WorldWideScience

Sample records for pineal region tumors

  1. Papillary tumor of the pineal region

    Vandergriff, Clayton; Opatowsky, Michael; O'Rourke, Brian; Layton, Kennith

    2012-01-01

    Presented is a patient with papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR), an uncommon and recently recognized neoplasm. As its name implies, PTPR does not arise from the pineal gland itself. The cell of origin is thought to be the specialized ependymocytes of the subcommissural organ. Primary tumors of the pineal region include pineal parenchymal neoplasms, germ cell neoplasms, and tumors arising from adjacent structures, including meningiomas, astrocytomas, and ependymomas. Like other masses ...

  2. Diagnosis of pineal region tumors; Imagerie des tumeurs de la region pineale

    Gauvrit, J.Y.; Soto Ares, G.; Hamon-Kerautret, M.; Pruvo, J.P.; Blond, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 59 - Lille (France)

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain the different radio-clinical presentations of pineal region tumors. Although MR images provide a important help to diagnosis, because of topographic analysis and evaluation of MR characteristics in the tumors, clinic, presentation tumors markers and the stereotaxic surgery are also of great importance. Radiological appearances, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnostic of pineal region tumours. (authors). 44 refs.

  3. Pineal region tumors: computed tomographic-pathologic spectrum

    Futrell, N.N.; Osborn, A.G.; Cheson. B.D.

    1981-11-01

    While several computed tomographic (CT) studies of posterior third ventricular neoplasms have included descriptions of pineal tumors, few reports have concentrated on these uncommon lesions. Some authors have asserted that the CT appearance of many pineal tumors is virtually pathognomonic. A series of nine biopsy-proved pineal gland and eight other presumed tumors is presented that illustrates their remarkable heterogeneity in both histopathologic and CT appearance. These tumors included germinomas, teratocarcinomas, hamartomas, and other varieties. They had variable margination, attentuation, calcification, and suprasellar extension. Germinomas have the best response to radiation therapy. Biopsy of pineal region tumors is now feasible and is recommended for treatment planning.

  4. MR imaging in tumors of the pineal region

    Ten patients with tumors of the pineal region underwent CT and MRI investigations. There were 3 germinomas, 3 teratomas and 1 of each of the following: Pineocytoma, PNET, ependymoma and meningioma. Not only were tumor size and growth compared to CT, but an attempt was made to obtain knowledge of the histology of the tumor by special T2 calculations. The investigations did not lead to an improvement in type specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  5. MR imaging in tumors of the pineal region

    Mueller-Forell, W.; Schroth, G.; Egan, P.J.

    1988-06-01

    Ten patients with tumors of the pineal region underwent CT and MRI investigations. There were 3 germinomas, 3 teratomas and 1 of each of the following: Pineocytoma, PNET, ependymoma and meningioma. Not only were tumor size and growth compared to CT, but an attempt was made to obtain knowledge of the histology of the tumor by special T/sub 2/ calculations. The investigations did not lead to an improvement in type specific diagnosis.

  6. Papillary tumor of the pineal region: report of a rapidly progressive tumor with possible multicentric origin

    Sato, Takashi S. [University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Kirby, Patricia A. [University of Iowa, Department of Pathology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Buatti, John M. [University of Iowa, Department of Radiation Oncology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Moritani, Toshio [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is an uncommon tumor recently added to the WHO classification of CNS tumors. We report a case of PTPR in a young boy that was noteworthy for early CSF dissemination and relentless progression. In spite of intensive chemotherapy and comprehensive radiotherapy, the boy died. The neuroimaging appearance is unique with possible multicentric origin of the tumor and intense uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-pentetreotide. (orig.)

  7. Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors - quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma

    Our study aimed to elucidate the imaging features for the differentiation of pineal germinoma and other pineal region tumors. Image data sets of computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 93 pineal region tumors including 33 germinomas, 30 nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), and 10 miscellaneous tumors of pineal region were reviewed. Imaging features on CT and MRI were qualitatively assessed by three readers. To know the reasons for morphological differences between germinomas and NGGCTs, histological investigation was done. Localized calcification was seen in more than 70 % of germ cells tumors (GCTs: germinomas and NGGCTs) while it was scattered in more than half of PPTs. Cystic components in tumors were most frequent in NGGCTs (62 %). Multiplicity of lesion was restricted to GCTs: 39.4 % in germinoma and 10.0 % in NGGCTs. Thick peritumoral edema was more frequent in germinoma than in NGGCT: 40.6 vs. 14.8 % (p = 0.0433, Fisher's test). Bithalamic extension of tumor was seen in 78.8 % of germinomas. It was significantly rare in other groups of tumors (p < 0.0001, Fisher's test). The relative collagen amount per unit area was significantly lower in germinoma than in NGGCTs. By paying attention to characteristic features as bithalamic extension, thick peritumoral edema, calcification pattern, multiplicity, and their combination, the preoperative differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma will become more accurate. (orig.)

  8. Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors - quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma

    Awa, Ryuji; Campos, Francia; Arita, Kazunori; Karki, Prasanna; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Oyoshi, Tatsuki; Hirano, Hirofumi [Kagoshima University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuhiko [Hiroshima University, Department of Clinical Oncology and Neuro-oncology Program, Hiroshima (Japan); Tominaga, Atsushi; Kurisu, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki [Hiroshima University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Fukukura, Yoshihiko [Kagoshima University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Fujii, Yukihiko [Niigata University, Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Our study aimed to elucidate the imaging features for the differentiation of pineal germinoma and other pineal region tumors. Image data sets of computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 93 pineal region tumors including 33 germinomas, 30 nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), and 10 miscellaneous tumors of pineal region were reviewed. Imaging features on CT and MRI were qualitatively assessed by three readers. To know the reasons for morphological differences between germinomas and NGGCTs, histological investigation was done. Localized calcification was seen in more than 70 % of germ cells tumors (GCTs: germinomas and NGGCTs) while it was scattered in more than half of PPTs. Cystic components in tumors were most frequent in NGGCTs (62 %). Multiplicity of lesion was restricted to GCTs: 39.4 % in germinoma and 10.0 % in NGGCTs. Thick peritumoral edema was more frequent in germinoma than in NGGCT: 40.6 vs. 14.8 % (p = 0.0433, Fisher's test). Bithalamic extension of tumor was seen in 78.8 % of germinomas. It was significantly rare in other groups of tumors (p < 0.0001, Fisher's test). The relative collagen amount per unit area was significantly lower in germinoma than in NGGCTs. By paying attention to characteristic features as bithalamic extension, thick peritumoral edema, calcification pattern, multiplicity, and their combination, the preoperative differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma will become more accurate. (orig.)

  9. The clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor in the pineal region

    Zhang, Yun-xiang; Zhong, Ding-Rong; HU, MING-MING; Yuan, Tao; LI Gui-lin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor (ITT) in the pineal region. Methods A retrospective study was performed to analyse the diagnostic and therapeutic process of 1 case with ITT in the pineal region. The specimen obtained from the surgery was dealt with common tissue processing mode and cut into slices. HE staining was performed to observe histophathological features. Immunohistochemical staining (SP two-step method) was performed to analy...

  10. Papillary tumor of the pineal region-report of three cases with literature review

    Debajyoti Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR is a rare tumor of the pineal region. Not much is known about the pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment protocol of this uncommon entity. We present three cases of PTPR with follow-up from 8 months to 98 months. All patients presented with headache and visual disturbance. One patient also had amenorrhea. Radiology revealed an heterogeneously enhancing mass arising from the pineal region with associated hydrocephalus. Histopathologically, all cases showed the papillary architecture, strong pan cytokeratin and cytokeratin 18 positivity, and faint positivity for synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase. All cases received postoperative radiotherapy. One case showed tumor recurrence after 7 years. Other two cases did not show any recurrence till the last follow-up.

  11. Papillary tumor of the pineal region with extended clinical and radiologic follow-up

    Shakir, Hakeem J.; Jingxin Qiu; Dheerendra Prasad; Mechtler, Laszlo L.; Fenstermaker, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a rare neoplasm with only anecdotal data to guide the treatment. Results of treatment with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have been reported to have varying degrees of success. Here we report a patient with a PTPR, who underwent subtotal resection, gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery, and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy. Case Description: During 9 years of clinical and radiographic follow-up, the patient has had...

  12. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Peng Wang; Qing Mao; Wei Wang; Liang-Xue Zhou; Yan-Hui Liu

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method : Seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6–9 months after GKS. Results : Sixteen of 17 cases w...

  13. Gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region: uncommon localization and rare tumors.

    Sugita, Yasuo; Terasaki, Mizuhiko; Tanigawa, Ken; Ohshima, Koichi; Morioka, Motohiro; Higaki, Koichi; Nakagawa, Setsuko; Shimokawa, Shoko; Nakashima, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Gliosarcomas are a variant of glioblastomas and present a biphasic pattern, with coexisting glial and mesenchymal components. In this study, two unusual cases are presented. Case 1 is a 52-year-old woman with a headache and memory disturbance for a month. Case 2 is an 18-year-old man with a headache lasting two weeks. In both cases, an MRI revealed enhancing T1-low to iso, T2-iso to high intensity lesions in the pineal gland region. Histologically, in case 1, the tumor showed spindle cell proliferation with disorganized fascicles and cellular pleomorphism. Tumor cells variously exhibited oncocytic transformation. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for myoglobin and desmin. Some of the tumor cells were positive for GFAP and S-100 protein. On the other hand, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1, and SOX-2 which are the markers of neural stem cells. In case 2, the tumor showed monotonous proliferation of short spindle cells with disorganized fascicles and cellular atypism. The morphological distinction between glial and mesenchymal components was not apparent. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for desmin. Glial tumor cells that were dispersed within the sarcoma as single cells were positive for GFAP. In addition, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1 and SOX-2. Based on these microscopic appearances, and immunohistochemical findings, these cases were diagnosed as gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region. These results also indicated that pluripotential cancer stem cells differentiated into glial and muscle cell lines at the time of tumor growth. In a survey of previous publications on gliosarcoma arising from the pineal gland, these cases are the second and third reports found in English scientific writings. PMID:26183264

  14. The clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor in the pineal region

    ZHANG Yun-xiang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor (ITT in the pineal region. Methods A retrospective study was performed to analyse the diagnostic and therapeutic process of 1 case with ITT in the pineal region. The specimen obtained from the surgery was dealt with common tissue processing mode and cut into slices. HE staining was performed to observe histophathological features. Immunohistochemical staining (SP two-step method was performed to analyse the expression of tumor markers. Related literatures were reviewed. Results A 6-year old boy with clinical manifestations of penis enlargement and rapid growth for more than one year, presented a mass in his pineal region through MRI. The tumor was surgically excised after it is refractory to 10 times experimental radiotherapy as germinoma. The level of β-human chorionic gonadotropin ( β-hCG in his postoperative blood was decreased to normal, but gradually increased, once again followed to normal after three times chemotherapy. Patient was normal almost postoperative 6 months later by follow -up. Pathological examination showed sheets necrosis with multiple calcification and scattered fresh blood cells, epithelioid tumor cells with solid growth pattern. The tumor cells were atypical mononuclear cells with relative uniform (between heterotypic cells and partially surrounding and invasing the vascular walls. The cytoplasm of tumor cells was eosinophilic or clear, the nucleus was round or irregular in shape and some with intranuclear pseudoinclusions, and its mitotic figures were rarely seen under light microscopy. The tumor cells showed strong positive for AE1/AE3, cell adhesion molecules 5.2 (CAM5.2, human placental lactogen (hPL, octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (Oct3/4, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and E-cadherin. P53 was also expressed. The positive rate of Ki-67 was about 10%, and β-hCG was expressed in the extremely tumor cells. The

  15. Differentiation of germinomas from other tumors in the pineal region with CT and MR imaging, with special reference to extension patterns to the thalami

    Furusawa, Tetsuya [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-03-01

    To determine the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) characteristics of pineal region germinomas, the author reviewed images from 40 patients with pineal region tumors. These tumors were divided into two groups: those with germinomas (n=17), and those with other tumors in the pineal region (5 with a germ cell tumor other than germinoma; 8, mixed germ cell tumor; 8, pineal parenchymal tumor; and 2, miscellaneous tumors; n=23). All cases were investigated with CT; 31 of the cases were also investigated with MR imaging. The following parameters comprised statistically significant differences between the two groups: maximum size of the tumor, tumor density of the precontrast CT, signal intensity of precontrast T1-weighted spin-echo images, and homogeneity of the tumor on both precontrast and postcontrast studies. This study found that extension patterns of pineal region tumors into the thalamus have significant implications in differentiating germinomas from other tumors of this region. Germinomas are characterized by thalamic extension without lateral displacement of the third ventricle walls due to direct compression by tumors (p=0.0034). The analysis of tumor extension patterns, combined with the parameters mentioned above, may provide a more accurate differential diagnosis in pineal region tumors, leading to prompt and appropriate treatment. (author)

  16. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Peng Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Pineal region tumors (PRTs are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method : Seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6–9 months after GKS. Results : Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion : The findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications.

  17. Retractorless surgery for a pineal region tumor through an occipital transtentorial approach.

    Nakao, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    This video demonstrates surgical techniques of the occipital transtentorial approach to a pineal region tumor without using a fixed brain retractor, which may cause functional impairment or even tissue injury to the occipital visual cortex. There are several ways to facilitate retractorless surgery through this approach. A lateral-semiprone positioning of the patient can induce gravity retraction. The brain is relaxed by draining CSF fluid through lumbar drainage or lateral ventricular tap in the case of obstructive hydrocephalus. Dynamic retraction with handheld instruments after extensive dissection of the deep venous system, including basal veins, can provide a sufficient working space. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/kQvEHiNcRow . PMID:26722684

  18. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Wang, Peng [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu (China); Mao, Qing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Liu, Yan-Hui, E-mail: liuyanhui9@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2014-03-01

    Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

  19. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

  20. Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation

    Meena Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2007 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system identified "pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation" (PPTID as a new pineal parenchymal neoplasm, located between pineocytoma and pineoblastoma as grade II or III. Because of the small number of reported cases, the classification of PPT is still a matter of controversy. We report a case of PPTID. A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital with complaints of a headache, nausea, vomiting since 1-year. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed well-defined, mildly enhancing lesion in the region of the pineal gland with areas of calcification. The tumor was excised. After 3 years, she presented with metastasis in thoracic and lumbosacral spinal region. This is a rare event.

  1. Lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach for microsurgical resection of large midline pineal region tumors: techniques to expand the operative corridor.

    Kulwin, Charles; Matsushima, Ken; Malekpour, Mahdi; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2016-01-01

    Pineal region tumors pose certain challenges in regard to their resection: a deep surgical field, associated critical surrounding neurovascular structures, and narrow operative working corridor due to obstruction by the apex of the culmen. The authors describe a lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach that was successfully used in the treatment of 10 large (> 3 cm) midline pineal region tumors. The patients were placed in a modified lateral decubitus position. A small lateral suboccipital craniotomy exposed the transverse sinus. Tentorial retraction sutures were used to gently rotate and elevate the transverse sinus to expand the lateral supracerebellar operative corridor. This approach placed only unilateral normal structures at risk and minimized vermian venous sacrifice. The surgeon achieved generous exposure of the caudal midline mesencephalon through a "cross-court" oblique trajectory, while avoiding excessive retraction on the culmen. All patients underwent the lateral approach with no approach-related complication. The final pathological diagnoses were consistent with meningioma in 3 cases, pilocytic astrocytoma in 3 cases, intermediate grade pineal region tumor in 2 cases, and pineoblastoma in 2 cases. The entire extent of these tumors was readily reachable through the lateral supracerebellar route. Gross-total resection was achieved in 8 (80%) of the 10 cases; in 2 cases (20%) near-total resection was performed due to adherence of these tumors to deep diencephalic veins. Large midline pineal region tumors can be removed through a unilateral paramedian suboccipital craniotomy. This approach is simple, may spare some of the midline vermian bridging veins, and may be potentially less invasive and more efficient. PMID:26275000

  2. Papillary tumor of pineal region: Prolonged control rate after gamma knife radiosurgery - A case report and review of literature

    Cardenas Raul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPR are very rare. We describe the first report of a PTPR empirically managed with gamma knife radiosurgery. The patient was initially shunted and referred for empirical gamma knife radiosurgery. After initially showing some improvement, he had recurrence of tumor after 7 years. For recurrence he underwent a gross total resection and the biopsy established the diagnosis of PTPR. Further research needs to be done as to the efficacy of gamma knife surgery for PTPR. In addition, the role of stereotactic biopsy for eligible patients should be considered as the initial step to direct the treatment of choice.

  3. Primary malignant melanoma in the pineal region treated without chemotherapy

    SHINSATO, Yoshinari; Hanada, Tomoko; Kisanuki, Takao; Yonezawa, Hajime; Yunoue, Shunji; Yoshioka, Takako; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Hirano, Hirofumi; ARITA, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    Background: Primary pineal malignant melanomas are uncommon intracranial tumor. Here we discuss and review a case of primary pineal malignant melanoma over its feature of imaging studies, pathological findings, and management. Case Description: A 49-year-old woman receiving renal dialysis underwent computed tomography due to a 4-month history of tinnitus and hearing disturbance. A high-density 35-mm diameter tumor was detected in the pineal region; there was obstructive hydrocephalus. The tum...

  4. Surgical therapy of benign pineal tumors

    Currently, there is no way that the author knows to satisfactorily distinguish the benign lesions from their malignant cousins without a shadow of doubt. This includes preoperative evaluation of the clinical history, biological markers in serum and CSF, CT scans with and without contrast in various projections including the horizontal, coronal and sagittal cuts, and arteriography. Because the author has personally encountered difficulty in precisely diagnosing these tumors at routine light microscopy, especially when fragments are small, he has a personal aversion to the technique of diagnosis which enlists the use of a stereotactically placed biopsy needle. The author feels that virtually all of the pineal tumors require surgical exposure and sufficient tissue removal to ensure an accurate histological diagnosis. With experience, the author believes the surgeon can tell as he exposes the posterior and lateral aspects of these tumors whether or not they are encapsulated and therefore potentially resectable. This anatomical variation may be identified prior to operative intervention by an arteriogram especially with injection of large quantities of dye into the carotid system. With the advent of the CUSA (Cavitron Lasersonics, Cooper Medical Device Corporation, Stamford, CT), the author has used this instrument with increased facility and benefit in the removal of benign relatively avascular tumors of the pineal region. This instrument is ideal in coring out the interior of the tumor while creating little displacement of the tumor capsule. Some of the benign tumors, especially the meningiomas may be partially or heavily calcified and this instrument exhibits particular usefulness in these cases

  5. PINEAL GLAND TUMORS: EXPERIENCE FROM THE SEER DATABASE

    Al-Hussaini, Maysa; Sultan, Iyad; Gajjar, Amar J.; Abuirmileh, Najyah; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Pineal gland tumors are rare and account for less than 1% of all primary brain tumor diagnoses. Also, they are more commonly seen in pediatric patients than in adults. We analyzed the available SEER data on pineal gland tumors that were diagnosed during the period 1973–2005. The cohort was subdivided into groups on the basis of tumor histology: germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, gliomas, and other pineal tumors. Analyses of incidence, survival, factors influencing survival, and trea...

  6. Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report

    Gasparetto Emerson Leandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only few cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized hypotony, hypotrophy and hyper-reflexia, Babinski sign and left VI cranial par palsy. CT scan examination revealed a ill-defined hypodense lesion at the pineal region with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. MRI showed a lesion at the pineal region infiltrating the right thalamic region. The patient underwent a right craniotomy with partial resection of the mass. The histological examination of paraffin-embedded material defined the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. Post-operative radiotherapy was indicated but the patient refused the treatment and died two months afterwards. CONCLUSION: in spite of its rarity at this location, glioblastoma multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aggressive lesions at the pineal region.

  7. Multiple remote epidural hematomas following pineal gland tumor resection

    Jeong-Wook Lim; Seung-Hwan Yang; Jong-Soo Lee; Shi-Hun Song

    2010-01-01

    In cases of pineal tumor combined with obstructive hydrocephalus, preoperative ventriculostomy or ventriculoperitoneal shunting is typically required prior to tumor resection. The objectives of preoperative ventriculostomy are gradual reduction of intracranial pressure and consequent preoperative brain protection. Here we report a case of pineal tumor resection with preoperative ventriculostomy that was complicated by multiple epidural hematomas. While postoperative intracranial hemorrhage ma...

  8. Conservative management of pineal tumors - Mayo clinic experience

    The typical pineal tumor occurs in an adolescent boy with subacute increased intracranial pressure and Parinaud's syndrome. Diagnosis is confirmed by CT scanning, and long-term survival usually following shunting and radiation therapy. Direct surgical methods for successful treatment of suitable pineal tumors have evolved and may be utilized with relatively low risk in appropriate cases

  9. Endodermal cyst in pineal region: Rare location

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Dolan, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pineal tumors are very uncommon intracranial lesions, and endodermal cysts in this location are extremely rare. Case Description: A 49-year-old right-handed female presented with 3 weeks history of progressive dizziness and imbalance. Imaging studies showed 1.8 cm × 1.7 cm × 1.8 cm pineal lesion with small enhancing mural component displacing ventrally the quadrigeminal plate and narrowing of aqueduct of Sylvius without hydrocephalus. In addition, she was found with small interhemispheric lipoma, and small posterior falx possible meningioma. Cerebrospinal fluid markers obtained by lumbar puncture were all negative. She underwent tumor resection, and final pathology reported endodermal cyst. No new deficits were encountered, and her gait imbalance improved significantly by 3 months follow-up. Conclusions: With evidence of enlargement or symptomatic pineal lesions, surgical consideration is necessary. Among pineal lesions, endodermal cysts are extremely uncommon and although benign pathology, long-term follow-up is advised due to unknown chronic behavior. PMID:27217965

  10. Radiotherapy of pineal tumors and ectopic pinealomas

    Shirato, Hiroki; Matsuoka, Yoshisuke; Miyamoto, Miyako; Kamada, Tadashi; Arimoto, Takuro; Mizoe, Junetsu; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Irie, Goro

    1985-02-01

    The results of radiation treatment of 63 patients with pineal tumors and ectopic pinealomas are analysed. The histopathological diagnosis has been verified in 17 cases, and they consist of 9 germinoma, 3 teratoma and 5 embryonal carcinoma. The overall 5 year survival rate was 79.5%. Survival rate was different according to histology and site of tumor involvement. Local control was achieved more frequently with doses of over 45 Gy in five to six weeks. Marginal relapse (4 cases) and spinal metastasis (7 cases) were occured with ports under 10 x 10cm/sup 2/, but not over 10 x 10 cm/sup 2/. Prophylactic spinal irradiation were undertaken in 7 patients, and there were no spinal metastases in these patients. Tumor response detected by CT scan at 10-20 Gy was well related to relapse pattern and histopathological classification. There were no in-field relapse in patients with tumors which responded well at 10-20 Gy and disappeared at more than 40 Gy. Teratomas were demonstrated as radioresistant tumors at 10-20 Gy. Therapuetic diagnosis by CT scan seems to be a reliable procedure to determine indication of tumorectomy. (author).

  11. CRX is a diagnostic marker of retinal and pineal lineage tumors.

    Sandro Santagata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CRX is a homeobox transcription factor whose expression and function is critical to maintain retinal and pineal lineage cells and their progenitors. To determine the biologic and diagnostic potential of CRX in human tumors of the retina and pineal, we examined its expression in multiple settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we show that Crx RNA and protein expression are exquisitely lineage restricted to retinal and pineal cells during normal mouse and human development. Gene expression profiling analysis of a wide range of human cancers and cancer cell lines also supports that CRX RNA is highly lineage restricted in cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of 22 retinoblastomas and 13 pineal parenchymal tumors demonstrated strong expression of CRX in over 95% of these tumors. Importantly, CRX was not detected in the majority of tumors considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors (n = 78. The notable exception was medulloblastoma, 40% of which exhibited CRX expression in a heterogeneous pattern readily distinguished from that seen in retino-pineal tumors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings describe new potential roles for CRX in human cancers and highlight the general utility of lineage restricted transcription factors in cancer biology. They also identify CRX as a sensitive and specific clinical marker and a potential lineage dependent therapeutic target in retinoblastoma and pineoblastoma.

  12. 松果体区乳头状肿瘤临床病理学分析%Clinicopathologic features of papillary tumors of the pineal region

    方静宜; 王军梅; 崔云; 李敬军; 苏玉金; 刘朝霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨松果体区乳头状肿瘤的临床表现、病理诊断、鉴别诊断、组织发生、术后治疗及与生存相关因素.方法 收集松果体区及第三脑室后部肿瘤386例,新生儿松果体组织2例,成人松果体组织2例.HE染色、过碘酸雪夫(PAS)组织化学染色、16种抗体免疫组织化学染色(EnVision法).结果 确诊松果体区乳头状肿瘤5例,患者4例男性,1例女性.1例为复发病例,组织病理学表现为乳头状结构及实性细胞区,乳头状结构特征为单层、假复层柱状或立方上皮细胞围绕血管排列,朝向血管的细胞表面和血管形成明显的界限,乳头中心血管玻璃样变,实性细胞区细胞排列呈巢片状,可见核分裂象及坏死.5例PAS染色胞质内均偶见粉色黏蛋白样物质.免疫组织化学染色细胞角蛋白(CK)、CK8/18、突触素、巢蛋白、微管相关蛋白、S-100蛋白、波形蛋白5例均阳性,嗜铬粒素A、神经元特异性烯醇化酶4例阳性,神经丝蛋白2例阳性,Ki-67阳性指数1% ~6%,上皮细胞膜抗原、CK5/6、癌胚抗原、NeuN 5例均阴性.除病例5随访失败外,其余4例患者中,3例健在,1例死亡,死亡病例为复发病例.结论 松果体区乳头状肿瘤从儿童到成人均可发病,男性居多;组织病理学表现为乳头状结构及实性细胞区,肿瘤细胞具有上皮细胞学特征;应注意与乳头状结构肿瘤鉴别,特别是室管膜瘤;可能来源于联合下器官室管膜细胞;早诊断、肿瘤小、及早手术、争取全切、术后放疗有助于延长患者生存期.%Objective To study the clinicopathologic features of papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR).Method Three hundred and eighty six cases of pineal region and posterior third ventricle tumors,two newborn and two adult pineal glands were analyzed by HE,PAS and immunohistochemistry of 16 antibodies (EnVision method).Results Five cases of PTPR were diagnosed with mixed papillary

  13. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal region

    Gorhan, C.; Soto-Ares, G.; Pruvo, J.P. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, Lille (France); Ruchoux, M.M. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France); Blond, S. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France)

    2001-11-01

    We describe CT and MR findings in a 23-month-old infant with a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal gland. The tumour has been stereotactically biopsied and surgically resected. The pathological diagnosis was made on the resected piece. Embryology of the pineal gland and the histology of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery of pineal and related tumors

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Mori, Yoshimasa; Yamada, Yasushi; Kida, Yoshihisa [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan). Gamma Knife Center

    2001-06-01

    The role of gamma radiosurgery as an additional therapy after conventional treatments for pineal and related tumors was studied in 30 out of 33 cases with a mean follow-up of 23.3 months. Overall results showed that complete response (CR) was obtained in 8 cases (26.7%) and response rate was 73.3%. However, enlargement of the tumors was noted in 8 cases, of which 7 (23.3%) died of tumor progression (PG). Germinomas and pineocytomas showed higher response and control rates of 100%, and no tumor enlargement or death occurred after gamma knife treatment. In germinoma with STGC (syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell) which has been thought to have intermediate prognosis, two cases showed partial response (PR), but another died from progression of the disease. Malignant germ cell tumors and pineoblastomas showed unfavorable response and prognosis; the response and progression rates were 50%. However, complete response was obtained in 3 cases (25%) after gamma radiosurgery. Gamma knife was the initial treatment in three cases without pathological diagnosis in which one obtained CR and two showed partial response (PR). Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery is expected to be an effective and novel treatment for pineal and related tumors not only as an adjuvant, but also as an initial therapy. (author)

  15. Patofysiologiske mekanismer bag øjensymptomer ved primaere tumorer i corpus pineale

    Illum, N O; Møller, M; Garde, E

    1993-01-01

    Primary tumors of the pineal body can produce dyscoordinative movements of the eye, pupillary dilatation, paralysis of adduction during convergence and nystagmus. Obstruction of the aqueduct can cause hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure and papilledema. Diabetes insipidus may be a...

  16. Atypical pleomorphic neoplasms of the pineal gland: Case report and review of the literature

    M Praver

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The present case highlights the exotic nature of pineal region tumors with pleomorphic cell histology. Given the diverse range of tumors encountered in the pineal region, pathological confirmation is mandatory. Favorable clinical outcomes demonstrate that surgical resection alone can yield excellent long-term results for tumors falling within the spectrum of pleomorphic lesions of the pineal gland.

  17. Pineal germinoma with extracranial metastases: case report

    Lee, Young Rang; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Park, Moon Hyang; Ko, Yong [College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    Pineal germinoma is the commonest pineal region tumor of childhood and adolescence. Metastatic germinoma most commonly occurs via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and it is usually limited to the cerebrospinal axis. ExtacraniaI hematogenous metastasis is known to be very rare. We report here on a case of pineal germinoma with gradual extracranial metastases that occurred both through the CSF pathway and by hematogenous spread. The patient had multifocal CSF seeding after his surgery for pineal germinoma, and the left iliac metastasis and lung metastasis then occurred.

  18. MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma: focus on differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Ho Kyu; Kim, Jae Kyun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Myung Jun; Ham, Soo Youn; Lee, Jong Hwa; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    To determine the characteristic MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma, and differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors. MR images of patients with histopathologically proven pineal germinoma(n=3D14) and other pineal germ cell tumors(n=3D10) were retrospectively analyzed with regard to size, signal intensity and homogeneity, enhancing features, cyst formation, and multiplicity of lesions. Other pineal germ cell tumors were the mixed germ cell tumors (n=3D4), malignant teratomas (n=3D3), choriocarcinoma(n=3D1), embryonal carcinoma(n=3D1), and endodermal sinus tumor(n=3D1). Tumor markers were evaluated. On T1-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(86%) or iso signal intensity (93%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or iso signal intensity(70%). On T2-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(64%) or iso signal intensity(57%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or high signal intensity(80%). On Gd-DTPA enhanced images, germinomas showed homogeneous (93%) or strong enhancement (64%), while other germ cell tumors showed homogeneous(60%) or strong enhancement (70%). Cyst formation was noted in ten Patients (71%) with germinoma and in six (60%) with other germ cell tumors. Invasion on surrounding structures was seen in 11 patients (79%) with germinoma and in five (50%) with other germ cell tumors. Lesions were multiple in three patients(21%) with germinoma. Thirteen of 14 patients with germinoma had normal serum {alpha}-FP(tetoprotein) and {beta}-HCG(human chononic gonafotrophin) levels. Two of four patients with mixed germ cell tumors had elevated serum {beta}-FP and {alpha}-HCG levels; in the ther two, elevated serum {alpha}-FP or {beta}-HCG levels were noted. In the malignant teratoma and embryonal carcinoma patients, serum {alpha}-FP and {beta}-HCG levels were normal. The patient with choriocarcinoma had an elevated serum {beta}-HCG level. On T1W1, the only significant differential point (p<0.01) between

  19. Pineal gland in rats with 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene-induced mammary tumors subjected to manipulations known as enhancers of pineal actions

    Cos, S.; Bardasano, J. L.; Mediavilla, M D; Sánchez Barceló, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of pinealocytes was studied in rats with 7,17-dimethylbenz (a) anthraceneinduced manimary tumors which were subjected to experimental manipulations known as enhancers of pineal actions (anosmia, underfeeding or cold exposure). In these aniinals we found: (1) - more nuclei with deep nuclear invaginations; (11) - a large number of cytoplasmic organelles, including lipid droplets. myeloid bodies, synaptic ribbons and lysosomes; (111) - numer...

  20. Incidence of calcification in the pineal gland, habenular commissure and choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Ishikawa, Masatsune; Miyake, Hidenori; Aoki, Michio; Takeuchi, Juji

    1984-04-01

    CT scans of 3,000 consecutive normal persons were examined to verify the incidence of calcification in the pineal body, the habenular commissure, and the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle. In people over 10 years old, pineal calcification was found in 83% (male 83%, female 81%), habenular calcification in 18% (male 22%, female 60%). In people over 30 years of age, pineal calcification was found in 86%, habenular calcification in 20%, and choroid plexus calcification in 69%. There was a preponderance of male cases in almost all decades. The size and shape of the calcification in the pineal region were examined in 29 pineal-region tumors and other germinoma cases. There were no specific differences in calcification between normal persons and the pineal region tumor cases. However, there was a tendency for the pineal body calcification in the pineal teratoma to deviate unilaterally.

  1. Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation: Treatment outcomes of five cases

    WATANABE, TSUBASA; Mizowaki, Takashi; ARAKAWA, YOSHIKI; IIZUKA, YUSUKE; Ogura, Kengo; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Miyamoto, Susumu; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation (PPTID) is a rare disease, first classified by the World Health Organization in 2000. The number of available studies on the treatment of PPTID is currrently limited and the optimal management for this disease has not yet been determined. We retrospectively evaluated the treatment outcomes for PPTID at our institute and analyzed the roles of radiation therapy and chemotherapy for this disease. The clinical data on five patients diagnose...

  2. Molecular Basis for Defining the Pineal Gland and Pinealocytes as Targets for Tumor Necrosis Factor

    Cláudia Emanuele Carvalho-Sousa; Sanseray eda Silveira Cruz-Machado; Eduardo Koji Tamura; Pedro A C. M. Fernandes; Luciana ePinato; Muxel, Sandra M.; Erika eCecon; Markus, Regina P.

    2011-01-01

    The pineal gland, which is the gland that translates darkness into an endocrine signal by releasing melatonin at night, is now considered a key player in the mounting of an innate immune response. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), the first pro-inflammatory cytokine to be released by an inflammatory response, suppresses the translation of the key enzyme of melatonin synthesis (arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase-alkyl-N-acetyltransferase, Aa-nat). Here we show that TNF receptors of the subtype 1 (T...

  3. Pineal Gland Lymphoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Akshya Gupta; Mahlon Johnson; Ali Hussain

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old male presented to our institution with acute-onset headache. Imaging studies demonstrated a mass in the region of the pineal gland, with subsequent histopathology findings being consistent with large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with methotrexate, but ultimately did not survive. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma rarely involves the pineal gland, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal gland tumors in the appropriate clinical setting.

  4. Pineal Gland Lymphoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Akshya Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old male presented to our institution with acute-onset headache. Imaging studies demonstrated a mass in the region of the pineal gland, with subsequent histopathology findings being consistent with large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with methotrexate, but ultimately did not survive. Primary central nervous system (CNS lymphoma rarely involves the pineal gland, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal gland tumors in the appropriate clinical setting.

  5. Analysis of clinical features and treatment in mature teratomas at pineal region

    QI Gui-jun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment through occipital tentorium of cerebellum approach was performed in nine cases of mature teratoma at the pineal region. Diagnosis was confirmed by postoperative pathological examination. No perioperative death occurred. Surgery-related complications (visual difficulties, visual field defects, seizures were seen in 4 cases. All cases were followed for 3 months-7 years (mean 3.70 years. The mature teratoma at the pineal region are more common in male children. The main clinical manifestations are intracranial hypertension and ataxia. Neurosurgical treatment may provide satisfactory outcome.

  6. MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures

    Satoh, H. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Uozumi, T. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Arita, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Sumida, M. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Germinomas cerebrais (teratomas atípicos da pineal Cerebral germinomas (atipical teratomas of the pineal region

    Alexandre Alencar

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available São estudados três casos de germinomas cerebrais, sendo um tópico, da região pineal, e dois ectópicos, chamados germinomas supra-selares ou quiasmáticos. Estes últimos parecem ser mais agressivos que os seus congeneres tópicos, pois alem de se disseminarem pelas cisternas basais, costumam infiltrar as paredes do III ventrículo, fórnix, hipotálamo, nervos e quiasma ópticos. Caracteristicamente produzem um enorme aumento das proteínas liquóricas, desacompanhado de uma pleocitose proporcional. As proteínas liquóricas aumentadas sao globulinas cujas reações mostram-se fortemente positivas, possivelmente produzidas pelas celulas de aspecto linfocitario que constituem parte desta neoplasia. O aumento das proteinas liquoricas e tao acentuado que em presenca de uma crianca ou adolescente com sindrome de hipertensão intracraniana, hiperproteinoraquia sem pleocitose e sinais clínicos ou radiológicos sugestivos de localização na base do crânio a possibilidade de um germinoma quiasmático deve ser seriamente considerada, pois o quadro e muito sugestivo.Three cases of Cerebral Germinomas, one of them situated in the pineal region (topical and two ectopical of the so called suprasellar or chiasmal Germinomas are studied. These last ones may be more aggressive than the congeneral topical ones, since besides it's dissemination throughout the basal cisternas they usually infilstrate into de walls of the III Ventricle, Fornix, Hypothalamus, Chiasma and Optic nervs. A high level of proteins in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells is characteristic. Globulins are the predominant fraction of the increased spinal fluid proteins, as indicated by the highly positive laboratory test. These globulins are possibly produced by the lymphocytes which are part of this neoplasm. The high level of protein in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells, in the presence of intracranial syndrome in a child or

  8. Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples Magnetic resonance study of the pineal region: normal pineal gland, simple cysts

    JOSÉ GUILHERME CALDAS; DOMINIQUE DOYON; HENRIQUE LEDERMAN; ROBERT CARLIER

    1998-01-01

    Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo) identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4%) e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu maior diâmetro. Os cistos simples ...

  9. Molecular basis for defining pineal gland and pinealocytes as targets for tumor necrosis factor (TNF

    ReginaP.Markus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland, which is the gland that translates darkness into an endocrine signal by releasing melatonin at night, is now considered a key player in the mounting of an innate immune response. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, the first pro-inflammatory cytokine to be released by an inflammatory response, suppresses the translation of the key enzyme of melatonin synthesis (arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase-alkyl-N-acetyltransferase, Aa-nat. Here we show that TNF receptors of the subtype 1 (TNF-R1 are expressed by astrocytes, microglia and pinealocytes. We also show that the activation of TNF triggers the nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB pathway in pinealocytes by reducing the cytoplasmic level of the inhibitory nuclear factor kappa B protein of the subtype A (NFKBIA. The TNF-induced nuclear translocation of the p50/p50 NFKB transcription factor lacks a transactivation domain, and this phenomenon explains how TNF blocks the transcription of Aa-nat. In addition, the p65/RelA nuclear translocation was read-out following the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and the synthesis of nitric oxide NO. The increase in the transcription of genes activated by NFKB opens a new perspective for understanding the implication of the pineal gland in pathophysiological conditions.

  10. Isodense epidermoid cyst in the pineal region. Case report

    Yamanouchi, Yasuo; Takahara, Nobuhiko; Kawamura, Yasuo; Matsumura, Hiroshi

    1985-02-01

    A 69-year-old male was admitted complaining of gait disturbances and diplopia, 2.5 years after an episode of serous meningitis. Neurological examination on admission disclosed Parinaud's sign, unsteady gait and dysdiadochokinesis on the left side. A striking finding on the computerized tomography (CT) was the left to right shift of the posterior portion of the third ventricle without visualization of the quadrigeminal and ambient cisterns, which were almost completely occupied by an isodense mass accompanied by high dense flecks and a low dense part. Enhanced CT showed positive enhancement in the vicinity of the pineal calcification. By the suboccipital supracerebellar approach, an encapsulated mass containing brownish yellow fluid was subtotally removed and a histological examination of it revealed epidermoid tissue and hemosiderin deposits in the solid portion. Few reports of isodense epidermoid cysts have so far been found in the literature giving a full explanation for this unusual CT attenuation value. Based on the clinical course and histology of this case, the pathogenesis of the unusual density is discussed along the following lines: The mixture of the low dense factor due to cholesterin and the high dense factor due to prior bleeding is believed to result in the isodense attenuation value in the liquid portion. Also, in the solid part, a microscopically mixed texture of deposited hemosiderin and cholesterin clefts in the inflammatory granulomatous tissue could explain its density on the CT scan.

  11. Intracranial physiological calcification on computed tomography, 1. Calcification of pineal region

    Kwak, Ryungchan; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Ito, Shotaro; Kadoya, Satoru

    1988-06-01

    Of intracranial physiological calcification, common calcification of pineal region, choroid plexus of lateral ventricles and of basal ganglia was examined based on the frequency of occurence of age and sex and type of CT scanners. Consecutive cases of 2877 (1450 males and 1427 females) underwent plain CT scanning were studied. Pathological calcification was excluded from this study. Three types of CT scanners (SCN-200, Somatom 2 and TCT-10 A) were used. As a whole, calcification was shown in 67.7 % in pineal region, 57.6 % in choroid plexus of lateral ventricles and 7.5 % in basal ganglia. First, we reported in detail the calcification of pineal region, in which calcification occurred most frequently. Calcification in pineal region had a close relation with age by increasing with aging. The youngest patient was 8 years old. There was a striking increase in number of patients aged from 10 to 39 years. There was a gradual increase in those aged over 40 years. Of patients aged from 70 to 79 years, calcification was found in 81.5 %. The incidence was noted no changes in patients aged over 80 years. As for patients aged over 20 years, calcification was observed in 75.1 % (82.6 % males and 68.0 % females). In patients aged from 20 to 79 years, the calcification was significantly higher in male than female. Although there was a different incidence of calcification examined by three types of CT scanners, it was not significant. There was no significant difference between thickness of 8 mm section and 10 mm.

  12. Pineal and Pituitary Glands

    ... Registries Review Brain & CNS Tumors Signs & Symptoms Anatomy Neurons & Glial Cells Brain Meninges Spinal Cord Cranial Nerves Pineal and Pituitary Glands Abstracting, Coding, & Staging Topographic Sites Histological Types Grading Staging Multiple Primaries Malignant Transformation Coding Sequence ...

  13. Pituitary Tumors

    ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ...

  14. Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful?

    Quantitative values of CT attenuation, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standardized uptake value (SUV) were investigated for differentiation between pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and germinomas. Differences in age, sex, and calcification pattern were also evaluated. Twenty-three patients with PPTs and germinomas in 20 years were retrospectively enrolled under the approval of the institutional review board. CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV (20, 13, and 10 patients, respectively) were statistically compared between the two tumors. Differences in sex and patterns of calcification (''exploded'' or ''engulfed'') were also examined. Mean patient ages were compared among three groups of pineoblastoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, (PPTID) and pineocytoma and germinoma. None of the quantitative values of CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p >.05). However, there was a significant difference in age (p <.05) among the three groups of pineoblastoma (mean age ± standard deviation 7.0 ± 8.7 years), PPTID, and pineocytoma (53.7 ± 11.4 years) and germinoma (19.1 ± 8.1 years). Sex also showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p =.039). Exploded pattern of calcification was found in 9 of 11 PPT patients and engulfed pattern in 7 of 9 patients with germinomas. No reverse pattern was observed, and the patterns of calcification were considered highly specific of tumor types. None of the quantitative imaging values could differentiate PPTs from germinomas. Age, sex, and calcification patterns were confirmed useful in differentiating these tumors to some degree. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of pineal calcification in children. Using both CT and plain radiographs

    Ando, Kazuo; Odagiri, Kunio; Fujiwara, Takuya; Tanohata, Kazunori; Matsui, Kengo; Okano, Shigeki

    1987-07-01

    The study cases were 804 patients who had received either CT or plain radiographs for some reasons. Their ages ranged from newborn to 15 years old. Twenty four patients had the pineal calcification, in which one patient had the pineal region tumor and 4 patients had precocious puberty. The incidence of the pineal calcification was observed on CT as 0.2, 5.8, and 14 % in their age of 0 to 5, 6 to 10, and 11 to 15 years old, respectively. On the other hand, this finding was detected only in 0, 1.1, and 1.2 % on plain radiographs. In conclusion, pineal calcification on CT may suggest the pathological state in children. Although it is observed in a minority of normal children, such a calcification could be looked upon as not only pineal region tumor but precocious puberty and other intracranial disorders with suspicion.

  16. 经胼胝体-穹窿间入路切除第三脑室内部及其后部肿瘤的临床治疗探讨%Experiences of transcallosal-interforniceal approach for resection of the third ventrical and the pineal region tumors: report of 24 cases

    张宏伟; 张明山; 夏雷; 曲彦明; 李建华; 任铭; 王浩然; 于春江

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨经胼胝体-穹窿间入路显微手术切除第三脑室内部及后部肿瘤的优缺点及手术技巧.方法 回顾性分析2008年7月至2011年3月24例显微镜下经胼胝体-穹窿间入路切除第三脑室内部及后部肿瘤的患者资料,其中男性14例,女性10例;年龄17~65岁,平均32岁.病程范围:1个月至10年.分析讨论手术切口、引流静脉的处理、胼胝体切开、颅高压情况下肿瘤的暴露、如何预防术中并发症、肿瘤切除、合并梗阻性脑积水术中的处理、术后管理等问题.结果 病理结果证实松果体实质细胞瘤5例、生殖细胞瘤4例、星形细胞瘤3例、下丘脑错构瘤2例、室管膜瘤2例、混合生殖细胞瘤2例、淋巴瘤2例、松果体母细胞瘤1例、皮样囊肿1例、脊索瘤样胶质瘤1例、颅咽管瘤1例.其中9例肿瘤镜下全切除,6例次全切除,4例大部分切除,5例部分切除,无死亡病例;术中同时行第三脑室底造瘘术13例.术中发现额顶部硬膜外血肿1例;术后短期内记忆力下降3例,2例1个月恢复,1例3个月恢复;术后额顶部硬膜下积液1例,保守治疗后好转;术后行脑室腹腔分流术1例.结论 在熟练掌握胼胝体-穹窿间入路手术技术的前提下,该入路是切除第三脑室内部肿瘤及大多数第三脑室后部肿瘤的理想入路.术中同时行第三脑室底造瘘术是此入路的显著优势.%Objective To discuss the advantages and disadvantages of transcallosal-interforniceal approach for resection of the third ventrical and the pineal region tumors.Methods The clinical data of 24 cases from July 2008 to March 2011 were retrospectively analyzed.All 24 patients operated by transcallosal-interforniceal approach,among them,there were 14 males and 10 females,with a average age of 32 years ranged from 17 to 65 years and with medical history from 1 month to 10 years.Issues of managements were analyzed and discussed,including reasonable

  17. Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful?

    Kakigi, Takahide; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Ryo; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C. [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto (Japan); Mikami, Yoshiki [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Kyoto (Japan); Shimono, Taro [Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Quantitative values of CT attenuation, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standardized uptake value (SUV) were investigated for differentiation between pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and germinomas. Differences in age, sex, and calcification pattern were also evaluated. Twenty-three patients with PPTs and germinomas in 20 years were retrospectively enrolled under the approval of the institutional review board. CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV (20, 13, and 10 patients, respectively) were statistically compared between the two tumors. Differences in sex and patterns of calcification (''exploded'' or ''engulfed'') were also examined. Mean patient ages were compared among three groups of pineoblastoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, (PPTID) and pineocytoma and germinoma. None of the quantitative values of CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p >.05). However, there was a significant difference in age (p <.05) among the three groups of pineoblastoma (mean age ± standard deviation 7.0 ± 8.7 years), PPTID, and pineocytoma (53.7 ± 11.4 years) and germinoma (19.1 ± 8.1 years). Sex also showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p =.039). Exploded pattern of calcification was found in 9 of 11 PPT patients and engulfed pattern in 7 of 9 patients with germinomas. No reverse pattern was observed, and the patterns of calcification were considered highly specific of tumor types. None of the quantitative imaging values could differentiate PPTs from germinomas. Age, sex, and calcification patterns were confirmed useful in differentiating these tumors to some degree. (orig.)

  18. Atypical pleomorphic neoplasms of the pineal gland: Case report and review of the literature

    Praver, M.; R D′Amico; Arraez, C.; B E Zacharia; Varma, H.; Goldman, J. E.; Bruce, J N; Canoll, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pineal region tumors are rare and diverse. Among them exist reports of pleomorphic xanthroastrocytoma (PXA) and pleomorphic granular cell astrocytoma (PGCA) of the pineal gland. These related tumors are remarkably similar sharing pleomorphic histologic features with only minor immunohistochemical and ultrastructural differences. Case Description: We present a case of a 42-year old right-handed woman presented with a longstanding history of migraine headaches which had worsened...

  19. 松果体区畸胎瘤的诊断和治疗%Diagnosis and treatment of pineal region teratomas

    漆松涛; 邱炳辉; 方陆雄; 张喜安

    2008-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical diagnosis and treatment method of pineal region teratomas. Methods 16 cases of pineal region teratomas were surgically treated. The clinical data and long-term follow-up of these patients were reviewed. Results All 16 patients complained of intracranial hypertension. 14 cases with calcification on CT scan, 7 cases with cystic change and all with distinct degree enhancement on MRI scan. 2 cases with high levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in serum. All cases were received microneurosurgical operations via occipital transtentorial approach and were achieved total resection. There were 6 cases with mature teratomas and 10 with immature teratomas. There was no operative death, only 3 cases complicated with defect of field vision. During followed-up period, there were 5 cases with tumor recurrence and 3 cases of death. Conclusion Pineal region teratomas patients were predominantly boy and children. Signs of intracranial hypertension and ataxia are the common clinical manifestation. There are some special appearance on imaging, such as irregular shape, calcification, cystic change and uneven enhancement. Imaging and serum examination can be useful to distinguish mature and immature types. When radiation therapy is not effective, the patient should be actively received surgical treatment. Early diagnosis and early operative treatment with postoperative adjacent treatment can provide a good prognosis in pineal region teratomas.%目的 探讨松果体区畸胎瘤的临床特征和治疗方法.方法 对16例开颅手术的松果体区畸胎瘤的临床资料及其随访结果进行回顾性分析.结果 以颅高压起病16例,CT扫描钙化14例,MRI囊变7例,血清学甲胎蛋白(AFP)增高2例.行枕部经小脑幕入路手术,成熟畸胎瘤6例,未成熟畸胎瘤10例,无手术死亡,术后并发视野缺损3例,随访6个月至5年,复发5例,死亡3例.结论 松果体区畸胎瘤多见于儿童男性,常见临床表现是颅高压

  20. Imaging of brain tumors

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  1. Radiation Is an Important Component of Multimodality Therapy for Pediatric Non-Pineal Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors

    Purpose: To review a historical cohort of pediatric patients with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET), to clarify the role of radiation in the treatment of these tumors. Patients and Methods: Fifteen children aged <18 years with non-pineal sPNETs diagnosed between 1992 and 2006 were identified. Initial therapy consisted of surgical resection and chemotherapy in all patients and up-front radiotherapy (RT) in 5 patients. Five patients had RT at the time of progression, and 5 received no RT whatever. Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival were then calculated. Results: The median follow-up from diagnosis for all patients was 31 months (range, 0.5-165 months) and for surviving patients was 49 months (range, 10-165). Of the 5 patients who received up-front RT, all were alive without evidence of disease at a median follow-up of 50 months (range, 25-165 months). Only 5 of the 10 patients who did not receive up-front RT were alive at last follow-up. There was a statistically significant difference in overall survival between the patient group that received up-front RT and the group that did not (p = 0.048). In addition, we found a trend toward a statistically significant improvement in overall survival for those patients who received gross total resections (p = 0.10). Conclusions: Up-front RT and gross total resection may confer a survival benefit in patients with sPNET. Local failure was the dominant pattern of recurrence. Efforts should be made to determine patients most likely to have local failure exclusively or as a first recurrence, in order to delay or eliminate craniospinal irradiation

  2. Pathological features and origin of primary pineal mixed germ cell tumors%原发性松果体区混合性生殖细胞肿瘤病理特点及其起源探讨

    肖罡; 方陆雄; 邱炳辉; 漆松涛

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过影像学表现、术中所见及病理成分探讨松果体区混合性生殖细胞肿瘤的起源.方法 回顾分析我院2000年1月致2010年9月间经术后病理证实的15例松果体区混合性生殖细胞肿瘤的术前影像学表现和病理标本.结果 影像学表现,12例存在钙化,10例含有囊变,5例含有脂质.矢状位类圆或类椭圆状6例,边缘均较光滑,不规则形状9例,边缘多突起;术中所见,所有肿瘤均位于大脑大静脉蛛网膜袖套包绕形成的松果体隐窝内;病理成分,13例含有生殖细胞成分,9例含有畸胎瘤成分,4例含有胚胎性癌成分,3例含有绒癌成分,7例含有卵黄囊瘤成分,3例含有横纹肌瘤成分.在7例标本边缘发现牛殖细胞瘤,10例患者生殖细胞瘤成分与其余成分相互穿插或被其它成分包绕.结论 松果体区混合性生殖细胞肿瘤起源于松果体周围残余生殖细胞,其极有可能来自单一的原始生殖细胞.%To investigate the origin of mixed germ cell tumors in the pineal region based on the image data,surgical findings and pathological examination of the tumor. Methods The preoperative CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and tumor specimens were retrospectively analyzed in 15 cases of pineal mixed germ cell tumors confirmed by postoperative histological examination between January 2000 and September 2010. Results Radiographic examination of the tumor revealed calcification in 12 cases, cystic changes in 10 cases, and the presence of lipid in 5 cases. On the anteroposterior images, the tumors appeared round or elliptic with smooth edge in 6 cases,and showed irregular shape with multiple processes on the edge in 9 cases. Surgical exploration found all the tumors located in the the suprapineal recess enclosed by the arachnoidal envelope of the Galen vein. Pathologically, 13 specimens contained germinoma component, 9 contained teratoma component, 4 had embryonic carcinoma component, 3 had

  3. MR imaging of pineal cysts

    Ahn, Yong Sik; Yu, Hyeon; Kim, Wan Tae; Bae, Jin Woo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors.

