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1

Pure endoscopic removal of pineal region tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Endoscopic resection of pineal tumors using an endoscope with a mounted rigid suction that allows bimanual handling of the tumor for resection. This contrasts to the established method of biopsy of pineal tumors through intraventricular approach. METHODS: Two patients, one with a cystic lesion in the pineal region and one with a large pineal tumor, were operated in sitting position through a subtorcular approach. Endoscope was held in the left hand with suction tip extending beyond the tip through its instrument channel. Regular microsurgical instrumentation/CUSA/Nico Aspirator was used with the right hand for dissection, cutting, and removing the tumor under endoscopic vision. RESULT: Surgeon comfort was superior to when microscope is used in sitting position. Complete resection was achieved in all cases. CONCLUSION: The two-handed endoscopic technique using a mounted suction on the endoscope as described is a safe and effective strategy for resecting pineal region tumors.

Sood S; Hoeprich M; Ham SD

2011-09-01

2

Diagnosis of pineal region tumors; Imagerie des tumeurs de la region pineale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper is to explain the different radio-clinical presentations of pineal region tumors. Although MR images provide a important help to diagnosis, because of topographic analysis and evaluation of MR characteristics in the tumors, clinic, presentation tumors markers and the stereotaxic surgery are also of great importance. Radiological appearances, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnostic of pineal region tumours. (authors). 44 refs.

Gauvrit, J.Y.; Soto Ares, G.; Hamon-Kerautret, M.; Pruvo, J.P.; Blond, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 59 - Lille (France)

1997-09-01

3

Management of hydrocephalus secondary to pineal region tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus is often secondary to pineal region tumors. Hydrocephalus can lead to high intracranial pressure, which in turn results in disturbance of consciousness, cerebral hernia, and even death. Hydrocephalus management is important in the treatment of pineal region tumors. It is still controversial regarding to when and how to treat hydrocephalus secondary to pineal region tumors. The objective of this study is to investigate the management of hydrocephalus secondary to pineal region tumors. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed records for 51 patients admitted to the department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital from April 1997 to September 2010 with hydrocephalus secondary to pineal region tumors treated through occipital transtentorial approach. RESULTS: Preoperative ventricular drainage was performed on one patient, and ventriculoperitoneal shunts were performed on two patients. Intraoperative ventriculocisternal shunts were performed on 35 patients (the remission rate was 88.6%), no treatments on 15 patients (the remission rate was 46.7%), and ventricular drainages on three patients. VP shunts were performed on 12 patients with no remission after the operation. CONCLUSION: Pineal region tumors resection usually should be performed before shunting, unless there is an acute obstructive hydrocephalus. The posterior third ventricle should be opened after tumor resection. Intraoperative third ventriculostomy and ventriculocisternal shunt are reliable ways to manage hydrocephalus secondary to pineal region tumors.

Zhang Z; Wang H; Cheng H; Fan Y; Hang C; Sun K; Zhu L

2013-09-01

4

MR imaging in tumors of the pineal region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten patients with tumors of the pineal region underwent CT and MRI investigations. There were 3 germinomas, 3 teratomas and 1 of each of the following: Pineocytoma, PNET, ependymoma and meningioma. Not only were tumor size and growth compared to CT, but an attempt was made to obtain knowledge of the histology of the tumor by special T2 calculations. The investigations did not lead to an improvement in type specific diagnosis. (orig.).

1988-01-01

5

MR imaging in tumors of the pineal region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten patients with tumors of the pineal region underwent CT and MRI investigations. There were 3 germinomas, 3 teratomas and 1 of each of the following: Pineocytoma, PNET, ependymoma and meningioma. Not only were tumor size and growth compared to CT, but an attempt was made to obtain knowledge of the histology of the tumor by special T/sub 2/ calculations. The investigations did not lead to an improvement in type specific diagnosis.

Mueller-Forell, W.; Schroth, G.; Egan, P.J.

1988-06-01

6

Cellular pleomorphism in papillary tumors of the pineal region.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a recently recognized entity. We present the pathologic findings of two cases of PTPR as examples, and discuss the presence of cellular pleomorphism in these tumors. Patient 1 is a 48-year-old man with a pineal region mass. The tumor had unique biphasic patterns, papillary/pseudopapillary areas, and increased mitotic activity. Juxtaposed areas had marked pleomorphism, including nuclear enlargement, smudgy chromatin, nuclear pseudoinclusions, and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Mitoses were absent in these areas. Immunohistochemical staining revealed strong S100 expression. CAM 5.2 and CK18 were strongly positive in a patchy fashion. MIB1 labeling indices were high in classic PTPR regions but very low in pleomorphic areas. Patient 2 was a 35-year-old male with a pineal region tumor characterized by papillary architecture and overall cellular monotony, rare mitoses, and pleomorphism as a more isolated finding, with associated nuclear enlargement and crowding. S100 and CAM 5.2 labeling were present, and MIB1 labeling index was very low throughout the tumor. We discuss the pathologic and phenotypic features of PTPR. Variable pleomorphism may be present, reflected in size variation and nuclear hyperchromasia, but was not accompanied by increased proliferative activity in these cases, suggesting a degenerative phenomenon.

Magalhães J; Rostad S; Foltz G; Pytel P; Rodriguez FJ

2013-04-01

7

Lung carcinoma metastasis presenting as a pineal region tumor/ Metástasis del carcinoma de pulmón que se presenta como tumor de la región pineal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La región pineal es un sitio inusual para el depósito de metástasis y la mayoría de las metástasis pineales son asintomáticas. Un hombre de 53 años debutó con una cefalea intensa, limitación en la supraversión y diplopia. La exploración neurológica fue irrelevante. La resonancia magnética (RM) cerebral demostró una lesión solitaria de 1,5 x 2 cm bien delimitada, en la región pineal con hidrocefalia. Fue intervenido quirúrgicamente siendo el diagnóstico a (more) natomopatológico de adenocarcinoma. Un estudio sistémico descubrió un adenocarcinoma de pulmón como tumor primario. Aunque muy raramente, las metástasis deben considerarse en el diagnóstico diferencial de tumores de la región pineal. Abstract in english The pineal region is an unusual site for brain metastasis and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. A 53 year-old man presented with severe headache, limitation of upward gaze and diplopia. The patient's neurological examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain demonstrated a 1,5 x 2 cm well demarcated solitary mass in the pineal region with hydrocephalus. Surgery was performed and adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. A systemic in (more) vestigation revealed adenocarcinoma of the lung as primary lesion. Although rare, metastatic tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors.

Samanci, Y.; Iplikcioglu, C.; Ozek, E.; Ozcan, D.; Marangozoglu, B.

2011-12-01

8

Lung carcinoma metastasis presenting as a pineal region tumor Metástasis del carcinoma de pulmón que se presenta como tumor de la región pineal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pineal region is an unusual site for brain metastasis and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. A 53 year-old man presented with severe headache, limitation of upward gaze and diplopia. The patient's neurological examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain demonstrated a 1,5 x 2 cm well demarcated solitary mass in the pineal region with hydrocephalus. Surgery was performed and adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. A systemic investigation revealed adenocarcinoma of the lung as primary lesion. Although rare, metastatic tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors.La región pineal es un sitio inusual para el depósito de metástasis y la mayoría de las metástasis pineales son asintomáticas. Un hombre de 53 años debutó con una cefalea intensa, limitación en la supraversión y diplopia. La exploración neurológica fue irrelevante. La resonancia magnética (RM) cerebral demostró una lesión solitaria de 1,5 x 2 cm bien delimitada, en la región pineal con hidrocefalia. Fue intervenido quirúrgicamente siendo el diagnóstico anatomopatológico de adenocarcinoma. Un estudio sistémico descubrió un adenocarcinoma de pulmón como tumor primario. Aunque muy raramente, las metástasis deben considerarse en el diagnóstico diferencial de tumores de la región pineal.

Y. Samanci; C. Iplikcioglu; E. Ozek; D. Ozcan; B. Marangozoglu

2011-01-01

9

Radiotherapy of Pineal and Ectopic Pineal Tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From December 1984 to February 1990, 16 patients with tumors of pineal and suprasellar location were treated with radiation therapy. Tissue diagnoses were obtained before radiation therapy in 5 patients and 11 were irradiated without histologic confirmation. Initial treatments for these patients were craniospinal plus boost primary irradiation(six), whole brain plus boost primary irradiation(nine), primary tumor site irradiation(one). The 5 year actuarial survival rate is 71%. Three cases with elevated beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) responded favorably to radiation, but pineal tumors with elevated alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) did not respond well. Spinal metastasis developed in 2 cases (2/15) with elevated AFP : one received prophylactic spinal irradiation, another did not. Our studies suggest that more aggressive treatment would be necessary in patient with elevated AFP and in this patient, radiation therapy may be initiate without pathologic confirmation. From the result of our study, routine use of prophylactic spinal irradiation for all patients with pineal region tumor is not indicated and use of prophylactic spinal irradiation is considered for the patients with positive craniospinal fluid cytology, meningeal seeding, disease extension along the ventricular wall and biopsy proven germinoma.

Cho, Heung Lae; Sohn, Seung Chang [Pusan Paik Hospital Inje University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

1991-12-15

10

Microarray analysis reveals differential gene expression patterns in tumors of the pineal region.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several types of tumors are known to originate from the pineal region, among them pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPRs), probably derived from the subcommissural organ. As a result of their rarity, their histologic diagnosis remains difficult. To identify molecular markers, using CodeLink oligonucleotide arrays, gene expression was studied in 3 PPTs (2 pineocytomas and one pineoblastoma), 2 PTPRs, and one chordoid glioma, another rare tumor of the third ventricle. Because PTPR and chordoid glioma may present ependymal differentiation, gene expression was also analyzed in 4 ependymomas. The gene patterns of the 3 PPTs fell in the same cluster. The pineocytomas showed high expression of TPH, HIOMT, and genes related to phototransduction in the retina (OPN4, RGS16, and CRB3), whereas the pineoblastoma showed high expression of UBEC2, SOX4, TERT, TEP1, PRAME, CD24, POU4F2, and HOXD13. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on 13 PPTs, we demonstrated that PRAME, CD24, POU4F2, and HOXD13 might be candidates for grading PPT with intermediate differentiation. PTPRs, classified with chordoid glioma and separately from ependymomas, showed high expression of SPEDF, KRT18, and genes encoding proteins reported to be expressed in the subcommissural organ, namely ZFH4, RFX3, TTR, and CGRP. Our results highlight the usefulness of gene expression profiling for classify tumors of the pineal region and identify genes with potential use as diagnostic markers.

Fèvre-Montange M; Champier J; Szathmari A; Wierinckx A; Mottolese C; Guyotat J; Figarella-Branger D; Jouvet A; Lachuer J

2006-07-01

11

Microarray analysis reveals differential gene expression patterns in tumors of the pineal region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several types of tumors are known to originate from the pineal region, among them pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPRs), probably derived from the subcommissural organ. As a result of their rarity, their histologic diagnosis remains difficult. To identify molecular markers, using CodeLink oligonucleotide arrays, gene expression was studied in 3 PPTs (2 pineocytomas and one pineoblastoma), 2 PTPRs, and one chordoid glioma, another rare tumor of the third ventricle. Because PTPR and chordoid glioma may present ependymal differentiation, gene expression was also analyzed in 4 ependymomas. The gene patterns of the 3 PPTs fell in the same cluster. The pineocytomas showed high expression of TPH, HIOMT, and genes related to phototransduction in the retina (OPN4, RGS16, and CRB3), whereas the pineoblastoma showed high expression of UBEC2, SOX4, TERT, TEP1, PRAME, CD24, POU4F2, and HOXD13. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on 13 PPTs, we demonstrated that PRAME, CD24, POU4F2, and HOXD13 might be candidates for grading PPT with intermediate differentiation. PTPRs, classified with chordoid glioma and separately from ependymomas, showed high expression of SPEDF, KRT18, and genes encoding proteins reported to be expressed in the subcommissural organ, namely ZFH4, RFX3, TTR, and CGRP. Our results highlight the usefulness of gene expression profiling for classify tumors of the pineal region and identify genes with potential use as diagnostic markers. PMID:16825954

Fèvre-Montange, Michelle; Champier, Jacques; Szathmari, Alexandru; Wierinckx, Anne; Mottolese, Carmine; Guyotat, Jacques; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Jouvet, Anne; Lachuer, Joël

2006-07-01

12

Pineal region tumors: results of radiation therapy and indications for elective spinal irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighteen patients with pineal region tumors seen from November 1960 to November 1978 were reviewed. Thirteen patients treated with radiation therapy received tumor doses in the 4000 to 5500 rad range. The five year survival and five year disease-free survival were 73 and 63% respectively. Spinal cord metastasis occurred in 2 of 13 (15%) patients. Attempts at salvage radiotherapy for these patients were unsuccessful. Computerized tomography (CT) scan provides an excellent method of evaluating the response of pineal region tumors to radiation. Rapid regression of the tumor mass on CT scan reflects the highly radioresponsive nature of germinomas, the tumor type most likely to disseminate throughout the neuraxis. This principle can be exploited to select unbiopsied patients with a high risk of spinal cord metastasis for prophylactic spinal radiation at an early stage of treatment

1981-01-01

13

Bevacizumab is Effective for Recurrent Papillary Tumor of the Pineal Region: First Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a rare brain tumor that probably arises from ependymal cells. There are no known systemic treatments for PTPR once it is refractory to surgery and radiation. We present the first case of a durable radiographic and clinical response of a PTPR to bevacizumab, an antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, despite multiple prior treatments. Bevacizumab may be an effective treatment for PTPR.

Cohen, Adam L.; Salzman, Karen; Palmer, Cheryl; Jensen, Randy; Colman, Howard

2013-01-01

14

Bevacizumab is Effective for Recurrent Papillary Tumor of the Pineal Region: First Report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a rare brain tumor that probably arises from ependymal cells. There are no known systemic treatments for PTPR once it is refractory to surgery and radiation. We present the first case of a durable radiographic and clinical response of a PTPR to bevacizumab, an antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, despite multiple prior treatments. Bevacizumab may be an effective treatment for PTPR.

Cohen AL; Salzman K; Palmer C; Jensen R; Colman H

2013-01-01

15

Combined supra/infratentorial-transsinus approach to large pineal region tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECT: The authors sought to confirm that the combined supra/infratentorial-transsinus approach offers a safer means of resecting large pineal region tumors than other approaches currently being used. The aforementioned method provides a wider exposure of the pineal region with less brain retraction than the infratentorial-supracerebellar or the occipital-transtentorial approach alone and is applicable to some large and giant tumors of this area. This combined approach was used in six patients to remove large pineal region tumors including four tentorial meningiomas, one pineocytoma, and one epidermoid cyst. METHODS: The transverse sinus and tentorium were sectioned after review of preoperative angiographic studies, after taking intraoperative measurements of the venous pressure in the nondominant transverse sinus before and after clipping and while monitoring the somatosensory evoked potentials. The occipital lobe cortex and cerebellum were retracted slightly along the tentorium. Deep veins of the galenic system, the quadrigeminal area, and the tumor were well exposed. Before it was used for tumor resection the approach was studied in five cadaveric head specimens, and the projection of different approaches was compared radiologically. The tumors were removed in a gross-total manner in all patients, and none of the major veins of the galenic system was injured. Resuturing of the nondominant transverse sinus was performed postoperatively in one patient. One of the six patients experienced transient visual loss, and another suffered mild right sixth cranial nerve paresis; however, both recovered in 3 weeks. The wide exposure of the combined approach was also confirmed on radiological and anatomical studies. CONCLUSIONS: The combined supra/infratentorial-transsinus approach is preferred for the resection of certain large pineal region tumors.

Ziyal IM; Sekhar LN; Salas E; Olan WJ

1998-06-01

16

The clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor in the pineal region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor (ITT) in the pineal region. Methods A retrospective study was performed to analyse the diagnostic and therapeutic process of 1 case with ITT in the pineal region. The specimen obtained from the surgery was dealt with common tissue processing mode and cut into slices. HE staining was performed to observe histophathological features. Immunohistochemical staining (SP two-step method) was performed to analyse the expression of tumor markers. Related literatures were reviewed. Results A 6-year old boy with clinical manifestations of penis enlargement and rapid growth for more than one year, presented a mass in his pineal region through MRI. The tumor was surgically excised after it is refractory to 10 times experimental radiotherapy as germinoma. The level of ?-human chorionic gonadotropin ( ?-hCG) in his postoperative blood was decreased to normal, but gradually increased, once again followed to normal after three times chemotherapy. Patient was normal almost postoperative 6 months later by follow -up. Pathological examination showed sheets necrosis with multiple calcification and scattered fresh blood cells, epithelioid tumor cells with solid growth pattern. The tumor cells were atypical mononuclear cells with relative uniform (between heterotypic cells) and partially surrounding and invasing the vascular walls. The cytoplasm of tumor cells was eosinophilic or clear, the nucleus was round or irregular in shape and some with intranuclear pseudoinclusions, and its mitotic figures were rarely seen under light microscopy. The tumor cells showed strong positive for AE1/AE3, cell adhesion molecules 5.2 (CAM5.2), human placental lactogen (hPL), octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (Oct3/4), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and E-cadherin. P53 was also expressed. The positive rate of Ki-67 was about 10%, and ?-hCG was expressed in the extremely tumor cells. The tumor cells were negative for placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), alpha-feto protein (AFP), CD30 (Ki-1) and P63. Conclusion ITT in pineal region is very rare, and has partial morphological characteristics of placental site trophoblastic tumors (PSTT) and epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETT). This case got a good control through radiotherapy, operation excision combined with chemotherapy.

ZHANG Yun-xiang; ZHONG Ding-rong; HU Ming-ming; YUAN Tao; LI Gui-lin

2012-01-01

17

A pineal region germ cell tumor with rapid enlargement after a long-term follow-up: case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: The natural history of pineal region germ cell tumors (GCTs) is not well known. We report a rare case of a pineal region GCT showing rapid enlargement within 2 months, after 7 years with no growth. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A boy presented with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty at 6 years 10 months of age. Although a slight elevation of ?-human chorionic gonadotropin suggested that a small pineal cystic lesion observed on magnetic resonance imaging might be an ?-human chorionic gonadotropin--producing tumor, it was not clear whether the mass was truly a GCT. Accordingly, we followed up the pineal lesion and serum pituitary gonadotropin levels for approximately 7 years. After this period without essential tumor growth, the pineal tumor suddenly showed rapid enlargement, which prompted treatment. A histopathological investigation revealed a mixed GCT with a germinoma and an immature teratoma. Serum pituitary gonadotropin levels at 5 years after the first examination had increased to normal pubertal ranges. Although the pituitary gonadotropin levels had remained low during the period with no tumor growth, the gonadotropin levels were elevated and had continued to increase at least 2 years before the rapid enlargement of the tumor. CONCLUSION: These phenomena suggest that levels of neuroendocrinological parameters such as pituitary gonadotropin at puberty might affect the enlargement of pineal region GCTs, which might account for the natural history of GCTs, ie, their frequent detection at puberty.

Jinguji S; Fukuda M; Nagasaki K; Fujii Y

2013-04-01

18

Stereotactic radiosurgery of a papillary tumor of the pineal region: case report and review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Papillary tumors of the pineal region are a recently described very rare group of primary CNS neoplasms. Because of their rarity, it has proven to be difficult to establish the optimal therapy. Furthermore, microsurgical resection of pineal region neoplasms is associated with quite a high morbidity. We report the first case of stereotactic radiosurgery of a histologically confirmed papillary tumor of the pineal region. METHODS: After establishing the diagnosis by stereotactic biopsy, the patient was treated with stereotactic radiosurgery in a Gamma Knife unit. RESULTS: Five years after treatment, the tumor size is still decreasing, showing a good response to the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Stereotactic radiosurgery should be considered a treatment option in these surgically challenging tumors.

Riis P; van Eck AT; Dunker H; Bergmann M; Börm W

2013-01-01

19

Spontaneous pineal apoplexy in a pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pineal apoplexy is a rare clinical presentation of pineal parenchymal tumors. We report the curative treatment of a case of pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation with spontaneous apoplectic hemorrhage. This case is shown through computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and is confirmed via histopathological studies. Recurrent upward gaze paresis was observed after the stereotactic biopsy. The paresis required an expeditious tumor resection. The mechanism of the pineal apoplectic hemorrhage remains unclear although it has been observed in different pineal region lesions. Clinical and radiological evidence of the cure 5 years post-surgery is available.

Ching-Chun Wang; Jennifer Turner; Timothy Steel

2013-01-01

20

Papillary tumor of the pineal region: a case involving isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genotyping.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a recently described neoplasm. Several studies have been published on this tumor, but its pathological features and the appropriate treatment remain unclear. PTPR is reported to originate from ependymal cells in the subcommissural organ. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) mutations have been a focus area in glioma research as promising predictors. We report a case of PTPR that was characterized by local recurrence, although subtotal removal and radiotherapy seemed effective for many months. Histological examination showed ependymal features in the surgical specimens. As far as we are aware, this case study is the first to show that the IDH1/2 genotypes in PTPR cells are wild-type genotypes, which is consistent with the negative immunoreactivity that was observed for the IDH1 mutant antibody in this study.

Ishida A; Shibuya M; Komori T; Nobusawa S; Niimura K; Matsuo S; Hori T

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Pineal region tumors: results of radiation therapy and indications for elective spinal irradiation. [/sup 60/Co; x ray  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eighteen patients with pineal region tumors seen from November 1960 to November 1978 were reviewed. Thirteen patients treated with radiation therapy received tumor doses in the 4000 to 5500 rad range. The five year survival and five year disease-free survival were 73 and 63% respectively. Spinal cord metastasis occurred in 2 of 13 (15%) patients. Attempts at salvage radiotherapy for these patients were unsuccessful. Computerized tomography (CT) scan provides an excellent method of evaluating the response of pineal region tumors to radiation. Rapid regression of the tumor mass on CT scan reflects the highly radioresponsive nature of germinomas, the tumor type most likely to disseminate throughout the neuraxis. This principle can be exploited to select unbiopsied patients with a high risk of spinal cord metastasis for prophylactic spinal radiation at an early stage of treatment.

Griffin, B.R.; Griffin, T.W.; Tong, D.Y.K.; Russell, A.H.; Kurtz, J.; Laramore, G.E.; Groudine, M.

1981-05-01

22

Papillary tumor of pineal region: Prolonged control rate after gamma knife radiosurgery - A case report and review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPR) are very rare. We describe the first report of a PTPR empirically managed with gamma knife radiosurgery. The patient was initially shunted and referred for empirical gamma knife radiosurgery. After initially showing some improvement, he had recurrence of tumor after 7 years. For recurrence he underwent a gross total resection and the biopsy established the diagnosis of PTPR. Further research needs to be done as to the efficacy of gamma knife surgery for PTPR. In addition, the role of stereotactic biopsy for eligible patients should be considered as the initial step to direct the treatment of choice.

Cardenas Raul; Javalkar Vijayakumar; Haydel Justin; Wadhwa Rishi; Fowler Marjorie; Scheithauer Bernd; Nanda Anil

2010-01-01

23

Early treatment response of a rare papillary tumor of the pineal region after primary proton-beam therapy using the raster-scanning technique at HIT.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pineocytomas are rare intracranial tumors occurring in the pineal gland region. The curative therapy of choice is gross total resection, which cannot be performed in all patients because of the frequent eloquent location of these tumors. Percutaneous fractionated radiotherapy is an alternative treatment approach that may result in high local control rates. Nevertheless, our knowledge of this tumor entity is limited and based on retrospective case series only. We present a patient with a papillary tumor of the pineal region who was treated with highly conformal proton-beam therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) using the raster-scanning technique.

Habermehl D; Blachutzik F; Ecker S; Dittmar JO; Rieken S; Debus J; Welzel T; Combs SE

2012-09-01

24

Complete regression of papillary tumor of the pineal region after radiation therapy: case report and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a rare neuroepithelial tumor that arises in the pineal region. The optimal treatment for PTPR remains controversial, as no definitive treatment strategy exists for this lesion. It is not clear whether aggressive surgical removal is superior to biopsy followed by radiotherapy. The majority of cases in the literature have undergone attempted gross total resection with a supracerebellar-infratentorial or a transcallosal-transventricular approach. In this report, we describe a case of PTPR in a 23 year-old male that presented as a third ventricular mass causing obstructive hydrocephalus. An endoscopic third ventriculostomy was performed followed by an endoscopic biopsy. Postoperative radiotherapy resulted in complete regression of the tumor with no evidence of tumor recurrence at 25 months. This case highlights a minimally invasive strategy for a rare neoplasm that resulted in a favorable response to radiation therapy, thereby avoiding the risks of aggressive surgical removal. We also review the radiographic and histopathologic features of PTPR and discuss various options of treatment reported in the literature. PMID:22086239

Patel, Smruti K; Tomei, Krystal L; Christiano, Lana D; Baisre, Ada; Liu, James K

2011-11-16

25

Surgical therapy of benign pineal tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently, there is no way that the author knows to satisfactorily distinguish the benign lesions from their malignant cousins without a shadow of doubt. This includes preoperative evaluation of the clinical history, biological markers in serum and CSF, CT scans with and without contrast in various projections including the horizontal, coronal and sagittal cuts, and arteriography. Because the author has personally encountered difficulty in precisely diagnosing these tumors at routine light microscopy, especially when fragments are small, he has a personal aversion to the technique of diagnosis which enlists the use of a stereotactically placed biopsy needle. The author feels that virtually all of the pineal tumors require surgical exposure and sufficient tissue removal to ensure an accurate histological diagnosis. With experience, the author believes the surgeon can tell as he exposes the posterior and lateral aspects of these tumors whether or not they are encapsulated and therefore potentially resectable. This anatomical variation may be identified prior to operative intervention by an arteriogram especially with injection of large quantities of dye into the carotid system. With the advent of the CUSA (Cavitron Lasersonics, Cooper Medical Device Corporation, Stamford, CT), the author has used this instrument with increased facility and benefit in the removal of benign relatively avascular tumors of the pineal region. This instrument is ideal in coring out the interior of the tumor while creating little displacement of the tumor capsule. Some of the benign tumors, especially the meningiomas may be partially or heavily calcified and this instrument exhibits particular usefulness in these cases

1984-01-01

26

Medial posterior choroidal artery territory infarction associated with tumor removal in the pineal/tectum/thalamus region through the occipital transtentorial approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECT: Damage to the deep venous system, occipital lobe, and/or corpus callosum is well known to cause complications associated with the occipital transtentorial approach (OTA), but ischemic complications are not well documented. The authors investigated the high incidences of ischemic complications associated with removal of pineal/tectal/thalamic tumors through the OTA. METHODS: Clinical records of 29 patients who underwent 31 surgeries using the OTA from December 2001 to May 2011 were retrospectively studied. Tumor locations were the pineal/tectal/thalamic region for 19, cerebellum for 7, and medial temporal lobe for 3. RESULTS: Postoperative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images obtained within 72 h after surgery detected infarction in the tectal/splenial/thalamic region, presumably representing the medial posterior choroidal artery (MPChA) territory, in 10 patients. All these patients had tumor in the pineal/tectal/thalamic region. Deteriorated or newly developed eye symptoms including vertical gaze palsy tended to persist in these patients compared to those without ischemic complications. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high incidence of MPChA territory infarction was associated with removal of tumors in the pineal/tectal/thalamic region through the OTA. Eye symptoms often occurred post-surgery and tended to persist in these patients. Neurosurgeons must be aware of the possibility of MPChA territory infarction to further increase the safety of the OTA.

Saito R; Kumabe T; Kanamori M; Sonoda Y; Mugikura S; Takahashi S; Tominaga T

2013-08-01

27

Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report/ Glioblastoma multiforme de região pineal: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Os tumores da região pineal são incomuns e podem ser divididos em três categorias de acordo com a sua origem: células germinativas, células do parênquima e células gliais. Em sua maioria, os gliomas de pineal são astrocitomas de baixo grau, sendo que o seu correspondente maligno, glioblastoma multiforme, é o mais comum e agressivo tumor encefálico e é extremamente raro nesta localização, com apenas alguns casos relatados na literatura. CASO: Mulher (more) com 29 anos apresentando há 2 meses cefaléia, nucalgia, febre, náuseas e crises convulsivas. O exame físico mostrou rigidez de nuca, hipotonia, hipotrofia e hiperreflexia generalizadas, sinal de Babinski e paralisia do VI nervo craniano. A tomografia computadorizada revelou lesão hipodensa mal delimitada na topografia de pineal, com captação heterogênea de contraste. A ressonância magnética demonstrou lesão na região pineal com infiltração de tálamo à direita. A paciente foi submetida a craniotomia direita com ressecção parcial do tumor. O exame histológico definiu o diagnóstico de glioblastoma multiforme. No pós-operatório foi indicada radioterapia, mas a paciente recusou o tratamento e morreu dois meses depois. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de raro nesta topografia, os glioblastomas multiformes devem ser considerados no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões agressivas localizadas na glândula pineal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only few cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal r (more) igidity, generalized hypotony, hypotrophy and hyper-reflexia, Babinski sign and left VI cranial par palsy. CT scan examination revealed a ill-defined hypodense lesion at the pineal region with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. MRI showed a lesion at the pineal region infiltrating the right thalamic region. The patient underwent a right craniotomy with partial resection of the mass. The histological examination of paraffin-embedded material defined the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. Post-operative radiotherapy was indicated but the patient refused the treatment and died two months afterwards. CONCLUSION: in spite of its rarity at this location, glioblastoma multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aggressive lesions at the pineal region.

Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Warszawiak, Danny; Adam, Guilherme Pradi; Bleggi-Torres, Luiz Fernando; Carvalho Neto, Arnolfo de

2003-06-01

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Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report Glioblastoma multiforme de região pineal: relato de caso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only few cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized hypotony, hypotrophy and hyper-reflexia, Babinski sign and left VI cranial par palsy. CT scan examination revealed a ill-defined hypodense lesion at the pineal region with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. MRI showed a lesion at the pineal region infiltrating the right thalamic region. The patient underwent a right craniotomy with partial resection of the mass. The histological examination of paraffin-embedded material defined the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. Post-operative radiotherapy was indicated but the patient refused the treatment and died two months afterwards. CONCLUSION: in spite of its rarity at this location, glioblastoma multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aggressive lesions at the pineal region.OBJETIVO: Os tumores da região pineal são incomuns e podem ser divididos em três categorias de acordo com a sua origem: células germinativas, células do parênquima e células gliais. Em sua maioria, os gliomas de pineal são astrocitomas de baixo grau, sendo que o seu correspondente maligno, glioblastoma multiforme, é o mais comum e agressivo tumor encefálico e é extremamente raro nesta localização, com apenas alguns casos relatados na literatura. CASO: Mulher com 29 anos apresentando há 2 meses cefaléia, nucalgia, febre, náuseas e crises convulsivas. O exame físico mostrou rigidez de nuca, hipotonia, hipotrofia e hiperreflexia generalizadas, sinal de Babinski e paralisia do VI nervo craniano. A tomografia computadorizada revelou lesão hipodensa mal delimitada na topografia de pineal, com captação heterogênea de contraste. A ressonância magnética demonstrou lesão na região pineal com infiltração de tálamo à direita. A paciente foi submetida a craniotomia direita com ressecção parcial do tumor. O exame histológico definiu o diagnóstico de glioblastoma multiforme. No pós-operatório foi indicada radioterapia, mas a paciente recusou o tratamento e morreu dois meses depois. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de raro nesta topografia, os glioblastomas multiformes devem ser considerados no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões agressivas localizadas na glândula pineal.

Emerson Leandro Gasparetto; Danny Warszawiak; Guilherme Pradi Adam; Luiz Fernando Bleggi-Torres; Arnolfo de Carvalho Neto

2003-01-01

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The enigma of bifocal germ cell tumors in the suprasellar and pineal regions: synchronous lesions or metastasis?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECT: Intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) frequently present with bifocal lesions in both the suprasellar and pineal areas. The pathogenesis of these bifocal GCTs has been the subject of controversy. Bifocal GCTs may be caused by synchronous tumors or by metastatic spread of tumor cells from one site to the other. The prognosis associated with bifocal GCTs has also been a cause of concern. METHODS: The authors constructed a single-institution patient cohort comprising 181 patients with intracranial GCTs. The clinical characteristics of bifocal GCTs were compared with those of suprasellar and pineal GCTs. RESULTS: Bifocal GCTs were observed in 23 patients (12.8%). Eighteen patients presented with bifocal GCTs that were diagnosed as germinomas, but 5 patients exhibited mixed GCTs. Analyses of age distributions and comparisons of tumor sizes were compatible with a model of a metastatic origin of bifocal GCTs. Eleven patients (47.8%) presenting with bifocal GCTs exhibited tumor seeding at presentation. Tumor seeding was significantly associated with bifocal lesions (p < 0.001). Patients with bifocal germinomas showed significantly shorter event-free survival and overall survival than did those presenting with germinomas from a single site of origin. CONCLUSIONS: Bifocal GCTs are not restricted to germinomas, as had been previously reported, but do include mixed GCTs. The authors hypothesize that bifocal GCTs may result from the metastatic spread of suprasellar or pineal GCTs. The bifocal presentation of germinomas may be a poor prognostic sign and should alert clinicians to the possibility of a disseminated disease.

Phi JH; Kim SK; Lee J; Park CK; Kim IH; Ahn HS; Shin HY; Kim IO; Jung HW; Kim DG; Paek SH; Wang KC

2013-02-01

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Meningiomas of pineal region in children Meningiomas da região da pineal em crianças  

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Full Text Available Meningiomas are uncommon tumors in children and either more rarely encountered in the pineal region. We report two cases of meningioma of the pineal region in children. One of these cases was a five years-old girl and the other a one year-old boy. No specific clinical presentation or tomographic examinations findings was identified before treatment, suggestive of a diagnosis of menigioma. The clinical and laboratory features were very similar to the most common tumors of the pineal region. Prior to the surgery, the histology of these tumors was not suspected. Both patients underwent direct surgery and complete removal was achieved by a suboccipital transtentorial approach. The tumors originated from velum interpositum in both cases. At the follow up, one case presented with recurrence six years later, and she underwent a reoperation with total resection without morbidity. Long-term follow up presented no other recurrences.Meningiomas são tumores poucos frequentes em crianças, e mais raramente encontrados na região da pineal. Relatamos dois casos de meningioma da região da pineal em crianças, uma menina de cinco anos e um menino de um ano de idade. Não foi identificada nenhuma forma de apresentação clinica ou caracteristica tomográfica, antes do tratamento, que sugerisse o diagnóstico de meningioma. As características clinicas e laboratoriais encontradas foram similares às de tumores mais frequentes da região da pineal. Ambos os pacientes foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico e a remoção completa foi obtida por abordagem suboccipital transtentorial. Durante o seguimento, um dos pacientes foi reoperado por recorrencia do tumor seis anos após o tratamento inicial. Atualmente, os pacientes encontram-se livres de recorrência tumoral.

