism was isolated from the CSF samples studied and the necroscopic examination showed no septation in the leptomeningeal structures that surrounded the tumor or no obvious focus of infection related to them. Considering the cases reported the authors point out that radiologic and neuro-radiologic examinations must be indicated, as soon as possible, in order to exclude such tumors in patients suffering from meningitis of obscure origin, specially when its course is delayed and/or marked by acute episodes or re-exacerbation.

  7. Cyst or tumor in the buccomaxillary region: Review of literature and a case report.

    Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Kujan, Omar Bashar; Dwedary, Hisham Mohammed Najeeb; Sikander, Mohammed Hilal; Mankar, Sunil; Amrin, M Nidha

    2015-08-01

    Odontogenic tumors (OTs) include entities of a hamartomatous nature, such as odontoma, benign neoplasms like an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), some benign neoplasms are aggressive as in the case of ameloblastoma. The AOT is a rare odontogenic tumor constituting only 3% of all the OT and very often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. We report a case of an intra-osseous type of AOT occurred in a young 16-year-old female located in the anterior maxilla along with the clinical, radiological, histological features, and literature review related to the tumor affecting the patient. PMID:26538960

  8. Wound healing and the effect of pineal gland and melatonin

    Jacek Drobnik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex phenomenon that is controlled by local and general regulatory mechanisms. The aim of the paper is to analyze recently-published data devoted to the regulation of wound repair by melatonin. The effect of melatonin has been reported in different wound types healed with various mechanisms. The action of the pineal indoleamine is dependent on the used dose, time of application and target organ. Moreover, melatonin influences different phases of wound repair such as inflammation, by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators, cell proliferation and migration, by influencing angiogenesis, and the proliferation of fibroblasts, as well as the synthesis phase, by regulating collagen and glycosaminoglycan accumulation in the wounded milieu. Thus, healing of the skin wound, myocardial infarction, bone fractures and gastric ulcer is influenced by melatonin. In patients with low levels of melatonin (elderly or β-blocker treated patients, its regulatory effects are expected to be impaired. Thus, the need for melatonin supplementation in those patients is postulated in the study. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 3-14

  9. Comparative histomorphological study of the pineal gland in human and fowl

    B. Pal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Comparative histological studies of pineal gland of man and fowl has been made to observe structural differences if any between these two species. Background: Some works have been done sporadically on laboratory animals and on birds and also in human correlating with other parameters. In this investigation an approach has been made to observe the cellular organization of the pineal gland parenchyma in these two vertebrates, having different physiological aspects. Methods: Some special stains were used to observe connective tissue elements (Reticulin,collagen and elastic fibers along with conventional H and E stains. Result and conclusion: The lobular character of the gland, connective tissue septa, shape and size of the pinealocytes were found to be almost common in both species. Major differences seen in fowl pineal gland are the presence of ependymal cells on the walls of the lumen of the lobules and absence of corpora arenacea.

  10. Pineal 5-methoxytryptophol rhythms in the box turtle: effect of photoperiod and environmental temperature.

    Skene, D J; Vivien-Roels, B; Pevet, P

    1989-03-13

    The effect of different photoperiods and temperatures on pineal 5-methoxytryptophol (ML) content was investigated in male box turtles, Terrapene carolina triunguis. A rhythm in pineal ML was evident in the long photoperiod (18 h light (L)-6 h dark (D] with high daytime levels of 178 +/- 48 pg/gland (means +/- S.E.M.) which dropped to 38 +/- 6 pg/gland during lights off. In the short photoperiod (8L:16D) no clearcut ML rhythm was observed. Diurnal (10.00-12.00 h) ML concentrations rose linearly (P less than 0.05) with increasing ambient temperatures (5, 15, 20 and 27 degrees C). Day/night differences in ML levels, however, were not significant. Pineal ML in the box turtle thus seems to be modified by the photoperiod and, to a lesser extent, by temperature. PMID:2710400