  4. Probing Pineal-specific Gene Expression with Transgenic Zebrafish†

    Kojima, Daisuke; Dowling, John E.; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2008-01-01

    The pineal gland of zebrafish (Danio rerio) contains lightsensitive photoreceptor cells and plays an important role in the neuroendocrine system. The zebrafish exorhodopsin gene encodes a pineal-specific photoreceptive protein, whose promoter region harbors a cis-acting element, pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), directing pineal-specific gene expression. For in vivo genetic studies on PIPE-binding proteins and their regulatory mechanisms, we generated a transgenic zebrafish line, Tg...

  5. Pineal teratoma and its relationship to intracerebral development: case report.

    Sekhon, L H; Morgan, M K

    1991-04-01

    A teratoma of the pineal region in a 20-year-old Australian Aborigine is presented in which an unusual location of the straight sinus and tentorium cerebelli suggests that the tumor arose before 4 months of gestation. In addition, this case provides some insight into the development of the falx cerebri, which might arise from the midline fusion of the left and right tentoria cerebelli caused by the dorsal development of the telencephalon. PMID:2034357

  6. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma.

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma.The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland with significant enhancement.The patient underwent surgical treatment for removal of the neoplastic lesion in the pineal gland. Histopathological examination confirmed invasion of the pineal gland by metastatic urothelial carcinoma.This case highlighted that the presence of pineal lesions in patient with known malignancy should raise suspicion of metastatic involvement. PMID:27149501

  7. Long term outcome of adolescent and adult patients with pineal parenchymal tumors treated with fractionated radiotherapy between 1982 and 2003 -- a single institution's experience

    To evaluate the effectivity of fractionated radiotherapy in adolescent and adult patients with pineal parenchymal tumors (PPT). Between 1982 and 2003, 14 patients with PPTs were treated with fractionated radiotherapy. 4 patients had a pineocytoma (PC), one a PPT with intermediate differentiation (PPTID) and 9 patients a pineoblastoma (PB), 2 of which were recurrences. All patients underwent radiotherapy on the primary tumor site with a median total dose of 54 Gy. In 9 patients with primary PB treatment included whole brain irradiation (3 patients) or irradiation of the craniospinal axis (6 patients) with a median total dose of 35 Gy. Median follow-up was 123 months in the PC patients and 109 months in the patients with primary PB. 7 patients were free from relapse at the end of follow-up. One PC patient died from spinal seeding. Among 5 PB patients treated with radiotherapy without chemotherapy, 3 developed local or spinal tumor recurrence. Both patients treated for PB recurrences died. The patient with PPTID is free of disease 7 years after radiotherapy. Local radiotherapy seems to be effective in patients with PC and some PPTIDs. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with more aggressive variants of PPTIDs as well as treatment of PB needs to be further improved, since local and spinal failure even despite craniospinal irradiation (CSI) is common. As PPT are very rare tumors, treatment within multi-institutional trials remains necessary

  8. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma. The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland wi...

  9. Comparison of Three Methods for the Estimation of Pineal Gland Volume Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Niyazi Acer; Ahmet Turan Ilıca; Ahmet Tuncay Turgut; Özlem Özçelik; Birdal Yıldırım; Mehmet Turgut

    2012-01-01

    Pineal gland is a very important neuroendocrine organ with many physiological functions such as regulating circadian rhythm. Radiologically, the pineal gland volume is clinically important because it is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although many studies have estimated the pineal gland volume using different techniques, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no stereological work done on this subject. The objective of t...

  10. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    Levidou Georgia; Korkolopoulou Penelope; Agrogiannis George; Paidakakos Nikolaos; Bouramas Dimos; Patsouris Efstratios

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histologi...

  11. 松果体区脑池和蛛网膜的显微解剖研究%Microsurgical anatomy of cisterns and arachnoid membranes in pineal region

    樊俊; 漆松涛; 张喜安; 石瑾

    2011-01-01

    目的 系统研究松果体区脑池及其蛛网膜结构的显微解剖学特点,为手术入路及手术操作提供解刮学依据.方法 在手术显微镜下观察20例尸头松果体区各个脑池的形态、边界、内容物及相关蛛网膜结构.结果 松果体区的蛛网膜结构包括蛛网膜袖套、环中脑后膜和小脑前中央膜.其中蛛网膜袖套由枕叶底、内侧面及小脑上表面蛛网膜在幕尖处汇合而成,包裹Galen静脉系统、松果体及松果体七隐窝;环中脑后膜由枕叶底面及小脑上表面蛛网膜在幕切迹处汇合形成,环绕并附着于中脑背侧;小脑前中央膜由小脑上表面蛛网膜和蛛网膜袖套汇合处发出,前下方附着于下丘.四叠体池与小脑上池通过小脑前中央膜分隔,与后胼周池通过蛛网膜袖套分隔.与环池后部通过环中脑后膜的升段分隔,环池后部与小脑中脑裂池通过环中脑后膜的水平段分隔.结论 重新划分了松果体区各个脑池的范围与交通情况,明确了蛛网膜的形态与分布.%Objective To study micro-anatomical features of cisterns and their arachnoid membranes in pineal region. Methods Cisterns in pineal region including their shapes, borders, contents and arachnoidal membranes were observed in 20 cadaveric brains using an operating microscope. Results Arachnoid membranes of the pineal region include the arachnoidal envelope, the posterior perimesencephalic membrane and the cerebellar precentral membrane. At the level of the tentorial apex, arachnoid membranes covering the inferior-medial surface of occipital lobe and the superior surface of cerebellum converge to form the arachnoidal envelope, which encloses the vein of Galen with its tributaries, the pineal gland and the suprapineal recess. The posterior perimesencephalic membrane arises from the outer arachnoid membranes covering the inferior occipital lobe and the superior cerebellum at the tentorial edge. It surrounds and is attached

  12. Primary pineal melanoma presenting with leptomeningeal spreading in a 22-year-old woman: a case report

    Azimi Parisa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region is exceedingly rare. We report a case of primary pineal malignant melanoma and review the literature. Case presentation Our patient was a 22-year-old Iranian woman without any significant past medical history, who was referred to our center with a four-week history of headache and gait disturbance. A magnetic resonance imaging study showed a solid mass in the pineal region causing obstructive hydrocephalus. A brain biopsy was performed and the histological examination indicated melanoma. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. Our patient underwent gross total resection. At the time of discharge she had fully recovered without any neurological deficits. Three weeks after discharge, she was readmitted to hospital with the diagnosis of distal deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism; 12 weeks after the onset of her illness she died of cardiopulmonary arrest. Conclusion We have presented here a rare tumor, a primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second-youngest patient with such a tumor reported in the literature.

  13. Contrasted study between thin coronal sectional anatomy of the pineal region and MRI image%松果体区的薄层冠状断层解剖与MRI的对照研究

    孙博; 刘树伟; 汤煜春; 樊令仲; 林祥涛; 李振平; 亓恒涛

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the morphology and relationships with the adjacent structures in the pineal region on the thin sections and to provide anatomic data for imaging diagnosis and surgical treatment of diseases in this region. Methods By CT and MRI examination, one normal head specimen was selected for this study. Using the computerized freezing milling technique, the specimen was sliced from anterior to posterior. The in vivo MR images were obtained from ten normal Chinese male adult volunteers using a 3.0 T GE scanner. The base lines of the sectioning and the MR scan were perpendicular to the AC-PC line. Then primary sections were contrasted with the corresponding MR images. Results By the appearance of the pineal peduncle and the disappearance of the pineal gland, the pineal region could be divided into three parts from anterior to posterior, and the shape changed from an inverted triangle to a trapezoid and a triangle gradually. The first interspace was getting wider in the anterior and middle parts of the pineal region, while in the posterior part of the pineal region, it was getting narrower and disappeared finally. From anterior to posterior, the bilateral internal cerebral veins were always in the midline of the pineal region and descended gradually.Conclusion By the computerized freezing milling technique, the anatomic details and adjacent relationships of the pineal region could be exhibited clearly in the thin serial sections, which could help the imaging diagnosis and surgical treatments for minute diseases in this region.%目的 探讨松果体区结构在连续薄层冠状断面上形态结构的变化规律,为该区病变的影像学诊断和外科治疗提供解剖学依据. 方法 选择1例成人头部标本,应用冷冻数控铣削技术由前向后垂直于连合间线(AC-PC线)进行铣削.另选择健康成年男性10名,应用3D SPGR序列行与标本基线一致的3.0 T MR扫描.选取典型的断面标本图像与相应活体的MRI图

  14. Peculiarities in the CT findings of germ cell tumors in various tumor localizations

    The CT findings of 17 germ cell tumors were studied in relation to the locations of the tumor, the pathological diagnoses, and the tumor markers (AFP and HCG). Generally, the CT findings of germ cell tumors depended on the pathological diagnoses more strongly than on the location of the tumors. On plain CT of 7 germ cell tumors in the pineal region, all of them demonstrated heterogeneous findings. Hydrocephalus was seen in 6 cases (86%) and calcification in 6 cases (86%) of the germ cell tumors in the pineal region. Calcification and hydrocephalus that appeared more often than in other regions were characteristic of germ cell tumors of the pineal region. The germ cell tumors in the basal ganglia had a slightly homogenous high density, with small cysts and calcification in most of them on plain CT. On enhanced CT, the tumors were moderately enhanced in all cases located in the basal ganglia. Four cases of germ cell tumors located in the basal ganglia revealed the dilatation of lateral ventricle due to hemispheric atrophy in the tumor side. The germ cell tumors showing an increase in the tumor markers such as AFP and HCG, which were usually malignant germ cell tumors, were strongly enhanced on enhanced CT. (author)

  15. Biosynthesis of taurine by rat pineals in vitro

    Pineal glands from adult, male rats were incubated in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer buffer containing 14C-cystine. After three hours the incubation media and pineal gland extracts were placed separately on Dowex AG W50-X-4 columns. In the elution volume where 14C-labeled taurine is found a labeled peak was recovered. However, when subjected to one or two dimensional paper chromatography especially the eluants from pineal gland extracts yielded two 14C-labeled substances one located in the region where unlabeled taurine is detected by ortho-phthalaldehyde reagent. These results were confirmed utilizing a method developed in our laboratory based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pineals, as well as their respective incubation medium, were shown to contain radioactive taurine. These results demonstrate that rat pineal glands are capable of taurine synthesis. Also a high degree of labeling was associated with an area on paper chromatograms, migrating more rapidly than the standards, using acidic solvent systems. If represented by a single pineal compound, the substance must be rapidly synthesized from 14C-cystine to account for the radioactivity observed. Future studies of sulfur metabolism within the pineal gland could be of significant interest. (author)

  16. Pineal calcification on computed tomography

    Kwon, S. H.; Kang, M. S.; Zeon, S. K.; Park, S. K. [Keimyung University Medical College and Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    Pineal gland visible in plain skull radiography when calcified had been an important indicator for evaluation of any space, occupying lesion within cranium according to displacement of it from normal midline position. Since the pineal gland is more frequently demonstrated on CT scan than plain skull radiography, it seems helpful to define the incidence and localization of pineal gland. 324 patients, performed head CT scan are analyzed incidence and localization of calcified pineal gland. The results were as follows: 1. The overall incidence of pineal calcification was 51%. 2. The male and female ratio in pineal calcification was 56% to 43%. 3. 1) In the AP localization of pineal gland, the ratio of distance from anterior inner table of the skull to the pineal gland and that from pineal gland to the posterior inner table was 1.46 {+-} 0.20. 2) In the lateral localization of pineal gland, according to 'Lateral Percentage Shift' by Hahn and Rim (1976), the result was 0.98% shift in 80 normal cases, but 2.20% shift in 38 cases with S.O.L.

  17. Pinealitis accompanying equine recurrent uveitis.

    Kalsow, C M; Dwyer, A E; Smith, A. W.; Nifong, T P

    1993-01-01

    There is no direct verification of pineal gland involvement in human uveitis. Specimens of pineal tissue are not available during active uveitis in human patients. Naturally occurring uveitis in horses gives us an opportunity to examine tissues during active ocular inflammation. We examined the pineal gland of a horse that was killed because it had become blind during an episode of uveitis. The clinical history and histopathology of the eyes were consistent with post-leptospiral equine recurr...

  18. Structure and ultrastructure of the pigmented cells in the adult dog pineal gland.

    Calvo, J.; Boya, J; Garcia-Mauriño, J E; Lopez-Carbonell, A

    1988-01-01

    The light and electron microscopic features of pigmented cells in the adult dog pineal gland have been described. The presence of pigmented cells was a constant characteristic of the dog pineal gland, though wide variations in the amount of pigment could be found among different animals. Conversely, the localisation of pigmented cells was very constant on the basal surface of the proximal region of the pineal gland. Frequently, clusters of pigmented cells were seen in the posterior commissure...

  19. Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui; Shogo eHaraguchi

    2014-01-01

    The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demon...

  20. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2015-10-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity. PMID:25487536

  1. Morphological findings relating to the problem of cortex and medulla in the pineal glands of rat and hamster.

    Heidbüchel, U; Vollrath, L.

    1983-01-01

    Because, in previous investigations on the rat pineal gland, karyometric studies of pinealocytes from cortical and medullary regions had yielded contradictory results, experiments were carried out to resolve this problem. In immersion-fixed, paraffin-embedded pineal glands, nuclear size of cortical regions was invariably larger than that in the medulla, the nuclear size clearly depending on the plane of sectioning. The differences between cortex and medulla were abolished in (a) pineal glands...

  2. Comparative histology of pineal calcification

    Vigh, B.; Szél, A; Debreceni, K.; Fejér, Z.; Manzano e Silva, M.J.; Vigh-Teichmann, I.

    1998-01-01

    The pineal organ (pineal gland, epiphysis cerebri) contains several calcified concretions called "brain sand7' or acervuli (corpora arenacea). These concretions are conspicuous with imaging techniques and provide a useful landmark for orientation in the diagnosis of intracranial diseases. Predominantly composed of calcium and magnesium salts, corpora arenacea are numerous in old patients. In smaller number they can be present in children as well. The degree...

  3. Intracranial germ cell tumor

    Kreutz, J; Rausin, L.; Weerts, E; Tebache, M; Born, J; Hoyoux, C

    2010-01-01

    Germ cell tumours represent about 3 to 8% of pediatric brain tumours. Occurrence of diabetes insipidus is common in the case of suprasellar germ cell tumors. The diagnosis may be advanced by MRI owing to the location and relatively univocal characteristics of the lesion signal. The existence of a bifocal mass developed in both suprasellar region and pineal zone is highly suggestive of a germinoma. The most important notion is to recognize that at the time of diabetes insipidus diagnosis in a ...

  4. A pineal regulatory element (PIRE) mediates transactivation by the pineal/retina-specific transcription factor CRX

    Li, Xiaodong; Chen, Shiming; Wang, Qingliang; Zack, Donald J.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Borjigin, Jimo

    1998-01-01

    The circadian hormone melatonin is synthesized predominantly in the pineal gland by the actions of two pineal-specific enzymes: serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT). Pineal night-specific ATPase (PINA), another pineal- and night-specific protein we recently identified, is produced as a truncated form of the Wilson disease gene (Atp7b) product. To identify the regulatory elements required for pineal-specific gene expression, we isolated sequences up...

  5. General Information About Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors

    ... germ cell tumors to form is near the pineal gland and in an area of the brain that ... of the inside of the brain, showing the pineal and pituitary glands, optic nerve, ventricles (with cerebrospinal fluid shown in ...

  6. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    Levidou Georgia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland.

  7. Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C;

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for...... normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental...... functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function...

  8. Corpus pineale og MR billeddiagnostik

    Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Siebner, Hartwig;

    2014-01-01

    The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists...

  9. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M.; Rohde, Kristian; Steven L Coon; Litman, Thomas; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. Here, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse p...

  10. Circadian Regulation of Pineal Gland Rhythmicity

    Borjigin, Jimo; Zhang, L. Samantha; Calinescu, Anda-Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (1) local control of serotonin and melatonin rhythms; (2) neurotransmitters involved in central control of melatonin; (3) plasticity o...

  11. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in mandibular region

    The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon neoplasm derivative of the odontogenic epithelium containing canalicular structures with inductor modifications of variable intensity in the conjunctival tissue. It is a slow growth lesion and no much invasive but that may to be similar to other odontogenic lesions more aggressive including the dentigerous cyst and the ameloblastoma among others. Its classical location (upper canine area) guides us to diagnosis and its duct histological pattern is very typical of this tumor. Other tumors included in this group are the ameloblastic fibroma, the ameloblastic odontoma, the calcified odontogenic cyst and composed and complex odontomas. This group of lesions may or not to have formations of hard tissue inside. Thus, authors present the case of a patient presenting with this type of tumor making a histopathology study, a literature review on this benign odontogenic tumor and its clinical radiographic features, treatment, as well as the differential diagnoses to be into account. (author)

  12. Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demonstrated the biological action of pineal allopregnanolone on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum during development in juvenile birds. Pinealectomy (Px induces apoptosis of Purkinje cells, whereas allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks prevents cell death. Furthermore, Px increases the number of Purkinje cells that express active caspase-3, a crucial mediator of apoptosis, and allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks decreases the number of Purkinje cells expressing active caspase-3. It thus appears that pineal allopregnanolone prevents cell death of Purkinje cells by suppressing the activity of caspase-3 during development. This paper highlights new aspects of the biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone.

  13. Frequency of central nervous system tumors in delta region, Egypt

    Khaled R Zalata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim of Work: Central nervous system (CNS tumors represent a major public health problem, and their epidemiological data in Egypt have been rather incomplete except for some regional reports. There are no available frequency-based data on CNS tumors in our locality. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of CNS tumors in east delta region, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The data were collected during the 8-year period from January 1999 to December 2007 from Pathology Department, Mansoura University, and other referred pathology labs. Examination of HandE stained sections from retrieved paraffin blocks were done in all cases for histopathologic categorization of C.N.S. tumors. Immunohistochemical studies were applied to confirm final histopathologic diagnosis in problematic cases. Results: Intracranial tumors represented 86.7% of cases in comparison to only 13.3% for spinal tumors. Gliomas were the CNS tumors of the highest frequency (35.2%, followed by meningioma (25.6%, pituitary adenoma (11.6% and nerve sheath tumors (6.6%. 10.25% of tumors were of children <15 years. Conclusion: This study provides the largest series of the relative frequency of CNS tumors in Delta region in Egypt till now and may help to give insight into the epidemiology of CNS tumors in our locality.

  14. Imaging appearance of bone tumors of the maxillofacial region

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the imaging appearance of benign and malignant bone tumors of the maxillofacial region. A benign bone tumor commonly appears as a well circumscribed lesion. The matrix of the tumor may be calcified or sclerotic. Malignancies often display aggressive characteristics such as cortical breakthrough, bone destruction, a permeative pattern and associated soft-tissue masses. Computed tomography scan is an excellent imaging modality for accurate localization of the lesion, characte...

  15. Pineal function: impact of microarray analysis

    Klein, David C; Bailey, Michael J; Carter, David A;

    2009-01-01

    retina and has provided reason to explore new avenues of study including intracellular signaling, signal transduction, transcriptional cascades, thyroid/retinoic acid hormone signaling, metal biology, RNA splicing, and the role the pineal gland plays in the immune/inflammation response. The new......Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-h schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity to the...... foundation that microarray analysis has provided will broadly support future research on pineal function....

  16. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M;

    2011-01-01

    microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a > 2-fold down-regulation of 543 genes and a > 2-fold up-regulation...... of 745 genes (p < 0.05). Of these, one of the most highly up-regulated (18-fold) was Hoxc4, a member of the Hox gene family, members of which are known to control gene expression cascades. During a 24-h period, a set of 51 genes exhibited differential day/night expression in pineal glands of wild...... influences differential night/day gene expression in this tissue. Some effects of Crx deletion on the pineal transcriptome might be mediated by Hoxc4 up-regulation....

  17. Tumors of the posterior third ventricular region in pediatric patients: The Indian perspective and a review of literature

    Sanjay Behari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diverse tumors in the posterior third ventricular region (TPTVR frequently occur in children. A decade′s experience with pediatric TPTVR is presented, focusing on the Indian perspective. Materials and Methods: 25 children (age range: 3-18 years; mean age: 13.32 years; presentation range: 7 days-2.5 years had clinico-radiological assessment with contrast computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The ventricular/lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF alpha feto protein (AFP/beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG estimation was done when radiological suspicion of a germ cell tumor was present. Extent of resection was deemed partial when some tumor mass remained at the end of surgery, near total when <10% was retained over vital neurovascular structures, and total when complete resection was attained. Results: Operations included infratentorial supracerebellar approach (n = 12, occipito-transtentorial approach (n = 2, endoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy (n = 1, frontal parasagittal craniotomy, interhemispheric transcallosal subchoroidal approach (n = 2, middle temporal gyrus transcortical transventricular approach (n = 1, fronto-temporo-zygomatic combined transylvian and subtemporal approach (n = 1 and right ventriculoperitoneal shunt and stereotactic biopsy (n = 1. Only CSF diversion was performed for five patients with a small TPTVR. CSF diversion was required in 12 (48% patients. Tumor pathology included pinealoblastoma (n = 4; one with pineocytic differentiation, nongerminomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT; n = 3, germinoma (n = 3, pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 2, epidermoid (n = 3 and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET, fibrillary astrocytoma, glioblastoma, teratoma, and meningioma (n = 1, respectively. A patient with neurocysticercosis was diagnosed solely on MRI (four did not undergo biopsy. Fractionated radiotherapy was administered in 13 patients with primary pineal tumors, PNET, NGGCT, fibrillary astrocytoma

  18. Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland

    Rath, Martin F; Muñoz, Estela; Ganguly, Surajit;

    2006-01-01

    Otx2 is a vertebrate homeobox gene, which has been found to be essential for the development of rostral brain regions and appears to play a role in the development of retinal photoreceptor cells and pinealocytes. In this study, the temporal expression pattern of Otx2 was revealed in the rat brain......, with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages. Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland. Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression...... the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland. Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes...

  19. Postnatal development of the dog pineal gland. Light microscopy

    Calvo, J.L.; Boya, J; García-Mauriño, A.; López Carbonell, A.

    1990-01-01

    The light microscopical morphology of the dog pineal gland from the first postnatal day to maturity is described. In the first postnatal week, the pineal parenchyma shows immature cells and many mitotic figures. In this week, pigmented cells are obsemed for the first time, both in the pineal gland and in extrapineal nodules. Throughout the second week, the pineal parenchyma shows a cordonal pattern that disappears progressively in the following stages. From the...

  20. Pineal Proteins Upregulate Specific Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Brain

    Vijay K. Bharti; Srivastava, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL), the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins (PP) on the antioxidant defense sys...

  1. Malignant tumors arising in the maxillary region after radiation therapy

    Although radiotherapy has proven of great therapeutic value in the treatment of malignant tumors, it should also be borne in mind that radiation has a serious potential risk of giving rise to a secondary malignancy. We recently experienced 2 cases each of carcinoma and sarcoma arising in the irradiated areas long after radiation therapy for malignant tumors. In these 4 cases, 2 males and 2 females, the primary neoplastic diseases were squamous cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, carcinoma of unknown pathology and malignant lymphoma, and the secondary tumors were epidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, respectively. The sites of occurrence of these malignancies were invariably in the maxillary region; the mean latent period was 15 years, aside from an infantile case with a latent period of 5 years. In view of the primary diseases being malignant tumors the following criteria were set up for the diagnosis of radiation-induced malignancies: (1) the site of occurrence is within the confines of a previously irradiated area, (2) the latent period is prolonged and (3) the malignancy occurs as a double tumor. Therapy was primarily by operation. The prognosis was exceedingly ominous, the average survival time being 22 months. This was probably and mainly because of rapidity of tumor growth. Thus, the secondary tumors had already spread back to inward by the time they were first discovered. This should be kept in mind during a long-term follow-up of patients receiving radiotherapy for malignancy. (author)

  2. Pineal expression-promoting element (PIPE), a cis-acting element, directs pineal-specific gene expression in zebrafish

    Asaoka, Yoichi; Mano, Hiroaki; Kojima, Daisuke; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2002-01-01

    The pineal gland, sharing morphological and biochemical similarities with the retina, plays a unique and central role in the photoneuroendocrine system. The unique development of the pineal gland is directed by a specific combination of the expressed genes, but little is known about the regulatory mechanism underlying the pineal-specific gene expression. We isolated a 1.1-kbp fragment upstream of the zebrafish exo-rhodopsin (exorh) gene, which is expressed specifically in the pineal gland. Tr...

  3. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies: A Case Report.

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-02-01

    This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma.A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL.Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma. PMID:26937937

  4. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma. A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL. Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma. PMID:26937937

  5. CT and MRI of germ-cell tumors with metastasis or multi-located tumors

    Twenty-seven cases of germ-cell tumors were examined with a CT scan in our clinic. In the 11 cases of metastasis or multi-localized tumors, the CT findings were studied in connection with the MRI findings. There were 6 cases of germ-cell tumors which had broad infiltrating tumors with multiple lesions on first admission. Their tumor sites were different from that in cases of malignant glioma, being frequently localized in the pineal and/or the suprasellar region, on the wall of the third and/or lateral ventricle, and in the region of the basal ganglia. Five of the cases of germ-cell tumors had metastasis with various patterns connected to a remote area - that is, to spinal cords, to the ventricular wall and basal cistern of the brain stem by CSF dissemination, to a lung by hematogeneous metastasis, and to the peritoneal wall or organs by a V-P shunt. The CT findings of germ-cell tumors were correlated mainly with the results of the histological diagnosis; they were found not to differ with the tumor site. The germinoma in the suprasellar region had less calcification than in the pineal region. Cysts, calcification, and an enlargement of the lateral ventricle on the tumor side were frequently seen in the germinoma of the basal ganglia. On the MRI of 5 cases of germinoma, the T1-weighted image revealed a slightly low or iso signal intensity, while the T2-weighted image showed a high signal intensity. In the case of multiple tumor lesions, some cases demonstrated different CT findings and radiosensitivities for each tumor. The possibility of a multicentric origin for the tumors is thus suggested in some cases of germ-cell tumors. (author)

  6. Atypical rhabdoid tumor of lateral ventricle: Report of an unusual tumor.

    Singh, Jasmit; Kharosekar, Hrushikesh; Velho, Vernon; Survashe, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Supratentorial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) of infancy and childhood are rare, highly malignant neoplasms, most common in the first 2 years of life. In spite of multiple treatment regimens consisting of surgical resection, radiation therapy, and multi-agent chemotherapy, the prognosis is very poor. The majority of these tumors are located in the cerebellum, cerebellopontine angle, pineal gland, spinal cord, and the suprasellar region; supratentorial location is relatively uncommon, and the intraventricular location is extremely rare. We report a rare case of AT/RT arising in the lateral ventricle in a 4-year-old patient. PMID:27195038

  7. Histamine in the chick pineal gland: origin, metabolism, and effects on the pineal function.

    Nowak, J Z; Zawilska, J B; Woldan-Tambor, A; Sek, B; Voisin, P; Lintunen, M; Panula, P

    1997-01-01

    The chick pineal gland contains histamine and tele-methylhistamine. The levels of both substances are elevated after treatment of chicks with the amino acid precursor of histamine, L-histidine (1 g/kg, ip). In control and L-histidine-loaded animals the pineal levels of histamine and tele-methylhistamine are higher in light-exposed than in dark-adapted animals (measured at the end of the light phase and in the middle of the dark phase of 12 hr light, 12 hr dark illumination cycle, respectively). The chick pineal gland contains histamine-immunofluorescent cells displaying mast cell morphology; they are seen in the vicinity of the capsule and in the parenchyma. Enzymatic studies showed the presence of the activity of histamine synthesizing and inactivating enzyme, i.e., L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and histamine-methyltransferase (HMT). The detected enzyme activities were sensitive to specific inhibitors of HDC (alpha-fluoromethylhistidine and alpha-hydrazinohistidine) and HMT (quinacrine and metoprine); inhibitors of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase alpha-methyl-DOPA and NSD-1015 were inactive on HDC. Exogenous histamine added to organ-cultured chick pineals strongly stimulated endogenous cyclic AMP accumulation and moderately increased melatonin secretion. The data, considered collectively, suggest that in avians histamine, probably originating from the pineal mast cell compartment, may function as a regulator of pineal gland activity. PMID:9062867

  8. CT and MRI findings in patients with suprasellar germ cell tumors

    Kasamo, Shizuya; Asakura, Tetsuhiko; Nakamura, Katsumi; Nakayama, Masaki; Hirano, Hirobumi; Ohyama, Hiroshi (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of CT and MRI findings in suprasellar germ cell tumors. The study population was comprised of 6 patients with germinomas, one with embryonal carcinoma, and one with mature teratoma. Suprasellar germinoma tended to have intratumoral low density on CT or intensity area on MRI, indicating tumor necrosis or occasionally cyst formation. Germinoma tissue may extend into the pituitary fossa. Sagittal MRI revealed that the extension was limited to the posterior part of the pituitary gland. MRI of the teratoma did not demonstrate extension of the tumor into the pituitary fossa. No germ cell tumor in this region was seen as calcification. Germinoma in this region did not always show marked homogeneous enhancement. These neuroradiological findings failed to determine subtypes of germ cell tumors. Two patients had germinomas in both the pineal and suprasellar areas. Two years after the total removal of pineal teratoma, it recurred in the suprasellar region that was not seen on the first MRI. In these two patients, germinomas called 'double midline tumors' seemed to have originated by CSF dissemination or subependymal seeding, which was not demonstrated on neuroradiological images. The teratoma case was thought to be one form of double midline tumor, because the first tumor tissue in the pineal region had been totally and extracapsulary removed two years earlier and the suprasellar lesion could not be demonstrated on sagittal MRI or CT scans. In conclusion, not only neuroradiological findings but also clinical findings such as tumor markers may be required in preoperative diagnosis of suprasellar germ cell tumors. (N.K.).

  9. Global daily dynamics of the pineal transcriptome

    Bustos, Diego M; Bailey, Michael J; Sugden, David;

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome profiling of the pineal gland has revealed night/day differences in the expression of a major fraction of the genes active in this tissue, with two-thirds of these being nocturnal increases. A set of over 600 transcripts exhibit two-fold to >100-fold daily differences in abundance...

  10. SURGICAL INTERVENTION OF SYMPTOMATIC PINEAL CYST : CASE REPORT

    Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Yonezawa, Taiji; Iida, Junichi; Masui, Katsuya; Sakaki, Toshisuke

    1996-01-01

    We report a rare case of symptomatic pineal cyst detected by magnetic resonance imaging. This patient presented with intermittent headache and gaze paresis. Subtotal resection of the pineal cyst was performed by the occipital transtentorial approach. It was proved histologically that the surgical specimen was composed of reactive glial tissue and normal tissue of the pineal gland with calcification. The procedure completely relieved the patient of refractory symptoms. Surgical management shou...

  11. Possible role of pineal allopregnanolone in Purkinje cell survival

    Haraguchi, Shogo; Hara, Sakurako; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Mita, Masatoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    It is believed that neurosteroids are produced in the brain and other nervous systems. Here, we show that allopregnanolone (ALLO), a neurosteroid, is exceedingly produced in the pineal gland compared with the brain and that pineal ALLO acts on the Purkinje cell, a principal cerebellar neuron, to prevent apoptosis in the juvenile quail. We first demonstrated that the pineal gland is a major organ of neurosteroidogenesis. A series of experiments using molecular and biochemical techniques has fu...

  12. The reno-pineal axis: A novel role for melatonin

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland is a tiny endocrine gland whose physiologic role has been the focus of much research and much more speculation over the past century. This mini-review discusses recent findings which correlate melatonin and renal physiology, and postulates the presence of a "reno-pineal axis." Drawing lessons from comparative endocrinology, while quoting human data, it advocates the need to study the "reno-pineal axis" in greater detail.

  13. The reno-pineal axis: A novel role for melatonin

    Sanjay Kalra; Swati Agrawal; Manisha Sahay

    2012-01-01

    The pineal gland is a tiny endocrine gland whose physiologic role has been the focus of much research and much more speculation over the past century. This mini-review discusses recent findings which correlate melatonin and renal physiology, and postulates the presence of a “reno-pineal axis.” Drawing lessons from comparative endocrinology, while quoting human data, it advocates the need to study the “reno-pineal axis” in greater detail.

  14. Vascularization of the Pineal Gland in the Crow

    Nasu, Tetsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Murakami, Noboru

    1994-01-01

    The blood vascularization in the pineal gland of the crow was investigated in detail using a vascular corrosion cast technique and by scanning electron microscopy. The pineal gland received two afferent arteries on either side, each artery arising from the A. Cerebra{is Caudalis (CC) which supplied its branches to the hemisphere. The pineal gland of the crow was so highly vascularized as to be suggestive of its high metabolic and endocrine activities. The efferent veins drained into the Sinus...

  15. Malignant Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumor in the Right Post Auricular Region

    Lihong Cao; Huifang Zhou; Hua Chen

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To report a case of a malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor (PTT) in the right postauricular region, and to describe the clinical and histopathologic findings.METHODS Interventional case report and literature review.RESULTS A 46-year-old woman presented with a 15-year history of a nodule of 30×30×10 mm in diameter in the right postauricular region. It was diagnosed as a sebaceous cyst. A local mass excision was performed. Histopathologic examination revealed proliferation of the outer hair sheath epithelium with multiple central areas of trichilemmal keratinization. The presence of marked cellular atypia and frequent mitoses indicated a malignant transformation. A second operation employing an enlarged excision was conducted followed by a histopathologic examination showing that there was no malignant tumor remaining. Two weeks after the second operation, 50 cGy of regional prophylactic radiotherapy was applied. The patient was well after 26 months of follow-up and neither recurrences nor metastases were observed.CONCLUSION Malignant PTT is a rare skin neoplasm, with its diagnosis depending on a histopathologic examination. An extend excision is the main treatment after diagnosis.

  16. Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour

    We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  17. Pineal Function: Impact of Microarray Analysis

    Klein, David C.; Bailey, Michael J; Carter, David A.; Kim, Jong-So; Shi, Qiong; Ho, Anthony; Chik, Constance; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G.; Peter J Munson

    2009-01-01

    Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-hour schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity to the retina and has provided reason to explore new avenues of study including intracellular signaling, signal transduction, transcriptional cascades, thyroid/retinoic acid hormone signaling, metal biology...

  18. Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour

    Gizewski, E.R.; Forsting, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Essen (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  19. Nitric oxide synthase in the pineal gland

    Lopez-Figueroa, M.O.; Moller, M.

    1996-01-01

    The recent discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as a biological messenger molecule with unique characteristics has opened a new field in pineal research. This free radical gas is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. The activation of adrenoreceptors in the membrane of the pinealocytes mediates the increase in NO through a mechanism that involves G proteins. In the pinealocyte, NO stimulates guanylyl cyclase resulting in an increased ...

  20. Pineal cyst: study with magnetic resonance. Quistes pineales simples: estudio con resonancia magnetica

    Paniagua, J.C.; Aleixandre, A.; Esteban, M.J.; Marti-Bomati, L.; Poyatos, C. (Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia (Spain))

    1992-01-01

    The use of magnetic resonance (MR) as a diagnostic technique in central nervous system pathology has made possible the detection of structures that are hard to view with other diagnostic methods. In 21 patients in whom the existence of pineal cyst was detected by chance, we describe the study technique employed and present the MR characterization. In the absence of specific clinical symptoms and sings, the differential diagnosis of this pathology, with respect to other neoplastic formations located in the pineal gland, is based on its typical location behind the third ventricle, its size, which does not vary in the different serial studies, and its signal intensity. (author)

  1. Quantifying metabolic heterogeneity in head and neck tumors in real time: 2-DG uptake is highest in hypoxic tumor regions.

    Erica C Nakajima

    Full Text Available Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity may increase the likelihood of treatment failure due to the presence of a subset of resistant tumor cells. Using a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC xenograft model and a real-time fluorescence imaging approach, we tested the hypothesis that tumors are metabolically heterogeneous, and that tumor hypoxia alters patterns of glucose uptake within the tumor.Cal33 cells were grown as xenograft tumors (n = 16 in nude mice after identification of this cell line's metabolic response to hypoxia. Tumor uptake of fluorescent markers identifying hypoxia, glucose import, or vascularity was imaged simultaneously using fluorescent molecular tomography. The variability of intratumoral 2-deoxyglucose (IR800-2-DG concentration was used to assess tumor metabolic heterogeneity, which was further investigated using immunohistochemistry for expression of key metabolic enzymes. HNSCC tumors in patients were assessed for intratumoral variability of (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18F-FDG uptake in clinical PET scans.IR800-2-DG uptake in hypoxic regions of Cal33 tumors was 2.04 times higher compared to the whole tumor (p = 0.0001. IR800-2-DG uptake in tumors containing hypoxic regions was more heterogeneous as compared to tumors lacking a hypoxic signal. Immunohistochemistry staining for HIF-1α, carbonic anhydrase 9, and ATP synthase subunit 5β confirmed xenograft metabolic heterogeneity. We detected heterogeneous (18F-FDG uptake within patient HNSCC tumors, and the degree of heterogeneity varied amongst tumors.Hypoxia is associated with increased intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity. (18F-FDG PET scans may be used to stratify patients according to the metabolic heterogeneity within their tumors, which could be an indicator of prognosis.

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow alterations remote from the site of intracranial tumors

    Endo, H; Larsen, B; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was investigated in 12 patients with brain tumors, using a 254-channel dynamic gamma camera. In nine of the 12 cases, hyperemic regions with loss of autoregulation were seen in sites remote from the tumor (the area around the tumor was in most cases also...

  3. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland...

  4. Astrocitoma de grado I en glándula pineal

    Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-

    1985-01-01

    Tres imágenes de un astrocitoma de grado I situado en la glándula pineal de un paciente de 10 años. Three pictures of a grade I astrocytoma located in the pineal gland of a 10-year-old male patient.

  5. A Locus on Chromosome 8 Controlling Tumor Regionality -- a New Type of Tumor Diversity in the Mouse Lung

    Quan, Lei; Hutson, Alan; Demant, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Regional specificity of lung tumor formation has rarely been studied in mouse or human. By using crosses of strains semi-congenic for lung cancer susceptibility locus Sluc20, we have analyzed the genetic influences of Sluc20 and five other loci on tumor regionality in the mouse lung. We have mapped Sluc20 to a 27.92MB proximal region of chromosome 8 and found that it controls the number and load of only those tumors that surround or are directly adjacent to the bronchi or bronchioli (peribron...

  6. GABAergic signaling in the rat pineal gland.

    Yu, Haijie; Benitez, Sergio G; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Kruse, Martin; Seo, Jong Bae; Koh, Duk-Su; Muñoz, Estela M; Hille, Bertil

    2016-08-01

    Pinealocytes secrete melatonin at night in response to norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerve terminals in the pineal gland. The gland also contains many other neurotransmitters whose cellular disposition, activity, and relevance to pineal function are not understood. Here, we clarify sources and demonstrate cellular actions of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of the gland and electrical recording from pinealocytes. GABAergic cells and nerve fibers, defined as containing GABA and the synthetic GAD67, were identified. The cells represent a subset of interstitial cells while the nerve fibers were distinct from the sympathetic innervation. The GABAA receptor subunit α1 was visualized in close proximity of both GABAergic and sympathetic nerve fibers as well as fine extensions among pinealocytes and blood vessels. The GABAB 1 receptor subunit was localized in the interstitial compartment but not in pinealocytes. Electrophysiology of isolated pinealocytes revealed that GABA and muscimol elicit strong inward chloride currents sensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxin, clear evidence for functional GABAA receptors on the surface membrane. Applications of elevated potassium solution or the neurotransmitter acetylcholine depolarized the pinealocyte membrane potential enough to open voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels leading to intracellular calcium elevations. GABA repolarized the membrane and shut off such calcium rises. In 48-72-h cultured intact glands, GABA application neither triggered melatonin secretion by itself nor affected norepinephrine-induced secretion. Thus, strong elements of GABA signaling are present in pineal glands that make large electrical responses in pinealocytes, but physiological roles need to be found. PMID:27019076

  7. MR-billeddiagnostik af corpus pineale

    Langevad, Line; Gøbel Madsen, Camilla; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Garde, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Tilgængeligheden af højopløselige MR-teknikker har ført til større opmærksomhed på og nye spørgsmål vedrørende corpus pineales (CP) funktion og kliniske betydning. Dertil kommer en stigende interesse for hormonet melatonins kliniske betydning og relation til forandringer i CP. I denne statusartikel...... fokuseres der på ikkeneoplastiske forandringer i CP, aktuel viden fra patologi- og MR-studier samt skanningspraksis....

  8. Automatic extraction of tumor region on x-ray image of animals

    Diagnosis by CT images is increasing. But we often use X-ray images because of scanning time and scan cost. It is difficult to extract tumor region of X-ray images, and pathologists have to diagnose many images of tumor. Therefore, demand for the development of CAD system is increasing to support pathologists. Images that we use are dog images. Many people research human Images, but animal images are not researched well. In this paper, automatic extraction of tumor region is studied. We used operation of normalized correlation. Template of this filter looks like mountain. We also used Quoit-filter, that detected region that had possibility of tumor. We calculated edge of tumor to see easily tumors. Our method detected some tumor candidate edge. As future work, we should extract bone region, and some fixed value, including filter size should be automatically determined. (author)

  9. Effect of Tumor Deposits on Overall Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients with Regional Lymph Node Metastases

    Yabata, Eiichi; Udagawa, Masaru; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The staging system of the International Union Against Cancer considers tumor deposits to be N1c in patients with no regional lymph node metastasis, but the significance of tumor deposits in patients with regional lymph node metastases is unclear. We investigated the effect of tumor deposits on overall survival in colorectal cancer patients with regional lymph node metastases. Patients and Methods: From 2000 to 2008, 551 patients underwent resections for colorectal cancer at our me...

  10. Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland

    Morten Møller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  11. The pineal Gland, melatonin and hormones rythms regulation

    VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The pineal gland, melatonin, and the regulation of hormonal rhythms Dr. H Valdés-Socin. Head of clinic. Department of Endocrinology. CHU de Liège The pineal gland is known by Anatomists since the middle ages. Andrea Vesalius described it in the chap VII of his monumental book "De humani corporis fabrica (1555)". René Descartes had the intuition that the pineal gland is a "third eye" and that is how his illustrator Florent Schuyl represented it in figure 34 of Descartes book "De Homi...

  12. Pineal gland calcification and defective sense of direction.

    Bayliss, C. R.; Bishop, N L; Fowler, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Calcification of the pineal gland is shown to be closely related to defective sense of direction. In a tricentre prospective study of 750 patients lateral skull radiographs showed that 394 had calcified pineal glands. Sense of direction was assessed by subjective questioning and objective testing and the results noted on a scale of 0-10 (where 10 equals perfect sense of direction). The average score for the 394 patients with pineal gland calcification was 3.7 (range 0-8), whereas the 356 pati...

  13. Supratentorial tumors; Supratentorielle Tumoren

    Grunwald, I.; Dillmann, K.; Roth, C.; Backens, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

  14. X-刀治疗颅内疾病44例疗效分析%Analysis of Therapeutic Effect of X-knife on Intracranial Tumors in 44 Cases

    张海江; 麦洁文; 梁艺湖; 张瑞澜; 温尊北; 陈宗友; 林启富; 曾业辉

    2001-01-01

    Objective to investigate therapeutic methods and effect of X-knife for on intracranial diseases. Method Recent effect of 44pqtients with cranial diseases by X-knife was observed. Radiological follow-up was performed on 40 cases with mean 5.65 months of followup time. Result 92.5% of tumors were controlled locally, stability and recovery rate was 90.0%. The local control of metastatic tumors of brain was higher, but most patients with metastatic tumors died of primary lesion. New metastatic lesions appeared in patients without panencephalic radiotherapy in 1~5months. Tumors of pineal region were sensitive to X-knife. Conclusion X-knife has a definite effect on intracranial diseases. For patients with tumors of pineal region complicated by serious hydrocephalus, shunting should be conducted before X-knife treatment. For patients with mild or morderate hydrocephalus, X-knife chould be utilized only under correct interventions such as dehydration. The local control rate of intracranial metastatic tumors was high, but survival time postoperation depended on panencephalic radiotherapy or control of primafry lision. For tumors with diameter> 3cm, pituitary tumors, brains stem tumors and tumors in cerebellopontine angle region repeated X-knife were suggested, which could improve cure rate and decrease complications.

  15. Mutation Screening in the Mitochondrial D-Loop Region of Tumoral and Non-tumoral Breast Cancer in Iranian Patients

    Mansour Heidari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations in mitochondrial coding and non coding regions seem to be important in carcinogenesis. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate coding region (mt-tRNAPhe and tRNAPro and non-coding sequence, mitochondrial displacement loop (mtDNA D-loop, in the cancerous and non-cancerous lesions of Iranian patients with breast cancer (BC. Genomic DNA was extracted from 50 breast tumors and surrounding normal tissue pairs as well as from 50 unrelated normal breast tissues from Iranian Kurdish population. Subsequently, PCR amplification was performed using specific primers, and then PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing. 41 genetic variants were identified in mtDNA D-loop among tumoral and non-tumoral tissues but not in tRNAPhe and tRNAPro sequences. Our findings indicated that C182T, 194insT, 285insA and 16342delT were just found in BC tumors whereas 302insC, C309T and C16069T found in both tumors and surrounding normal tissues. Although our findings showed that the observed genetic variations were not restricted to breast cancer tissues, some genetic changes were found only in BC tumors. Our results, in agreement with the evidence from earlier studies, confirm that the mtDNA genetic alterations might be implicated in tumor initiation, progression and development. text-align: justify;

  16. Rhythmic control of endocannabinoids in the rat pineal gland.

    Koch, Marco; Ferreirós, Nerea; Geisslinger, Gerd; Dehghani, Faramarz; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids modulate neuroendocrine networks by directly targeting cannabinoid receptors. The time-hormone melatonin synchronizes these networks with external light condition and guarantees time-sensitive and ecologically well-adapted behaviors. Here, the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) showed rhythmic changes in rat pineal glands with higher levels during the light-period and reduced amounts at the onset of darkness. Norepinephrine, the essential stimulus for nocturnal melatonin biosynthesis, acutely down-regulated AEA and other endocannabinoids in cultured pineal glands. These temporal dynamics suggest that AEA exerts time-dependent autocrine and/or paracrine functions within the pineal. Moreover, endocananbinoids may be released from the pineal into the CSF or blood stream. PMID:26061461

  17. Tumors and tumor - like lesions of the oro - facial region at Mayo hospital, Lahore - a five year study

    The oro-facial region including the oral cavity, the maxilla and mandible and related tissues can be the site of a multitude of neoplastic conditions. These tumours have a predilection for the entire facial region; however, odontogenic tumours tend to affect the mandible more than the maxilla. We report results from a retrospective study spanning five years on the frequency, clinical presentation, sites and character of orofacial tumors seen in the main referral hospital of Pakistan. Patients and Methods: Records of consecutive patients of all age and sex seen by the author's team at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Mayo Hospital with tumours affecting the oro-facial region from January 2005 to December 2009 were retrieved, coded and entered into a database. The data were then analyzed by age, sex, presenting signs and symptoms, site of lesion, and their histology. Results: A total of 237 patients with oro-facial swellings were retrieved from the registry. The complete data set was obtained for 189 patients, comprising 108 (57.9%) males and 81 (42%) females. The most common clinical presenting features were mandibular facial swelling (63%), intra-oral swelling (55%), and ulceration (29%). The tumors were found in the mandible 67 (35%), buccal mucosa 33 (17%), floor of the mouth 22 (11%) and tongue 29 (15%). The remainder making up almost 20% was found in the palate, submandibular region, pre auricular region and lips. Ninety three (49.2%) of the patients presented with lesions that were classified as malignant of which 64 (69%) were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). seventy (37.0%) had benign odontogenic tumors and twenty six (13.7%) had non-odontogenic tumor - like lesions. Sixty - four (69%) of malignant tumors were squamous cell carcinoma; sixty four (86.4%) of the benign odontogenic tumors were classified as ameloblastoma. The mean age at presentation of all lesions was 40.4 years with over 50% of benign lesions in patients aged

  18. Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI

    Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 ± 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

  19. Diencephalic origin of the pineal gland of the chicken embryo

    Aige-Gil, Vicente; Murillo-Ferrol, Narciso

    1991-01-01

    In the present paper, the diencephalic origin of the chick pineal gland was analyzed by a series of experiments: prosencephalic substitution; in vitro culture of isolated diencephalons; and total or partial excission of the diencephalic roof. The results indicate that the differentiation of the chick pineal gland in the rooof of the third ventricle is not influenced by the neighbouring brain vesicles and is of diencephalic origin. Moreover, in order to obtain c...

  20. Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Oh, Christopher C. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Choudhri, Asim F. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 {+-} 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

  1. Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland

    Morten Møller; Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito; Corin Badiu

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passag...

  2. The dielectric properties of human pineal gland tissue and RF absorption due to wireless communication devices in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz

    In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human pineal gland, the dielectric properties of a sample of 20 freshly removed pineal glands were measured less than 20 h after death. Furthermore, a corresponding high resolution numerical model of the brain region surrounding the pineal gland was developed, based on a real human tissue sample. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices, the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland when compared to SAR limits according to international safety standards. The highest absorption was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case the RF power absorbed inside the pineal gland (organ mass 96 mg) was as low as 11 μW, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland were found to be lower by a factor of 4.2 and 36, respectively. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the pineal gland induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices are unlikely

  3. The dielectric properties of human pineal gland tissue and RF absorption due to wireless communication devices in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz

    Schmid, Gernot [Austrian Research Centers GmbH-ARC, ITM, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Ueberbacher, Richard [Austrian Research Centers GmbH-ARC, ITM, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Samaras, Theodoros [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tschabitscher, Manfred [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mazal, Peter R [Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-09-07

    In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human pineal gland, the dielectric properties of a sample of 20 freshly removed pineal glands were measured less than 20 h after death. Furthermore, a corresponding high resolution numerical model of the brain region surrounding the pineal gland was developed, based on a real human tissue sample. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices, the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland when compared to SAR limits according to international safety standards. The highest absorption was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case the RF power absorbed inside the pineal gland (organ mass 96 mg) was as low as 11 {mu}W, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland were found to be lower by a factor of 4.2 and 36, respectively. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the pineal gland induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices are unlikely.

  4. Pineal Proteins Upregulate Specific Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Brain

    Vijay K. Bharti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL, the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pineal proteins (PP on the antioxidant defense system in the brain of female rats. The twenty-four rats were taken in present study and were divided into four groups: control (0 day, control (28 day, vehicle control and buffalo PP. The PP was injected 100 µg/kg BW intraperitoneal (i.p. daily for 28 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR and reduced glutathione (GSH concentration and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO in the brain tissue were measured to assess the antioxidant systems. These enzymes protect from adverse effects of free radicals and help in amelioration of oxidative stress. Buffalo pineal proteins administration did not cause any effect on brain LPO, whereas GPx, GR and GSH were significantly (p < 0.05 decreased. However, SOD and CAT activities were increased to significant levels than the control in PP treated rats. Our study herein suggested that buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pineal proteins upregulates specific antioxidant defense systems and can be useful in control of various oxidative stress-induced neuronal diseases.

  5. Age-related incidence of pineal calcification detected by computed tomography

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1982-03-01

    The age-related incidence of detectable pineal calcification in 725 patients (age range, newborn-20 yrs) suggests that there is a relationship between calcification and the hormonal role played by the pineal gland in the regulation of sexual development. Pineal calcification (demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) on 8-mm-thick sections) in patients less than 6 years old should be looked upon with suspicion, and follow-up CT should be considered to exclude the possible development of a pineal neoplasm.