Hamilton Matushita; Fernando Campos Pinto; José Píndaro Pereira Plese

2007-01-01

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Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only few cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized hypotony, hypotrophy and hyper-reflexia, Babinski sign and left VI cranial par palsy. CT scan examination revealed a ill-defined hypodense lesion at the pineal region with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. MRI showed a lesion at the pineal region infiltrating the right thalamic region. The patient underwent a right craniotomy with partial resection of the mass. The histological examination of paraffin-embedded material defined the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. Post-operative radiotherapy was indicated but the patient refused the treatment and died two months afterwards. CONCLUSION: in spite of its rarity at this location, glioblastoma multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aggressive lesions at the pineal region.

Gasparetto Emerson Leandro; Warszawiak Danny; Adam Guilherme Pradi; Bleggi-Torres Luiz Fernando; Carvalho Neto Arnolfo de

2003-01-01

32

Ganglioglioma da região da pineal: relato de caso Ganglioglioma of the pineal region: case report  

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Full Text Available Os gangliogliomas são neoplasias mistas, compostas de elementos gliais e neuronais, extremamente raros na região da glândula pineal. Na presente revisão da literatura foram encontrados oito casos publicados. Apresentamos o caso de paciente de 14 anos, masculino, com ganglioglioma da região da pineal, tratado cirurgicamente, com exérese total da lesão por via suboccipital transtentorial. O estudo histológico mostrou tratar-se de ganglioglioma grau I, confirmado por imuno-histoquímica. Conclui-se que tais tumores são raros e que se deve optar pela cirurgia, objetivando a exérese total. Quando isso não for possível, ou no caso de recorrência, o paciente deve ser acompanhado clínica e radiograficamente, considerando-se a radioterapia como tratamento complementar.Ganglioglioma are tumors presenting neoplastic glial cells and nerve cells, very rarely found in the pineal region. Only eight cases have been previously published in the literature. We present the case of a 14 years-old male patient with a ganglioglioma of the pineal region. The patient was treated surgically by a suboccipital transtentorial approach with complete removal. Histopathologic specimens with immunostainning revealed a ganglioglioma grade I. We conclude that these tumors are rare and should be treated surgically aiming total remove. If it is not possible or in case of recorrence the patient should be followed and radiotheraphy could be considered.

Walter José Fagundes-Pereyra; Larissa de Sousa; Gervásio Teles de Cardoso Carvalho; Atos Alves de Sousa

2001-01-01

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Ganglioglioma da região da pineal: relato de caso/ Ganglioglioma of the pineal region: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os gangliogliomas são neoplasias mistas, compostas de elementos gliais e neuronais, extremamente raros na região da glândula pineal. Na presente revisão da literatura foram encontrados oito casos publicados. Apresentamos o caso de paciente de 14 anos, masculino, com ganglioglioma da região da pineal, tratado cirurgicamente, com exérese total da lesão por via suboccipital transtentorial. O estudo histológico mostrou tratar-se de ganglioglioma grau I, confirmado por (more) imuno-histoquímica. Conclui-se que tais tumores são raros e que se deve optar pela cirurgia, objetivando a exérese total. Quando isso não for possível, ou no caso de recorrência, o paciente deve ser acompanhado clínica e radiograficamente, considerando-se a radioterapia como tratamento complementar. Abstract in english Ganglioglioma are tumors presenting neoplastic glial cells and nerve cells, very rarely found in the pineal region. Only eight cases have been previously published in the literature. We present the case of a 14 years-old male patient with a ganglioglioma of the pineal region. The patient was treated surgically by a suboccipital transtentorial approach with complete removal. Histopathologic specimens with immunostainning revealed a ganglioglioma grade I. We conclude that t (more) hese tumors are rare and should be treated surgically aiming total remove. If it is not possible or in case of recorrence the patient should be followed and radiotheraphy could be considered.

Fagundes-Pereyra, Walter José; Sousa, Larissa de; Carvalho, Gervásio Teles de Cardoso; Sousa, Atos Alves de

2001-09-01

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Estudo por ressonância magnética da região da pineal: pineal normal e cistos simples/ Magnetic resonance study of the pineal region: normal pineal gland, simple cysts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Realiza-se um estudo por ressonância magnética da pineal normal e dos cistos simples da pineal e estabelece-se um protocolo para estudo da região pineal analisando-se 762 exames. A utilização da técnica com cortes finos (3 milímetros no máximo) identifica a pineal normal na maioria das vezes (84,4%) e demonstra que a pineal normal, sem cistos, apresenta sinal isointenso em Tl e T2 com realce após a injeção de gadolínio, medindo em média 6,1 milímetros no seu (more) maior diâmetro. Os cistos simples da pineal aparecem com frequência de 2,6% em relação a toda a série (762 casos) elevando-se essa frequência para 6,1% se forem consideradas somente as pineais visiblizadas (329 casos). Os cistos simples não se correlacionam nem com a idade nem com o sexo e os cistos sintomáticos são raros. Os critérios para diagnóstico diferencial dos cistos simples versus tumores da região da pineal são: dimensões menores ou iguais a 20 milímetros; espessura da parede abaixo de 2 milímetros; ausência de efeito expansivo; sinal igual ao líquido cefalorraquidiano e ausência de crescimento dos cistos. Abstract in english A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the normal pineal gland and pineal simple cysts was performed in 762 cases. A fine section technique (maximum 3 millimeters) enabled most of the times the identifying of a normal pineal in addition to demonstrating that a pineal without any cyst shows an isointense signal in Tl and T2 which, in turn, is enhanced following gadolinium. The measure of the normal pineal was of about 6.1 millimeters in its diameter length. Pineal sim (more) ple cysts were observed in a 2.6% frequency in relation to the whole series (762 cases); however reaches 6.1% when only the visualized pineals were considered (329 cases). Also, it was found out that simple cysts were not correlated to age or gender. Simple cysts characteristics are: dimension less or equal to 20 millimeters; absence of expansive effect; similar signal to that of the cerebrospinal fluid; absence of cyst growth.

CALDAS, JOSÉ GUILHERME; DOYON, DOMINIQUE; LEDERMAN, HENRIQUE; CARLIER, ROBERT

1998-06-01

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Chordoid meningioma arising in the pineal region: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a rare case of chordoid meningioma arising in the pineal region, which presented in a 22-year-old woman. Her only complaint was headache, and neurological examination revealed no deficits. She had suffered from prolonged fever a few weeks earlier, and her hematological findings included hypochromic microcytic anemia and a high serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP). Cranial magnetic resonance (MR) images demonstrated a 25 x 30 mm mass in the pineal region, which showed iso-to low intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI), high to low intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI), and homogeneous enhancement with gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). We performed subtotal removal of the tumor with an occipital transtentorial approach (OTA), and all her preoperative symptoms completely abated. Histological examination of this tumor specimen showed the typical pattern of chordoid meningioma. Chordoid meningioma has been known to correspond with Castleman's disease, and pineal meningiomas are extremely rare among intracranial meningiomas. The details of this case are presented with a review of the literature. PMID:18987835

Fukushima, Shintaro; Terasaki, Mizuhiko; Shigemori, Minoru

2008-11-06

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Masses of the pineal region: clinical presentation and radiographic features.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pineal gland is important in structure, function and in the pathology that can affect it. The significance of the pathology of the gland and its adjacent structures is twofold: anatomical location, and biological behaviour of many of the lesions. The gland is in a critical anatomic location, and as the dorsal portions of the midbrain are compressed, patients may present with obstructive hydrocephalus, and/or with focal neurology. Masses and tumours of the pineal region range widely in behaviour, from the completely benign (eg, pineal cyst) to highly malignant (eg, pineoblastoma). Masses in the pineal region may be benign cysts (most common mass), tumours of various sources as well as rare vascular malformations that result in mass effect. Tumours of the pineal region represent a variety of histologies. Germ cell tumours are the most common: germinomas (50%), teratoma (15%), and choricocarcinoma (5%). Primary tumours of the pineal region make up 15% of all pineal tumours and represent a spectrum of aggressiveness. Other less common tumours also occur in the pineal region including metastatic spread and direct invasion from tumours arising in adjacent structures. Accurate diagnosis is essential to plan appropriate management, and early referral for medical imaging is a necessary first step. Although there is significant overlap in the imaging characteristics of some pineal masses, a distinction between aggressive and benign lesions is usually possible, and invaluable preoperative information is obtained in patients who require histological diagnosis.

Gaillard F; Jones J

2010-10-01

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Pallister-Killian syndrome: case report with pineal tumor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pallister-Killian syndrome, an aneuploidy syndrome, comprises a characteristic facial appearance, mental retardation, and multiple other anomalies. It is caused by mosaicism with a supernumerary isochromosome 12p. This chromosomal abnormality has been reported also in human germ cell tumors. We report on a 15-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian syndrome and pineal tumor. PMID:11074499

Mauceri, L; Sorge, G; Incorpora, G; Pavone, L

2000-11-01

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Pallister-Killian syndrome: case report with pineal tumor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pallister-Killian syndrome, an aneuploidy syndrome, comprises a characteristic facial appearance, mental retardation, and multiple other anomalies. It is caused by mosaicism with a supernumerary isochromosome 12p. This chromosomal abnormality has been reported also in human germ cell tumors. We report on a 15-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian syndrome and pineal tumor.

Mauceri L; Sorge G; Incorpora G; Pavone L

2000-11-01

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Infratentorial supracerebellar resection of a pineal tumor using a high definition video exoscope (VITOM®).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A telescope based high definition (HD) video system (VITOM®, Karl Storz GmBH & Co., Tuttlingen, Germany) has recently been proposed as an alternative to the operating microscope for microneurosurgery. It remains unclear which clinical situations will benefit from its advantages. In light of the uncomfortable surgeon position and fatigue often associated with pineal region surgery, we used the VITOM® HD exoscope system to perform an infratentorial supracerebellar resection of a pineal tumor. The VITOM® dramatically improved surgeon comfort and ease of operating by permitting the surgeon to stand upright and in a comfortable position and avoid the need to extend the arm or assume an awkward. position commonly encountered when using the microscope for these approaches. The marked improvement in surgeon comfort afforded by the VITOM® exoscope indicates that this system may have significant advantages over traditional microscope based surgery for tumors of the pineal region approached using an infratentorial supracerebellar approach.

Mamelak AN; Drazin D; Shirzadi A; Black KL; Berci G

2012-02-01

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Infratentorial supracerebellar resection of a pineal tumor using a high definition video exoscope (VITOM®).  

Science.gov (United States)

A telescope based high definition (HD) video system (VITOM®, Karl Storz GmBH & Co., Tuttlingen, Germany) has recently been proposed as an alternative to the operating microscope for microneurosurgery. It remains unclear which clinical situations will benefit from its advantages. In light of the uncomfortable surgeon position and fatigue often associated with pineal region surgery, we used the VITOM® HD exoscope system to perform an infratentorial supracerebellar resection of a pineal tumor. The VITOM® dramatically improved surgeon comfort and ease of operating by permitting the surgeon to stand upright and in a comfortable position and avoid the need to extend the arm or assume an awkward. position commonly encountered when using the microscope for these approaches. The marked improvement in surgeon comfort afforded by the VITOM® exoscope indicates that this system may have significant advantages over traditional microscope based surgery for tumors of the pineal region approached using an infratentorial supracerebellar approach. PMID:22079141

Mamelak, Adam N; Drazin, Doniel; Shirzadi, Ali; Black, Keith L; Berci, George

2011-11-10

 
 
 
 
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Radiation therapy for pineal tumors: 30-year experience at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Eighteen tumors of the pineal region were treated at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital since 1957. Preoperative evaluation included CT scan in 11 patients and cerebrospinal fluid cytology in four. Histologic diagnosis was obtained in nine patients. Diagnosis in two other patients was based on CT scan response at 2,000 cGY. Fifteen patients received whole-brain irradiation with a boost, one each with limited-field and whole-brain irradiation only. One patient with melanoma received craniospinal irradiation. Median pineal dose was 55 Gy; range, 50-60 Gy. Five treatment failures occurred, four local and one distant. Actuarial survival was 80%, 70%, and 65% at 5, 10, and 20 years. Median follow-up was 8.8 years. Cranial radiotherapy alone appears to control the majority of pineal tumors

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Pituitary Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ...

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Clinical and neurophysiological changes in patients with pineal region expansions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the last 20 years neurological and neurosurgical follow up of our patients with pineal region expansions (118 patients) pointed to certain clinical and neurophysiological regularities. We performed retrospective study which included 84 patients with pineal region expansions in the period from 1992 to 2009. The study included 55 women and 29 men, mean age 30.08 +/- 13.93 years, with positive brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)--70 patients (83.4%) had simple pineal gland cysts, and 14 patients (16.67%) had expansive process in pineal region with compressive effect. All patients had headache, while 32 patients (38%) had epileptic phenomena--primary generalized seizures. Patients had common electroencephalography (EEG) pattern with paroxysmal discharges of 3Hz (or more than 3 Hz) spike-and-wave complexes. Operation with supracerebellar infratentorial approach was performed in 70 patients. In most of our patients indication for the operation was established based on the size of the cyst (15 mm or more), with the signs of compression on the quadrigeminal plate and compression of the surrounding veins, which could result in seizures and EEG changes verified in our group of patients. Pathohistological analysis revealed pineocytomas in 11 cases (15.71%), pinealoblastomas in 2 cases (2.86%), one case of teratoma (1.43%), while 56 patients had pineal gland cysts (80%). Following surgery clinical condition improved in all patients--patients became seizure-free and headaches significantly decreased. Other symptoms including diplopiae, nausea, vomiting, vertigo as well as blurred vision also disappeared. There were no complications after surgical procedures. This study points to often appearance of seizures that clinically and neurophysiologically present as primary generalized epilepsy in patients with pineal region expansions. Our hypotheses are that mass effect on the surrounding veins that affects normal perfusion, compressive effect on the quadrigeminal plate and the aqueduct of the midbrain, hemosiderin deposists, as well as secretion disturbances of anticonvulsive agent melatonin can be involved in the pathogenesis of seizures. We suggest to perform high resolution brain MRI with special demonstration of pineal region in all young patients that have seizures and specific EEG changes.

Hajnsek S; Paladino J; Gadze ZP; Nankovi? S; Mrak G; Lupret V

2013-03-01

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Isodense epidermoid cyst in the pineal region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 69-year-old male was admitted complaining of gait disturbances and diplopia, 2.5 years after an episode of serous meningitis. Neurological examination on admission disclosed Parinaud's sign, unsteady gait and dysdiadochokinesis on the left side. A striking finding on the computerized tomography (CT) was the left to right shift of the posterior portion of the third ventricle without visualization of the quadrigeminal and ambient cisterns, which were almost completely occupied by an isodense mass accompanied by high dense flecks and a low dense part. Enhanced CT showed positive enhancement in the vicinity of the pineal calcification. By the suboccipital supracerebellar approach, an encapsulated mass containing brownish yellow fluid was subtotally removed and a histological examination of it revealed epidermoid tissue and hemosiderin deposits in the solid portion. Few reports of isodense epidermoid cysts have so far been found in the literature giving a full explanation for this unusual CT attenuation value. Based on the clinical course and histology of this case, the pathogenesis of the unusual density is discussed along the following lines: The mixture of the low dense factor due to cholesterin and the high dense factor due to prior bleeding is believed to result in the isodense attenuation value in the liquid portion. Also, in the solid part, a microscopically mixed texture of deposited hemosiderin and cholesterin clefts in the inflammatory granulomatous tissue could explain its density on the CT scan. (author)

1985-01-01

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Germinomas cerebrais (teratomas atípicos da pineal) Cerebral germinomas (atipical teratomas of the pineal region)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available São estudados três casos de germinomas cerebrais, sendo um tópico, da região pineal, e dois ectópicos, chamados germinomas supra-selares ou quiasmáticos. Estes últimos parecem ser mais agressivos que os seus congeneres tópicos, pois alem de se disseminarem pelas cisternas basais, costumam infiltrar as paredes do III ventrículo, fórnix, hipotálamo, nervos e quiasma ópticos. Caracteristicamente produzem um enorme aumento das proteínas liquóricas, desacompanhado de uma pleocitose proporcional. As proteínas liquóricas aumentadas sao globulinas cujas reações mostram-se fortemente positivas, possivelmente produzidas pelas celulas de aspecto linfocitario que constituem parte desta neoplasia. O aumento das proteinas liquoricas e tao acentuado que em presenca de uma crianca ou adolescente com sindrome de hipertensão intracraniana, hiperproteinoraquia sem pleocitose e sinais clínicos ou radiológicos sugestivos de localização na base do crânio a possibilidade de um germinoma quiasmático deve ser seriamente considerada, pois o quadro e muito sugestivo.Three cases of Cerebral Germinomas, one of them situated in the pineal region (topical) and two ectopical of the so called suprasellar or chiasmal Germinomas are studied. These last ones may be more aggressive than the congeneral topical ones, since besides it's dissemination throughout the basal cisternas they usually infilstrate into de walls of the III Ventricle, Fornix, Hypothalamus, Chiasma and Optic nervs. A high level of proteins in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells is characteristic. Globulins are the predominant fraction of the increased spinal fluid proteins, as indicated by the highly positive laboratory test. These globulins are possibly produced by the lymphocytes which are part of this neoplasm. The high level of protein in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells, in the presence of intracranial syndrome in a child or adolescent, with anatomical signs of basal localization make the possibility of a Chiasmal Germinona highly probable.

Alexandre Alencar

1981-01-01

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Clinicopathological study of pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTID).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECT: Pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTID) are extremely rare tumor entities and only limited data are available regarding their pathologic features and biologic behaviors. Because grading criteria of pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) has yet to be established, the treatment strategy and prognosis of PPTIDs remain controversial. We describe the clinicopathological study of six patients with PPTID and compare responses for the treatment and prognosis with cases of pineocytoma (PC) and pineoblastoma (PB). From this analysis, we attempt to clarify the treatment strategy for PPTIDs. METHODS: This study included 15 patients with PPTs, consisting of 6 PCs, 6 PPTIDs, and 3 PBs. We focused on the six patients with PPTIDs. All PPTID cases were treated surgically and radiotherapy and chemotherapy were administered as adjuvant therapies in some cases. For histopathological study, we have already reported.(8) Briefly, we examined mitotic figures and necrosis by H&E staining and immunohistochemical markers such as neuronal markers (synaptophysin (SY), neurofilament (NF), and NeuN) and a MIB-1 labeling index (LI) was determined. RESULTS: In the PPTID cases, the extent of resection was variable and the recurrence rates among patients varied according to stage and treatment. All PC patients underwent total resection with no recurrence. All PB patients underwent resection and adjuvant therapy with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. There were no recurrences in patients with PC or PB. The results of histopathological findings have been already reported.(8) Briefly, the results indicated no mitotic figure or necrosis in any of the six cases of PPTID, but those features were observed in PB cases. All cases even including PC and PB were immunopositive for neuronal markers. The MIB-1 LI of PPTID was 3.5%, whereas that was 0% in PC and 10.5% in PB. CONCLUSIONS: Good radiosensitivity of PPTIDs was observed in our series. Because there are cases with discrepancies between images and pathological findings, it is very difficult to determine the proper treatment strategy for PPTIDs. Proliferative potential was correlated with WHO grade, although the immunoreactivity of neuronal markers did not correlate with the histological grade.

Ito T; Kanno H; Sato KI; Oikawa M; Ozaki Y; Nakamura H; Terasaka S; Kobayashi H; Houkin K; Hatanaka K; Murata JI; Tanaka S

2013-02-01

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Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ...

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Posterior interhemispheric retrocallosal approach to pineal region and posterior fossa lesions in a pediatric population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the posterior interhemispheric retrocallosal approach (PIRA) for its safety and efficacy in the resection of pineal region and posterior fossa lesions in children. METHODS: Twenty-nine PIRAs were performed in 26 children between March 1997 and March 2009, and these cases were retrospectively reviewed. There were 15 girls and 11 boys in the series. The median age at the time of surgery was 7 years (range 7 months-17 years). Twenty-seven cases were treated for tumor, 1 for loculated hydrocephalus, and 1 for an aneurysm. RESULTS: Of the 27 cases treated for tumor, there were 20 (74%) gross-total resections, 5 (19%) subtotal resections, and 2 (7%) biopsies. One bridging vein was sacrificed in 6 cases and 2 bridging veins were divided in 1 case, whereas in 3 cases there was sacrifice of a single deep cerebral vein. No patient developed radiographic evidence of venous infarction. Approach-related complications were low, and included 2 cases of transient homonymous hemianopia. There were no surgery-related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: This approach allows for ample access to pineal region and posterior fossa lesions, with low postoperative morbidity.

Davidson L; Krieger MD; McComb JG

2011-05-01

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Primary glioblastoma in the pineal region: a case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Glioblastoma in the pineal region is extremely rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. Case presentation A 68-year-old man presented with a sudden deterioration manifesting as a headache, vomiting and gait disturbance. A magnetic resonance imaging study revealed a heterogeneously ring-enhanced mass in the pineal region. The mass was subtotally removed through the occipital transtentorial approach, and diagnosed as a glioblastoma. Conclusion We discuss the clinical course, radiological findings and treatment strategies of pineal glioblastoma with a review of the relevant literature.

Moon Kyung-Sub; Jung Shin; Jung Tae-Young; Kim In-Young; Lee Min-Cheol; Lee Kyung-Hwa

2008-01-01

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Precocious Puberty due to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin-Secreting Pineal Tumor  

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Full Text Available We present a 9-year-old boy with central precocious puberty and hydrocephalus causedby a human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) secreting pineal tumor. High levels of ?-hCGin the serum and cerebrospinal fluid were observed in this patient. The patient receivedradiotherapy and chemotherapy without surgical intervention. Subsequently, significanttumor regression was observed and the serum ?-hCG level normalized. There was no evidenceof tumor recurrence at follow-up one year after treatment. The role of tissue biopsy toestablish a diagnosis in pineal germ cell tumors remains controversial because it can be adifficult procedure and may be dangerous, causing severe complications. In this patient, theelevated ?-hCG level indicated the presence of a tumor and was considered sufficient evidenceto warrant initiating treatment.

Ho-Chang Kuo; Jiunn-Ming Sheen; Kuan-Sheng Wu; Hsiu-Hui Wei; Chih-Cheng Hsiao

2006-01-01

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Analysis of clinical features and treatment in mature teratomas at pineal region  

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Full Text Available Surgical treatment through occipital tentorium of cerebellum approach was performed in nine cases of mature teratoma at the pineal region. Diagnosis was confirmed by postoperative pathological examination. No perioperative death occurred. Surgery-related complications (visual difficulties, visual field defects, seizures) were seen in 4 cases. All cases were followed for 3 months-7 years (mean 3.70 years). The mature teratoma at the pineal region are more common in male children. The main clinical manifestations are intracranial hypertension and ataxia. Neurosurgical treatment may provide satisfactory outcome.

QI Gui-jun; CHEN Bu-dong; ZHANG Chun-zhi; YAO Xin; YANG Yu-shan

2012-01-01

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Effect of melatonin and pineal extracts on human ovarian and mammary tumor cells in a chemosensitivity assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pinealectomy enhances tumor growth and metastatic spread in experimental animals. This effect is only in part due to melatonin since melatonin-free pineal extracts containing yet unidentified pineal substances have also shown tumor inhibiting activity. Despite numerous reports suggesting melatonin as a potential anti-cancer agent there have not been sufficient clinical trials to define the actual therapeutic potential of melatonin for the treatment of human cancers. To help fill this gap, we used a chemosensitivity assay designed to test the sensitivity of tumors from individual patients towards chemotherapeutic drugs for assessing the effect of melatonin and pineal extracts on primary human tumor cells. Primary cell cultures from seven ovarian and six mammary tumors were incubated with melatonin, the pineal extract YC05R (containing substances between 500 and 1000 daltons) and chemotherapeutic drugs. The pineal extract YC05R inhibited growth of all tumors in a dose-dependent manner. Physiological concentrations of melatonin (10(-8)-10(-10) M) inhibited the growth of one out of six mammary carcinomas in a dose-dependent manner. Primary cell cultures from three ovarian tumors were affected by melatonin in different ways, i.e., two were inhibited and one was slightly stimulated. There was no correlation between sensitivity towards melatonin and sex steroid receptor status, stage or grade of the tumor. It is concluded that, 1), melatonin may be an inhibitor of human mammary and ovarian carcinoma in individual cases and, 2), the pineal gland contains very active anti-tumor substances inhibiting both, the mammary and ovarian tumors, tested. These substances require chemical and biological identification. PMID:11133007

Bartsch, H; Buchberger, A; Franz, H; Bartsch, C; Maidonis, I; Mecke, D; Bayer, E

2000-11-01

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Use of 3D-computed tomography angiography for planning the surgical removal of pineal region meningiomas using Poppen's approach: a report of ten cases and a literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several treatment approaches for pineal region meningiomas, such as Poppen's approach, Krause's approach and combinations of the two approaches. We present our experience with the use of 3D-computed tomography angiography for planning the surgical removal of pineal region meningiomas using a suboccipital transtentorial approach (Poppen's approach) and evaluate the role of Poppen's approach. Methods During the period from January 2005 to June 2010, ten patients presented to us with pineal region meningioma. MRI was routinely used to define the tumor size, position, and its relevant complications while 3D-CTA was applied to define the blood supply of the tumor and the venous complex (VC) shift before operations. Most of the meningiomas had developed at both sides of the tentorial plane and extended laterally with typical characteristics of a pineal region tumor. Results All tumors were completely removed surgically without any injury to the VC. Postoperative intracranial infection occurred in one case who recovered after antibiotics were given. Postoperative intraventricular hemorrhage and pneumocephalus were found in one case, but fully recovered after conservative treatment. In the nine cases of concurrent hydrocephalus, this was gradually relieved in eight patients and the single case that became aggravated was successfully treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Moreover, the follow-up MRI examinations did not indicate any recurrence of the meningiomas. Conclusion We found that the use of Poppen's approach is strongly supported for the successful removal of pineal region meningiomas without serious complications.

Li Yunqian; Zhao Gang; Wang Honglei; Zhu Wanan; Qu Limei; Li Ye; Yu Jinlu

2011-01-01

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MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs

1995-01-01

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Pineal region tumours treated with interstitial brachytherapy with low activity sources (192-iridium)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three patients with tumours of the pineal region underwent interstitial Ir-192 brachytherapy. Histological diagnoses were obtained in all patients, by stereotactic biopsy and included one germinoma, one mixed pineoblastomapincocytoma, and one astrocytoma grade III. Our approach to pineal region neoplasms is first to decide whether sterotactic biopsy or surgery should be performed. When a pineal lesion is thought to be benign on the basis of imaging, such as benign teratoma, surgery is performed to resect the entire lesion. When a definitive diagnosis is not possible, stereotactic biopsy is performed to obtain a histological diagnosis for treatment planning, using a Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) stereotactic apparatus with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). When a lesion is malignant and localized, stereotactic implantation of catheters for interstitial brachytherapy is performed simultaneously. Radioactive Ir-192 seeds are inserted into the catheters and maintained for 5-10 days to give 36 Gy of irradiation at the tumour periphery. Sequential CT scans and MRI after treatment revealed tumour disappearance in two patients with germinoma and high grade astrocytoma and tumour reduction in the patient with mixed pineoblastoma/pineocytoma. No significant morbidity or mortality occurred in any of these patients after stereotactic biopsy and brachytherapy. The technique and the advantages of this therapeutic approach to selected pineal region tumours are described and discussed. (author)

1995-01-01

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Pineal region tumours treated with interstitial brachytherapy with low activity sources (192-iridium).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three patients with tumours of the pineal region underwent interstitial Ir-192 brachytherapy. Histological diagnoses were obtained in all patients, by stereotactic biopsy and included one germinoma, one mixed pineoblastoma/pineocytoma, and one astrocytoma grade III. Our approach to pineal region neoplasms is first to decide whether stereotactic biopsy or surgery should be performed. When a pineal lesion is thought to be benign on the basis of imaging, such as benign teratoma, surgery is performed to resect the entire lesion. When a definitive diagnosis is not possible, stereotactic biopsy is performed to obtain a histological diagnosis for treatment planning, using a Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) stereotactic apparatus with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). When a lesion is malignant and localized, stereotactic implantation of catheters for interstitial brachytherapy is performed simultaneously. Radioactive Ir-192 seeds are inserted into the catheters and maintained for 5-10 days to give 36 Gy of irradiation at the tumour periphery. Sequential CT scans and MRI after treatment revealed tumour disappearance in two patients with germinoma and high grade astrocytoma and tumour reduction in the patient with mixed pineoblastoma/pineocytoma. No significant morbidity or mortality occurred in any of these patients after stereotactic biopsy and brachytherapy. The technique and the advantages of this therapeutic approach to selected pineal region tumours are described and discussed.

Matsumoto K; Higashi H; Tomita S; Ohmoto T

1995-01-01

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Malformación cavernosa de la región pineal: Caso clínico y revisión de la literatura/ Cavernous malformation of the pineal region: Case report and review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las malformaciones cavernosas de la región pineal son raras, con solamente 21 casos publicados hasta el momento en la literatura. A pesar de la dificultad de su diagnóstico debido a su extrema rareza, la presencia de esta lesión puede ser sospechada basándonos en sus características radiológicas. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 57 años de edad, con un cuadro clínico de instauración aguda de desorientación, somnolencia y diplopia. La TC cerebral mostró un (more) a hemorragia aguda en la región pineal e hidrocefalia triventricular asociada y la RM cerebral fue sugestiva de que se tratase de una malformación cavernosa. La paciente fue operada con escisión total de la lesión y el estudio histológico confirmó el diagnóstico de angioma cavernoso. Concluimos que la cirugía para extracción total de la lesión es el tratamiento de elección cuando, basados en la imagen, sospechamos un angioma cavernoso de la región pineal. Abstract in english Cavernous malformations rarely occur in the pineal region with only 21 reported to date. Although its diagnosis is not easy because of the extreme rareness of this condition, the presence of this lesion can be suspected based on its typical radiological findings. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman presented with desorientation, somnolence and diplopy. The CT-scan showed an acute hemorrhage in the pineal region and triventricular hydrocephalus. An MRI suggested a ca (more) vernous malformation. The patient was operated with total en-bloc removal of the lesion. We conclude that surgical exploration and total resection is the treatment of choice when the diagnosis of cavernous angioma is suspected of the basis of neuroimaging.

Chamadoira, C.; Cerejo, A.; Vilarinho, A.; Castro, L.; Vaz, R.

2010-04-01

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Isodense epidermoid cyst in the pineal region. Case report  

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A 69-year-old male was admitted complaining of gait disturbances and diplopia, 2.5 years after an episode of serous meningitis. Neurological examination on admission disclosed Parinaud's sign, unsteady gait and dysdiadochokinesis on the left side. A striking finding on the computerized tomography (CT) was the left to right shift of the posterior portion of the third ventricle without visualization of the quadrigeminal and ambient cisterns, which were almost completely occupied by an isodense mass accompanied by high dense flecks and a low dense part. Enhanced CT showed positive enhancement in the vicinity of the pineal calcification. By the suboccipital supracerebellar approach, an encapsulated mass containing brownish yellow fluid was subtotally removed and a histological examination of it revealed epidermoid tissue and hemosiderin deposits in the solid portion. Few reports of isodense epidermoid cysts have so far been found in the literature giving a full explanation for this unusual CT attenuation value. Based on the clinical course and histology of this case, the pathogenesis of the unusual density is discussed along the following lines: The mixture of the low dense factor due to cholesterin and the high dense factor due to prior bleeding is believed to result in the isodense attenuation value in the liquid portion. Also, in the solid part, a microscopically mixed texture of deposited hemosiderin and cholesterin clefts in the inflammatory granulomatous tissue could explain its density on the CT scan.

Yamanouchi, Yasuo; Takahara, Nobuhiko; Kawamura, Yasuo; Matsumura, Hiroshi

1985-02-01

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Expression of O?-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and immunohistochemical analysis of 12 pineal parenchymal tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) are rare neoplasms which occupy less than 1% of primary CNS tumors. Because of their rare incidence, previous reports on PPTs are limited in number and the useful molecular markers for deciding histological grading and even selecting chemotherapy are undetermined. In this study, we conducted immunohistochemical analysis of 12 PPT specimens, especially for expression of O?-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) to assess whether temozolomide (TMZ) could serve as a possible alternative therapy for PPTs. We analyzed 12 PPTs, consisting of three pineocytomas, six PPTs of intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs), and three pineoblastomas. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using antibodies against MGMT, synaptophysin, neurofilament protein (NF), p53, and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN). Immunohistochemically, 11 out of 12 cases were positive for MGMT. The mean MIB-1 labeling index was less than 1% in pineocytoma, 3.5% in PPTID, and 10.5% in pineoblastoma. All 12 cases were positive for synaptophysin and 11 cases, except one PPTID case, showed positive for NF. Nuclear staining of NeuN was negative in all cases although cytoplasmic staining of NeuN was observed in five cases. No case was positive for p53. Eleven out of 12 cases of PPTs demonstrated MGMT expression, suggesting chemoresistancy to TMZ treatment. This is the first report showing MGMT expression in PPTs. In addition, MIB-1 labeling index correlated with WHO grade, although the immunoreactivity of synaptophysin, NF, NeuN and p53 did not correlate with the histological grade.

Kanno H; Nishihara H; Oikawa M; Ozaki Y; Murata J; Sawamura Y; Kato M; Kubota K; Tanino M; Kimura T; Nagashima K; Itoh T; Tanaka S

2012-12-01

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Primary pineal tumors: outcome and prognostic factors--a study from the Rare Cancer Network (RCN).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To better define outcome and prognostic factors in primary pineal tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five consecutive patients from seven academic centers of the Rare Cancer Network diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 were included. Median age was 36 years. Surgical resection consisted of biopsy in 12 cases and resection in 21 (2 cases with unknown resection). All patients underwent radiotherapy and 12 patients received also chemotherapy. RESULTS: Histological subtypes were pineoblastoma (PNB) in 21 patients, pineocytoma (PC) in 8 patients and pineocytoma with intermediate differentiation in 6 patients. Six patients with PNB had evidence of spinal seeding. Fifteen patients relapsed (14 PNB and 1 PC) with PNB cases at higher risk (p = 0.031). Median survival time was not reached. Median disease-free survival was 82 months (CI 50 % 28-275). In univariate analysis, age younger than 36 years was an unfavorable prognostic factor (p = 0.003). Patients with metastases at diagnosis had poorer survival (p = 0.048). Late side effects related to radiotherapy were dementia, leukoencephalopathy or memory loss in seven cases, occipital ischemia in one, and grade 3 seizures in two cases. Side effects related to chemotherapy were grade 3-4 leucopenia in five cases, grade 4 thrombocytopenia in three cases, grade 2 anemia in two cases, grade 4 pancytopenia in one case, grade 4 vomiting in one case and renal failure in one case. CONCLUSIONS: Age and dissemination at diagnosis influenced survival in our series. The prevalence of chronic toxicity suggests that new adjuvant strategies are advisable.

Villà S; Miller RC; Krengli M; Abusaris H; Baumert BG; Servagi-Vernat S; Igdem S; Lucas A; Boluda S; Mirimanoff RO

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
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A pineal tumour with features of "pineal anlage tumour".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A primitive tumour of the pineal region in a 9 month-old boy caused hydrocephalus, ataxic gait and paraplegia leading to death after 9 months of evolution. Histological and histochemical examination revealed a pinealoblastoma with melanotic cells as well as cartilaginous formations. The leptomeningeal seeding of the tumour showed neuroblastic and neuronal differentiation. A diagnosis of pineoblastoma with neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal differentiation was made. This tumour belongs to a recently defined category of pineal tumours, called pineal anlage tumours.

McGrogan G; Rivel J; Vital C; Guerin J

1992-01-01

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Myelomatous metastasis to the pineal body.  

Science.gov (United States)

The case is reported of a large metastasis to the pineal body in patient with plasma cell leukemia, a disorder akin to myelomatosis. There were no apparent clinical effects from the tumor in the pineal body. The brain was otherwise uninvolved. A discussion of the relevant literature is given. PMID:943853

Holness, R O; Sangalang, V E

1976-02-01

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Myelomatous metastasis to the pineal body.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The case is reported of a large metastasis to the pineal body in patient with plasma cell leukemia, a disorder akin to myelomatosis. There were no apparent clinical effects from the tumor in the pineal body. The brain was otherwise uninvolved. A discussion of the relevant literature is given.

Holness RO; Sangalang VE

1976-02-01

64

Pineal metastasis as first clinical manifestation of colorectal adenocarcinoma: case report/ Metástase pineal como primeira manifestação clinica de adenocarcinoma colorretal: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Metástases cerebrais derivadas de adenocarcinomas colorretais ocorrem em 8% dos casos. Geralmente a doença primária e as metástases em outros órgãos já são conhecidas quando do momento das manifestações neurológicas. Descrevemos um caso de metástase única na região pineal que promoveu a primeira manifestação clínica de adenocarcinoma colorretal. Uma mulher de 48 anos de idade apresentava há quinze dias de sua admissão ao nosso serviço diplopia e síndr (more) ome de Parinaud . O exame de ressonância magnética revelou lesão heterogênea localizada na região pineal. O tumor foi completamente retirado por acesso infratentorial/supracerebelar. O exame histológico revelou tumor metastático indiferenciado e o exame imuno-histoquímico demostrou adenocarcinoma do trato gastrointestinal moderadamente diferenciado. Metástases para a região pineal são extremamente raras e devem ser consideradas no diagnóstico diferencial de tumores nesta região. Abstract in english Cerebral metastases from colorectal adenocarcinomas occur in 8% of the cases. Diagnosis is usually made when primary disease and widespread metastases are already known. We report the case of a patient with single metastases in the pineal region as the first clinical manifestation of a colorectal adenocarcinoma. A 48-year-old female with Parinaud's syndrome for 15 days prior her admission was evaluated in our clinic. She had no symptoms or signs of colorectal disease. MRI (more) examination revealed an heterogeneous lesion with peritumoral gadolinium enhancement, located in the pineal region. The tumor was radically resected through an infratentorial/supracerebellar approach. Histology showed metastatic carcinoma and immunohistochemical examination showed gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinoma. Metastases to the pineal region are extremely rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors of this region.

RAMINA, RICARDO; COELHO NETO, MAURÍCIO; MARIUSHI, WAGNER M.; ARRUDA, WALTER O.

1999-03-01

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Imaging of brain tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.).

1995-06-01

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A case of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features in the pineal gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Different types of tumor have been reported in the pineal gland, but pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) in this region is extremely rare. CLINICAL PRESENTATIONS: A 61-year-old man had gait disturbance and dementia for 1 month. Radiological examination revealed a 22 × 26 × 22-mm-diameter mass in the pineal gland and remarkable hydrocephalus. Biopsy of the tumor was performed and histological examination confirmed diagnosis of PXA with anaplastic features. Radiation therapy with concomitant temozolomide was performed, and tumor reduction was achieved. CONCLUSION: We report the first case of PXA with anaplastic features in the pineal gland. This case indicates that temozolomide and radiation therapy are effective for treating PXA with anaplastic features.

Katayama K; Asano K; Shimamura N; Ogasawara Y; Naraoka M; Ohkuma H; Kurose A

2013-03-01

67

A case of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features in the pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Different types of tumor have been reported in the pineal gland, but pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) in this region is extremely rare. CLINICAL PRESENTATIONS: A 61-year-old man had gait disturbance and dementia for 1 month. Radiological examination revealed a 22 × 26 × 22-mm-diameter mass in the pineal gland and remarkable hydrocephalus. Biopsy of the tumor was performed and histological examination confirmed diagnosis of PXA with anaplastic features. Radiation therapy with concomitant temozolomide was performed, and tumor reduction was achieved. CONCLUSION: We report the first case of PXA with anaplastic features in the pineal gland. This case indicates that temozolomide and radiation therapy are effective for treating PXA with anaplastic features. PMID:23460303

Katayama, Kosuke; Asano, Kenichiro; Shimamura, Norihito; Ogasawara, Yukari; Naraoka, Masato; Ohkuma, Hiroki; Kurose, Akira

2013-03-01

68

Pineal gland cysts--an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal cysts occur in all ages, predominantly in adults in the fourth decade of life. In series of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, the prevalence of pineal cysts ranged between 1.3% and 4.3% of patients examined for various neurologic reasons and up to 10.8% of asymptomatic healthy volunteers. The diagnosis of pineal cyst is usually established by MRI with defined radiological criteria to distinguish benign pineal cyst from tumors of this area. A recent study demonstrated the findings obtained by transcranial sonography to correspond to those obtained by MRI in the detection of both pineal gland cyst and pineal gland itself, and could be used in the future mainly as follow up examination. Pineal cysts usually have no clinical implications and remain asymptomatic for years. The most common symptoms include headache, vertigo, visual and oculomotor disturbances, and obstructive hydrocephalus. Less frequently, patients present with ataxia, motor and sensory impairment, mental and emotional disturbances, epilepsy, circadian rhythm disturbances, hypothalamic dysfunction of precocious puberty, and recently described occurrence of secondary parkinsonism. Symptomatic cysts vary in size from 7 mm to 45 mm, whereas asymptomatic cysts are usually less than 10 mm in diameter, although a relationship between the cyst size and the onset of symptoms has been proved to be irrelevant in many cases. There is agreement that surgical intervention should be undertaken in patients presenting with hydrocephalus, progression of neurologic symptoms, or cyst enlargement. Tissue sample of the pineal lesion can be obtained by open surgery, stereotaxy and neuroendoscopy. PMID:20055263

Bosnjak, Jelena; Budisi?, Mislav; Azman, Drazen; Strineka, Maja; Crnjakovi?, Miljenko; Demarin, Vida

2009-09-01

69

Primary pineal melanoma presenting with leptomeningeal spreading in a 22-year-old woman: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region is exceedingly rare. We report a case of primary pineal malignant melanoma and review the literature. Case presentation Our patient was a 22-year-old Iranian woman without any significant past medical history, who was referred to our center with a four-week history of headache and gait disturbance. A magnetic resonance imaging study showed a solid mass in the pineal region causing obstructive hydrocephalus. A brain biopsy was performed and the histological examination indicated melanoma. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. Our patient underwent gross total resection. At the time of discharge she had fully recovered without any neurological deficits. Three weeks after discharge, she was readmitted to hospital with the diagnosis of distal deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism; 12 weeks after the onset of her illness she died of cardiopulmonary arrest. Conclusion We have presented here a rare tumor, a primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second-youngest patient with such a tumor reported in the literature.

Azimi Parisa; Mohmmadi Hassan; Refiezadeh Mitra

2012-01-01

70

The endoscopic intraventricular management of pineal cysts: a minimally invasive modus operandi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The management of pineal cysts is still debatable, especially for asymptomatic incidental ones. For symptomatic cysts associated with hydrocephalus, the surgical management is mandatory and may include either classical microsurgical approaches to the pineal region or endoscopic trans-ventricular approaches in a minimally invasive philosophy. METHOD: The authors expose a stepwise technique to treat a pineal cyst associated with an obstructive hydrocephalus in one procedure gathering a third ventriculostomy followed by an intraventricular marsupialisation of the pineal cyst. CONCLUSION: This endoscopic approach allows the treatment of the hydrocephalus and the pineal cyst in one short minimally invasive procedure.

Berhouma M; Ni H; Vallee B

2013-10-01

71

Primary pineal malignant melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare entity, with only thirteen cases reported in the world literature to date. We report a case of a 70-year-old man, who consulted with gait disturbance of six months duration, associated in the last month with dizziness, visual abnormalities and diplopia. No...

Oderay Mabel Cedeño Díaz; Roberto Garcia Leal; Cesar La Cruz Pelea

72

Arterial vascularization of the pineal gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The arterial vascularization of the pineal gland (PG) remains a debatable subject. This study aims to provide detailed information about the arterial vascularization of the PG. METHODS: Thirty adult human brains were obtained from routine autopsies. Cerebral arteries were separately cannulated and injected with colored latex. The dissections were carried out using a surgical microscope. The diameters of the branches supplying the PG at their origin and vascularization areas of the branches of the arteries were investigated. RESULTS: The main artery of the PG was the lateral pineal artery, and it originated from the posterior circulation. The other arteries included the medial pineal artery from the posterior circulation and the rostral pineal artery mainly from the anterior circulation. Posteromedial choroidal artery was an important artery that branched to the PG. The arterial supply to the PG was studied comprehensively considering the debate and inadequacy of previously published studies on this issue available in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: This anatomical knowledge may be helpful for surgical treatment of pathologies of the PG, especially in children who develop more pathology in this region than adults.

Kahilogullari G; Ugur HC; Comert A; Brohi RA; Ozgural O; Ozdemir M; Karahan ST

2013-01-01

73

Primary pineal malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare entity, with only thirteen cases reported in the world literature to date. We report a case of a 70-year-old man, who consulted with gait disturbance of six months duration, associated in the last month with dizziness, visual abnormalities and diplopia. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. The magnetic resonance showed a 25 mm expansive mass in the pineal gland that was associated with hydrocephaly, ventricular and transependimary oedema. The lesion was partially excised by a supracerebellar infratentorial approach. The histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient received radiation therapy, but died of disease 16 weeks later. We herein review the literature on this rare tumour and comment on its clinical, radiological and histopathological features and differential diagnosis.

Oderay Mabel Cedeño Díaz; Roberto Garcia Leal; Cesar La Cruz Pelea

2011-01-01

74

Trace element concentrations in the human pineal body  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] One hundred human pineal bodies obtained from 56 males and 44 females were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis for trace element concentrations of cobalt, iron, rubidium, selenium and zinc. The results indicated that the measured element concentrations were not related to body surface, age or fresh weight. Moreover, the mean absolute cobalt value from 97 pineal bodies was elevated by a factor of 1.43 over the mean absolute concentration value of 257 other brain areas. The mean zinc content was found to be 3.7-fold higher than the mean zinc value from 269 other brain samples. The iron values from various brain areas did not differ from those of the pineal body. Whereas pineal selenium was slightly higher, rubidium was lower than in other brain regions. By correlating the different element concentrations with each other, a positive correlation was found for selenium and rubidium and a negative correlation for cobalt and zinc. The present data suggest that the measured trace elements are somehow related to specific roles in the physiology and biochemistry of the pineal body. This is supported by the constancy of element concentration over a wide range of increasing fresh weights of the organ. It is suggested that the measured trace elements zinc, cobalt and iron are involved as constituents of enzymes in the betabolism of amino acids, peptides and proteins of the pineal body. Moreover, the conspicuously high zinc content of this organ may be related to a so-far undetected neurotransmitter. (author)

1978-05-26

75

Prognostic Significance of P53 Protein, Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in Pineal Parenchymal Tumours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pineal parenchymal tumours are very rare consisting less than 0.1% of all central nervous system tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of Ki-67, cyclin D1 and p53 protein expressions in pineal parenchymal tumours. Ten pineal parenchymal tumours were investigated: 2 pineocytomas, 5 pineal parenchymal tumour of intermediate differentiation and 3 pineoblastomas . Immunohistochemical staining was performed using avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The number of mitoses ranged from 0-25 in pineal parenchymal tumour of intermediate differentiation and 2-30 in pineoblastomas. In general, Ki-67 was found between 0-53.5 %, cyclin D1 was found between 0-40%, p53 was found between 0-4% in pineal parenchymal tumors. In pineal parenchymal tumour of intermediate differentiation, positive staining rates for Ki-67, cyclin D1 and p53 were found as 4-17.5%, 2-30% and 0-4%, respectively. In pineoblastomas, Ki-67, cyclin D1 and p53 were found as 9.2-53.5%, 5-40% and 1-2%, respectively. The number of mitoses was not significant for the prognosis in pineal parenchymal tumors. The very low level of p53 protein made us think that it does not play an active role in the development of these tumours

Nagihan YALCIN; Bahar BALTALARLI; Yusuf ERSAHIN; Eren DEMIRTAS

2009-01-01

76

Lymphopoiesis in the chicken pineal gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pineal lymphoid development was studied in two breeds of chickens from hatching until sexual maturity. No lymphocytes were found in the pineal prior to 9 days of age (da). Lymphocytes migrate through the endothelium of venules into the pineal stroma. Lymphoid tissue reached its maximal accumulation in 32-da pineal glands of both breeds. At this age, the New Hampshire (NH) breed had a larger proportion of lymphoid volume to total pineal volume (32%) than did pineal glands from White Leghorn (WL) chickens (18%).

Cogburn, L.A.; Glick, B.

1981-10-01

77

Regional tumor recurrence after supraomohyoid neck dissection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the recurrence of lymphatic metastases in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity treated with supraomohyoid neck dissection with and without postoperative radiotherapy. DESIGN: A nonrandomized retrospective study. SETTING: Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck, State University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, a tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Thirty-two patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity without previous treatment and a minimum follow-up period of 2 years were studied. There were 36 supraomohyoid neck dissections, of which 31 were elective (clinically negative nodes) and 5 therapeutic (clinically positive nodes). INTERVENTION: Resection of the primary tumor and supraomohyoid neck dissection, with or without postoperative radiotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Evaluation of neck tumor recurrence according to clinical and histopathological findings in the neck and use of postoperative radiotherapy. RESULTS: The overall recurrence rate was 6% (2 patients). Recurrences were seen in 1 clinically negative neck (3%) and 1 clinically positive neck (20%). The presence of clinically or histopathologically positive nodes, number of positive nodes, and use of adjuvant radiotherapy did not influence the rate of neck tumor recurrence with a statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: Neck tumor recurrence in procedures with clinically positive nodes was 6.3 times greater than in those with clinically negative nodes. There was no difference in regional recurrence of histopathologically positive node necks with or without the addition of postoperative radiotherapy. Neck tumor recurrence was not statistically influenced by clinically and histopathologically positive nodes, multiple positive nodes, and use of postoperative radiotherapy.

Chone CT; Silva AR; Crespo AN; Schlupp WR

2003-01-01

78

Distribution of cholinergic and dopaminergic receptors in rainbow trout pineal gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The involvement of multiple receptors in modulating the function of the pineal gland was investigated by searching for dopaminergic and cholinergic receptors in trout pineal gland. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors were measured using [3H]SCH23390 and [3H]spiperone, respectively. Muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors were measured using quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]QNB) and [3H]methylcarbamyl choline, respectively. High-affinity choline uptake sites were measured using [3H]hemicholinium-3. The distribution of dopaminergic receptors varied throughout the pineal gland in that the density of D2 receptors, which was higher than that of D1 receptors, was most abundant in the distal region, exhibiting a value of 112 +/- 17 fmol/mg tissue. The distribution of both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors was uniform throughout the pineal gland. However, the highest value for the high-affinity choline transporter (106 +/- 17 fmol/mg tissue) occurred in the proximal portion of the trout pineal gland. The results of these studies indicate that the pineal gland should not be viewed as a homogeneous tissue possessing identical density of various receptors. Furthermore, these results, along with previous data, are interpreted to suggest that different regions of pineal gland may indeed possess unique functions.

Samejima M; Happe HK; Murrin LC; Pfeiffer RF; Ebadi M

1994-01-01

79

Intraventricular tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the neuroendoscopic technique to deal with intraventricular tumors. METHODS: Details of the endoscopic approach to intraventricular tumors of the lateral, third, and fourth ventricle are presented. RESULTS: Intraventricular tumors are ideal indications for neuroendoscopic surgery. They often cause cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathway obstruction, resulting in ventricular dilation, which provides sufficient space for maneuvering with the endoscope. The general principle of the endoscopic removal of intraventricular tumors is interruption of the blood supply to the tumor and subsequent tumor debulking. In general, a piecemeal resection is performed; however, in some tumors, it is possible to detach the lesion from the surrounding brain tissue and remove it in toto. In unilateral hydrocephalus caused by obstruction of one foramen of Monro, the burr hole is placed more laterally to get good access to the foramen for biopsy and to the septum for septostomy. When the tumor arises in the anterior part of the third ventricle, the burr hole is made at the coronal suture. When the tumor is located in the posterior part, the entry point is selected more anteriorly in order to pass the foramen of Monro in a straight line. In pineal region tumors, which cause occlusive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal compression, third ventriculostomy as well as tumor biopsy are required. CONCLUSION: Intraventricular tumors and related CSF pathway obstructions can be safely and effectively treated with endoscopic techniques. Small tumors may be totally removed via a ventriculoscope.

Schroeder HW

2013-02-01

80

Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a > 2-fold down-regulation of 543 genes and a > 2-fold up-regulation of 745 genes (p < 0.05). Of these, one of the most highly up-regulated (18-fold) was Hoxc4, a member of the Hox gene family, members of which are known to control gene expression cascades. During a 24-h period, a set of 51 genes exhibited differential day/night expression in pineal glands of wild-type animals; only eight of these were also day/night expressed in the Crx-/- pineal gland. However, in the Crx-/- pineal gland 41 genes exhibited differential night/day expression that was not seen in wild-type animals. These findings indicate that Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome and also influences differential night/day gene expression in this tissue. Some effects of Crx deletion on the pineal transcriptome might be mediated by Hoxc4 up-regulation.

Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Ganglioglioma da região da pineal: relato de caso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os gangliogliomas são neoplasias mistas, compostas de elementos gliais e neuronais, extremamente raros na região da glândula pineal. Na presente revisão da literatura foram encontrados oito casos publicados. Apresentamos o caso de paciente de 14 anos, masculino, com ganglioglioma da região da pineal, tratado cirurgicamente, com exérese total da lesão por via suboccipital transtentorial. O estudo histológico mostrou tratar-se de ganglioglioma grau I, confirmado por imuno-histoquímica. Conclui-se que tais tumores são raros e que se deve optar pela cirurgia, objetivando a exérese total. Quando isso não for possível, ou no caso de recorrência, o paciente deve ser acompanhado clínica e radiograficamente, considerando-se a radioterapia como tratamento complementar.

Fagundes-Pereyra Walter José; Sousa Larissa de; Carvalho Gervásio Teles de Cardoso; Sousa Atos Alves de

2001-01-01

82

Separation of pineal extracts by gelfiltration. V. Location by paper chromatography of a sheep pineal principle inhibiting hypophyseal gonadotropic activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previously we were able to isolate by simple and mild methods from an aqueous sheep pineal extract an inhibiting principle action on the anterior hypophysis of male rats in vitro. This substance could be located by paper electrophoresis. In the present paper we describe the further purification of this active principle by paper chromatography in two different solvents. In two regions possessing a special fluorescence an inhibiting factor of the gonadotropic activity of the anterior pituitary was found in vitro.

Moszkowska A; Hus-Citharel A; L'Héritier A; Zurburg W; Ebels I

1976-01-01

83

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in mandibular region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon neoplasm derivative of the odontogenic epithelium containing canalicular structures with inductor modifications of variable intensity in the conjunctival tissue. It is a slow growth lesion and no much invasive but that may to be similar to other odontogenic lesions more aggressive including the dentigerous cyst and the ameloblastoma among others. Its classical location (upper canine area) guides us to diagnosis and its duct histological pattern is very typical of this tumor. Other tumors included in this group are the ameloblastic fibroma, the ameloblastic odontoma, the calcified odontogenic cyst and composed and complex odontomas. This group of lesions may or not to have formations of hard tissue inside. Thus, authors present the case of a patient presenting with this type of tumor making a histopathology study, a literature review on this benign odontogenic tumor and its clinical radiographic features, treatment, as well as the differential diagnoses to be into account. (author)

2010-01-01

84

Pineal thyroid relationship in psychic stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pineal hormone and thyroid functions, were studied simultaneously in rats after the induction of acute psychic stress as well as exogenous administration of melatonin, thyroxine and also after thyroidectomy. A gradual increase in 131I uptake, serum PBI and melatonin levels were observed in blood, reaching maximum on 8th day of psychic stress. Melatonin administration resulted in hypothyroidism whereas thyroxine increased the activity of pineal qland. Thyroidectomy revealed a gradual decrease in melatonin content of pineal gland whereas supplementation with thyroxine resulted in a melatonin content similar to that observed in sham operated (control) group. (author)

1981-01-01

85

Tumors in the region of the sella turcica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tumors of the pituitary gland can lead to limitation of hypophysis function (hypophysis insufficiency) or hypersecretion of different hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, prolactinoma, TSH-secreting adenoma). The optic chiasma lies in close proximity to the pituitary gland and can be compressed by tumors leading to visual disturbances (bilateral hemianopsia). Tumors can be separated into hormone secreting and hormone inactive tumors, as well as into microadenoma with a diameter 10 mm. A rare group of tumors of the hypophysis region are craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germinomas, gliomas, metastases and granulomotous inflammations, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. (orig.)

2009-01-01

86

Imaging appearance of bone tumors of the maxillofacial region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the imaging appearance of benign and malignant bone tumors of the maxillofacial region. A benign bone tumor commonly appears as a well circumscribed lesion. The matrix of the tumor may be calcified or sclerotic. Malignancies often display aggressive characteristics such as cortical breakthrough, bone destruction, a permeative pattern and associated soft-tissue masses. Computed tomography scan is an excellent imaging modality for accurate localization of the lesion, characterization of the tumor matrix and detection of associated osseous changes such as bone remodeling, destruction or periosteal reaction. Magnetic resonance imaging is of limited value in the evaluation of maxillofacial bone tumors.

Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel Razek

2011-01-01

87

Regional cerebral blood volume of intracranial tumors determined by MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to characterize intracranial tumors based on MR measurements of regional cerebral blood volume. In 8 patients without intracranial pathology and 42 patients with intracranial tumors a T2{sup `}-weighted image series was acquired during bolus injection of gadolinium-DTPA, and regional cerebral blood volume maps were calculated. The regional cerebral blood volume index (rCBV{sub i}) of vital tumor was expressed in percent of the value measured in contralateral gray matter. In extra-axial tumors (meningiomas) rCBV{sub i} was higher (124 {+-} 110%), and in low-grade intra axial tumors rCBV{sub i} was lower (79 {+-} 65%), than in contralateral cortex. In malignant intra-axial tumors the distribution of rCBV was heterogeneous: high in vital tumor (glioblastomas: rCBV{sub i} = 165 {+-} 85%; metastases: rCBV{sub i} = 106 {+-} 79%), but low in necrosis (rCBV{sub i} = 33% of contralateral white matter) and edema (rCBV{sub i} = 53% of contralateral white matter). rCBV{sub i} was highest in arteriovenous malformations (1053 {+-} 584% of contralateral gray matter). We conclude that regional cerebral blood volume and the degree of heterogeneity of blood volume distribution is useful to characterize intracranial tumors, although the large biological variability of individual tumor entities indicates limitations. (orig.)

Boeck, J.C. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany); Wlodarczyk, W. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany); Sander, B. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany); Neumann, K. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany); Maeurer, J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany); Gremmler, M. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany); Vogl, T.J. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany); Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany)

1995-12-31

88

[Soft tissue tumors of the head and neck region.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The incidence of soft tissue tumors of the head and neck region is low: 300 and 3 in 100,000 for benign and malignant tumors, respectively. However, sarcomas particularly show a wide variety of different histological subtypes. This article provides an overview of the soft tissue tumors of the head and neck region treated in the authors' institution. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study including 106 patients treated between 2002 and 2010 due to a soft tissue tumor. Tumor- and patient-specific data were collected (benign/malignant tumor, location, TNM classification, therapy, R classification, grade). RESULTS: In total, 77 benign tumors, 5 of intermediate benign/malignant nature and 24 sarcomas (with 7 different subtypes) were identified. Whereas the benign and intermediate tumors were treated by surgical removal, in 21 of the 24 sarcomas, treatment comprised a multimodal therapy regimen including radio- and/or chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Whereas benign tumors can be successfully treated by surgical resection, there is no uniform therapy regimen for sarcomas due to the variety of different histological subtypes. Only case-specific interdisciplinary disease management can offer good perspectives for therapeutic success.

Laffers W; Stöhr G; Göke F; Wardelmann E; Keiner S; Zipfel M; Schüller H; Gerstner AO

2013-08-01

89

Vascularization of the pineal complex in the lizard Tiliqua rugosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The vascularization of the pineal complex in the lizard Tiliqua rugosa was investigated by vascular corrosion and latex casting techniques. The fine structure of the pineal capillaries was also studied by transmission electron microscopy. The pineal complex in T. rugosa consists of an elongated pineal gland proper and a separate, distinct parietal eye. The pineal complex derives an abundant blood supply from branches of the middle and posterior cerebral arteries. Scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts revealed a dense and extensive pineal capillary bed which drains ultimately into a wide longitudinal sinus suggesting an efficient pathway for the rapid removal of substances secreted by the gland. The parietal eye, which receives a unilateral left-sided blood supply from the unpaired anterior pineal artery, is shown to be a highly vascularized structure. The close morphological relationship between the pineal gland and dorsal sac, where the two structures apparently share the same blood vessels, suggests a functional relationship between them. The pineal capillaries are fenestrated with tight junctions between adjoining endothelial cells. Podia-like abluminal extensions of the endothelial cells were observed in close relation to unmyelinated nerve bundles. The basal margin of the pineal parenchyma is highly invaginated with thin finger-like cytoplasmic protrusions into the pericapillary space. Distinct bands of microfibrils form "struts" anchoring the pineal parenchyma to the endothelial wall. These features may have a role in the transfer of materials between the pineal gland and the blood stream. PMID:8363056

Teo, E H; Carati, C; Firth, B T; Barbour, R A; Gannon, B

1993-07-01

90

Vascularization of the pineal complex in the lizard Tiliqua rugosa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The vascularization of the pineal complex in the lizard Tiliqua rugosa was investigated by vascular corrosion and latex casting techniques. The fine structure of the pineal capillaries was also studied by transmission electron microscopy. The pineal complex in T. rugosa consists of an elongated pineal gland proper and a separate, distinct parietal eye. The pineal complex derives an abundant blood supply from branches of the middle and posterior cerebral arteries. Scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts revealed a dense and extensive pineal capillary bed which drains ultimately into a wide longitudinal sinus suggesting an efficient pathway for the rapid removal of substances secreted by the gland. The parietal eye, which receives a unilateral left-sided blood supply from the unpaired anterior pineal artery, is shown to be a highly vascularized structure. The close morphological relationship between the pineal gland and dorsal sac, where the two structures apparently share the same blood vessels, suggests a functional relationship between them. The pineal capillaries are fenestrated with tight junctions between adjoining endothelial cells. Podia-like abluminal extensions of the endothelial cells were observed in close relation to unmyelinated nerve bundles. The basal margin of the pineal parenchyma is highly invaginated with thin finger-like cytoplasmic protrusions into the pericapillary space. Distinct bands of microfibrils form "struts" anchoring the pineal parenchyma to the endothelial wall. These features may have a role in the transfer of materials between the pineal gland and the blood stream.

Teo EH; Carati C; Firth BT; Barbour RA; Gannon B

1993-07-01

91

Tumors of the posterior third ventricular region in pediatric patients: The Indian perspective and a review of literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Diverse tumors in the posterior third ventricular region (TPTVR) frequently occur in children. A decade's experience with pediatric TPTVR is presented, focusing on the Indian perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 25 children (age range: 3-18 years; mean age: 13.32 years; presentation range: 7 days-2.5 years) had clinico-radiological assessment with contrast computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The ventricular/lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alpha feto protein (AFP)/beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) estimation was done when radiological suspicion of a germ cell tumor was present. Extent of resection was deemed partial when some tumor mass remained at the end of surgery, near total when <10% was retained over vital neurovascular structures, and total when complete resection was attained. RESULTS: Operations included infratentorial supracerebellar approach (n = 12), occipito-transtentorial approach (n = 2), endoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy (n = 1), frontal parasagittal craniotomy, interhemispheric transcallosal subchoroidal approach (n = 2), middle temporal gyrus transcortical transventricular approach (n = 1), fronto-temporo-zygomatic combined transylvian and subtemporal approach (n = 1) and right ventriculoperitoneal shunt and stereotactic biopsy (n = 1). Only CSF diversion was performed for five patients with a small TPTVR. CSF diversion was required in 12 (48%) patients. Tumor pathology included pinealoblastoma (n = 4; one with pineocytic differentiation), nongerminomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT; n = 3), germinoma (n = 3), pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 2), epidermoid (n = 3) and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), fibrillary astrocytoma, glioblastoma, teratoma, and meningioma (n = 1, respectively). A patient with neurocysticercosis was diagnosed solely on MRI (four did not undergo biopsy). Fractionated radiotherapy was administered in 13 patients with primary pineal tumors, PNET, NGGCT, fibrillary astrocytoma and glioblastoma. Extent of excision was total in 10 (40%), near total in 5 (20%), partial in 3 (12%) and a biopsy in 2 (8%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Histopathologic characterization of TPTVR is essential prior to their further management. Benign lesions often have a good prognosis following gross total surgical resection. Pure germinomas are highly susceptible to radiotherapy. NGGCTs often have malignant components that require adjuvant therapy following surgery. The advancements in microsurgical techniques have led to gratifying perioperative results in these deep-seated lesions.

Behari S; Jaiswal S; Nair P; Garg P; Jaiswal AK

2011-10-01

92

Regional cerebral blood flow in the patient with brain tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with xenon-enhanced CT (Xe-CT) in 21 cases of intracranial tumors (13 meningiomas, 5 gliomas, 3 metastatic brain tumors). Peritumoral edema was graded as mild, moderate or severe based on the extent of edema on CT and MRI. According to intratumoral blood flow distribution patterns, three patterns were classified as central type with relatively high blood flow at the center of the tumor, homogeneous type with an almost homogeneous blood flow distribution, and marginal type with relatively high blood flow at the periphery of the tumor. High grade astrocytoma and metastatic brain tumor showed marginal type blood flow and moderate or severe edema except in one case. Five meningiomas with severe peritumoral edema revealed marginal type blood flow and four with mild peritumoral edema showed central type blood flow, except for one case. No correlation was found between the extent of peritumoral edema and histological subtype, tumor size, location, duration of clinical history, vascularization on angiogram, and mean blood flow in the tumor. These results suggest that blood flow distribution patterns within the tumor may affect the extension of peritumoral edema. Pre- and postoperative rCBFs were evaluated with Xe-CT and IMP-SPECT in 7 cases, mean rCBF of peritumoral edema was 6.2 ml/100 g/min preoperatively, and discrepancy between rCBF on Xe-CT and that on IMP-SPECT was shown in the remote cortical region ipsilateral to the tumor. Postoperative rCBF revealed an improved blood flow in both adjacent and remote areas, suggesting that the decreased blood flow associated with brain tumors might be relieved after surgery. (author) 53 refs.

1993-01-01

93

Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Otx2 is a vertebrate homeobox gene, which has been found to be essential for the development of rostral brain regions and appears to play a role in the development of retinal photoreceptor cells and pinealocytes. In this study, the temporal expression pattern of Otx2 was revealed in the rat brain, with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages. Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland. Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression pattern similar to that of Otx2, although there was a distinct lag in time of onset. Otx2 protein was identified in pineal extracts and found to be localized in pinealocytes. Total pineal Otx2 mRNA did not show day-night variation, nor was it influenced by removal of the sympathetic input, indicating that the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland. Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes associated with phototransduction and melatonin synthesis.