  6. Sudden death due to a glial cyst of the pineal gland.

    Milroy, C M; Smith, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    Asymptomatic cysts of the pineal gland are found frequently by radiological examination of the brain or at postmortem examination. Symptomatic cysts are rare, and may require surgical intervention. Sudden death due to a cystic lesion of the pineal gland is very rare. A case of a 22 year old man who collapsed and died unexpectedly is reported. Postmortem examination revealed a glial cyst of the pineal gland and evidence of chronic obstructive hydrocephalus. Deaths from colloid cysts and pineal...

  7. Homeobox genes in the rodent pineal gland: roles in development and phenotype maintenance

    Rath, Martin F.; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C.; Møller, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene e...

  8. Dynamic studies of positron-emitting putative tumor marker 132Cs in mice show differential tumor and regional uptake

    Positron-emitting 132Cs (t1/2 = 6.47 days) was generated from stable 133CsCl via the 133Cs (p,pn) 132Cs reaction. BALB/c mice, bearing implanted MT296 mammary tumors, were given 4.6 mEq kg-1 of 132CsCl via a single intraperitoneal injection. Postinjection uptake of 132Cs into body regions was monitored in vivo with external detectors. Positron emission from the tumor region was continuously greater than that from the head, the numerical ratio of mean emission intensities being fourfold at 10 min postinjection. Tissues excised from these mice postmortem showed sequence of relative tissue cesium uptake rates to be kidney 1.8, small intestine 1.7, tumor 1.0, skin 0.75, liver 0.75, skeletal muscle 0.4, and brain 0.28. Comparative studies with multiple injections of stable cesium and rubidium showed this sequence to be ion-specific. These observations suggest that positron-emitting isotopes of cesium could provide useful markers for tumors of several tissues

  9. Intra-tumor Heterogeneity in Localized Lung Adenocarcinomas Delineated by Multi-region Sequencing

    Zhang, Jianjun; Fujimoto, Junya; Zhang, Jianhua; Wedge, David C.; Song, Xingzhi; Zhang, Jiexin; Seth, Sahil; Chow, Chi-Wan; Cao, Yu; Gumbs, Curtis; Gold, Kathryn A.; Kalhor, Neda; Little, Latasha; Mahadeshwar, Harshad; Moran, Cesar; Protopopov, Alexei; Sun, Huandong; Tang, Jiabin; Wu, Xifeng; Ye, Yuanqing; William, William N.; Lee, Jack J.; Heymach, John V.; Hong, Waun Ki; Swisher, Stephen; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Futreal, P. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Cancers are composed of populations of cells with distinct molecular and phenotypic features, a phenomenon termed intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH). ITH in lung cancers has not been well studied. We applied multi-region whole exome sequencing (WES) on 11 localized lung adenocarcinomas. All tumors showed clear evidence of ITH. On average, 76% of all mutations and 20/21 known cancer gene mutations were identified in all regions of individual tumors suggesting single-region sequencing may be adequate to identify the majority of known cancer gene mutations in localized lung adenocarcinomas. With a median follow-up of 21 months post-surgery, 3 patients have relapsed and all 3 patients had significantly larger fractions of subclonal mutations in their primary tumors than patients without relapse. These data indicate larger subclonal mutation fraction may be associated with increased likelihood of postsurgical relapse in patients with localized lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:25301631

  10. Conservatively managed pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated patient

    Werder, Gabriel M. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology, 3600 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, MI 48073 (United States); St Christopher Iba Mar Diop College of Medicine, Luton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gabriel_werder@yahoo.com; Razdan, Rahul S.; Gagliardi, Joseph A.; Chaddha, Shashi K.B. [St Vincent' s Medical Center, Bridgeport, CT (United States)

    2008-02-15

    We present a case of pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated and hypertensive 56-year-old Hispanic male. At presentation, the patient's international normalized ratio (INR) was 10.51 and his blood pressure was 200/130 mmHg. His presenting symptoms included acute onset of headache, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and visual disturbance. Neuroimaging demonstrated hemorrhage into a morphologically normal pineal gland. Under conservative management, the patient experienced gradual resolution of all symptoms excluding the disturbance of upward gaze.

  11. Sympathetic neural control of indoleamine metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    Lynch, H. J.; Hsuan, M.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the acceleration in rat pineal biosynthetic activity in response to prolonged exposure to darkness or to immobilization were investigated in animals whose pineals were surgically denervated. Some animals were adrenalectomized to remove one potential source of circulating catecholamines, and some were subjected to a partial chemical sympathectomy accomplished by a series of intravenous injections of 6-hydroxydopamine. Results suggest that N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity can be enhanced either by release of norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals within the pineal or from sympathetic nerve terminals elsewhere. The stress of immobilization stimulates the pineal by increasing circulating catecholamines. Photic control of pineal function requires intact pineal sympathetic innervation, since the onset of darkness apparently does not cause a sufficient rise in circulating catecholamines to stimulate the pineal. The present studies suggest that nonspecific stress triggers increased biosynthesis and secretion of melatonin; it is possible that this hormone may participate in mechanisms of adaptation.

  12. Mutation Screening in the Mitochondrial D-Loop Region of Tumoral and Non-tumoral Breast Cancer in Iranian Patients

    Mansour Heidari; Samira Saee-Rad; Kazem Zendehdel; Reza Raoofian; Ramesh Omranipour; Cyrus Azimi; Babak Rahmani

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in mitochondrial coding and non coding regions seem to be important in carcinogenesis. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate coding region (mt-tRNAPhe and tRNAPro) and non-coding sequence, mitochondrial displacement loop (mtDNA D-loop), in the cancerous and non-cancerous lesions of Iranian patients with breast cancer (BC). Genomic DNA was extracted from 50 breast tumors and surrounding normal tissue pairs as well as from 50 unrelated normal brea...

  13. Recurrent giant cell tumor of bone with simultaneous regional lymph node and pulmonary metastases

    Qureshi, Sajid S.; Puri, Ajay; Agarwal, Manish [Tata Memorial Hospital, Department of Bone and Soft Tissue, Bombay (India); Desai, Saral; Jambhekar, Nirmala [Tata Memorial Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bombay (India)

    2005-04-01

    Giant cell tumors of bone are known for their unpredictable behavior characterized occasionally even by metastases. Most metastases lodge in the lungs but other rare sites are regional lymph nodes, mediastinum, skin, scalp and the pelvis. In this case report we document a case of giant cell tumor of the patella in which, associated with local recurrence, there were simultaneous metastases to lymph nodes and lungs. (orig.)

  14. Diagnosis of tumors of the pituitary region by two-plane CT scans

    Thirty five cases of tumors in the pituitary region were analysed by two-plane CT (ordinary sections and reverse sections) in order to obtain a more accurate image of the tumor and thus establish an appropriate indication for the subnasal transsphenoidal approach. The tumors of pituitary region were classified into six groups (types I-VI) according to their degree of extension and direction of growth. Small tumors such as types I and II were detected more clearly by the reverse section than by the ordinary section. In cases of large tumors (types III-VI) relation of the tumor to the surrounding structures such as the sphenoid sinus, third ventricle, lateral ventricule, middle fossa and brain stem was accurately demonstrated by the reverse section. In the differential diagnosis of tumors in the pituitary regions, tumors showing mixed density or slightly high density and widening of the anteroposterior diameter of the sella in the precontrast reverse section and homogeneous enhancement by infusion were likely to be pituitary adenomas. One third of the pituitary adenomas showed ring-like high density in the post-contrast reverse section. Calcification was not seen in the pituitary adenomas by CT scans. All craniopharyngiomas belonged to types III-VI. Craniopharyngiomas showed high and/or low density, and various degrees of calcification in plain CT scans. Ring-like high density was seen in two thirds of the craniopharyngiomas. About one third of the craniopharyngiomas showed widening of the antero-posterior diameter of the sella. (J.P.N.)

  15. Neurogenic tumors and tumor-like lesions of the oral and maxillofacial region: A clinicopathological study

    Ohoud Alotaibi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: This analysis showed that neural lesions affecting the oral and maxillofacial region were rare and mostly benign in nature. Such lesions should be carefully diagnosed because of their association with life-threatening syndromes and the possibility of malignant transformation.

  16. The pineal gland: a comparative MR imaging study in children and adults with respect to normal anatomical variations and pineal cysts

    Sener, R.N. [Dept. of Radiology, Ege Univ. Hospital, Izmir (Turkey)

    1995-06-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the variations in appearance of the normal pineal gland. The findings of 1000 consecutive MR imaging examinations obtained at 0.5 T were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 1 day to 83 years, and findings in children and adults were compared. In all age groups the pineal gland appeared mainly in three forms: (1) nodule-like, (2) crescent-like and (3) ring-like. Overall prevalences of these forms were 52 %, 26 % and 22 %, respectively. Apparent differences in frequencies were evident in children and adults with respect to the crescent-and ring-like types. Cystiform pineal lesions 5 mm or larger in one diameter (anteroposterior, sagittal or transverse) were taken to be true pineal cysts, when compared with the gland`s ring-like appearance (less than 5 mm). Pineal cysts had a prevalence of 0.6 % in children and 2.6 % in adults. No symptomatic pineal cyst with mass effect on the lamina tecti was detected in the series. Besides identifying the three anatomical types of the pineal gland as seen on MR imaging and addressing the potential significance of differences in their frequencies in children and adults, the author tries to explain the previous discrepancy between the MR imaging and autopsy series findings with respect to frequencies of the pineal cysts. (orig.)

  17. Pineal Gland Calcification in Kurdistan: A Cross-Sectional Study of 480 Roentgenograms

    Mohammed, Kahee A.; Ismail, Honer A.; Geneus, Christian J.; Tobo, Betelihem B.; Buchanan, Paula M.; Zelicoff, Alan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to compare the incidence of Pineal Gland Calcification (PGC) by age group and gender among the populations living in the Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Methods This prospective study examined skull X-rays of 480 patients between the ages of 3 and 89 years who sought care at a large teaching public hospital in Duhok, Iraq from June 2014 to November 2014. Descriptive statistics and a binary logistic regression were used for analysis. Results The overall incidence rate of PGC among the study population was 26.9% with the 51–60 age group and males having the highest incidence. PGC incidence increased after the first decade and remained steady until the age of 60. Thereafter the incidence began to decrease. Logistic regression analysis revealed that both age and gender significantly affected the risk of PGC. After adjusting for age, males were 1.94 (95% CI, 1.26–2.99) times more likely to have PGC compared to females. In addition, a one year increase in age increases the odds of developing PGC by 1.02 (95% CI, 1.01–1.03) units after controlling for the effects of gender. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrated a close relationship between PGC and age and gender, supporting a link between the development of PGC and these factors. This study provides a basis for future researchers to further investigate the nature and mechanisms underlying pineal gland calcification. PMID:27415622

  18. Two unique cases of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor in the maxillary posterior region.

    Chindasombatjaroen, Jira; Poomsawat, Sopee; Boonsiriseth, Kiatanant

    2014-10-01

    A calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) is an uncommon odontogenic tumor with a predilection for the anterior part of the jaws. We report on 2 cases of CCOT in the posterior maxilla involving the maxillary sinus. In the first case, conventional radiography found a well-defined unilocular lesion. Internal calcification was identified on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Radiographically, the second case showed 2 large locules with a large complex odontoma and an embedded third molar. By revealing the internal calcification of the lesion, CBCT was helpful in the differential diagnosis of the first case. In both cases, CBCT illustrated the tumor extension and the relationship of the tumor to the maxillary sinus. Therefore, CBCT was an important tool for developing effective treatment plans for lesions in the posterior maxillary region. PMID:25201118

  19. The CI findings of 6 cases of the pineal cyst. Consideration on neuroradiological images and the mechanism of occurrence of pineal cysts in childhood

    Nakajou, Takahito; Kurisaka, Masahiro; Mori, Koreaki [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    In comparison to adult individuals over the age of 50, pineal cysts do rarely occur in children and adolescents. Here we report on four young patients who had pineal cysts in combination with hypophyseal dwarfism. We studied an 8-year-old girl with chiasmal germinoma, an 8-year-old boy with epilepsy, a 17-year-old male with spontaneous hypophyseal dwarfism and a 11-year-old female with craniopharyngioma. We also investigated a 29-year-old man with pontine glioma and a 48-year-old women with prolactinoma. The comparison of neuroimaging the pineal cysts in children and adults revealed the characteristics of their location in the pineal gland and the presence of residual normal gland. The etiology of pineal cysts in combination with pituitary dwarfism is unclear. However, our cases would suggest that they may be related to endocrinological disorders of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (author).

  20. Depression of nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in castrate male rats

    Pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity was examined in intact rats, castrated rats, and in rats that had been castrated and had received testosterone proprionate. Castration resulted in significantly depressing nocturnal levels of pineal NAT (p<0.05) when compared to enzyme activity in intact rats. Testosterone proprionate administration restored plasma LH levels to normal values in castrate rats but did not induce nocturnal pineal enzyme activity to levels seen in the pineal glands of intact rats. The data substantiate the existence of a feedback control of pineal biosynthetic activity by the hypophyseal-gonadal system, but the identity of the hormone(s) responsible for regulation of pineal NAT activity is not known. (author)

  1. Melatonin changes in the pineal gland of sleep-deprived rats following habenular nucleus lesion

    Huijuan Jin; Meiying Song; Min Huang; Manli Wang; Hua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The habenular nucleus (Hb) is an important structure that regulates the function of the pineal gland,which may affect melatonin content in the pineal gland after sleep deprivation (SD). In the present study, high performance liquid chromatography showed that the melatonin content in the pineal gland was significantly reduced, and Y-aminobutyric acid content in the Hb was significantly increased after SD. Furthermore, the melatonin content in the pineal gland was markedly reduced after Hb lesion under normal sleep and SD conditions. Immunohistochemistry showed that the number of Fos-positive neurons was significantly decreased in the lateral and medial Hb after SD.The findings demonstrate that the reduction of melatonin in the pineal gland after SD is related to decreased activity of Hb neurons, and that the Hb can regulate sleep-wake rhythm by influencing melatonin secretion in the pineal gland.

  2. The modulatory effect of substance P on rat pineal norepinephrine release and melatonin secretion

    Mukda, Sujira; Ebadi, Manuchair; Govitrapong, Piyarat;

    2009-01-01

    Secretion of melatonin by the mammalian pineal gland is primarily regulated by the release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerve terminals that originate from the superior cervical ganglia. Peptidergic nerves that originate in the perikarya located in the sensory trigeminal ganglia also...... innervate the pineal gland. Some of these peptidergic nerve fibers contain substance P. Previously, we have characterized neurokinin 1 type substance P receptors in the pineal gland. However, the function of this receptor in the pineal gland remains unclear. Here, we examined the modulatory effect of...... melatonin secretion in rat pineal organ cultures. However, in the presence of NE, substance P inhibited the NE-induced increase in AANAT activity and melatonin secretion. This is the first time that a function for substance P in the mammalian pineal gland has been demonstrated....

  3. Localization and diurnal expression of mRNA encoding the β1-adrenoceptor in the rat pineal gland: an in situ hybridization study

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Morgan, K.C.;

    1997-01-01

    Anatomy, neurobiology, adrenoceptors, diurnal rhythms, in situ hybridization, pineal gland, rat (Wistar)......Anatomy, neurobiology, adrenoceptors, diurnal rhythms, in situ hybridization, pineal gland, rat (Wistar)...

  4. Pineal concretions in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) as a result of collagen-mediated calcification

    Przybylska-Gornowicz, B.; Lewczuk, B.; Prusik, M.; Bulc, M.

    2009-01-01

    The intra-pineal calcification is a well-known phenomenon in mammals, however it is almost completely unknown in birds. The aim of the present work was to analyze morphology and genesis of the pineal concretions in the turkey. The studies were performed on the pineals collected from one-year-old turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). In addition to standard morphological methods, the alizarin red S and potassium pyroantimonate methods were employed for localization of calci...

  5. Pineal Structures and Functions in Mammalian Body Mechanisms Coping with Exogenous and Endogenous Changes

    Kachi, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Various aspects of pineal structures and functions have been reviewed. mainly relating to our ownobservations and experiments. The pineal gland shows high amplitude circadian rhythms in cellular and metabolicactivities. which are changeable under various circumstances. The pineal hormone appears to participate in the body'sadaptive regulatory system mostly by cooperative and modulatory mechanisms. particularly in relation to environmentalchanges including stress/invasion. timing of physiologi...

  6. The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten; Fu, Cong; Clokie, Samuel J.; Zykovich, Artem; Steven L Coon; Klein, David C.; Rath, Martin F.

    2014-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the ad...

  7. Cell proliferation in the developing rat pineal gland.A bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemical study

    Calvo, J.L.; Boya, J; Carbonell, A L; García-Mauriño, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The immunohistochemical detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to study the cell proliferation in the developing rat pineal gland, from the appearance of pineal primordium in the embryonic day 15 (E15) until 30 days after birth. The results showed three different proliferative phases. From E15 to E21, the pineal gland shows a phase of rapid proliferation. The second phase corresponds to the first postnatal week, in which the number of labeled cells per ...

  8. An evaluation on the level of retinoids in the bovine pineal body

    TSIN, ANDREW T.C.; Phillips, Theresa S.; Reiter, Russel J.

    1989-01-01

    Using high performance liquid chromatography, the level of retinoids was determined in the bovine pineal gland, retina, retinal pigment epithelium, cortical and subcortical brain tissues, skeletal muscle and the liver. Similar to the retina, the bovine pineal gland possesses levels of retinol and retinyl esters significantly higher than other brain tissues and muscle. These results are in agreement with the suggestion that the mammalian pineal gland and the retina may be of similar phylogenet...

  9. New crystal in the pineal gland : characterization and potential role in electromechano-transduction

    Baconnier, Simon; Lang, Sidney.B.; De Seze, René

    2002-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine transducer secreting melatonin, responsible for the physiological circadian rhythm control. A new form of biomineralization has been studied in the human pineal gland. It consists of small crystals that are less than 20 µm in length. These crystals could be responsible for an electromechanical biological transduction mechanism in the pineal gland due to their structure and piezoelectric properties. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy disper...

  10. Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamic nucleus paraventricularis mimics the effects of light on pineal melatonin synthesis

    In an attempt to clarify further the role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in the control of pineal function, the effects of 2 min electrical stimulation of these nuclei were investigated in acutely blinded, adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Pineal serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, melatonin content and catecholamine levels were measured by means of radio-enzymatic, radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid-chromatography methods, respectively. All three pineal parameters underwent significant declines following brief PVN stimulation during the night time. These observations lend credence to the view that the neural pathways transmitting light information to the sympathetic innervation controlling pineal melatonin synthesis. 22 references, 1 figure

  11. Demonstration of an orexinergic central innervation of the pineal gland of the pig

    Fabris, Chiara; Cozzi, Bruno; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    and continued into the pineal stalk and parenchyma to disperse among the pinealocytes. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of orexinergic nerve fibers in the pig pineal gland. After extraction of total mRNA from the hypothalamus and pineal gland, we performed RT-PCR and nested PCR using...... primers specific for porcine orexin receptors. PCR products were sequenced, verifying the presence of both OR-R1 and OR-R2 in the tissues investigated. These findings, supported by previous studies on rodents, suggest a hypothalamic regulation of the pineal gland via central orexinergic nervous inputs....

  12. Leptin Modulates Norepinephrine-Mediated Melatonin Synthesis in Cultured Rat Pineal Gland

    Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari-Garcia; Jéssica Andrade-Silva; José Cipolla-Neto; Carla Roberta de Oliveira Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Pineal melatonin synthesis can be modulated by many peptides, including insulin. Because melatonin appears to alter leptin synthesis, in this work we aimed to investigate whether leptin would have a role on norepinephrine- (NE-)mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal glands. According to our data, cultured rat pineal glands express leptin receptor isoform b (Ob-Rb). Pineal expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was also observed in vivo. Administration of leptin (1 nM) associated with NE (1 µM)...

  13. Leptin Modulates Norepinephrine-Mediated Melatonin Synthesis in Cultured Rat Pineal Gland

    Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineal melatonin synthesis can be modulated by many peptides, including insulin. Because melatonin appears to alter leptin synthesis, in this work we aimed to investigate whether leptin would have a role on norepinephrine- (NE-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal glands. According to our data, cultured rat pineal glands express leptin receptor isoform b (Ob-Rb. Pineal expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was also observed in vivo. Administration of leptin (1 nM associated with NE (1 µM reduced melatonin content as well as arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase (AANAT activity and expression in cultured pineal glands. Leptin treatment per se induced the expression of STAT3 in cultured pineal glands, but STAT3 does not participate in the leptin modulation of NE-mediated pineal melatonin synthesis. In addition, the expression of inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER was further induced by leptin challenge when associated with NE. In conclusion, leptin inhibition of pineal melatonin synthesis appears to be mediated by a reduction in AANAT activity and expression as well as by increased expression of Icer mRNA. Peptidergic signaling within the pineal gland appears to be one of the most important signals which modulates melatonin synthesis; leptin, as a member of this system, is not an exception.

  14. Proteomic analysis of day-night variations in protein levels in the rat pineal gland

    Møller, Morten; Sparre, Thomas; Bache, Nicolai;

    2007-01-01

    The pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin. This secretion exhibits a circadian rhythm with a zenith during night and a nadir during day. We have performed proteome analysis of the superficial pineal gland in rats during daytime and nighttime. The proteins were extracted and subjected to 2-DE...... the protein levels in the rat pineal gland. Some proteins are up-regulated during the night concomitant with the melatonin secretion of the gland. Other proteins are up-regulated during the day indicating a pineal metabolism not related to the melatonin synthesis....

  15. Correlation between histologic diagnosis mean nucleolar organizer region count and prognosis in canine mammary tumors.

    Bostock, D E; Moriarty, J; Crocker, J

    1992-09-01

    In this study, surgically excised mammary tumors from 98 bitches were graded histologically, and the grade was compared with the mean nucleolar organizer region (NOR) count in silver-stained paraffin-embedded sections. Histologically benign tumors, papillary adenocarcinomas, and intraductal carcinomas showed relatively little variation; the mean count for each category was between three and four NOR per nucleus. There was, however, a significant increase in the NOR counts in tubular and solid carcinomas. This increase was most pronounced for tumors that showed evidence of infiltration into the surrounding connective tissues. The mean NOR count for noninfiltrative carcinomas was 5.1, and that for invasive carcinomas was 7.3 (P less than 0.03). The mean NOR count for individual carcinomas ranged from 2.0 to 12.3, and a significant correlation was found between an increased NOR count and tumor-related death during the first post-surgical year. The 39 bitches in which the tumor had an NOR count less than 8.0 had a generally favorable prognosis; only six (15%) died as a result of the original neoplasm. In contrast, 18/21 dogs (85%) with a carcinoma having an NOR count greater than 8.0 died from the tumor during the first post-surgical year. A similar, although less pronounced result was obtained specifically for invasive carcinomas, in which 3/12 (25%) tumors with an NOR count less than 6.0 resulted in the death of the host, compared with 17/20 (85%) that had an NOR count greater than 6. By using this technique, it is possible to identify a subgroup of bitches with invasive mammary carcinomas that have a very poor prognosis following apparently adequate surgical ablation of the primary tumor. PMID:1413404

  16. The pineal neurohormone melatonin and its physiologic opiatergic immunoregulatory role

    Georges J. M. Maestroni

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland functions as a neuroendocrine transducer that coordinate the organism response to changing environmental stimuli such as light and temperature. The main and best known pineal neurohormone is melatonin that is synthesized and released in a circadian fashion with a peak during the night darkness hours. We have recently reported that melatonin exerts important immuno regulatory functions. Here we describe the astonishing property of exogenous melatonin which is able to counteract completely the depressive effect of anxiety-restraint stress and/or of corticosterone on thymus weight, andibody production and antiviral responses. This effect seems to be mediated by antigen-activated T cells via an opiatergic mechanism.

  17. Tachykinins and tachykinin-receptors in the rat pineal gland

    Mukda, S; Chetsawang, B; Govitrapong, P;

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography of extracts of rat pineal glands, followed by radio immunological analysis with antibodies against tachykinins, demonstrated the presence of substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B in the superficial rat pineal gland. Immunohistochemistry on perfusion...... specific for NK1-, NK2- and NK3-receptors, agarose gel analysis of the reaction products showed the presence of mRNA encoding all three neurokinin receptors. Immunohistochemical analysis showed NK1 receptor to be located in the interstitial cells of the gland. This location was confirmed by use of in situ...... hybridization using radioactively labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Double immunohistochemical stainings showed that the NK1-immunoreactive cells were not a part of the macrophages or antigen-presenting cells of the gland. Our study suggests that tachykinins, after release from intrapineal nerve fibers...

  18. A case report of Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor in the mandibular anterior region

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a tumor of odontogenic epithelium with varying degrees of inductive changes in the connective tissue. The common radiographic appearance of AOT is a unilocular radiolucency associated with an unerupted tooth. Detectable radiopacities are reported in many cases. We present a case of AOT in a 9-year old-female patient. Cystic lesion with numerous, punctuate radiopaque foci was seen on the anterior region of the mandible. These radiopacities mostly were situated on the buccal side of impacted tooth on the multiplanar images of cone beam computed tomograph. Characteristic duct like structures and amyloid like material were observed on histopathologic finding.

  19. A case report of Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor in the mandibular anterior region

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Paeng, Jun Young [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Department of Pathology, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a tumor of odontogenic epithelium with varying degrees of inductive changes in the connective tissue. The common radiographic appearance of AOT is a unilocular radiolucency associated with an unerupted tooth. Detectable radiopacities are reported in many cases. We present a case of AOT in a 9-year old-female patient. Cystic lesion with numerous, punctuate radiopaque foci was seen on the anterior region of the mandible. These radiopacities mostly were situated on the buccal side of impacted tooth on the multiplanar images of cone beam computed tomograph. Characteristic duct like structures and amyloid like material were observed on histopathologic finding.

  20. Minimally Invasive-Endoscopic Intraventricular Neurosurgery

    Full Text Available ... taking out tumors such as colloid cysts, pineal region tumors. And then lastly we're now exploring ... about removal of brain tumors in the pineal region, or colloid system, the third ventricle. Without question, ...

  1. Fibrous Calcareous Concretions in the Capsules of Human Pineal Glands

    Kodaka Tetsuo; Mori Ryoichi; Ezure Hiromitsu; Ito Junji; Otsuka Naruhito

    2013-01-01

    We examined calcareous concretions in the capsule of 15 human pineal glands containing a large amount of the concretions in the matrix. The capsule concretions, brown to blackish-brown in color and/or translucent, were smaller than the matrix concretions, which were yellowish-white. The matrix concretions showed the typical mulberry-shaped overall appearance with scallop-shaped concentric laminations of non-fibrous structures, but the capsule concretions, which also contained Ca and P, showed...

  2. Cellular proliferation in the rat pineal gland during postnatal development

    Carvajal, J.C.; Carbajo, S.; Gómez Esteban, M.B.; Alvarez-Morujo Suárez, A.J.; Muñoz Barragan, L.

    1998-01-01

    To establish a possible correlation between the rate of cellular proliferation and already documented functional and morphological characteristics of the rat pineal gland during postnatal development, the bromodeoxyuridine labelling method was used to evaluate the fraction of cells at the S phase of the cell cycle in paraffin sections from I-, 7-, 14- and 28-day-old rats. Numerical density, taken as an indirect measure of cell hypertrophy, was also evaluated. D...

  3. The pineal gland - Its possible roles in human reproduction

    Brzezinski, Amnon; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the pineal gland in controlling mammalian reproduction, with particular attention given to the role of melatonin in polyestrus mammals, like humans and laboratory rodents. Evidence is cited indicating the influence of melatonin production and blood content on the age of puberty, the timing of the ovulatory cycle, gonadal steriodogenesis, and patterns of reproductive behavior. It is suggested that abnormal patterns of melatonin might be associated with amenorrhea, anovulation, unexplained infertility, premature menopause, and habitual abortions.

  4. Postnatal evolution of the rat pineal gland: light microscopy.

    Calvo, J.; Boya, J

    1984-01-01

    The postnatal development and morphology of the adult albino rat pineal gland was studied from one day up to ten months of age. During postnatal life there was a marked increase in gland and pinealocyte volume, more intense during the first 45 days. After ten days, the differences in nuclear morphology of parenchymal cells showed two different types of pinealocyte. The characteristic adult arrangement of pinealocytes in cords and pseudo-rosettes was observed after 15-20 days. After 75 days th...

  5. Developmental and Diurnal Expression of the Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25 (Snap25) in the Rat Pineal Gland

    Karlsen, Anna S; Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian;

    2013-01-01

    pineal gland but the biological importance of this is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a high expression of mRNA encoding Snap25 in all parts of the rat pineal complex, the superficial-, and deep-pineal gland, as well as in the pineal stalk. Snap25 showed a low pineal expression during embryonic...... stages with a strong increase in expression levels just after birth. The expression showed no day/night variations. Neither removal of the sympathetic input to the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy nor bilateral decentralization of the superior cervical ganglia significantly affected the...... expression of Snap25 in the gland. The pineal expression levels of Snap25 were not changed following intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. The strong expression of Snap25 in the pineal gland suggests the presence of secretory granules and microvesicles in the rat pinealocyte supporting the concept of a...

  6. The presence of opioidergic pinealocytes in the pineal gland of the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus): an immunocytochemical study

    Coto-Montes, A.; Masson-Pévet, M.; Pévet, P.;

    1994-01-01

    Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)......Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)...

  7. Microsurgical decompression of tumor of a rare posterior third ventricular pathology.

    Nanda, Anil; Konar, Subhas; Kalakoti, Piyush; Maiti, Tanmoy

    2016-01-01

    Of the posterior third ventricular tumors, a papillary tumor of the pineal gland is a rare entity that originates from specialized ependymoma of the subcommissural organ. In this video narration, we present a case of a 33-year-old male with headaches and recent cognitive decline due to a posterior third ventricular lesion. The patient underwent a posterior interhemispheric approach, and a gross-total decompression was achieved with no signs of recurrence in a 2-year follow-up period. With this case we highlight the microsurgical technique employed for decompressing tumors of the posterior third ventricular region with preservation of eloquent structures and draining veins. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/o0WbyOqmtX0 . PMID:26722689

  8. Tumoral calcinosis in the neck region involving an unusual site in a hemodialysis patient.

    Pan, Chien-Wei; Chen, Rong-Fong

    2016-05-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare disorder characterized by calcium salt deposition in the periarticular soft tissue region. It often occurs in the hip, elbow, shoulder, foot, and wrist. Soft tissue calcification associated with tumoral calcinosis is rare in the head and neck. The present case describes a 65- year-old male who had been on hemodialysis for 3 years. A bulky mass, containing chalky amorphous calcified material, occurred at the lower neck and superior mediastinum. Chronic renal failure is a common condition associated with secondary tumoral calcinosis. The pathogenesis has been progressively unraveled, which indicates that secondary hyperparathyroidism and tissue injury play a part in multifactorial calcification. Laryngoscope, 126:E196-E198, 2016. PMID:26608820

  9. Development and regeneration of the pineal region of the diencephalon

    Liu, J

    2014-01-01

    Organizer is a group of cells that induces and patterns surrounding tissues during embryo development. Previous studies of organizers were mainly based on transplantation of various pieces of tissues. This project first aimed to find out putative organizers using a novel method, which was to characterize organizers based on patterns of syn-expression genes. The differential microarray assays selected a list of gene that are enriched or depleted in three known organizers (Hensen’s node, notoch...

  10. Intracranial tumors in children less than 2 years of age

    We analyzed the characteristic CT findings in twelve cases of intracranial tumors in children under 2 years of age. The histological classification of them was as follows: 2 were teratomas, 3 ependymoma and ependymoblastomas, 2 medulloblastomas, 2 craniopharyngiomas, and 3 were other gliomas, including a pontine glioma. 1. Ten cases were located along the central neural axis. The supratentorial/infratentorial ratio became nearly equal at each age before and after the first year. 2. With regard to tumor size, approximately 70 % out of the brain tumors were more than 5 cm in diameter; especially, four cases had diameters of more than 7 cm. In the case of the teratomas, the cranial cavity was filled with several nodular tumors of varying densities. On admission, an ependymoblastoma in the posterior fossa had already invaded the pineal region. 3. Hydrocephalus was a frequent finding except for the two craniopharyngiomas and the pontine glioma. Some demonstrated an eminent ventricular collapse and a displacement of the midline structures because of the large size of the tumor masses. 4. The malignant gliomas had less peritumoral edemas in proportion to the large sizes of the tumor masses. The prognosis of some brain tumors in our cases less than 2 years of age was extremely poor, but an aggressive approach to them with surgical treatment, irradiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy may improve their chances of survival. (author)

  11. Tumors in the region of the sella turcica; Tumoren der Sellaregion

    Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostischeund Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Tumors of the pituitary gland can lead to limitation of hypophysis function (hypophysis insufficiency) or hypersecretion of different hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, prolactinoma, TSH-secreting adenoma). The optic chiasma lies in close proximity to the pituitary gland and can be compressed by tumors leading to visual disturbances (bilateral hemianopsia). Tumors can be separated into hormone secreting and hormone inactive tumors, as well as into microadenoma with a diameter <10 mm and macroadenomas >10 mm. A rare group of tumors of the hypophysis region are craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germinomas, gliomas, metastases and granulomotous inflammations, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. (orig.) [German] Bei Tumoren der Hypophysenregion kann es zu einer Einschraenkung der Hypophysenfunktion (Hypophyseninsuffizienz) kommen, aber auch zu einem Hypersekretionssyndrom (Akromegalie, Cushing-Syndrom, Prolaktinom, TSH-sezernierendes Adenom). Unmittelbar ueber der Hypophysenregion liegt das Chiasma opticum, wodurch es bei Tumoren der Hypophysenregion zur Beeintraechtigung des Sehens kommen kann, meist als Verschlechterung des Sehfeldes beider Augen nach lateral (bitemporale Hemianopsie). Man unterscheidet hormonaktive und -inaktive Tumoren. Es werden Mikroadenome mit einem Durchmesser bis 10 mm und Makroadenome, die groesser als 10 mm sind, unterschieden. Eine seltenere Gruppe von Tumoren der Hypophysenregion sind die Kraniopharyngeome, Meningeome, Germinome, Gliome, Metastasen und granulomatoese Entzuendungen (Sarkoidose, Tuberkulose). (orig.)

  12. Night/day changes in pineal expression of >600 genes: central role of adrenergic/cAMP signaling

    Bailey, Michael J; Coon, Steven L; Carter, John David;

    2009-01-01

    The pineal gland plays an essential role in vertebrate chronobiology by converting time into a hormonal signal, melatonin, which is always elevated at night. Here we have analyzed the rodent pineal transcriptome using Affymetrix GeneChip(R) technology to obtain a more complete description of pineal...

  13. Frequency and position of pineal gland calcification in a Japanese population

    Hattori, Fumio; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Russell, W.J.; Kogure, Takashi

    1964-04-23

    A review of all skull roentgenograms of 525 normal patients was conducted to determine the incidence of pineal gland and habenular nucleus calcification, and to compile normal values for pineal gland calcification in a Japanese population. These data are presented as tables and graphs for use in roentgenological interpretation. 17 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  14. The human pineal gland and melatonin in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Wu, Y.-H.; Swaab, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    The pineal gland is a central structure in the circadian system which produces melatonin under the control of the central clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN and the output of the pineal gland, i.e. melatonin, are synchronized to the 24-hr day by environmental light, received by the re

  15. The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten; Fu, Cong;

    2015-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. L...

  16. Buschke-Lowenstein tumor of the inguinal region: A rare entity in a rarer location

    Priyanka Aggarwal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Buschke–Lowenstein tumor (BLT, also known as giant condyloma accuminata, first described in 1896 by Buschke, is a rare, slow‑growing, locally invasive, mass lesion commonly affecting the anogenital region in immunocompromised males. This florid type of verrucous carcinoma is known for its high rate of recurrence as well as malignant conversion to squamous cell carcinoma. BLTs have been commonly reported to involve the penis, scrotum, bladder, vulva and perianal or anorectal regions. Our index case remains distinguished on the account of the rare anatomical location, causing a diagnostic dilemma, and once diagnosed managed adequately via surgery alone

  17. Buschke-Löwenstein tumor: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anogenital region

    Turkalj Ivan; Đilas-Ivanović Dragana; Boškov Nedeljka; Petrov Branislav; Štajer Laszlo; Ivković-Kapicl Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Buschke-Lcwenstein tumor (BLT), as a rare form of condylomata acuminatum, was firstly described by Buschke in 1886 as a "carcinoma-like condyloma acuminatum of the penis”. BLT is generally considered to be a low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma of the anogenital region. Case Outline. We describe a case of BLT in a 56-year-old male patient who was referred to our institute due to a large defect in the gluteal region. The biopsy of the l...

  18. Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity

    The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effect upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity

  19. Hypofractionation Results in Reduced Tumor Cell Kill Compared to Conventional Fractionation for Tumors With Regions of Hypoxia

    Purpose: Tumor hypoxia has been observed in many human cancers and is associated with treatment failure in radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of different radiation fractionation schemes on tumor cell killing, assuming a realistic distribution of tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: A probability density function for the partial pressure of oxygen in a tumor cell population is quantified as a function of radial distance from the capillary wall. Corresponding hypoxia reduction factors for cell killing are determined. The surviving fraction of a tumor consisting of maximally resistant cells, cells at intermediate levels of hypoxia, and normoxic cells is calculated as a function of dose per fraction for an equivalent tumor biological effective dose under normoxic conditions. Results: Increasing hypoxia as a function of distance from blood vessels results in a decrease in tumor cell killing for a typical radiotherapy fractionation scheme by a factor of 105 over a distance of 130 μm. For head-and-neck cancer and prostate cancer, the fraction of tumor clonogens killed over a full treatment course decreases by up to a factor of ∼103 as the dose per fraction is increased from 2 to 24 Gy and from 2 to 18 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: Hypofractionation of a radiotherapy regimen can result in a significant decrease in tumor cell killing compared to standard fractionation as a result of tumor hypoxia. There is a potential for large errors when calculating alternate fractionations using formalisms that do not account for tumor hypoxia.

  20. Levels of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 are higher in proliferating regions of A549 tumor cells grown as tumor xenografts in vivo

    3’-Fluoro-3’-deoxythymidine (FLT) has been proposed for positron emission tomography (PET)-based identification of tumor chemosensitivity that is mediated by the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (ENT1). ENT1 facilitates transport of FLT into cells and elevated levels of FLT are associated with both larger FLT-PET signals and increased response to nucleoside-based chemotherapies. FLT-PET is also used as a measure of tumor proliferation. The present study examined the extent to which ENT1 levels vary in a proliferation-dependent manner in tumor cells in vivo. Methods: The human adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was used to establish tumor xenografts in nude mice. FLT uptake was measured in vivo using PET, and further examined ex vivo using autoradiography. FLT uptake patterns were compared to immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of ENT1 and the proliferation markers Ki67 and BrdU. Results: Regional differences in FLT uptake matched differences in IHC proliferation markers. All cells stained for ENT1, but the staining intensity was twice as high for Ki67+ cells than for Ki67− cells. Conclusions: Under in vivo conditions, proliferating regions of tumors show increased FLT uptake and higher ENT1 levels than nonproliferating tumor regions.

  1. Frequency of pineal calcification during the first 18 years of life

    Helmke, K.; Winkler, P.

    1986-02-01

    There are sparse or contradictory data on frequency and pathological significance of pineal calcifications in childhood. This is particularly so for children younger than 6 years of age. We therefore looked for pineal gland calcifications in 1044 consecutive a.p. and lateral skull films. Pineal calcification was diagnosed, if accepted by both authors, and if the calcified spot fitted into at least 2 of 4 localisation methods. 80 patients with pineal calcifications were detected using this method. In 40 of these patients CCT confirmed the calcification. The frequency of pineal calcification was 3% in the first 12 months of life rising gradually to 7.1% in children of 10 years of age. From 10 years onwards, there is a marked increase of frequency of calcifications of the pineal gland up to 33% in the group of children of 18 years of age. In contrast to some statements in literature, pineal calcifications seem to be physiological in a limited percentage even below the age of 6 years.

  2. Pineal photoreceptor cells are required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity in zebrafish.

    Xinle Li

    Full Text Available In non-mammalian vertebrates, the pineal gland functions as the central pacemaker that regulates the circadian rhythms of animal behavior and physiology. We generated a transgenic zebrafish line [Tg(Gnat2:gal4-VP16/UAS:nfsB-mCherry] in which the E. coli nitroreductase is expressed in pineal photoreceptor cells. In developing embryos and young adults, the transgene is expressed in both retinal and pineal photoreceptor cells. During aging, the expression of the transgene in retinal photoreceptor cells gradually diminishes. By 8 months of age, the Gnat2 promoter-driven nitroreductase is no longer expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells, but its expression in pineal photoreceptor cells persists. This provides a tool for selective ablation of pineal photoreceptor cells, i.e., by treatments with metronidazole. In the absence of pineal photoreceptor cells, the behavioral visual sensitivity of the fish remains unchanged; however, the circadian rhythms of rod and cone sensitivity are diminished. Brief light exposures restore the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity. Together, the data suggest that retinal photoreceptor cells respond to environmental cues and are capable of entraining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity; however, they are insufficient for maintaining the rhythms. Cellular signals from the pineal photoreceptor cells may be required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity.

  3. A radiologic study by CT scan of pineal size in cancer patients

    Alterations in size of the pineal body and melatonin secretion have been observed in cancer patients. The present study was carried out to evaluate pineal dimension in a group of cancer patients and their relation to melatonin blood levels. The study included 70 oncologic patients. As controls, 41 patients with acute or chronic disease other than cancer entered the study. Melatonin serum levels were measured by radioimmunoassay on venous blood samples collected at 9:00 a.m. Pineal size was determined by brain CT scan, by considering the product of the two longest perpendicular diameters, multiplied by the thickness of the stratum. The volume of the pineal body was found to be enlarged in 12/70 (17%) cancer patients, and its mean value was significantly higher than that observed in controls. Melatonin levels were also significantly higher in oncologic patients than in controls. However, there was no correlation between melatonin levels and pineal size in cancer patients. Finally, cancer patients did not show a higher degree of pineal calcifications than controls. The clinical significance of pineal enlargement in cancer patients remains to be understood

  4. Roles of DNA mutation in the coding region and DNA methylation in the 5' flanking region of BRCA1 in canine mammary tumors.

    Qiu, Hengbin; Lin, Deigui

    2016-07-01

    The Breast cancer 1, early onset gene (BRCA1) is known to be significantly associated with human familial breast cancer and is identified to play an important role in canine mammary tumors. Here, genetic variations in the coding region and DNA methylation in the 5' flanking region of BRCA1 in canine mammary tumor samples, 15 each of benign and malignant against 10 normal canine mammary tissue samples, were analyzed using the direct sequencing method. The results indicated two point mutations each in the coding region of canine BRCA1 in one benign mammary tumor sample (4702G >T and 4765G >T) and in one malignant canine mammary tumor sample (3619A >G and 4006G >A). No mutations were detected in the normal canine mammary tissue samples. The 4702G >T mutation was found to terminate further translation. The physical effect of the 4765G >T mutation was found to be the repalacement of the glutamate residue with glutamine. The physical effect of the 3619A >G mutation was found to be the replacement of the threonine residue with alanine, and that of mutation 4006G >A was the replacement of the valine residue with isoleucine in the BRCA1 protein. Bisulfite sequencing detected methylated CpG sites in one canine malignant mammary tumor sample. In conclusion, the present study elucidated the mutational status of the BRCA1 coding region and methylation status of the 5' flanking region of BRCA1 in canine mammary tumors. PMID:26888582

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow in various types of brain tumor. Effect of the space-occupying lesion on blood flow in brain tissue close to and remote from tumor site

    Kuroda, K; Skyhøj Olsen, T; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 23 patients with brain tumors using the 133Xe intra-carotid injection method and a 254 channel gamma camera. The glioblastomas (4) and astrocytomas (4) all showed hyperemia in the tumor and tumor-near region. This was also seen in several...

  6. Brain tumors in children; Hirntumoren beim Kind

    Harting, I.; Seitz, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

    2009-06-15

    Brain tumors are common in children; in Germany approximately 400 children are diagnosed every year. In the posterior fossa, cerebellar neoplasms outnumber brainstem gliomas. In contrast to their rarity in adults, brainstem gliomas are not uncommon in children. Supratentorial tumors can be subdivided by location into neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres, suprasellar and pineal tumors. Astrocytoma is the most common pediatric brain tumor followed by medulloblastoma, ependymoma and craniopharyngeoma. The combination of imaging morphology, tumor localisation and patient age at manifestation form the basis of the neuroradiological differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of Pineal Gland Volume and Calcification in Healthy Subjects: Is it Related to Aging?

    Beker-Acay, Mehtap; Turamanlar, Ozan; Horata, Erdal; Unlu, Ebru; Fidan, Nurdan; Oruc, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The human pineal gland is a small neuroendocrine organ which produces melatonin. The main goal of this study was to provide a reference range for pineal volume in all age groups and to determine calcified and noncalcified tissue and their proportions, which may be a reflection of melatonin production in all age groups, by using very thin computerized tomography (CT) slices.Materials and methods: A total of 167 outpatients had undergone cranial CT. Each of the subject’s total pineal v...

  8. Sex-related differences in the nuclear population of postpubertal rat pineal gland. A quantitative study

    López Muñoz, F.; Boya, J; Calvo, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Male and female parenchymal pineal cell types have been studied throughout postpubertal development to determine the existence of sex-related differences on a time basis. Six age groups (2, 3,4, 8, 15 and 24 months) of eight rats (4 males and 4 females) were used in this study. Nuclei of both parenchymal pineal cell types were counted in 5 areas of 26.377 pm' per pineal gland on semithin sections. Nonparametric statistics of our results (Mann-Whitney U-test and...

  9. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions

    Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Ansari, Nariman [Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, High-Throughput Technology Development Studio (TDS), Dresden (Germany); Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H. [Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Steigemann, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Steigemann@bayer.com [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. - Highlights: • Establishment of a novel method for 3D cell culture based high-content screening. • First reported high

  10. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. - Highlights: • Establishment of a novel method for 3D cell culture based high-content screening. • First reported high

  11. The perivascular phagocyte of the mouse pineal gland: An antigen-presenting cell

    Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F; Klein, David C

    2006-01-01

    The perivascular space of the rat pineal gland is known to contain phagocytic cells that are immunoreactive for leukocyte antigens, and thus they appear to belong to the macrophage/microglial cell line. These cells also contain MHC class II proteins. We investigated this cell type in the pineal...... gland of mice. Actively phagocytosing cells with a prominent lysosomal system were found in the pericapillary spaces of the mouse pineal gland following intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase. The cells also exhibited strong acid phosphatase activity. Perivascular cells were immunopositive for...... MHC class II protein and for CD68, a marker of monocytes/phagocytes. This study verifies that perivascular phagocytes with antigen-presenting properties are present in the mouse pineal gland....

  12. Rax: Developmental and Daily Expression Patterns in the Rat Pineal Gland and Retina

    Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change...... significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day (E) 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until E20. In both tissues, Rax is expressed throughout postnatal development into adulthood. In the mature rat pineal gland, the abundance of Rax...... transcripts increases 2-fold during the light period with a peak occurring at dusk. These findings are consistent with the evidence that Rax is of functional importance in eye development and suggest a role of Rax in the developing pineal gland. In addition, it would appear possible that Rax contributes to...

  13. COSMOS 2044. Experiment K-7-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function

    Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

    1989-01-01

    It is now known that the pineal organ can interact with many endocrine and nonendocrine tissues in a regulatory fashion. Given its key role in the regulation of melatonin synthesis, its high concentration, and that its levels may persist longer than the more rapidly changing melatonin, it was felt that serotonin might give a more accurate assessment of the effects of microgravity on pineal function following recovery of animals from flight. Five-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), a major metabolite of serotonin metabolism, was also measured. One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, pineal calcium content was examined following spaceflight.

  14. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    2015-07-27

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  15. A Two Dimensional Infinite Element Model to Study Temperature Distribution in Human Dermal Regions due to Tumors

    K. R. pardasani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a two dimensional infinite element model has been developed to study thermal effect in human dermal regions due to tumors. This model incorporates the effect of blood mass flow rate, metabolic heat generation and thermal conductivity of the tissues.The dermal region is divided into three natural layers, namely, epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues. A uniformly perfused tumor is assumed to be present in the dermis. The domain is assumed to be finite along the depth and infinite along the breadth. The whole dermis region involving tumor is modelled with the help of triangular finite elements to incorporate the geometry of the region. These elements are surrounded by infinite domain elements along the breadth. Appropriate boundary conditions has been incorporated. A computer program has been developed to obtain the numerical results.

  16. Circadian and seasonal variations in pineal gland intercellular canaliculi in the white rat

    Martínez Soriano, F.; Cimas García, C.; Ruíz Torner, A.

    1991-01-01

    Seventy Wistar rats are used to study the changes in pineal intercellular canaliculi over a 21-hour period and for two different photoperiods (pre-autumn, first week of September, and winter, first week of February). The study considers these changes at pineal body, cortical and medullar level separately, and compares the values obtained. The results show variations in canalicular surface at different point times (10:00, 14:00,18:00) and for both photoperiods. ...

  17. Bioelectric Activity in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus—Pineal Gland System in Children with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Dmitry Yu Pinchuk; Bekshaev, Sergey S.; Bumakova, Svetlana A.; Dudin, Mikhail G.; Pinchuk, Olga D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to identify a role of the pineal gland/suprachiasmatic nucleus system in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) aetiology and pathogenesis. To analyze electroencephalograms of 292 children with AIS and in 46 healthy subjects, a processing method was used to assess three-dimensional coordinates of electric equivalent dipole sources (EEDSs) within the brain. Amounts of EEDSs in the pineal gland and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) area were assessed in different age grou...

  18. Morphofunctional and signaling molecules overlap of the pineal gland and thymus: role and significance in aging

    Paltsev, Michael A.; Polyakova, Victoria O; Kvetnoy, Igor M.; Anderson, George; Kvetnaia, Tatiana V.; Linkova, Natalia S.; Paltseva, Ekaterina M.; Rubino, Rosa; De Cosmo, Salvatore; De Cata, Angelo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in neuroendocrine-immune system functioning, including alterations in pineal and thymic glands, contribute to aging-associated diseases. This study looks at ageing-associated alterations in pineal and thymic gland functioning evaluating common signaling molecules present in both human and animal pinealocytes and thymocytes: endocrine cell markers (melatonin, serotonin, pCREB, AANAT, CGRP, VIP, chromogranin A); cell renovation markers (p53, AIF, Ki67), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2,...

  19. Rax: Developmental and Daily Expression Patterns in the Rat Pineal Gland and Retina

    Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C.; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day (E) 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until E20. In both tissues, Rax is e...

  20. Effects of white light on the pineal gland of the chick embryo

    Aige-Gil, Vicente; Murillo-Ferrol, Narciso

    1992-01-01

    Chick embryos were directly exposed to a source of white light during incubation and sacrificed before hatching. The light caused a number of teratological effects such as high mortality, delay in development, celosomy, hepatomegaly, auricular dilation and micrognatia. The pineal gland of the illuminated embryos showed an increase in number and size of the intracytoplasmic lipid droplets of the follicular pinealocytes. These findings suggest that the pineal...

  1. Morphological Characteristics and Embryological Development of Pineal Gland and Experimental Grafting Procedures

    Mehmet Turgut; Aysegul Uysal; Mine Yurtseven

    2003-01-01

    The pineal gland is a major neuroendocrine organ both in human and animals and its principal product is melatonin. It has been implicated in a number of physiological functions (circadian rhytms, sleep, reproduction, and immune system). It is notable that transplantation of the pineal gland into different anatomical locations (the third or fourth cerebral ventricle, hypothalamus, cortical cerebral tissue, and anterior chamber of the eye) appears to evoke a degree of functional recovery. The p...

  2. RGS2 is a feedback inhibitor of melatonin production in the pineal gland

    Matsuo, Masahiro; Steven L Coon; Klein, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The 24-h rhythmic production of melatonin by the pineal gland is essential for coordinating circadian physiology. Melatonin production increases at night in response to the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve processes which innervate the pineal gland. This signal is transduced through G-protein-coupled adrenergic receptors. Here, we found that the abundance of regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) increases at night, that expression is increased by norepinephrine and that th...

  3. Ultrastructural changes in the rat pineal gland after sympathetic denervation. Quantitative study

    Calvo, J.L.; Boya, J; García-Mauriño, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes in the rat pineal gland were studied quantitatively 7 and 60 days after the sympathetic denervation by bilateral excission or decentralization of superior cervical ganglia. The surface occupied by pineal parenchymal cells decreased in rats of experimental groups with respect to the control group. Furthermore, profile areas of the cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus of the pinealocytes were also diminished. Cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the ...

  4. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library

    Stefanie Hartman; Greg Touchton; Jessica Wynn; Tuoyu Geng; Chong, Nelson W.; Ed Smith

    2005-01-01

    The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences d...