Rath, Martin F; Muñoz, Estela

2006-01-01

94

Pineal cyst: study with magnetic resonance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The use of magnetic resonance (MR) as a diagnostic technique in central nervous system pathology has made possible the detection of structures that are hard to view with other diagnostic methods. In 21 patients in whom the existence of pineal cyst was detected by chance, we describe the study technique employed and present the MR characterization. In the absence of specific clinical symptoms and sings, the differential diagnosis of this pathology, with respect to other neoplastic formations located in the pineal gland, is based on its typical location behind the third ventricle, its size, which does not vary in the different serial studies, and its signal intensity. (author)

1992-01-01

95

Granular cell tumor on perianal region: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Granular cell tumor (GCT) was first described by Abrikossoff in 1926. GCT is a rarely seen soft tissue tumor and is generally benign. While the tumor can be seen in all parts of the body it is generally located on the head and neck region, and especially on the tongue. GCT is rarely seen in the anal-perianal region. In accordance with literature this case was reported because it was thought to be the 27th anal-perianal located GCT case. In this case report, approximately 0,5-1 cm pedunculated polypoid lesion was determined in the perianal region during the physical examination of a 23 year old female patient who applied with palpable mass complaint in the perianal region. Lesion in the patient was totally excited with healthy skin-subcutaneous tissue under local anesthesia. A benign granular cell tumor was detected in the histopathological examination. Positive staining was monitored immunohistochemically with S-100 and neuron specific enolase (NSE). GCT is a rarely seen tumor in the anal-perianal region and its malign transformation rate is very low. Even lesions seen in the perianal region have clinically a benign appearance, a histopathological examination should be conducted and also GCT should be kept in mind during diagnosis. Malign-benign separation of these lesions is difficult so histopathological examination should be conducted with great care. Large local excision in the treatment provides curative treatment. But for those presenting malign transformation further examination must be performed for metastasis. After the treatment local recurrence and metastasis should be considered carefully. Prognosis of metastatic disease is very bad. PMID:23945899

Ugur, Kesici; Emine, Mataraci; Sevgi, Kesici; Sezgin, Zeren

2013-08-07

96

Granular cell tumor on perianal region: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Granular cell tumor (GCT) was first described by Abrikossoff in 1926. GCT is a rarely seen soft tissue tumor and is generally benign. While the tumor can be seen in all parts of the body it is generally located on the head and neck region, and especially on the tongue. GCT is rarely seen in the anal-perianal region. In accordance with literature this case was reported because it was thought to be the 27th anal-perianal located GCT case. In this case report, approximately 0,5-1 cm pedunculated polypoid lesion was determined in the perianal region during the physical examination of a 23 year old female patient who applied with palpable mass complaint in the perianal region. Lesion in the patient was totally excited with healthy skin-subcutaneous tissue under local anesthesia. A benign granular cell tumor was detected in the histopathological examination. Positive staining was monitored immunohistochemically with S-100 and neuron specific enolase (NSE). GCT is a rarely seen tumor in the anal-perianal region and its malign transformation rate is very low. Even lesions seen in the perianal region have clinically a benign appearance, a histopathological examination should be conducted and also GCT should be kept in mind during diagnosis. Malign-benign separation of these lesions is difficult so histopathological examination should be conducted with great care. Large local excision in the treatment provides curative treatment. But for those presenting malign transformation further examination must be performed for metastasis. After the treatment local recurrence and metastasis should be considered carefully. Prognosis of metastatic disease is very bad.

Ugur K; Emine M; Sevgi K; Sezgin Z

2013-01-01

97

Hibernoma of the axillary region: a rare benign adipocytic tumor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hibernoma is a rare benign tumor considered to arise from remnants of fetal brown adipose tissue. It tends to occur in sites where brown fat persists beyond fetal life, such as the interscapular region, but can occur in sites where brown fat is usually absent in adults. Clinically, hibernomas are slow-growing, asymptomatic tumors. However, unlike lipomas, MRI findings sometimes mislead clinicians to diagnose a malignant neoplasm. We describe a 63-year-old male with an axillary hibernoma involving the brachial neurovascular bundles and mimicking a well-differentiated liposarcoma, from which it should be distinguished.

Kanya Honoki; Kouhei Morita; Takahiko Kasai; Hiromasa Fujii; Akira Kido; Shinji Tsukamoto; Akitaka Nonomura; Yasuhito Tanaka

2010-01-01

98

A novel photopigment candidate in membranes of cultured chick pineal cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The photopigment of avian pineal which mediates light sensitivity was sought via its chromophore. Chick pineal cells in primary cultures were incubated overnight in the dark with [3H]retinol. Reduction of Schiff's bases with cyanoborohydride prior to SDS-PAGE revealed radioactivity bound to a 30 kDa component in pinealocyte membranes. All-trans-retinal, but not retinol or retinoic acid, incubated with pinealocyte homogenates prior to reduction, resulted in a loss of radioactivity from the 30 kDa region of the gel. The radioactivity was also displaced by NH2OH in the dark. Incubation of cultured cells or homogenates with retinoyl fluoride, an acylating agent specific for the retinal binding site of opsins, also displaced radioactivity from the protein. Furthermore, retinoyl fluoride, added to chick pineal cells in culture, blocked the suppressive effect of light on melatonin output by these cells. Taken together these results raise the possibility that the 30 kDa protein mediates photosensitivity in the chick pineal.

Wallingford JC; Zatz M

1988-06-01

99

[Relationship between pineal cysts and central precocious puberty].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical characteristics of patients with central precocious puberty (CPP) and pineal cyst, whose causal relationship remains unknown. METHOD: An observational, multicentre, and retrospective study of patients with CPP and pineal cyst was carried out. RESULTS: We recorded four girls, aged between 2-7 years, diagnosed with CPP, without other medical problems, with the finding of an asymptomatic pineal cyst bigger than 5 x 5 mm in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). All of them were treated with GnRH agonists with regression of pubertal symptoms. Three of the patients had no changes on pineal cyst follow up with successive imaging. In the other, the pineal cyst disappeared after four years. COMMENTS: We review the epidemiological data and clinical evolution of pineal cysts and the possible mechanisms involved in central precocious puberty.

García Amorín Z; Rodríguez Delhi C; Soriano Guillén L; Suárez Tomás JI; Riaño Galán I

2010-06-01

100

The reno-pineal axis: A novel role for melatonin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal gland is a tiny endocrine gland whose physiologic role has been the focus of much research and much more speculation over the past century. This mini-review discusses recent findings which correlate melatonin and renal physiology, and postulates the presence of a "reno-pineal axis." Drawing lessons from comparative endocrinology, while quoting human data, it advocates the need to study the "reno-pineal axis" in greater detail. PMID:22470854

Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Swati; Sahay, Manisha

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

2001-01-01

102

Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

Gizewski, E.R.; Forsting, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Essen (Germany)

2001-08-01

103

Pineal cyst: study with magnetic resonance. Quistes pineales simples: estudio con resonancia magnetica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of magnetic resonance (MR) as a diagnostic technique in central nervous system pathology has made possible the detection of structures that are hard to view with other diagnostic methods. In 21 patients in whom the existence of pineal cyst was detected by chance, we describe the study technique employed and present the MR characterization. In the absence of specific clinical symptoms and sings, the differential diagnosis of this pathology, with respect to other neoplastic formations located in the pineal gland, is based on its typical location behind the third ventricle, its size, which does not vary in the different serial studies, and its signal intensity. (author)

Paniagua, J.C.; Aleixandre, A.; Esteban, M.J.; Marti-Bomati, L.; Poyatos, C. (Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia (Spain))

1992-01-01

104

Paragangliomas of the head and neck region (''glomus tumors'')  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paragangliomas of the head and neck region - often incorrectly termed ''glomus tumors'' in everyday practice - are rare neoplasms that allow a radiologic diagnosis at first glance. They are found at four predilection sites; In the carotid bifurcation, at the parapharyngeal course of the vagal nerve, around the jugular foramen and in the tympanic cavity. Depending on their location and clinical manifestation they are diagnosed early or late. Therefore, their size may vary between few millimeters and several centimeters. Special problems arise when the tumors occur at multiple locations in the setting of genetic disease. Imaging is essential for establishing a diagnosis, for the description of their extension and for follow-up. Because of their high degree of vascularisation especially vagal and jugular paragangliomas are a challenge not only to the surgeon but also to the interventional neuroradiologist. Super-selective preoperative embolization can decide whether a tumor is operable or not. In individual cases infiltration of the carotid necessitates a temporary balloon test occlusion. (orig.)

2009-01-01

105

Circadian rhythms in the pineal organ persist in zebrafish larvae that lack ventral brain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), located in the ventral hypothalamus, is a major regulator of circadian rhythms in mammals and birds. However, the role of the SCN in lower vertebrates remains poorly understood. Zebrafish cyclops (cyc) mutants lack ventral brain, including the region that gives rise to the SCN. We have used cyc embryos to define the function of the zebrafish SCN in regulating circadian rhythms in the developing pineal organ. The pineal organ is the major source of the circadian hormone melatonin, which regulates rhythms such as daily rest/activity cycles. Mammalian pineal rhythms are controlled almost exclusively by the SCN. In zebrafish and many other lower vertebrates, the pineal has an endogenous clock that is responsible in part for cyclic melatonin biosynthesis and gene expression. Results We find that pineal rhythms are present in cyc mutants despite the absence of an SCN. The arginine vasopressin-like protein (Avpl, formerly called Vasotocin) is a peptide hormone expressed in and around the SCN. We find avpl mRNA is absent in cyc mutants, supporting previous work suggesting the SCN is missing. In contrast, expression of the putative circadian clock genes, cryptochrome 1b (cry1b) and cryptochrome 3 (cry3), in the brain of the developing fish is unaltered. Expression of two pineal rhythmic genes, exo-rhodopsin (exorh) and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (aanat2), involved in photoreception and melatonin synthesis, respectively, is also similar between cyc embryos and their wildtype (WT) siblings. The timing of the peaks and troughs of expression are the same, although the amplitude of expression is slightly decreased in the mutants. Cyclic gene expression persists for two days in cyc embryos transferred to constant light or constant dark, suggesting a circadian clock is driving the rhythms. However, the amplitude of rhythms in cyc mutants kept in constant conditions decreased more quickly than in their WT siblings. Conclusion Our data suggests that circadian rhythms can be initiated and maintained in the absence of SCN and other tissues in the ventral brain. However, the SCN may have a role in regulating the amplitude of rhythms when environmental cues are absent. This provides some of the first evidence that the SCN of teleosts is not essential for establishing circadian rhythms during development. Several SCN-independent circadian rhythms have also been found in mammalian species. Thus, zebrafish may serve as a model system for understanding how vertebrate embryos coordinate rhythms that are controlled by different circadian clocks.

Noche Ramil R; Lu Po-Nien; Goldstein-Kral Lauren; Glasgow Eric; Liang Jennifer O

2011-01-01

106

Intracranial tumors with risk of dissemination in neuroaxis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The experience of the Radiotherapy Service, Clínica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain), in the treatment of intracranial tumors with risk of neural axis dissemination is analyzed. In 15 years (1964-1979) 415 primary central nervous system tumors were studied and treated; 67 corresponded to tumors with risk of meningeal dissemination. Clinical dissemination in cerebrospinal fluid was proven in 14 patients. The actuarial survival of 10 years for patients with neural axis dissemination, without prophylactic treatment to the neuroaxis, is 14% with an average survival of 10.5 months. In approximately 20% of meduloblastomas, ependymal and pineal region tumors, meningeal metastases at some distance from the primary tumor can take place. Patients at risk wtih these types of neoplasia must be identified, and an adequate radical therapeutic focus devised, not only for the primary tumor, but also for the risk of dissemination.

Calvo FA; Hornedo J; de la Torre A; Sachetti A; Arellano A; Aramburo P; Aragon G; Otero J

1983-09-01

107

Intracranial tumors with risk of dissemination in neuroaxis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The experience of the Radiotherapy Service, Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain), in the treatment of intracranial tumors with risk of neural axis dissemination is analyzed. In 15 years (1964 to 1979) 415 primary central nervous system tumors were studied and treated; 67 corresponded to tumors with risk of meningeal dissemination. Clinical dissemination in cerebrospinal fluid was proven in 14 patients. The actuarial survival of 10 years for patients with neural axis dissemination, without prophylactic treatment to the neuroaxis, is 14% with an average survival of 10.5 months. In approximately 20% of meduloblastomas, ependymal and pineal region tumors, meningeal metastases at some distance from the primary tumor can take place. Patients at risk with these types of neoplasia must be identified, ad an adequate radical therapeutic focus devised, not only for the primary tumor, but also for the risk of dissemination.

Calvo, F.A.; Hornedo, J.; de la Torre, A.; Sachetti, A.; Arellano, A.; Aramburo, P.; Aragon, G.; Otero, J.

1983-09-01

108

Intracranial tumors with risk of dissemination in neuroaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The experience of the Radiotherapy Service, Clínica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain), in the treatment of intracranial tumors with risk of neural axis dissemination is analyzed. In 15 years (1964-1979) 415 primary central nervous system tumors were studied and treated; 67 corresponded to tumors with risk of meningeal dissemination. Clinical dissemination in cerebrospinal fluid was proven in 14 patients. The actuarial survival of 10 years for patients with neural axis dissemination, without prophylactic treatment to the neuroaxis, is 14% with an average survival of 10.5 months. In approximately 20% of meduloblastomas, ependymal and pineal region tumors, meningeal metastases at some distance from the primary tumor can take place. Patients at risk wtih these types of neoplasia must be identified, and an adequate radical therapeutic focus devised, not only for the primary tumor, but also for the risk of dissemination. PMID:6885542

Calvo, F A; Hornedo, J; de la Torre, A; Sachetti, A; Arellano, A; Aramburo, P; Aragon, G; Otero, J

1983-09-01

109

Intracranial tumors with risk of dissemination in neuroaxis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experience of the Radiotherapy Service, Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain), in the treatment of intracranial tumors with risk of neural axis dissemination is analyzed. In 15 years (1964 to 1979) 415 primary central nervous system tumors were studied and treated; 67 corresponded to tumors with risk of meningeal dissemination. Clinical dissemination in cerebrospinal fluid was proven in 14 patients. The actuarial survival of 10 years for patients with neural axis dissemination, without prophylactic treatment to the neuroaxis, is 14% with an average survival of 10.5 months. In approximately 20% of meduloblastomas, ependymal and pineal region tumors, meningeal metastases at some distance from the primary tumor can take place. Patients at risk with these types of neoplasia must be identified, ad an adequate radical therapeutic focus devised, not only for the primary tumor, but also for the risk of dissemination

1983-01-01

110

Use of the NICO Myriad device for tumor and cyst removals in a developing country.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To describe the use of the NICO Myriad, a new side-cutting aspiration device for the resection of tumors, in a developing country. METHODS: The 11-, 13-, and 15-ga handpieces were used to resect tumors exposed via craniotomies, and the 19-ga handpiece was used down the side channel of a Storz Oi endoscope to resect tumors exposed endoscopically. RESULTS: The Myriad was used to resect 23 tumors, including spinal cord tumors, posterior fossa tumors and pineal tumors, and the cysts associated with two craniopharyngiomas. No complications were associated with the Myriad. Handpieces that were re-sterilized in Steranios after the initial use could each be used two to four times thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: The Myriad is the first effective tumor removal device that can be introduced down the side channel of most endoscopes, greatly expanding the spectrum of tumors that can be treated endoscopically. Its minimal diameter allows better visibility in small, deep sites such as the pineal region than is usually available when ultrasonic aspirators are used. The cost of the device, and particularly the handpieces, will limit their utility in developing countries until re-usable handpieces are developed.

Albright AL; Okechi H

2012-04-01

111

Conservatively managed pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated patient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a case of pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated and hypertensive 56-year-old Hispanic male. At presentation, the patient's international normalized ratio (INR) was 10.51 and his blood pressure was 200/130 mmHg. His presenting symptoms included acute onset of headache, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and visual disturbance. Neuroimaging demonstrated hemorrhage into a morphologically normal pineal gland. Under conservative management, the patient experienced gradual resolution of all symptoms excluding the disturbance of upward gaze.

2008-01-01

112

Global daily dynamics of the pineal transcriptome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transcriptome profiling of the pineal gland has revealed night/day differences in the expression of a major fraction of the genes active in this tissue, with two-thirds of these being nocturnal increases. A set of over 600 transcripts exhibit two-fold to >100-fold daily differences in abundance. These changes appear to be primarily attributable to adrenergic-cyclic-AMP-dependent mechanisms, which are controlled via a neural pathway that includes the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master circadian oscillator. In addition to melatonin synthesis, night/day differences in gene expression impact genes associated with several specialized functions, including the immune/inflammation response, photo-transduction, and thyroid hormone/retinoic acid biology. The following nonspecialized cellular features are also affected: adhesion, cell cycle/cell death, cytoskeleton, DNA modification, endothelium, growth, RNA modification, small molecule biology, transcription factors, vesicle biology, signaling involving Ca(2+), cyclicnucleotides, phospholipids, mitogen-activated protein kinases, the Wnt signaling pathway, and protein phosphorylation.

Bustos, Diego M; Bailey, Michael J

2011-01-01

113

An analysis of the incidence of malignant tumors in the North Moravian region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The North Moravian region of Czechoslovakia has a relatively efficient system of registering malignant tumors. This paper presents some statistical data about their incidence. Facts suggest that the incidence of tumors may well be influenced by outside environmental factors. Therefore, the regional hygienic and public health authorities are conducting a screening and analysis of factors (project Silesia) that may affect the formation of tumors, such as the effect of polluted air and water and contaminated foods. These statistical data clearly show that the incidence of malignant tumors is increasing inmost of the districts of the region. The reasons of this increase will be examined in the future.

Beska, F.; Volf, J.; Kysela, T. [Regional Institute of Hygiene, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia)

1994-12-31

114

Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of head-neck region: our experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To present four rare cases of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors of different sites of head and neck region. Four cases of different age (range 8–40 years) and sex (three female, one male) with rare primitive neuroectodermal tumor of sinonasal region and neck are presented. Treatment option...

Ghosh, Anirban; Saha, Somnath; Pal, Sudipta; Saha, Padmini V.; Chattopadhyay, Sarbani

115

Supratentorial tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

2007-01-01

116

Supratentorial tumors; Supratentorielle Tumoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

Grunwald, I.; Dillmann, K.; Roth, C.; Backens, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

2007-06-15

117

Mutation Screening in the Mitochondrial D-Loop Region of Tumoral and Non-tumoral Breast Cancer in Iranian Patients  

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Full Text Available The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in mitochondrial coding and non coding regions seem to be important in carcinogenesis. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate coding region (mt-tRNAPhe and tRNAPro) and non-coding sequence, mitochondrial displacement loop (mtDNA D-loop), in the cancerous and non-cancerous lesions of Iranian patients with breast cancer (BC). Genomic DNA was extracted from 50 breast tumors and surrounding normal tissue pairs as well as from 50 unrelated normal breast tissues from Iranian Kurdish population. Subsequently, PCR amplification was performed using specific primers, and then PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing. 41 genetic variants were identified in mtDNA D-loop among tumoral and non-tumoral tissues but not in tRNAPhe and tRNAPro sequences. Our findings indicated that C182T, 194insT, 285insA and 16342delT were just found in BC tumors whereas 302insC, C309T and C16069T found in both tumors and surrounding normal tissues. Although our findings showed that the observed genetic variations were not restricted to breast cancer tissues, some genetic changes were found only in BC tumors. Our results, in agreement with the evidence from earlier studies, confirm that the mtDNA genetic alterations might be implicated in tumor initiation, progression and development. text-align: justify;

Babak Rahmani; Cyrus Azimi; Ramesh Omranipour; Reza Raoofian; Kazem Zendehdel; Samira Saee-Rad; Mansour Heidari

2012-01-01

118

Static magnetic fields decrease nocturnal pineal cAMP in the rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Magnetosensitivity of the rat's pineal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) system was investigated. During their dark phase, rats were exposed for one hour to a static magnetic field (MF) inverting the horizontal component of the natural MF. MF-exposed animals showed a 38% decrease in pineal cAMP content (1.21 pmol/pineal gland) compared to a non-exposed control group (1.96 pmol/pineal gland).

Rudolph K; Wirz-Justice A; Kräuchi K; Feer H

1988-04-01

119

Tumors and tumor - like lesions of the oro - facial region at Mayo hospital, Lahore - a five year study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oro-facial region including the oral cavity, the maxilla and mandible and related tissues can be the site of a multitude of neoplastic conditions. These tumours have a predilection for the entire facial region; however, odontogenic tumours tend to affect the mandible more than the maxilla. We report results from a retrospective study spanning five years on the frequency, clinical presentation, sites and character of orofacial tumors seen in the main referral hospital of Pakistan. Patients and Methods: Records of consecutive patients of all age and sex seen by the author's team at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Mayo Hospital with tumours affecting the oro-facial region from January 2005 to December 2009 were retrieved, coded and entered into a database. The data were then analyzed by age, sex, presenting signs and symptoms, site of lesion, and their histology. Results: A total of 237 patients with oro-facial swellings were retrieved from the registry. The complete data set was obtained for 189 patients, comprising 108 (57.9%) males and 81 (42%) females. The most common clinical presenting features were mandibular facial swelling (63%), intra-oral swelling (55%), and ulceration (29%). The tumors were found in the mandible 67 (35%), buccal mucosa 33 (17%), floor of the mouth 22 (11%) and tongue 29 (15%). The remainder making up almost 20% was found in the palate, submandibular region, pre auricular region and lips. Ninety three (49.2%) of the patients presented with lesions that were classified as malignant of which 64 (69%) were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). seventy (37.0%) had benign odontogenic tumors and twenty six (13.7%) had non-odontogenic tumor - like lesions. Sixty - four (69%) of malignant tumors were squamous cell carcinoma; sixty four (86.4%) of the benign odontogenic tumors were classified as ameloblastoma. The mean age at presentation of all lesions was 40.4 years with over 50% of benign lesions in patients aged between 30 and 40 years. Malignant tumors were more commonly detected in patients between 41 and 70 years (63%). Conclusion: Tumors and tumor - like lesions of the oro-facial region comprising the mandible tongue and adjacent structures are a diverse group of neoplasm and are seen commonly in practice of maxillofacial surgery. Both malignant and benign tumours are seen. In the present study, SCC and ameloblastoma were the commonest malignant and benign odontogenic tumours seen respectively; the two representing more than 65% of all tumors. (author)

2011-01-01

120

Microstructural analysis of pineal volume using trueFISP imaging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To determine the spectrum of pineal microstructures (solid/cystic parts) in a large clinical population using a high-resolution 3D-T2-weighted sequence. METHODS: A total of 347 patients enrolled for cranial magnetic resonance imaging were randomly included in this study. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. The exclusion criteria were artifacts or mass lesions prohibiting evaluation of the pineal gland in any of the sequences. True-FISP-3D-imaging (1.5-T, isotropic voxel 0.9 mm) was performed in 347 adults (55.4 ± 18.1 years). Pineal gland volume (PGV), cystic volume, and parenchyma volume (cysts excluded) were measured manually. RESULTS: Overall, 40.3% of pineal glands were cystic. The median PGV was 54.6 mm(3) (78.33 ± 89.0 mm(3)), the median cystic volume was 5.4 mm(3) (15.8 ± 37.2 mm(3)), and the median parenchyma volume was 53.6 mm(3) (71.9 ± 66.7 mm(3)). In cystic glands, the standard deviation of the PGV was substantially higher than in solid glands (98% vs 58% of the mean). PGV declined with age (r = -0.130, P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: The high interindividual volume variation is mainly related to cysts. Pineal parenchyma volume decreased slightly with age, whereas gender-related effects appear to be negligible.

Bumb JM; Brockmann MA; Groden C; Nolte I

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

Intra-abdominal hypertension in patients with sellar region tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Data on intra-abdominal hypertension [IAH] and secondary abdominal compartment syndrome [ACS] due to neurological insults are limited. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study conducted between January 2010 and January 2011 in the neurological ICU [NICU]. Forty-one consecutive patients with sellar region tumors [SRT] were enrolled into the study. If conservative therapy was ineffective in patients with ACS, thoracic epidural anesthesia [EA] was performed. Primary endpoint was defined as the efficacy of conservative treatment and EA in patients with IAH and ACS; secondary endpoint, the influence of IAH and ACS on outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 41 patients, 13 (31.7%) had normal intra-abdominal pressure and 28 (68.3%) developed IAH, of whom 9 (22%) had ACS (group II). On average, IAH developed on the second postoperative day, while ACS, between the third and the fifth day. Multiple organ dysfunction developed in 3 (23.1%) patients of group I and in 23 (82%) patients of group II (p = 0.0003). Ileus due to gastrointestinal dysmotility was present in 6 (46.2%) patients of group I and in all patients of group II (p = 0.0001). Significant risk factors for ileus were diencephalon dysfunction (whole group - in 33 patients (80.5%); group I - in 6 patients (46.2%); group II - in 27 patients (96.4%), p = 0.0002) and sepsis (whole group - in 8 patients (19.5%); group I - no cases; group II - in 8 patients (28.6%), p = 0.03). Conservative treatment was effective in the majority of patients (78.9%) with IAH and only in 3 (33%) patients with ACS. Thoracic EA was performed in four patients with ACS with success. Length of stay in the NICU was 6.5 ± 4.6 days in group I and 24.1 ± 25.7 (p = 0.02) days in group II. Five out of nine (55.6%) patients with ACS died. None of these patients received EA. All patients with EA had favorable outcomes. CONCLUSION: The development of IAH is common after SRT surgery. If conservative treatment is ineffective, EA can be considered in patients with secondary ACS. Further studies are warranted.

Popugaev KA; Savin IA; Lubnin AU; Goriachev AS; Kadashev BA; Kalinin PL; Oshorov AV; Polupan AA; Sokolova EU; Kutin MA; Lukianov VI

2012-07-01

122

Intra-abdominal hypertension in patients with sellar region tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Data on intra-abdominal hypertension [IAH] and secondary abdominal compartment syndrome [ACS] due to neurological insults are limited. Methods This was a prospective observational study conducted between January 2010 and January 2011 in the neurological ICU [NICU]. Forty-one consecutive patients with sellar region tumors [SRT] were enrolled into the study. If conservative therapy was ineffective in patients with ACS, thoracic epidural anesthesia [EA] was performed. Primary endpoint was defined as the efficacy of conservative treatment and EA in patients with IAH and ACS; secondary endpoint, the influence of IAH and ACS on outcomes. Results Of the 41 patients, 13 (31.7%) had normal intra-abdominal pressure and 28 (68.3%) developed IAH, of whom 9 (22%) had ACS (group II). On average, IAH developed on the second postoperative day, while ACS, between the third and the fifth day. Multiple organ dysfunction developed in 3 (23.1%) patients of group I and in 23 (82%) patients of group II (p = 0.0003). Ileus due to gastrointestinal dysmotility was present in 6 (46.2%) patients of group I and in all patients of group II (p = 0.0001). Significant risk factors for ileus were diencephalon dysfunction (whole group - in 33 patients (80.5%); group I - in 6 patients (46.2%); group II - in 27 patients (96.4%), p = 0.0002) and sepsis (whole group - in 8 patients (19.5%); group I - no cases; group II - in 8 patients (28.6%), p = 0.03). Conservative treatment was effective in the majority of patients (78.9%) with IAH and only in 3 (33%) patients with ACS. Thoracic EA was performed in four patients with ACS with success. Length of stay in the NICU was 6.5 ± 4.6 days in group I and 24.1 ± 25.7 (p = 0.02) days in group II. Five out of nine (55.6%) patients with ACS died. None of these patients received EA. All patients with EA had favorable outcomes. Conclusion The development of IAH is common after SRT surgery. If conservative treatment is ineffective, EA can be considered in patients with secondary ACS. Further studies are warranted.

2012-01-01

123

Tumor odontógeno adenomatoide en región mandibular Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in mandibular region  

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Full Text Available El tumor odontogénico adenomatoide es un tumor poco frecuente derivado del epitelio odontontogénico, que contiene estructuras canaliculares con modificaciones inductivas de intensidad variable en el tejido conjuntivo. Es una lesión de crecimiento lento y poco invasiva pero que se puede asemejar a otras lesiones odontógenas de mayor agresividad como el quiste dentígero y el ameloblastoma entre otros. Su localización clásica (área de caninos superiores) nos orienta al diagnóstico y su patrón histológico ductiforme es muy propio de este tumor. Otros tumores que se encuentran dentro de este grupo son el fibroma ameloblástico, el odontoameloblastoma, el quiste odontógeno calcificante y los odontomas compuesto y complejo. Este grupo de lesiones puede o no tener formaciones de tejido duro dental dentro de ellos. Por esta razón, se presenta un paciente con este tipo de tumor, al que se le realizó estudio histopatológico, se revisó la literatura acerca de este tumor odontogénico benigno y sus características clínicas, radiográficas, tratamiento, así como los diagnósticos diferenciales que se deben tener en cuenta.The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon neoplasm derivative of the odontogenic epithelium containing canalicular structures with inductor modifications of variable intensity in the conjunctival tissue. It is a slow growth lesion and no much invasive but that may to be similar to other odontogenic lesions more aggressive including the dentigerous cyst and the ameloblastoma among others. Its classical location (upper canine area) guides us to diagnosis and its duct histological pattern is very typical of this tumor. Other tumors included in this group are the ameloblastic fibroma, the ameloblastic odontoma, the calcified odontogenic cyst and composed and complex odontomas. This group of lesions may or not to have formations of hard tissue inside. Thus, authors present the case of a patient presenting with this type of tumor making a histopathology study, a literature review on this benign odontogenic tumor and its clinical radiographic features, treatment, as well as the differential diagnoses to be into account.

Ernesto Sánchez Cabrales; Dadonim Vila Morales; Ángel Mario Felipe Garmendia; Alain Serra Ortega; Alma Torres Gómez de Cádiz

2010-01-01

124

The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

1982-01-01

125

Glycolipids of the bovine pineal organ and retina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neutral and acidic glycolipids from the bovine pineal organ and neutral glycolipids from the bovine retina were characterized. The chemical structures of the isolated glycolipids were determined by means of carbohydrate analysis, methylation analysis, enzyme treatment, fatty acid analysis, long chain base analysis, mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy, and IR spectroscopy. GM3, GD3, and GT1 were the major bovine pineal organ gangliosides, GD3 accounting for 75% of the total gangliosides. Galactosylceramide, glucosylceramide, and lactosylceramide were found in both the bovine pineal organ and retina. Sulfatide was also present in both tissues. It had already been reported that the major bovine retina ganglioside was GD3 (Handa, S. & Burton, R.M. (1969) Lipids 4, 205-208). The glycolipid patterns of the two tissues were very similar to each other and quite different from those of other tissues.

Matsui E; Ogura K; Handa S

1987-02-01

126

Symptomatic intracystic hemorrhage in pineal cysts. Report of 3 cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal cysts are benign and often asymptomatic intracranial entities. Occasionally they can lead to neurological symptoms through growth or due to intracystic hemorrhage. The purpose of the current report is to describe their clinical characteristics and treatment options. In the current study, the authors illustrate the course of disease in 3 patients who developed neurological symptoms due to hemorrhage into a pineal cyst. Two of their patients had additional cerebral disease, and regular MR imaging examinations were conducted. This circumstance allowed documentation of growth and intracystic hemorrhage. After the occurrence of new neurological symptoms with severe headache, MR images showed a fluid-fluid interface due to intracystic hemorrhage. The third patient presented with acute triventricular hydrocephalus and papilledema due to aqueductal stenosis caused by intracystic hemorrhage. In all 3 cases, excision of the pineal cysts via an infratentorial/supracerebellar approach was performed. Histological examination revealed the characteristic structure of pineal cyst in all cases, with hemorrhagic residues in the form of hemosiderin deposits. All patients recovered fully after surgical removal of the cysts. Furthermore, resolution of occlusive hydrocephalus could be demonstrated in those cases with ventricular enlargement. Pineal cysts without neurological symptoms are often discovered as incidental findings on cranial MR images. In contrast, neurological symptoms such as severe headache, diplopia, or Parinaud syndrome, may occur as a result of pineal apoplexy due to intracystic hemorrhage. The authors' cases confirm that MR imaging can identify intracystic hemorrhage by a characteristic fluid-fluid interface. Their experience suggests that microsurgical resection of cysts may be an effective and curative treatment option. PMID:19645546

Sarikaya-Seiwert, Sevgi; Turowski, Bernd; Hänggi, Daniel; Janssen, Giesela; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Stummer, Walter

2009-08-01

127

Visual evoked potentials in patients with pineal gland cyst.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The functional effect of the pineal gland cyst is difficult to evaluate with visual field examination. The aim of this study is to investigate the usefulness of visual evoked potentials (VEP) in patients with pineal gland cyst due to the possible compression on the visual pathway. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Black-and-white pattern-reversal checkerboard VEP were recorded in 75 patients (50 females and 25 males, mean age 26.3 ± 15.7 and 25.6 ± 17.6 years, respectively) with pineal gland cyst detected on magnetic resonance of the brain (subject group) and 75 age and sex-matched control subjects (control group). Amplitudes and P100 latencies were collected and later grouped as: (1) normal finding; (2) prechiasmal; (3) prechiasmal and postchiasmal; and (4) postchiasmal dysfunction. RESULTS: P100 latencies differed significantly between subject (110.26 ± 13.23 ms) and control group (101.01 ± 5.36 ms) (p < 0.01). Findings of the VEP differed significantly (p < 0.01) between subject and control group, mainly due to the postchiasmal dysfunction frequency in subject group. Findings of the VEP differed significantly according to the pineal gland cyst volume (p = 0.006) with more frequent postchiasmal dysfunctions among subjects with larger cysts. Postchiasmal changes were significantly more frequent in patients with described compression of the cyst on surrounding brain structures (p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Postchiasmal dysfunction on VEP can be seen in patients with pineal gland cyst, mostly with larger cysts and with compression of the cyst on surrounding brain structures. VEP serve as a useful method to determine functional impairment of the visual pathway in patients with pineal gland cyst.

Bosnjak J; Mikula I; Miskov S; Budisic M; Ivkic G; Demarin V

2012-09-01

128

Cytogenetic characteristics of a malignant rhabdoid tumor arising from the paravertebral region. A case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pathological and cytogenetic features of an extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) arising from the paravertebral region in an infant were investigated. The patient died 4 months after diagnosis, due to aggressive tumor progression. The tumor was composed of medium-sized round cells with cytoplasm containing eosinophilic inclusions, which ultrastructurally were composed of densely packed whorled intermediate filaments. Flow-cytometric analysis of the tumor cells revealed a diploid pattern. Amplification of the N-myc oncogene was not identified. Immunohistologically, the inclusion bodies showed a positive reaction with antiserum against vimentin. The tumor cells were not reactive with antiserum against epithelial membrane antigen, anti-keratin (polyclonal) or cytokeratin (monoclonal, CK1), but did react with 5H10, an antiserum established from human sarcomatous Wilms' tumor. This case is discussed with reference to the literature on extrarenal MRT, placing stress on the histogenesis of this tumor.

Horie H; Etoh T; Maie M

1992-06-01

129

[The role of the pineal gland in cartesian psychophysiological doctrine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present paper, we review the cartesian description of the neuromuscular reflex and the sensorial perception as well as the hypothetical role of the pineal gland on these functions. We analyze the historical bases which support the physiological cartesian doctrine and, from the perspective of our present knowledge, we evaluate the contributions of Descartes to the scientific progress of his time. In the elaborated psychophysiological theory of the french wise, the pineal gland plays a pivotal role, raising the theory that the human soul could be located within this organ.

López-Muñoz F; Boya J

1992-01-01

130

Protein phosphorylation in rat pineal gland and its regulation in supersensitive and subsensitive states  

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The phosphorylation of specific proteins in pineal homogenate was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Cyclic AMP had the capacity to stimulate in a dose-dependent manner the incorporation of /sup 32/P in protein bands of apparent molecular weights 59K, 56K, and 35K with a maximal effect at 1 microM. On the other hand, calcium alone did not induce a marked increase in /sup 32/P incorporation with the exception of a dose-dependent phosphorylation of a 46K protein with a peak effect at 0.2 mM calcium concentration. The addition of exogenous calmodulin enhanced /sup 32/P incorporation in proteins migrating in the 62K and 52K regions, an effect that was antagonized by the calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine. However, also under these conditions, the stimulation of pineal protein phosphorylation was rather weak compared to that observed in other brain areas. In an attempt to investigate the functional changes of these biochemical processes during environmental lighting and adrenergic stimulation, it was found that the administration of (-)-isoproterenol (5 mg/kg, s.c.), a beta-receptor agonist, induced a clear-cut enhancement of /sup 32/P incorporation into the cyclic AMP-sensitive 59K and 56K proteins only in animals exposed for 18 h to the light, whereas it was almost ineffective in those kept in the dark for the same period. This effect was antagonized by (-)-propranolol pretreatment (20 mg/kg), suggesting that the changes in cyclic AMP-dependent protein phosphorylation observed in supersensitive pineals may represent a beta-receptor mediated process.

Cimino, M.; Benfenati, F.; Farabegoli, C.; Cattabeni, F.; Agnati, L.F.

1987-04-01

131

Giant cell tumor of soft tissue in groin region, clinically diagnosed as inguinal lymphadenopathy  

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Full Text Available Giant cell tumor of soft tissue is a rare primary soft tissue neoplasm with clinical and histological similarities to giant cell tumor of bone. Most cases arise from superficial soft tissue of extremities and present as painless and well circumscribed masses. Adequate surgical treatment by complete excision is associated with a benign clinical course in most cases. We report a case of primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue in groin region of a young man which was thought to be an inguinal lymphadenopathy in clinical examination. KEY WORDS: Giant cell tumor, soft tissue, inguinal lymphadenopathy, groin.

Ahmad Sobhan Ardakani; Fereshteh Mohammadizadeh

2006-01-01

132

Three-dimensional region-based segmentation for breast tumors on sonography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because malignant and benign breast tumors show different shapes and sizes on sonography, information about tumor shapes and sizes is important for clinical diagnosis. Since sonograms include noise and tissue texture, accurate clinical diagnosis is highly dependent on clinical experience and expertise. However, manually sketching a 3-dimensional (3D) breast tumor contour is a time-consuming and complicated task. Automatic contouring, which provides a contour similar to that of manual sketching of a breast tumor on sonography, may improve diagnostic accuracy. This study presents an efficient method for automatically detecting 3D contours of breast tumors on 3D sonography. The proposed method applies a voxel nearest neighbor filter, a Wiener filter, and an unsharp filter to enhance contrast and reduce noise. After a 3D region-growing algorithm is used to obtain the contour of the breast tumor, postprocessing of the extracted contour is performed to diminish the shadow region of the tumor. This study evaluated 20 tumor cases comprising 10 benign and 10 malignant cases. The results of computer simulation reveal that the proposed 3D segmentation method provides robust contouring for breast sonograms. This approach consistently obtains contours similar to those obtained by manual contouring of a breast tumor and can reduce the time needed to sketch precise contours.

Huang YL; Chen DR; Chang SC

2013-05-01

133

A light and electron microscopic study of the pineal body of the nutria (Myocastor coypus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Light and electron microscopic studies of the nutria (Myocastor coypus) pineal gland revealed pinealocytes interspersed among glial, vascular, and neuronal elements. Each pinealocyte possessed a single process that terminated within the parenchyma near the perivascular region. The eccentrically located nucleus in these cells contained euchromatic chromatin, a prominent nucleolus, and a highly infolded nuclear envelope. The cytoplasm was rich in mitochondria, Golgi complexes, and glycogen particles. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) was better developed thant he rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and polyribosomes were not abundant. Long profiles of subsurface cisterns constituted prominent cytoplasmic features, and these were most conspicuous in the regions of soma-somatic apposition. The bulbous endings of the pinealocyte processes were filled with clear, round, secretory vesicles. Dense-cored vesicles were rarely observed. Glia reminiscent of protoplasmic astrocytes displayed cytoplasmic processes that enveloped blood vessels, invested the pineal periphery, and intervened among the pinealocytes. They thus seemed to form a barrier between the meningeal capsule and vascular space on the one hand and the parenchyma on the other. PMID:7246037

Salisbury, R L; Krieg, R J; Seibel, H R

1981-01-01

134

A light and electron microscopic study of the pineal body of the nutria (Myocastor coypus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Light and electron microscopic studies of the nutria (Myocastor coypus) pineal gland revealed pinealocytes interspersed among glial, vascular, and neuronal elements. Each pinealocyte possessed a single process that terminated within the parenchyma near the perivascular region. The eccentrically located nucleus in these cells contained euchromatic chromatin, a prominent nucleolus, and a highly infolded nuclear envelope. The cytoplasm was rich in mitochondria, Golgi complexes, and glycogen particles. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) was better developed thant he rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and polyribosomes were not abundant. Long profiles of subsurface cisterns constituted prominent cytoplasmic features, and these were most conspicuous in the regions of soma-somatic apposition. The bulbous endings of the pinealocyte processes were filled with clear, round, secretory vesicles. Dense-cored vesicles were rarely observed. Glia reminiscent of protoplasmic astrocytes displayed cytoplasmic processes that enveloped blood vessels, invested the pineal periphery, and intervened among the pinealocytes. They thus seemed to form a barrier between the meningeal capsule and vascular space on the one hand and the parenchyma on the other.

Salisbury RL; Krieg RJ; Seibel HR

1981-01-01

135

Five distinct deleted regions on chromosome 17 defining different subsets of human primary breast tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we analyzed 105 paired sporadic primary breast tumor and normal tissue samples for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 17, using 12 polymorphic markers. We have identified partial or interstitial LOH in five separate regions of chromosome 17. Two of the deleted regions lie on the short arm of the chromosome, the first (region I, D17S5) in the telomeric part, distal to TP53 and the second spanning the TP53 gene (region II). Three of the five deleted regions lie on the long arm of chromosome 17: region III, on the proximal long arm between D17S250 and THRA1; region IV, between D17S776 and D17S579, including the BRCA1 gene, and region V, located distal to D17S733. No statistically significant correlations were observed between clinicopathological characteristics or steroid hormone receptor status and deletion of either region I or II. However, patients whose tumors had LOH for region I showed relapse or death more frequently than patients with tumors informative for this region but without LOH (p = 0.002). Statistically significant correlations between LOH at each of the three deleted regions of 17q and a high mitotic index were observed (region III, p = 0.005; region IV, p = 0.02, and region V, p = 0.004). In addition, LOH at region IV showed a significant association with paucity of estrogen receptors (p = 0.01). Our results show a complex pattern of LOH on chromosome 17 in breast cancer and a correlation of these events with different clinical parameters. This pattern suggests that particular subsets of allele loss may contribute specifically to different clinically defined subsets of sporadic breast tumors.

Nagai MA; Medeiros AC; Brentani MM; Brentani RR; Marques LA; Mazoyer S; Mulligan LM

1995-11-01

136

Five distinct deleted regions on chromosome 17 defining different subsets of human primary breast tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we analyzed 105 paired sporadic primary breast tumor and normal tissue samples for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 17, using 12 polymorphic markers. We have identified partial or interstitial LOH in five separate regions of chromosome 17. Two of the deleted regions lie on the short arm of the chromosome, the first (region I, D17S5) in the telomeric part, distal to TP53 and the second spanning the TP53 gene (region II). Three of the five deleted regions lie on the long arm of chromosome 17: region III, on the proximal long arm between D17S250 and THRA1; region IV, between D17S776 and D17S579, including the BRCA1 gene, and region V, located distal to D17S733. No statistically significant correlations were observed between clinicopathological characteristics or steroid hormone receptor status and deletion of either region I or II. However, patients whose tumors had LOH for region I showed relapse or death more frequently than patients with tumors informative for this region but without LOH (p = 0.002). Statistically significant correlations between LOH at each of the three deleted regions of 17q and a high mitotic index were observed (region III, p = 0.005; region IV, p = 0.02, and region V, p = 0.004). In addition, LOH at region IV showed a significant association with paucity of estrogen receptors (p = 0.01). Our results show a complex pattern of LOH on chromosome 17 in breast cancer and a correlation of these events with different clinical parameters. This pattern suggests that particular subsets of allele loss may contribute specifically to different clinically defined subsets of sporadic breast tumors. PMID:7478429

Nagai, M A; Medeiros, A C; Brentani, M M; Brentani, R R; Marques, L A; Mazoyer, S; Mulligan, L M

137

[Pineal hormone melatonin is an universal adaptogenic agent].  

Science.gov (United States)

Pineal hormone melatonin is an universal chronobiotic with adaptogenic propertied which showed stabilized action on pathologically changed fluctuations of any physiological functions, protects a brain and an internal peripheral tissues from emotional and oxidant stress. It also produced hypnotic and anxiolytic effects, normalised function of cadriovascular system and immunological reactions. These properties can be used for treatment of various psychosomatic diseases. PMID:23101381

Arushanian, E B; Be?er, E V

138

[Pineal hormone melatonin is an universal adaptogenic agent].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pineal hormone melatonin is an universal chronobiotic with adaptogenic propertied which showed stabilized action on pathologically changed fluctuations of any physiological functions, protects a brain and an internal peripheral tissues from emotional and oxidant stress. It also produced hypnotic and anxiolytic effects, normalised function of cadriovascular system and immunological reactions. These properties can be used for treatment of various psychosomatic diseases.

Arushanian EB; Be?er EV

2012-07-01

139

Effect of glutaurine on the pineal gland of the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutaurine (gamma-L-glutamyl-taurine), the recently discovered hormone of the parathyroid enhances the aggregation and subsequent degeneration of mitochondria in the pinealocyte processes of the rat pineal gland. It also stimulates autophagy, probably through its general lysosome activating effect. PMID:7446224

Feuer, L; Madarász, B; Sudár, F; Csaba, G

1980-01-01

140

Effect of glutaurine on the pineal gland of the rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glutaurine (gamma-L-glutamyl-taurine), the recently discovered hormone of the parathyroid enhances the aggregation and subsequent degeneration of mitochondria in the pinealocyte processes of the rat pineal gland. It also stimulates autophagy, probably through its general lysosome activating effect.

Feuer L; Madarász B; Sudár F; Csaba G

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Regional recurrence in breast cancer patients with sentinel node micrometastases and isolated tumor cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The impact of axillary treatment in daily practice on 5-year regional recurrence rate in breast cancer patients with isolated tumor cells or micrometastases in the sentinel node (SLN). BACKGROUND: Axillary dissection is recommended in patients with tumor-positive SLNs. But, in recent studies, regional recurrence rates seemed low if dissection was omitted. METHODS: We identified all patients in The Netherlands with invasive breast cancer who had an SLN biopsy before 2006, favorable primary tumor characteristics, and node-negative disease, isolated tumor cells or micrometastases as final nodal status. The primary endpoint was regional recurrence rate. To investigate differences in recurrence rates between patients with and without axillary treatment, a proportional hazard regression was carried out correcting for potential confounders. RESULTS: In total, 857 patients with node-negative disease, 795 patients with isolated tumor cells, and 1028 patients with micrometastases in the SLN were included. Without axillary treatment, the 5-year regional recurrence rates were 2.3%, 2.0%, and 5.6%, respectively. Compared with patients who underwent axillary treatment, the adjusted hazard ratio for regional recurrence in patients who underwent an SLN procedure only was 1.08 (95% CI, 0.23-4.98) for node-negative disease, 2.39 (95% CI, 0.67-8.48) for isolated tumor cells, and 4.39 (95% CI, 1.46-13.24) for micrometastases. Doubling of tumor size, grade 3 and negative hormone receptor status were also significantly associated with recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Not performing axillary treatment in patients with SLN micrometastases is associated with an increased 5-year regional recurrence rate. Axillary treatment is recommended in patients with SLN micrometastases and unfavorable tumor characteristics.

Pepels MJ; de Boer M; Bult P; van Dijck JA; van Deurzen CH; Menke-Pluymers MB; van Diest PJ; Borm GF; Tjan-Heijnen VC

2012-01-01

142

Primary intracranial germ cell tumor with abnormal high value of alpha-fetoprotein after the radiation therapy. Report of case  

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A 7-year-old boy was admitted to Hokkaido University Hospital complaining of headache and vomiting. On admission he was slightly confused and presented Parinaud's sign. CT scan revealed abnormal high density mass with contrast enhancement effect at the pineal region and obstructive hydrocephalus. Laboratory studies showed the normal value of human chorionic gonadotropin and no trace of alphafetoprotein. Germinoma was most suspected based on the findings of CT scan and laboratory studies. The radiation therapy was carried out for a month and CT scan taken after the radiation therapy revealed marked reduction of the size of the tumor at the pineal region, and he was discharged. But he was re-admitted 3 months after the discharge complaining of headache and vomitting again. CT scan showed the recurrence of the tumor and laboratory studies showed abnormal high value of A.F.P. After the ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the sub-occipital craniectomy was performed by the Stein's approach, and the tumor was removed. Pathologically the tumor was a typical yolk sac tumor. This case is a very interesting case because it suggests an alternation of the element of the germ cell tumor by the radiation therapy. At first admission, germinoma was the main element of the tumor judging from the effectiveness of the radiation therapy and laboratory studies. But the main element of the tumor seemed to have changed to yolk sac tumor after the radiation therapy. The relation between the tumor markers and the types of the germ cell tumor and histopathological characters of the intracranial germ cell tumor were discussed.

Hokin, Kiyohiro; Abe, Hiroshi; Aida, Toshimitsu; Mabuchi, Shouji; Tsuru, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Nishio (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine)

1983-02-01

143

Automated lung tumor segmentation for whole body PET volume based on novel downhill region growing  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose an automated lung tumor segmentation method for whole body PET images based on a novel downhill region growing (DRG) technique, which regards homogeneous tumor hotspots as 3D monotonically decreasing functions. The method has three major steps: thoracic slice extraction with K-means clustering of the slice features; hotspot segmentation with DRG; and decision tree analysis based hotspot classification. To overcome the common problem of leakage into adjacent hotspots in automated lung tumor segmentation, DRG employs the tumors' SUV monotonicity features. DRG also uses gradient magnitude of tumors' SUV to improve tumor boundary definition. We used 14 PET volumes from patients with primary NSCLC for validation. The thoracic region extraction step achieved good and consistent results for all patients despite marked differences in size and shape of the lungs and the presence of large tumors. The DRG technique was able to avoid the problem of leakage into adjacent hotspots and produced a volumetric overlap fraction of 0.61 +/- 0.13 which outperformed four other methods where the overlap fraction varied from 0.40 +/- 0.24 to 0.59 +/- 0.14. Of the 18 tumors in 14 NSCLC studies, 15 lesions were classified correctly, 2 were false negative and 15 were false positive.

Ballangan, Cherry; Wang, Xiuying; Eberl, Stefan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan

2010-03-01

144

Cysts  

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... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ...

145

Oligodendroglioma  

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... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ...

146

Gliomas  

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... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ...

147

Ependymoma  

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... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ...

148

Craniopharyngioma  

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... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ...

149

Oligoastrocytoma  

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... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ...

150

Medulloblastoma  

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... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ...

151

Choroid Plexus  

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... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ... Neuronal-Glial Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Region Pituitary PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Webinars Anytime ...

152

Recurrent giant cell tumor of bone with simultaneous regional lymph node and pulmonary metastases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Giant cell tumors of bone are known for their unpredictable behavior characterized occasionally even by metastases. Most metastases lodge in the lungs but other rare sites are regional lymph nodes, mediastinum, skin, scalp and the pelvis. In this case report we document a case of giant cell tumor of the patella in which, associated with local recurrence, there were simultaneous metastases to lymph nodes and lungs. (orig.)

2005-01-01

153

Recurrent giant cell tumor of bone with simultaneous regional lymph node and pulmonary metastases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Giant cell tumors of bone are known for their unpredictable behavior characterized occasionally even by metastases. Most metastases lodge in the lungs but other rare sites are regional lymph nodes, mediastinum, skin, scalp and the pelvis. In this case report we document a case of giant cell tumor of the patella in which, associated with local recurrence, there were simultaneous metastases to lymph nodes and lungs. (orig.)

Qureshi, Sajid S.; Puri, Ajay; Agarwal, Manish [Tata Memorial Hospital, Department of Bone and Soft Tissue, Bombay (India); Desai, Saral; Jambhekar, Nirmala [Tata Memorial Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bombay (India)

2005-04-01

154

Cloning, Sequencing and Analysis of Melatonin Receptor Subtype MT1 in Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis and Pineal of Female Bactrian Camel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that melatonin is a coordinating signal for mammalian reproduction. In order to confirm the presence of melatonin receptors in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and pineal of female Bactrian camel, the researchers used a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) procedure to examine receptor MT1 expression. The length of MT1 gene was 452 bp. RT-PCR assaying revealed the presence of the mt1 (Mel1a) melatonin receptor subtype in reproduction axis and pineal which were obtained from the slaughterhouse in the Ningxia Autonomous Region, China. Sequence has been confirmed a high identity (above 85%) with melatonin receptor MT1 of other mammal known in GenBank. Comparing with other tissue’s sequences, one base substitution changed the 108th TTC codon (encoding Phenylalanine) to TAC (Tyrosine) on hypothalamus. Although, there are base substitutions in pineal’s gene, encoded amino acid are coincident with pituitary and ovary. The current results, the expression of MT1 receptor mRNA in brain and ovary, suggest that melatonin regulate reproduction function through not only neuroendocrine but also directly acting on the ovary in Bactrian camel.

Hu Junjie; Zhang Yong; Wang Junying; Zhao Xingxu; Zhang Hairong

2012-01-01

155

Malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor of the pelvic paravertebral region: case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a rare but distinctive neoplasm of unknown histogenesis, occurring primarily in children. It has a characteristic histologic pattern and aggressive clinical behavior, and was originally thought to be a malignant sarcomatous variant of Wilms tumor; numerous cases of MRT arising from extrarenal sites have, however, been reported. We describe the radiologic findings of two cases of malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor that arose in the pelvic paravertebral region of two children. Both were confirmed by surgical excision and pathologic examination

2001-01-01

156

Response of pineal beta-adrenoceptors in different breeds of sheep to immunization against selected steroids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Active immunization of Merino and Wiltshire Horn X Merino cross-bred sheep against a range of gonadal steroids has revealed that pineal beta-adrenoceptors in both breeds are sensitive to hormonal modification by androgens, but only in the less seasonal, non-shedding Merino do these receptors appear to be sensitive to regulation by estrogens. Neither breed showed sensitivity of its pineal beta-adrenoceptors to active immunization against the pineal hormone melatonin under either normal or reversed photoperiod treatment. These results (a) suggest that pineal related seasonal differences between the breeds (i.e. wool shedding and/or reproductive function) may reside in differential sensitivity of the pineal gland to regulation by specific circulating steroid hormones, and (b) indicate an absence of end-product regulation of beta-adrenoceptor-mediated pineal melatonin biosynthesis in both seasonally shedding and non-shedding sheep.

Foldes A; Maxwell CA; McDonald BJ; Hoskinson RM; Hinks NT; Hopkins PS

1984-08-01

157

Successful excision of a cystic tumor of the atrioventricular nodal region.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cystic tumor of the atrioventricular nodal region is a rare cardiac primary tumor that can cause heart blockage and sudden death. Antemortem diagnosis and successful excision of the atrioventricular nodal region are extremely rare. A 45-year-old woman who presented with palpitations is reported. Electrocardiography revealed first-degree atrioventricular block. Echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a cystic mass attached to the interatrial septum. Complete surgical excision of the mass was achieved, although placement of a permanent pacemaker was required for complete heart blockage. Histopathological examination revealed the mass to be a cystic tumor of the atrioventricular nodal region. A 5-year follow-up has revealed no sign of recurrence.

Saito S; Kobayashi J; Tagusari O; Bando K; Niwaya K; Nakajima H; Yamagishi M; Yagihara T; Kitamura S

2005-10-01

158

Diagnostic utility of nestin expression in pediatric tumors in the region of the kidney.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nestin is an intermediate filament that was first identified in neuroepithelial stem cells. During embryogenesis, nestin is expressed in a number of cell types, including neural crest cells and developing myocytes. We have recently shown that nestin is expressed in human podocytes and nephrogenic blastema. We sought to determine the utility of nestin expression in distinguishing pediatric tumors in the region of the kidney. Cases studied included Wilms tumor (n=24), nephroblastomatosis (n=6), renal cell carcinoma (n=19), renal clear cell sarcoma (n=9), mesoblastic nephroma (n=9), neuroblastoma (n=11), malignant rhabdoid tumor (n=8 including 2 renal), Ewing sarcoma (n=16 including 1 renal, 7 soft tissue, and 8 bone), intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor (n=5), and rhabdomyosarcoma (n=8, all extrarenal). Nestin expression was assessed semiquantitatively by immunohistochemistry and then scored as positive or negative. All cases of Wilms tumor, mesoblastic nephroma, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, malignant rhabdoid tumor, and desmoplastic small round cell tumor were nestin-positive. In Wilms tumor and nephroblastomatosis, nestin was expressed in blastema and glomeruloid structures, but not tubules. In neuroblastoma, positive staining was detected regardless of degree of differentiation. The majority of Ewing sarcoma and renal cell carcinoma were negative. Expression in clear cell sarcoma was variable with 5 cases negative and 4 cases positive. Thus, nestin is a highly sensitive, but nonspecific, marker of Wilms tumor in the context of tumors that may occur in or around the kidney. Nestin reactivity may be useful in differentiating Wilms tumor from Ewing sarcoma, renal cell carcinoma, or nestin-negative clear cell sarcoma.

Murphy AJ; Viero S; Ho M; Thorner PS

2009-12-01

159

Stereoscopic virtual reality models for planning tumor resection in the sellar region.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: It is difficult for neurosurgeons to perceive the complex three-dimensional anatomical relationships in the sellar region. METHODS: To investigate the value of using a virtual reality system for planning resection of sellar region tumors. The study included 60 patients with sellar tumors. All patients underwent computed tomography angiography, MRI-T1W1, and contrast enhanced MRI-T1W1 image sequence scanning. The CT and MRI scanning data were collected and then imported into a Dextroscope imaging workstation, a virtual reality system that allows structures to be viewed stereoscopically. During preoperative assessment, typical images for each patient were chosen and printed out for use by the surgeons as references during surgery. RESULTS: All sellar tumor models clearly displayed bone, the internal carotid artery, circle of Willis and its branches, the optic nerve and chiasm, ventricular system, tumor, brain, soft tissue and adjacent structures. Depending on the location of the tumors, we simulated the transmononasal sphenoid sinus approach, transpterional approach, and other approaches. Eleven surgeons who used virtual reality models completed a survey questionnaire. Nine of the participants said that the virtual reality images were superior to other images but that other images needed to be used in combination with the virtual reality images. CONCLUSIONS: The three-dimensional virtual reality models were helpful for individualized planning of surgery in the sellar region. Virtual reality appears to be promising as a valuable tool for sellar region surgery in the future.

Wang SS; Zhang SM; Jing JJ

2012-01-01

160

Stereoscopic virtual reality models for planning tumor resection in the sellar region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background It is difficult for neurosurgeons to perceive the complex three-dimensional anatomical relationships in the sellar region. Methods To investigate the value of using a virtual reality system for planning resection of sellar region tumors. The study included 60 patients with sellar tumors. All patients underwent computed tomography angiography, MRI-T1W1, and contrast enhanced MRI-T1W1 image sequence scanning. The CT and MRI scanning data were collected and then imported into a Dextroscope imaging workstation, a virtual reality system that allows structures to be viewed stereoscopically. During preoperative assessment, typical images for each patient were chosen and printed out for use by the surgeons as references during surgery. Results All sellar tumor models clearly displayed bone, the internal carotid artery, circle of Willis and its branches, the optic nerve and chiasm, ventricular system, tumor, brain, soft tissue and adjacent structures. Depending on the location of the tumors, we simulated the transmononasal sphenoid sinus approach, transpterional approach, and other approaches. Eleven surgeons who used virtual reality models completed a survey questionnaire. Nine of the participants said that the virtual reality images were superior to other images but that other images needed to be used in combination with the virtual reality images. Conclusions The three-dimensional virtual reality models were helpful for individualized planning of surgery in the sellar region. Virtual reality appears to be promising as a valuable tool for sellar region surgery in the future.

Wang Shou-sen; Zhang Shang-ming; Jing Jun-jie

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Diagnosis of tumors of the pituitary region by two-plane CT scans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Thirty five cases of tumors in the pituitary region were analysed by two-plane CT (ordinary sections and reverse sections) in order to obtain a more accurate image of the tumor and thus establish an appropriate indication for the subnasal transsphenoidal approach. The tumors of pituitary region were classified into six groups (types I-VI) according to their degree of extension and direction of growth. Small tumors such as types I and II were detected more clearly by the reverse section than by the ordinary section. In cases of large tumors (types III-VI) relation of the tumor to the surrounding structures such as the sphenoid sinus, third ventricle, lateral ventricule, middle fossa and brain stem was accurately demonstrated by the reverse section. In the differential diagnosis of tumors in the pituitary regions, tumors showing mixed density or slightly high density and widening of the anteroposterior diameter of the sella in the precontrast reverse section and homogeneous enhancement by infusion were likely to be pituitary adenomas. One third of the pituitary adenomas showed ring-like high density in the post-contrast reverse section. Calcification was not seen in the pituitary adenomas by CT scans. All craniopharyngiomas belonged to types III-VI. Craniopharyngiomas showed high and/or low density, and various degrees of calcification in plain CT scans. Ring-like high density was seen in two thirds of the craniopharyngiomas. About one third of the craniopharyngiomas showed widening of the antero-posterior diameter of the sella. (J.P.N.)

1981-01-01

162

Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamic nucleus paraventricularis mimics the effects of light on pineal melatonin synthesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an attempt to clarify further the role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in the control of pineal function, the effects of 2 min electrical stimulation of these nuclei were investigated in acutely blinded, adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Pineal serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, melatonin content and catecholamine levels were measured by means of radio-enzymatic, radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid-chromatography methods, respectively. All three pineal parameters underwent significant declines following brief PVN stimulation during the night time. These observations lend credence to the view that the neural pathways transmitting light information to the sympathetic innervation controlling pineal melatonin synthesis. 22 references, 1 figure.

Olcese, J.; Reuss, S.; Steinlechner, S.

1987-02-02

163

The pineal neurohormone melatonin and its physiologic opiatergic immunoregulatory role  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The pineal gland functions as a neuroendocrine transducer that coordinate the organism response to changing environmental stimuli such as light and temperature. The main and best known pineal neurohormone is melatonin that is synthesized and released in a circadian fashion with a peak during the night darkness hours. We have recently reported that melatonin exerts important immuno regulatory functions. Here we describe the astonishing property of exogenous melatonin which (more) is able to counteract completely the depressive effect of anxiety-restraint stress and/or of corticosterone on thymus weight, andibody production and antiviral responses. This effect seems to be mediated by antigen-activated T cells via an opiatergic mechanism.

Maestroni, Georges J. M.; Conti, Ario; Pierpaoli, Walter

1987-01-01

164

A glândula pineal e o metabolismo de carboidratos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A influência da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos vem sendo investigada há décadas. Entretanto, resultados contraditórios não esclarecem, até o momento, o verdadeiro papel da melatonina sobre a homeostasia dos carboidratos. Através de estudos recentes, contribuímos de maneira ineqüívoca para a caracterização do papel da glândula pineal como moduladora do metabolismo de carboidratos. Além disso, à luz dos conhecimentos atuais, demonstramos (more) quais passos do mecanismo de ação da insulina estão envolvidos nessa modulação. Nossos estudos revelaram que a pinealectomia promove um quadro de resistência à insulina, sem obesidade. A captação máxima de 2-deoxi-glicose, estimulada por insulina, em adipócitos isolados está diminuída, sem entretanto modificar a capacidade da insulina ligar-se ao seu receptor e estimular a fosforilação dos substratos intracelulares representados pela pp 185. Por outro lado, em vários tecidos sensíveis à insulina, observou-se uma diminuição no conteúdo da proteína transportadora de glicose GLUT4, mas diminuição no mRNA do GLUT4 apenas em alguns desses tecidos, sugerindo uma regulação tecido-específica. Adicionalmente, foi demonstrado que a regulação da glândula pineal sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos é mediado pela melatonina: o hormônio aumentou a sensibilidade à insulina de adipócitos isolados e o tratamento de reposição com melatonina restaurou o conteúdo de GLUT4 no tecido adiposo branco. Em síntese, os estudos aqui relatados evidenciam um importante papel da glândula pineal na modulação da homeostasia de carboidratos. Essa regulação é dependente da melatonina e pode ser resumida, até o presente momento, como um aumento da sensibilidade tecidual à insulina, que envolve alterações na expressão gênica do GLUT4. Abstract in english For decades, the influence of the pineal gland on carbohydrate metabolism has been investigated. However, contradictory results have not yet elucidated the role played by melatonin in carbohydrate homeostasis. In our recent studies, we have contributed to characterize the role of the pineal gland as a modulator of carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, based on present-day knowledge, we have demonstrated the steps of insulin action mechanism involved in this modulation. Ou (more) r studies reveal that pinealectomy causes a condition of obesity-free insulin resistance. The maximum uptake of 2-deoxi-glucose prompted by insulin in isolated adipocytes is diminished, without however changing the insulin capacity to bind to its receptor, and to stimulate the phosphorilation of intracellular substrates represented by pp 185. Conversely, in several insulin-sensitive tissues, our studies detected a decrease in the amount of glucose transporter protein GLUT4, and a decrease in GLUT4 mRNA in only some of these tissues, suggesting a tissue-specific regulation. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the pineal gland regulation influences carbohydrate metabolism through melatonin, by our demonstration that the hormone increased insulin sensitivity of isolated adipocytes, and that melatonin replacement therapy restored the amount of GLUT4 in white adipose tissue. In summary, the studies reported here evidence an important role played by the pineal gland in the modulation of carbohydrate homeostasis. This regulation seems to be melatonin-dependent and can be described, so far, as an increase in tissue sensitivity to insulin, which involves changes in GLUT4 gene expression.

Seraphim, Patrícia Monteiro; Sumida, Doris Hissako; Nishide, Fabiana Tumi; Lima, Fábio Bessa; Cipolla Neto, José; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres

2000-08-01

165

The pineal neurohormone melatonin and its physiologic opiatergic immunoregulatory role  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pineal gland functions as a neuroendocrine transducer that coordinate the organism response to changing environmental stimuli such as light and temperature. The main and best known pineal neurohormone is melatonin that is synthesized and released in a circadian fashion with a peak during the night darkness hours. We have recently reported that melatonin exerts important immuno regulatory functions. Here we describe the astonishing property of exogenous melatonin which is able to counteract completely the depressive effect of anxiety-restraint stress and/or of corticosterone on thymus weight, andibody production and antiviral responses. This effect seems to be mediated by antigen-activated T cells via an opiatergic mechanism.

Georges J. M. Maestroni; Ario Conti; Walter Pierpaoli

1987-01-01

166

[Tumors of the vaterian region indications, findings and prognosis : about 49 cases].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This retrospective study is about 49 cases of tumors of the vaterian region collected between 1976 and 2001. Tumors of the vaterian region represented 7% of the bilio-pancreatic tumors. The study was about 18 women and 31 men, with sex-ratio of 1.7. The mean age was 61 years. Treatment was surgical : cephalic duodeno-pancreatectomy (28 patients) or ampullectomy (5 patients). Rate of tumor resectability was 69.4%. Bilio-digestive derivation was practiced on 13 patients and therapeutic abstention was decided for 3 patients. Age over 65 years, rate of bilirubine superior to 120 mmol/l and surgery done in emergency were elements of bad prognosis that increased post-operative mortality of following cephalic duodeno-pancreatectomy. Global mortality and morbidity were respectively 16% and 24%. Factors of poor prognosis were essentially: Tumor of large size, infiltration of the surrounding structures and tumor with metastases. The survival after bilio-digestive derivation didn't pass the 8 months. Five year survivals cephalic duodeno-pancréatectomy represented 20%. It depended on the degree of the local invasion. This 5 years survival rate to was 85% for stage I (classification of Martin) and 10% for stage IV.

Beyrouti MI; Beyrouti R; Louhichi S; Ben Amar M; Gargouri F; Frikha F; Bouaziz M; Karoui A; Boudawara T; Krichen MS; Sellami A

2006-04-01

167

[Tumors of the vaterian region indications, findings and prognosis : about 49 cases].  

Science.gov (United States)

This retrospective study is about 49 cases of tumors of the vaterian region collected between 1976 and 2001. Tumors of the vaterian region represented 7% of the bilio-pancreatic tumors. The study was about 18 women and 31 men, with sex-ratio of 1.7. The mean age was 61 years. Treatment was surgical : cephalic duodeno-pancreatectomy (28 patients) or ampullectomy (5 patients). Rate of tumor resectability was 69.4%. Bilio-digestive derivation was practiced on 13 patients and therapeutic abstention was decided for 3 patients. Age over 65 years, rate of bilirubine superior to 120 mmol/l and surgery done in emergency were elements of bad prognosis that increased post-operative mortality of following cephalic duodeno-pancreatectomy. Global mortality and morbidity were respectively 16% and 24%. Factors of poor prognosis were essentially: Tumor of large size, infiltration of the surrounding structures and tumor with metastases. The survival after bilio-digestive derivation didn't pass the 8 months. Five year survivals cephalic duodeno-pancréatectomy represented 20%. It depended on the degree of the local invasion. This 5 years survival rate to was 85% for stage I (classification of Martin) and 10% for stage IV. PMID:16832995

Beyrouti, Mohamed Issam; Beyrouti, Ramez; Louhichi, Skander; Ben Amar, Mohamed; Gargouri, Faouzi; Frikha, Foued; Bouaziz, Mounir; Karoui, Abdelhamid; Boudawara, Tahia; Krichen, Mohamed Salah; Sellami, Abdelhafidh

2006-04-01

168

Lymphocyte migration during the development of regional lymph node anergy in experimental tumor growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of lymph node anergy in Wistar rats to growing Walker carcinoma 256 was studied in vitro using the 51Cr-release cytotoxicity assay. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity to the tumor peaked in draining lymph nodes 11 days after tumor transplantation. By 14 days, the regional lymph node had become anergic to the tumor at a time when cell-mediated cytotoxicity was still increasing in the more distal contralateral lymph node. Lymphocyte migration into resting, cytotoxic, and anergic lymph nodes was analyzed to determine if altered cell migration into the regional lymph node was associated with the development of anergy. Lymphocyte migration was found to be enhanced in both cytotoxic and anergic regional lymph nodes of tumor-bearing animals. It is concluded that lymph node anergy in this experimental tumor system is not related to changes in lymphocyte migration patterns; rather, it is the result of alterations in the microenvironment of the lymph node which prevents the expression of cytotoxic effector cells. PMID:6825181

Kimpton, W G; McKenzie, G A; Muller, H K; Ruby, J C; Poskitt, D C

1983-01-01

169

Lymphocyte migration during the development of regional lymph node anergy in experimental tumor growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development of lymph node anergy in Wistar rats to growing Walker carcinoma 256 was studied in vitro using the 51Cr-release cytotoxicity assay. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity to the tumor peaked in draining lymph nodes 11 days after tumor transplantation. By 14 days, the regional lymph node had become anergic to the tumor at a time when cell-mediated cytotoxicity was still increasing in the more distal contralateral lymph node. Lymphocyte migration into resting, cytotoxic, and anergic lymph nodes was analyzed to determine if altered cell migration into the regional lymph node was associated with the development of anergy. Lymphocyte migration was found to be enhanced in both cytotoxic and anergic regional lymph nodes of tumor-bearing animals. It is concluded that lymph node anergy in this experimental tumor system is not related to changes in lymphocyte migration patterns; rather, it is the result of alterations in the microenvironment of the lymph node which prevents the expression of cytotoxic effector cells.