  5. Rhodopsin Kinase Activity in the Mammalian Pineal Gland and Other Tissues

    Somers, Robert L.; Klein, David C.

    1984-10-01

    Rhodopsin kinase, an enzyme involved in photochemical transduction in the retina, has been found in the mammalian pineal gland in amounts equal to those in the retina; other tissues had 7 percent of this amount, or less. This finding suggests that, in mammals, rhodopsin kinase functions in the pineal gland and other tissues to phosphorylate rhodopsin-like integral membrane receptors and is thereby involved in signal transduction.

  6. Homeobox Genes and Melatonin Synthesis: Regulatory Roles of the Cone-Rod Homeobox Transcription Factor in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    Kristian Rohde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a cAMP-based induction of Aanat transcription. However, additional transcriptional control mechanisms exist. Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processes, are also expressed in the mature rodent pineal gland. Among these, the cone-rod homeobox (CRX transcription factor is believed to control pineal-specific Aanat expression. Based on recent advances in our understanding of Crx in the rodent pineal gland, we here suggest that homeobox genes play a role in adult pineal physiology both by ensuring pineal-specific Aanat expression and by facilitating cAMP response element-based circadian melatonin production.

  7. Morphofunctional and signaling molecules overlap of the pineal gland and thymus: role and significance in aging

    Paltsev, Michael A.; Polyakova, Victoria O.; Kvetnoy, Igor M.; Anderson, George; Kvetnaia, Tatiana V.; Linkova, Natalia S.; Paltseva, Ekaterina M.; Rubino, Rosa; De Cosmo, Salvatore; De Cata, Angelo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in neuroendocrine-immune system functioning, including alterations in pineal and thymic glands, contribute to aging-associated diseases. This study looks at ageing-associated alterations in pineal and thymic gland functioning evaluating common signaling molecules present in both human and animal pinealocytes and thymocytes: endocrine cell markers (melatonin, serotonin, pCREB, AANAT, CGRP, VIP, chromogranin A); cell renovation markers (p53, AIF, Ki67), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9) and lymphocytes markers (CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20). Pineal melatonin is decreased, as is one of the melatonin pathway synthesis enzymes in the thymic gland. A further similarity is the increased MMPs levels evident over age in both glands. Significant differences are evident in cell renovation processes, which deteriorate more quickly in the aged thymus versus the pineal gland. Decreases in the number of pineal B-cells and thymic T-cells were also observed over aging. Collected data indicate that cellular involution of the pineal gland and thymus show many commonalities, but also significant changes in aging-associated proteins. It is proposed that such ageing-associated alterations in these two glands provide novel pharmaceutical targets for the wide array of medical conditions that are more likely to emerge over the course of ageing. PMID:26943046

  8. Morphofunctional and signaling molecules overlap of the pineal gland and thymus: role and significance in aging.

    Paltsev, Michael A; Polyakova, Victoria O; Kvetnoy, Igor M; Anderson, George; Kvetnaia, Tatiana V; Linkova, Natalia S; Paltseva, Ekaterina M; Rubino, Rosa; De Cosmo, Salvatore; De Cata, Angelo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-03-15

    Deficits in neuroendocrine-immune system functioning, including alterations in pineal and thymic glands, contribute to aging-associated diseases. This study looks at ageing-associated alterations in pineal and thymic gland functioning evaluating common signaling molecules present in both human and animal pinealocytes and thymocytes: endocrine cell markers (melatonin, serotonin, pCREB, AANAT, CGRP, VIP, chromogranin А); cell renovation markers (p53, AIF, Ki67), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9) and lymphocytes markers (CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20). Pineal melatonin is decreased, as is one of the melatonin pathway synthesis enzymes in the thymic gland. A further similarity is the increased MMPs levels evident over age in both glands. Significant differences are evident in cell renovation processes, which deteriorate more quickly in the aged thymus versus the pineal gland. Decreases in the number of pineal B-cells and thymic T-cells were also observed over aging. Collected data indicate that cellular involution of the pineal gland and thymus show many commonalities, but also significant changes in aging-associated proteins. It is proposed that such ageing-associated alterations in these two glands provide novel pharmaceutical targets for the wide array of medical conditions that are more likely to emerge over the course of ageing. PMID:26943046

  9. The relative frequency of odontogenic tumors in the Black Sea region of Turkey: an analysis of 86 cases

    ŞENEL, Figen ÇİZMECİ; DAYISOYLU, Ezher Hamza; ERSÖZ, Şafak; ALTINTAŞ, Nuray YILMAZ; TOSUN, Emre; Üngör, Cem; Taşkesen, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relative frequency and distribution of different types of odontogenic tumors in southeastern Europe, focusing on the Black Sea region of Turkey. Materials and methods: In total 1165 oromaxillofacial biopsy records were evaluated for histologic diagnosis of odontogenic tumors over a 7-year period from patients referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Department of Pathology, Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Dentistry and Medicine, Trabzon, T...

  10. Evidence of Pineal Gland Calcification on CBCT is Not Insignificant: What Else You Might Discover about Your Patient.

    Fore, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    The use of CBCT technology in the dental office is increasing rapidly. These scans provide information on anatomy not previously evaluated with traditional 2D films. One structure often mentioned in a CBCT radiology report is the pineal gland. The pineal gland will show evidence of calcification, but this calcification is often dismissed as a normal aging process. This review of the function and influence of the pineal gland may influence the doctor to complete further evaluation of the patient. PMID:27319034

  11. The Effects of Constant Darkness and Constant Light on the Pineal Gland and Thymus Morphology in the Rats

    İÇTEN, Nihal

    1998-01-01

    It is known that periods of constant darkness and constant light cause stim-ulation and inhibition of melatonin secretion from the pineal gland. It is also suggested that neuroendocrine responses to environmental stimuli, such as light, can influence immune responses through the pineal gland. For these reasons, in this study the effects of the alterations in the photoperiod rhythm on the pineal gland and thymus morphology were experimentally investigated. 30 Swiss albino rats, aged...

  12. Differential effect of benserazide (Ro4-4602) on the concentration of indoleamines in rat pineal and hypothalamus.

    Arendt, J; Ho, A K; Laud, C.; Marston, A; Nohria, V.; Smith, J. A.; Symons, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    1 Low doses (50 and 80 mg/kg) of benserazide (Ro4-4602), an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, markedly reduced 5-hydroxytryptamine and melatonin in the rat pineal gland without affecting hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine. 2 This differential effect shows that inhibition of the pineal gland decarboxylase activity is possible, and confirms that the rat pineal gland is accessible to peripherally acting agents.

  13. Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland

    Huang, Zheping; Liu, Tiecheng; Chattoraj, Asamanja; Ahmed, Samreen; Michael M Wang; Deng, Jie.; Sun, Xing; Borjigin, Jimo

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a precursor for melatonin production, is produced abundantly in the pineal gland of all vertebrate animals. The synthesis of 5-HT in the pineal gland is rate limited by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) whose activity displays a twofold increase at night. Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrate that pineal 5-HT secretion exhibits dynamic circadian rhythms with elevated levels during the early night, and that the increase is controlled by adrenergic...

  14. Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region

    Proton beam has been applied to treat various tumor patients in clinical studies. However, it is still undefined whether proton radiation can inhibit the blood vessel formation and induce the cell death in vascular endothelial cells in growing organs. The aim of this study are first, to develop an optimal animal model for the observation of blood vessel development with low dose of proton beam and second, to investigate the effect of low dose proton beam on the inhibition of blood vessel formation induced by hypoxic conditions. In this study, flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos were used to directly visualize and determine the inhibition of blood vessels by low dose (1, 2, 5 Gy) of proton beam with spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). And we observed cell death by acridine orange staining at 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) stage of embryos after proton irradiation. We also compared the effects of proton beam with those of gamma-ray. An antioxidant, N-acetyl cystein (NAC) was used to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the cell deaths induced by proton irradiation. Irradiated flk-1-GFP transgenic embryos with proton beam irradiation (35 MeV, spread out Bragg peak, SOBP) demonstrated a marked inhibition of embryonic growth and an altered fluorescent blood vessel development in the trunk region. When the cells with DNA damage in the irradiated zebrafish were stained with acridine orange, green fluorescent cell death spots were increased in trunk regions compared to non-irradiated control embryos. Proton beam also significantly increased the cell death rate in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but pretreatment of N-acetyl cystein (NAC), an antioxidant, recovered the proton-induced cell death rate (p<0.01). Moreover, pretreatment of NAC abrogated the effect of proton beam on the inhibition of trunk vessel development and malformation of trunk truncation. From this study, we found that proton radiation therapy can inhibit the

  15. Content of microelements in the rat pineal gland at different ages and the effects of selenium supplementation

    Demajo M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian pineal gland regulates a number of important physiological processes. In this paper we report changes in the content of iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, and selenium (Se in the male rat pineal glands at 4, 5, 8, and 12 months of age. The effect of Se supplementation in drinking water on the content of pineal gland microelements was also studied. Selenium (Se-dependent changes in pineal gland reported in this study suggest novel physicochemical and biochemical properties of Se, an important element essential in the antioxidative processes, yet known to influence a number of endocrine processes.

  16. Contrast enhancement and morphological findings of hematopoietic regions of bone marrow on MR imaging. Comparative study with spondylitis and vertebral tumors

    Amano, Yasuo; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Matsuura, Maki; Watari, Jun; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The enhanced MR findings of hematopoietic regions in aplastic anemia were compared with those of spondylitis, metastatic vertebral tumors and hematologic neoplasms. The enhanced MR images showed hematopoietic regions to homogeneously enhance and occupy the margin of vertebral bodies, while spondylitis and metastatic tumors appeared as round, inhomogeneously enhancing lesions. MR images of leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome showed homogeneous enhancement at the margins of vertebrae that was difficult to differentiate from hematopoietic regions. Enhanced MR images were useful in detecting the hematopoietic areas in marrow and differentiating them from spondylitis and metastatic tumors, although further experience is needed to distinguish between tumorous hyperplastic regions and benign hematopoietic regions in marrow. (author).

  17. Contrast enhancement and morphological findings of hematopoietic regions of bone marrow on MR imaging. Comparative study with spondylitis and vertebral tumors

    The enhanced MR findings of hematopoietic regions in aplastic anemia were compared with those of spondylitis, metastatic vertebral tumors and hematologic neoplasms. The enhanced MR images showed hematopoietic regions to homogeneously enhance and occupy the margin of vertebral bodies, while spondylitis and metastatic tumors appeared as round, inhomogeneously enhancing lesions. MR images of leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome showed homogeneous enhancement at the margins of vertebrae that was difficult to differentiate from hematopoietic regions. Enhanced MR images were useful in detecting the hematopoietic areas in marrow and differentiating them from spondylitis and metastatic tumors, although further experience is needed to distinguish between tumorous hyperplastic regions and benign hematopoietic regions in marrow. (author)

  18. Buschke-Löwenstein tumor: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anogenital region

    Turkalj Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Buschke-Lcwenstein tumor (BLT, as a rare form of condylomata acuminatum, was firstly described by Buschke in 1886 as a "carcinoma-like condyloma acuminatum of the penis”. BLT is generally considered to be a low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma of the anogenital region. Case Outline. We describe a case of BLT in a 56-year-old male patient who was referred to our institute due to a large defect in the gluteal region. The biopsy of the lesion was performed and the diagnosis of BLT was made on histopathological examination. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis showed the extensive vegetant lesion that significantly infiltrated pelvic organs accompanied with an enlargement of para-iliac lymph nodes. Sygmoidostomy for fecal diversion was done and chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin was initiated. Unfortunately, the patient’s severe condition caused fatal outcome. Conclusion. Our case points out that BLT should be treated at the initial stage in order to prevent untreatable condition which happened in our patient. Therefore, early diagnostics and staging of the disease using modern technologies are crucial in order to treat patients effectively.

  19. Degranulating mast cells in fibrotic regions of human tumors and evidence that mast cell heparin interferes with the growth of tumor cells through a mechanism involving fibroblasts

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mast cells that are present in fibrotic regions of cancer can suppress the growth of tumor cells through an indirect mechanism involving peri-tumoral fibroblasts. We first immunostained a wide variety of human cancers for the presence of degranulated mast cells. In a subsequent series of controlled in vitro experiments, we then co-cultured UACC-812 human breast cancer cells with normal fibroblasts in the presence or absence of different combinations and doses of mast cell tryptase, mast cell heparin, a lysate of the human mast cell line HMC-1, and fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7), a powerful, heparin-binding growth factor for breast epithelial cells. Degranulating mast cells were localized predominantly in the fibrous tissue of every case of breast cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease that we examined. Mast cell tryptase and HMC-1 lysate had no significant effect on the clonogenic growth of cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. By contrast, mast cell heparin at multiple doses significantly reduced the size and number of colonies of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, especially in the presence of FGF-7. Neither heparin nor FGF-7, individually or in combination, produced any significant effect on the clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells cultured without fibroblasts. Degranulating mast cells are restricted to peri-tumoral fibrous tissue, and mast cell heparin is a powerful inhibitor of clonogenic growth of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. These results may help to explain the well-known ability of heparin to inhibit the growth of primary and metastatic tumors

  20. Minute gastric carcinoid tumor with regional lymph node metastasis:A case report and review of literature

    Sbu-Duo Xie; Lin-Bo Wang; Xiang-Yang Song; Tao Pan

    2004-01-01

    We have encountered an unusual case of gastric carcinoid tumor. Gastroscopic examination of this 32-year-old male patient showed a smooth protrusion at the greater curvature of the gastric body with a central depression,identified by subsequent biopsy as carcinoma. The patient had a normal serum gastrin level and was negative for anti-parietal cell antibody. Histological examination of the resected gastric tissues showed that the tumor was a carcinoid, 0.3 cm×0.3 cm in size with only one regional lymph node metastasis. We reviewed the pathogenesis,clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of gastric carcinoids and raise the possibility of being a lymph vesselrelated metastasis even for a minute carcinoid tumor.Sentinel lymph node biopsy is recommended for surgery of minute carcinoid tumors.

  1. Prevention and treatment of the effects of radiation treatment of tumors in the oral and maxillo-facial regions

    The headings of this book are: Indications for and therapeutic value of radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy of head and neck tumors; literature review of radiation injuries and side effects of radiotherapy in the orofacial region; peri-radiotherapeutic regimen; radiation induced caries; radiation induced xerostomia; radiation induced changes of the jaw and osteoradionecrosis

  2. Labelling of the pineal gland with 99mTc-glucose-6-phosphate

    Lately, the pineal body has been the subject of a large variety of studies. Only recently it has been understood the role played by this endocrine gland to maintain the balance of the human body and also in animal models. Although small in dimensions, the pineal body is a very active organ, able to transmit precise temporal information. It probably participates in the synchronization of several organic functions. The present work aims to study a possible use of 99mTc-glucose-6-P as a tracer for the pineal gland. Histoautoradiographic studies have been performed in Wistar rats. Tomoscintigraphic studies were acquired in patients and in albine rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus hyplus). The labelling efficiency and the radiochemical purity of the labelled products have always been tested. Animal and human SPECT exams, show an activity focus projected over the area corresponding to the pineal body localization. Autoradiographic studies using [1-14C]-glucose-6-P did not reveal a more relevant activity at the pineal level, probably due to its hepatic conversion to 14C-glucose. (author)

  3. Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Changes Related To Methylphenidate In Rat Pituitary and Pineal Glands

    Çiğdem ELMAS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The presence of a dopaminergic function in pituitary and pineal glands is well known. Methylphenidate (MPH, a widely prescribed psychostimulant for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, is an indirect dopamine agonist which could have the capacity of influencing the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system with the pineal gland. Our aim is to investigate dose-dependent immunohistochemical dopamine 2 expression, possible cell apoptosis and ultrastructural changes of the rat pituitary and pineal gland tissue, to demonstrate possible toxicity of the chronic extended use of the MPH.Material and Methods: In this study, 27 female prepubertal Wistar albino rats, divided into three different dose groups (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, were treated orally with MPH dissolved in saline solution for 5 days per week during three months. At the end of the third month, after perfusion fixation, pituitary and pineal glands were removed and sections were collected for immunohistochemical, TUNEL assay and ultrastructural studies.Results: We observed that methylphenidate induced dose-related ultrastructural changes in pituitary and pineal glands.Conclusion: High dose administration of this drug could influence the functions of these glands. Thus, we suggest that the therapeutic dose of methylphenidate must be kept in minimum level.

  4. Diurnal cycles in serotonin acetyltransferase activity and cyclic GMP content of cultured chick pineal glands.

    Wainwright, S D

    1980-06-12

    Levels of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT: acetul CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.5.) activity in the chick pineal gland exhibit a marked diurnal variation in birds kept under a diurnal cycle of ilumination. Activity begins to rise rapidly at the start of the dark phase of the cycle and reaches maximum levels at mid-dark phase about 25-fold greater than the minimum basal level at mid-light phase. Thereafter, the level of activity declines to the basal level about the start of the light phase. This diurnal cycle in chick pineal NAT activity found in vivo has recently been reproduced in vitro with intact glands incubated in organ culture. The mechanism of the 'biological clock' which regulates these variations in level of chick pineal NAT activity is unknown. However, I now report that chick pineal glands cultured under a diurnal cycle of illumination exhibit a diurnal cycle in content of cyclic GMP which roughly parallels the cycles in NAT activity. In contrast, there was no correlation between variations in pineal content of cyclic AMP and in level of NAT activity. PMID:6250035

  5. Small Tumor Virus Genomes Are Integrated near Nuclear Matrix Attachment Regions in Transformed Cells

    Shera, Katherine A.; Shera, Christopher A.; McDougall, James K

    2001-01-01

    More than 15% of human cancers have a viral etiology. In benign lesions induced by the small DNA tumor viruses, viral genomes are typically maintained extrachromosomally. Malignant progression is often associated with viral integration into host cell chromatin. To study the role of viral integration in tumorigenesis, we analyzed the positions of integrated viral genomes in tumors and tumor cell lines induced by the small oncogenic viruses, including the high-risk human papillomaviruses, hepat...

  6. Leptomeningite e tumor da região optoquiasmática Meningitis and tumor of the opto-chiasmatic region. Report of two cases

    J. A. Gonçalves da Silva

    1967-03-01

    search of intracranial focuses of infection through radiologic examinations. The nature of the leptomeningitic episodes is discussed. Their relation to possible communications between the oropharyngeal cavity and the subarachnoid space, secundary to the changes in the anatomic structures of the region provoked by the tumors, is emphasized since these communications make possible the invasion of the subarachnoid space by bacteria. Although this opinion is acceptable in respect to the cases related, it is not possible to exclude the aseptic nature of meningitic episodes observed as no pathogenic micro-organism was isolated from the CSF samples studied and the necroscopic examination showed no septation in the leptomeningeal structures that surrounded the tumor or no obvious focus of infection related to them. Considering the cases reported the authors point out that radiologic and neuro-radiologic examinations must be indicated, as soon as possible, in order to exclude such tumors in patients suffering from meningitis of obscure origin, specially when its course is delayed and/or marked by acute episodes or re-exacerbation.

  7. Cyst or tumor in the buccomaxillary region: Review of literature and a case report.

    Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Kujan, Omar Bashar; Dwedary, Hisham Mohammed Najeeb; Sikander, Mohammed Hilal; Mankar, Sunil; Amrin, M Nidha

    2015-08-01

    Odontogenic tumors (OTs) include entities of a hamartomatous nature, such as odontoma, benign neoplasms like an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), some benign neoplasms are aggressive as in the case of ameloblastoma. The AOT is a rare odontogenic tumor constituting only 3% of all the OT and very often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. We report a case of an intra-osseous type of AOT occurred in a young 16-year-old female located in the anterior maxilla along with the clinical, radiological, histological features, and literature review related to the tumor affecting the patient. PMID:26538960

  8. Wound healing and the effect of pineal gland and melatonin

    Jacek Drobnik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex phenomenon that is controlled by local and general regulatory mechanisms. The aim of the paper is to analyze recently-published data devoted to the regulation of wound repair by melatonin. The effect of melatonin has been reported in different wound types healed with various mechanisms. The action of the pineal indoleamine is dependent on the used dose, time of application and target organ. Moreover, melatonin influences different phases of wound repair such as inflammation, by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators, cell proliferation and migration, by influencing angiogenesis, and the proliferation of fibroblasts, as well as the synthesis phase, by regulating collagen and glycosaminoglycan accumulation in the wounded milieu. Thus, healing of the skin wound, myocardial infarction, bone fractures and gastric ulcer is influenced by melatonin. In patients with low levels of melatonin (elderly or β-blocker treated patients, its regulatory effects are expected to be impaired. Thus, the need for melatonin supplementation in those patients is postulated in the study. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 3-14

  9. Comparative histomorphological study of the pineal gland in human and fowl

    B. Pal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Comparative histological studies of pineal gland of man and fowl has been made to observe structural differences if any between these two species. Background: Some works have been done sporadically on laboratory animals and on birds and also in human correlating with other parameters. In this investigation an approach has been made to observe the cellular organization of the pineal gland parenchyma in these two vertebrates, having different physiological aspects. Methods: Some special stains were used to observe connective tissue elements (Reticulin,collagen and elastic fibers along with conventional H and E stains. Result and conclusion: The lobular character of the gland, connective tissue septa, shape and size of the pinealocytes were found to be almost common in both species. Major differences seen in fowl pineal gland are the presence of ependymal cells on the walls of the lumen of the lobules and absence of corpora arenacea.

  10. Pineal 5-methoxytryptophol rhythms in the box turtle: effect of photoperiod and environmental temperature.

    Skene, D J; Vivien-Roels, B; Pevet, P

    1989-03-13

    The effect of different photoperiods and temperatures on pineal 5-methoxytryptophol (ML) content was investigated in male box turtles, Terrapene carolina triunguis. A rhythm in pineal ML was evident in the long photoperiod (18 h light (L)-6 h dark (D] with high daytime levels of 178 +/- 48 pg/gland (means +/- S.E.M.) which dropped to 38 +/- 6 pg/gland during lights off. In the short photoperiod (8L:16D) no clearcut ML rhythm was observed. Diurnal (10.00-12.00 h) ML concentrations rose linearly (P less than 0.05) with increasing ambient temperatures (5, 15, 20 and 27 degrees C). Day/night differences in ML levels, however, were not significant. Pineal ML in the box turtle thus seems to be modified by the photoperiod and, to a lesser extent, by temperature. PMID:2710400

  11. NeuroD1: developmental expression and regulated genes in the rodent pineal gland

    Muñoz, Estela M; Bailey, Michael J; Rath, Martin F;

    2007-01-01

    development. Pineal NeuroD1 levels are similar during the day and night, and do not appear to be influenced by sympathetic neural input. Gene expression analysis of the pineal glands from neonatal NeuroD1 knockout mice identifies 127 transcripts that are down-regulated (>twofold, p <0.05) and 16 that are up-regulated...... (>twofold, p <0.05). According to quantitative RT-PCR, the most dramatically down-regulated gene is kinesin family member 5C ( approximately 100-fold) and the most dramatically up-regulated gene is glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 ( approximately fourfold). Other impacted transcripts encode proteins involved...

  12. Adenosine triphosphate inhibits melatonin synthesis in the rat pineal gland.

    Souza-Teodoro, Luis Henrique; Dargenio-Garcia, Letícia; Petrilli-Lapa, Camila Lopes; Souza, Ewerton da Silva; Fernandes, Pedro A C M; Markus, Regina P; Ferreira, Zulma S

    2016-03-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released onto the pinealocyte, along with noradrenaline, from sympathetic neurons and triggers P2Y1 receptors that enhance β-adrenergic-induced N-acetylserotonin (NAS) synthesis. Nevertheless, the biotransformation of NAS into melatonin, which occurs due to the subsequent methylation by acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT; EC 2.1.1.4), has not yet been evaluated in the presence of purinergic stimulation. We therefore evaluated the effects of purinergic signaling on melatonin synthesis induced by β-adrenergic stimulation. ATP increased NAS levels, but, surprisingly, inhibited melatonin synthesis in an inverse, concentration-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that enhanced NAS levels, which depend on phospholipase C (PLC) activity (but not the induction of gene transcription), are a post-translational effect. By contrast, melatonin reduction is related to an ASMT inhibition of expression at both the gene transcription and protein levels. These results were independent of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) translocation. Neither the P2Y1 receptor activation nor the PLC-mediated pathway was involved in the decrease in melatonin, indicating that ATP regulates pineal metabolism through different mechanisms. Taken together, our data demonstrate that purinergic signaling differentially modulates NAS and melatonin synthesis and point to a regulatory role for ATP as a cotransmitter in the control of ASMT, the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin synthesis. The endogenous production of melatonin regulates defense responses; therefore, understanding the mechanisms involving ASMT regulation might provide novel insights into the development and progression of neurological disorders since melatonin presents anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and neurogenic effects. PMID:26732366

  13. Automatic Diagnosis of Abnormal Tumor Region from Brain Computed Tomography Images Using Wavelet Based Statistical Texture Features

    Padma, A

    2011-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper is to achieve the tissue classification and automatically diagnosis the abnormal tumor region present in Computed Tomography (CT) images using the wavelet based statistical texture analysis method. Comparative studies of texture analysis method are performed for the proposed wavelet based texture analysis method and Spatial Gray Level Dependence Method (SGLDM). Our proposed system consists of four phases i) Discrete Wavelet Decomposition (ii) Feature extraction (iii) Feature selection (iv) Analysis of extracted texture features by classifier. A wavelet based statistical texture feature set is derived from normal and tumor regions. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to select the optimal texture features from the set of extracted texture features. We construct the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifier and evaluate the performance of classifier by comparing the classification results of the SVM based classifier with the Back Propagation Neural network classifier(BPN...

  14. The pineal complex: a morphological and immunohistochemical comparison between a tropical (Paracheirodon axelrodi) and a subtropical (Aphyocharax anisitsi) characid species.

    Rincón Camacho, Laura; Morandini, Leonel; Birba, Agustina; Cavallino, Luciano; Alonso, Felipe; LoNostro, Fabiana L; Pandolfi, Matias

    2016-10-01

    Cardinal neon Paracheirodon axelrodi and bloodfin tetra Aphyocharax anisitsi are two species of characids with high trade value as ornamental fish in South America. Although both species inhabit middle water layers, cardinal neon exhibits a tropical distribution and bloodfin tetra a subtropical one. In this work, we carried out an anatomical, histological and immunohistochemical study of the pineal complex of P. axelrodi and A. anisitsi. In both species, the pineal complex consisted of three components, the pineal and parapineal organs and the dorsal sac (DS). The pineal organ was composed of a short, thin pineal stalk (PS), vertically disposed with respect to the upper surface of the telencephalon, and a pineal vesicle (PV), located at the distal end of the PS and attached to the skull by connective tissue. The pineal window (PW), a site in the skull where the luminal information accesses the pineal organ, appeared just above the latter structures. In the epidermis of P. axelrodi's PW, club cells were identified, but were not observed in the epidermis of A. anisitsi's one. With respect to the DS, it appeared to be folded on itself, and was bigger and more folded in A. anisitsi than in P. axelrodi. Immunohistochemical assays revealed the presence of cone opsin-like and rod opsin-like photoreceptor cells in the PS and PV. These results provide a first insight into the morphological assembly of the pineal complex of both species, and contribute to a better understanding of the integration and transduction of light stimuli in characids. J. Morphol. 277:1355-1367, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27439893

  15. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Associated with Osteosarcoma in a True Malignant Mixed Tumor of the Submandibular Region

    Dario Marcotullio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. True malignant mixed tumor, also known as carcinosarcoma, is a rare tumor of the salivary gland composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal elements. Frequently carcinosarcoma arises in the background of a preexisting pleomorphic adenoma; however, if no evidence of benign mixed tumor is present, the lesion is known as carcinosarcoma “de novo.” We reported the first case of true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland composed of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma. Case Presentation. A 69-year-old Caucasian male came to our department complaining of the appearance of an asymptomatic left submandibular neoformation progressively increasing in size over 3 months. We opted for surgical treatment. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of carcinosarcoma with the coexistence of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, in the true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland, mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma has never been previously reported.

  16. Modified forms of vasopressin and oxytocin in a bovine pineal preparation

    Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Burbach, J.P.H.; Ebels, I.

    1987-01-01

    A bovine pineal acid extract displays a vasotocin-like bioactivity in several bioassays, and is recognized by antibodies against the Pro-Arg-Gly-amide ending common to vasopressin and vasotocin. By using molecular sieve filtration and reversed-phase HPLC, a vasopressin- and oxytocin-like peptide was

  17. Interleukin-1 β Modulates Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Gland: Ex Vivo Study

    A. P. Herman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the effect of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL- 1β, on melatonin release and expression enzymes essential for this hormone synthesis: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT in ovine pineal gland, taking into account the immune status of animals before sacrificing. Ewes were injected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg or saline, two hours after sunset during short day period (December. Animals were euthanized three hours after the injection. Next, the pineal glands were collected and divided into four explants. The explants were incubated with (1 medium 199 (control explants, (2 norepinephrine (NE; 10 µM, (3 IL-1β (75 pg/mL, or (4 NE + IL-1β. It was found that IL-1β abolished (P<0.05 NE-induced increase in melatonin release. Treatment with IL-1β also reduced (P<0.05 expression of AA-NAT enzyme compared to NE-treated explants. There was no effect of NE or IL-1β treatment on gene expression of HIOMT; however, the pineal fragments isolated from LPS-treated animals were characterized by elevated (P<0.05 expression of HIOMT mRNA and protein compared to the explants from saline-treated ewes. Our study proves that IL-1β suppresses melatonin secretion and its action seems to be targeted on the reduction of pineal AA-NAT protein expression.

  18. Parasympathetic inhibition of pineal indole metabolism by prejunctional modulation of noradrenaline release

    Drijfhout, WJ; Grol, CJ; Westerink, BHC

    1996-01-01

    The role of the parasympathetic nervous system in rat pineal indole metabolism was investigated by transpineal in vivo microdialysis. On-line coupling to a high performance liquid chromatography system with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) allowed simultaneous analysis of three major indolic compoun

  19. Insulin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland

    The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes melatonin in a circadian manner, peaking during the dark phase. This synthesis is primarily regulated by sympathetic innervations via noradrenergic fibers, but is also modulated by many peptidergic and hormonal systems. A growing number of studies reveal a comp...

  20. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical characterization of interstitial cells in pre- and postnatal developing sheep pineal gland

    E Redondo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pineal gland interstitial cells from 32 sheep embryos (from day 54 of gestation until birth and 18 sheep (from 1 month to >2 years were analysed using ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. From day 98 of gestation and throughout postnatal development, a second cell type was observed in addition to pinealocytes; these cells displayed uniform ultrastructural features similar to those of CNS astrocytes. Ultrastructural homogeneity was not matched by the results of histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. Expression of phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin indicates that the second cell population in the developing ovine pineal gland is, in fact, a combination of glial-astrocyte cells at varying stages of maturity. Pineal interstitial cells started to show signs of functional activity evident in vascular tropism; such activity, evident from around day 98 of gestation, appeared to relate to the exchange of substances between the pineal parenchyma and blood vessels and, though it continued throughout postnatal development, was most evident in animals slaughtered between 9 months and 2 years of age (group II. Morphologically, functional activi- ty in interstitial cells in this age-group was apparent in: 1, formation of specific contact sites between interstitial cells and nerve fibres in the perivascular space; and 2, the presence of numerous gap junctions between the bulbous endings of cytoplasmic processes.

  1. MICRODIALYSIS OF MELATONIN IN THE RAT PINEAL-GLAND - METHODOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS

    DRIJFHOUT, WJ; GROL, CJ; WESTERINK, BHC

    1993-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a new technique to measure melatonin contents in the pineal gland of freely moving rats, by means of on-line microdialysis. The transcerebral cannula was modified, and a sensitive assay of melatonin, using HPLC with fluorimetric detection, was set up. W

  2. Pineal physiology in microgravity - Relation to rat gonadal function aboard Cosmos 1887

    Holley, Daniel C.; Markley, Carol L.; Soliman, Magdi R. I.; Kaddis, Farida; Krasnov, Igor'

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from an analysis of pineal glands obtained for five male rats flown aboard an orbiting satellite for their melatonin, serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIA), and calcium content. Plasma 5-HT and 5-HIAA were measured. These parameters were compared to indicators of gonadal function: plasma testosterone concentration and spermatogonia development. Plasma melotonin was found to be low at the time of euthanasia and was not different among the experimental groups. Pineal calcium of flight animals was not different from ground controls. Pineal 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the flight group were significantly higher than those in ground controls. These findings suggest a possible increase in pineal 5-HT turnover in flight animals which may result in increased melatonin secretion. It is argued that the alteration of pinal 5-HT turnover and its expected effects on melatonin secretion may partially explain the lower plasma testosterone levels and 4-11 percent fewer spermatogonia cells observed in flight animals.

  3. Characterization of lymphocyte subsets over a 24-hour period in Pineal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (PALT in the chicken

    McNulty John A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeostatic trafficking of lymphocytes in the brain has important relevance to the understanding of CNS disease processes. The pineal gland of the chicken contains large accumulations of lymphocytes that suggest an important role related to homeostatic circadian neuro-immune interactions. The purpose of this initial study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in the pineal gland and quantitate the distribution and frequency of lymphocyte phenotypes at two time points over the 24-hour light:dark cycle. Results PALT comprised approximately 10% of the total pineal area. Image analysis of immunocytochemically stained sections showed that the majority of lymphocytes were CD3+ (80% with the remaining 20% comprising B-cells and monocytes (Bu-1+, which tended to distribute along the periphery of the PALT. T-cell subsets in PALT included CD4+ (75–80%, CD8+ (20–25%, TCRαβ/Vβ1+ (60%, and TCRγδ+ (15%. All of the T-cell phenotypes were commonly found within the interfollicular septa and follicles of the pineal gland. However, the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ within the pineal tissue were each 1:1, in contrast to the PALT where the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ each approximated 1:4. Bu-1+ cells were only rarely seen in the pineal interstitial spaces, but ramified Bu-1+ microglia/macrophages were common in the pineal follicles. Effects of the 24-h light:dark cycle on these lymphocyte-pineal interactions were suggested by an increase in the area of PALT, a decline in the density of TCRαβ/Vβ1+ cells, and a decline in the area density of Bu-1+ microglia at the light:dark interphase (1900 h compared to the dark:light interphase (0700 h. Conclusion The degree of lymphocyte infiltration in the pineal suggests novel mechanisms of neuro-immune interactions in this part of the brain. Our results further suggest that these interactions have a temporal component related to the 24-hour light

  4. SU-C-9A-01: Parameter Optimization in Adaptive Region-Growing for Tumor Segmentation in PET

    Purpose: To design a reliable method to determine the optimal parameter in the adaptive region-growing (ARG) algorithm for tumor segmentation in PET. Methods: The ARG uses an adaptive similarity criterion m - fσ ≤ I-PET ≤ m + fσ, so that a neighboring voxel is appended to the region based on its similarity to the current region. When increasing the relaxing factor f (f ≥ 0), the resulting volumes monotonically increased with a sharp increase when the region just grew into the background. The optimal f that separates the tumor from the background is defined as the first point with the local maximum curvature on an Error function fitted to the f-volume curve. The ARG was tested on a tumor segmentation Benchmark that includes ten lung cancer patients with 3D pathologic tumor volume as ground truth. For comparison, the widely used 42% and 50% SUVmax thresholding, Otsu optimal thresholding, Active Contours (AC), Geodesic Active Contours (GAC), and Graph Cuts (GC) methods were tested. The dice similarity index (DSI), volume error (VE), and maximum axis length error (MALE) were calculated to evaluate the segmentation accuracy. Results: The ARG provided the highest accuracy among all tested methods. Specifically, the ARG has an average DSI, VE, and MALE of 0.71, 0.29, and 0.16, respectively, better than the absolute 42% thresholding (DSI=0.67, VE= 0.57, and MALE=0.23), the relative 42% thresholding (DSI=0.62, VE= 0.41, and MALE=0.23), the absolute 50% thresholding (DSI=0.62, VE=0.48, and MALE=0.21), the relative 50% thresholding (DSI=0.48, VE=0.54, and MALE=0.26), OTSU (DSI=0.44, VE=0.63, and MALE=0.30), AC (DSI=0.46, VE= 0.85, and MALE=0.47), GAC (DSI=0.40, VE= 0.85, and MALE=0.46) and GC (DSI=0.66, VE= 0.54, and MALE=0.21) methods. Conclusions: The results suggest that the proposed method reliably identified the optimal relaxing factor in ARG for tumor segmentation in PET. This work was supported in part by National Cancer Institute Grant R01 CA172638; The

  5. SU-C-9A-01: Parameter Optimization in Adaptive Region-Growing for Tumor Segmentation in PET

    Tan, S [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Xue, M; Chen, W; D' Souza, W; Lu, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Li, H [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO. (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To design a reliable method to determine the optimal parameter in the adaptive region-growing (ARG) algorithm for tumor segmentation in PET. Methods: The ARG uses an adaptive similarity criterion m - fσ ≤ I-PET ≤ m + fσ, so that a neighboring voxel is appended to the region based on its similarity to the current region. When increasing the relaxing factor f (f ≥ 0), the resulting volumes monotonically increased with a sharp increase when the region just grew into the background. The optimal f that separates the tumor from the background is defined as the first point with the local maximum curvature on an Error function fitted to the f-volume curve. The ARG was tested on a tumor segmentation Benchmark that includes ten lung cancer patients with 3D pathologic tumor volume as ground truth. For comparison, the widely used 42% and 50% SUVmax thresholding, Otsu optimal thresholding, Active Contours (AC), Geodesic Active Contours (GAC), and Graph Cuts (GC) methods were tested. The dice similarity index (DSI), volume error (VE), and maximum axis length error (MALE) were calculated to evaluate the segmentation accuracy. Results: The ARG provided the highest accuracy among all tested methods. Specifically, the ARG has an average DSI, VE, and MALE of 0.71, 0.29, and 0.16, respectively, better than the absolute 42% thresholding (DSI=0.67, VE= 0.57, and MALE=0.23), the relative 42% thresholding (DSI=0.62, VE= 0.41, and MALE=0.23), the absolute 50% thresholding (DSI=0.62, VE=0.48, and MALE=0.21), the relative 50% thresholding (DSI=0.48, VE=0.54, and MALE=0.26), OTSU (DSI=0.44, VE=0.63, and MALE=0.30), AC (DSI=0.46, VE= 0.85, and MALE=0.47), GAC (DSI=0.40, VE= 0.85, and MALE=0.46) and GC (DSI=0.66, VE= 0.54, and MALE=0.21) methods. Conclusions: The results suggest that the proposed method reliably identified the optimal relaxing factor in ARG for tumor segmentation in PET. This work was supported in part by National Cancer Institute Grant R01 CA172638; The

  6. Putative tumor-suppressor gene regions responsible for radiation lymphomagenesis in F1 mice with different p53 status

    Regions of allelic loss on chromosomes in many tumors of human and some experimental animals are generally considered to harbor tumor-suppressor genes involved in tumorigenesis. Allelotype analyses have greatly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanism of radiation lymphomagenesis. Previously, we and others found frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosomes 4, 11, 12, 16 and 19 in radiation-induced lymphomas from several F1 hybrid mice. To examine possible contributions of individual tumor-suppressor genes to tumorigenesis in p53 heterozygous deficiency, we investigated the genome-wide distribution and status of LOH in radiation-induced lymphomas from F1 mice with different p53 status. In this study, we found frequent LOH (more than 20%) on chromosomes 4 and 12 and on chromosomes 11, 12, 16 and 19 in radiation-induced lymphomas from (STS/A X MSM/Ms)F1 mice and (STS/A X MSM/Ms)F1-p53KO/+ mice, respectively. Low incidences of LOH (10-20%) were also observed on chromosomes 11 in mice with wild-type p53, and chromosomes 1, 2, 9, 17 and X in p53 heterozygous-deficient mice. The frequency of LOH on chromosomes 9 and 11 increased in the (STS/A X MSM/Ms)F1-p53KO/+ mice. Preferential losses of the STS-derived allele on chromosome 9 and wild-type p53 allele on chromosome 11 were also found in the p53 heterozygous-deficient mice. Thus, the putative tumor-suppressor gene regions responsible for lymphomaganesis might considerably differ due to the p53 status. (author)

  7. Thyroid hormone and adrenergic signaling interact to control pineal expression of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (Drd4)

    Kim, Jong-So; Bailey, Michael J; Weller, Joan L;

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine plays diverse and important roles in vertebrate biology, impacting behavior and physiology through actions mediated by specific G-protein-coupled receptors, one of which is the dopamine receptor D4 (Drd4). Here we present studies on the >100-fold daily rhythm in rat pineal Drd4 expression....... Our studies indicate that Drd4 is the dominant dopamine receptor gene expressed in the pineal gland. The gene is expressed in pinealocytes at levels which are approximately 100-fold greater than in other tissues, except the retina, in which transcript levels are similar. Pineal Drd4 expression is...... circadian in nature and under photoneural control. Whereas most rhythmically expressed genes in the pineal are controlled by adrenergic/cAMP signaling, Drd4 expression also requires thyroid hormone. This advance raises the questions of whether Drd4 expression is regulated by this mechanism in other systems...

  8. Rodent Aanat: Intronic E-box sequences control tissue specificity but not rhythmic expression in the pineal gland

    2007-01-01

    Rodent Aanat: Intronic E-box sequences control tissue specificity but not rhythmic expression in the pineal gland UNITED KINGDOM (Humphries, Ann) UNITED KINGDOM Received: 2006-12-30 Revised: 2007-02-07 Accepted: 2007-02-07

  9. Pineal and circulating melatonin rhythms in the box turtle, Terrapene carolina triunguis: effect of photoperiod, light pulse, and environmental temperature.

    Vivien-Roels, B; Pévet, P; Claustrat, B

    1988-02-01

    Pineal and circulating melatonin concentrations have been measured throughout the 24-hr cycle in the box turtle, Terrapene carolina triunguis, under different conditions of photoperiod and temperature. An obvious effect of photoperiod on the duration of the night rise of pineal and circulating melatonin is observed; the period of elevated melatonin is 4.30 hr in long photoperiod (18L:6D) and 11.00 hr in short photoperiod (8L:16D). A single pulse of 1 hr illumination beginning 1.30 hr after the onset of darkness, in a 16L:8D cycle, has no effect on pineal or circulating melatonin levels. A clear effect of environmental temperature on the amplitude of the day-night rhythm of melatonin production is observed. A possible role of the pineal of poikilotherms in the transduction of several environmental factors, via the daily pattern of melatonin secretion, is hypothesized. PMID:3366352

  10. Adenomatoid tumor of the suprarenal region with high plasma adrenocorticotropinhormone: a case report

    CHANG Qing; ZHU Xiang; ZHONG Yan-feng; McNutt MA

    2009-01-01

    @@A denomatoid tumors (ATs) are benign neoplasms that most commonly occur in the genital tracts of both male and females.~1 Extragenital ATs are rare and have been reported in the pleura, heart, omentum, the mesentery of the small intestine, pancreas, mediastinal lymph nodes and peri-umbilical skin.~(1,2) AT of the adrenal gland is typically an asymptomatic neoplasm with benign behavior, which has been recently recognized as a diagnostic challenge, as it is both rare and can present in such a manner as to suggest a wide range of differential diagnoses.1'3'8 Here we report a very large AT of the left adrenal gland, which at present appears to be the largest tumor of this type that has ever been reported. It may be the first case of AT associated with a high level of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

  11. Automated contouring of tumor regions in treatment planning CT images using PET/CT images based on a localized level set method

    The aim of this study was to develop an automated method for contouring lung tumor regions in treatment planning computed tomography (CT) images using positron emission tomography (PET)/CT images. The initial regions of lung tumors were identified by thresholding the PET images at a certain percentage of maximum standardized uptake value (SUV). A localized level set method (LLSM), which we proposed in this study, was applied for the initial tumor region, and the proposed method determines an optimum contour of the gross tumor volume (GTV) region by searching a minimum point of average speed function on the contours of the LSM function with changing evolution time. For performance evaluation were employed the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), which denotes the degree of a region similarity between the gold standard of the GTV determined by radiation oncologists and the GTV region obtained by our proposed method. We applied our proposed method to data sets of planning CT and PET/CT image sets for six lung cancer patients. The average DSC was 0.77, which seems to be feasible for segmentation of lung tumors. Preliminary results show that the proposed method may be useful for assisting treatment planners in delineation of the tumor region. (author)

  12. Value of the region of interest technique in the scintigraphic diagnosis of primary bone tumors

    Employing ROI-technique, a ratio Q was obtained from relating accumulation of 99sup(m)Tc-MDP at the site of the bone lesion (n = 150) with that of contralateral non-involved osseous areas. Values of Q were correlated with histologic tumor diagnosis, its dignity and frequency. Values of Q of greater than 3.0 were found in 95% of all sarcomas, in 100% of the osteosarcomas but in only 3.8% of all benign bone tumors. Values ranging from 1.0 to 1.2 were exclusively measured in benign tumors (e.g., in 52% of juvenile bone cysts and in 67% of non-ossifing fibromas). Since the threshold - separating benign from malignant lesions - at Q = 3.0 was blurred by tumorlike lesions, metastases and especially by Paget's disease, this method does not precisely predict dignity. However, this method may complement radiographic evaluation with low values supporting the diagnosis of a benign lesion. The combined findings of radiography and these rations gained by nuclear imaging may help determine the pathway of a patient through further diagnosis and treatment. (orig.)

  13. The pineal gland of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.): a survey of seasonal melatonin production and gland ultrastructure

    Musæus, Fredrikke Johansen

    2009-01-01

    The pineal gland is part of the endocrine system involved with rhythmic activity in e.g. fish. The main product of the pineal gland is the indole hormone melatonin, synthesised from the amino acid tryptophan. Melatonin is mainly synthesized when it is dark, as light inhibit the production. For this reason melatonin is thought to be strongly involved in biological rhythms. Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a circumpolar species and anadromous in parts of its distribution area. Arctic charr ...

  14. Quantitative differences in the pineal ultrastructure of perinatal and adult harp (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata).

    Aarseth, Jo Jorem; Stokkan, Karl-Arne

    2003-10-01

    Seals are unique among mammals in that newborns have a large pineal gland and extremely high plasma levels of melatonin at birth. Melatonin levels are also high in the seal fetus but decline rapidly during the first few days of life. The aim of the present study was to provide quantitative information about the ultrastructure of the seal pineal gland using fetal, newborn, and adult hooded seals (Cystophora cristata), and newborn and adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). The relative and absolute volumes of pinealocytes (Pi), arteries and veins, nerves, connective tissue, capillaries and glial cells, as well as mitocondria and lipid droplets in Pi, were calculated by use of point count analysis. Whereas the pineal ultrastructure was similar in fetuses and newborns, both seal species showed a pronounced and particular reduction in the volume of Pi and a similar reduction in pinealocyte mitochondria. There was also a shift from unmyelinated to myelinated pineal nerves in adults compared with fetal/newborns. The selective and marked reduction of Pi may explain the zonated pineal structure typical of the adult seal. The results demonstrate that the fetal gland is as large and active as that of the newborn seal and support the notion that the large size and high activity of the pineal gland in the newborn seal is a fading consequence of its prenatal condition. PMID:12932203

  15. Expression of UV-Sensitive Parapinopsin in the Iguana Parietal Eyes and Its Implication in UV-Sensitivity in Vertebrate Pineal-Related Organs

    WADA, Seiji; Kawano-Yamashita, Emi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Terakita, Akihisa

    2012-01-01

    The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identifi...

  16. Role of magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of tumors in the cardiac region

    Kaminaga, T.; Takeshita, T.; Kimura, I. [Dept. of Radiology/Pathology, Teikyo Univ. Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review the role of MRI in the assessment of heart neoplasm, 25 cases with heart neoplasm (10 myxoma, 6 rhabdomyoma, 5 angiosarcoma, 2 mesothelioma, 1 lymphoma, and 1 fibroma) were examined with MRI and echocardiography. Multislice T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images and static gradient-echo images were taken in appropriate directions with electrocardiogram gating. Gadolinium enhancement was performed in 21 cases. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in all cases. Except for the 5 patients with rhabdomyoma, the pathological diagnosis was obtained. MRI proved to be useful for tissue characterization of myxoma, angiosarcoma, mesothelioma, and fibroma in cases with tuberous sclerosis. MRI also proved to be useful for detection of the tumor, depiction of contour, relation with other cardiac structures, in cases with myxoma, angiosarcoma, mesothelioma, lymphoma, and fibroma. In the differential diagnosis, MRI provided important information in cases with myxoma, rhabdomyoma, angiosarcoma, and fibroma. In cases with tumors expanding into the mediastinum, such as mesothelioma and fibroma in this report, MRI was useful in determining the location and border. In cases with tumors adjacent to pericardium, MRI was useful in detecting pericardial invasion. Gadolinium enhancement added useful information in cases with myxoma, rhabdomyoma, angiosarcoma, and mesothelioma. The role of MRI with and without Gd enhancement differs somewhat in individual types of heart neoplasm, and adaptation must be considered in each kind of neoplasm. On the other hand, MRI is an essential examination in all cases with a cardiac mass, which has not been diagnosed, since it may provide useful information for the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region

    Lee, Y. M.; Hur, T. R.; Lee, K. B.; Jeong, M. H.; Park, J. W. [Kyungbook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Proton beam induced apoptosis significantly in Lewis lung carcinoma cells and hepatoma HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but slightly in leukemia Molt-4 cells. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for death rate relative to gamma ray were ranged from 1.3 to 2.1 in LLC or HepG2 but 0.7 in Molt-4 cells at 72h after irradiation. The typical apoptosis was observed by nuclear DNA staining with DAPI. By FACS analysis after stained with PI, sub-G1 cell fraction was significantly increased but G2/M phase was not altered by proton beam irradiation measured at 24 h after irradiation. Proton beam-irradiated tumor cells induced cleavage of PARP-1 and procaspases (-3 and -9) and increased the level of p53 and p21. decreased pro-lamin B. Acitivity of caspases was significantly increased after proton beam irradiation. Furthermore, ROS were significantly increased and N-acetyl cystein (NAC) pretreatment restored the apoptotic cell death induced in proton beam-irradiated cells. In conclusion, single treatment of low energy proton beam with SOBP induced apoptosis of solid tumor cells via increased ROS, active caspase -3,-9 and p53, p2.

  18. Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region

    Proton beam induced apoptosis significantly in Lewis lung carcinoma cells and hepatoma HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but slightly in leukemia Molt-4 cells. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for death rate relative to gamma ray were ranged from 1.3 to 2.1 in LLC or HepG2 but 0.7 in Molt-4 cells at 72h after irradiation. The typical apoptosis was observed by nuclear DNA staining with DAPI. By FACS analysis after stained with PI, sub-G1 cell fraction was significantly increased but G2/M phase was not altered by proton beam irradiation measured at 24 h after irradiation. Proton beam-irradiated tumor cells induced cleavage of PARP-1 and procaspases (-3 and -9) and increased the level of p53 and p21. decreased pro-lamin B. Acitivity of caspases was significantly increased after proton beam irradiation. Furthermore, ROS were significantly increased and N-acetyl cystein (NAC) pretreatment restored the apoptotic cell death induced in proton beam-irradiated cells. In conclusion, single treatment of low energy proton beam with SOBP induced apoptosis of solid tumor cells via increased ROS, active caspase -3,-9 and p53, p2

  19. Circadian Dynamics of the Cone-Rod Homeobox (CRX) Transcription Factor in the Rat Pineal Gland and Its Role in Regulation of Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase (AANAT)

    Rohde, Kristian; Rovsing, Louise; Ho, Anthony K;

    2014-01-01

    The cone-rod homeobox (Crx) gene encodes a transcription factor in the retina and pineal gland. Crx deficiency influences the pineal transcriptome, including a reduced expression of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat), a key enzyme in nocturnal pineal melatonin production. However, previou...... the rhythmic nature of pineal CRX protein may directly modulate the daily profile of Aanat expression by inducing nighttime expression of this enzyme, thus facilitating nocturnal melatonin synthesis in addition to its role in ensuring a correct tissue distribution of Aanat expression....