Kimpton WG; McKenzie GA; Muller HK; Ruby JC; Poskitt DC

1983-01-01

170

Evidence for feedback control of pineal melatonin secretion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melatonin is the principle hormonal product of the pineal gland. It is secreted with a robust daily rhythm, peaking near the middle of the night. During the daytime, concentrations remain very low, as exposure to light robustly suppresses its secretion. The regulation of melatonin by light is well-characterized, but an interesting feature of the daily melatonin rhythm is that its peak occurs near the middle of the night and then levels begin to drop hours before morning light exposure. The mechanism underlying the light-independent drop in melatonin during late night remains unspecified. Feedback control is one mechanism of hormone regulation, but no studies thus far have explored the possibility of such regulation in the pineal of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). The pineal gland and SCN express melatonin receptors, and melatonin regulates its own receptor density in the brain. We investigated the possibility of feedback control of melatonin by administering melatonin receptor antagonists to female white-footed mice and then measuring plasma melatonin concentrations. In the first experiment, we observed that luzindole, a dual MT1/MT2 receptor antagonist administered 1h after lights off, caused an increase in plasma melatonin both 1 and 2h later. In a second experiment, we did not observe a change in melatonin concentrations following injection of an antagonist specific for the MT2 subtype. These results suggest the possibility of feedback control of melatonin release, occurring preferentially through the MT1 receptor subtype.

Bedrosian TA; Herring KL; Walton JC; Fonken LK; Weil ZM; Nelson RJ

2013-05-01

171

A Texture based Tumor detection and automatic Segmentation using Seeded Region Growing Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Detection and segmentation of Brain tumor accurately is a challenging task in MRI. The MRI image is an image that produces a high contrast images indicating regular and irregular tissues that help to distinguish the overlapping in margin of each limb. All automatic seed finding methods may suffer with the problem if there is no growth of tumor and any small white part is there. But when the edges of tumor is not sharped then the segmentation results are not accurate i.e. segmentation may be over or under. This may be happened due to initial stage of the tumors [5]. So , in this paper a method of tumor detection based on texture of the MRI and if it is detected then to segment it automatically is proposed in this paper to separate the irregular from the regular surrounding tissue to get a real identification of involved and noninvolved area that help the surgeon to distinguish the involved area precisely. The method used in this paper is texture analysis and seeded region growing method and it was implemented using MATLAB 7.6.0.324 on 25 Magnetic Resonance Images having brain tumors and also on images without any abnormality to detect the tumor boundaries in 2D MRI for different cases.

Mukesh Kumar; Kamal K.Mehta

2011-01-01

172

Characterization of Tumor Region Using SOM and Neuro Fuzzy Techniques in Digital Mammography  

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Full Text Available Nowadays the most common type of cancer in women is breast cancer. This is the second main cause of cancer deaths in women. Digital mammography is the technique which is used to examine the breast.This is very much useful for the detection of breast diseases in women. The automatic detection of tumor or some type of deformity in the medical imaging is done by many researchers to develop somealgorithms and methods. In this paper we are using SOM and Fuzzy c-means clustering techniques for tumor detection in digital mammography images. We then further calculate the statistical features of tumor like location of tumor, area, energy, entropy, idm, mean, contrast, mean and standard deviation which helps the radiologist to study the statistical information regarding breast cancer, so that the doctors can give better treatment to patients. For calculating these statistical properties we use regiongrowing and region merging techniques.

Anamika Ahirwar; R.S. Jadon

2011-01-01

173

A case of malignant rhabdoid tumor arising from soft parts in the prepubic region.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumor arising from soft parts in the prepubic region of a 37-year-old man is described. This case appears to be unusual with regard to its location and age at onset. To our knowledge, the patient is the oldest recorded in whom such a lesion has arisen. Histologically, the tumor consisted of an admixture of polygonal and elongated cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm frequently containing hyaline-like globules. Ultrastructurally, these cytoplasmic inclusions were compatible with intermediate filaments. Immunohistochemical staining disclosed keratin (non-squamous epithelial type) and epithelial membrane antigen positivity. These characteristic features were identical to malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney seen in infants and young children. This extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumor showed an aggressive clinical course, although its exact histogenesis was unclear.

Tsujimura T; Wada A; Kawano K; Iwasa A; Mizutani S

1989-10-01

174

Chemotherapy Followed by Radiation Therapy in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Localized Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Pineal Parenchymal Tumor

2013-06-10

175

Topographical analysis of proliferating cells in meningiomas. Regional heterogeneity of the ability of tumors to proliferate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regional heterogeneity of the ability of tumors to proliferate has been pointed out, but its topographical analysis has not been studied in detail. To evaluate the distribution of highly proliferating cells in totally resected meningiomas, seven cases (including one recurrent case) were investigated in this study. Immunostaining of PCNA was performed on the sections crossing the equator of the tumors. These sections were divided into multi-squares with sides of 500 micrometers. The proliferating potential was determined as the PCNA positive cell count in each square. By painting those squares in eight kinds of color corresponding to the value of the PCNA positive cell count, maps of proliferative ability were made. To predict the localization of proliferating cells, we studied these maps in relation to the following: MR image, calcification, distance from the dural attachment and distance from the tumor capsule. Maps of the PCNA positive cell count showed the intra-tumoral heterogeneity of proliferative ability in all cases. Most of the cases showed homogeneous enhancement on MRIs and these images could not be a predicting factor of the highly proliferating area. There was no significant relationship between the calcification and the PCNA positive cell count. Although the proliferating ability was not correlated with the distance from the dural attachment, inner regions distant from the capsule showed higher proliferative ability in all cases. From these results, one should be aware that the information from the samples of meningiomas do not reflect the proliferating ability of the whole tumor. PMID:10596379

Iuchi, T; Saeki, N; Osato, K; Yamaura, A

1999-12-01

176

Topographical analysis of proliferating cells in meningiomas. Regional heterogeneity of the ability of tumors to proliferate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Regional heterogeneity of the ability of tumors to proliferate has been pointed out, but its topographical analysis has not been studied in detail. To evaluate the distribution of highly proliferating cells in totally resected meningiomas, seven cases (including one recurrent case) were investigated in this study. Immunostaining of PCNA was performed on the sections crossing the equator of the tumors. These sections were divided into multi-squares with sides of 500 micrometers. The proliferating potential was determined as the PCNA positive cell count in each square. By painting those squares in eight kinds of color corresponding to the value of the PCNA positive cell count, maps of proliferative ability were made. To predict the localization of proliferating cells, we studied these maps in relation to the following: MR image, calcification, distance from the dural attachment and distance from the tumor capsule. Maps of the PCNA positive cell count showed the intra-tumoral heterogeneity of proliferative ability in all cases. Most of the cases showed homogeneous enhancement on MRIs and these images could not be a predicting factor of the highly proliferating area. There was no significant relationship between the calcification and the PCNA positive cell count. Although the proliferating ability was not correlated with the distance from the dural attachment, inner regions distant from the capsule showed higher proliferative ability in all cases. From these results, one should be aware that the information from the samples of meningiomas do not reflect the proliferating ability of the whole tumor.

Iuchi T; Saeki N; Osato K; Yamaura A

1999-12-01

177

Multivoxel 1H-MR spectroscopy in evaluating perienhancement region of brain tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the predictive value of multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in evaluating the metabolic changes in perienhancement area of brain tumors. Methods: Fifty-one intracranial tumor patients were recruited in this study with 24 astrocytomas [grade II(8), III(7), IV(9)], 15 metastases, and 12 meningiomas. Multivoxel proton MRS was performed on a 1.5 TMR scanner using point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence with TE of 144 ms and TR of 1000 ms. Spectra of three voxels were taken from A) enhanced, solid part of the tumor, B) perienhancement region (PER, with T2 hyperintense areas), and C) corresponding contralateral normal appearing white matter, and those regions were evaluated in every patients. Fitted areas in the spectrum for N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), lipid/ lactate, and myo-Inositol (mI) metabolite peaks were measured and NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cho (normal), Cho/Cr (n) ratios were calculated for each voxel (0.562 cm3 in size). One way ANOVA (SPSS 11.0 for windows, Chicago, Ill.) was used for statistical analysis in metabolic ratio's difference among the brain tumors. Results: In voxel A (MRS from the solid enhanced part of the lesion), the ratios of NAA/Cho and Cho/Cho (n) changed significantly by comparing with that of normal control brain tissues, but there was no significant difference among gliomas, metastases, and meningiomas (P>0.05). On the contrary, in voxel B of MRS from perienhancement region, NAA/Cho, Cho/Cho (n), and Cho/Cr (n) ratios revealed strong correlations between metabolite concentrations and tumor types, allowing the differentiation of glial tumors from both metastases and meningiomas (P

2003-01-01

178

Epigenetic changes within the promoter region of the HLA-G gene in ovarian tumors  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous findings have suggested that epigenetic-mediated HLA-G expression in tumor cells may be associated with resistance to host immunosurveillance. To explore the potential role of DNA methylation on HLA-G expression in ovarian cancer, we correlated differences in HLA-G expression with methylation changes within the HLA-G regulatory region in an ovarian cancer cell line treated with 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and in malignant and benign ovarian tumor samples and ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE) isolated from patients with normal ovaries. Results A region containing an intact hypoxia response element (HRE) remained completely methylated in the cell line after treatment with 5-aza-dC and was completely methylated in all of the ovarian tumor (malignant and benign) samples examined, but only variably methylated in normal OSE samples. HLA-G expression was significantly increased in the 5-aza-dC treated cell line but no significant difference was detected between the tumor and OSE samples examined. Conclusion Since HRE is the binding site of a known repressor of HLA-G expression (HIF-1), we hypothesize that methylation of the region surrounding the HRE may help maintain the potential for expression of HLA-G in ovarian tumors. The fact that no correlation exists between methylation and HLA-G gene expression between ovarian tumor samples and OSE, suggests that changes in methylation may be necessary but not sufficient for HLA-G expression in ovarian cancer.

Menendez Laura; Walker L DeEtte; Matyunina Lilya V; Totten Kimberly A; Benigno Benedict B; McDonald John F

2008-01-01

179

Circadian clock in culture: N-acetyltransferase activity of chick pineal glands oscillates in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

N-Acetyltransferase activity was measured in organ-cultured chick pineal glands. A circadian rhythm of enzyme activity persisted in cultured glands for up to 4 days. The phase of the rhythm in vitro closely approximates its phase in vivo. These observations demonstrate that the pineal gland of chicks contains (or is) a self-sustained circadian oscillator.

Kasal CA; Menaker M; Perez-Polo JR

1979-02-01

180

Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland : Roles in Development and Phenotype Maintenance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function. A working model is proposed for understanding the sequential action of homeobox genes in controlling development and mature circadian function of the mammalian pinealocyte based on knowledge from detailed developmental and daily gene expression analyses in rats, the pineal phenotypes of homebox gene-deficient mice and studies on development of the retinal photoreceptor; the pinealocyte and retinal photoreceptor share features not seen in other tissues and are likely to have evolved from the same ancestral photodetector cell.

Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Homeobox genes in the rodent pineal gland: roles in development and phenotype maintenance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function. A working model is proposed for understanding the sequential action of homeobox genes in controlling development and mature circadian function of the mammalian pinealocyte based on knowledge from detailed developmental and daily gene expression analyses in rats, the pineal phenotypes of homebox gene-deficient mice and studies on development of the retinal photoreceptor; the pinealocyte and retinal photoreceptor share features not seen in other tissues and are likely to have evolved from the same ancestral photodetector cell.

Rath MF; Rohde K; Klein DC; Møller M

2013-06-01

182

The pineal organ of bats: a comparative morphological and volumetric investigation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bats are seasonal breeders and roost under a wide range of lighting conditions, from broad daylight to the total darkness of subterranean passageways and caves. Some are true hibernators. These characteristics and the paucity of information on their pineal organ prompted this investigation, which is based upon the pineals of 191 specimens of 88 species and 12 families of bats. Comparative morphological and volumetric observations have been made on serially sectioned brains of each species. Data include brain and body weights, mean pineal dimensions and volume, a computed pineal size index for each species and salient characteristics and relations of the pineal organ of the 12 chiropteran families. Generally speaking, despite some exceptions, larger bodied bats also have larger pineals. Bats of the microchiropteran families such as the Emballonuridae, Megadermatidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, and a few vespertilionids (for example, Myotis adversus) and molossids (for example, Tadarida mops), have very large pineal organs, of which many reach the brain surface. All of these bat families inhabit dark caves. By contrast, in megachiropterans (pteropodids) which roost in broad daylight, the pineal lies deeply recessed and covered by the cerebral hemispheres. It is postulated that in general the superficial and deep location of pineal in micro- and megachiropteran species respectively may be a consequence of several factors, such as their habitat and their neocortical and cerebellar development. A system of classifying chiropteran pineal organs has been presented; in most species they are either of Type A or of Type AB. Most species have non-uniformly distributed parenchymal cells arranged in cords or clusters. In some species (for example, Rhinolopus trifoliatus and R. luctus) morphologically distinct dorsal and ventral divisions are observed. Pineal vascularity appears to be related to its size. Intrapineal neurons are rare and, when present, are associated with blood vessels. Epithelium-lined cavities are seen in the pineals of several species, while in a few others, the pineal is either absent or consists of a few scattered cells. Variable relationships between the pineal and the habenular commissure suggest that they may be unrelated functionally.

Bhatnagar KP; Frahm HD; Stephan H

1986-08-01

183

The pineal organ of bats: a comparative morphological and volumetric investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bats are seasonal breeders and roost under a wide range of lighting conditions, from broad daylight to the total darkness of subterranean passageways and caves. Some are true hibernators. These characteristics and the paucity of information on their pineal organ prompted this investigation, which is based upon the pineals of 191 specimens of 88 species and 12 families of bats. Comparative morphological and volumetric observations have been made on serially sectioned brains of each species. Data include brain and body weights, mean pineal dimensions and volume, a computed pineal size index for each species and salient characteristics and relations of the pineal organ of the 12 chiropteran families. Generally speaking, despite some exceptions, larger bodied bats also have larger pineals. Bats of the microchiropteran families such as the Emballonuridae, Megadermatidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, and a few vespertilionids (for example, Myotis adversus) and molossids (for example, Tadarida mops), have very large pineal organs, of which many reach the brain surface. All of these bat families inhabit dark caves. By contrast, in megachiropterans (pteropodids) which roost in broad daylight, the pineal lies deeply recessed and covered by the cerebral hemispheres. It is postulated that in general the superficial and deep location of pineal in micro- and megachiropteran species respectively may be a consequence of several factors, such as their habitat and their neocortical and cerebellar development. A system of classifying chiropteran pineal organs has been presented; in most species they are either of Type A or of Type AB. Most species have non-uniformly distributed parenchymal cells arranged in cords or clusters. In some species (for example, Rhinolopus trifoliatus and R. luctus) morphologically distinct dorsal and ventral divisions are observed. Pineal vascularity appears to be related to its size. Intrapineal neurons are rare and, when present, are associated with blood vessels. Epithelium-lined cavities are seen in the pineals of several species, while in a few others, the pineal is either absent or consists of a few scattered cells. Variable relationships between the pineal and the habenular commissure suggest that they may be unrelated functionally. PMID:3693069

Bhatnagar, K P; Frahm, H D; Stephan, H

1986-08-01

184

Diagnostic value of silver nitrate staining for nucleolar organizer regions in selected head and neck tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The present study is aimed to assess the usefulness of silver nitrate staining of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) as a quantitative criterion for the diagnosis of selected head and neck tumors. Materials and Methods: The silver nitrate staining technique was used on 195 paraffin blocks collected from 85 patients. The samples consisted of 21 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of larynx, 28 SCC of oral mucosa and 36 samples of most common salivary gland tumors. Mann-Whitney U-Test was used for data analysis. Results: A significant difference was seen in the number of AgNOR dots between oral and laryngeal SCC with surrounding dysplastic and normal tissues ( P P Conclusion: The silver nitrate staining for NORs is a useful method for aiding the diagnosis of malignant and dysplastic mucosal lesions and also malignant and benign salivary gland tumors.

Eslami Behnam; Rahimi Hessam; Rahimi Farzaneh; Khiavi Monir; Ebadifar Asghar

2006-01-01

185

Regional coupling of blood flow and methionine uptake in an experimental tumor assessed with autoradiography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Regional distribution of L-(methyl-/sup 14/C) methionine (/sup 14/C-MET) and 4-(/sup 18/F) fluoro-antipyrine (/sup 18/FAP) was compared using experimental rat tumors (AH109A) and a computerized autoradiogram image processor. Tissue distributions of the two tracers were found to be inhomogeneous in the tumor with nearly identical image patterns. Analysis of tissue radioactivities revealed that 82% of /sup 14/C-MET was derived from the acid insoluble fraction at 60 min after injection. The present study showed that /sup 14/C-MET uptake closely relates to tissue blood flow and may depend on its blood to tissue transport. Rapid incorporation of MET in the acid insoluble fraction implies that it is rapidly metabolized after transport into tumor tissue.

Abe, Yoshinao; Itoh, Masatoshi; Fujiwara, Takehiko; Sato, Tachio; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ido, Tatsuo

1988-09-01

186

[Regional treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma : Results from the tumor centre Regensburg.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive, malignant tumor of the pleural surface and is strongly associated with asbestos exposure. Incidence of MPM will reach its peak over the coming years. Most patients present with advanced tumor stages and therefore surgical options are limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients with MPM reported to the tumor centre Regensburg between January 1998 and August 2011. RESULTS: A total of 118 patients (85 % male) with cytologically or histologically confirmed MPM were reported. The mean age at diagnosis was 67 years (range 45-84 years) and 65 % of patients had a history of asbestos exposure. The incidence of MPM at the tumor centre Regensburg was 0.8/100,000 inhabitants with obvious regional differences depending on asbestos exposure. Staging was completed in 81 patients (67 %): stage I 9 %, stage II 22 %, stage III 23 % and stage IV 46 %. Of the patients 87 (74 %) underwent at least one surgical procedure: diagnostic thoracoscopy with biopsy (n?=?37, 43 %), debulking surgery or talcum pleurodesis (n?=?33, 38 %) and potentially curative resection (n?=?17, 19 %). After a mean follow-up of 20 months the overall median survival was 14 months (1 year survival rate 62 %, 3 year survival rate 15 %). Patients had a significantly better median survival of 18 months after curative resection. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of MPM varies according to regional and industrial asbestos exposure. Screening and diagnostics should concentrate on locations with higher incidence of MPM to facilitate surgical therapy in a multimodal treatment regime.

Ried M; Speth U; Potzger T; Neu R; Diez C; Klinkhammer-Schalke M; Hofmann HS

2013-06-01

187

A novel gene therapy-based approach that selectively targets hypoxic regions within solid tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is compelling evidence that malignant cells present within the hypoxic regions that are commonly found within solid tumors contribute significantly to local recurrence following radiation therapy. We describe now a novel strategy designed to target such cells that exploits the differential production within hypoxic regions of the pro-angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF). Specifically, we have generated cDNA constructs that encode two distinct chimeric cell surface proteins that incorporate, respectively, the extracellular domains of the VEGF receptors Flk-1 or Flt-1, fused in frame to the membrane spanning and cytoplasmic domains of the pro-apoptotic protein Fas. Both chimeric proteins (Flk/Fas and Flt/Fas) appear stable and can be readily detected on the surface of transfected cells by Western blot and/or FACS analysis. Importantly, tumor cells expressing the chimeric proteins were rapidly killed in a dose-dependent fashion upon the addition of exogenous recombinant VEGF. Adenoviral vectors encoding Flk/Fas have been generated and shown to induce tumor cells to undergo apoptosis upon transfer to hypoxic conditions in vitro. This activity is dependent upon the endogenous production of VEGF. Studies are currently underway to test the ability of adenoviral Flk/Fas (Ad.Flk/Fas) to reduce tumor recurrence in vivo when used as an adjuvant therapy in conjunction with clinically relevant doses of ionizing radiation

2003-01-01

188

Tumors in the region of the sella turcica; Tumoren der Sellaregion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tumors of the pituitary gland can lead to limitation of hypophysis function (hypophysis insufficiency) or hypersecretion of different hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, prolactinoma, TSH-secreting adenoma). The optic chiasma lies in close proximity to the pituitary gland and can be compressed by tumors leading to visual disturbances (bilateral hemianopsia). Tumors can be separated into hormone secreting and hormone inactive tumors, as well as into microadenoma with a diameter <10 mm and macroadenomas >10 mm. A rare group of tumors of the hypophysis region are craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germinomas, gliomas, metastases and granulomotous inflammations, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. (orig.) [German] Bei Tumoren der Hypophysenregion kann es zu einer Einschraenkung der Hypophysenfunktion (Hypophyseninsuffizienz) kommen, aber auch zu einem Hypersekretionssyndrom (Akromegalie, Cushing-Syndrom, Prolaktinom, TSH-sezernierendes Adenom). Unmittelbar ueber der Hypophysenregion liegt das Chiasma opticum, wodurch es bei Tumoren der Hypophysenregion zur Beeintraechtigung des Sehens kommen kann, meist als Verschlechterung des Sehfeldes beider Augen nach lateral (bitemporale Hemianopsie). Man unterscheidet hormonaktive und -inaktive Tumoren. Es werden Mikroadenome mit einem Durchmesser bis 10 mm und Makroadenome, die groesser als 10 mm sind, unterschieden. Eine seltenere Gruppe von Tumoren der Hypophysenregion sind die Kraniopharyngeome, Meningeome, Germinome, Gliome, Metastasen und granulomatoese Entzuendungen (Sarkoidose, Tuberkulose). (orig.)

Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostischeund Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

2009-07-15

189

Postnatal neurogenesis in the cow pineal gland: an immunohistochemical study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the pineal gland of cows and rats structures designated rosettes have been described both during embryonic development and in adult animals. In order to investigate the possible nature of the cells comprising such structures, in the present work we studied the pineal glands from 10 cows of one- or four-years-old using conventional immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy techniques. As markers of glial cells, we used anti-vimentin (Vim) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti-S-100 sera, and the pinealocytes were labelled with ?-III tubulin. As a marker of stem cells, we used an antinestin serum, while an anti-PCNA serum was employed to label proliferating cells. To explore the neuronal nature of some cells of the rosettes, we used an anti-SRIF serum. The rosettes were seen to be present throughout the glandular parenchyma and displayed a central cavity surrounded by cells, most of which expressed all or just some of the above glial labels and nestin, although there were also some rosettes with cells that expressed ?-III tubulin and other cells that expressed SRIF. Likewise, in the cells of the rosettes the cell nucleus showed strong expression of PCNA. Confocal microscopy revealed that the walls of the rosettes contained cells that coexpressed Vim/S-100, Vim/GFAP and Vim/nestin. The number of rosettes was significantly greater in the animals of one year of age with respect to the four-year-old cows. The present findings allow us to suggest that rosettes are evolving structures and that most of the cells present in their walls should be considered stem cells, and hence responsible for the postnatal neurogenesis occurring in the pineal gland of cows.

Gómez Esteban MB; Muñoz Mosqueira MI; Arroyo AA; Muñoz Barragán L

2013-03-01

190

A case of hemorrhagic pineal cyst: MR/CT correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 30-year-old male had headache pain for one month and was evaluated with both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR). These scans demonstrated an obstructing pineal cyst containing layered acute and subacute blood products by MR criteria. The concurrent scans allowed correlation between CT and MR findings in this rare complication of an unusual entity, explained his headache (and the development of later upward gaze paresis), provided a precise surgical/anatomic approach, and gave a good final clinical result. The report illustrates appropriate CT and MR images and pathological specimen. (orig.)

1989-01-01

191

Two morphological types of pineal window in catfish in relation to photophase and scotophase activity: a morphological and experimental study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pineal window is a transparent/translucent pineal covering on the dorsal surface of the cranium of certain fishes and is associated with light reactions of fish. In the present study, catfish species Clarias batrachus, Heteropneustes fossilis, Mystus vittatus, M. seenghala, and M. cavassius were examined for the type of pineal window present. Two morphologically different types of pineal window were found: an opaque-looking pineal window in C. batrachus and H. fossilis and a translucent type of pineal window in M. vittatus, M. seenghala, and M. cavassius. The distributional pattern of pigments in the melanophores at the pineal window were studied in terms of Melanophore Index (MI). In all of the species studied, a pineal foramen, a subepidermal lens-like tissue, and pineal end vesicle were present. Experiments were carried out on catfish having the opaque pineal window, as it is uncommon in catfish. Catfish with normal and shielded pineal window were exposed to conditions of artificial constant illumination (LL) and darkness (DD) to evaluate the effects of altered photoperiods on the state of pigmentation of melanophores at the pineal window. Recordings of diel activity patterns, which are light dependent in catfish, were carried out under both natural and artificial photoperiods in fish with a normal or shielded window in order to assess its functional nature. The existence of two morphologically and functionally different types of pineal window in a relatively closely related group of catfish has been demonstrated in this study. The nature of the opaque type of pineal window has been reconsidered based on new experimental evidence. PMID:12506400

Srivastava, S

2003-01-01

192

Frequency of pineal calcification during the first 18 years of life  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are sparse or contradictory data on frequency and pathological significance of pineal calcifications in childhood. This is particularly so for children younger than 6 years of age. We therefore looked for pineal gland calcifications in 1044 consecutive a.p. and lateral skull films. Pineal calcification was diagnosed, if accepted by both authors, and if the calcified spot fitted into at least 2 of 4 localisation methods. 80 patients with pineal calcifications were detected using this method. In 40 of these patients CCT confirmed the calcification. The frequency of pineal calcification was 3% in the first 12 months of life rising gradually to 7.1% in children of 10 years of age. From 10 years onwards, there is a marked increase of frequency of calcifications of the pineal gland up to 33% in the group of children of 18 years of age. In contrast to some statements in literature, pineal calcifications seem to be physiological in a limited percentage even below the age of 6 years.

Helmke, K.; Winkler, P.

1986-02-01

193

Correlación topográfica y anatomopatológica en los tumores de la región selar Topographic and anatomopathological correlation in the sellar region tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realización de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fundamental fue demostrar el valor de la tomografía computadorizada en el diagnóstico presuntivo de la variedad histológica de los macroadenomas hipofisarios así como de otros tumores menos frecuentes de la región selar, teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes operados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomográfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar. Se registró la edad, sexo, clínica, signos tomográficos, resultados anatomopatológicos posquirúrgicos. Se observó mayor incidencia de los adenomas hipofisarios (110), con predominio de los no secretores (41,1 %). El grueso de los pacientes se ubicó en las edades entre 30 y 50 años. El sexo femenino prevaleció en los adenomas adrenocorticotrópicos y los meningiomas, y el masculino en los productores de gonadotropina y prolactina. Dentro de los signos tomográficos, la erosión de las clinoides y el dorso selar, así como la hidrocefalia predominaron en los adenomas no secretores y los tumores no adenohipofisarios. Los adenomas productores de gonadotropina se destacaron en la erosión del piso y en el balonamiento selar al igual que los adrenocorticotrópicos. Las calcificaciones fueron frecuentes en los teratomas y craneofaringiomas, al igual que la captación no homogénea del contraste, la cual fue característica en estos casos como en los quistes de la bolsa de Rathke. La TC demostró ser de gran valor diagnóstico en los macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico del paciente.The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas worlwide motivated us to carry out this research, whose fundamental aim was to demonstrate the value of CT in the presumptive diagnosis of the histological variety of hypophyseal macroadenomas, as well as of other less frequent tumours of the sellar region, considering the clinical picture. To this end, 124 patients operated on with a clinical and tomographic diagnosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumours were studied. Age, sex, hospital stay, tomographic signs, and postsurgical anatomopathological results were registered. The highest incidence was found in the hypophyseal adenomas (110), with predominance of the non-secreting adenomas (41.1 %). Most of the patients were 30-50. The female sex prevailed in the adrenocorticotropic adenomas and meningiomas, and the male sex in gonadotropin and prolactin-producing adenomas. Within the tomographic signs the erosion of the clinoid and sellar dorsum, and hydrocephalus, predominated in the non-secreting adenomas and in the non-adenohypohyseal tumours. The gonadotropin-producing adenomas stood out in the erosion of the floor and in sellar ballooning as well as the adrenocorticotropic adenomas. The calcifications were more common in teratomas and craniopharyngiomas, as well as and the non-homogenous capture of the contrast agent, which was characteristic in these cases, as in Rathke's pouch cysts. CT showed its great diagnostic value in hypophyseal macroadenomas, and other tumours of the sellar region, taking into account the patient's clinical picture.

Tania Garcia Moreira; Fernando Piedra Chávez; Omar López Arbolay; Luis Garcia Ferrer; Dénise Delgado Gutiérrez; Hilca Navarro Miranda

2008-01-01

194

Correlación topográfica y anatomopatológica en los tumores de la región selar/ Topographic and anatomopathological correlation in the sellar region tumors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realización de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fundamental fue demostrar el valor de la tomografía computadorizada en el diagnóstico presuntivo de la variedad histológica de los macroadenomas hipofisarios así como de otros tumores menos frecuentes de la región selar, teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes operados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomog (more) ráfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar. Se registró la edad, sexo, clínica, signos tomográficos, resultados anatomopatológicos posquirúrgicos. Se observó mayor incidencia de los adenomas hipofisarios (110), con predominio de los no secretores (41,1 %). El grueso de los pacientes se ubicó en las edades entre 30 y 50 años. El sexo femenino prevaleció en los adenomas adrenocorticotrópicos y los meningiomas, y el masculino en los productores de gonadotropina y prolactina. Dentro de los signos tomográficos, la erosión de las clinoides y el dorso selar, así como la hidrocefalia predominaron en los adenomas no secretores y los tumores no adenohipofisarios. Los adenomas productores de gonadotropina se destacaron en la erosión del piso y en el balonamiento selar al igual que los adrenocorticotrópicos. Las calcificaciones fueron frecuentes en los teratomas y craneofaringiomas, al igual que la captación no homogénea del contraste, la cual fue característica en estos casos como en los quistes de la bolsa de Rathke. La TC demostró ser de gran valor diagnóstico en los macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico del paciente. Abstract in english The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas worlwide motivated us to carry out this research, whose fundamental aim was to demonstrate the value of CT in the presumptive diagnosis of the histological variety of hypophyseal macroadenomas, as well as of other less frequent tumours of the sellar region, considering the clinical picture. To this end, 124 patients operated on with a clinical and tomographic diagnosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumours were stu (more) died. Age, sex, hospital stay, tomographic signs, and postsurgical anatomopathological results were registered. The highest incidence was found in the hypophyseal adenomas (110), with predominance of the non-secreting adenomas (41.1 %). Most of the patients were 30-50. The female sex prevailed in the adrenocorticotropic adenomas and meningiomas, and the male sex in gonadotropin and prolactin-producing adenomas. Within the tomographic signs the erosion of the clinoid and sellar dorsum, and hydrocephalus, predominated in the non-secreting adenomas and in the non-adenohypohyseal tumours. The gonadotropin-producing adenomas stood out in the erosion of the floor and in sellar ballooning as well as the adrenocorticotropic adenomas. The calcifications were more common in teratomas and craniopharyngiomas, as well as and the non-homogenous capture of the contrast agent, which was characteristic in these cases, as in Rathke's pouch cysts. CT showed its great diagnostic value in hypophyseal macroadenomas, and other tumours of the sellar region, taking into account the patient's clinical picture.

Garcia Moreira, Tania; Piedra Chávez, Fernando; López Arbolay, Omar; Garcia Ferrer, Luis; Delgado Gutiérrez, Dénise; Navarro Miranda, Hilca

2008-09-01

195

Familial aggregation of urinary system tumors in a region with endemic nephropathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In hyperendemic villages in the Vratza district of Bulgaria, 193 patients with urinary system tumors (UST) were diagnosed during 1965 to 1976. A tendency towards familial aggregation was revealed when the patients were compared with two groups of controls, namely, patients with tumors other than UST and healthy persons. Each control group consisted of 193 persons matched by sex, age, and place of birth. This tendency was observed in all relatives who lived together as well as in those related by blood. The probability of having relatives with UST was 2.5 times higher than could be expected as chance occurrence among UST patients than among the controls. The UST cases also had significantly more relatives with endemic nephropathy than did the controls. The familial clustering of both UST and nephropathy in the endemic region is considered another clue to their common etiology.

Chernozemsky IN; Petkova-Bocharova T; Nikolov IG; Stoyanov IS

1978-04-01

196

Clonal T cell responses in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from both regressive and progressive regions of primary human malignant melanoma.  

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The T cell receptor (TCR) BV variable (V) gene repertoire of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) found in progressive and regressive regions of the same primary human melanomas were characterized by reverse transcription coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After surgery, the tumors were div...

thor Straten, P; Becker, J C; Seremet, T; Bröcker, E B; Zeuthen, J

197

[Regional treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma : Results from the tumor centre Regensburg.  