  20. Automatic region-of-interest segmentation and registration of dynamic contrast-enhanced images of colorectal tumors

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) images can be acquired at multiple time points and multiple slice locations of a tumor. Image segmentation and registration are important preprocessing steps that can improve subsequent analysis of DCE images by kinetic modeling. An automatic system for region-of-interest segmentation and registration of DCE images is presented. Tissue segmentation is performed using a combination of thresholding and morphological operations, and further refined using shape information from consecutive images. The segmented regions are subsequently registered based on a mutual information method that accounts for possible tissue movement between slices. The proposed segmentation and registration methods are applied on actual DCE CT datasets to illustrate feasibility of practical implementation in the clinic. (paper)

  1. Morphologic study of the pineal gland of the dog/ Estudo morfológico da glândula pineal do cão

    Francisco Xavier Hernandez Blazquez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of the melatonin by Lerner et al. (1958, new research and perspectives were developed in order to improve the knowledge regarding the pineal gland. This hormone is not only related to the circadian control but also influences other behavioral functions such as the reproductive cycle and thermoregulation. In this study the morphology of the pineal gland (epiphysis cerebri from 20 dogs were analyzed by means of macroscopic and microscopic evaluation. The shape of the gland ranged from conic to “tongue-like shape” (in relation to human tongue. The gland color ranged from beige to gray-brownish and it had a gelatinous consistency. The width and length of the glands ranged from 1.38 to 2.39 mm and 1.53 to 2.96 mm, respectively. Capsule, septa, pinealocytes, glial cells and pigment granules were microscopically found in all glands. No calcareous concretions were observed.Após a descoberta da melatonina por Lerner et al. (1958, novas pesquisas e perspectivas surgiram tornando a pineal uma estrutura mais estudada. Além disso, sabe-se que este hormônio está relacionado com o controle circadiano e outras funções comportamentais fisiológicas como o ciclo reprodutivo e termorregulação. Neste trabalho, foram utilizados 20 cães e estudamos a morfologia das glândulas, empregando uma análise macroscópica e microscópica. O formato das pineais variou de cônico a glossóide (em relação à língua humana; cor entre bege e marrom-acinzentado e apresentaram consistência gelatinosa. A largura e o comprimento das glândulas variaram respectivamente de 1,38 a 2,39 mm e de 1,53 a 2,96 mm. Quanto à microscopia, utilizamos coloração de eosina-hematoxilina (HE, e em todas as pineais observamos a presença dos seguintes componentes: cápsula; septos ou trabéculas pinealócitos; células da glia; grânulos de pigmentos, e não foram notadas concreções calcáreas.

  2. A Case of Nongerminomatous Germ Cell Tumor with Fulminant Course Concomitant Leptomeningeal Metastasis.

    Jeong, Youn-Beom; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Il Han; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2016-04-01

    We present the case of a 9-year-old boy with a non-germinomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT) in the pineal gland that exhibited a fulminant course following chemo- and radiotherapy. After the detection of the tiny cerebellar enhancing nodule at the end of chemo- and radiotherapy, tumor seeding progressed rapidly into the entire cisternal space. We herein report a rare case of NGGCT with fulminant clinical course of concomitant cerebellar seeding, with review of literature. PMID:27195258

  3. Tumor exosomes induce tunneling nanotubes in lipid raft-enriched regions of human mesothelioma cells

    Tunneling nanotubes (TnTs) are long, non-adherent, actin-based cellular extensions that act as conduits for transport of cellular cargo between connected cells. The mechanisms of nanotube formation and the effects of the tumor microenvironment and cellular signals on TnT formation are unknown. In the present study, we explored exosomes as potential mediators of TnT formation in mesothelioma and the potential relationship of lipid rafts to TnT formation. Mesothelioma cells co-cultured with exogenous mesothelioma-derived exosomes formed more TnTs than cells cultured without exosomes within 24–48 h; and this effect was most prominent in media conditions (low-serum, hyperglycemic medium) that support TnT formation (1.3–1.9-fold difference). Fluorescence and electron microscopy confirmed the purity of isolated exosomes and revealed that they localized predominantly at the base of and within TnTs, in addition to the extracellular environment. Time-lapse microscopic imaging demonstrated uptake of tumor exosomes by TnTs, which facilitated intercellular transfer of these exosomes between connected cells. Mesothelioma cells connected via TnTs were also significantly enriched for lipid rafts at nearly a 2-fold higher number compared with cells not connected by TnTs. Our findings provide supportive evidence of exosomes as potential chemotactic stimuli for TnT formation, and also lipid raft formation as a potential biomarker for TnT-forming cells. - Highlights: • Exosomes derived from malignant cells can stimulate an increased rate in the formation of tunneling nanotubes. • Tunneling nanotubes can serve as conduits for intercellular transfer of these exosomes. • Most notably, exosomes derived from benign mesothelial cells had no effect on nanotube formation. • Cells forming nanotubes were enriched in lipid rafts at a greater number compared with cells not forming nanotubes. • Our findings suggest causal and potentially synergistic association of exosomes and

  4. Tumor exosomes induce tunneling nanotubes in lipid raft-enriched regions of human mesothelioma cells

    Thayanithy, Venugopal [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Babatunde, Victor [Moore Laboratory, Department of Cell Biology, Sloan-Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Dickson, Elizabeth L. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Wong, Phillip [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Oh, Sanghoon; Ke, Xu; Barlas, Afsar; Fujisawa, Sho; Romin, Yevgeniy [Molecular Cytology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Moreira, André L. [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Downey, Robert J. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Steer, Clifford J. [Departments of Medicine and Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Subramanian, Subbaya [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Manova-Todorova, Katia [Molecular Cytology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Moore, Malcolm A.S. [Moore Laboratory, Department of Cell Biology, Sloan-Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Lou, Emil, E-mail: emil-lou@umn.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Tunneling nanotubes (TnTs) are long, non-adherent, actin-based cellular extensions that act as conduits for transport of cellular cargo between connected cells. The mechanisms of nanotube formation and the effects of the tumor microenvironment and cellular signals on TnT formation are unknown. In the present study, we explored exosomes as potential mediators of TnT formation in mesothelioma and the potential relationship of lipid rafts to TnT formation. Mesothelioma cells co-cultured with exogenous mesothelioma-derived exosomes formed more TnTs than cells cultured without exosomes within 24–48 h; and this effect was most prominent in media conditions (low-serum, hyperglycemic medium) that support TnT formation (1.3–1.9-fold difference). Fluorescence and electron microscopy confirmed the purity of isolated exosomes and revealed that they localized predominantly at the base of and within TnTs, in addition to the extracellular environment. Time-lapse microscopic imaging demonstrated uptake of tumor exosomes by TnTs, which facilitated intercellular transfer of these exosomes between connected cells. Mesothelioma cells connected via TnTs were also significantly enriched for lipid rafts at nearly a 2-fold higher number compared with cells not connected by TnTs. Our findings provide supportive evidence of exosomes as potential chemotactic stimuli for TnT formation, and also lipid raft formation as a potential biomarker for TnT-forming cells. - Highlights: • Exosomes derived from malignant cells can stimulate an increased rate in the formation of tunneling nanotubes. • Tunneling nanotubes can serve as conduits for intercellular transfer of these exosomes. • Most notably, exosomes derived from benign mesothelial cells had no effect on nanotube formation. • Cells forming nanotubes were enriched in lipid rafts at a greater number compared with cells not forming nanotubes. • Our findings suggest causal and potentially synergistic association of exosomes and

  5. Electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerves increases the concentration of cyclic AMP in rat pineal gland.

    Heydorn, W E; Frazer, A; Weiss, B.

    1981-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the superior cervical ganglia causes a rapid increase in the concentration of cyclic AMP in the pineal gland of rats. This effect is dependent upon the frequency, voltage, and duration of the stimulus and is markedly potentiated by pretreating the animals with desmethylimipramine. The increase in cyclic AMP is blocked by prior treatment of the rats with reserpine, bretylium, or propanolol but not with phentolamine. These results provide direct evidence that electrica...

  6. Transducin duplicates in the zebrafish retina and pineal complex: differential specialisation after the teleost tetraploidisation.

    Lagman, David; Callado-Pérez, Amalia; Franzén, Ilkin E; Larhammar, Dan; Abalo, Xesús M

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplications provide raw materials that can be selected for functional adaptations by evolutionary mechanisms. We describe here the results of 350 million years of evolution of three functionally related gene families: the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of transducins, the G protein involved in vision. Early vertebrate tetraploidisations resulted in separate transducin heterotrimers: gnat1/gnb1/gngt1 for rods, and gnat2/gnb3/gngt2 for cones. The teleost-specific tetraploidisation generated additional duplicates for gnb1, gnb3 and gngt2. We report here that the duplicates have undergone several types of subfunctionalisation or neofunctionalisation in the zebrafish. We have found that gnb1a and gnb1b are co-expressed at different levels in rods; gnb3a and gnb3b have undergone compartmentalisation restricting gnb3b to the dorsal and medial retina, however, gnb3a expression was detected only at very low levels in both larvae and adult retina; gngt2b expression is restricted to the dorsal and medial retina, whereas gngt2a is expressed ventrally. This dorsoventral distinction could be an adaptation to protect the lower part of the retina from intense light damage. The ontogenetic analysis shows earlier onset of expression in the pineal complex than in the retina, in accordance with its earlier maturation. Additionally, gnb1a but not gnb1b is expressed in the pineal complex, and gnb3b and gngt2b are transiently expressed in the pineal during ontogeny, thus showing partial temporal subfunctionalisation. These retina-pineal distinctions presumably reflect their distinct functional roles in vision and circadian rhythmicity. In summary, this study describes several functional differences between transducin gene duplicates resulting from the teleost-specific tetraploidisation. PMID:25806532

  7. Transducin duplicates in the zebrafish retina and pineal complex: differential specialisation after the teleost tetraploidisation.

    David Lagman

    Full Text Available Gene duplications provide raw materials that can be selected for functional adaptations by evolutionary mechanisms. We describe here the results of 350 million years of evolution of three functionally related gene families: the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of transducins, the G protein involved in vision. Early vertebrate tetraploidisations resulted in separate transducin heterotrimers: gnat1/gnb1/gngt1 for rods, and gnat2/gnb3/gngt2 for cones. The teleost-specific tetraploidisation generated additional duplicates for gnb1, gnb3 and gngt2. We report here that the duplicates have undergone several types of subfunctionalisation or neofunctionalisation in the zebrafish. We have found that gnb1a and gnb1b are co-expressed at different levels in rods; gnb3a and gnb3b have undergone compartmentalisation restricting gnb3b to the dorsal and medial retina, however, gnb3a expression was detected only at very low levels in both larvae and adult retina; gngt2b expression is restricted to the dorsal and medial retina, whereas gngt2a is expressed ventrally. This dorsoventral distinction could be an adaptation to protect the lower part of the retina from intense light damage. The ontogenetic analysis shows earlier onset of expression in the pineal complex than in the retina, in accordance with its earlier maturation. Additionally, gnb1a but not gnb1b is expressed in the pineal complex, and gnb3b and gngt2b are transiently expressed in the pineal during ontogeny, thus showing partial temporal subfunctionalisation. These retina-pineal distinctions presumably reflect their distinct functional roles in vision and circadian rhythmicity. In summary, this study describes several functional differences between transducin gene duplicates resulting from the teleost-specific tetraploidisation.

  8. [The role of the pineal-thymus system in the regulation of autoimmunity, aging and lifespan].

    Csaba, György

    2016-07-01

    Thymus is an immunoendocrine organ, the hormones of which mainly influence its own lymphatic elements. It has a central role in the immune system, the neonatal removal causes the collapse of immune system and the whole organism. The thymic nurse cells select the bone marrow originated lymphocytes and destroy the autoreactive ones, while thymus originated Treg cells suppress the autoreactive cells in the periphery. The involution of the organ starts after birth, however, this truly happens in the end of puberty only, as before this it is overcompensated by developmental processes. From the end of adolescence the involution allows the life, proliferation and enhanced functioning of some autoreactive cells, which gradually wear down the cells and intercellular materials, causing the aging. The enhanced and mass function of autoreactive cells lead to the autoimmune diseases and natural death. This means that the involution of thymus is not a part of the organismic involution, but an originator of it, which is manifested in the lifespan-pacemaker function. In this case aging can be comprehended as a thymus-commanded slow autoimmune process. The neonatal removal of pineal gland leads to the complete destruction of the thymus and the crashing down of the immune system, as well as to wasting disease. The involution of the pineal and thymus runs parallel, because the two organs form a functional unit. It is probable that the pineal gland is responsible for the involution of thymus and also regulates its lifespan determining role. The data reviewed do not prove the exclusive role of pineal-thymus system in the regulation of aging and lifespan, however, calls attention to the suitability of solving this problem alone. PMID:27346473

  9. Diurnal variation of the adenylyl cyclase type 1 in the rat pineal gland.

    Tzavara, E T; Pouille, Y; Defer, N; Hanoune, J

    1996-01-01

    Nocturnal melatonin production in the pineal gland is under the control of norepinephrine released from superior cervical ganglia afferents in a rhythmic manner, and of cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP increases the expression of serotonin N-acetyltransferase and of inducible cAMP early repressor that undergo circadian oscillations crucial for the maintenance and regulation of the biological clock. In the present study, we demonstrate a circadian pattern of expression of the calcium/calmodulin activate...

  10. Neurotranscriptomics: The Effects of Neonatal Stimulus Deprivation on the Rat Pineal Transcriptome.

    Stephen W Hartley

    Full Text Available The term neurotranscriptomics is used here to describe genome-wide analysis of neural control of transcriptomes. In this report, next-generation RNA sequencing was using to analyze the effects of neonatal (5-days-of-age surgical stimulus deprivation on the adult rat pineal transcriptome. In intact animals, more than 3000 coding genes were found to exhibit differential expression (adjusted-p < 0.001 on a night/day basis in the pineal gland (70% of these increased at night, 376 genes changed more than 4-fold in either direction. Of these, more than two thousand genes were not previously known to be differentially expressed on a night/day basis. The night/day changes in expression were almost completely eliminated by neonatal removal (SCGX or decentralization (DCN of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG, which innervate the pineal gland. Other than the loss of rhythmic variation, surgical stimulus deprivation had little impact on the abundance of most genes; of particular interest, expression levels of the melatonin-synthesis-related genes Tph1, Gch1, and Asmt displayed little change (less than 35% following DCN or SCGX. However, strong and consistent changes were observed in the expression of a small number of genes including the gene encoding Serpina1, a secreted protease inhibitor that might influence extracellular architecture. Many of the genes that exhibited night/day differential expression in intact animals also exhibited similar changes following in vitro treatment with norepinephrine, a superior cervical ganglia transmitter, or with an analog of cyclic AMP, a norepinephrine second messenger in this tissue. These findings are of significance in that they establish that the pineal-defining transcriptome is established prior to the neonatal period. Further, this work expands our knowledge of the biological process under neural control in this tissue and underlines the value of RNA sequencing in revealing how neurotransmission influences cell

  11. Pineal melatonin acts as a circadian zeitgeber and growth factor in chick astrocytes

    Paulose, Jiffin K.; Peters, Jennifer L.; Karaganis, Stephen P.; Cassone, Vincent M.

    2009-01-01

    Melatonin is rhythmically synthesized and released by the avian pineal gland and retina during the night, targeting an array of tissues and affecting a variety of physiological and behavioral processes. Among these targets, astrocytes express two melatonin receptor subtypes in vitro, the Mel1A and Mel1C receptors, which play a role in regulating metabolic activity and calcium homeostasis in these cells. Molecular characterization of chick astrocytes has revealed the expression of orthologs of...

  12. A clinicopathologic analysis of primary orbital yolk sac tumor

    PENG Ji-ying

    2012-02-01

    were diffusely positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and focal positive for AFP, CD99 and CD117, but negative for PLAP, CD30, S-100, CD45 and CD34. There was no evidence of mixture of other germ cell tumor component in this tumor by serial sections. Based on clinical presentation and histological findings, a final histological diagnosis of pure primary orbital yolk sac tumor, WHO grade Ⅳ, was made according to the criteria of WHO classification. The patient has not received chemotherapy and attended follow-up for 3 months, without any neurological deficit or signs of recurrence. Conclusion Despite the lower incidence, intracranial yolk sac tumors usually develop in the midline at the pineal or suprasellar regions occurring in children with distinctive histological features and immunohistochemical phenotypes. In general, intracranial yolk sac tumors are known to entail poor prognosis even after multidisciplinary treatment of operation, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. It is noted that intracranial yolk sac tumor should be differentiated histologically from other types of germ cell tumors and mixed germ cell tumor.

  13. Effect of steroid on brain tumors and surround edemas : observation with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps of perfusion MRI

    To observe the hemodynamic change in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas after steroid treatment, and then investigate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MRI. We acquired conventional and perfusion MR images in 15 patients with various intracranial tumors (4 glioblastoma multiformes, 4 meningiomas, 3 metastatic tumors, 1 anaplastic ependymoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 hemangioblastoma, and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma). For perfusion MR imaging, a 1.5T unit employing the gradient-echo EPI technique was used, and further perfusion MR images were obtained 2-10 days after intravenous steroid therapy. After processing of the raw data, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were reconstructed. The maps were visually evaluated by comparing relative perfusion in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas with that in contralateral white matter. Objective evaluations were performed by comparing the perfusion ratios of brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Visual evaluations of rCBV maps, showed that in most brain tumors (67%, 10/15), perfusion was high before steroid treatment and showed in (80%, 12/15) decreased afterwards. Objective evaluation, showed that in all brain tumors, perfusion decreased. Visual evaluation of perfusion change in peritumoral edemas revealed change in only one case, but objective evaluation indicated that perfusion decreased significantly in all seven cases. rCBV maps acquired by perfusion MR imaging can provide hemodynamic information about brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Such maps could prove helpful in the preoperative planning of brain tumor surgery and the monitoring of steroid effects during conservative treatment. (author)

  14. Effect of steroid on brain tumors and surround edemas : observation with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps of perfusion MRI

    Choi, Ju Youl; Sun, Joo Sung; Kim, Sun Yong; Kim, Ji Hyung; Suh, Jung Ho; Cho, Kyung Gi; Kim, Jang Sung [Ajou University, School of Medicine, Su won (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-01-01

    To observe the hemodynamic change in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas after steroid treatment, and then investigate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MRI. We acquired conventional and perfusion MR images in 15 patients with various intracranial tumors (4 glioblastoma multiformes, 4 meningiomas, 3 metastatic tumors, 1 anaplastic ependymoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 hemangioblastoma, and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma). For perfusion MR imaging, a 1.5T unit employing the gradient-echo EPI technique was used, and further perfusion MR images were obtained 2-10 days after intravenous steroid therapy. After processing of the raw data, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were reconstructed. The maps were visually evaluated by comparing relative perfusion in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas with that in contralateral white matter. Objective evaluations were performed by comparing the perfusion ratios of brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Visual evaluations of rCBV maps, showed that in most brain tumors (67%, 10/15), perfusion was high before steroid treatment and showed in (80%, 12/15) decreased afterwards. Objective evaluation, showed that in all brain tumors, perfusion decreased. Visual evaluation of perfusion change in peritumoral edemas revealed change in only one case, but objective evaluation indicated that perfusion decreased significantly in all seven cases. rCBV maps acquired by perfusion MR imaging can provide hemodynamic information about brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Such maps could prove helpful in the preoperative planning of brain tumor surgery and the monitoring of steroid effects during conservative treatment. (author)

  15. Morphological study of the pineal gland of (crab eater raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798

    Leandro de Oliveira Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Procyon cancrivorus is a wild carnivore that is widely distributed and relatively common, but it remains little studied, and few works report on the biology of this species. The aim of this work was to characterize morphologically the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus through macro, microscopic and radiographic studies, and to compare them with those from other animals. In this work, four adult animals of both sexes were used, originating from the Scientific Herd of CECRIMPAS IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76. Macroscopically, the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus was located between the occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres, cranially to the vermis cerebelar. It was positioned rostrally to the rostral colliculus and caudally to the habenular comissure. Microscopically, the gland was covered externally by a capsule deriving from the meningeal pia mater. The presence of three types of cells was noted in the glandular parenchyma: pinealocytes, glial cells and mast cells. No calcareous concretions in the pineal gland were found in the radiographic and microscopic studies.

  16. Novel Molecular Tumor Cell Markers in Regional Lymph Nodes and Blood Samples from Patients Undergoing Surgery for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Oddmund Nordgård; Gurpartap Singh; Steinar Solberg; Lars Jørgensen; Ann Rita Halvorsen; Rune Smaaland; Odd Terje Brustugun; Åslaug Helland

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence suggests that microscopic lymph node metastases and circulating tumor cells may have clinical importance in lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify new molecular markers for tumor cells in regional lymph nodes (LNs) and peripheral blood (PB) from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Candidate markers were selected based on digital transcript profiling and previous literature. KRT19, CEACAM5, EPCAM, DSG3, SFTPA, SFTPC and SFTPB...

  17. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions

    Alexander Opitz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure–function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

  18. Neural networks combined with region growing techniques for tumor detection in [18F]-fluorothymidine dynamic positron emission tomography breast cancer studies

    Cseh, Zoltan; Kenny, Laura; Swingland, James; Bose, Subrata; Turheimer, Federico E.

    2013-03-01

    Early detection and precise localization of malignant tumors has been a primary challenge in medical imaging in recent years. Functional modalities play a continuously increasing role in these efforts. Image segmentation algorithms which enable automatic, accurate tumor visualization and quantification on noisy positron emission tomography (PET) images would significantly improve the quality of treatment planning processes and in turn, the success of treatments. In this work a novel multistep method has been applied in order to identify tumor regions in 4D dynamic [18F] fluorothymidine (FLT) PET studies of patients with locally advanced breast cancer. In order to eliminate the effect of inherently detectable high inhomogeneity inside tumors, specific voxel-kinetic classes were initially introduced by finding characteristic FLT-uptake curves with K-means algorithm on a set of voxels collected from each tumor. Image voxel sets were then split based on voxel time-activity curve (TAC) similarities, and models were generated separately on each voxel set. At first, artificial neural networks, in comparison with linear classification algorithms were applied to distinguish tumor and healthy regions relying on the characteristics of TACs of the individual voxels. The outputs of the best model with very high specificity were then used as input seeds for region shrinking and growing techniques, the application of which considerably enhanced the sensitivity and specificity (78.65% +/- 0.65% and 98.98% +/- 0.03%, respectively) of the final image segmentation model.

  19. Diagnostic study with CT and MR on the metastasis of malignant brain tumors

    Forty cases of malignant brain tumors with metastasis which involved 14 malignant gliomas, 15 medulloblastomas and 11 germ cell tumors were studied on CT and MRI. In malignant glioma, transventricular metastasis was seen most frequently, estimating 8 cases (57%) of 14 malignant gliomas with metastasis and showing ependymal-subependymal enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT (CECT). Most of the medulloblastoma with metastasis demonstrated diffuse subarachnoid seeding in the craniospinal space and on image analysis diffuse sulcal-cisternal enhancement was characterized. Trans-ventricular metastasis in medulloblastoma was less than in malignant glioma showing 3 cases (20%) of 15 medulloblastomas, which in most cases showed a nodular tumor in the ventricular wall by metastasis. There were six patients who, on the first admission, were found to have germ cell tumors of the broad infiltrating type with multiple lesions. The tumor sites of metastasis were different from those with malignant gliomas, being frequently localized in the pineal and/or the suprasellar region, on the ventricular wall and in the basal ganglia. Metastasis to a remote area in germ cell tumors was to spinal cords, to the ventricular wall and basal cistern around the brain stem by CSF dissemination, to the lung by hematogenous metastasis and to the peritoneal wall or organs through V-P shunt tube. T1-weighted Gd-DTPA MRI was more useful and sensitive than CECT for diagnosis of the leptomeningeal metastasis, particularly for sulcal-cisternal and spinal metastasis. It will be used more often as the first choice for diagnosis of intrathecal metastasis in the future. (author)

  20. Diagnostic study with CT and MR on the metastasis of malignant brain tumors

    Miyagami, Mitsusuke; Kasahara, Eishi; Tazoe, Makoto; Tsubokawa, Takashi (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-08-01

    Forty cases of malignant brain tumors with metastasis which involved 14 malignant gliomas, 15 medulloblastomas and 11 germ cell tumors were studied on CT and MRI. In malignant glioma, transventricular metastasis was seen most frequently, estimating 8 cases (57%) of 14 malignant gliomas with metastasis and showing ependymal-subependymal enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT (CECT). Most of the medulloblastoma with metastasis demonstrated diffuse subarachnoid seeding in the craniospinal space and on image analysis diffuse sulcal-cisternal enhancement was characterized. Trans-ventricular metastasis in medulloblastoma was less than in malignant glioma showing 3 cases (20%) of 15 medulloblastomas, which in most cases showed a nodular tumor in the ventricular wall by metastasis. There were six patients who, on the first admission, were found to have germ cell tumors of the broad infiltrating type with multiple lesions. The tumor sites of metastasis were different from those with malignant gliomas, being frequently localized in the pineal and/or the suprasellar region, on the ventricular wall and in the basal ganglia. Metastasis to a remote area in germ cell tumors was to spinal cords, to the ventricular wall and basal cistern around the brain stem by CSF dissemination, to the lung by hematogenous metastasis and to the peritoneal wall or organs through V-P shunt tube. T{sub 1}-weighted Gd-DTPA MRI was more useful and sensitive than CECT for diagnosis of the leptomeningeal metastasis, particularly for sulcal-cisternal and spinal metastasis. It will be used more often as the first choice for diagnosis of intrathecal metastasis in the future. (author).

  1. The contribution of the pineal gland on daily rhythms and masking in diurnal grass rats, Arvicanthis niloticus.

    Shuboni, Dorela D; Agha, Amna A; Groves, Thomas K H; Gall, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Melatonin is a hormone rhythmically secreted at night by the pineal gland in vertebrates. In diurnal mammals, melatonin is present during the inactive phase of the rest/activity cycle, and in primates it directly facilitates sleep and decreases body temperature. However, the role of the pineal gland for the promotion of sleep at night has not yet been studied in non-primate diurnal mammalian species. Here, the authors directly examined the hypothesis that the pineal gland contributes to diurnality in Nile grass rats by decreasing activity and increasing sleep at night, and that this could occur via effects on circadian mechanisms or masking, or both. Removing the pineal gland had no effect on the hourly distribution of activity across a 12:12 light-dark (LD) cycle or on the patterns of sleep-like behavior at night. Masking effects of light at night on activity were also not significantly different in pinealectomized and control grass rats, as 1h pulses of light stimulated increases in activity of sham and pinealectomized animals to a similar extent. In addition, the circadian regulation of activity was unaffected by the surgical condition of the animals. Our results suggest that the pineal gland does not contribute to diurnality in the grass rat, thus highlighting the complexity of temporal niche transitions. The current data raise interesting questions about how and why genetic and neural mechanisms linking melatonin to sleep regulatory systems might vary among mammals that reached a diurnal niche via parallel and independent pathways. PMID:27038859

  2. Alpha-2 adrenergic activity of bromocriptine and quinpirole in chicken pineal gland. Effects on melatonin synthesis and [3H]rauwolscine binding

    In the pineal gland and retina of chickens, serotonin N-acetyl-transferase (NAT) activity and melatonin content are modulated by different receptors, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland and D2-dopamine receptors in retina. The effect of two D2-dopamine receptor agonists, bromocriptine and quinpirole (LY 171555), on melatonin synthesis in these tissues was investigated. Systemic administrations of bromocriptine and quinpirole decreased nocturnal NAT activity and melatonin content of both pineal gland and retina. Bromocriptine was equipotent in the two tissues, whereas quinpirole was approximately 100-fold more potent in retina than in pineal gland. In pineal gland, the suppressive effects of bromocriptine and quinpirole on NAT activity were blocked by yohimbine, a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, but not by spiperone, a D2-dopamine receptor antagonist. In contrast, bromocriptine- and quinpirole-induced decreases of the enzyme activity in retina were antagonized by spiperone, and not affected by yohimbine. The nocturnal increase of NAT activity of pineal glands in vitro was inhibited with an order of potency clonidine greater than bromocriptine greater than quinpirole. Additionally, bromocriptine and quinpirole displaced the specific binding of [3H]rauwolscine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, to membranes from chicken pineal gland, with potencies comparable to those observed for inhibition of NAT activity in vitro. It is suggested that bromocriptine and quinpirole, in addition to their D2-dopaminergic activity, can stimulate alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland of chicken

  3. Intra-arterial Chemotherapy for Malignant Tumors of Head and Neck Region Using Three Types of Modified Injection Method

    Kumagai, T; Takeda, N; Fukase, S.; Koshu, H.; Inoue, A.; Ibuchi, Y.; Yoneoka, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Relatively higher infusion rate in the intra-arterial chemotherapy (IA chemotherapy) could induce the higher concentration and the more sufficient distribution of chemotherapeutic agents on tumors. To get the relatively higher infusion rate in IA chemotherapy, we used three types of injection method: high-flow injection, high-dose injection with detoxification and flow-controlled injection method for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, skull base tumors and head and neck tumors.

  4. Prognostic significance of tumor volume on response following local-regional hyperthermia (HT) and radiation therapy (XRT)

    The importance of tumor volume on treatment outcome following combined modality treatment with XRT- HT is complex due to the potential differences in blood flow, tumor pH, and heating patterns with increasing tumor size. In an attempt to further clarify the relationship between tumor volume and outcome, the influence of tumor size of superficially located metastatic lesions treated on the authors randomized protocols with XRT-HT was analyzed with respect to monitored temperature distributions and local control rates. Thirty-six lesions were identified for which pre and post treatment tumor dimensions were recorded and intratumoral temperature map(s) were obtained during HT. Similar thermal distributions were noted in small (>5cc) vs. large (>5cc) tumors. Univariate analyses demonstrated an inverse correlation between estimated tumor volume and local control rates (81% for tumors 5cc; (P=0.003). Multivariate analyses including radiation dose, number of HT treatments, and average tumor temperature, confirmed a statistically significant inverse correlation between increasing tumor size and local control (P=0.01). The authors findings substantiate the need for stratifying patients on the basis of tumor volume in subsequent studies

  5. Effect of variable temperatures, darkness and light on the secretion of melatonin by pineal explants in the gecko, Christinus marmoratus.

    Moyer, R W; Firth, B T; Kennaway, D J

    1997-02-01

    This study examined the combined effect of thermocycles with either variable or constant photic conditions on melatonin production by pineal organs in vitro in the gecko, Christinus marmoratus. A 30 degrees C:15 degrees C thermocycle elicited a rhythm of melatonin production under conditions of 12L:12D, constant light or constant darkness when the cryophase coincided with the dark phase of the photocycle or with the subjective night. A 6 h advance of the thermocycle with respect to the photocycle produced an advance in the onset and offset of melatonin production in subsequent nights. When the thermocycle was 180 degrees out of phase with the photoperiod, the rhythm of melatonin production was disrupted, suggesting a differential pattern of sensitivity to photothermal stimuli. It was concluded that both light and temperature are important modulators of pineal function although their combined effects on pineal melatonin production is complex and unclear. PMID:9045997

  6. 正常成人松果体MRI研究%MRI imaging studies of pineal gland in normal human brain

    邓玲; 钱学华; 周庭永; 刘敏; 白桂芹; 吕发金

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish the parameter standard of pineal gland and discuss the changing rule of different groups by gender and age in health adults on MRI. Methods A total of 327 adult heads were scanned by using 3D MR sequences,pineal gland and its related structures were observed and analyzed. Results The length of the pineal gland was(7.12±1.11)mm in the female group,and (6.52±1.01) mm in the male group(female>male,Pmale,P男性,P男性,P<0.05)。结论松果体矢径和体积女性大于男性,松果体体积性别差异出现在31~60岁。

  7. Computer-assisted delineation of lung tumor regions in treatment planning CT images with PET/CT image sets based on an optimum contour selection method

    To assist radiation oncologists in the delineation of tumor regions during treatment planning for lung cancer, we have proposed an automated contouring algorithm based on an optimum contour selection (OCS) method for treatment planning computed tomography (CT) images with positron emission tomography (PET)/CT images. The basic concept of the OCS is to select a global optimum object contour based on multiple active delineations with a level set method around tumors. First, the PET images were registered to the planning CT images by using affine transformation matrices. The initial gross tumor volume (GTV) of each lung tumor was identified by thresholding the PET image at a certain standardized uptake value, and then each initial GTV location was corrected in the region of interest of the planning CT image. Finally, the contours of final GTV regions were determined in the planning CT images by using the OCS. The proposed method was evaluated by testing six cases with a Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), which denoted the degree of region similarity between the GTVs contoured by radiation oncologists and the proposed method. The average three-dimensional DSC for the six cases was 0.78 by the proposed method, but only 0.34 by a conventional method based on a simple level set method. The proposed method may be helpful for treatment planners in contouring the GTV regions. (author)

  8. Sequences near both termini of the C/EBPβ mRNA 3' untranslated region are important for its tumor suppression activity

    Haizhen Wang; Ying Wang; Li Sun; Dinggan Liu

    2009-01-01

    The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of eukaryotic mRNA is an important regulation element that affects not only mRNA translation, but also cell growth. We had found that the 3' UTR of CCAAT-enhancerbinding protein 13 (C/EBPβ) mRNA had tumor suppression activity. Herein, we reported that deletion of two short sequences at both termini of the C/EBPβ 3'UTR reduced the tumor suppression activity of this 3' UTR, as demonstrated by reduced cell growth, colony formation ability, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. It is noteworthy that the only deletion of a single such sequence was enough for the reduction of tumor suppression effect, and the reducing effect of deletion of the sequence near 3' terminus was stronger. Therefore,specific short sequences in the C/EBPβ 3' UTR are crucial for the tumor suppression activity of C/EBPβ.

  9. Assessment of the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region area/nucleus ratio in ovarian serous epithelial adenomas, borderline tumors and cancers

    Gottwald, Leszek; Danilewicz, Marian; Suzin, Jacek; Wagrowska-Danilewicz, Malgorzata; Spych, Michal; Tylinski, Wieslaw; Topczewska-Tylinska, Katarzyna; Piekarski, Janusz; Kazmierczak-Lukaszewicz, Sylwia; Cialkowska-Rysz, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is a need to assess the value of the novel potentially useful biomarkers in ovarian tumors. The aim of study was to assess the value of sAgNOR analysis in ovarian serous epithelial tumors. Material and methods The analysis was performed in ovaries from 113 patients treated operatively due to serous ovarian tumors (30 adenomas, 14 borderline tumors and 69 cancers). After silver staining of paraffin specimens from surgery, sAgNOR in tumor cells was analyzed. Additionally, the...

  10. Pharmacological characterization of β2-adrenoceptor in PGT-β mouse pineal gland tumour cells

    Suh, Byung-Chang; Chae, Hee-Don; Chung, Joo-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    1999-01-01

    The adrenoceptor in a mouse pineal gland tumour cell line (PGT-β) was identified and characterized using pharmacological and physiological approaches.Adrenaline and noradrenaline, adrenoceptor agonists, stimulated cyclic AMP generation in a concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. Adrenaline was a more potent activator of cyclic AMP generation than noradrenaline, with half maximal-effective concentrations (EC50) seen at 175±22 nM and 18±2 μ...

  11. Melatonin Synthesis: Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase (ASMT) Is Strongly Expressed in a Subpopulation of Pinealocytes in the Male Rat Pineal Gland.

    Rath, Martin F; Coon, Steven L; Amaral, Fernanda G; Weller, Joan L; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2016-05-01

    The rat pineal gland has been extensively used in studies of melatonin synthesis. However, the cellular localization of melatonin synthesis in this species has not been investigated. Here we focus on the localization of melatonin synthesis using immunohistochemical methods to detect the last enzyme in melatonin synthesis, acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT), and in situ hybridization techniques to study transcripts encoding ASMT and two other enzymes in melatonin synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)-1 and aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase. In sections of the rat pineal gland, marked cell-to-cell differences were found in ASMT immunostaining intensity and in the abundance of Tph1, Aanat, and Asmt transcripts. ASMT immunoreactivity was localized to the cytoplasm in pinealocytes in the parenchyma of the superficial pineal gland, and immunopositive pinealocytes were also detected in the pineal stalk and in the deep pineal gland. ASMT was found to inconsistently colocalize with S-antigen, a widely used pinealocyte marker; this colocalization was seen in cells throughout the pineal complex and also in displaced pinealocyte-like cells of the medial habenular nucleus. Inconsistent colocalization between ASMT and TPH protein was also detected in the pineal gland. ASMT protein was not detected in extraepithalamic parts of the central nervous system or in peripheral tissues. The findings in this report are of special interest because they provide reason to suspect that melatonin synthesis varies significantly among individual pinealocytes. PMID:26950199

  12. Risk prediction for local versus regional/metastatic tumors after initial ductal carcinoma in situ diagnosis treated by lumpectomy.

    Molinaro, Annette M; Sison, Jennette D; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Tlsty, Thea D; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2016-06-01

    Among women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), we identified factors associated with local invasive cancer (LIC) and regional/metastatic invasive cancer (RMIC) and provide 10-year risks based on clinically relevant factors. We created a retrospective, population-based cohort of 1492 women with an initial diagnosis of DCIS (1983-1996) treated by lumpectomy alone. Histological and molecular markers (Ki67, ER, PR, COX-2, p16, ERBB2) were collected on DCIS cases with a subsequent tumor (DCIS, LIC, or RMIC) and a subsample of frequency-matched controls without subsequent tumors. Competing risks methods were used to identify factors associated with LIC and RMIC and cumulative incidence methods to estimate 10-year risks for combinations of factors. Median follow-up time was 12.6 years (range 0.5-29.5 years). The overall 10-year risk of LIC (11.9 %) was higher than for RMIC (3.8 %). About half of women with initial DCIS lesions are detected by mammography and p16 negative and have a 10-year risk of LIC of 6.2 % (95 % CI 5.8-6.8 %) and RMIC of 1.2 % (95 % CI 1.1-1.3 %). Premenopausal women whose DCIS lesion was p16 positive or p16 negative and detected by palpation had high 10-year risk of LIC of 23.0 % (95 % CI 19.3-27.4 %). Ten-year risk of RMIC was highest at 22.5 % (95 % CI 13.8-48.1 %) for those positive for p16, COX-2, and ERRB2, and negative for ER, but prevalence of this group is low at 3 %. Ten-year risk of LIC and RMIC is low for the majority diagnosed with DCIS. Combinations of molecular markers and method of detection of initial DCIS lesion can differentiate women at low and high risk of LIC and RMIC. PMID:27146587

  13. Expression of Clock genes in the pineal glands of newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    Bin Sun; Xing Feng; Xin Ding; Li Bao; Yongfu Li; Jun He; Meifang Jin

    2012-01-01

    Clock genes are involved in circadian rhythm regulation,and surviving newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy may present with sleep-wake cycle reversal.This study aimed to determine the expression of the clock genes Clock and Bmall,in the pineal gland of rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.Results showed that levels of Clock mRNA were not significantly changed within 48 hours after cerebral hypoxia and ischemia.Expression levels of CLOCK and BMAL1 protein were significantly higher after 48 hours.The levels of Bmall mRNA reached a peak at 36 hours,but were significantly reduced at 48 hours.Experimental findings indicate that Clock and Bmall genes were indeed expressed in the pineal glands of neonatal rats.At the initial stage (within 36 hours) of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage,only slight changes in the expression levels of these two genes were detected,followed by significant changes at 36 48 hours.These changes may be associated with circadian rhythm disorder induced by hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

  14. A glândula pineal e o metabolismo de carboidratos

    Patrícia Monteiro Seraphim

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A influência da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos vem sendo investigada há décadas. Entretanto, resultados contraditórios não esclarecem, até o momento, o verdadeiro papel da melatonina sobre a homeostasia dos carboidratos. Através de estudos recentes, contribuímos de maneira ineqüívoca para a caracterização do papel da glândula pineal como moduladora do metabolismo de carboidratos. Além disso, à luz dos conhecimentos atuais, demonstramos quais passos do mecanismo de ação da insulina estão envolvidos nessa modulação. Nossos estudos revelaram que a pinealectomia promove um quadro de resistência à insulina, sem obesidade. A captação máxima de 2-deoxi-glicose, estimulada por insulina, em adipócitos isolados está diminuída, sem entretanto modificar a capacidade da insulina ligar-se ao seu receptor e estimular a fosforilação dos substratos intracelulares representados pela pp 185. Por outro lado, em vários tecidos sensíveis à insulina, observou-se uma diminuição no conteúdo da proteína transportadora de glicose GLUT4, mas diminuição no mRNA do GLUT4 apenas em alguns desses tecidos, sugerindo uma regulação tecido-específica. Adicionalmente, foi demonstrado que a regulação da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos é mediado pela melatonina: o hormônio aumentou a sensibilidade à insulina de adipócitos isolados e o tratamento de reposição com melatonina restaurou o conteúdo de GLUT4 no tecido adiposo branco. Em síntese, os estudos aqui relatados evidenciam um importante papel da glândula pineal na modulação da homeostasia de carboidratos. Essa regulação é dependente da melatonina e pode ser resumida, até o presente momento, como um aumento da sensibilidade tecidual à insulina, que envolve alterações na expressão gênica do GLUT4.For decades, the influence of the pineal gland on carbohydrate metabolism has been investigated. However, contradictory results have

  15. Manual of recommendations for the diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of patients with Breast Cancer of the Tumor Center Munich - a regional hands-on publication

    Janni, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The revised 11th edition of the Manual of Recommendations for the Diagnosis, Therapy, and Follow-Up of Patients with Breast Cancer of the publications series of the Tumor Center Munich (Tumorzentrum München, TZM) is an excellent example of a regional hands-on publication which, while based on national and international guidelines, does not replace these. By virtue of countless additions and revisions in the course of 10 editions, the ‘blue tumor manual for breast cancer’ has matured into a ha...

  16. The early response of pineal N-acetyltransferase activity, melatonin and catecholamine levels in rats irradiated with gamma rays

    Male Wistar rats adapted to an artificial light-dark regimen were whole-body gamma-irradiated with a dose of 14.35 Gy. Irradiation, sham-irradiation and decapitation 30, 60 and 120 min after the exposure were performed between 2000 h and 0100 h in the darkness. The serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity (NAT), the concentration of melatonin and corticosterone were also determined. Ionizing radiation did not change the activity of NAT, the key enzyme of melatonin synthesis; however, it decreased the concentration of pineal melatonin. The concentration of pineal dopamine and norepinephrine decreased 30 and 120 min after exposure, while the concentration of epinephrine was elevated 30 min after irradiation, though later it was markedly decreased. The serum melatonin level was not changed but an increase in corticosterone level was observed. In the early period after exposure a decrease in pineal melatonin occurred, accompanied by a decrease in pineal catecholamines. On the contrary, in the phase of developed radiation injury the signs of increased melatonin synthesis were observed on days 3 and 4 after the exposure. (author) 6 figs., 25 refs

  17. Separation of pineal extracts on sephadex G-10 : III. Isolation and comparison of extracted and synthetic melatonin

    Ebels, I.; Balemans, M.G.M.; Tommel, D.K.J.

    1972-01-01

    Melatonin has been isolated from 300 gm of sheep pineal bodies by filtration of an aqueous extract on Sephadex G-10. Excitation and fluorescence maxima of the fractions of the column were measured and the fractions were tested for their blanching activity in tadpoles of Xenopus laevis. The microgram

  18. The influence of sex hormones on the pineal gland of the chick: a histochemical and ultrastructural study.

    Boya, J; Calvo, J.; Zamorano, L.

    1980-01-01

    The pineal gland of chicks treated with oestrogens and androgens has been studied histochemically and ultrastructurally from post-hatching until 90 days of age. The results obtained may demonstrate a precocious maturity of the gland caused by its response to the early high level of sex hormones circulating in the blood.

  19. Changes in vasopressin-converting aminopeptidase activity in the rat pineal gland during summer : Relationship to vasopressin contents

    Liu, B.; Burbach, J.P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)-converting aminopeptidase (VP-AP) activity and VP contents were measured in single rat pineal glands during the summer of two successive years. The peptidase activity decreased significantly in August. The lowest activity (±SEM) of 0.18±0.02 pmol·hour−1 was recorded on August 14, co

  20. Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 Expression in the Rat Pineal Gland: Detailed Analysis of Expression Pattern and Regulatory Mechanism

    Yoshida, Sachine; Hisano, Setsuji

    Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, is closely related physiologically to circadian rhythm, sleep and reproduction, and also psychiatrically to mood disorders in humans. Under circadian control, melatonin secretion is modulated via nocturnal autonomic (adrenergic) stimulation to the gland, which expresses vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2 and a VGLUT1 splice variant (VGLUT1v), glutamatergic markers. Expression of VGLUT2 gene and protein in the intact gland has been reported to exhibit a rhythmic change during a day. To study VGLUT2 expression is under adrenergic control, we here performed an in vitro experiment using dispersed pineal cells of rats. Stimulation of either β-adrenergic receptor or cAMP production to the pineal cells was shown to increase mRNA level of VGLUT2, but not VGLUT1 and VGLUT1v. Because an ability of glutamate to inhibit melatonin production was previously reported in the cultured gland, it is likely that pineal VGLUT2 transports glutamate engaged in the inhibition of melatonin production.

  1. Comparison of circadian oscillation of melatonin release in pineal cells of house sparrow, pigeon and Japanese quail, using cell perfusion systems

    Murakamia, Noboru; Nakamura, Hisae; Nishia, Rikako; Marumotoa, Nobuyuki; Nasub, Tetsuo

    1994-01-01

    We compared the circadian oscillation of melatonin release from cultured pineal cells in Japanese quail, pigeon and house sparrow, to determine whether the pineal gland of these species retains the circadian oscillator function in vitro. After dissociated pineal cells have been cultured for 4 days under 12 h: 12 h light-dark (LD) cycle, they were perfused at a flow rate of 0.25 ml/h for 6-7 days under LD or constant darkness (DD). Melatonin release increased during the dark period and low dur...

  2. Discovery of transcription factors and regulatory regions driving in vivo tumor development by ATAC-seq and FAIRE-seq open chromatin profiling.

    Kristofer Davie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomic enhancers regulate spatio-temporal gene expression by recruiting specific combinations of transcription factors (TFs. When TFs are bound to active regulatory regions, they displace canonical nucleosomes, making these regions biochemically detectable as nucleosome-depleted regions or accessible/open chromatin. Here we ask whether open chromatin profiling can be used to identify the entire repertoire of active promoters and enhancers underlying tissue-specific gene expression during normal development and oncogenesis in vivo. To this end, we first compare two different approaches to detect open chromatin in vivo using the Drosophila eye primordium as a model system: FAIRE-seq, based on physical separation of open versus closed chromatin; and ATAC-seq, based on preferential integration of a transposon into open chromatin. We find that both methods reproducibly capture the tissue-specific chromatin activity of regulatory regions, including promoters, enhancers, and insulators. Using both techniques, we screened for regulatory regions that become ectopically active during Ras-dependent oncogenesis, and identified 3778 regions that become (over-activated during tumor development. Next, we applied motif discovery to search for candidate transcription factors that could bind these regions and identified AP-1 and Stat92E as key regulators. We validated the importance of Stat92E in the development of the tumors by introducing a loss of function Stat92E mutant, which was sufficient to rescue the tumor phenotype. Additionally we tested if the predicted Stat92E responsive regulatory regions are genuine, using ectopic induction of JAK/STAT signaling in developing eye discs, and observed that similar chromatin changes indeed occurred. Finally, we determine that these are functionally significant regulatory changes, as nearby target genes are up- or down-regulated. In conclusion, we show that FAIRE-seq and ATAC-seq based open chromatin profiling

  3. Genetic analysis of tumorigenesis: a conserved region in the human and Chinese hamster genomes contains genetically identified tumor-suppressor genes

    Regional chromosome homologies were found in a comparison of human 11p with Chinese hamster 3p. By use of probes that recognize six genes of human 11p (INS, CAT, HBBC, CALC, PTH, and HRAS), the corresponding genes were localized by in situ hybridization on Chinese hamster chromosome 3. INS and CAT were located close to the centromere on 3p, whereas HBBC, CALC, and PTH were at 3q3-4 and HRAS at 3q4. Extensive prior data from chromosome studies of tumorigenic and tumor-derived Chinese hamster cells have suggested the presence of a tumor-suppressor gene on 3p. Two tumor-suppressor genes have been described on human 11p, one linked to CAT and one to INS. The present study raises the possibility that the Chinese hamster suppressor may be closely linked to INS or CAT

  4. Hemoglobins, Hemorphins, and 11p15.5 Chromosomal Region in Cancer Biology and İmmunity with Special Emphasis for Brain Tumors.

    Altinoz, Meric Adil; Elmaci, Ilhan; Ince, Bahri; Ozpinar, Aysel; Sav, Aydin Murat

    2016-05-01

    In systemic cancers, increased hemolysis leads to extracellular hemoglobin (HB), and experimental studies have shown its provoking role on tumor growth and metastasis. However, investigations have shown that HB chains presented by tumor vascular pericytes or serum protein complexes of HB could also induce antitumor immunity, which may be harnessed to treat refractory cancers and brain tumors. Mounting recent evidence shows that expression of HBs is not restricted to erythrocytes and that HBs exist in the cells of lung and kidney, in macrophages, and in neurons and glia of the central nervous system (CNS). HBs mediate coping with hypoxia and free radical stress in normal and tumor cells, and they are increased in certain tumors including breast, lung, colon, and squamous cell cancers. Recent studies showed HBs in meningioma, in the cyst fluid of craniopharyngioma, in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of pediatric patients with posterior fossa tumors, and in glioblastoma cell lines. Hemorphins, abundant brain peptides formed via HB-chain cleavage, exert opioid activity and antiproliferative and immunomodifier effects. Hence mutations in HBs may modify brain tumorigenesis via influencing hemorphins and perturbing regulations of immune surveillance and cell growth in the neuroectodermal tissues. The β-globin gene cluster resides in the chromosome region 11p15.5, harboring important immunity genes and IGF2, H19, PHLDA2/TSSC3, TRIM3, and SLC22A18 genes associated with cancers and gliomas. 11p15.5 is a prominent region subject to epigenetic regulation. Thus the β-globin loci may exert haplotypal interactions with these. Some clues support this theory. It is well established that iron load induces liver cancer in thalassemia major; however iron load-independent associations also exist. Enhanced rates of hematologic malignancies are associated with HB Lepore, association of hemoglobin E with cholangiocarcinoma, and enhanced gastric cancer rates in the thalassemia trait. In

  5. Clinical usefulness of color Doppler imaging in the management of the neck region vessels in patients with intraocular tumors - preliminary report

    The purpose of the study was to assess the clinical usefulness of color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) examinations of the neck vessels in patients with intraocular tumors as well as to establish whether the changes in these vessels had an influence on further ophthalmologic procedures. Clinical ophthalmological examinations such as visual acuity, anterior segment and ocular fundus, as well as color Doppler ultrasonography of the bulbar and neck region vessels were performed on 38 patients, aged 44-70 years with eyeball tumors. Localization, size, vascularization of the intrabulbar tumors and big vessels of the neck region were analyzed. In 28 patients, choroidal melanoma was identified, and the vascularity of tumor mass was monitored in 10 patients after brachytherapy. Compression or infiltration of jugular veins or carotid artery were not observed. Severe internal carotid artery stenosis due to arteriosclerosis was detected in 5 patients, but no one was suggested to be operated on first in Vascular Surgery Department. Color Doppler ultrasonography should be the first choice technique in the neck vessels and intrabulbar tumors imaging. Visualization of the mass lesions vascularity and the evaluation of amplitude of blood flow velocity allows to monitor the effectiveness of their therapy. It was found that this technique is useful in deciding upon the method of treatment in patients should be the first choice technique in the neck vessels and intrabulbar tumors imaging. Visualization of the mass lesions vascularity and the evaluation of amplitude of blood flow velocity allows to monitor the effectiveness of their therapy. It was found that this technique is useful in deciding upon the method of treatment in patients with coexisting arteriosclerosis. (author)

  6. Epidemiological study of primary intracranial tumors. A regional survey in Kumamoto prefecture in southern Japan. 20-year study

    The increased use of neuro-imaging techniques, as well as various environmental factors, has been changing the incidence and the proportions of types of intracranial tumors. However, no accurate population-based epidemiological study of intracranial tumors in Japan has been reported. We evaluated recent trends in the occurrence of primary intracranial tumors among residents of Kumamoto prefecture, Japan. We surveyed 5,448 new cases of primary intracranial tumors that were diagnosed in Kumamoto prefecture between 1989 and 2008. The overall age-adjusted incidence rate was 14.09 (11.59 for males, 16.38 for females) per 100,000 population per year. The most common tumors were meningiomas (36.8%), followed by gliomas (19.5%), adenomas (17.8%), schwannomas (9.9%), and malignant lymphomas (3.6%). The number of cases of primary brain tumors, especially meningiomas and malignant gliomas, among the elderly has steadily increased and the incidence of asymptomatic intracranial tumors also increased. The number of asymptomatic meningiomas diagnosed per year was higher than that of symptomatic meningiomas in the years between 1997 and 2008. Furthermore, the incidence rate of brain lymphoma in Kumamoto prefecture is approaching that recorded in Western countries. On the other hand, the incidence rate of germ cell tumors is on the decline, approaching that recorded for children in Western countries. Even though we adjusted the population in Kumamoto prefecture based on the Japanese population, increasing rates of several types of intracranial tumors were observed. These incidence rates are approaching those in Western countries. (author)

  7. Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as 'possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal cells into cancer cells. Owing to high utilisation of electricity in day-to-day life, exposure to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal gland activity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may influence the pineal gland is still unsolved. The pineal gland is likely to sense EMFs as light but, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data of human and animal studies of changes in melatonin levels due to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields exposure were analysed. Then, the results of this study were compared with the International Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental results in the literature for the biological effect of magnetic fields, in order to quantify the effects. The results show that this comparison does not seem to be consistent despite the fact that it offers an advantage of drawing attention to the importance of the exposure limits to weak EMFs. In addition to those inconsistent results, the following were also observed from this work: (i) the ICNIRP recommendations are meant for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii) the significance of not replicating the existing experimental studies is another limitation in the power-frequency EMFs. Regardless of these issues, the above observation agrees with our earlier study in which it was confirmed that it is not a reliable method to characterise biological effects by observing only the ratio of AC magnetic field strength to frequency. This is because exposure duration does not include the ICNIRP limit. Furthermore, the results show the significance of

  8. Fluorine-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography for oral cancers: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of malignant tumors and normal structures in oral and maxillofacial regions

    Ariyoshi, Yasunori; Shimahara, Masashi; Kimura,Yoshihiro; Ito, Yuichi; SHIMAHARA, TAKESHI; MIYATAKE, SHIN-ICHI; Kawabata, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to demonstrate the features of fluorine-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography (18F-BPA-PET) to reveal oral cancer, as well as normal structures in the oral and maxillofacial regions. We analyzed 18F-BPA-PET findings from 8 patients with histologically confirmed recurrent and/or advanced oral cancer scheduled for boron neutron capture therapy. The capacity of 18F-BPA-PET to delineate tumor and normal structures was assessed qualitatively and quanti...

  9. Age-related morphometric changes in the pineal gland. A comparative study between C57BLI6J and CBA mice

    Cernuda-Cernuda, R.; Huerta, J.J.; Muñoz Llamosas, M.; Alvarez-Uría, M.; García-Fernández, J.M. (José Manuel)

    2000-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the effects of melatonin on the aging of the pineal, the organ which is the main place for synthesis of this hormone. Using simple morphometric methods, some parameters of the pineal gland, such as total volume, number of pinealocytes and pinealocyte volume were estimated in two mice strains: normal CBA and melatonin-deficient C57BLl6J. Two age groups, 6 weeks and 10 months, were studied in order to evaluate possible differentia...

  10. Probable mechanism of catalysis of acetyl coenzyme A:arylamine N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.5.) from rat pineal gland

    The hormone melatonin is produced in the pineal gland by O-methylation of N-acetylserotonin. The enzyme responsible for O-methylation in the pineal, hydroxy-indole O-methyltransferase, can utilize serotonin only one-tenth as efficiently as it can use N-acetylserotonin, implying that N-acetylation precedes O-methylation. Serotonin has been shown to be N-acetylated to N-acetylserotonin in vivo, and this reaction is catalysed by an N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) enzyme. This enzyme would be more accurately termed acetyl coenzyme A: arylamine N-acetyltransferase and is not unique to the pineal gland, being found in other tissues such as the liver. The pineal enzyme, however, is unique in that it is under beta-adrenergic cyclic AMP control, levels rising during the dark phase. It is the formation of N-acetylserotonin that is rate-limiting in the formation of melatonin. The lability of pineal N-acetyltransferase has precluded any in-depth investigation and few kinetic determinations have been made. The assay for SNAT involved transfer of a 14C-acetyl group from [1-14C]acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) to tryptamine HCl (Tryp) to form N-acetyltryptamine (NAT). The present study is the first successful attempt to elucidate the catalytic behaviour of the enzyme. This information increases understanding of pineal biochemistry and enables more accurate interpretation of any physiological or pharmacological effects exerted on the enzyme

  11. Changes in pineal N-acetyltransferase activity in gamma irradiated rats

    Male Wistar rats were exposed to whole-body irradiation with 14.35 Gy gamma rays after adaptation to the light/dark cycle (LD 12:12). Three groups of rats were studied: A) rats irradiated at night and placed in the 12 h LD cycle again, B) rats irradiated at daytime and placed in the 12 LD cycle, and C) rats irradiated at night and kept in constant darkness. All analyses were carried out in the dark. Radiation enhanced the activity of pineal N-acetyltransferase 3-4 days after exposure in all groups, in the C group significantly on the 4th day. Different light regimes during and after irradiation did not substantially affect the activity of this key enzyme of melatonin synthesis. (author) 1 fig., 8 refs

  12. ESR1 gene promoter region methylation in free circulating DNA and its correlation with estrogen receptor protein expression in tumor tissue in breast cancer patients

    Tumor expression of estrogen receptor (ER) is an important marker of prognosis, and is predictive of response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer. Several studies have observed that epigenetic events, such methylation of cytosines and deacetylation of histones, are involved in the complex mechanisms that regulate promoter transcription. However, the exact interplay of these factors in transcription activity is not well understood. In this study, we explored the relationship between ER expression status in tumor tissue samples and the methylation of the 5′ CpG promoter region of the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1) isolated from free circulating DNA (fcDNA) in plasma samples from breast cancer patients. Patients (n = 110) with non-metastatic breast cancer had analyses performed of ER expression (luminal phenotype in tumor tissue, by immunohistochemistry method), and the ESR1-DNA methylation status (fcDNA in plasma, by quantitative methylation specific PCR technique). Our results showed a significant association between presence of methylated ESR1 in patients with breast cancer and ER negative status in the tumor tissue (p = 0.0179). There was a trend towards a higher probability of ESR1-methylation in those phenotypes with poor prognosis i.e. 80% of triple negative patients, 60% of HER2 patients, compared to 28% and 5.9% of patients with better prognosis such as luminal A and luminal B, respectively. Silencing, by methylation, of the promoter region of the ESR1 affects the expression of the estrogen receptor protein in tumors of breast cancer patients; high methylation of ESR1-DNA is associated with estrogen receptor negative status which, in turn, may be implicated in the patient’s resistance to hormonal treatment in breast cancer. As such, epigenetic markers in plasma may be of interest as new targets for anticancer therapy, especially with respect to endocrine treatment

  13. Pineal melatonin acts as a circadian zeitgeber and growth factor in chick astrocytes.

    Paulose, Jiffin K; Peters, Jennifer L; Karaganis, Stephen P; Cassone, Vincent M

    2009-04-01

    Melatonin is rhythmically synthesized and released by the avian pineal gland and retina during the night, targeting an array of tissues and affecting a variety of physiological and behavioral processes. Among these targets, astrocytes express two melatonin receptor subtypes in vitro, the Mel(1A) and Mel(1C) receptors, which play a role in regulating metabolic activity and calcium homeostasis in these cells. Molecular characterization of chick astrocytes has revealed the expression of orthologs of the mammalian clock genes including clock, cry1, cry2, per2, and per3. To test the hypothesis that pineal melatonin entrains molecular clockworks in downstream cells, we asked whether coculturing astrocytes with pinealocytes or administration of exogenous melatonin cycles would entrain metabolic rhythms of 2-deoxy [14C]-glucose (2DG] uptake and/or clock gene expression in cultured astrocytes. Rhythmic secretion of melatonin from light-entrained pinealocytes in coculture as well as cyclic administration of exogenous melatonin entrained rhythms of 2DG uptake and expression of Gallus per2 (gper2) and/or gper3, but not of gcry1 mRNA. Surprisingly, melatonin also caused a dose-dependent increase in mitotic activity of astrocytes, both in coculture and when administered exogenously. The observation that melatonin stimulates mitotic activity in diencephalic astrocytes suggests a trophic role of the hormone in brain development. The data suggest a dual role for melatonin in avian astrocytes: synchronization of rhythmic processes in these cells and regulation of growth and differentiation. These two processes may or may not be mutually exclusive. PMID:19196435

  14. Clock-Controlled Regulation of the Acute Effects of Norepinephrine on Chick Pineal Melatonin Rhythms.

    Li, Ye; Cassone, Vincent M

    2015-12-01

    The chicken pineal gland synthesizes and releases melatonin rhythmically in light/dark (LD) cycles, with high melatonin levels during the dark phase, and in constant darkness (DD) for several cycles before it gradually damps to arrhythmicity in DD. Daily administration of norepinephrine (NE) in vivo and in vitro prevents the damping and restores the melatonin rhythm. To investigate the role of the circadian clock on melatonin rhythm damping and of its restoration by NE, the effects of NE administration at different phases of the melatonin cycle revealed a robust rhythm in NE sensitivity in which NE efficacy in increasing melatonin amplitude peaked in late subjective night and early subjective day, suggesting a clock underlying NE sensitivity. However, NE itself had no effect on circadian phase or period of the melatonin rhythms. Transcriptional analyses indicated that even though the rhythm of melatonin output damped to arrhythmicity, messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding clock genes gper2, gper3, gBmal1, gclock, gcry1, and gcry2; enzymes associated with melatonin biosynthesis; and enzymes involved in cyclic nucleotide signaling remained robustly rhythmic. Of these, only gADCY1 (adenylate cyclase 1) and gPDE4D (cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D) were affected by NE administration at the mRNA levels, and only ADCY1 was affected at the protein level. The data strongly suggest that damping of the melatonin rhythm in the chick pineal gland occurs at the posttranscriptional level and that a major role of the clock is to regulate pinealocytes' sensitivity to neuronal input from the brain. PMID:26446873

  15. Conformal radiotherapy with intensity modulation, regional deep hyperthermia and total androgen suppression in patients with a high risk prostate tumor, operated or not. Preliminary results in 20 patients

    Purpose: to evaluate the feasibility and the toxicity of association of I.M.R.T., regional deep hyperthermia and complete androgenic elimination for the patients suffering of a high risk prostate tumor. Conclusion: According to our experience the association of pelvis I.M.R.T., a complement of prostate irradiation, a regional deep hyperthermia and complete androgenic elimination by analog is feasible. In comparison with the modest toxicity that we previously observed for patients treated by three dimensional conformal radiotherapy limited to the prostate associated to a regional deep hyperthermia and a complete androgenic elimination, the tolerance of the association of pelvic I.M.R.T.,regional deep hyperthermia and complete androgenic elimination turns out better. (N.C.)

  16. SU-D-18A-01: Tumor Motion Tracking with a Regional Deformable Registration Model for Four Dimensional Radiation Treatment of Lung Cancer

    Chao, M; Lo, Y; Yuan, Y; Sheu, R; Rosenzweig, K [The Mount Sinai Medical Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a tumor motion model from four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) of thoracic patients and demonstrate its impact on 4D radiation therapy simulation. Methods: A regional deformable image registration algorithm was introduced to extract tumor motion out of patient's breathing cycle. The gross target volume (GTV) was manually delineated on a selected phase of 4DCT and a subregion with 10mm margin supplemented to the GTV was created on the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Together with 4DCT the structures were exported into an inhouse research platform. A free form B-Spline deformable registration was carried out to map the subregion to other respiratory phases. The displacement vector fields were employed to propagate GTV contours with which the center of mass (CoM) of the GTV was computed for each breathing phase of 4DCT. The resultant GTV motion and its volumetric shape are utilized to facilitate 4D treatment planning. Five lung cancer patients undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy were enrolled and their 4DCT sets were included in the study. Results: Application of the algorithm to five thoracic patients indicates that clinically satisfactory outcomes were achievable with a spatial accuracy better than 2mm for GTV contour propagation between adjacent phases, and 3mm between opposite phases. The GTV CoM was found to be in the range of 2.0mm through 2.5cm, depending upon the tumor location. Compared to the traditional whole image based registration, the computation of the regional model was found to be an order of magnitude more efficient. Conclusion: A regional deformable registration model was implemented to extract tumor motion. It will have widespread application in 4D radiation treatment planning in the future to maximally utilize the available spatial-tempo information.

  17. SU-D-18A-01: Tumor Motion Tracking with a Regional Deformable Registration Model for Four Dimensional Radiation Treatment of Lung Cancer

    Purpose: To develop a tumor motion model from four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) of thoracic patients and demonstrate its impact on 4D radiation therapy simulation. Methods: A regional deformable image registration algorithm was introduced to extract tumor motion out of patient's breathing cycle. The gross target volume (GTV) was manually delineated on a selected phase of 4DCT and a subregion with 10mm margin supplemented to the GTV was created on the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Together with 4DCT the structures were exported into an inhouse research platform. A free form B-Spline deformable registration was carried out to map the subregion to other respiratory phases. The displacement vector fields were employed to propagate GTV contours with which the center of mass (CoM) of the GTV was computed for each breathing phase of 4DCT. The resultant GTV motion and its volumetric shape are utilized to facilitate 4D treatment planning. Five lung cancer patients undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy were enrolled and their 4DCT sets were included in the study. Results: Application of the algorithm to five thoracic patients indicates that clinically satisfactory outcomes were achievable with a spatial accuracy better than 2mm for GTV contour propagation between adjacent phases, and 3mm between opposite phases. The GTV CoM was found to be in the range of 2.0mm through 2.5cm, depending upon the tumor location. Compared to the traditional whole image based registration, the computation of the regional model was found to be an order of magnitude more efficient. Conclusion: A regional deformable registration model was implemented to extract tumor motion. It will have widespread application in 4D radiation treatment planning in the future to maximally utilize the available spatial-tempo information

  18. Secondary EWSR1 gene abnormalities in SMARCB1-deficient tumors with 22q11-12 regional deletions: Potential pitfalls in interpreting EWSR1 FISH results.

    Huang, Shih-Chiang; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Chen, Chun-Liang; Kao, Yu-Chien; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2016-10-01

    SMARCB1 inactivation occurs in a variety of tumors, being caused by various genetic mechanisms. Since SMARCB1 and EWSR1 genes are located close to each other on chromosome 22, larger SMARCB1 deletions may encompass the EWSR1 locus. Herein, we report four cases with SMARCB1-deletions showing concurrent EWSR1 gene abnormalities by FISH, which lead initially to misinterpretations as EWSR1-rearranged tumors. Our study group included various morphologies: a poorly differentiated chordoma, an extrarenal rhabdoid tumor, a myoepithelial carcinoma, and a proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. All cases showed loss of SMARCB1 (INI1) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and displayed characteristic histologic features for the diagnoses. The SMARCB1 FISH revealed homozygous or heterozygous deletions in three and one case, respectively. The co-hybridized EWSR1 probes demonstrated either unbalanced split signals or heterozygous deletion in two cases each. The former suggested bona fide rearrangement, while the latter resembled an unbalanced translocation. However, all the FISH patterns were quite complex and distinct from the simple and uniform split signals seen in typical EWSR1 rearrangements. We conclude that in the context of 22q11-12 regional alterations present in SMARCB1-deleted tumors, simultaneous EWSR1 involvement may be misinterpreted as equivalent to EWSR1 rearrangement. A detailed clinicopathologic correlation and supplementing the EWSR1 FISH assay with complementary methodology is mandatory for correct diagnosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27218413

  19. Developmental and diurnal dynamics of Pax4 expression in the mammalian pineal gland: nocturnal down-regulation is mediated by adrenergic-cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling

    Rath, Martin F; Bailey, Michael J; Kim, Jong-So;

    2009-01-01

    Pax4 is a homeobox gene that is known to be involved in embryonic development of the endocrine pancreas. In this tissue, Pax4 counters the effects of the related protein, Pax6. Pax6 is essential for development of the pineal gland. In this study we report that Pax4 is strongly expressed in the pi...... findings suggest that the nocturnal decrease in pineal Pax4 mRNA is controlled by the sympathetic neural pathway that controls pineal function acting via an adrenergic-cAMP mechanism. The daily changes in Pax4 expression may influence gene expression in the pineal gland....

  20. Enhanced growth of primary tumors in cancer-prone mice after immunization against the mutant region of an inherited oncoprotein.

    Siegel, C T; Schreiber, K; Meredith, S C; Beck-Engeser, G B; Lancki, D W; Lazarski, C A; Fu, Y X; Rowley, D A; Schreiber, H

    2000-06-01

    One major objective of tumor immunologists is to prevent cancer development in individuals at high risk. (TG.AC x C57BL/6)F1 mice serve as a model for testing the feasibility of this objective. The mice carry in the germline a mutant ras oncogene that has an arginine at codon 12 instead of glycine present in the wild-type, and after physical (wounding) or chemical promotion, these mice have a high probability for developing papillomas that progress to cancer. Furthermore, F1 mice immunized with Arg(12) mutant ras peptide in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) develop T cells within 10 d that proliferate in vitro on stimulation with the Arg(12) mutant ras peptide. Within 14 d, these mice have delayed-type hypersensitivity to the peptide. Immunization with CFA alone or with a different Arg(12) mutant ras peptide in CFA induced neither response. To determine the effect of immunization on development of tumors, mice immunized 3 wk earlier were painted on the back with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate every 3 d for 8 wk. The time of appearance and the number of papillomas were about the same in immunized and control mice, but the tumors grew faster and became much larger in the mice immunized with the Arg(12) mutant ras peptide. Thus, the immunization failed to protect against growth of papillomas. The peptide-induced CD4(+) T cells preferentially recognized the peptide but not the native mutant ras protein. On the other hand, mice immunized with Arg(12) mutant ras peptide and bearing papillomas had serum antibodies that did bind native mutant ras protein. Together, these studies indicate that active immunization of cancer-prone individuals may result in immune responses that fail to eradicate mutant oncogene-expressing tumor cells, but rather induce a remarkable enhancement of tumor growth. PMID:10839809

  1. Comparison of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) and Fluorescent Light on Suppression of Pineal Melatonin in the Rat

    Winget, Charles M.; Heeke, D. S.; Holley, D. C.; Mele, G.; Brainard, G. C.; Hanifin, J. P.; Rollag, M. D.; Savage, Paul D. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    To validate a novel LED array for use in animal habitat lighting by comparing its effectiveness to cool-white fluorescent (CWF) lighting in suppressing pineal gland melatonin. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 175-200 g, were maintained under control conditions for 2 weeks (food and water ad lib, 12L: 12D CWF, 18 uW/square cm). Dark adapted animals (animals before lights on) were exposed to 5 min of LED or CWF light of similar spectral power distribution. Two groups of rats (LED vs. CWF) were compared at 5 light intensities (100, 40, 1, 1.0, and 0. 1 lux). A control group was placed into the exposure apparatus but not exposed to light. After exposure, pineal glands were rapidly removed and assayed for melatonin by RIA. Results. The dark-exposed control groups matched with the 5 intensity groups (100, 40, 10, 1.0, and 0.1 lux) showed mean + SEM pineal melatonin values of 1167 +/- 136, 1569 +/- 126, 353 +/- 34, 650 +/- 124, and 464 +/- 85, pg/ml respectively. The corresponding CWF exposure data were 393 1 41, 365 +34, 257 +/- 13, 218 +/- 42, and 239 +/- 71 pg/ml, respectively. Corresponding LED exposure data were 439 +/- 25, 462 +/- 50, 231 +/- 6, 164 +/- 12, and 158 +/- 12 pg/ml, respectively. Rats exposed to both experimental light conditions at all illuminances studied showed significant melatonin suppression (p less than 0.01, ANOVA). In no case was the melatonin suppression induced by LED illuminance significantly different from the melatonin suppression elicited by the same intensity of CWF light. The results show that a novel LED light source can suppress pineal melatonin equal to that of a conventional CWF light source.

  2. Homeobox Genes and Melatonin Synthesis: Regulatory Roles of the Cone-Rod Homeobox Transcription Factor in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    Kristian Rohde; Morten Møller; Martin Fredensborg Rath

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a cAMP-based induction of Aanat transcription. However, additional transcriptional control mechanisms exist. Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processe...

  3. Embryonic development of the bovine pineal gland (Bos taurus) during prenatal life (30 to 135 days of gestation)

    Regodón, S.; Roncero, V

    2005-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the pineal gland of 30 bovine embryos (Bos taurus) has been analysed from 30 until 135 days of gestation by means of optical microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques. For this study, the specimens were grouped into three stages in accordance with the most relevant histological characteristics: Stage 1 (30 to 64 days of prenatal development); Stage 2 (70 to 90 days) and Stage 3 (106 to 135 days). In the cow, it is from 30 days of gestatio...

  4. In the Heat of the Night: Thermo-TRPV Channels in the Salmonid Pineal Photoreceptors and Modulation of Melatonin Secretion.

    Nisembaum, Laura Gabriela; Besseau, Laurence; Paulin, Charles-Hubert; Charpantier, Alice; Martin, Patrick; Magnanou, Elodie; Fuentès, Michael; Delgado, Maria-Jesus; Falcón, Jack

    2015-12-01

    Photoperiod plays an essential role in the synchronization of metabolism, physiology, and behavior to the cyclic variations of the environment. In vertebrates, information is relayed by the pineal cells and translated into the nocturnal production of melatonin. The duration of this signal corresponds to the duration of the night. In fish, the pinealocytes are true photoreceptors in which the amplitude of the nocturnal surge is modulated by temperature in a species-dependent manner. Thus, the daily and annual variations in the amplitude and duration of the nocturnal melatonin signal provide information on daily and calendar time. Both light and temperature act on the activity of the penultimate enzyme in the melatonin biosynthesis pathway, the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (serotonin → N-acetylserotonin). Although the mechanisms of the light/dark regulation of melatonin secretion are quite well understood, those of temperature remain unelucidated. More generally, the mechanisms of thermoreception are unknown in ectotherms. Here we provide the first evidence that two thermotransient receptor potential (TRP) channels, TRPV1 and TRPV4, are expressed in the pineal photoreceptor cells of a teleost fish, in which they modulate melatonin secretion in vitro. The effects are temperature dependent, at least for TRPV1. Our data support the idea that the pineal of fish is involved in thermoregulation and that the pineal photoreceptors are also thermoreceptors. In other nervous and nonnervous tissues, TRPV1 and TRPV4 display a ubiquitous but quantitatively variable distribution. These results are a fundamental step in the elucidation of the mechanisms of temperature transduction in fish. PMID:26389691

  5. Radiation therapy for intracranial germ cell tumors. Predictive value of tumor response as evaluated by computed tomography

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Toita, Takafumi; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Miyagi, Koichi; Kinjo, Toshihiko; Yamashiro, Katsumi; Sawada, Satoshi [Ryukyu Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-07-01

    This retrospective study analyzed the outcome in patients with intracranial germ-cell tumors to determine whether tumor response during radiation therapy can predict achievement of primary local with radiation therapy alone. Between 1983 and 1993, 22 patients with untreated primary intracranial germ cell tumors received a total whole brain radiation dose of between 18 Gy and 45 Gy (mean 31.3 Gy) with or without a localized field of 10 to 36.4 Gy (mean, 22.4 Gy), or local irradiation only (1 patient). In 10 patients with pineal tumor only, who were treated first with radiation therapy, tumor response to radiation therapy was evaluated using computed tomography (CT) (at baseline, and approximately 20 Gy and 50 Gy). Areas of calcification in the tumor were subtracted from total tumor volume. Follow-up time ranged from 2 to 12 years. Five-year actuarial survival rates for patients with germinoma were 71%, 100% for patients with a teratoma component, and 100% for patients without histologic verification. Patients with germinomas or tumors suspected of being germinomas who were given more than 50 Gy had no local relapse. There was no correlation between primary local control by radiation therapy alone and initial tumor volume. The rate of tumor volume response to irradiation assessed by CT was significantly different in those patients who relapsed compared to those who did not relapse. Tumor response during radiation therapy using CT was considered to be predictive of primary local control with radiation therapy alone. (author)

  6. X-ray diagnosis of the neoplasms of the hard palate region. Pt. 2. Tumors extending from the region anatomically adjacent to the hard palate

    In 65 patients X-ray surveys of the skulls, pantomography, occlusal, tomographic, CT and TMR examinations were performed due to malignant and bening tumors extending from the organs adjacent to the hard palate. On the basis of X-ray as well as histological examinations, changes in the bone structures were found in 47 patients, in 21 the image of the structure being normal. The applicability of CT and TMR for evaluating malignant processes of soft tissues and bone structures was disclosed to be of great value. The usefulness of occlusal X-rays for estimating the hard palate structure was emphasized. (author)

  7. Near-ultraviolet light perceived by the retina generates the signal suppressing melatonin synthesis in the chick pineal gland-an involvement of NMDA glutamate receptors.

    Rosiak, Jolanta; Zawilska, Jolanta B

    2005-05-13

    Exposure of dark-adapted chicks to near ultraviolet (UV-A) light significantly decreased melatonin (MEL) content and the activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT; the penultimate and key regulatory enzyme in MEL production) in the pineal glands. Significant reduction in MEL level and AA-NAT activity was also found in pineals of animals whose heads were covered with black opaque tape, an observation suggesting that in the chicken UV-A light perceived by the eyes alone is capable of affecting MEL synthesis in the pineal gland. Covering the chick's eyes, in addition to the head, totally blocked the studied UV-A action. Although SCH 23390 (a selective D1-dopamine receptor antagonist), injected directly into both eyes at a dose of 10 nmol/eye, prevented the decline in pineal AA-NAT activity produced by retinal illumination with white light, the drug did not modify the UV-A light-evoked decrease in the enzyme activity. MK-801 (a selective antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors; 1 nmol/eye) abolished the suppressive action of UV-A light on pineal AA-NAT activity, but it was inactive in the case of white light. Intraocularly injected sulpiride and CNQX (selective antagonists of D2-dopamine and AMPA/kainite glutamate receptors, respectively) had no effect on the actions of both UV-A and white light (acting on the eyes only) on pineal AA-NAT activity. It is concluded that in the chick retinally perceived UV-A light generates a signal which suppresses MEL production in the pineal gland. At the level of the retina, such signal does not involve dopamine, but is dependent on the stimulation of NMDA glutamate receptors. PMID:15843066

  8. Soft tissue mixed tumor

    Eiichi Hiraishi; Hiroshi Sakihara; Michiro Susa; Takayuki Honma; Hiroshi Shimosawa

    2009-01-01

    Mixed tumors are relatively common in the skin and salivary glands, but extremely rare in soft tissues, often resulting in diagnostic problems. The occurrence of these tumors in the hand is especially limited. In this article we report the clinical, radiological, and histological features of a mixed tumor of the hypothenar region of the right hand.

  9. Challenges in Identifying the Foot Motor Region in Patients with Brain Tumor on Routine MRI: Advantages of fMRI

    Fisicaro, R.A.; Jiao, R.X.; Stathopoulos, C.; Brennan, N.M. Petrovich; Peck, K.K.; Holodny, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Accurate localization of the foot/leg motor homunculus is essential because iatrogenic damage can render a patient wheelchair- or bed-bound. We hypothesized the following: 1) Readers would identify the foot motor homunculus <100% of the time on routine MR imaging, 2) neuroradiologists would perform better than nonradiologists, and 3) those with fMRI experience would perform better than those without it. MATERIALSANDMETHODS Thirty-five attending-level raters (24 neuroradiologists, 11 nonradiologists) evaluated 14 brain tumors involving the frontoparietal convexity. Raters were asked to identify the location of the foot motor homunculus and determine whether the tumor involved the foot motor area and/or motor cortex by using anatomic MR imaging. Results were compared on the basis of prior fMRI experience and medical specialty by using Mann-Whitney U test statistics. RESULTS No rater was 100% correct. Raters correctly identified whether the tumor was in the foot motor cortex 77% of the time. Raters with fMRI experience were significantly better than raters without experience at foot motor fMRI centroid predictions (13 ± 6 mm versus 20 ± 13 mm from the foot motor cortex center, P = 2 × 10−6) and arrow placement in the motor gyrus (67% versus 47%, P = 7 × 10−5). Neuroradiologists were significantly better than nonradiologists at foot motor fMRI centroid predictions (15 ± 8 mm versus 20 ± 14 mm, P = .005) and arrow placement in the motor gyrus (61% versus 46%, P = .008). CONCLUSIONS The inability of experienced readers to consistently identify the location of the foot motor homunculus on routine MR imaging argues for using fMRI in the preoperative setting. Experience with fMRI leads to improved accuracy in identifying anatomic structures, even on routine MR imaging. PMID:25882288

  10. CSF generation by pineal gland results in a robust melatonin circadian rhythm in the third ventricle as an unique light/dark signal.

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C; Reiter, Russel J

    2016-01-01

    Pineal gland is an important organ for the regulation of the bio-clock in all vertebrate species. Its major secretory product is melatonin which is considered as the chemical expression of darkness due to its circadian peak exclusively at night. Pineal melatonin can be either released into the blood stream or directly enter into the CSF of the third ventricle via the pineal recess. We have hypothesized that rather than the peripheral circulatory melatonin circadian rhythm serving as the light/dark signal, it is the melatonin rhythm in CSF of the third ventricle that serves this purpose. This is due to the fact that melatonin circadian rhythm in the CSF is more robust in terms of its extremely high concentration and its precise on/off peaks. Thus, extrapineal-generated melatonin or diet-derived melatonin which enters blood would not interfere with the bio-clock function of vertebrates. In addition, based on the relationship of the pineal gland to the CSF and the vascular structure of this gland, we also hypothesize that pineal gland is an essential player for CSF production. We feel it participates in both the formation and reabsorption of CSF. The mechanisms associated with these processes are reviewed and discussed in this brief review. PMID:26804589

  11. Magnetic resonance-guided regional gene delivery strategy using a tumor stroma-permeable nanocarrier for pancreatic cancer

    Wang Q

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Qingbing Wang,1,2 Jianfeng Li,3 Sai An,3 Yi Chen,1 Chen Jiang,3 Xiaolin Wang1,2 1Department of Interventional Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 2Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, 3Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Gene therapy is a very promising technology for treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. However, its application has been limited by the abundant stromal response in the tumor microenvironment. The aim of this study was to prepare a dendrimer-based gene-free loading vector with high permeability in the tumor stroma and explore an imaging-guided local gene delivery strategy for PDAC to promote the efficiency of targeted gene delivery.Methods: The experimental protocol was approved by the animal ethics committee of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. Third-generation dendrigraft poly-L-lysines was selected as the nanocarrier scaffold, which was modified by cell-penetrating peptides and gadolinium (Gd chelates. DNA plasmids were loaded with these nanocarriers via electrostatic interaction. The cellular uptake and loaded gene expression were examined in MIA PaCa-2 cell lines in vitro. Permeability of the nanoparticles in the tumor stroma and transfected gene distribution in vivo were studied using a magnetic resonance imaging-guided delivery strategy in an orthotopic nude mouse model of PDAC.Results: The nanocarriers were synthesized with a dendrigraft poly-L-lysine to polyethylene glycol to DTPA ratio of 1:3.4:8.3 and a mean diameter of 110.9±7.7 nm. The luciferases were strictly expressed in the tumor, and the luminescence intensity in mice treated by Gd-DPT/plasmid luciferase (1.04×104±9.75×102 p/s/cm2/sr was significantly (P<0.05 higher than in those treated with Gd-DTPA (9.56×102±6.15×10 p/s/cm2/sr and Gd-DP (5.75×103± 7.45×102 p/s/cm2/sr

  12. Quantitative Determination of Irinotecan and the Metabolite SN-38 by Nanoflow Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Different Regions of Multicellular Tumor Spheroids

    Liu, Xin; Hummon, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    A new and simple method was developed to evaluate the distribution of therapeutics in three-dimensional multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) by combining serial trypsinization and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). This methodology was validated with quantitative measurements of irinotecan and its bioactive metabolite, SN-38, in distinct spatial regions of HCT 116 MCTS. Irinotecan showed a time-dependent permeability into MCTS with most of the drug accumulating in the core after 24 h of treatment. The amount of SN-38 detected was 30 times lower than that of the parent drug, and was more abundant in the outer rim and intermediate regions of MCTS where proliferating cells were present. This method can be used to investigate novel and established drugs. It enables investigation of drug penetration properties and identification of metabolites with spatial specificity in MCTS. The new approach has great value in facilitating the drug evaluation process.

  13. Determination of Melatonin in Rat Pineal Gland and Drug with Flow-Injection Chemiluminescence

    WEI,Shou-Lian; ZHAO,LI-Xia; CHENG,Xiang-Lei; LIN,Jin-Ming

    2007-01-01

    A flow-injection chemiluminescence(CL)method for the determination of melatonin based on the CL reaction of melatonin with hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite(NaOCl)in a basic alkaline solution was developed.The possible CL mechanism has been discussed,and a proposal for the reaction pathway was given that singlet oxygen was clarified to be produced in this reaction system and was responsible for the CL emission.Under the optimized conditions.the linear concentration range of application was 1.0 X 10-7-2.5×10-4 mol·L-1 with a detection Iimit of 5.0X 10-8 mol·L-1(S/N=3).The relative standard deviation for eight repeated measurements of 1.0×10-6 mol·L-1 melatonin was 2.8%.The interferences of several important biological substances.some indole compound,cations and anions were studied.No interference was found for the anions,glucose,starch,most of cations and low concentration(less than 3.0×10-6 mol·L-1)of some biological substances and indole compound.The method was applied to the determination of melatonin in rat pineal gland and drug with satisfactory results.The sample throughput was 90 injections per hour.

  14. Characterization of the relations between morphology and physiological status of the pineal gland in connection with the somatic development level in turkeys reared in Romania

    R. Lazăr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research started from the premises of the existence of some possible relationships between indole and pineal peptide hormones and the somatic development, with participation of hypothalamic-pituitary complex. Experimental factors, which were the subject of the present paper, influenced the dynamics of corporal mass and fodder consumption, leading to the occurrence of some important structural modifications at the level of pineal gland. The exposure of the individuals to continuous light (photic pinealectomy produces increases in corporal mass, showing the involvement of the pineal gland in neuro-endocrine-metabolic reactions, which contributes to the maintenance of homeostatic balance, including somatic ones. Biological material was represented by a number of 50 individuals belonging to B.U.T. Big 6 hybrid, reared on soil, on a permanent litter, which could assure the expanding of knowledge area regarding the relation between rearing technology, modulation of some microclimate parameters and growing performances. Were also realised cytometric and hystometric muscular determinations.

  15. Melatonin synthesis: Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT) is strongly expressed in a subpopulation of pinealocytes in the male rat pineal gland

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Coon, Steven L.; Amaral, Fernanda G.;

    2016-01-01

    The rat pineal gland has been extensively used in studies of melatonin synthesis. However, the cellular localization of melatonin synthesis in this species has not been investigated. Here we focus on the localization of melatonin synthesis using immunohistochemical methods to detect the last enzyme...... in melatonin synthesis, acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT), and in situ hybridization techniques to study transcripts encoding ASMT and two other enzymes in melatonin synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) and aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). In sections of the rat pineal gland......, marked cell-to-cell differences were found in ASMT immunostaining intensity and in the abundance of Tph1, Aanat and Asmt transcripts. ASMT immunoreactivity was localized to the cytoplasm in pinealocytes in the parenchyma of the superficial pineal gland, and immunopositive pinealocytes were also detected...

  16. Steroid Hormones and Antihormones can Reverse the Castration Induced Stimulation of the Pineal and Adrenal Karyomorphology and Cell Proliferation in Mice (Mus musculus

    S. Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, influence of castration and castrated animals supplemented with steroid hormones and antihormones on pineal-adrenal karyomorphology and dynamics were studied in post pubertal male mice. A group of thirty five mice were orchidectomized and (N = 7 sham operated, were kept in laboratory condition for 30 days. Such castrated were separately supplemented with estradiol at a dose of 5 g, testosterone at a dose of 100 g and antihormones, tamoxifen at a dose of 500 g and flutamide at 2 g daily (all at doses per 100 g.b.w. for ten consecutive days following thirty days of post castration. Present data reveal that both pineal and adrenal gland nuclear size and cell proliferation were significantly increased in thirty days post orchidectomized mice compared to control animals. The values are control pinealocyte nuclear diameter (dim: 4.750.06; castrated pinealocyte nuclear diameter (m: 5.340.04 (p<0.001. Control pineal M% 1.250.07; castrated pineal M% 2.020.11 (p<0.001. In control adrenal, representative of zones was Z. fasciculata nuclear diameter (m (5.110.04; castrated Z. fasciculata nuclear diameter (m 5.410.03 (p<0.001. Control adrenal M% (1.030.06 castrated adrenal M% (1.630.09 p<0.001. It was further observed that such pineal and adrenal stimulation in orchidectomized mice were significantly decreased when orchidectomized mice were administered with steroid hormones (estradiol and testosterone and antihormones (tamoxifen and flutamide compared to orchidectomized mice. Our study indicates that there exists a mutual stimulatory relationship between pineal and adrenal under conditions of steroid deprivation. However, exogenous administration of steroid hormones and antihormones to those castrated mice caused inhibition of these two peripheral endocrine glands.

  17. In silico genome wide mining of conserved and novel miRNAs in the brain and pineal gland of Danio rerio using small RNA sequencing data.

    Agarwal, Suyash; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Srivastava, Prachi; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra; Pandey, Manmohan; Srivastava, Shreya

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that bind to the mRNA of the target genes and regulate the expression of the gene at the post-transcriptional level. Zebrafish is an economically important freshwater fish species globally considered as a good predictive model for studying human diseases and development. The present study focused on uncovering known as well as novel miRNAs, target prediction of the novel miRNAs and the differential expression of the known miRNA using the small RNA sequencing data of the brain and pineal gland (dark and light treatments) obtained from NCBI SRA. A total of 165, 151 and 145 known zebrafish miRNAs were found in the brain, pineal gland (dark treatment) and pineal gland (light treatment), respectively. Chromosomes 4 and 5 of zebrafish reference assembly GRCz10 were found to contain maximum number of miR genes. The miR-181a and miR-182 were found to be highly expressed in terms of number of reads in the brain and pineal gland, respectively. Other ncRNAs, such as tRNA, rRNA and snoRNA, were curated against Rfam. Using GRCz10 as reference, the subsequent bioinformatic analyses identified 25, 19 and 9 novel miRNAs from the brain, pineal gland (dark treatment) and pineal gland (light treatment), respectively. Targets of the novel miRNAs were identified, based on sequence complementarity between miRNAs and mRNA, by searching for antisense hits in the 3'-UTR of reference RNA sequences of the zebrafish. The discovery of novel miRNAs and their targets in the zebrafish genome can be a valuable scientific resource for further functional studies not only in zebrafish but also in other economically important fishes. PMID:26981358

  18. The in vitro and in ovo effects of environmental illumination and temperature on the melatonin secretion from the embryonic chicken pineal gland.

    Faluhelyi, Nándor; Matkovits, Attila; Párniczky, Andrea; Csernus, Valér

    2009-04-01

    Pineal glands of chicken embryos were placed into a perifusion system for 4 days. The pineal glands were illuminated or exposed to elevated temperature for 8 or 12 h during the in vitro experiment and/or in ovo. Both daily illumination and repeated elevations of environmental temperature transitionally inhibited melatonin release before, and controlled the phase of melatonin rhythm after, the 17th day of embryonic life (E17). In addition, the in ovo rhythmic illumination applied before E13 advances the development of the circadian hormone synthesis. PMID:19456366

  19. Changes in vasopressin-converting aminopeptidase activity in the rat pineal gland during summer : Relationship to vasopressin contents

    Liu, B; Burbach, J. P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)-converting aminopeptidase (VP-AP) activity and VP contents were measured in single rat pineal glands during the summer of two successive years. The peptidase activity decreased significantly in August. The lowest activity (±SEM) of 0.18±0.02 pmol·hour−1 was recorded on August 14, compared to the basal activity of 0.25±0.01 pmol·hour−1 in July and September of 1986. The change with similar percentage occurred in the same period of 1987. The specific activity of the enzyme in t...

  20. Bone tumor

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  1. Therapeutic strategy for lower limb lymphedema and lymphatic fistula after resection of a malignant tumor in the hip joint region: a case report.

    Hara, H; Mihara, M; Hayashi, A; Kanemaru, M; Todokoro, T; Yamamoto, T; Iida, T; Hino, R; Koshima, I

    2014-03-01

    Lymphatic fistula complicating lymphedema is thought to occur due to communication between lymph vessels and the skin, which has yet to be shown objectively. The objective of this case report is to show the pathology and treatment using simultaneous lymphatic fistula resection and lymphatico-venous anastomosis (LVA). A 40-year-old woman underwent extended resection and total hip arthroplasty for primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the right proximal femur 23 years ago. Right lower limb lymphedema developed immediately after surgery and lymphatic fistula appeared in the posterior thigh. On ICG lymphography, lymph reflux toward the distal side dispersing in a fan-shape reticular pattern from the lymphatic fistula region was noted after intracutaneous injection of ICG into the foot. We performed simultaneous lymphatic fistula resection and of LVA. Pathological examination showed that the epidermis and stratum corneum of the healthy skin were lost in the lymphatic fistula region. Dilated lymph vessels were open in this region. The examinations provide the first objective evidence that the cause of lymphatic fistula may be lymph reflux from lymphatic stems to precollectors through lymphatic perforators. PMID:23908155

  2. Tumor diagnosis, grading, and staging

    Optimal use of radiation therapy for the treatment of animal tumors necessitates accurate clinical evaluation, diagnostic imaging, and pathology. This requires a coordinated effort between the clinical and radiation oncologist, radiologist, and pathologist. The histological appearance of the tumor, tumor grade, and tumor stage are important diagnostic criteria that need to be established. Diagnostic imaging, including radiographic, computerized tomographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound studies are helpful in establishing an accurate tumor location and diagnosis. Biopsy and histological examination of tumor tissue are necessary for final diagnosis of tumor type. Determination of tumor type is critical because different tumor types vary in regard to radiosensitivity, local behavior, and propensity for regional and systemic metastasis. The histological grade of many tumors is an important indicator of the potential for local invasion or systemic metastases, and may influence treatment response. Tumor staging as determined by clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and histological evaluation is necessary to establish the extent of the tumor, both locally, regionally, and systemically. The clinical oncologist should have an understanding of the procedures involved in tumor diagnosis, tumor grading, and tumor staging. This provides a better understanding of the neoplastic condition and recognition of the limitations of diagnostic procedures. Tumor type, grade, and stage all impact radiation treatment planning and the need for adjuvant regional or systemic therapy

  3. Studies of cell kinetics in vital and necrotic tumor regions: Measurement of loss rate using 125iododeoxyuridine

    The method of determining cell losses in situ from the decrease in radioactivity after a single i.p. injection of the thymidine-analogue, 125iododeoxyuridine was tested for its applicability in different development stages of the solid mammary adenocarcinoma EO 771 on male C57 N1/6J mice. Invasive studies on activity distributions in vital and necrotic tumour regions were carried out after injection of Light Green SF. The following results were obtained: 1) External measurement of activity loss register the removal of labelled cells and decay products rather than cell death. The total activity of the tumour at any time following injection corresponds to the sum of radioactivity in the proliferating, non-growing and necrotic compartments. 2) In solid tumours, there are regions with differing transport capacity. 3) The method using 125J-UdR does not allow determination of loss rates as a function of a given volume but rather yields an averaged value. 4) Activity losses of vital tumour cells largely correspond to the cell loss. (orig./MG)

  4. Ependymoma

    ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ...

  5. Oligoastrocytoma

    ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ...

  6. Glioma

    ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ...

  7. Oligodendroglioma

    ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ...

  8. Medulloblastoma

    ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ...

  9. Chondrosarcoma

    ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ...

  10. Craniopharyngioma

    ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ...

  11. LC/MS/MS analysis of the endogenous dimethyltryptamine hallucinogens, their precursors, and major metabolites in rat pineal gland microdialysate.

    Barker, Steven A; Borjigin, Jimo; Lomnicka, Izabela; Strassman, Rick

    2013-12-01

    We report a qualitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous analysis of the three known N,N-dimethyltryptamine endogenous hallucinogens, their precursors and metabolites, as well as melatonin and its metabolic precursors. The method was characterized using artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) as the matrix and was subsequently applied to the analysis of rat brain pineal gland-aCSF microdialysate. The method describes the simultaneous analysis of 23 chemically diverse compounds plus a deuterated internal standard by direct injection, requiring no dilution or extraction of the samples. The results demonstrate that this is a simple, sensitive, specific and direct approach to the qualitative analysis of these compounds in this matrix. The protocol also employs stringent MS confirmatory criteria for the detection and confirmation of the compounds examined, including exact mass measurements. The excellent limits of detection and broad scope make it a valuable research tool for examining the endogenous hallucinogen pathways in the central nervous system. We report here, for the first time, the presence of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in pineal gland microdialysate obtained from the rat. PMID:23881860

  12. Calcite microcrystals in the pineal gland of the human brain: second harmonic generators and possible piezoelectric transducers

    Full text: A new form of biomineralization in the pineal gland of the human brain has been studied. It consists of small crystals that are less than 20 μm in length and that are completely distinct from the often-observed mulberry-type hydroxyapatite concretions. Cubic, hexagonal and cylindrical morphologies have been identified using scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive spectroscopy, selected-area electron diffraction and near infrared Raman spectroscopy established that the crystals were calcite. Experiments at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) to study the biomineralization showed the presence of sulfur originating from both sugars and proteins. Other studies at the ESRF furnished information on the complex texture crystallization of the calcite. With the exception of the otoconia structure of the inner ear, this is the only known non-pathological occurrence of calcite in the human body. The calcite microcrystals are believed to be responsible for the previously observed second harmonic generation (SHG) in pineal tissue sections. There is a strong possibility that the complex twinned structure of the crystals may lower their symmetry and permit the existence of a piezoelectric effect

  13. Some properties of acetyl-CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.5) from rat pineal gland

    N-acetylation of serotonin to N-acetylserotonin in the pineal gland is catalysed by acetyl-CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase (SNAT). The present investigation was an attempt to design an assay technique which would permit sensitive evaluation of SNAT in order to evaluate some kinetic properties of the enzyme

  14. Expression of UV-sensitive parapinopsin in the iguana parietal eyes and its implication in UV-sensitivity in vertebrate pineal-related organs.

    Seiji Wada

    Full Text Available The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identification of parapinopsin in the reptile lineage and show its expression in the parietal eye of the green iguana. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that iguana parapinopsin is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific to parapinopsin and parietopsin, a parietal eye green-sensitive pigment, revealed that parapinopsin and parietopsin are colocalized in the outer segments of the parietal eye photoreceptor cells in iguanas. These results strongly suggest that parapinopsin underlies the wavelength discrimination involving UV reception in the iguana parietal eye. The current findings support the idea that parapinopsin is a common photopigment underlying the UV-sensitivity in wavelength discrimination of the pineal-related organs found from lampreys to reptiles.

  15. Developmental and Diurnal Dynamics of Pax4 Expression in the Mammalian Pineal Gland: Nocturnal Down-Regulation Is Mediated by Adrenergic-Cyclic Adenosine 3′,5′-Monophosphate Signaling

    Rath, Martin F.; Bailey, Michael J; Kim, Jong-So; Ho, Anthony K.; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Steven L Coon; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Pax4 is a homeobox gene that is known to be involved in embryonic development of the endocrine pancreas. In this tissue, Pax4 counters the effects of the related protein, Pax6. Pax6 is essential for development of the pineal gland. In this study we report that Pax4 is strongly expressed in the pineal gland and retina of the rat. Pineal Pax4 transcripts are low in the fetus and increase postnatally; Pax6 exhibits an inverse pattern of expression, being more strongly expressed in the fetus. In ...

  16. 大弹涂鱼松果体形态结构研究%Observation on Morphological Structure of Pineal Organ of Mudskipper(Boleophthalmus pectinirostris

    连惠波; 洪万树; 朱文博; 陈原; 洪鹭燕; 张其永

    2011-01-01

    鱼类松果体是传达外界信息到体内的主要传感器之一,其分泌的褪黑激素与鱼类生殖活动密切相关.为了阐明大弹涂鱼松果体形态结构与其功能的关系,运用组织细胞学方法研究了大弹涂鱼松果体的形态结构.结果表明,大弹涂鱼松果体位于端脑和中脑之间,由松果体柄和终囊两部分组成,具有背囊结构.松果体柄细长,细胞排列紧密,柄中有空腔,开口与第三脑室相通;松果体终囊膨大成梨形,且有空腔,腔内有皱褶,终囊顶部表面有黑色素细胞;背囊位于终囊下方,形状不规则,其囊壁向囊腔内反复折叠,形成许多复杂、盘旋曲折的内褶,背囊内部可见血细胞.研究结果为将来揭示大弹涂鱼半月周期产卵的机制提供了基础资料.%Pineal gland is a transducer that transmits environmental message to the brain in fishes. It produces melatonin to regulate fish spawning behaviors. In order to elucidate the relationship between the structure and functions of the pineal gland in the mudskip-per (Boleophlhalmus pectinirostris) ,the morphological structure of pineal organ of the mudskipper was studied using histocytology. Results showed that pineal organ of the mudskipper located between telencephalon and midbrain,was composed of pineal stalk and pineal vesicle,and had a dorsal sac. The pineal stalk was long and thin in shape.the cells arrangement was tight,and there was a ca-vum in the middle of the stalk. The opening of pineal organ was connected with the ventriculus tertius. Pineal vesicle was expanded as a pear in shape and had a cavum with rugas inside. The top surface of the vesicle was covered by melanophore. The dorsal sac lied under the pineal vesicle and was irregular in shape with a cavum. The inner wall of the sac cavum had many complicated,spiral and tortuous emboles. The blood cells were visible inside the dorsal sac. The data from the present study will be useful to future research on the

  17. Identification of the promoter region required for human adiponectin gene transcription: Association with CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-β and tumor necrosis factor-α

    Adiponectin, an adipose tissue-specific plasma protein, is involved in insulin sensitizing and has anti-atherosclerotic properties. Plasma levels of adiponectin are decreased in obese individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes with insulin resistance. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) decreases the expression of adiponectin in adipocytes. The aims of the present study were: (1) to identify the promoter region responsible for basal transcription of the human adiponectin gene, and (2) to investigate the mechanism by which adiponectin was regulated by TNF-α. The human adiponectin promoter (2.1 kb) was isolated and used for luciferase reporter analysis by transient transfection into 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Deletion analysis demonstrated that the promoter region from -676 to +41 was sufficient for basal transcriptional activity. Mutation analysis of putative response elements for sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) (-431 to -423) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) (-230 to -224) showed that both elements were required for basal promoter activity. Adiponectin transcription was increased 3-fold in cells that over-expressed constitutively active C/EBP-β. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, using nuclear extract from 3T3-L1 cells and the -258 to -199 region as a probe, demonstrated specific DNA-protein binding, which was abolished by TNF-α treatment. The present data indicate that the putative response elements for SREBP and C/EBP are required for human adiponectin promoter activity, and that suppression by TNF-α may, at least in part, be associated with inactivation of C/EBP-β

  18. Thin-section multiplanar reformats from multidetector-row CT data: Utility for assessment of regional tumor extent in non-small cell lung cancer

    Purpose: To determine the clinical utility of thin-section multiplanar reformats (MPRs) from multidetector-row CT (MDCT) data sets for assessing the extent of regional tumors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Materials and methods: Sixty consecutive NSCLC patients, who were considered candidates for surgical treatment, underwent contrast-enhanced MDCT examinations, surgical resection and pathological examinations. All MDCT examinations were performed with a 4-detector row computed tomography (CT). From each raw CT data set, 5 mm section thickness CT images (routine CT), 1.25 mm section thickness CT images (thin-section CT) and 1.25 mm section thickness sagittal (thin-section sagittal MPR) and coronal images (thin-section coronal MPR) were reconstructed. A 4-point visual score was used to assess mediastinal, interlobar and chest wall invasions on each image set. For assessment of utility in routine clinical practice, mean reading times for each image set were compared by means of Fisher's protected least significant difference (PLSD) test. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the diagnostic capability of each of the image data sets. Finally, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the reconstructed images were compared by McNemar test. Results: Mean reading times for thin-section sagittal and coronal MPRs were significantly shorter than those for routine CT and thin-section CT (p < 0.05). Areas under the curve (Azs) showing interlobar invasion on thin-section sagittal and coronal MPRs were significantly larger than that on routine CT (p = 0.03), and the Az on thin-section sagittal MPR was also significantly larger than that on routine CT (p = 0.02). Accuracy of chest wall invasion by thin-section sagittal MPR was significantly higher than that by routine CT (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Thin-section multiplanar reformats from multidetector-row CT data sets are useful for assessing the extent of regional tumors in non

  19. Functional rearrangement of the primary and secondary motor cortex in patients with primary tumors of the central nervous system located in the region of the central sulcus depending on the histopathological type and the size of tumor: Examination by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    The aim of this study was to analyze the reorganization of the centers of the motor cortex in patients with primary neuroepithelial tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) located in the region of the central sulcus in relation to the histopathological type and the size of tumor, as determined by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI was performed prior to the surgical treatment of patients with tumors located in the region of the central sulcus (WHO stage I and II, n=15; WHO stage III and IV, n=25). The analysis included a record of the activity in the areas of the primary motor cortex (M1) and the secondary motor cortex: the premotor cortex (PMA) and the accessory motor area (SMA). The results were correlated with the histopathological type of the tumor and its size expressed in cm3. The frequency of activation of the motor center was higher in the group of patients who had less aggressive tumors, such as low-grade glioma (LGG), as well as in tumors of lower volume, and this was true both for the hemisphere where the tumor was located and in the contralateral one. Mean values of t-statistics of activation intensity, mean numbers of activated clusters, and their ranges were lower in all analyzed motor areas of LGG tumors. The values of t-statistics and activation areas were higher in the case of small tumors located in ipsilateral centers, and in large tumors located in contralateral centers, aside from the SMA area where the values of t-statistics were equal for both groups. The contralateral SMA area was characterized by the highest stability of all examined centers of secondary motor cortex. No significant association (p>0.05) was observed between the absolute value of the mean registered activity (t-statistics) and the size of examined areas (number of clusters) when the groups were stratified with regards to the analyzed parameters. The presence of a neoplastic lesion, its histopathological type and finally its size modulate the

  20. Human papillomaviruses in Buschke-Löwenstein tumors: physical state of the DNA and identification of a tandem duplication in the noncoding region of a human papillomavirus 6 subtype.