Science.gov (United States)

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive, malignant tumor of the pleural surface and is strongly associated with asbestos exposure. Incidence of MPM will reach its peak over the coming years. Most patients present with advanced tumor stages and therefore surgical options are limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients with MPM reported to the tumor centre Regensburg between January 1998 and August 2011. RESULTS: A total of 118 patients (85 % male) with cytologically or histologically confirmed MPM were reported. The mean age at diagnosis was 67 years (range 45-84 years) and 65 % of patients had a history of asbestos exposure. The incidence of MPM at the tumor centre Regensburg was 0.8/100,000 inhabitants with obvious regional differences depending on asbestos exposure. Staging was completed in 81 patients (67 %): stage I 9 %, stage II 22 %, stage III 23 % and stage IV 46 %. Of the patients 87 (74 %) underwent at least one surgical procedure: diagnostic thoracoscopy with biopsy (n?=?37, 43 %), debulking surgery or talcum pleurodesis (n?=?33, 38 %) and potentially curative resection (n?=?17, 19 %). After a mean follow-up of 20 months the overall median survival was 14 months (1 year survival rate 62 %, 3 year survival rate 15 %). Patients had a significantly better median survival of 18 months after curative resection. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of MPM varies according to regional and industrial asbestos exposure. Screening and diagnostics should concentrate on locations with higher incidence of MPM to facilitate surgical therapy in a multimodal treatment regime. PMID:23743993

Ried, M; Speth, U; Potzger, T; Neu, R; Diez, C; Klinkhammer-Schalke, M; Hofmann, H-S

2013-06-01

198

Tumor Teratóide Rabdóide Atípico Num Adulto/ Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor in an Adult  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O tumor teratóide rabdóide atípico (TTRA) é uma neoplasia rara e agressiva, mais comum na infância e de mau prognóstico. Apenas 23 casos foram descritos em adultos. Permanece por estabelecer uma estratégia terapêutica, mas com ressecção macroscopicamente completa (RMC), radioterapia (RT) e quimioterapia baseada em platinos e agentes alquilantes parecem obter-se os melhores resultados. Descreve-se o caso de uma mulher de 39 anos que iniciou um quadro de cefaleias (more) , vertigens, perturbações visuais e ataxia. A RMN mostrou hidrocefalia relacionada com uma massa na região pineal. O tratamento consistiu em RMC, RT e 3 ciclos do esquema ICE. A doente permanece sem evidência de doença 30 meses após o diagnóstico. A propósito deste caso, procedeu-se a uma revisão da literatura. Abstract in english Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare and aggressive malignancy, which is more common in early childhood and carries a poor prognosis. Only 23 cases have been described in adults. A treatment strategy is yet to be established but gross total resection (GTR), early radiotherapy (RT) and platinum and alkylator-based chemotherapy seem to be associated with better outcome. We report on a 39 year-old female who presented with headache, vertigo, blurry vision and a (more) taxia. The MRI revealed hydrocephalus related to a mass at the pineal region. The treatment consisted of GTR, RT and 3 cycles of an outpatient-based ICE regimen. The patient remains disease-free 30 months after diagnosis. Following this case, a review of the literature is undertaken.

Caeiro, Cláudia; Augusto, Isabel; Jaraquemada, Teresa; Sarmento, Cristina; Damasceno, Margarida

2008-01-01

199

Selective dissociation and characterization of cells from different regions of multicell tumor spheroids  

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A technique has been developed which takes advantage of the spherical symmetry of EMT6/Ro multicellular tumor spheroids to isolate subpopulations of cells originating from various locations in the spheroid structure. The method involves gently exposing spheroids to a dilute trypsin solution at 18 to 20/sup 0/ in specially designed dishes on a rotary shaker. Under these conditions, cells are released only from the outer spheroid surface; successive trypsin treatments dissociate cells from increasing depths in the spheroid. Measurements of the spheroid diameter and rate of cell dissociation demonstrated the reproducibly of the technique. Observations of histological sections showed that trypsin was active only over a small distance into the spheroid. Characterization of the cells isolated indicated that cell volume, membrane integrity, and clonogenic capacity all decreased for cells located in inner spheroid regions. Autoradiography and DNA content analysis by flow cytometry established that outer region cells werere actively proliferating whie inner region cells were in a nonproliferative state. There was a significant number of cells arrested with S- and G/sub 2/-phase DNA contents as well as a large number arrested with a G/sub 1/ DNA content, similar to recent findings for nonproliferating cells in tumors.

Freyer, J.P.; Sutherland, R.M.

1980-11-01

200

Malignant tumors of the head-and-neck region with a long latent interval after radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] 29 cases of malignant tumors of the head-and-neck region with a long latent interval after radiotherapy for cancers were analyzed clinico-pathologically in order to determine if any cancers were radiation-induced. Moreover, they were compared with 11 other cases whose initial lesions were benign. Among cases with malignant initial lesions, some were suspected to be radiation-induced, if their latent intervals were longer than 17 years. Through case analysis of each malignancy, however, most of these malignancies were considered not radiation-induced but recurrent, except for cases whose initial lesions were not malignant. (auth.)

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Postcricoid Region: A Case Report and Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that can present essentially anywhere in the body. Presentations in the hypopharynx are extremely rare with only two previous cases reported. We report the first case of postcricoid SFT occurring in a 58-year-old male requiring a microsuspension laryngoscopy excision following an unsuccessful transoral robotic attempt. The excision was uneventful, and the patient is currently without recurrence. Current management strategies of the hypopharyngeal SFT, the unique differential diagnosis, and challenges in surgical approaches in the postcricoid region are discussed.

Villegas, Brenda; Sinha, Uttam

2013-01-01

202

Utility of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Evaluation of the Peritumoral Region in Patients with Primary and Metastatic Brain Tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY:In the brain, diffusion tensor imaging is a useful tool for defining white matter anatomy, planning a surgical approach to space-occupying lesions, and characterizing tumors, including distinguishing primary tumors from metastases. Recent studies have attempted, with varying success, to use DTI to define the extent of tumor microinfiltration beyond the apparent borders on T2-weighted imaging. In the present review, we discuss the current state of research on the utility of DTI for evaluating the peritumoral region of brain tumors.

Sternberg EJ; Lipton ML; Burns J

2013-09-01

203

Neuroendocrine mediated effects of electromagnetic-field exposure: Possible role of the pineal gland  

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Reports from recent epidemiological studies have suggested a possible association between extremely low frequently (ELF; including 50- or 60-Hz) electric- and magnetic-field exposure, and increased risk of certain cancers, depression, and miscarriage. ELF field-induced pineal gland dysfunction is a possible etiological factor in these effects. Work in our laboratory and elsewhere has shown that ELF electromagnetic-field exposure can alter the normal circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis and release in the pineal gland. Consequences of reduced or inappropriately timed melatonin release on the endocrine, neuronal, and immune systems are discussed. Laboratory data linking ELF field exposure to changes in pineal circadian rhythms in both animal and humans are reviewed. The authors suggest that the pineal gland, in addition to being a convenient locus for measuring dyschronogenic effects of ELF field exposure, may play a central role in biological response to these fields via alterations in the melatonin signal.

Wilson, W.B.; Stevens, R.G.; Anderson, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1989-01-01

204

Effect of electric field exposure on melatonin and enzyme circadian rhythms in the rat pineal  

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The effects of chronic 30-day electric field exposure on pineal serotonin N-acetyl transferase (EC 2.1.15) activity as well as melatonin and 5-methoxy tryptophol (5-MTOL) concentrations in rats, were assessed.

Wilson, B.; Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.

1980-11-01

205

Morphological Characteristics and Embryological Development of Pineal Gland and Experimental Grafting Procedures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pineal gland is a major neuroendocrine organ both in human and animals and its principal product is melatonin. It has been implicated in a number of physiological functions (circadian rhytms, sleep, reproduction, and immune system). It is notable that transplantation of the pineal gland into different anatomical locations (the third or fourth cerebral ventricle, hypothalamus, cortical cerebral tissue, and anterior chamber of the eye) appears to evoke a degree of functional recovery. The present review focuses upon the morphological characteristics and the embryological development of the pineal gland as well as experimental grafting procedures into some structures in pinealectomized animals. It has been demonstrated that pinealocytes survive transplantation into these sites and exhibit ultrastructural features of active secretion. Recent investigations have shown that the transplanted pineal gland in the anterior chamber of the eye is reinnervated by neurons. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(1.000): 65-76

Mehmet Turgut; Aysegul Uysal; Mine Yurtseven

2003-01-01

206

Circadian rhythm of pineal uptake of 32P in domestic fowl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The uptake of radioactive phosphorus by the pineal gland in White Leghorn cockerels (Gallus domesticus) showed a diurnal variation with maxima in the light phase and minima in the dark phase of the light: dark cycle. Constant light caused the rhythm to disappear while constant dark had no effect other than lowering the amplitude of the variations. These data indicate that the rhythm in pineal uptake of 32P is circadian. (author)

1977-01-01

207

Presence of a pineal nerve (nervus pinealis) in the human fetus: a light and electron microscopical study of the innervation of the pineal gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The presence of a hitherto undiscovered nerve located in the subarachnoidal space just caudal to the pineal organ, connecting this organ and the posterior commissure, was demonstrated by light and electron microscopy in a series of 18 human fetuses. This nerve is believed to be ontogenetically equivalent to the pineal nerve observed in the anuran amphibians. The nerve was present in fetuses with a CRL of 56 mm and had not disappeared in fetuses with a CRL of 169 mm. The gestational age at which this human fetal nerve degenerates could not be determined in this study. In addition to the bilateral conarian nerve a habenulopineal tract and an intrapineal ganglion were observed. The presence of the classical Pastori and Marburg ganglia was confirmed, and a new ganglion lying rostral to the pineal organ was seen too.

Møller M

1978-10-01

208

Transcranial sonography in the evaluation of pineal lesions: two-year follow up study.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have recently reported that transcranial sonography (TCS) is a method competitive to magnetic resonance neuroimaging (MRI) in the evaluation of pineal gland lesions. The aim of the present is study was to assess the usefulness of TCS in a larger patient sample during a two-year follow up. Twenty patients with incidental pineal gland cyst (PGC) detected by MRI scan of the brain and 40 healthy controls without any previous documented data on a disease related to pineal gland were evaluated by TCS and compared with MRI scans. There were no statistically significant differences in PGC size measured by TCS by two observers (p = 0.475), PGC size measured by TCS and MRI (first observer, p = 0.453; and second observer, p = 0.425), size of the pineal gland measured by TCS and MRI in control group (first observer, p = 0.497; and second observer, p = 0.370), and pineal gland size measured by TCS by two observers in control group (p = 0.473). Study results suggested TCS to be a suitable method in the evaluation of pineal gland lesions. Although its resolution cannot match the MRI resolution, its repeatability and accuracy might add to its practical value. We suggest that the repeat MRI scan of such lesions might be replaced by clinical and TCS follow up. PMID:19388466

Budisi?, Mislav; Bosnjak, Jelena; Lovrenci?-Huzjan, Arijana; Strineka, Maja; Bene, Raphael; Azman, Drazen; Bedek, Darko; Trkanjec, Zlatko; Demarin, Vida

2008-12-01

209

Pineal concretions in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) as a result of collagen-mediated calcification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The intra-pineal calcification is a well-known phenomenon in mammals, however it is almost completely unknown in birds. The aim of the present work was to analyze morphology and genesis of the pineal concretions in the turkey. The studies were performed on the pineals collected from one-year-old turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). In addition to standard morphological methods, the alizarin red S and potassium pyroantimonate methods were employed for localization of calcium at the light and electron microscopy level. In light microscopy, calcified concretions with diameters from 300 microm to 2 mm and quantities from 3 to 6 per gland were observed in all the examined pineals. They were stained red with alizarin S and showed the presence of collagen in Mallory's staining. Two types of cells were noted inside the concretion: polygonal and elongated ones. Using electron microscopy, three parts were distinguished within the calcification area. The peripheral part contained densely packed collagen fibrils, some elongated cells and numerous pyroantimonate precipitates demonstrating the presence of calcium ions. In the intermediate part, the fibrils were covered by almost continuous sheets of pyroantimonate precipitates and fused side by side. The central part showed an appearance of calcified hard tissue and contained some polygonal (osteocyte-like) cells. The obtained data demonstrated that the formation of the pineal concretions in the turkey is associated with the mineralization of collagen. This process is completely different from the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the concretions in the mammalian pineal.

Przybylska-Gornowicz B; Lewczuk B; Prusik M; Bulc M

2009-04-01

210

Pineal concretions in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) as a result of collagen-mediated calcification.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intra-pineal calcification is a well-known phenomenon in mammals, however it is almost completely unknown in birds. The aim of the present work was to analyze morphology and genesis of the pineal concretions in the turkey. The studies were performed on the pineals collected from one-year-old turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). In addition to standard morphological methods, the alizarin red S and potassium pyroantimonate methods were employed for localization of calcium at the light and electron microscopy level. In light microscopy, calcified concretions with diameters from 300 microm to 2 mm and quantities from 3 to 6 per gland were observed in all the examined pineals. They were stained red with alizarin S and showed the presence of collagen in Mallory's staining. Two types of cells were noted inside the concretion: polygonal and elongated ones. Using electron microscopy, three parts were distinguished within the calcification area. The peripheral part contained densely packed collagen fibrils, some elongated cells and numerous pyroantimonate precipitates demonstrating the presence of calcium ions. In the intermediate part, the fibrils were covered by almost continuous sheets of pyroantimonate precipitates and fused side by side. The central part showed an appearance of calcified hard tissue and contained some polygonal (osteocyte-like) cells. The obtained data demonstrated that the formation of the pineal concretions in the turkey is associated with the mineralization of collagen. This process is completely different from the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the concretions in the mammalian pineal. PMID:19224443

Przybylska-Gornowicz, B; Lewczuk, B; Prusik, M; Bulc, M

2009-04-01

211

Subtemporal transtentorial approach for excision of tumors in mid-superior petroclival region: a report of 43 cases  

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Full Text Available Objective To explore the surgical technique for excision of mid-superior petroclival region tumor through subtemporal transtentorial approach.Methods Forty-three patients with tumor at superior-middle petroclival region hospitalized from Jun.20003 to Apr.2010 were involved in present study,and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.Of the 43 patients,19 were male and 24 were female,age ranged from 23 to 64 years(with mean of 42 years),disease duration ranged from 2 months to 3 years(with average of 14 months).All the patients underwent tumor resection via subtemporal transtentorial approach.The relationship between tumors and adjacent superior-middle petroclival structures was evaluated,and then the adhesion between tumor and tentorium cerebelli or petroclival meninges was separated,the tumor was resected piecemeal from closest area to distant part.The arachnoidal planes between tumor and brain stem,hypothalamus,or cavernous was dissected to enlarge the gap between the tumor and brain tissue,at the same time avoiding irritation to the above important structures.The therapeutic effects and postoperative complications were recorded.Results Total resection was achieved in 31 cases(72.1%),subtotal resection in 7 cases(16.2%),and partial resection in 5 cases(11.6%).One patient died(3.3%).Twenty-three patients developed new postoperative neurological deficits.The patients were followed up for 3 to 48 months,and the neurological functions were found to recover in varying degrees.Conclusion Subtemporal transtentorial approach for excision of tumors at superior-middle petroclival region has advantages of shorter approach and easy to expose.The key of the operative procedure is to reduce the tumor volume and enlarge the operative space.

Xue-min XING; Jian-wen GU; Bin KONG; Yong-qin KUANG; Wei-qi HE; Jing-min CHENG; Tao YANG; Lin CHENG; Hai-dong HUANG; Wen-tao YANG; Xun XIA; Yuan MA; Kai ZHAO; Xiu-zhong ZHANG; Long LIN; Fan-jun ZENG

2011-01-01

212

A novel PET tumor delineation method based on adaptive region-growing and dual-front active contours  

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To more accurately and precisely delineate a tumor in a 3D PET image, we proposed a novel, semi-automatic, two-stage method by utilizing an adaptive region-growing algorithm and a dual-front active contour model. First, a rough region of interest (ROI) is manually drawn by a radiation oncologist tha...

Li, Hua; Thorstad, Wade L.; Biehl, Kenneth J.; Laforest, Richard; Su, Yi; Shoghi, Kooresh I.; Donnelly, Eric D.; Low, Daniel A.

213

Brain tumors in children; Hirntumoren beim Kind  

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Brain tumors are common in children; in Germany approximately 400 children are diagnosed every year. In the posterior fossa, cerebellar neoplasms outnumber brainstem gliomas. In contrast to their rarity in adults, brainstem gliomas are not uncommon in children. Supratentorial tumors can be subdivided by location into neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres, suprasellar and pineal tumors. Astrocytoma is the most common pediatric brain tumor followed by medulloblastoma, ependymoma and craniopharyngeoma. The combination of imaging morphology, tumor localisation and patient age at manifestation form the basis of the neuroradiological differential diagnosis. (orig.)

Harting, I.; Seitz, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie

2009-06-15

214

Radiation-induced deletion of chromosomal regions containing tumor suppressor genes in human bronchial epithelial cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] While several specific genetic alterations have been associated with malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells, they are not all present in every tumor and there is reason to believe that additional genes important for loss of replication control in these cells remain to be identified. In an effort to develop a human bronchial epithelial cell model suitable for identification and functional analysis of genes involved in loss of replication control, and for studying the genetic basis of the multi-stage phenotypic changes associated with tumorigenesis, we treated multiple independent populations of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D with ionizing radiation. Following irradiation, cell lines representing the radiated populations were established from single soft agar-selected colonies. The data confirm that ionizing radiation induces many large chromosomal alterations including chromosomal loss, translocation and deletion and that following radiation it is possible to isolate immortalized nontumorigenic cell lines monosomic for regions known or suspected to contain tumor suppressor genes. (Author)

1993-01-01

215

Radiation-induced deletion of chromosomal regions containing tumor suppressor genes in human bronchial epithelial cells  

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While several specific genetic alterations have been associated with malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells, they are not all present in every tumor and there is reason to believe that additional genes important for loss of replication control in these cells remain to be identified. In an effort to develop a human bronchial epithelial cell model suitable for identification and functional analysis of genes involved in loss of replication control, and for studying the genetic basis of the multi-stage phenotypic changes associated with tumorigenesis, we treated multiple independent populations of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D with ionizing radiation. Following irradiation, cell lines representing the radiated populations were established from single soft agar-selected colonies. The data confirm that ionizing radiation induces many large chromosomal alterations including chromosomal loss, translocation and deletion and that following radiation it is possible to isolate immortalized nontumorigenic cell lines monosomic for regions known or suspected to contain tumor suppressor genes. (Author).

Willey, J.C.; Madrid, Laura; Willey, J.J.; Apostolakos, M.J. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Environmental Health Science Center Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Biophys.); Hei, T.K.; Piao, C.Q. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Center for Radiological Research); Hukku, Bharati (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). School of Medicine)

1993-06-01

216

THE REGIONAL METASTATIC TUMORS IN THE MALIGNANT MELANOMA OF THE NAIL  

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Full Text Available The malignant melanoma of the nail is relatively rare and the regional metastatic tumors appear even with less frequency. The paper relates the case of an old patient female, 67-year-old diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the left index nail in 1994. No secondary tumour has been diagnosed at that moment and transmetacarpal amputation of the second finger has been done. The patient followed a complete therapy with interferon and was re-examined each month, three six and then twelve month. In 1996 the first secondary melanoma developed on a superficial dorsal vein situated over the deep fascia that covered the remnant second metacarpian and was excised. Some other metastatic tumours developed during the following period, all of them being situated on the same cephalic vein, first in the forearm and than in the arm. The lymphnods were not invaded. The decision of the excision of the remnant cephalic vein has been taken in 1999. The histological examination confirmed the presence of tumoral cells. In 2000 axillary adenopathy has been detected so an excision of the left axillary lymphnods has been performed, together with skin which seemed to be pigmented. The histological exam revealed lymphnods invasion and cutaneous metastatic cells.

Camelia Tamas; Doinita Radulescu; L. Popa; Cristina Stanescu; T. Stamate; R. Nita; Mihaela Pertea; Shaukat Sherjeel

2006-01-01

217

Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy in recurrent tumors of the head and neck region  

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Over the past four years, 27 patients with recurrent tumors of the head and neck region have been treated with chemotherapy. The regimens used were BCMF (bleomycin 15 mg i.v. for 3 days, cyclophosphamide 500 mg i.v., methotrexate 50 mg i.v. and 5-fluorouracil 500 mg i.v.) and CMU (cyclophosphamide 350 mg/m/sup 2/ i.v., methotrexate 30 mg/m/sup 2/ i.v. and UFT 600 mg p.o. for 14 days). Of the 27 patients, eight were treated with combined radiation and chemotherapy, and either CR or PR was obtained. Nineteen patients were treated with chemotherapy alone, for which the response (CR + PR) rates were 8 % (1/12) for BCMF and 43 % (3/7) for CMU, respectively. No serious toxicities were observed as a result of these regimens. It was thus demonstrated that the CMU regimen was of great value in terms of improved response and minor toxicity in the treatment of head and neck tumors.

Tsuji, H.; Tsujii, H.; Kamada, T.; Takamura, A.; Shirato, H.; Matsuoka, Y.; Irie, G.

1987-04-01

218

Space-time clustering in childhood nervous system tumors in the Region of Murcia, Spain, 1998-2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The aims of this study are the following: first, to analyze incidence, trends, and survival of nervous system tumors in children under the age of 15 in the Region of Murcia, Spain, during the years 1998-2009 and second, to evaluate if certain environmental exposures may be involved in the etiology of childhood nervous system tumors. The study was performed on the spatial and temporo-spatial distribution of the observed cases. METHODS: The Environment and Pediatric Cancer in the Region of Murcia is an ongoing research project aimed at carefully collecting pediatric environmental history (PEH) and to use geographical information systems to map the incidence and to analyze the geographical distribution of pediatric cancer incidence in our region. Between 1998 and 2009, 125 patients were diagnosed with nervous system tumors. The spatial and temporal space clusters were evaluated using Kulldorff's statistics. Address at diagnosis was the main feature evaluated. RESULTS: The incidence (cases/million children) for central nervous system (CNS) tumors was 34.2, that for sympathetic nervous system tumors was 10.9, and that for retinoblastoma was 1.9. There was evidence of space clustering for medulloblastoma and space-time clustering for all tumors, CNS tumors, astrocytoma, and neuroblastoma. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and survival for each type and subtype of nervous system tumors were within the reported values for the European region. There is evidence that spatial and spatial-temporal distribution in these cases is not random. The development of a careful PEH in these patients will help to reinforce geographical information system studies and to ascertain the importance of associated risk factors.

Ortega-García JA; López-Hernández FA; Fuster-Soler JL; Martínez-Lage JF

2011-11-01

219

Clonal T cell responses in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from both regressive and progressive regions of primary human malignant melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The T cell receptor (TCR) BV variable (V) gene repertoire of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) found in progressive and regressive regions of the same primary human melanomas were characterized by reverse transcription coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After surgery, the tumors were divided into different parts which were judged as regressive or progressive regions by visual inspection. Subsequently this diagnosis was confirmed by histology. From a total of four primary melanomas analyzed, 2 were drawn to be HLA-A2+. Only relatively few BV-gene families were expressed at significant levels in each of the samples. Comparison of the BV-expression in regressive versus progressive regions of the same tumor revealed major differences in all cases examined. Direct sequencing of RT-PCR products indicated that highly expressed BV-gene families were of clonal origin in both the regressive and progressive regions. Together, these data strongly suggest the occurrence of clonal T cell responses in both regressive and progressive areas of the same primary tumor. The differences in expression of certain BV-genes may correlate with the functional activity of certain populations of tumor-infiltrating T cells. PMID:8755635

thor Straten, P; Becker, J C; Seremet, T; Bröcker, E B; Zeuthen, J

1996-07-15

220

Clonal T cell responses in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from both regressive and progressive regions of primary human malignant melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The T cell receptor (TCR) BV variable (V) gene repertoire of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) found in progressive and regressive regions of the same primary human melanomas were characterized by reverse transcription coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After surgery, the tumors were divided into different parts which were judged as regressive or progressive regions by visual inspection. Subsequently this diagnosis was confirmed by histology. From a total of four primary melanomas analyzed, 2 were drawn to be HLA-A2+. Only relatively few BV-gene families were expressed at significant levels in each of the samples. Comparison of the BV-expression in regressive versus progressive regions of the same tumor revealed major differences in all cases examined. Direct sequencing of RT-PCR products indicated that highly expressed BV-gene families were of clonal origin in both the regressive and progressive regions. Together, these data strongly suggest the occurrence of clonal T cell responses in both regressive and progressive areas of the same primary tumor. The differences in expression of certain BV-genes may correlate with the functional activity of certain populations of tumor-infiltrating T cells.

thor Straten P; Becker JC; Seremet T; Bröcker EB; Zeuthen J

1996-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Morphologic Changes in Rat's Pineal Gland After Eliminating Retinal Photic Stimulation Cambios Morfológicos en la Glándula Pineal de Ratas Luego de la Eliminación de la Estimulación Fótica Retiniana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melatonin secretion from mammalian pineal glands is regulated by light stimulation by means of a complex neuroanatomical pathway that includes the retina, hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, intermediolateral nucleus of the thoracic spinal cord, and finally, the superior cervical ganglia. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in the pinealocytes and the blood vessel density of the pineal gland after eliminating photic stimulation in rats. Thirteen adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups, Group I acted as control, and Group II was subjected to a retinal lesión, by means of alcohol injected bilaterally to both ocular bulbs. After 3 weeks, the glands of both groups were processed with hematoxilin-eosin (HE) and observed with an optic microscope. Group II results presented higher valúes in the number of pinealocytes and in the blood vessels observed. The differences with Group I was significant at p La secreción de melatonina por parte de glándula pineal de los mamíferos es regulada por la estimulación luminosa mediante complejas vías neuro anatómicas que incluyen la retina, el núcleo supraquiasmático hipotalámico, el núcleo intermediolateral de la médula torácica y finalmente el ganglio cervical superior. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar los cambios en la densidad de pinealocitos y vasos sanguíneos de la glándula pineal, luego de eliminar la estimulación fótica en ratas. Se utilizaron 13 ratas adultas Sprague Dawley divididas en 2 grupos, Grupo I actuó como control, y el Grupo II fue sometido a una lesión retiniana, por medio de alcoholización bilateral de ambos bulbos oculares. Luego de tres semanas las glándulas de ambos grupos fueron procesadas para hematoxilina-eosina y observadas al microscopio óptico. El grupo II presentó valores mayores en el número de pinealocitos y de vasos sanguíneos observados, las diferencias con el Grupo I fueron significativas con p<0.01. Estos resultados entregan una evidencia indirecta del efecto que la supresión de la estimulación fótica tiene en la glándula pineal en ratas.

Ignacio Roa Henriquez; Iván Suazo Galdames; Mario Cantín López; Daniela Zavando Matamata

2008-01-01

222

Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Changes Related To Methylphenidate In Rat Pituitary and Pineal Glands  

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Full Text Available Objective: The presence of a dopaminergic function in pituitary and pineal glands is well known. Methylphenidate (MPH), a widely prescribed psychostimulant for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, is an indirect dopamine agonist which could have the capacity of influencing the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system with the pineal gland. Our aim is to investigate dose-dependent immunohistochemical dopamine 2 expression, possible cell apoptosis and ultrastructural changes of the rat pituitary and pineal gland tissue, to demonstrate possible toxicity of the chronic extended use of the MPH.Material and Methods: In this study, 27 female prepubertal Wistar albino rats, divided into three different dose groups (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), were treated orally with MPH dissolved in saline solution for 5 days per week during three months. At the end of the third month, after perfusion fixation, pituitary and pineal glands were removed and sections were collected for immunohistochemical, TUNEL assay and ultrastructural studies.Results: We observed that methylphenidate induced dose-related ultrastructural changes in pituitary and pineal glands.Conclusion: High dose administration of this drug could influence the functions of these glands. Thus, we suggest that the therapeutic dose of methylphenidate must be kept in minimum level.

Çi?dem ELMAS; Meltem BAHCELIO?LU; Deniz ERDO?AN; Rabet GÖZ?L; Gülnur TAKE; Engin ÇALGÜNER; Dila ?ENER

2012-01-01

223

Labelling of the pineal gland with 99mTc-glucose-6-phosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Lately, the pineal body has been the subject of a large variety of studies. Only recently it has been understood the role played by this endocrine gland to maintain the balance of the human body and also in animal models. Although small in dimensions, the pineal body is a very active organ, able to transmit precise temporal information. It probably participates in the synchronization of several organic functions. The present work aims to study a possible use of 99mTc-glucose-6-P as a tracer for the pineal gland. Histoautoradiographic studies have been performed in Wistar rats. Tomoscintigraphic studies were acquired in patients and in albine rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus hyplus). The labelling efficiency and the radiochemical purity of the labelled products have always been tested. Animal and human SPECT exams, show an activity focus projected over the area corresponding to the pineal body localization. Autoradiographic studies using [1-14C]-glucose-6-P did not reveal a more relevant activity at the pineal level, probably due to its hepatic conversion to 14C-glucose. (author)

1998-04-03

224

Comparison of calcification of pineal, habenular commissure and choroid plexus on plain films and computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Skull radiographs and CT scans of 1,000 consecutive patients were examined for evidence of calcification in the pineal gland, habenular commissure and choroid plexuses. Plain film results were in agreement with previous surveys suggesting that the CT scan results may be accepted as general findings. Pineal calcification was seen on films in 61% and on CT scans in 83% of those over 30. On both films and CT scans calcification was 10% higher in males. Only 1% had a pineal 12 mm or larger on films. In at least 5% it was impossible to separate the habenula from the pineal by CT: including these, 5% had pineals larger than the accepted upper limit of normal. Measurements from males were 0.4 mm larger than for females on films and 0.2 mm larger on CT scans. Habenular commissure calcification was seen on films in 13% and on CT in 15% of those over 30, being 10% higher in males. Bilateral choroid plexus calcification was seen on frontal films in 15% and on CT in 77% of those over 30. On skull films the frequency of calcification was 2%-3% higher for adult males than females and on CT 7% higher. Calcification was seen on the lateral but not the frontal film in 128 patients. One choroid plexus only was seen on 14/ frontal films and on 49 CT scans. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO

1979-01-01

225

Macro-microscopical aspects of the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus, 1758) pineal gland  

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Full Text Available Gross and microscopical aspects of the buffalo pineal gland were described in seasonal parturition animals, since this gland is responsible for melatonin secretion which acts upon the hypothalamus-hypophysis reproductive axis feedback system. (Hafez, 1995). For the present study, 11 cross-bred buffaloes, predominantly of the Mediterranean breed, from the Pirassununga Campus - USP (University of São Paulo), were killed in different photoperiods in the slaughterhouse. The pineal glands were obtained, fixed, weighed, measured, photographed, processed, cut into sections and stained. All glands demonstrated the same global shape, with a mean length of 8.82 ± 1.07mm and a width of 7.91 ± 0.83mm, and a stem length of 5.50 ± 4.18mm. The stems had a microscopically visible lumen. The mean gland weight was 251.45 ± 83.1mg. The buffalo pineal gland presented right and left lobes of different sizes. Microscopically, they were surrounded by a connective tissue layer with blood vessels infiltrating into the glandular parenchyma, which became separated into glial cell lobules. A great number of the pinealocytes were arranged in irregular strings, and cells from the connective tissue could be observed in the glandular parenchyma. We conclude that the buffalo pineal gland is similar to that of pineal cows and that it does not show morphologic alterations during different photoperiods of the year.

Ana Flávia de Carvalho; Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio; Maria Angélica Miglino; Celina Almeida Furlanetto Mançanares; Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez

2009-01-01

226

Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on serotonin metabolism in the rat pineal gland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Serotonin and two of its metabolites, melatonin and 5-methoxytryptophol, exhibit circadian rhythmicity in the pineal gland. We recently reported a marked reduction in the normal night-time increase in melatonin concentration in the pineal glands of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Concomitant with the apparent abolition of melatonin rhythmicity, serotonin-N-acetyl transferase (SNAT) activity was suppressed. We have now conducted studies to determine if abolition of the rhythm in melatonin production in electric-field-exposed rats arises solely from interference in SNAT activity, or if the availability of pineal serotonin is a factor that is affected by exposure. Pineal serotonin concentrations were compared in rats that were either exposed or sham exposed to 65 kV/m for 30 days. Sham-exposed animals exhibited normal diurnal rhythmicity for pineal concentrations of both melatonin and serotonin; melatonin levels increased markedly during the dark phase with a concurrent decrease in serotonin levels. In the exposed animals, however, normal serotonin rhythmicity was abolished; serotonin levels in these animals did not increase during the light period. The conclusion that electric field exposure results in a biochemical alteration in SNAT enzyme activity can be inferred from the loss of both serotonin and melatonin rhythmicity, as well as by direct measurement of SNAT activity itself. 35 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.; Wilson, B.W.; Chess, E.K.

1982-06-01

227

Wound healing and the effect of pineal gland and melatonin  

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Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex phenomenon that is controlled by local and general regulatory mechanisms. The aim of the paper is to analyze recently-published data devoted to the regulation of wound repair by melatonin. The effect of melatonin has been reported in different wound types healed with various mechanisms. The action of the pineal indoleamine is dependent on the used dose, time of application and target organ. Moreover, melatonin influences different phases of wound repair such as inflammation, by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators, cell proliferation and migration, by influencing angiogenesis, and the proliferation of fibroblasts, as well as the synthesis phase, by regulating collagen and glycosaminoglycan accumulation in the wounded milieu. Thus, healing of the skin wound, myocardial infarction, bone fractures and gastric ulcer is influenced by melatonin. In patients with low levels of melatonin (elderly or ?-blocker treated patients), its regulatory effects are expected to be impaired. Thus, the need for melatonin supplementation in those patients is postulated in the study. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000): 3-14

Jacek Drobnik

2012-01-01

228

A novel PET tumor delineation method based on adaptive region-growing and dual-front active contours.  