    Boshart, M; zur Hausen, H

    1986-01-01

    Six Buschke-Löwenstein tumors, i.e., highly differentiated squamous cell tumors of the genital region, were shown to contain human papillomavirus 6 (HPV 6) or HPV 11 genomes. The viral DNA was found in an episomal state, including a very small fraction of circular oligomers. HPV 6a and HPV 6d genomes were cloned from two of the tumors. Comparison with HPV 6b, cloned from a benign genital wart (E. -M. de Villiers, L. Gissmann, and H. zur Hausen, J. Virol. 40:932-935, 1981) by restriction mapping and partial sequence analysis, revealed a very high degree of homology with the different HPV 6 subtypes. A tandem duplication of 459 base pairs within the noncoding region of the genome was found in the new subtype HPV 6d. This structural rearrangement in a region containing the putative control elements for early gene transcription might influence the biological potential of that virus. No evidence for rearrangement of this region was found in the HPV DNA from the five other tumors. Images PMID:3009899

  1. Loss of chromosome 1p/19q in oligodendroglial tumors: refinement of chromosomal critical regions and evaluation of internexin immunostaining as a surrogate marker.

    Buckley, Patrick G

    2011-03-01

    Loss of chromosome 1p\\/19q in oligodendrogliomas represents a powerful predictor of good prognosis. Expression of internexin (INA), a neuronal specific intermediate filament protein, has recently been proposed as a surrogate marker for 1p\\/19q deletion based on the high degree of correlation between both parameters in oligodendrogliomas. The aim of this study was to assess further the diagnostic utility of INA expression in a set of genetically well-characterized oligodendrogliomas. On the basis of a conservative approach for copy number determination, using both comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescent in situ hybridization, INA expression as a surrogate marker for 1p\\/19q loss had both reduced specificity (80%) and sensitivity (79%) compared with respective values of 86% and 96% reported in the previous report. The histologic interpretation and diagnostic value of INA expression in oligodendrogliomas should therefore be assessed with greater caution when compared with 1p\\/19q DNA copy number analysis. In addition, DNA copy number aberrations of chromosomes 10, 16, and 17 were detected exclusively in 1p\\/19q codeleted samples, suggesting that other regions of the genome may contribute to the 1p\\/19q-deleted tumor phenotype inthese samples.

  2. Prognostic Value of Microvessel Density in Tumor and Peritumoral Area as Evaluated by CD31 Protein Expression and Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organizer Region Count in Endothelial Cells in Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

    Ashot Avdalyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of microvessel density (MVD in uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS and peritumoral area (PA as evaluated by CD31 expression and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR count in endothelial cells. Tissue specimens from 66 patients with uterine LMS were examined. There were no significant differences in the mean MVD between tumor itself and the PA (=0.9; moreover, the MVD in the PA often exceeded that in the tumor. No correlation or significant differences were also found in the MVD between different grades of malignancy of LMS (=0.1; =0.07. The number of AgNORs in tumor endothelial cells was significantly higher in tumor vessels than in the peritumoral area (<0.005 and increased with the tumor grade. Analysis of the prognostic value of MVD in uterine LMS and PA showed that the density of tumor vessels was not an independent criterion, while the MVD in the PA affected 10-year survival to a significantly greater extent (2=27.5; =0.0003. The number of AgNORs also had an important effect on survival of LMS patients: when the threshold of 11.6 granules was exceeded, prognosis was significantly more unfavorable than that prior to exceeding the threshold.

  3. Intracranial germinoma

    Reddy, Manoj P.; Saad, Amin F.; Doughty, Kyle E.; Armstrong, Danielle; Melguizo-Gavilanes, Isaac; Cheek, Brennen S.; Opatowsky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Pineal region tumors make up less than 1% of all intracranial neoplasms, with the majority being of germ cell origin. We describe the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of a patient presenting with neurological deficits who was found to have a germinoma of the pineal gland.

  4. The effect of radioactive radiation of the neurotransmitter levels in the hypothalamus, pituitary and pineal glands of sheeps

    The effect of the exposure of the whole body to continuous radiation was studied of catecholamines (epinephrine and unepinephrine) in the hypothalamus, pineal and pituitary glands of ewes during the anestric period with synchronized oestrus. The radiation was provided at the rate 0.020 Gy per hour. Catecholamines were separated from the tissue supernatants by the absorption chromatographic method and the catecholamine contents in the eluates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Protracted exposure to gamma radiation and hormone stimulation with SG reduces the concentration of unepinephrine (P<0.001) in the whole hypothalamus of the sheep. A statistically significant decrease (P<0.001) was recorded in the medial and caudal hypothalamus of ewes. If is assumed that the decrease in catecholamine concentration after irradiation (2.4 Gy) is associated with the destroyed metabolism of catecholamines in nervous tissue and activity its degradation enzyme monoaminooxidase. (authors)

  5. Pituitary gland tumors

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  6. Associations of pineal volume, chronotype and symptom severity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls.

    Bumb, Jan Malte; Mier, Daniela; Noelte, Ingo; Schredl, Michael; Kirsch, Peter; Hennig, Oliver; Liebrich, Luisa; Fenske, Sabrina; Alm, Barbara; Sauer, Carina; Leweke, Franz Markus; Sobanski, Esther

    2016-07-01

    The pineal gland, as part of the human epithalamus, is the main production site of peripheral melatonin, which promotes the modulation of sleep patterns, circadian rhythms and circadian preferences (morningness vs. eveningness). The present study analyses the pineal gland volume (PGV) and its association with circadian preferences and symptom severity in adult ADHD patients compared to healthy controls. PGV was determined manually using high-resolution 3T MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in medication free adult ADHD patients (N=74) compared to healthy controls (N=86). Moreover, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the ADHD Diagnostic Checklist and the Wender-Utah Rating Scale were conducted. PGV differed between both groups (patients: 59.9±33.8mm(3); healthy controls: 71.4±27.2mm(3), P=0.04). In ADHD patients, more eveningness types were revealed (patients: 29%; healthy controls: 17%; P=0.05) and sum scores of the MEQ were lower (patients: 45.8±11.5; healthy controls 67.2±10.1; P<0.001). Multiple regression analyses indicated a positive correlation of PGV and MEQ scores in ADHD (β=0.856, P=0.003) but not in healthy controls (β=0.054, P=0.688). Patients' MEQ scores (β=-0.473, P=0.003) were negatively correlated to ADHD symptoms. The present results suggest a linkage between the PGV and circadian preference in adults with ADHD and an association of the circadian preference to symptom severity. This may facilitate the development of new chronobiological treatment approaches for the add-on treatment in ADHD. PMID:27150337

  7. Tumor-associated macrophages: effectors of angiogenesis and tumor progression.

    Coffelt, Seth B; Hughes, Russell; Lewis, Claire E

    2009-08-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a prominent inflammatory cell population in many tumor types residing in both perivascular and avascular, hypoxic regions of these tissues. Analysis of TAMs in human tumor biopsies has shown that they express a variety of tumor-promoting factors and evidence from transgenic murine tumor models has provided unequivocal evidence for the importance of these cells in driving angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, immunosuppression, and metastasis. This review will summarize the mechanisms by which monocytes are recruited into tumors, their myriad, tumor-promoting functions within tumors, and the influence of the tumor microenvironment in driving these activities. We also discuss recent attempts to both target/destroy TAMs and exploit them as delivery vehicles for anti-cancer gene therapy. PMID:19269310

  8. HISTOLOGICAL PATTERN OF OVARIAN TUMORS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN KUMAON REGION OF UTTARAKHAND: A FIVE YEAR RETRO-PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Yuman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in females around the world and therefore an area of concern for health care professionals. The further distressing aspect of these tumors is that they do not manifest any symptoms till they are clinically advanced or have attained a considerable size. AIMS: To study the histological pattern of ovarian tumors and compare it with other studies. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retro- prospective study. METHODS AND MATERIAL: A retro prospective study was done on 131 ovarian tumors received over a period of five years. Data including the age, clinical presentation, related history, involvement (whether unilateral or bilateral were obtained from the histopathological requisition forms of the patients. Histopathology reports of all the cases were recorded from the data base. The histological categorization of ovarian tumors was done according to the WHO Classification of 2003. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: None. RESULTS: Out of the 131 tumors studied, 87 (66.41% were benign, 32 (24.42% were malignant and 12 (9.16% were borderline. Surface epithelial tumors (67.17%, including benign, borderline and malignant, contributed the bulk of the cases. Ovarian tumors were seen in younger age group and borderline tumors, both serous and mucinous, were reported more compared to other studies. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma was the most common malignancy. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian tumors once detected should be removed immediately without further delay. A very extensive sampling and careful histopathological examination should be the rule as the patient’s management and prognosis depends largely on the histologic type of tumor.

  9. Ganglioglioma arising from olfactory sheath: A rare site of an uncommon tumor.

    Singla, Navneet; Gupta, Kirti; Kapoor, Ankur

    2016-06-01

    Gangliogliomas are rare slow growing tumors with a mixed population of dysplastic ganglion cells and glial components, reported at variable sites within the central nervous system, including the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, the striatum, cerebellum, pituitary and pineal glands as well as the spinal cord. Rarely gangliogliomas have been reported arising within the cranial nerves, including the optic and trigeminal nerve. We present the first patient, to our knowledge, where such a tumor originated from the olfactory sheath. Migration defects leading to entrapment of sensory neurons during development is believed to be responsible for the pathogenesis of these lesions. The extent of surgical extirpation and histopathological anaplasia are important prognosticators. While gangliogliomas are rare tumors, it is crucial to consider them in the differential diagnosis of non-enhancing, poorly localized lesions along the cranial nerves. PMID:26874814

  10. Effectiveness of four different clinical fMRI paradigms for preoperative regional determination of language lateralization in patients with brain tumors

    Blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has demonstrated its capability to provide comparable results to gold standard intracarotid sodium amobarbital (Wada) testing for preoperative determination of language hemispheric dominance. However, thus far, no consensus has been established regarding which fMRI paradigms are the most effective for the determination of hemispheric language lateralization in specific categories of patients and specific regions of interest (ROIs). Forty-one brain tumor patients who performed four different language tasks - rhyming (R), silent word generation (SWG) sentence completion, and sentence listening comprehension (LC) - for presurgical language mapping by fMRI were included in this study. A statistical threshold-independent lateralization index (LI) was calculated and compared among the paradigms in four different ROIs for language activation: functional Broca's (BA) and Wernicke's areas (WA) as well as larger anatomically defined expressive (EA) and receptive (RA) areas. The two expressive paradigms evaluated in this study are very good lateralizing tasks in expressive language areas; specifically, a significantly higher mean LI value was noted for SWG (0.36 ± 0.25) compared to LC (0.16 ± 0.24, p = 0.009) and for R (0.40 ± 0.22) compared to LC (0.16 ± 0.24, p = 0.001) in BA. SWG LI (0.28 ± 0.19) was higher than LC LI (0.12 ± 0.16, p = 0.01) also in EA. No significant differences in LI were found among these paradigms in WA or RA. SWG and R are sufficient for the determination of lateralization in expressive language areas, whereas new semantic or receptive paradigms need to be designed for an improved assessment of lateralization in receptive language areas. (orig.)

  11. Maternal coordination of the daily rhythm of malate dehydrogenase activity in testes from young rats: effect of maternal sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland and administration of melatonin.

    Vermouth, N T; Carriazo, C S; Gallará, R V; Carpentieri, A R; Bellavía, S L

    1995-02-01

    Chronic sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland by bilateral removal of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) was performed on female rats 30 days before impregnation. The offspring, maintained in the dark from birth, had disruption of the malate dehydrogenase circadian rhythm in the testes at 25 days of age. A daily injection of melatonin (1 mg/kg s.c. at 10:00 or 18:00 h) to denervated mothers from the 14th day of pregnancy up to the 10th day postpartum produced one daily phase in the enzyme activity of tests in the offspring. Entrainment of daily enzyme activity also was obtained when the hormone was administered orally to the pups during the postnatal period or when pups were reared by intact (not denervated) foster mothers. The results indicate the involvement of the maternal pineal gland in the maternal transfer of photoperiodic information necessary for the coordination of the circadian system in young rats. PMID:7750160

  12. Effect of constant temperatures, darkness and light on the secretion of melatonin by pineal explants and retinas in the gecko Christinus marmoratus.

    Moyer, R W; Firth, B T; Kennaway, D J

    1995-03-27

    The effects of temperature and lighting conditions on the secretion of melatonin by the pineal organ of the nocturnal gecko Christinus marmoratus was studied using in vitro perifusion. In a 12L:12D lighting regime, a high-amplitude melatonin rhythm was detectable at a constant temperature of 20 and 30 degrees C but not at 10 or 37 degrees C. There were sustained high levels of melatonin in constant darkness and sustained low levels in constant light. No retinal melatonin was detected using static and perifusion culture techniques. These results show that the pineal organ of C. marmoratus maintains light sensitivity in vitro but does not contain an oscillator coupled to the melatonin synthetic pathway. PMID:7796151

  13. Radiometric assay for phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and catechol O-methyltransferase in a single tissue sample: application to rat hypothalamic nuclei, pineal gland, and heart

    A simple and highly sensitive method for simultaneous assay of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) is described. These enzymes are determined in a single tissue homogenate using S-[methyl-3H] adenosyl-L-methionine as methyl donor and sequentially incubating with the substrates phenylethanolamine and epinephrine. The radioactive products of the enzymatic reactions, N-methylphenylethanolamine and metanephrine, are extracted and then separated by thin-layer chromatography. The identity of the reaction products has been established chromatographically and the conditions for both enzymatic reactions in the assay procedure have been defined. Measurement of PNMT activity in the rat pineal gland or in minute fragments of other tissues (e.g., brain nuclei) has not been possible using previously described methods. Activities of PNMT and COMT in the rat pineal gland, various hypothalamic nuclei, and the auricular and ventricular myocardia are herein reported

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Target Volume Delineation in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning for Brain Tumors Using Localized Region-Based Active Contour

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical application of a robust semiautomatic image segmentation method to determine the brain target volumes in radiation therapy treatment planning. Methods and Materials: A local robust region-based algorithm was used on MRI brain images to study the clinical target volume (CTV) of several patients. First, 3 oncologists delineated CTVs of 10 patients manually, and the process time for each patient was calculated. The averages of the oncologists’ contours were evaluated and considered as reference contours. Then, to determine the CTV through the semiautomatic method, a fourth oncologist who was blind to all manual contours selected 4-8 points around the edema and defined the initial contour. The time to obtain the final contour was calculated again for each patient. Manual and semiautomatic segmentation were compared using 3 different metric criteria: Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance. A comparison also was performed between volumes obtained from semiautomatic and manual methods. Results: Manual delineation processing time of tumors for each patient was dependent on its size and complexity and had a mean (±SD) of 12.33 ± 2.47 minutes, whereas it was 3.254 ± 1.7507 minutes for the semiautomatic method. Means of Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and mean absolute distance between manual contours were 0.84 ± 0.02, 2.05 ± 0.66 cm, and 0.78 ± 0.15 cm, and they were 0.82 ± 0.03, 1.91 ± 0.65 cm, and 0.7 ± 0.22 cm between manual and semiautomatic contours, respectively. Moreover, the mean volume ratio (=semiautomatic/manual) calculated for all samples was 0.87. Conclusions: Given the deformability of this method, the results showed reasonable accuracy and similarity to the results of manual contouring by the oncologists. This study shows that the localized region-based algorithms can have great ability in determining the CTV and can be appropriate alternatives for manual approaches in brain cancer

  15. Tumor vaccines

    Tumor vaccines have several potential advantages over standard anticancer regiments. They represent highly specific anticancer therapy. Inducing tumor-specific memory T-lymphocytes, they have potential for long-lived antitumor effects. However, clinical trials, in which cancer patients were vaccinated with tumor vaccines, have been so far mainly disappointing. There are many reasons for the inefficiency of tumor vaccines. Most cancer antigens are normal self-molecules to which immune tolerance exists. That is why the population of tumor-specific lymphocytes is represented by a small number of low-affinity T-lymphocytes that induce weak antitumor immune response. Simultaneously, tumors evolve many mechanisms to actively evade immune system, what makes them poorly immunogenic or even tolerogenic. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies are directed toward breaking immune tolerance to tumor antigens, enhancing immunogenicity of tumor vaccines and overcoming mechanisms of tumor escape. There are several approaches, unfortunately, all of them still far away from an ideal tumor vaccine that would reject a tumor. Difficulties in the activation of antitumor immune response by tumor vaccines have led to the development of alternative immunotherapeutic strategies that directly focus on effector mechanisms of immune system (adoptive tumor- specific T-lymphocyte transfer and tumor specific monoclonal antibodies). (author)

  16. Modulation of Intercellular Calcium Signaling by Melatonin, in Avian and Mammalian Astrocytes, is Brain Region Specific

    Peters, Jennifer L.; Earnest, Barbara J.; Tjalkens, Ronald B.; Cassone, Vincent M.; Zoran, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    Calcium waves among glial cells impact many central nervous system functions, including neural integration and brain metabolism. Here, we have characterized the modulatory effects of melatonin, a pineal neurohormone that mediates circadian and seasonal processes, on glial calcium waves derived from different brain regions and species. Diencephalic and telencephalic astrocytes, from both chick and mouse brains, expressed melatonin receptor proteins. Further, using the calcium-sensitive dye Flu...

  17. Light-Emitting Diodes and Cool White Fluorescent Light Similarly Suppress Pineal Gland Melatonin and Maintain Retinal Function and Morphology in the Rat. Part 1

    Holley, Daniel C.; Heeke, D.; Mele, G.

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the light sources most commonly used in animal habitat lighting are cool white fluorescent or incandescent lamps. We evaluated a novel light-emitting diode (LED) light source for use in animal habitat lighting by comparing its effectiveness to cool white fluorescent light (CWF) in suppressing pineal gland melatonin and maintaining normal retinal physiology and morphology in the rat. Results of pineal melatonin suppression experiments showed equal suppression of pineal melatonin concentrations for LED light and CWF light at five different light illuminances (100, 40, 10, 1 and 0.1 lux). There were no significant differences in melatonin suppression between LED and CWF light when compared to unexposed controls. Retinal physiology was evaluated using electroretinography. Results show no differences in a-wave implicit times and amplitudes or b-wave implicit times and amplitudes between 100-lux LED-exposed rats and 100-lux CWF-exposed rats. Results of retinal histology assessment show no differences in retinal thickness rod outer segment length and number of rod nuclei between rats exposed to 100-lux LED and 100-lux CWF for days. Furthermore, the retinal pigmented epithelium and rod outer segments of all eyes observed were in good condition and of normal thickness. This study indicates that LED light does not cause retinal damage and can suppress pineal melatonin at similar intensities as a conventional CWF light source. These data suggest that LED light sources may be suitable replacements for conventional light sources used in the lighting of rodent vivariums while providing many mechanical and economical advantages.

  18. The effect of chronic morphine or methadone exposure and withdrawal on clock gene expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus and AA-NAT activity in the pineal gland.

    Pačesová, D; Novotný, J; Bendová, Z

    2016-07-18

    The circadian rhythms of many behavioral and physiological functions are regulated by the major circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Long-term opiate addiction and drug withdrawal may affect circadian rhythmicity of various hormones or the sleep/activity pattern of many experimental subjects; however, limited research has been done on the long-term effects of sustained opiate administration on the intrinsic rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland. Here we compared the effects of repeated daily treatment of rats with morphine or methadone and subsequent naloxone-precipitated withdrawal on the expression of the Per1, Per2, and Avp mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in the pineal gland. We revealed that 10-day administration and withdrawal of both these drugs failed to affect clock genes and Avp expression in the SCN. Our results indicate that opioid-induced changes in behavioral and physiological rhythms originate in brain structures downstream of the suprachiasmatic nucleus regulatory output pathway. Furthermore, we observed that acute withdrawal from methadone markedly extended the period of high night AA-NAT activity in the pineal gland. This suggests that withdrawal from methadone, a widely used drug for the treatment of opioid dependence, may have stronger impact on melatonin synthesis than withdrawal from morphine. PMID:27070740

  19. Immune-Pineal Axis: Nuclear Factor κB (NF-kB Mediates the Shift in the Melatonin Source from Pinealocytes to Immune Competent Cells

    Regina P. Markus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pineal gland melatonin is the darkness hormone, while extra-pineal melatonin produced by the gonads, gut, retina, and immune competent cells acts as a paracrine or autocrine mediator. The well-known immunomodulatory effect of melatonin is observed either as an endocrine, a paracrine or an autocrine response. In mammals, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB blocks noradrenaline-induced melatonin synthesis in pinealocytes, which induces melatonin synthesis in macrophages. In addition, melatonin reduces NF-κB activation in pinealocytes and immune competent cells. Therefore, pathogen- or danger-associated molecular patterns transiently switch the synthesis of melatonin from pinealocytes to immune competent cells, and as the response progresses melatonin inhibition of NF-κB activity leads these cells to a more quiescent state. The opposite effect of NF-κB in pinealocytes and immune competent cells is due to different NF-κB dimers recruited in each phase of the defense response. This coordinated shift of the source of melatonin driven by NF-κB is called the immune-pineal axis. Finally, we discuss how this concept might be relevant to a better understanding of pathological conditions with impaired melatonin rhythms and hope it opens new horizons for the research of side effects of melatonin-based therapies.

  20. Evidence That MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging (Tractography) Predicts the Natural History of Regional Progression in Patients Irradiated Conformally for Primary Brain Tumors

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is fast becoming the method of choice for treatment of nonsuperficial brain lesions. SRT treatment plans of malignant brain tumors typically incorporate a 20-mm isotropic margin to account for microscopic tumor spread; however, distant or progressive tumors occur outside this margin. Our hypothesis is that paths of elevated water diffusion may provide a preferred route for transport or migration of cancer cells. If our hypothesis is correct, then future SRT treatment volumes could be modified to provide elongated treatment margins along the paths of elevated water diffusion, thereby creating a biologically better treatment plan that may reduce the incidence of progression. Methods and Materials: Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) datasets were acquired on patient subjects before the appearance of >5 mm diameter progressive lesions or secondary tumors. DTI was performed using an echo-planar imaging sequence on a 1.5T clinical General Electric scanner with voxel dimensions of 0.98 x 0.98 x 6 mm. After SRT, patients were given repeated magnetic resonance imaging follow-ups at regular intervals to identify early tumor progression. When progressive disease was detected, DTIstudio and FMRIB Software Library software was used to compute paths of preferred water diffusion through the primary tumor site and the site of progression. Results: Our preliminary results on 14 patient datasets suggest a strong relationship between routes of elevated water diffusion from the primary tumor and the location of tumor progression. Conclusions: Further investigation is therefore warranted. Future work will employ more sophisticated fiber analysis in a prospective study

  1. Mammary tumors

    Mammary neoplasia is one of the more common malignancies affecting domestic species. Despite their importance, they are often over- diagnosed, undertreated and subject to several misconceptions propagated by veterinarians and pet owners alike. Mammary neoplasia is the most frequent tumor type encountered in the female accounting for almost half of all malignancies reported. The canine has the highest incidence of mammary tumors of all domestic species. In the dog, about 65 percent of mammary tumors are benign mixed tumors, and 25 percent are carcinomas. The rest are adenomas, myoepitheliomas, and malignant mixed tumors. The age distribution of mammary tumors closely follows the age distribution of most tumors in the dog. Mammary tumors are rare in dogs 2 years old, but incidence begins to increase sharply at approximately 6 years of age. Median age at diagnosis is about 10 years. No breed predilection has been consistently reported

  2. (64)Cu-ATSM therapy targets regions with activated DNA repair and enrichment of CD133(+) cells in an HT-29 tumor model: Sensitization with a nucleic acid antimetabolite.

    Yoshii, Yukie; Furukawa, Takako; Matsumoto, Hiroki; Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Kiyono, Yasushi; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2016-06-28

    (64)Cu-diacetyl-bis (N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone) ((64)Cu-ATSM) is a potential theranostic agent targeting the over-reduced state under hypoxia within tumors. Recent clinical Cu-ATSM positron emission tomography studies have revealed a correlation between uptake and poor prognosis; however, the reason is unclear. Here, using a human colon carcinoma HT-29 model, we demonstrated that the intratumoral (64)Cu-ATSM high-uptake regions exhibited malignant characteristics, such as upregulated DNA repair and elevated %CD133(+) cancer stem-like cells. Based on this evidence, we developed a strategy to enhance the efficacy of (64)Cu-ATSM internal radiotherapy (IRT) by inhibiting DNA repair with a nucleic acid (NA) antimetabolite. The results of the analyses showed upregulation of pathways related to DNA repair along with NA incorporation (bromodeoxyuridine uptake) and elevation of %CD133(+) cells in (64)Cu-ATSM high-uptake regions. In an in vivo(64)Cu-ATSM treatment study, co-administration of an NA antimetabolite and (64)Cu-ATSM synergistically inhibited tumor growth, with little toxicity, and effectively reduced %CD133(+) cells. (64)Cu-ATSM therapy targeted malignant tumor regions with activated DNA repair and high concentrations of CD133(+) cells in the HT-29 model. NA antimetabolite co-administration can be an effective approach to enhance the therapeutic effect of (64)Cu-ATSM IRT. PMID:26996296

  3. Brain Tumors

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are metastatic, ...

  4. Odontogenic Tumors

    TAHSİNOĞLU, Melih

    2013-01-01

    DefinitionThe neoplasms that consist of the cells considered specialized for odontogenesis, and their product (dentin, enamel, cementum) are called odontogenic tumors.ClassificationTo initiate odontogenesis, epithelium is a must. Same rule holds for the odontogenic tumors: without odontogenic epithelium, odontogenic tumors cannot be, without the induction of odontogenic epithelium odontogenic mesenchyme cannot develop.

  5. Brain Tumors

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  6. Tumor Markers

    ... guidelines on a variety of topics, including tumor markers for breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and others. The ... of recurrence 70-Gene signature (Mammaprint®) Cancer type: Breast ... Can tumor markers be used in cancer screening? Because tumor markers ...

  7. Urogenital tumors

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Wilms Tumor

    ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Wilms Tumor KidsHealth > For Parents > Wilms Tumor Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Caring for Your Child en español Tumor ...

  9. Incidence of mammary tumors in the canine population living in the Veneto region (Northeastern Italy): Risk factors and similarities to human breast cancer.

    Vascellari, Marta; Capello, Katia; Carminato, Antonio; Zanardello, Claudia; Baioni, Elisa; Mutinelli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    Although mammary gland tumors (MT) are the most-common type of tumor in intact female dogs, there is little information about their incidence in dog population. Data on MT in female dogs was retrieved from the Animal Tumor registry of dogs and cats of Venice and Vicenza provinces during 2005-2013 and was analyzed to visualize crude incidence rates by breed and across age categories. Overall, 2744 mammary tumors were reported accounting for 54% of all tumors in female dogs. The annual incidence rate (IR) was 250 cases per 100,000 dogs. The most frequent malignant tumors were complex carcinomas, consisting of both epithelial and myoepithelial tissues (IR=71.89), and simple carcinomas (IR=62.59). The MT incidence rate increased through the study period; particularly in the last 4 years, and malignant neoplasms occurred more frequently (70%) than the benign counterparts (30%). Seventy-four percent of tumors were diagnosed in intact females, and the mean age at diagnosis was significantly higher for spayed dogs than for intact ones. MT were less frequent in dogs younger than 6 years and increased up to approximately 60% for ages between 8 and 13 years. The purebred dogs had a higher probability to have a malignant neoplasm than mixed-breed dogs, particularly in dogs younger than 7 years, and the Samoyed, Dobermann, Schnauzer and Yorkshire Terrier breeds were more inclined to develop malignant MT. The incidence of MT in dogs is increasing, and IRs are comparable to that in women. The epidemiological similarities between dogs and women support the validity of canine MT as a model for human breast cancer. PMID:26948297

  10. Estudo da glândula pineal de suíno por meio de microscopia de luz - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2038 Study of the swine pineal gland by means of light microscopy

    Kleber Fernando Pereira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas dez glândulas pineais de suínos da raça Landrace com 180 dias de idade, sendo cinco machos e cinco fêmeas. Após a coleta, o material foi fixado em solução de formalina a 10% por um período de 48 horas e, em seguida, submetido a tratamento de rotina para inclusão em parafina e realização de cortes histológicos, que foram corados por hematoxilina-eosina e Sírius-Red F3BA. As lâminas selecionadas foram fotografadas em fotomicroscópio do Departamento de Ciências Morfofisiológicas da Universidade Estadual de Maringá. O presente estudo teve por objetivo verificar a morfologia da glândula pineal de suínos por meio de microscopia de luz. Os resultados permitem verificar que a glândula pineal de suínos apresenta-se revestida pela pia-máter que emite projeções para o interior da glândula, constituindo septos de tecido conjuntivo. A distribuição dos elementos celulares no parênquima da glândula pineal apresenta-se de maneira heterogênea, na qual se observam regiões com escassez celular e predominância de pequenos feixes de fibras conjuntivas e concreções calcárias. Os resultados permitem concluir que a glândula pineal de suínos apresenta-se delimitada por septações de tecido conjuntivo proveniente da pia-máter, e que no interior da glândula é comum a presença de concreções calcáriasTen swine pineal glands from Landrace breed at the age of 180 days were collected, 5 males and 5 females. After the collection, the material was fastened in formaline solution at 10% for a period of 48 hours, and soon after it was undergone a routine treatment for inclusion in paraffin and accomplishment of histologic courts that have been red-faced for hematoxylin-eosin and Sírius-Red F3BA. The selected sheets were photographed in fotomicroscopy from the Department of Morphologic Sciences of Universidade Estadual de Maringá (State University of Maringá. The present study aimed to verify the morphology of swine

  11. The mouse small eye mutant, Del(2)Sey3H, which deletes the putative tumor suppressor region of the radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia is susceptible to radiation

    Radiation-induced murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the chromosome 2 deletions. Standing on the hypothesis that an AML suppressor gene would locate on the chromosome 2, a deletion-wide screen was performed on radiation-induced AMLs by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. The hemizugous deletion of the D2Mit15, a marker DNA at the 49.0cM region from the centromere, associated with the AMLs in 97 out of the 105 cases (92.4%). As the deletion region was close to the region of human WAGR syndrome (MIM194072), the mouse small eye mutants could be the animal model for radiation-induced AMLs. The mutant, Del(2)Sey3H (Sey3H) was found to delete around the 49.0cM region by the allelic loss mapping. The Sey3H showed high susceptibility to radiation to develop tumors including the myeloid leukemia with shorter latency. These finding support the existence of a putative tumor suppressor gene responsible for the radiation-leukemogenesis near the D2Mit15 region. (author)

  12. Brown tumor involving the sellar-parasellar region mimicking pituitary adenoma as the tip of the iceberg of generalized primary hyperparathyroidism

    Joanna Malicka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case study of a 40-year-old man with advanced, previously undiagnosed primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT, which first manifestation directing to correct diagnosis was sellar-parasellar brown tumor. Further studies disclosed PHPT. The patient presented many of the classic signs of the disease, including renal stones, duodenal ulcer, muscle weakness and bone pains, but suspicion of PHPT was made on the base of a postoperative histological examination of the sellar- parasellar tumor. Laboratory investigations showed hypercalcaemia, hypophosphataemia, elevated levels of parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase. A skeletal survey showed generalized decreased density of bones and multiple brown tumors. The problems of diagnosis and localization of parathyroid glands have been discussed. The literature has been reviewed and the importance of early diagnosis and treatment has been stressed.

  13. Granular Cell Tumor of Brachial Plexus Mimicking Nerve Sheath Tumor: A Case Report

    Kim, Young-Im; Lee, Chul-kyu; Cho, Ki Hong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Primary tumors of the brachial plexus region are rare and granular cell tumors arising from the brachial plexus region is an extremely rare disease. We present a case of granular cell tumor arising from of the brachial plexus which appeared to be a usual presentation of nerve sheath tumor before the pathological confirmation. We report a granular cell tumor of the brachial plexus with literature review. Total resection is important for good clinical outcome and prognosis in the treatment of g...

  14. Diurnal profiles of melatonin synthesis-related indoles, catecholamines and their metabolites in the duck pineal organ.

    Lewczuk, Bogdan; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Prusik, Magdalena; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study characterizes the diurnal profiles of ten melatonin synthesis-related indoles, the quantitative relations between these compounds, and daily variations in the contents of catecholamines and their metabolites in the domestic duck pineal organ. Fourteen-week-old birds, which were reared under a 12L:12D cycle, were killed at two-hour intervals. The indole contents were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection, whereas the levels of catecholamines and their metabolites were measured using HPLC with electrochemical detection. All indole contents, except for tryptophan, showed significant diurnal variations. The 5-hydroxytryptophan level was approximately two-fold higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. The serotonin content increased during the first half of the photophase, remained elevated for approximately 10 h and then rapidly decreased in the middle of the scotophase. N-acetylserotonin showed the most prominent changes, with a more than 15-fold increase at night. The melatonin cycle demonstrated only an approximately 5-fold difference between the peak and nadir. The 5-methoxytryptamine content was markedly elevated during the scotophase. The 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophol, 5-methoxyindole acetic acid and 5-methoxytryptophol profiles were analogous to the serotonin rhythm. The norepinephrine and dopamine contents showed no significant changes. The DOPA, DOPAC and homovanillic acid levels were higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. Vanillylmandelic acid showed the opposite rhythm, with an elevated level during the daytime. PMID:25032843

  15. Diurnal Profiles of Melatonin Synthesis-Related Indoles, Catecholamines and Their Metabolites in the Duck Pineal Organ

    Bogdan Lewczuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the diurnal profiles of ten melatonin synthesis-related indoles, the quantitative relations between these compounds, and daily variations in the contents of catecholamines and their metabolites in the domestic duck pineal organ. Fourteen-week-old birds, which were reared under a 12L:12D cycle, were killed at two-hour intervals. The indole contents were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection, whereas the levels of catecholamines and their metabolites were measured using HPLC with electrochemical detection. All indole contents, except for tryptophan, showed significant diurnal variations. The 5-hydroxytryptophan level was approximately two-fold higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. The serotonin content increased during the first half of the photophase, remained elevated for approximately 10 h and then rapidly decreased in the middle of the scotophase. N-acetylserotonin showed the most prominent changes, with a more than 15-fold increase at night. The melatonin cycle demonstrated only an approximately 5-fold difference between the peak and nadir. The 5-methoxytryptamine content was markedly elevated during the scotophase. The 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophol, 5-methoxyindole acetic acid and 5-methoxytryptophol profiles were analogous to the serotonin rhythm. The norepinephrine and dopamine contents showed no significant changes. The DOPA, DOPAC and homovanillic acid levels were higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. Vanillylmandelic acid showed the opposite rhythm, with an elevated level during the daytime.

  16. Evaluation The Result Of Treating 1200 Patients Brain Tumor And Some Intracranial Diseases By Rotating GAMMA Knife (RGK) At The Nuclear Medicine And Oncology Center, Bach Mai Hospital

    The paper is evaluating results of treating brain tumor and some intracranial diseases by rotating gamma knife (RGK) at The Nuclear Medicine and Oncology Center, Bach Mai Hospital, from July 2007 to August 2010, for 1200 patients treated with RGK. In 1200 patients - average age: 42.6 years old, Male/Female ratio:1/1.08 - pituitary tumors accounted for 19.8%, meningioma 18.3%, arteriovenous malformations (AVM) (16.7%), acoustic neuroma (8.7%), brain metastases (7.5%), craniopharyngeal tumor (5.0%), pineal tumor (3.5%), cavernoma (6%), astrocytoma (5.2%), meduloblastoma (2.9%), ependymoma (2.6%), others (3.8%). Average target volume: minimum 0.6cm3, maximum 27.6cm3, median 6.2 ± 4.6 cm3. Average radiosurgery dose changed depend on nature of the tumor: pituitary tumor (12.4 Gy), meningioma (18.8 Gy), AVM (18 Gy), acoustic neuroma (14.6 Gy), brain metastases (18.2 Gy), craniopharyngeal tumor (12.8 Gy), pineal tumor (16.3 Gy), cavernoma (17.5 Gy), astrocytoma (14.6 Gy), medulloblastoma (16.1 Gy), ependymoma (16.3 Gy), others (15 Gy). Conclusions: Almost case have improved clinical symptoms significantly: 80.2% after 1 month (complete response 20.2%), 100% at 36th month (complete response: 94%). Size of the tumor were reduced remarkably. Treatment were safe, no death or severe complications were observed within and after radiosurgery. (author)

  17. Regulation of serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in the chick pineal gland by UV-A and white light: role of MK-801- and SCH 23390-sensitive retinal signals.

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Lorenc, Anna; Berezińska, Małgorzata

    2007-01-01

    The rhythmic melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland is one of the most extensively studied circadian rhythms in vertebrates. Light is the dominant environmental factor controlling this process. Light at night acutely suppresses pineal melatonin content and activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT; the key and penultimate enzyme in the hormone biosynthetic pathway). In addition, pulses of light appropriately timed reset the circadian oscillator generating the melatonin rhythm. Although the avian pineal gland is a directly photosensitive organ, it has recently been demonstrated that light perceived by the eyes only regulates its activity. The present study shows that ocular exposure of chicks to UV-A radiation or white light during the second half of the subjective night markedly decreased AANAT activity in the pineal gland, and produced a significant phase advance of the circadian rhythm of the enzyme activity. Both the suppressive and phase-shifting effects of UV-A light were antagonized by intraocular pretreatment of birds with MK 801 (a selective blocker of NMDA glutamate receptors), but were not modified by SCH 23390 (a selective antagonist of D1-dopamine receptors). On the other hand, the suppressive and phase-shifting effects of retinally perceived white light were antagonized by intraocular injection of SCH 23390, and not affected by MK 801. Our results demonstrate that retinal illumination with UV-A radiation and white light provide powerful signals that shift phase of the circadian oscillator generating melatonin rhythm in the chick pineal gland. It is suggested that control of pineal melatonin synthesis by retinally perceived UV-A and white light might involve input from different photoreceptors. PMID:17901569

  18. Influence of the pineal gland on the physiology, morphometry and morphology of pancreatic islets in rats A influência da glândula pineal na fisiologia, morfometria e morfologia das ilhotas pancreáticas em ratos

    L. M. B. de LIMA

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of the pineal gland through melatonin secretion on the physiological and morphological parameters of pancreatic islets, we studied the plasma biochemistry and morphological and morphometric characteristics of the endocrine pancreas of male Wistar rats. The animals were distributed into five groups of ten rats each: NC - normal control group; NS - sham-operated group; Px (25 - pinealectomised group, studied 15-25 days after surgery; Px (70 - pinealectomised group, studied 60-70 days after surgery; ALX - alloxan monohydrate-treated group. Data are analyzed statistically by ANOVA and by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Although there was no significant difference in plasma glucose or insulin levels between the Px (25, Px (70 and NC groups, Px (25 animals showed a tendency to increased glucose and reduced insulin levels. The ALX group showed a clear elevation of plasma glucose and a reduction of plasma insulin compared to the other groups. Morphometric analysis showed a larger pancreatic islet area and a lower pancreatic islet density in the pancreas of Px (70 animals and an increase in degenerative pathological processes in the pancreatic islets of the Px (25 and ALX groups. The present results suggest that melatonin, in addition to acting on tissue sensitivity to insulin (as reported in other studies, affects the secretory action of beta cells, as demonstrated by the morphological and morphometric changes observed in pinealectomised animals.Com o objetivo de verificar a influência da glândula pineal, por meio da secreção de melatonina (MLT sobre a morfologia, morfometria e fisiologia das ilhotas de Langerhans (IP, especialmente sobre a secreção e ação da insulina, foram avaliados o metabolismo, a bioquímica plasmática, a morfologia e a morfometria de segmentos de pâncreas de 50 ratos Wistar. Os animais foram distribuídos em cinco grupos de dez animais cada, sendo dois grupos controles: N (controle normal; CF

  19. Influence of Pathological Nodal Status and Maximal Standardized Uptake Value of the Primary Tumor and Regional Lymph Nodes on Treatment Plans in Patients With Advanced Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Purpose: A better understanding of the prognostic factors in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may optimize the therapeutic approach. In this study, we sought to investigate whether the combination of clinical information, pathologic results, and preoperative maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes might improve the prognostic stratification in this patient group. Methods and Materials: A total of 347 consecutive OSCC patients were investigated. All participants underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography within 2 weeks before surgery and neck dissection. The duration of follow-up was at least 24 months in all surviving patients. The optimal cutoff values for SUVmax at the primary tumor (SUVtumor-max) and regional lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) were selected according to the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: In multivariate analysis, a cutoff SUVtumor-max of 8.6, a cutoff SUVnodal-max of 5.7, and the presence of pathologic lymph node metastases were found to be significant prognosticators for the 5-year DFS. A scoring system using these three prognostic factors was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. The 5-year rates for patients with a score between 0 and 3 were as follows: neck control, 94%, 86%, 77%, 59% (p < 0.0001); distant metastases, 1%, 7%, 22%, 47% (p < 0.0001); disease-specific survival, 93%, 85%, 61%, 36%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Based on the study findings, the combined evaluation of pathologic node status and SUVmax at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes may improve prognostic stratification in OSCC patients.

  20. Clinical applications of MR digital subtraction angiography for the evaluation of intracranial vascular and tumorous lesions

    MR digital subtraction angiography (MR DSA), which is performed by a rapid two-dimensional T1-weighted sequence in combination with bolus injection of gadolinium-based contrast agent was applied to the evaluation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), brain tumors (intraaxial and extraaxial tumors), and other vascular lesions. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the method in the diagnosis of these lesions. We studied 19 cases of cerebral AVM, 36 cases of intraaxial tumor (metastatic brain tumors in 14, glioblastomas in five, astrocytomas in eight, malignant lymphomas in four, pineal tumors in two, and other tumors, in three), 34 cases of extraaxial tumor (meningiomas in 29, and pituitary adenomas in five), and 10 cases of other vascular lesions (cerebral aneurysms in five, venous thrombosis in two, and other lesion in three). For cerebral AVMs, the feeder, nidus, and drainer were evaluated on a 4 - point grading scale (0=poor, 1=fair, 2=good, 3=excellent), and the results obtained were compared with those of conventional cerebral angiography or MR angiography using the postcontrast three-dimensional time-of-flight method. Brain tumors were classified into six enhancement patterns, and were compared with the findings of conventional cerebral angiography. Other vascular lesions were assessed visually. All cases were evaluated independently by two radiologists, and inter-observer agreement was assessed using the κ-test. In all cerebral AVM cases, the hemodynamics of the feeder, nidus, and drainer could be observed. In all but five brain tumor cases, tumor stain could be confirmed in MR DSA images. The findings of tumor stain corresponded to those of cerebral angiographic images. For other vascular lesions, results of lesion detection and lesion morphology were almost in congruence with other methods. MR DSA provides information on the hemodynamics of vascular and tumorous lesions. When used in conjunction with routine MR imaging

  1. Clinical applications of MR digital subtraction angiography for the evaluation of intracranial vascular and tumorous lesions

    Katase, Shichiro; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Hachiya, Junichi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-07-01

    MR digital subtraction angiography (MR DSA), which is performed by a rapid two-dimensional T1-weighted sequence in combination with bolus injection of gadolinium-based contrast agent was applied to the evaluation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), brain tumors (intraaxial and extraaxial tumors), and other vascular lesions. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the method in the diagnosis of these lesions. We studied 19 cases of cerebral AVM, 36 cases of intraaxial tumor (metastatic brain tumors in 14, glioblastomas in five, astrocytomas in eight, malignant lymphomas in four, pineal tumors in two, and other tumors, in three), 34 cases of extraaxial tumor (meningiomas in 29, and pituitary adenomas in five), and 10 cases of other vascular lesions (cerebral aneurysms in five, venous thrombosis in two, and other lesion in three). For cerebral AVMs, the feeder, nidus, and drainer were evaluated on a 4 - point grading scale (0=poor, 1=fair, 2=good, 3=excellent), and the results obtained were compared with those of conventional cerebral angiography or MR angiography using the postcontrast three-dimensional time-of-flight method. Brain tumors were classified into six enhancement patterns, and were compared with the findings of conventional cerebral angiography. Other vascular lesions were assessed visually. All cases were evaluated independently by two radiologists, and inter-observer agreement was assessed using the {kappa}-test. In all cerebral AVM cases, the hemodynamics of the feeder, nidus, and drainer could be observed. In all but five brain tumor cases, tumor stain could be confirmed in MR DSA images. The findings of tumor stain corresponded to those of cerebral angiographic images. For other vascular lesions, results of lesion detection and lesion morphology were almost in congruence with other methods. MR DSA provides information on the hemodynamics of vascular and tumorous lesions. When used in conjunction with routine MR

  2. Ultaradian oscillation in expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronized spawner, under constant darkness

    Taro eIkegami; Yusuke eMaruyama; Hiroyuki eDoi; Atsuhiko eHattori; Hironori eAndo

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin receptor gene expression as well as melatonin synthesis and secretion activities were examined in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, which exhibits unique lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawing: spawning occurs before high tide on the day of spring tide during spawing season. Melatonin synthesizing activity was assessed by the abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) mRNA. The amount of aanat2 mRNA was low during light phase and initiated to increase afte...

  3. Ultradian oscillation in expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronized spawner, under constant darkness

    Ikegami, Taro; Maruyama, Yusuke; Doi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Ando, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin receptor gene expression as well as melatonin synthesis and secretion activities were examined in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, which exhibits unique lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawing: spawning occurs before high tide on the day of spring tide during spawing season. Melatonin synthesizing activity was assessed by the abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) mRNA. The amount of aanat2 mRNA was low during light phase and initiated to increase after ...

  4. Morphologic Changes in Rat's Pineal Gland After Eliminating Retinal Photic Stimulation Cambios Morfológicos en la Glándula Pineal de Ratas Luego de la Eliminación de la Estimulación Fótica Retiniana

    Ignacio Roa Henriquez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin secretion from mammalian pineal glands is regulated by light stimulation by means of a complex neuroanatomical pathway that includes the retina, hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, intermediolateral nucleus of the thoracic spinal cord, and finally, the superior cervical ganglia. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in the pinealocytes and the blood vessel density of the pineal gland after eliminating photic stimulation in rats. Thirteen adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups, Group I acted as control, and Group II was subjected to a retinal lesión, by means of alcohol injected bilaterally to both ocular bulbs. After 3 weeks, the glands of both groups were processed with hematoxilin-eosin (HE and observed with an optic microscope. Group II results presented higher valúes in the number of pinealocytes and in the blood vessels observed. The differences with Group I was significant at p La secreción de melatonina por parte de glándula pineal de los mamíferos es regulada por la estimulación luminosa mediante complejas vías neuro anatómicas que incluyen la retina, el núcleo supraquiasmático hipotalámico, el núcleo intermediolateral de la médula torácica y finalmente el ganglio cervical superior. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar los cambios en la densidad de pinealocitos y vasos sanguíneos de la glándula pineal, luego de eliminar la estimulación fótica en ratas. Se utilizaron 13 ratas adultas Sprague Dawley divididas en 2 grupos, Grupo I actuó como control, y el Grupo II fue sometido a una lesión retiniana, por medio de alcoholización bilateral de ambos bulbos oculares. Luego de tres semanas las glándulas de ambos grupos fueron procesadas para hematoxilina-eosina y observadas al microscopio óptico. El grupo II presentó valores mayores en el número de pinealocitos y de vasos sanguíneos observados, las diferencias con el Grupo I fueron significativas con p<0.01. Estos

  5. Interventional oncology: new options for interstitial treatments and intravascular approaches: Targeting tumor metabolism via a loco-regional approach: a new therapy against liver cancer

    Liapi, Eleni; Geschwind, Jean-Francois

    2009-01-01

    Recent research in tumor metabolism has uncovered cancer-cell-specific pathways that cancer cells depend on for energy production. 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), a specific alkylating agent and potent ATP inhibitor, has been shown both in vitro and in vivo to disrupt some of these cancer-specific metabolic pathways, thereby leading to the demise of the cancer cells through apoptosis. 3-BrPA has been successfully tested in animal models of liver cancer. For optimal results, 3-BrPA can be delivered ...

  6. Tumor de Krukenberg Krunkenberg's tumor

    Daisy Hernández Durán

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El tumor de Krukenberg supone el 30-40 % de los cánceres metastásicos al ovario y el 1-2 % de todos los tumores malignos de ovario. En la actualidad, y pese a que el concepto de tumor de Krukenberg ha sido usado para referirse a todos los tumores metastásicos del ovario, se consideran como tal a los que tienen un origen digestivo. Su pronóstico es malo con raras supervivencias más allá del año. Se presenta un caso de una paciente femenina de 38 años de edad, que ingresa por ascitis moderada, anorexia y pérdida de peso, a la cual se le realizó una laparotomía con el posible diagnóstico de un proceso oncoproliferativo del ovario y el diagnóstico histopatológico arrojó un tumor de Krukenberg.Krukenberg's tumor accounts for 30-40 % of ovarian metastatic cancer and for the 1-2 % of all ovarian malignant tumors. Nowadays and in spite of the fact that the concept of Krukenberg' tumor has been used to refer to all ovarian metastatic tumors those with a digestive origin, its prognosis if bad with only a few survivals beyond one year. This is the case of a female patient aged 38 admitted due to a moderate ascites, anorexia and lose weight undergoes laparotomy with the possible diagnosis of a oncoproliferous ovarian process and the histopathological diagnosis showed a Krukenberg's tumor.

  7. Brain tumor

    BNCT in the past was not widely accepted because of poor usability of a nuclear reactor as a neutron source. Recently, technical advancements in the accelerator field have made accelerator-based BNCT feasible. Consequently, clinical trials of intractable brain tumors have started using it since 2012. In this review, our clinical results obtained from conventional reactor-based BNCT for treatment of brain tumors are introduced. It is strong hope that accelerator-based BNCT becomes a standard therapy for current intractable brain tumors. (author)

  8. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  9. Bone Tumor

    ... the knee in either the femur (thigh) or tibia (shinbone). Other common locations include the hip and ... bone that is weakened by a tumor to fracture, or break. This may be severely painful. Occasionally, ...

  10. Adrenergic Activation of Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Explants in Short-Term Superfusion Culture Occurs via Protein Synthesis Independent and Dependent Phenomena

    Bogdan Lewczuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ovine pineal is generally considered as an interesting model for the study on adrenergic regulation of melatonin secretion due to some functional similarities with this gland in the human. The present investigations, performed in the superfusion culture of pineal explants, demonstrated that the norepinephrine-induced elevation of melatonin secretion in ovine pinealocytes comprised of two subsequent periods: a rapid increase phase and a slow increase phase. The first one included the quick rise in release of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin, occurring parallel to elevation of NE concentration in the medium surrounding explants. This rapid increase phase was not affected by inhibition of translation. The second, slow increase phase began after NE level had reached the maximum concentration in the culture medium and lasted about two hours. It was completely abolished by the treatment with translation inhibitors. The obtained results showed for the first time that the regulation of N-acetylserotonin synthesis in pinealocytes of some species like the sheep involves the on/off mechanism, which is completely independent of protein synthesis and works very fast. They provided strong evidence pointing to the need of revision of the current opinion that arylalkylamines N-acetyltransferase activity in pinealocytes is controlled exclusively by changes in enzyme abundance.

  11. Adaptive Localization of Focus Point Regions via Random Patch Probabilistic Density from Whole-Slide, Ki-67-Stained Brain Tumor Tissue

    Yazan M. Alomari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of whole-slide tissue for digital pathology images has been clinically approved to provide a second opinion to pathologists. Localization of focus points from Ki-67-stained histopathology whole-slide tissue microscopic images is considered the first step in the process of proliferation rate estimation. Pathologists use eye pooling or eagle-view techniques to localize the highly stained cell-concentrated regions from the whole slide under microscope, which is called focus-point regions. This procedure leads to a high variety of interpersonal observations and time consuming, tedious work and causes inaccurate findings. The localization of focus-point regions can be addressed as a clustering problem. This paper aims to automate the localization of focus-point regions from whole-slide images using the random patch probabilistic density method. Unlike other clustering methods, random patch probabilistic density method can adaptively localize focus-point regions without predetermining the number of clusters. The proposed method was compared with the k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering methods. Our proposed method achieves a good performance, when the results were evaluated by three expert pathologists. The proposed method achieves an average false-positive rate of 0.84% for the focus-point region localization error. Moreover, regarding RPPD used to localize tissue from whole-slide images, 228 whole-slide images have been tested; 97.3% localization accuracy was achieved.

  12. Renal Tumor Biopsy Technique

    Lei Zhang; Xue-Song Li; Li-Qun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To review hot issues and future direction of renal tumor biopsy (RTB) technique.Data Sources:The literature concerning or including RTB technique in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015.Study Selection:We included all the relevant articles on RTB technique in English,with no limitation of study design.Results:Computed tomography and ultrasound were usually used for guiding RTB with respective advantages.Core biopsy is more preferred over fine needle aspiration because of superior accuracy.A minimum of two good-quality cores for a single renal tumor is generally accepted.The use of coaxial guide is recommended.For biopsy location,sampling different regions including central and peripheral biopsies are recommended.Conclusion:In spite of some limitations,RTB technique is relatively mature to help optimize the treatment of renal tumors.

  13. Imaging Tumor Hypoxia to Advance Radiation Oncology

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Boss, Mary-Keara; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Most solid tumors contain regions of low oxygenation or hypoxia. Tumor hypoxia has been associated with a poor clinical outcome and plays a critical role in tumor radioresistance. Recent Advances: Two main types of hypoxia exist in the tumor microenvironment: chronic and cycling hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia results from the limited diffusion distance of oxygen, and cycling hypoxia primarily results from the variation in microvessel red blood cell flux and temporary disturbances in p...

  14. Genetic analysis of ovarian microcystic stromal tumor

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Cho, Nam Hoon; Lee, Jung-Yun; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Young Tae; Nam, Eun Ji

    2016-01-01

    Microcystic stromal tumor (MCST) of the ovary is a rare subtype of ovarian tumor first described in 2009. Although high nuclear expression of β-catenin and β-catenin gene (CTNNB1) mutation are related with ovarian MCST, the origin and genetic background of ovarian MCST remain unclear. In this study, two cases of ovarian MCST are presented. Microscopically, the tumors showed a microcystic pattern and regions with lobulated cellular masses with intervening hyalinized, fibrous stroma. Tumor cell...

  15. Lung tumors

    This volume 17 in the series of clinicoradiological seminars deals with malignant lung tumors. Twenty-four authors contributed to this comprehensive survey of current knowledge and methods, with about half of the contributions in the monography being concerned with aetiology and epidemiology of the lung, anatomy of the lung and anatomy of lung tumors, as well as with the current diagnostic methods. The latter are discussed in great detail and include CT, differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules, angiography for lung tumor diagnostics, and nuclear medical diagnostics. The main issue of the other contributions is a new approach in oncology that works towards interdisciplinary exchange of information among experts in search for improved therapies. (orig./MG) With 44 tabs., 111 figs

  16. Qualitative research on the psychological experience of patients with malignant tumor of oral and maxillofacial region surgery%口腔颌面部恶性肿瘤手术患者心理历程的质性研究

    岑琼; 陈虹

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解和描述口腔颌面部恶性肿瘤患者疾病确诊初期、围手术期的心理历程,为临床医护人员对患者进行心理支持提供依据.方法 通过访谈形式,对12例被确诊为口腔颌面部恶性肿瘤的手术患者进行深入访谈,将获得资料进行分析、整理,提炼主题.结果 患者在整个疾病的确诊、手术治疗过程的心理应激状态,表现为各种负面情绪.承受着巨大的心理压力和经济压力,社会支持系统利用匮乏.结论 口腔颌面部恶性肿瘤患者需要深切的人文关怀和情感支持,护理人员应采用有效的干预措施帮助患者缓解心理压力,改善不良情绪,有效的利用各种社会资源,度过这一艰难的历程.%Objective To understand the psychological experience of patients with malignant tu-mor of oral and maxillofaeial region surgery during early diagnosis and perioperative stage in order to supply reference for clinical staff to carry out psychological support. Methods 12 patients with malignant tumor of oral and maxillofacial region surgery participated in the in- depth interview, the data were analyzed, fin-ished and epurated. Results During the whole process of the early diagnosis and perioperative period,the patients showed negative psychological response, they had to bear significant psychological and financial burden as well as lack of social support. Conclusions Patients with malignant tumor of oral and maxillo-facial region surgery needed humanistic care and emotional support, nursing professionals should provide effective measures to release stress and improve negative emotions, make good use of social resources in or-der to assist them to get through the difficult course.

  17. Association of-238G/A and -857C/T Polymorphisms of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Gene Promoter Region With Outcomes of Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether -238G/A and -857C/T polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene promoter were associated with outcomes of hepatitis B virus infection. Methods A total of 246 HBV self-limited infected subjects and 443 chronic hepatitis B (HB) patients were recruited in this case-control study. TNF-α-238G/A and -857C/T gene promoter polymorphisms were examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).Results The frequency of TNF-α-238 GG (90.7%) in chronic HB group was significantly lower than that (95.1%) in self-limited group (P=0.041). The frequency of TNF-α-857 CC (79.7%) in chronic HB patients was significantly higher than that (70.9%) in self-limited infected subjects (P=0.021). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that both TNF-α-238GA and -857CC were independently associated with chronic HB. Conclusions TNF-α promoter variants are likely to play a substantial role in influencing the outcomes of HBV infection.

  18. Diffusion-weighted MR images and pineoblastoma. Diagnosis and follow-up

    Gasparetto, Emerson L.; Cruz Junior, L. Celso Hygino; Doring, Thomas M.; Domingues, Romeu C. [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: egasparetto@gmail.com; Araujo, Bertha; Dantas, Mario Alberto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. of Radiology; Chimelli, Leila [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. of Pathology

    2008-07-01

    Pineoblastomas are uncommon pineal tumors, which demonstrate rapid growing and poor prognosis. We report the case of a 43-year-old man with an enhancing pineal region mass, which showed restriction of the diffusion on diffusion-weighted (DW) MR images. The surgical biopsy defined the diagnosis of pineoblastoma and the therapy was initiated with radiation and chemotherapy. Three months later, the follow-up MR imaging showed areas suggestive of necrosis and the DW images demonstrate no significant areas of restricted diffusion. The differential diagnosis of pineal region masses that could show restriction of diffusion is discussed. (author)

  19. Six cases of malignant germ-cell tumors (grade 4). Comparison with germinoma (grade 2, 3) on CT

    Kuramoto, M.; Machida, T.; Maehara, T. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-08-01

    The CT patterns of six malignant germ-cell tumors other than germinomas (one embryonal carcinoma, one choriocarcinoma, one yolk sac tumor, and three immature teratomas) were compared with those of 12 germinomas (ten suprasellar, one pineal, and one basal ganglia). The effects of irradiation and the changes in the concentration of serum ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) were compared by means of serial studies. 1. Pre-contrast CT Four of the six (67%) malignant germ-cell tumors showed isodense masses with irregular margins that contained calcified dots and small necrotic cavities. All 12 germinomas showed round, high-density masses with smooth margins without necrotic cavities. The suprasellar germinomas showed no calcification on CT. 2. Post-contrast CT Both malignant germ-cell tumors and germinomas showed a strong enhancement after contrast administration. 3. Change in size after irradiation Malignant germ-cell tumors did not show a decrease in size after radiotherapy (20 - 40 Gy), although the necrotic cavities enlarged in three out of four tumors. Germinomas were highly radiosensitive and showed a remarkable change in size on follow-up CT after irradiation. 4. Serum AFP and HCG The concentrations of serum AFP and/or HCG before therapy were abnormally high in five malignant germ-cell tumors. In three out of four patients, the concentration of serum AFP was normalized, but in one patient the concentration of AFP increased even after irradiation.

  20. Brain tumors

    Magnetic Resonance Tomography (MRT) is the method of choice for the diagnostics of cerebral gliomas, but the differentiation of tumour tissue from unspecific tissue changes is limited. Positron emission tomography (PET) and Single-Photon-Emission-Computed Tomography (SPECT) may offer relevant additional information which allows for a more accurate diagnostics in unclear situations. Especially, radiolabeled amino acids offer a better delineation of cerebral gliomas which allows an improved guidance of biopsy, planning of surgery and radiation therapy. Furthermore, amino acid imaging appears to be useful to differentiate tumor recurrence from unspecific posttherapeutic tissue, to predict the prognosis especially in low grade gliomas and to monitor the metabolic response during tumor therapy. (orig.)

  1. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor

    A 18-year-old man had a painless swelling in the right anterior portion of maxilla for 2 years. On radiographic examination, a radiolucent region that was not associated with an unerupted tooth was seen. Small scattered radiopaque foci were seen in the cystic lumen. At second case, a 16-year-old girl had a painless swelling in the anterior portion of maxilla for 3 years. On radio graphic examination, a radiolucent region that associated with an unerupted tooth was seen. Multiple scattered radiopaque foci were seen in the radiolucent cystic lumen. With the patient under local anesthesia, well encapsulated tumors were enucleated. The diagnosis made in the pathologist's report was Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor, benign lesion often having distinct clinical and radiographic features.

  2. A Combinatorial Approach for the Design of Complementarity-determining Region-derived Peptidomimetics with in Vitro Anti-tumoral Activity*

    Timmerman, Peter; Barderas, Rodrigo; Desmet, Johan; Altschuh, Danièle; Shochat, Susana; Hollestelle, Martine J.; Jo W. M. Höppener; Monasterio, Alberto; Casal, J. Ignacio; Meloen, Rob H.

    2009-01-01

    The great success of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies has fueled research toward mimicry of their binding sites and the development of new strategies for peptide-based mimetics production. Here, we describe a new combinatorial approach for the production of peptidomimetics using the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) from gastrin17 (pyroEGPWLEEEEEAYGWMDF-NH2) antibodies as starting material for cyclic peptide synthesis in a microarray format. Gastrin17 is a trophic factor in gastroin...

  3. Pineal attrition, loss of cognitive plasticity, and onset of puberty during the teen years: is it a modern maladaptation exposed by evolutionary displacement?

    Yun, A Joon; Bazar, Kimberly A; Lee, Patrick Y

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive plasticity, a developmental trait that promotes acquisition of complex skills such as language or playing musical instruments, diminishes substantially during puberty. The loss of plasticity has been attributed to surge of sex steroids during adolescence, but the phenomenon remains poorly understood. We hypothesize that pineal involution during puberty may contribute to plasticity decay. The pineal gland produces melatonin, the level of which declines dramatically during onset of puberty. Emerging evidence suggest that melatonin may modulate cognitive plasticity, independent of the effects of sex steroids, and low sex steroids and high melatonin may be simultaneously required to maintain cognitive plasticity. Potential mechanisms by which melatonin may modulate plasticity are examined within the sleep and hippocampal long-term potentiation frameworks. Implications for psychiatric conditions that involve sleep disorders and learning dysfunctions such as schizophrenia and autism are discussed, and the potential adaptive roles of postprandial and postcoital sleep are explored. From the Darwinian perspective, development and reproductive maturity may represent distinct phases that require tailored cognitive strategies to maximize fitness. While cognitive flexibility and susceptibility to new skills may be paramount during development, reduced cognitive flexibility and increased cognitive determinism may enable more efficient responses to stimuli during adulthood. Thus, cognitive plasticity and cognitive determinism may represent trade-off adaptations and different dimensions of intelligence. The decline of plasticity and emergence of puberty during the second decade may be relics of prehistoric times when the human lifespan was short and the environment was relatively simple and static. Today, when the environment is more complex and dynamic, and humans are living far longer, the early obsolescence of plasticity during puberty may represent a Darwinian

  4. Characterization of genetic rearrangements in esophageal squamous carcinoma cell lines by a combination of M-FISH and array-CGH: further confirmation of some split genomic regions in primary tumors

    Chromosomal and genomic aberrations are common features of human cancers. However, chromosomal numerical and structural aberrations, breakpoints and disrupted genes have yet to be identified in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Using multiplex-fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) and oligo array-based comparative hybridization (array-CGH), we identified aberrations and breakpoints in six ESCC cell lines. Furthermore, we detected recurrent breakpoints in primary tumors by dual-color FISH. M-FISH and array-CGH results revealed complex numerical and structural aberrations. Frequent gains occurred at 3q26.33-qter, 5p14.1-p11, 7pter-p12.3, 8q24.13-q24.21, 9q31.1-qter, 11p13-p11, 11q11-q13.4, 17q23.3-qter, 18pter-p11, 19 and 20q13.32-qter. Losses were frequent at 18q21.1-qter. Breakpoints that clustered within 1 or 2 Mb were identified, including 9p21.3, 11q13.3-q13.4, 15q25.3 and 3q28. By dual-color FISH, we observed that several recurrent breakpoint regions in cell lines were also present in ESCC tumors. In particular, breakpoints clustered at 11q13.3-q13.4 were identified in 43.3% (58/134) of ESCC tumors. Both 11q13.3-q13.4 splitting and amplification were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P = 0.004 and 0.022) and advanced stages (P = 0.004 and 0.039). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only 11q13.3-q13.4 splitting was an independent predictor for LNM (P = 0.026). The combination of M-FISH and array-CGH helps produce more accurate karyotypes. Our data provide significant, detailed information for appropriate uses of these ESCC cell lines for cytogenetic and molecular biological studies. The aberrations and breakpoints detected in both the cell lines and primary tumors will contribute to identify affected genes involved in the development and progression of ESCC

  5. Multiparametric classification links tumor microenvironments with tumor cell phenotype.

    Bojana Gligorijevic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While it has been established that a number of microenvironment components can affect the likelihood of metastasis, the link between microenvironment and tumor cell phenotypes is poorly understood. Here we have examined microenvironment control over two different tumor cell motility phenotypes required for metastasis. By high-resolution multiphoton microscopy of mammary carcinoma in mice, we detected two phenotypes of motile tumor cells, different in locomotion speed. Only slower tumor cells exhibited protrusions with molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics associated with invadopodia. Each region in the primary tumor exhibited either fast- or slow-locomotion. To understand how the tumor microenvironment controls invadopodium formation and tumor cell locomotion, we systematically analyzed components of the microenvironment previously associated with cell invasion and migration. No single microenvironmental property was able to predict the locations of tumor cell phenotypes in the tumor if used in isolation or combined linearly. To solve this, we utilized the support vector machine (SVM algorithm to classify phenotypes in a nonlinear fashion. This approach identified conditions that promoted either motility phenotype. We then demonstrated that varying one of the conditions may change tumor cell behavior only in a context-dependent manner. In addition, to establish the link between phenotypes and cell fates, we photoconverted and monitored the fate of tumor cells in different microenvironments, finding that only tumor cells in the invadopodium-rich microenvironments degraded extracellular matrix (ECM and disseminated. The number of invadopodia positively correlated with degradation, while the inhibiting metalloproteases eliminated degradation and lung metastasis, consistent with a direct link among invadopodia, ECM degradation, and metastasis. We have detected and characterized two phenotypes of motile tumor cells in vivo, which

  6. 3D/4D architecture of chromosomal break point regions in the cell nucleus following irradiation of normal cells and tumor cells

    The development of an effective analytical methodology for a correct description of oncogenic chromosomal aberrations is the challenge of medical radiobiology with respect to preventive therapeutic methods. Scope of the project was a better understanding of the behavior of break point regions dependent on the genome loci, the chromatin folding, the involved repair proteins and the beam quality with respect to an improvement and an efficient prognosis of the health consequences following radiation exposure. New microscopic insights in the normal cell nucleus are supposed to allow a better understanding of the spatial interactions on a molecular scale.

  7. Epigenetic Regulation of the Latency-Associated Region of Marek's Disease Virus in Tumor-Derived T-Cell Lines and Primary Lymphoma

    Brown, Andrew C.; Nair, Venugopal; Allday, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Meq is the major Marek's disease virus (MDV)-encoded oncoprotein and is essential for T-cell lymphomagenesis. Meq and several noncoding RNAs, including three microRNA (MiR) clusters, are expressed from the repeats of the MDV genome during latent infection of T cells. To investigate the state of the chromatin in this and flanking regions, we carried out chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis of covalent histone modifications and associated bound proteins. T-cell lines and a lymphoma wer...

  8. 经颅鞍区肿瘤切除术中垂体柄的辨认与保护%Identification and protection strategy of pituitary stalk during microsurgery of sellar region tumors

    李爱军; 兰青; 王道奎; 曹培成; 刘维生; 刘国栋

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨经颅切除鞍区肿瘤术中垂体柄的保护策略.方法 回顾性分析110例鞍区肿瘤的临床资料,采用翼点入路34例,额底入路21例,眶上入路20例,纵裂入路35例(额底纵裂入路26例,纵裂终板入路9例).结果 垂体腺瘤47例,全切除42例,垂体柄完好保留44例,2例部分保留,1例未发现.颅咽管瘤38例,全切除32例,垂体柄完好保留27例,解剖保留或部分保留7例,未发现4例.脑膜瘤25例,全切除23例,垂体柄保留24例,1例解剖保留.经x2检验肿瘤的性质不同垂体柄完全保留率存在差异(P<0.05).结论 肿瘤的性质直接影响垂体柄的保留率,选择恰当的手术入路及娴熟的手术技巧,对垂体柄的辨认和保护至关重要.%Objective To study the protection strategy of pituitary stalk via transcranial approach for sellar tumors resection.Methods Retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 110 patients with sellar region tumors was performed.Craniotomy was performed via the pterional approach in 34 cases,the subfrontal approach in 21 cases,the supraorbital keyhole approach in 20 cases,the interhemispheric approach in 35 cases (the fronto-basal interhemispheric approach in 26 patients,and the anterior interhemispheric approach through the lamina terminalis in 9 patients).Results In 47 cases with pituitary adenoma,the tumors were totally resection in 42 cases,the pituitary stalks were preserved in 44 cases,partly retained in 2 and not founded in 1.In 38 cases with craniopharyngioma,the tumors were totally removed in 32 cases.The pituitary stalks were preserved in 27 cases,and partly retained in 7 cases and not founded in 4.In 25 patients with Meningioma,the tumors were totally removed in 23 cases,the pituitary stalks were preserved in 24 cases (P < 0.05).Conclusions The nature of tumors directly affect the retention rate of pituitary stalk,so we should choose appropriate surgical approach and skilled microsurgical techniques which play an

  9. Effect of sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland on maternal co-ordination of the circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase in parotid gland from young rats.

    Bellavía, S L; Sanz, E G; Gallará, R V; Carpentieri, A; Vermouth, N T

    1993-12-01

    Twenty-five-day-old rats maintained in constant darkness since birth and born from mothers kept in the dark since the 14th day of pregnancy showed a circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase content in parotid glands, which may be explained by a mechanism of maternal co-ordination. Rats in the same conditions, except that their mothers had been submitted to bilateral excision of the superior cervical ganglia 30 days before mating, did not show diurnal variations of alpha-amylase activity in the parotid glands. When ganglionectomized mothers were treated with a daily dose of melatonin (1 mg/kg) from the 14th day of gestation up to the 10th day of lactation, their litters showed significant diurnal variations of amylase in the parotid glands, suggesting a role of the maternal pineal gland in the maternal-fetal and/or maternal-neonatal transfer of photoperiodic information. PMID:8141675

  10. Computed Tomography of the Human Pineal Gland for Study of the Sleep-Wake Rhythm: Reproducibility of a Semi-Quantitative Approach

    Purpose: To propose a semi-quantitative computed tomography (CT) protocol for determining uncalcified pineal tissue (UCPT), and to evaluate its reproducibility in modification of studies showing that the degree of calcification is a potential marker of deficient melatonin production and may prove an instability marker of circadian rhythm. Material and Methods: Twenty-two pineal gland autopsy specimens were scanned in a skull phantom with different slice thickness twice and the uncalcified tissue visually assessed using a four-point scale. The maximum gland density was measured and its inverse graded on a non-linear four-point scale. The sum of both scores was multiplied by the gland volume to yield the UCPT. The within-subject variance of UCPT was determined and compared between scans of different slice thickness. Results: The UCPT of the first measurement, in arbitrary units, was 39±52.5 for 1 mm slice thickness, 44±51.1 for 2 mm, 45±34.8 for 4 mm, and 84±58.0 for 8 mm. Significant differences of within-subject variance of UCPT were found between 1 and 4 mm, 1 and 8 mm, and 2 and 8 mm slice thicknesses ( P <0.05). Conclusion: A superior reproducibility of the semi-quantitative CT determination of UCPT was found using 1 and 2 mm slice thicknesses. These data support the use of thin slices of 1 and 2 mm. The benefit in reproducibility from thin slices has to be carefully weighted against their considerably higher radiation exposure

  11. Computed Tomography of the Human Pineal Gland for Study of the Sleep-Wake Rhythm: Reproducibility of a Semi-Quantitative Approach

    Schmitz, S.A.; Platzek, I.; Kunz, D.; Mahlberg, R.; Wolf, K.J.; Heidenreich, J.O. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2006-10-15

    Purpose: To propose a semi-quantitative computed tomography (CT) protocol for determining uncalcified pineal tissue (UCPT), and to evaluate its reproducibility in modification of studies showing that the degree of calcification is a potential marker of deficient melatonin production and may prove an instability marker of circadian rhythm. Material and Methods: Twenty-two pineal gland autopsy specimens were scanned in a skull phantom with different slice thickness twice and the uncalcified tissue visually assessed using a four-point scale. The maximum gland density was measured and its inverse graded on a non-linear four-point scale. The sum of both scores was multiplied by the gland volume to yield the UCPT. The within-subject variance of UCPT was determined and compared between scans of different slice thickness. Results: The UCPT of the first measurement, in arbitrary units, was 39{+-}52.5 for 1 mm slice thickness, 44{+-}51.1 for 2 mm, 45{+-}34.8 for 4 mm, and 84{+-}58.0 for 8 mm. Significant differences of within-subject variance of UCPT were found between 1 and 4 mm, 1 and 8 mm, and 2 and 8 mm slice thicknesses ( P <0.05). Conclusion: A superior reproducibility of the semi-quantitative CT determination of UCPT was found using 1 and 2 mm slice thicknesses. These data support the use of thin slices of 1 and 2 mm. The benefit in reproducibility from thin slices has to be carefully weighted against their considerably higher radiation exposure.

  12. 颅内生殖细胞肿瘤影像诊断%Imaging diagnosis of intracranial germ cell tumors

    周国民; 李艳华

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) is a rare intracranial embryonal tumors in children and adolescents, germ cell tumors from different parts of the CT, MRI performance is different, this article through to the pineal gland, saddle area and Basal ganglia area germ cell tumor of the imaging manifestations and differential diagnosis, improve the imaging diagnostic level of intracranial germ cell tumors,For intracranial germ cell tumor play a role in the early diagnosis and effective treatment.%颅内生殖细胞肿瘤(GCTs)是一种少见的颅内胚胎性肿瘤,好发于儿童及青少年,不同部位的生殖细胞肿瘤CT、MRI表现有所不同,本文通过对松果体区,鞍区及基底节区的生殖细胞肿瘤的影像表现及鉴别诊断的论述,提高了颅内生殖细胞肿瘤的影像诊断水平,为颅内生殖细胞肿瘤提供早期的诊断及有效治疗起到一定作用。

  13. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  14. Brain tumor - children

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  15. Brain tumor (image)

    Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...

  16. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    ... Tumors Tumor Grading and Staging Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain ...

  17. Pediatric brain tumors

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  18. Pediatric brain tumors

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  19. The Pineal Gland

    Kimbrough, T. Daniel; Llewellyn, Gerald C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a surgical technique for performing pinealectomics, applicable to classroom and laboratory studies, by using a head-holding device for small animals and a flat dissecting tray outfitted with holding straps for larger animals. (CC)

  20. American Brain Tumor Association

    ... For Health Care Professionals About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics ABTA Publications Brain Tumor ...

  1. Brain Tumor Surgery

    ... Pediatric Caregiver Resource Center About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics ABTA Publications Brain Tumor ...

  2. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure

  3. Teratoid Wilms′ tumor - A rare renal tumor

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratoid Wilms′ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms′ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms′ tumor.

  4. Tumor thrombus

    Ravina, Mudalsha; Hess, Søren; Chauhan, Mahesh Singh; Jacob, Mattakorottu Joseph; Alavi, Abass

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Thrombosis in cancer may manifest itself as venous thromboembolic disease or tumor thrombosis (TT). We present our experience with incidentally detected TT on FDG PET/CT in 21 oncologic patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all FDG PET/CT examinations during a 5-year......-one patients were included; the most common malignancies were renal cell carcinoma (n=6), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=3), and lung cancer (n=3). Indication for the scan was initial staging (n=15) and suspected recurrence (n=6). Several vessels were affected, the most common was the inferior vena cava (n=14...

  5. The Highly conserved gonadotropin-releasing hormone-2 form acts as a melatonin-releasing factor in the pineal of a teleost fish, the european sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Servili, Arianna; Lethimonier, Christèle; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; López-Olmeda, José Fernando; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Kah, Olivier; Muñoz-Cueto, José Antonio

    2010-05-01

    With the exception of modern mammals, most vertebrate species possess two GnRH genes, GnRH-1 and GnRH-2. In addition, in many teleost fish, there is a third gene called GnRH-3. If the main function of GnRH-1 is unambiguously to stimulate gonadotropin release, the other two GnRH forms still lack clear functions. This is particularly true for the highly conserved GnRH-2 that encodes chicken GnRH-II. This GnRH variant is consistently expressed in neurons of the dorsal synencephalon in most vertebrate groups but still has no clear functions supported by anatomical, pharmacological, and physiological data. In this study performed on a perciform fish, the European sea bass, we show for the first time that the pineal organ receives GnRH-2-immunoreactive fibers originating from the synencephalic GnRH-2 neurons. This was shown through a combination of retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry, using highly specific antibodies. Supporting the presence of GnRH-2 functional targets, RT-PCR data together with the in situ hybridization studies showed that the sea bass pineal gland strongly expressed a GnRH receptor (dlGnRHR-II-2b) with clear selectivity for GnRH-2 and, to a lesser extent, the dlGnRHR-II-1a subtype. Finally, in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate stimulatory effects of GnRH-2 on nocturnal melatonin secretion by the sea bass pineal organ. Altogether, these data provide, for the first time in a vertebrate species, converging evidence supporting a role of GnRH-2 in the modulation of fish pineal functions. PMID:20215565

  6. Rare tumors of the gallbladder: Clear cell carcinoma

    Huseyin Eken; Mecdi Gurhan Balci; Sercan Buyukakincak; Arda Isik; Deniz Firat; Orhan Cimen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Gallbladder cancer is a rare tumor in the gastrointestinal tract has poor prognosis, low survival and is difficult to diagnose. The most common type of gallbladder cancer is adenocarcinoma, and the incidence of clear cell carcinoma is low. Mostly, it is difficult to determine whether the isolated tumor is a primary tumor in the gallbladder or a metastatic tumor from another region. Before accepting a clear cell carcinoma as a primary gallbladder tumor, the kidneys and other poss...

  7. Radiation-induced intracerebral cavernous angiomas in children with malignant brain tumors. A report of two cases

    Cavernous angiomas forming in the brain after radiation therapy for pediatric brain tumors have recently attracted special interest as a late complication of radiation therapy. We report here on two children with malignant brain tumors who developed intracerebral cavernous angiomas 4 to 5 years after radiation therapy. A 14-year-old girl with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor developed a cavernous angioma in the hypothalamus after being irradiated with 55 Gy 4 years ago. The second case, 13-year-old boy with a pineal mixed germ cell tumor showed a cavernous angioma at the thalamus 5 years after receiving radiation therapy with a dose of 60 Gy. Both patients did not show any abnormal symptoms and the cavernous angiomas diagnoses were made with MRI findings. A review of 20 reported cases of radiation-induced cavernous angiomas in the brain revealed some characteristic findings. Eighteen of the 20 cases were children, fourteen cases developed hemorrhage, the radiation dose administered was distributed between 18-60 Gy (median dose of 43.5 Gy), and the median latent period was 7.5 years (range: 2-21 years). As a differential diagnosis for the recurrent tumor is guite difficult in most cases, it is necessary to observe patients who developed angioma-like lesions in the irradiated area carefully. (author)

  8. What underlies the diversity of brain tumors?

    Swartling, Fredrik J.; Hede, Sanna-Maria; Weiss, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Glioma and medulloblastoma represent the most commonly occurring malignant brain tumors in adults and in children respectively. Recent genomic and transcriptional approaches present a complex group of diseases, and delineate a number of molecular subgroups within tumors that share a common histopathology. Differences in cells of origin, regional niches, developmental timing and genetic events all contribute to this heterogeneity. In an attempt to recapitulate the diversity of brain tumors, an...

  9. Karcinoide tumorer og gobletcelle-karcinoide tumorer i appendix

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnaes

    2010-01-01

    Appendiceial carcinoid tumors (CAT) and goblet cell carcinoids (GCCAT) are rare. Most are asymptomatic and found after appendectomy. Metastases to regional nodes are seen in 10% of CATs larger than two cm. Ovarian or peritoneal metastases are seen in 20% of all GCCATs. Further surgical treatments...

  10. Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors

    ... abta.org Donate Now Menu Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ... or Complete our contact form Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ...

  11. Vertebral angiography of cerebellar astrocytoma. Tumor stain, tumor circulation, CT and angiography in diagnosis

    Kitaoka, K.; Ito, T.; Tashiro, K.; Abe, H.; Tsuru, M.; Miyasaka, K. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-05-01

    Thirteen cases of cerebellar astrocytoma were examined primarily for tumor stain and pathological tumor circulation by angiography and CT. Tumor stain was observed in only one case by cerebral angiogram. A tumor was demonstrated as an avascular mass in the remaining 12 cases. It is suggested that mural nodules of cystic lesions should have certain weight and sizes so that they could be demonstrated as tumor stain. In the supratentorial region, five of the 12 low-grade astrocytoma exhibited abnormal tumor stain and tumor circulation by cerebral angiogram. It is considered that supratentorial and posterior fossa astrocytoma must usually exhibit different pathological tumor circulation by cerebral angiogram, since each group has distinctive clinical and biological characteristics. CT was performed in 7 of 13 cases. It appeared to be more useful than cerebral angiography in the morphological diagnosis. Especially in cystic tumors, CT produced minute information concerning peritumoral edema, enhancement of margin of cystic astrocytoma after intravenous contrast medium, and marginal enhancement with layering in the dependent part of the cyst. Neuroradiological differential diagnosis of cerebellar astrocytoma and cerebellar hemagioblastoma by CT was difficult in the cases of tumors. However, both tumors were differentiated from each other with ease by tumor stain and tumor circulation in cerebral angiography. Thus, it is concluded that cerebral angiography is superior to CT in differential diagnosis between cerebellar astrocytoma and cerebellar hemangioblastoma.

  12. The transcriptome and miRNome profiling of glioblastoma tissues and peritumoral regions highlights molecular pathways shared by tumors and surrounding areas and reveals differences between short-term and long-term survivors.

    Fazi, Barbara; Felsani, Armando; Grassi, Luigi; Moles, Anna; D'Andrea, Daniel; Toschi, Nicola; Sicari, Daria; De Bonis, Pasquale; Anile, Carmelo; Guerrisi, Maria Giovanna; Luca, Emilia; Farace, Maria Giulia; Maira, Giulio; Ciafré, Silvia Anna; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadliest primary brain tumor, driving patients to death within 15 months after diagnosis (short term survivors, ST), with the exception of a small fraction of patients (long term survivors, LT) surviving longer than 36 months. Here we present deep sequencing data showing that peritumoral (P) areas differ from healthy white matter, but share with their respective frankly tumoral (C) samples, a number of mRNAs and microRNAs representative of extracellular matrix remodeling, TGFβ and signaling, of the involvement of cell types different from tumor cells but contributing to tumor growth, such as microglia or reactive astrocytes. Moreover, we provide evidence about RNAs differentially expressed in ST vs LT samples, suggesting the contribution of TGF-β signaling in this distinction too. We also show that the edited form of miR-376c-3p is reduced in C vs P samples and in ST tumors compared to LT ones. As a whole, our study provides new insights into the still puzzling distinction between ST and LT tumors, and sheds new light onto that "grey" zone represented by the area surrounding the tumor, which we show to be characterized by the expression of several molecules shared with the proper tumor mass. PMID:26188123

  13. The transcriptome and miRNome profiling of glioblastoma tissues and peritumoral regions highlights molecular pathways shared by tumors and surrounding areas and reveals differences between short-term and long-term survivors

    Fazi, Barbara; Felsani, Armando; Grassi, Luigi; Moles, Anna; D'Andrea, Daniel; Toschi, Nicola; Sicari, Daria; De Bonis, Pasquale; Anile, Carmelo; Guerrisi, Maria Giovanna; Luca, Emilia; Farace, Maria Giulia; Maira, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadliest primary brain tumor, driving patients to death within 15 months after diagnosis (short term survivors, ST), with the exception of a small fraction of patients (long term survivors, LT) surviving longer than 36 months. Here we present deep sequencing data showing that peritumoral (P) areas differ from healthy white matter, but share with their respective frankly tumoral (C) samples, a number of mRNAs and microRNAs representative of extracellular matrix remodeling, TGFβ and signaling, of the involvement of cell types different from tumor cells but contributing to tumor growth, such as microglia or reactive astrocytes. Moreover, we provide evidence about RNAs differentially expressed in ST vs LT samples, suggesting the contribution of TGF-β signaling in this distinction too. We also show that the edited form of miR-376c-3p is reduced in C vs P samples and in ST tumors compared to LT ones. As a whole, our study provides new insights into the still puzzling distinction between ST and LT tumors, and sheds new light onto that “grey” zone represented by the area surrounding the tumor, which we show to be characterized by the expression of several molecules shared with the proper tumor mass. PMID:26188123

  14. Childhood Brain Tumors

    ... They are among the most common types of childhood cancers. Some are benign tumors, which aren't ... can still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches ...

  15. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  16. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... wireless devices Head injuries Smoking Hormone therapy SPECIFIC TUMOR TYPES Brain tumors are classified depending on: Location of the ...

  17. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  18. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor - Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor - Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on how many people survive this type of ...

  19. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  20. Orbital Tumors and Pseudotumors

    Talan-Hranilović, Jasna; Tomas, Davor

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-four orbital tumors and 4 pseudotumors diagnosed in biopsy material among 596 ophthalmic tumors examined during the 1998-2003 period are presented according to patient age and sex, tumor histology and immunohistochemistry. The most common orbital tumors were lipomas, meningiomas and lymphomas, with a peak incidence in the seventh decade of life. Most orbital tumors of childhood are distinguished from those occurring in adults. Most pediatric orbital tumors are benign (developmental cys...

  1. Radiation-induced nitric oxide mitigates tumor hypoxia and radioresistance in a murine SCCVII tumor model

    Highlights: •IR-induced NO increased tissue perfusion and pO2. •IR increased NO production in tumors without changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NOS isoforms. •NOS activity assay showed that IR upregulated eNOS activity in tumors. •IR-induced NO decreased tumor hypoxia and altered tumor radiosensitivity. -- Abstract: Tumor hypoxia, which occurs mainly as a result of inadequate tissue perfusion in solid tumors, is a well-known challenge for successful radiotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that ionizing radiation (IR) upregulates nitric oxide (NO) production and that IR-induced NO has the potential to increase intratumoral circulation. However, the kinetics of NO production and the responsible isoforms for NO synthase in tumors exposed to IR remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which IR stimulates NO production in tumors and the effect of IR-induced NO on tumor radiosensitivity. Hoechst33342 perfusion assay and electron spin resonance oxymetry showed that IR increased tissue perfusion and pO2 in tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis using two different hypoxic probes showed that IR decreased hypoxic regions in tumors; treatment with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, abrogated the effects of IR. Moreover, IR increased endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity without affecting its mRNA or protein expression levels in SCCVII-transplanted tumors. Tumor growth delay assay showed that L-NAME decreased the anti-tumor effect of fractionated radiation (10 Gy × 2). These results suggested that IR increased eNOS activity and subsequent tissue perfusion in tumors. Increases in intratumoral circulation simultaneously decreased tumor hypoxia. As a result, IR-induced NO increased tumor radiosensitivity. Our study provides a new insight into the NO-dependent mechanism for efficient fractionated radiotherapy

  2. Imaging appearance in papillary endolymphatic sac tumors

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging findings on CT, MRI, and angiography in patients with papillary, endolymphatic sac tumors (PELSTs) . Methods: CT and MR imaging studies in 5 patients (aged 12 - 41 years) with histopathologically proved papillary endolymphatic sac tumors were retrospectively reviewed, and four of the five also underwent angiograms. CT scans were evaluated for bone erosion and calcification, MR images for signal intensity changes, enhancement patterns, and flow voids, and angiograms for tumor blood supply. Results: All tumors were destructive, containing calcifications centered in the retrolabyrinthine region and showing irregular hone margins on CT. MR imaging appearance varied with lesion size and nature. Three of the five tumors showed a high-signal intensity margin on unenhanced T1 and T2-weighted images, and the margins were more clear with fat-suppress imaging. The others were heterogeneous and contained cystic high-signal intensity area on both T1 and T2 weighted images. All the tumors showed irregular low signal intensity within the endolymphatic sac anatomically and flow voids signals. The blood supply arose predominantly from the external carotid artery. Two tumors had additional supply from posterior circulation. Conclusion: Papillary endolymphatic sac tumors are destructive and hypervascular lesions that arise from the retrolabyrinthine region in the temporal hone. These imaging findings combined with the original location may help distinguish PELSTs from other more common arid aggressive temporal bone tumors

  3. Radiological diagnostics of skeletal tumors

    The book contains contributions concerning the following topics: 1. introduction and fundamentals: WHO classification of bone tumors, imaging diagnostics and their function; localization, typical clinical and radiological criteria, TNM classification and status classification, invasive tumor diagnostics; 2. specific tumor diagnostics: chondrogenic bone tumors, osseous tumors, connective tissue bony tumors, osteoclastoma, osteomyelogenic bone tumors, vascular bone tumors, neurogenic bone tumors, chordoma; adamantinoma of the long tubular bone; tumor-like lesions, bony metastases, bone granulomas, differential diagnostics: tumor-like lesions

  4. Tumor heterogeneity, tumor size, and radioresistance

    Mutant clonogenic cells, resistant to individual chemotherapeutic agents, are known to play a central role in clinical chemotherapy failure. The possibility that mutant cells, resistant to conventionally fractionated megavoltage photon radiotherapy, exist in human tumors is considered. Applying the mutation theory of Luria and Delbruck to describe the appearance of resistant cells, several conclusions follow: (a) the mean number of resistant cells in a tumor will be determined by the tumor size and the mutation rate; (b) a wide variation in radiosensitivity in tumors of the same histology is expected, because of a large variation in the number of resistant cells that they contain; (c) the presence of a resistant clone will not reduce the tumor-control probability until the tumor becomes sufficiently large; (d) initial response will not be a reliable predictor of long-term control; (e) clonogenic assays may not accurately predict treatment outcomes; (f) the mutation rate may be the most accurate predictor of tumor aggressiveness and resistance to various treatment modalities; (g) tumors with a low mutation rate, which may include seminoma, Hodgkin's disease and many pediatric tumors would be curable by either chemotherapy or radiation; (h) pleomorphic tumors with a high mutation rate, which may include glioblastoma multiforme, would be difficult to cure by any means. Clinical and experimental evidence is reviewed for the existence of radioresistant cell lines in human and animal tumors, and further experiments are proposed to test this hypothesis. Treatment strategies for targeting radioresistant clones are discussed

  5. Malignant triton tumor (MTT) of the neck

    Sørensen, Kristine Bjørndal; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2006-01-01

    Malignant Triton Tumor (MTT) is a rare, malignant periphere nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. One third of described MTT's were located at the head and neck region. One third of these are associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. MTT most often appears in the third decade....... MTT's are very aggressive tumors with early metastases and the overall survival is poor (26%). Therefore, early diagnosis and correct treatment is of utmost importance. We report a case of MTT of the left supraclavicular region in a 41-year-old man. We present the pathological findings, both light and...

  6. Carotid body tumor: a 25-year experience.

    Metheetrairut, Choakchai; Chotikavanich, Chanticha; Keskool, Phawin; Suphaphongs, Nit

    2016-08-01

    Carotid body tumor is an uncommon hypervascular benign tumor in the head and neck region. It usually presents as a slow growing mass at the carotid bifurcation. Because of the high rate of neurovascular complications, resection of this tumor is considered challenging for otolaryngologists. Between 1988 and 2013, 40 carotid body tumors from 38 patients were diagnosed and underwent resection at Siriraj Hospital (25 female and 13 male patients). Their age ranged from 15 to 59 years. Seven patients had bilateral tumors simultaneously whereas six cases had familial history of carotid body tumor. Carotid angiography was performed in 29 cases; other additional diagnostic studies included CT scan, MRI, and MRA to detect the widening of carotid bifurcation, its extension, and multifocal tumors. All diagnosed tumors were successfully removed. However, internal carotid artery and carotid bifurcation were injured in 11 cases (27.5 %). Shamblin class III and previous biopsy history were considered risk factors for vascular injury. Postoperative cranial nerves deficit was found in 20 % of the cases and CNS complication occurred in two patients (5 %). There was no surgical mortality. Additionally, upon the mean follow-up period of 36 months, no recurrence or malignant transformation was detected in this study. Multidisciplinary approach, early tumor detection, meticulous preoperative evaluation, and modern vascular surgical technique are the key success factors for tumor removal. PMID:26233244

  7. Oxygen diffusion and oxygen effect in tumor tissue

    The diffusion of oxygen in tumor cords of bronchus carcinoma of the lung have been studied with refined computer methods for solving the diffusion equation in axis symmetric tumor structures. In this tumor configuration we may find three different regions consisting of euoxic cells, hypoxic tumor cells and necrotic parts. In the case of oxygen supply from a capillary inside a cylinder of tumor tissue with radius 200 μm or in a tumor cord of radius 300 μm with oxygen supply by capillaries outside, we get a relation of well oxygenated cells to hypoxic cells approximately as 1:8 or as 1:1.1 respectively. Of course most of the tumor cords observed in histological slices have smaller diameters, so that an average of approximately 20% hypoxic cells can be assumed. Based on the work of Ardenne, the diffusion of oxygen and glucose in a tumor of type DS-carcinosarcom has been investigated in both intact tumor and tumor treated with ionizing radiation. We can show that a strong reoxygenation effect takes place in that the well supplied regions may increase in some tumor configurations up to a factor of four by volume. The biological consequences of the oxygen pressure determined in tumor cells are discussed in detail. The investigation of oxygen diffusion in the intercapillary tumor region should give a quantitative physical basis for considering the oxygen effect with the aim to explain the advantages of neutron therapy against conventional radiotherapy. (orig./MG)

  8. In vivo tumor radiobiology of heavy charged particles

    The response of tumor cells systems to irradiation with carbon, neon and argon beams at various positions in the plateau and extended-peak regions of the Bragg ionization curve is being evaluated from experiments conducted both in vivo and in vitro. The radiobiological end points being studied include: tumor volume response, cellular survival after tumor irradiation in situ, and cell-kinetic parameters

  9. Preoperative scintigraphic evaluation of the location of juxtaglomerular cell tumor

    Juxtaglomerular cell tumor is a rare condition which cannot be correctly diagnosed preoperatively. In the only previously reported case in which scintigraphy has been used, this method failed to detect the tumor. We present a case of juxtaglomerular cell tumor in which renal scintigraphy revealed a well-defined cold area in the hilar region of the left kidney. (orig.)

  10. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumors.

    Abrahams, Joshua M; McClure, Shawn A

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric odontogenic tumors are rare, and are often associated with impacted teeth. Although they can develop anywhere in the jaws, odontogenic tumors mainly occur in the posterior mandible. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the most common pediatric odontogenic tumors, such as ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. PMID:26614700

  11. Updates in Orbital Tumors

    Nila; F.Moeloek

    1993-01-01

    Orbital anatomy, the clinical features of orbital tumors, the recent development of the diagnosis and management of orbital tumors were described. The incidence of orbital tumors in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in the past years were introduced. The principle of management of orbital tumors and their prognosis were discussed.

  12. The transcriptome and miRNome profiling of glioblastoma tissues and peritumoral regions highlights molecular pathways shared by tumors and surrounding areas and reveals differences between short-term and long-term survivors

    Fazi, Barbara; Felsani, Armando; Grassi, Luigi; Moles, Anna; D'Andrea, Daniel; Toschi, Nicola; Sicari, Daria; De Bonis, Pasquale; Anile, Carmelo; Guerrisi, Maria Giovanna; Luca, Emilia; Farace, Maria Giulia; Maira, Giulio; Ciafré, Silvia Anna; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadliest primary brain tumor, driving patients to death within 15 months after diagnosis (short term survivors, ST), with the exception of a small fraction of patients (long term survivors, LT) surviving longer than 36 months. Here we present deep sequencing data showing that peritumoral (P) areas differ from healthy white matter, but share with their respective frankly tumoral (C) samples, a number of mRNAs and microRNAs representative of...

  13. Tumor heterogeneity and circulating tumor cells.

    Zhang, Chufeng; Guan, Yan; Sun, Yulan; Ai, Dan; Guo, Qisen

    2016-05-01

    In patients with cancer, individualized treatment strategies are generally guided by an analysis of molecular biomarkers. However, genetic instability allows tumor cells to lose monoclonality and acquire genetic heterogeneity, an important characteristic of tumors, during disease progression. Researchers have found that there is tumor heterogeneity between the primary tumor and metastatic lesions, between different metastatic lesions, and even within a single tumor (either primary or metastatic). Tumor heterogeneity is associated with heterogeneous protein functions, which lowers diagnostic precision and consequently becomes an obstacle to determining the appropriate therapeutic strategies for individual cancer patients. With the development of novel testing technologies, an increasing number of studies have attempted to explore tumor heterogeneity by examining circulating tumor cells (CTCs), with the expectation that CTCs may comprehensively represent the full spectrum of mutations and/or protein expression alterations present in the cancer. In addition, this strategy represents a minimally invasive approach compared to traditional tissue biopsies that can be used to dynamically monitor tumor evolution. The present article reviews the potential efficacy of using CTCs to identify both spatial and temporal tumor heterogeneity. This review also highlights current issues in this field and provides an outlook toward future applications of CTCs. PMID:26902424

  14. Endocrine tumors other than thyroid tumors

    This paper discusses the tendency for the occurrence of tumors in the endocrine glands, other than the thyroid gland, in A-bomb survivors using both autopsy and clinical data. ABCC-RERF sample data using 4136 autopsy cases (1961-1977) revealed parathyroid tumors in 13 A-bomb survivors, including 3 with the associated hyperparathyroidism, with the suggestion of dose-dependent increase in the occurrence of tumors. Based on clinical data from Hiroshima University, 7 (46.7%) of 15 parathyroid tumors cases were A-bomb survivors. Data (1974-1987) from the Tumor Registry Committee (TRC) in Hiroshima Prefecture revealed that a relative risk of parathyroid tumors was 5.6 times higher in the entire group of A-bomb survivors and 16.2 times higher in the group of heavily exposed A-bomb survivors, suggesting the dose-dependent increase in their occurrence. Adrenal tumors were detected in 47 of 123 cases from the TRC data, and 15 (31.5%) of these 47 were A-bomb survivors. Particularly, 11 cases of adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome included 6 A-bomb survivors (54.5%). The incidence of multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT) tended to be higher with increasing exposure doses; and the 1-9 rad group, the 10-99 rad group, and the 100 or more rad group had a risk of developing MEGT of 4.1, 5.7, and 7.1, respectively, relative to both the not-in the city group and the 0 rad group. These findings suggested that there is a correlation between A-bomb radiation and the occurrence of parathyroid tumors (including hyperparathyroidism), adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome and MEGT (especially, the combined thyroid and ovarian tumors and the combined thyroid and parathyroid tumors). (N.K.)

  15. Minimally Invasive-Endoscopic Intraventricular Neurosurgery

    Full Text Available ... arachniod cysts being the most common -- and then brain tumors where it’s burgeoning as far as the investigation ... do as safely. We talked about removal of brain tumors in the pineal region, or colloid system, the ...

  16. Can tumor uptake Tc-99m MDP

    Aim: To study a distribution of Tc-99m MDP in mice bearing tumor cell lines. Methods: The uptake of Tc-99m MDP was analyzed in seven human tumor cell lines (SPC-A1 adenocarcinoma of lung cancer, P37 Breast cancer, T24 Bladder cancer, SKOV2 Ovary carcinoma, Hela-229 Cervical carcinoma, Osteosarcoma, A375 Melanoma) and one mouse lung cancer cell line (Lewis). They were transplanted into 13, 4, 5, 5, 4, 5 athymic mice, 6 SCID nude mice and 4 C57 black mice, respectively. Approximately 10(7) cells of each cell line were injected subcutaneously into a right chest of mouse. After 5∼6 weeks, the Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy were determined 5-6 hours after i.v. injection of 74MBq in 0.05ml every mouse. Result: Biodistribution and tumor uptake MDP was different in the various cell types investigated. Region of interests (RIOs) placed on a small part of the tumor and horizontal copied to left chest or spine of mice in Tc-99m MDP imaging and the average count ratio (tumor to background ratio: T/B, tumor to spine ratio: T/NT) in each ROI was calculated. 13 nude mice bearing the adenocarcinoma (SPC-A1) were sacrificed and biodistribution was determined after Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy. Results were expressed as % injected dose/gram (%ID/g), mean±SD. T-ulcer=ulcer of tumor, T-round=surrounding of tumor, T-center=the center of tumor, Thor-sp=thoracic spine, Lum-ver=lumbar vertebra, LN=lymph node. Conclusions: Tumor can uptake Tc-99m MDP including adenocarcinoma. Higher uptake rate in the center tissue of tumor is than other part of tumor. It maybe connected with necrosis or fibrosis of tumor

  17. Imaging the Tumor Microenvironment

    LeBleu, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex, heterogeneous, and dominant component of solid tumors. Cancer imaging strategies of a subset of characteristics of the tumor microenvironment are under active development and currently used modalities and novel approaches are summarized here. Understanding the dynamic and evolving functions of the tumor microenvironment is critical to accurately inform imaging and clinical care of cancer. Novel insights into distinct roles of the tumor microenvironment...

  18. Advances on the treatment of solid tumor by 131I labeled mouse-human chimeric tumor necrosis therapy monoclonal antibody

    131I labeled mouse-human chimeric tumor necrosis therapy monoclonal antibody (131I-chTNT) is a kind of new drug targeting at degenerated or necrotic nuclei in the tumor necrosis zone,and may be applicable to the majority of human solid tumors, such as lung cancer, liver cancer,colon carcinoma and glioma, while conventional tumor cell monoclonal antibody can target only tumor cell surface antigen. Enhanced effects can be achieved by 131I-chTNT in combination with other therapies, such as radiotherapy,chemotherapy or radiofrequency ablation, which may increase tumor necrosis region and expose more combinative targets. (authors)

  19. Modulation of the tumor vasculature and oxygenation to improve therapy

    Siemann, Dietmar W; Horsman, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    extracellular molecules which together are essential for the initiation, progression and spread of tumor cells. The physical conditions that arise are imposing and manifold, and include elevated interstitial pressure, localized extracellular acidity, and regions of oxygen and nutrient deprivation. No less...... that create a significant hindrance to the control of cancers by conventional anticancer therapies. However, the aberrant nature of the tumor microenvironments also offers unique therapeutic opportunities. Particularly interventions that seek to improve tumor physiology and alleviate tumor hypoxia will...

  20. Intrarenal neuroblastoma mimics Wilms' tumor

    This work reports the case history of a child with intrarenal neuroblastoma, initially diagnosed as Wilms' tumor. The patient, a one year and three months old girl, presented a hard abdominal mass on the left flank that extended to the meso gastric region, plus fever and paleness. The ultrasound of the entire abdomen revealed an intrarenal mass. Biopsy with fine needle in many points of the tumor revealed Wilms' tumor. The scarcely of the material, however, made immunohistoquemistry impossible at that moment. Because of the child's severe condition the SIOP protocol was started. As no clinical response was observed, an exploratory laparotomy was indicated with partial resection of the tumor and bone marrow aspiration (MO). The histopathologic study revealed a malignant neoplasia of small cells, poorly differentiated. IHQ was negative for WT-1 and positive for NB-84, synaptofisin, cromogranine. N-myc amplification was observed by molecular biology. The bone marrow aspiration identified metastatic small round cells infiltration. Intrarenal neuroblastoma is a rare entity that clinically and radiographically resembles Wilms' tumor. The objective of this case report is to show the importance of immunohistochemical and molecular analysis in the diagnosis of intrarenal neuroblastoma. (author)