Science.gov (United States)

To more accurately and precisely delineate a tumor in a 3D PET image, we proposed a novel, semi-automatic, two-stage method by utilizing an adaptive region-growing algorithm and a dual-front active contour model. First, a rough region of interest (ROI) is manually drawn by a radiation oncologist that encloses a tumor. The voxel having the highest intensity in the ROI is chosen as a seed point. An adaptive region growing algorithm successively appends to the seed point all neighboring voxels whose intensities > = T of the mean of the current region. When T varies from 100% to 0%, a sharp volume increase, indicating the transition from the tumor to the background, always occurs at a certain T value. A preliminary tumor boundary is determined just before the sharp volume increase, which is found to be slightly outside of the known tumor in all tested phantoms. A novel dual-front active contour model utilizing region-based information is then applied to refine the preliminary boundary automatically. We tested the two-stage method on six spheres (0.5-20 ml) in a cylindrical container under different source to background ratios. Comparisons between the two-stage method and an iterative threshold method demonstrate its higher detection accuracy for small tumors (less than 6 ml). One patient study was tested and evaluated by two experienced radiation oncologists. The study illustrated that this two-stage method has several advantages. First, it does not require any threshold-volume curves, which are different and must be calibrated for each scanner and image reconstruction method. Second, it does not use any iso-threshold lines as contours. Third, the final result is reproducible and is independent of the manual rough ROIs. Fourth, this method is an adaptive algorithm that can process different images automatically. PMID:18777930

Li, Hua; Thorstad, Wade L; Biehl, Kenneth J; Laforest, Richard; Su, Yi; Shoghi, Kooresh I; Donnelly, Eric D; Low, Daniel A; Lu, Wei

2008-08-01

229

Regional disparities and practice patterns in surgical approaches to pituitary tumors in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Traditional microscopic and endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches (TSAs) are the most common surgical techniques in pituitary surgery. Examining regional practice patterns in pituitary surgery can provide valuable insights into which surgical strategies are most accessible, effective, and cost-efficient. In this study we investigated regional variations in surgical approaches to pituitary tumors and evaluated evolving practice patterns in pituitary surgery. METHODS: The 2010 Medicare Part B Carrier Summary Database and Medicare Part B National Summary Database from 2003-2010 were examined using pituitary surgery Current Procedure Terminology (CPT) codes 61548 (microscopic transsphenoidal approach), 62165 (endoscopic transsphenoidal approach), and 61546 (transcranial approach). RESULTS: Endoscopic TSAs increased by over 10-fold in the past decade, while usage of microscopic TSAs decreased by 23.3%. Nevertheless, the microscopic approach was still the most common TSA (64.7%) in 2010 compared to the endoscopic approach (35.3%). The microscopic TSA was predominant in the Southern and Western United States (74% and 69%, respectively). In the Northeast and Midwest, the rates of microscopic and endoscopic TSAs were roughly equivalent. However, the rate of endoscopic TSAs was statistically significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the Northeast and Midwest (47% and 45%, respectively) than in the South and West (26% and 31%, respectively). Transcranial approaches continued to decline from 4% to 2% over the last decade. CONCLUSION: Regional disparities in transsphenoidal practice patterns exist in the United States. Although the microscopic approach is still more common overall, there has been an evolving shift toward endoscopic TSAs in the last decade.

Svider PF; Keeley BR; Husain Q; Mauro KM; Setzen M; Liu JK; Eloy JA

2013-08-01

230

Marked rapid alterations in nocturnal pineal serotonin metabolism in mice and rats exposed to weak intermittent magnetic fields  

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Adult AMES mice and male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to an artificial magnetic field, generated by Helmholtz coils. 3.5 hours after the onset of darkness the coils were activated for one hour resulting in an inversion of the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field. The coils were activated and deactivated at 5 min intervals during the 1 hour exposure period. In both mice and rats, the levels of serotonin in the pineal were markedly increased by the exposure. In rats, an increase of pineal 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and a decrease of the activity of the pineal enzyme serotonin-N-acetyltransferase also was observed. However, pineal and serum melatonin levels were not altered. The results indicate that the metabolism of serotonin in the pineal is quickly affected by the exposure of animals to a magnetic field.

Lerchl, A.; Nonaka, K.O.; Stokkan, K.A.; Reiter, R.J. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (USA))

1990-05-31

231

Value of the region of interest technique in the scintigraphic diagnosis of primary bone tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Employing ROI-technique, a ratio Q was obtained from relating accumulation of 99sup(m)Tc-MDP at the site of the bone lesion (n = 150) with that of contralateral non-involved osseous areas. Values of Q were correlated with histologic tumor diagnosis, its dignity and frequency. Values of Q of greater than 3.0 were found in 95% of all sarcomas, in 100% of the osteosarcomas but in only 3.8% of all benign bone tumors. Values ranging from 1.0 to 1.2 were exclusively measured in benign tumors (e.g., in 52% of juvenile bone cysts and in 67% of non-ossifing fibromas). Since the threshold - separating benign from malignant lesions - at Q = 3.0 was blurred by tumorlike lesions, metastases and especially by Paget's disease, this method does not precisely predict dignity. However, this method may complement radiographic evaluation with low values supporting the diagnosis of a benign lesion. The combined findings of radiography and these rations gained by nuclear imaging may help determine the pathway of a patient through further diagnosis and treatment. (orig.)[de] Unter Anwendung der Region of Interest Technik (Bestimmung der Zaehlratendichte) wurde aus der Speicherung von 99sup(m)Tc-MDP in Knochentumoren und anderen Laesionen (n = 150) unter Normierung auf die Aufnahme in kontralateralen Arealen ein Quotient Q gebildet. Die Werte dieser Quotienten wurden geordnet nach Artdiagnose, Dignitaet und Haeufigkeitsverteilung. Werte von Q ueber 3,0 konnten bei 95% aller Sarkome, bei 100% aller Osteosarkome und nur bei 3,8% aller benignen Knochentumoren errechnet werden. Zwischen Werten von Q = 1,0 bis 1,2 waren ausschliesslich benigne Tumoren nachzuweisen (z.B. 52% der juvenilen Knochenzysten und 67% der nicht-ossifizierenden Fibrome). Da die Grenze benigne/maligne bei Q = 3,0 durch tumoraehnliche Laesionen, Metastasen und insbesondere durch den Morbus Paget verwischt wurde, erlaubt die Quotientenmethode keine sichere Aussage zur Dignitaet- Andererseits ergaenzt der Wert des Quotienten den Roentgenbefund, wobei ein niedriger Wert fuer einen benignen Prozess spricht. Aus der Kombination Roentgenbefund - szintigraphischer Befund - Wert des Quotienten heraus kann der weitere Weg des Patienten determiniert werden. (orig.)

1981-01-01

232

Hepatic tumors: region-of-interest versus volumetric analysis for quantification of attenuation at CT.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the reproducibility of liver tumor attenuation measurement performed by using the routinely used manual region-of-interest (ROI) method and that of measurement performed by using a semiautomated volumetric approach at computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study had institutional review board approval. The requirement for patient informed consent was waived. Attenuation of colon cancer liver metastases in 208 patients was measured on portal venous phase multidetector CT images by using a single ROI, the average measurement in three ROIs on a single section, and with semiautomated segmentation of the entire tumor volume (volumetric attenuation) to evaluate intermethod agreement. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility were evaluated in the first 70 patients. Measurements were repeated after 30 days to assess intraobserver reproducibility. Differences between methods were tested by using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Intermethod, intraobserver, and interobserver agreements were tested by using Bland-Altman analysis and the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (?c). P < .05 was considered to indicate a significant difference. RESULTS: A total of 208 pathologically proven colon cancer hepatic metastases larger than 20 mm in diameter in 100 women and 108 men (mean age, 61.6 years ± 11.6 [standard deviation]; range, 28-87 years) were evaluated. Attenuation was significantly different between the three methods of measurement (P < .001 for all). Volumetric measurements had better intraobserver agreement (precision = 3.3%, ?c = 0.996, P < .001) than single-ROI measurements (precision = 12.0%, ?c = 0.947, P < .001) and measurements averaged over three ROIs (precision = 9.3%, ?c = 0.965, P < .001). Volumetric measurements also had better interobserver agreement (precision = 3.6%, ?c = 0.993, P < .001) than single-ROI measurements (precision = 11.3%, ?c = 0.957, P < .001) and the average measurement in three ROIs (precision = 8.5%, ?c = 0.976, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Measurements of hepatic tumor attenuation at multidetector CT are reproducible. An approach based on the evaluation of whole-lesion attenuation demonstrated better reproducibility than ROI measurements.

Chalian H; Tochetto SM; Töre HG; Rezai P; Yaghmai V

2012-03-01

233

Reactivity of axillary lymph-nodes draining invasive breast carcinomas - immunohistochemical evidence of tumor-associated reactions of B-region and T-region.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The B and T regions in 495 axillary lymph nodes (TU-LN) draining 104 invasive breast carcinomas and 34 non-tumor-draining axillary/cervical lymph nodes (R-LN) were investigated immunohistochernically in frozen sections. The extents of the B regions and T regions were evaluated by staining with TO15 (CD22) and Leu-1 (CD5), respectively. Staining with Ki-M4, which specifically recognizes follicular dendritic cells, enabled determination of the number of lymphatic follicles. The germinal-center index (GCI), the numerical ratio of primary to secondary follicles, was determined to quantify the reactivity of the B regions. The number of Ki-67+ proliferating lymphoid cells per 0.5 mm(2) T region (PCT) was assessed as an index of the reactivity of the T regions. (i) In the TU-LN, the median GCI and PCT (0.1 and 18, respectively) were significantly lower than in the R-LN (0.6 and 26, respectively; both p<0.01). (ii) Greater TU-LN volumes were found to be associated with predominance of the T regions, high GCIs, and high PCTs. (iii) Higher GCIs and PCTs were associated with predominance of the T regions in TU-LN in general, but TU-LN partially destroyed by tumor metastases exhibited higher GCIs and PCTs when there was predominance of the B regions. The findings of the study show that LN draining breast carcinomas and reactive LN with signs of chronic nonspecific lymphadenitis exhibit significant immunohistochemical differences but it remains open to speculation whether the malignant tumor exerts suppressive effects on the lymphoreticular tissue or whether its antigenicity is low, particularly when compared with common, mostly infectious stimuli leading to chronic lymphadenitis.

Horny H; Horst H

1994-03-01

234

Pineal arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) gene expression as a target of inflammatory mediators in the chicken.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previously, we demonstrated that experimental peritonitis in chickens was attenuated by treatment with exogenous melatonin, while the developing inflammation decreased pineal AANAT activity. This suggested the existence of a bidirectional relationship between the activated immune system and pineal gland function. The aim of the present study was to identify the step(s) in the chicken pineal melatonin biosynthetic pathway that are affected by inflammation. Peritonitis was evoked by i.p. injection of thioglycollate solution, either 2h after the start, or 2h before the end of the light period, and the animals were sacrificed 4h later. The effect of inflammation on the expression of genes encoding enzymes participating in melatonin biosynthesis in the pineal gland, i.e. tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1), dopa decarboxylase (Ddc), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) and acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (Asmt), was evaluated by qPCR. The pineal and serum melatonin concentration as well as the content of its precursors in the pineal gland were measured, along with the activity of the relevant biosynthetic enzymes. Developing peritonitis caused an increase in the pineal levels of the Tph1 mRNA during the night and the Asmt mRNA during the day, while nocturnal Aanat transcription was reduced. Both the pineal and serum melatonin level and the pineal content of N-acetylserotonin (NAS) were decreased during the night in birds with peritonitis. The amount and activity of pineal AANAT were significantly reduced, while the activity of HIOMT was increased under these experimental conditions. These results indicate that the observed decrease in MEL biosynthesis in chickens with developing inflammation is a result of transcriptional downregulation of the Aanat gene, followed by reduced synthesis and activity of the encoded enzyme.

Piesiewicz A; Kedzierska U; Adamska I; Usarek M; Zeman M; Skwarlo-Sonta K; Majewski PM

2012-11-01

235

Pineal arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) gene expression as a target of inflammatory mediators in the chicken.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously, we demonstrated that experimental peritonitis in chickens was attenuated by treatment with exogenous melatonin, while the developing inflammation decreased pineal AANAT activity. This suggested the existence of a bidirectional relationship between the activated immune system and pineal gland function. The aim of the present study was to identify the step(s) in the chicken pineal melatonin biosynthetic pathway that are affected by inflammation. Peritonitis was evoked by i.p. injection of thioglycollate solution, either 2h after the start, or 2h before the end of the light period, and the animals were sacrificed 4h later. The effect of inflammation on the expression of genes encoding enzymes participating in melatonin biosynthesis in the pineal gland, i.e. tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1), dopa decarboxylase (Ddc), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) and acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (Asmt), was evaluated by qPCR. The pineal and serum melatonin concentration as well as the content of its precursors in the pineal gland were measured, along with the activity of the relevant biosynthetic enzymes. Developing peritonitis caused an increase in the pineal levels of the Tph1 mRNA during the night and the Asmt mRNA during the day, while nocturnal Aanat transcription was reduced. Both the pineal and serum melatonin level and the pineal content of N-acetylserotonin (NAS) were decreased during the night in birds with peritonitis. The amount and activity of pineal AANAT were significantly reduced, while the activity of HIOMT was increased under these experimental conditions. These results indicate that the observed decrease in MEL biosynthesis in chickens with developing inflammation is a result of transcriptional downregulation of the Aanat gene, followed by reduced synthesis and activity of the encoded enzyme. PMID:22935823

Piesiewicz, Aneta; Kedzierska, Urszula; Adamska, Iwona; Usarek, Michal; Zeman, Michal; Skwarlo-Sonta, Krystyna; Majewski, Pawel Marek

2012-08-23

236

Concurrence of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor at the site of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 - a case report -.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are very rare sarcomas derived from various cells in the peripheral nerve sheath. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors have a known association with neurofibromatosis type 1. Diagnosis of MPNSTs is difficult in patients with chronic pain, when MPNST occurs at an overlapping area of chronic pain. Therefore, the diagnosis can be missed unless clinicians pay attention to the possibility of this disease. Here in, we report a case of concurrent malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with complex regional pain syndrome type 1. A 44-year female patient, who was diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 in her left ankle, visited our clinic because of aggravated pain. The cause of the aggravated pain was revealed as concurrent MPNST in the left common peroneal nerve territory, which overlapped the site of pain from CRPS. PMID:23614078

Jeong, Yeong Ho; Choi, Eun Joo; Nahm, Francis Sahngun

2013-04-03

237

Pineal-Thyroid Cytophysiological Responsiveness to Altered Steroid Hormone and Antihormone Milieu in Rat (Rattus rattus)  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} The current investigation was undertaken to asses the pineal and thyroid gland cytophysiology and function in response to exogenously altered steroid milieu following administration of steroid hormone and non-steroidal antihormones. In the present study male rat (Rattus rattus) were injected with estradiol at a dose of 2 mg, testosterone 100 µg, tamoxifen 100 µg and flutamide 2 mg per 100 g. b.w. in all cases and  injected intramuscularly for 15 consecutive days. Control rats were similarly injected with peanut oil vehicle intramuscularly for same duration as those of treated groups. The results indicated that pineal and thyroid gland response to estradiol and testosterone administration was opposite in nature, whereas estradiol induced significant hypertrophy of pineal and thyroid cytophysiology as indexed from significant increased pineal and thyroid karyomorphological and associated parameter values, testosterone on the reverse caused significant atrophy of pineal and thyroid cytophysiological parameters. Tamoxifen acted as a true estrogen agonist whereas flutamide showed androgen antagonist nature thereby causing hyperactivity of pineal and thyroid karyomorphological and associated functions similar to that observed in estradiol treated rats opposite to that shown by testosterone induction in these rats.

Binu Rabindra Sinha; Rupa Chattopadhyay; Subrata Chakraborty

2010-01-01

238

123I-IMP SPECT in patients with brain tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

123I-IMP SPECT was studied in 20 patients with brain tumor (metastasis, 4; low grade astrocytoma, 6; high grade astrocytoma, 3; pineal tumor, 3; pituitary tumor, 3; meningioma, 1). Each case was intravenously injected 1 mCi of IMP. SPECT data were collected for 1,000 k counts 20 min. after injection, using a circular detector array emission tomograph system (SET 020, Shimadzu and ECLIPSE S-120, Japan Datageneral). Low activity areas on IMP SPECT image was observed in the area of the tumor and its surrounding edema in 13 cases with metastasis, astrocytoma, and meningioma. In 3 cases with pituitary adenoma and 1 case with pineal tumor, no defect was observed. In 2 cases with pineal tumor, low activity areas were observed in the limited area of tumor. T/N ratio (activity ratio of diseased area to the opposite normal area) was calculated in each case. T/N ratios were ranged from 44 % to 96 %, and had no tumor specificity. Moderate correlation was observed between T/N ratios of IMP and those of rCBF obtained by 133Xe inhalation method in 18 cases without meningioma (r = 0.76). In a case with meningioma, the discrepancy of T/N ratio between IMP and 133Xe was observed, which showed high rCBF and low activity on IMP image. (author)

1986-01-01

239

60-Hz electric-field effects on pineal melatonin rhythms: time course for onset and recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rats exposed for 3 weeks to uniform 60-Hz electric fields of 39 kV/m (effective field strength) failed to show normal pineal gland circadian rhythms in serotonin N-acetyl transferase activity and melatonin concentrations. The time required for recovery of the melatonin rhythm after cessation of field exposure was determined to be less than 3 days. The rapid recovery suggests that the overall metabolic competence of the pineal is not permanently compromised by electric-field exposure, and that the circadian rhythm effect may be neuronally mediated.

Wilson, B.W.; Chess, E.K.; Anderson, L.E.

1986-01-01

240

How I do it--pineal surgery: supracerebellar infratentorial versus occipital transtentorial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Resection of a pineal tumour requires fastidious pre-operative planning to select the optimal surgical approach and maximise resection while minimising morbidity. METHOD: To describe and compare the supracerebellar infratentorial and occipital transtentorial approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Specific considerations include patient-specific anatomy, extent and relationships of the tumour, and the techniques likely to be employed during resection. The supracerebellar infratentorial approach provides a direct corridor to pineal tumours caudal to the deep veins; for tumours invaginating the tectal plate in a caudal direction the occipital transtentorial provides a better view.

Hart MG; Santarius T; Kirollos RW

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Pineal innervation of the third ventricular ependyma in the teleost, Puntius sophore (Ham.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the teleost Puntius sophore a well defined pineal tract intersects the posterior commissure at right angles and enters the ependymal layer in the roof of the third ventricle. In the ependymal layer it gives out varying number of branches which are in morphological contact with the component cells. Few branches apparently project into the third ventricles also. Further, EM studies would confirm the site of their constituent axonal endings. Such a direct pineal pathway projecting into the ependyma and third ventricle may be of great functional importance.

Sathyanesan AG; Sastry VK

1982-01-01

242

Nucleolus-like bodies in the pineal gland of the adult yak (Bos grunniens).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pineal glands of adult yak were studied electron microscopically. Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) were found mostly in the pinealocytes and the interstitial cells of the pineal glands of the yak. The NLBs were electron-dense, round or ovoid bodies with a diameter of 50 nm - 500 nm. Two types of granules were identified as melanin. These may correspond to different stages of a progressive storage of melanin. Rough endoplasmic reticula with abundant ribosomes were observed. There was no correlation between the number of NLBs and the sex of the animals.

Xie ZH; Gan P

2013-01-01

243

Nucleolus-like bodies in the pineal gland of the adult yak (Bos grunniens)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The pineal glands of adult yak were studied electron microscopically. Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) were found mostly in the pinealocytes and the interstitial cells of the pineal glands of the yak. The NLBs were electron-dense, round or ovoid bodies with a diameter of 50 nm -500 nm. Two types of granules were identified as melanin. These may correspond to different stages of a progressive storage of melanin. Rough endoplasmic reticula with abundant ribosomes were observed. There was no correlation between the number of NLBs and the sex of the animals.

Xie, Zhaohui H.; Gan, Ping

2013-01-01

244

Nucleolus-like bodies in the pineal gland of the adult yak (Bos grunniens)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pineal glands of adult yak were studied electron microscopically. Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) were found mostly in the pinealocytes and the interstitial cells of the pineal glands of the yak. The NLBs were electron-dense, round or ovoid bodies with a diameter of 50 nm – 500 nm. Two types of granules were identified as melanin. These may correspond to different stages of a progressive storage of melanin. Rough endoplasmic reticula with abundant ribosomes were observed. There was no correlation between the number of NLBs and the sex of the animals.

Zhaohui H. Xie; Ping Gan

2013-01-01

245

Genetic variability in the tumor necrosis factor-lymphotoxin region influences susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major histocompatibility complex class H1 tumor necrosis factor-tymphotoxin (TNF-LT) region (6p21.3) was investigated as a possible susceptibility locus for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inheritance of five TNF microsatellite markers was determined in 50 multiplex families. Overall, 47 different haplotypes were observed. One of these, the TNF a6, b5, c1, d3, e3 (H1) haplotype, was present in 35.3% of affected, but in only 20.5% of unaffected, individuals (P < .005). This haplotype accounted for 21.5% of the parental haplotypes transmitted to affected offspring and only 7.3 % not transmitted to affected offspring (P = .0003). The TNF a6 and TNF c1 alleles were individually associated with RA (P = .0005 and .0008, respectively), as were the HLA-DRB1 {open_quotes}shared epitope{close_quotes} (SE) (P = .0001) and HLA-DRB1*0401 (P = .0018). Both univariate and bivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed significant effects of TNF c1 and SE in increasing risk to RA (P < .001). Stratification by the presence of SE indicated an independent effect of the TNFc1 allele (P = .0003) and the HLA A1, BS, DR3 extended haplotype (always TNFa2, b3, c1, d1, e3) (P = .0027) in SE heterozygotes, while the H1 haplotype was associated with RA in SE homozygotes (P = .0018). The TNF-LT region appears to influence susceptibility to RA, distinct from HLA-DR. 50 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Mulcahy, B.; Waldron-Lynch, F.; Adams, C.; O`Gara, F. [Cork Univ. Hospital (Ireland)] [and others

1996-09-01

246

[Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome in postoperative period in patients with tumors of sellar region].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), sepsis and death. In neurosurgical patients ACS used to be interesting for specialists only in respect of its impact on ICP. However injury of diencephalic structures of the brain can theoretically cause ACS. The goal of the study is to assess the efficacy of conservative therapy and epidural anesthesia for ACS treatment in postoperative period in patients with tumors of the sellar region. 41 patients were enrolled in the study. The epidural anesthesia at T8-T9 level by bupivacaine was applied for three days in the case of ACS development and ineffective conservative therapy. Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) developed in 28 cases, ACS - in 9. IAN usually revealed itself on the second day after surgery, ACS - on the 3rd-6th day. Gastrointestinal tract paralysis developed earlier than IAH and continued longer than IAH. Conservative therapy was effective only in every third patient with ACS. Epidural anesthesia was used in 4 cases and appeared effective in all of them. All patients with ACS not provided by epidural anesthesia died. We conclude that conservative therapy is effective in IAH, but not in ACS cases. Epidural anesthesia is an effective method to treat ACS and should be used in all patients with ACS without sepsis.

Popugaev KA; Savin IA; Goriachev AS; Oshorov AV; Polupan AA; Luk'ianov VI; Lubnin AIu

2011-07-01

247

Abordaje endoscópico de los quistes gliales pineales sintomaticos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo. Los quistes gliales pineales (QGP) son infrecuentes. El manejo quirúrgico de estos quistes no está consensuado. En la literatura se recogen 18 casos tratados por vía endoscópica. El objetivo de este trabajo es contribuir con nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento endoscópico de los QGP. Material y método. Entre 1999 y 2004, cinco pacientes con QGP sintomáticos, con o sin hidrocefalia, se trataron mediante vintriculostomía premamilar endoscópica (VPE) y fenestración del quiste. Se utilizó un endoscopio rígido, con sistema de neuronavegación en los casos sin hidrocefalia. Resultados. En el período de seguimiento (de 6 meses a 4 años) se recoge una resolución clínica en 4 casos y una disminución del tamaño del quiste en todos los casos. Todas las VPE fueron permeables en el seguimiento. No hubo déficits clínicos permanentes en ningún caso. Discusión. No existe en la literatura un acuerdo en el mejor tratamiento quirúrgico de los QGP. A pesar de la gran aceptación de la vía endoscópica, un gran número de autores abogan por una cirugía abierta o por una cirugía extereotáxica como la mejor opción. Además, existen algunas diferencias en el manejo quirúrgico endoscópico según ofrece la literatura. Conclusión. La VPE con la fenestración del quiste es un tratamiento eficiente debido a la baja morbilidad y a la eficacia en la resolución clínica y radiológica de los QGP con o sin hidrocefalia. La cirugía abierta, especialmente con la ayuda endoscópica, podría ser un tratamietno de segunda elección, y la cirugía estereotáxica debería abandonarse en estos casos.Objetive. Sympotomatic glial pineal cyst (GPC) are unfrequent. Surgical management of these cysts is not consensed. In the literature there are 18 cases reported treated by endoscopic approach. The purpose of this study is to contribute with our experience to the endoscopic treatment of the GPC. Materials and Methods. Between 1999 and 2004, five patients with GPC underwent an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and cyst fenestration. We have used a rigid endoscope, with neuronavegation system in the cases without hydrocephalus. Results. In the follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 4 tears we have reported: clinical resolution in four cases and cyst size decrease in all cases. All the ETV have been patent. There was not perman ent morbility and not surgery related death. Discussion. An agreement doesn't exist in the literature about the better treatment of the surgery or by stereotaxy as the best treatment. There are great differences in the surgical management between the 18 endoscopic cases reported in the literature, and also in relation with our cases. Conclusion. The ETV with endoscopic cyst fenestration is an efficient treatment due to the low morbidity and the effectiveness in the treatment of the GPC with or without hydrocephalus. The open surgery (specially with the endoscope assisting microneurosurgery) wolud be a second choice technique, and the stereotactic surgery must be abandoned.

Gloria Villalba Martínez; Luis Alberto Caral Pons; Bartolomeu Fiol Busquets; Neus Fabregas Juliá; Teresa Ribalta Ribas; Teresa Boget Prats; Antoni Raspall Borell; Enric Ferrer Rodríguez

2009-01-01

248

Abordaje endoscópico de los quistes gliales pineales sintomaticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Los quistes gliales pineales (QGP) son infrecuentes. El manejo quirúrgico de estos quistes no está consensuado. En la literatura se recogen 18 casos tratados por vía endoscópica. El objetivo de este trabajo es contribuir con nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento endoscópico de los QGP. Material y método. Entre 1999 y 2004, cinco pacientes con QGP sintomáticos, con o sin hidrocefalia, se trataron mediante vintriculostomía premamilar endoscópica (VPE) y f (more) enestración del quiste. Se utilizó un endoscopio rígido, con sistema de neuronavegación en los casos sin hidrocefalia. Resultados. En el período de seguimiento (de 6 meses a 4 años) se recoge una resolución clínica en 4 casos y una disminución del tamaño del quiste en todos los casos. Todas las VPE fueron permeables en el seguimiento. No hubo déficits clínicos permanentes en ningún caso. Discusión. No existe en la literatura un acuerdo en el mejor tratamiento quirúrgico de los QGP. A pesar de la gran aceptación de la vía endoscópica, un gran número de autores abogan por una cirugía abierta o por una cirugía extereotáxica como la mejor opción. Además, existen algunas diferencias en el manejo quirúrgico endoscópico según ofrece la literatura. Conclusión. La VPE con la fenestración del quiste es un tratamiento eficiente debido a la baja morbilidad y a la eficacia en la resolución clínica y radiológica de los QGP con o sin hidrocefalia. La cirugía abierta, especialmente con la ayuda endoscópica, podría ser un tratamietno de segunda elección, y la cirugía estereotáxica debería abandonarse en estos casos. Abstract in english Objetive. Sympotomatic glial pineal cyst (GPC) are unfrequent. Surgical management of these cysts is not consensed. In the literature there are 18 cases reported treated by endoscopic approach. The purpose of this study is to contribute with our experience to the endoscopic treatment of the GPC. Materials and Methods. Between 1999 and 2004, five patients with GPC underwent an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and cyst fenestration. We have used a rigid endoscope, wit (more) h neuronavegation system in the cases without hydrocephalus. Results. In the follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 4 tears we have reported: clinical resolution in four cases and cyst size decrease in all cases. All the ETV have been patent. There was not perman ent morbility and not surgery related death. Discussion. An agreement doesn't exist in the literature about the better treatment of the surgery or by stereotaxy as the best treatment. There are great differences in the surgical management between the 18 endoscopic cases reported in the literature, and also in relation with our cases. Conclusion. The ETV with endoscopic cyst fenestration is an efficient treatment due to the low morbidity and the effectiveness in the treatment of the GPC with or without hydrocephalus. The open surgery (specially with the endoscope assisting microneurosurgery) wolud be a second choice technique, and the stereotactic surgery must be abandoned.

Villalba Martínez, Gloria; Caral Pons, Luis Alberto; Fiol Busquets, Bartolomeu; Fabregas Juliá, Neus; Ribalta Ribas, Teresa; Boget Prats, Teresa; Raspall Borell, Antoni; Ferrer Rodríguez, Enric

2009-12-01

249

Tumor-specific binding of radiolabeled G-22 monoclonal antibody in glioma patients  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Iodine-131-labeled G-22 monoclonal antibody F(ab'){sub 2} fragment reacting specifically with a glioma-associated surface glycoprotein was administered to 12 glioma patients to investigate its use in radioimaging of intracranial gliomas. No immediate or delayed side effects were attributable to antibody injection. Nine patients received the radiolabeled complex intravenously. The images of low-grade gliomas were generally poor and disappeared within 4 days. High-contrast images were obtained beyond the 7th day in high-grade gliomas except one case in the pineal region. Three patients received intraventricular or intratumoral administration. Clear images of all tumors were demonstrated from the 2nd until later than the 7th day. One patient with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination of brainstem glioma demonstrated negative CSF cytology after intraventricular administration. (author).

Yoshida, Jun; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Mizuno, Masaaki; Sugita, Kenichiro; Oshima, Motoo; Tadokoro, Masanori; Sakuma, Sadayuki (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Seo, Hisao

1992-03-01

250

Tumor-specific binding of radiolabeled G-22 monoclonal antibody in glioma patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Iodine-131-labeled G-22 monoclonal antibody F(ab')2 fragment reacting specifically with a glioma-associated surface glycoprotein was administered to 12 glioma patients to investigate its use in radioimaging of intracranial gliomas. No immediate or delayed side effects were attributable to antibody injection. Nine patients received the radiolabeled complex intravenously. The images of low-grade gliomas were generally poor and disappeared within 4 days. High-contrast images were obtained beyond the 7th day in high-grade gliomas except one case in the pineal region. Three patients received intraventricular or intratumoral administration. Clear images of all tumors were demonstrated from the 2nd until later than the 7th day. One patient with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination of brainstem glioma demonstrated negative CSF cytology after intraventricular administration. (author)

1992-01-01

251

Morphologic Changes in Rat's Pineal Gland After Eliminating Retinal Photic Stimulation/ Cambios Morfológicos en la Glándula Pineal de Ratas Luego de la Eliminación de la Estimulación Fótica Retiniana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La secreción de melatonina por parte de glándula pineal de los mamíferos es regulada por la estimulación luminosa mediante complejas vías neuro anatómicas que incluyen la retina, el núcleo supraquiasmático hipotalámico, el núcleo intermediolateral de la médula torácica y finalmente el ganglio cervical superior. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar los cambios en la densidad de pinealocitos y vasos sanguíneos de la glándula pineal, luego de eliminar la (more) estimulación fótica en ratas. Se utilizaron 13 ratas adultas Sprague Dawley divididas en 2 grupos, Grupo I actuó como control, y el Grupo II fue sometido a una lesión retiniana, por medio de alcoholización bilateral de ambos bulbos oculares. Luego de tres semanas las glándulas de ambos grupos fueron procesadas para hematoxilina-eosina y observadas al microscopio óptico. El grupo II presentó valores mayores en el número de pinealocitos y de vasos sanguíneos observados, las diferencias con el Grupo I fueron significativas con p Abstract in english Melatonin secretion from mammalian pineal glands is regulated by light stimulation by means of a complex neuroanatomical pathway that includes the retina, hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, intermediolateral nucleus of the thoracic spinal cord, and finally, the superior cervical ganglia. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in the pinealocytes and the blood vessel density of the pineal gland after eliminating photic stimulation in rats. Thirteen adult S (more) prague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups, Group I acted as control, and Group II was subjected to a retinal lesión, by means of alcohol injected bilaterally to both ocular bulbs. After 3 weeks, the glands of both groups were processed with hematoxilin-eosin (HE) and observed with an optic microscope. Group II results presented higher valúes in the number of pinealocytes and in the blood vessels observed. The differences with Group I was significant at p

Roa Henriquez, Ignacio; Suazo Galdames, Iván; Cantín López, Mario; Zavando Matamata, Daniela

2008-09-01

252

Tumores de células germinativas intracranianos na infância: avaliação de 14 casos Primary intracranial germ cell tumors in children: evaluation of fourteen cases  

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Full Text Available Este estudo avalia o diagnóstico, a terapia e a sobrevida de 14 pacientes com tumor de células germinativas intracraniano durante o período entre 1991 e 2001. Onze pacientes eram do sexo masculino e três do feminino. A média de idade do grupo foi 12,5 anos (20 dias-18 anos). Na admissão, os mais comuns sintomas foram cefaléia (10/14), vômitos (6/14) e visuais (6/14). Os tumores estavam localizados em região hipotalâmica/hipofisária em 10 casos, suprasselar em 3 casos e intraparenquimatosa em 1 caso. Histologicamente, havia 1 caso de carcinoma embrionário, 5 de germinomas, 2 de teratoma maduro, 1 de teratoma imaturo e 5 de tumores mistos. O tratamento foi variável, dependendo da histologia da lesão. Três pacientes morreram após a progressão tumoral ou recidiva e um paciente morreu devido causa não relacionada ao tumor. Os demais estão vivos e sem doença.This study evaluates the diagnosis, therapy and survival of 14 patients with primary intracranial germ cell tumors during the period from 1991 to 2001. There were 11 males and 3 females. Mean age was 12.2 years old (20 days-18 years). On admission, the most common symptoms were headache (10/14), vomiting (6/14) and visual (6/14). The tumor was in pineal and hypothalamic region in 10 cases, suprasellar in 3 cases, and in the cerebral parenchyma in 1 case. Histologically there were 1 embryonal carcinoma, 5 germinomas, 2 mature teratomas, 1 immature teratoma and 5 mixed germ cell tumors. Treatment differed among the patients according to the type of tumor. Three patients died after tumor progression or relapse and one patient died from another condition. The remaining patients are alive and without disease.

Patrícia Imperatriz Porto Rondinelli; Carlos Alberto Martinez Osório; Luís Fernando Lopes

2005-01-01

253

Tumor boundary extraction in multislice MR brain images using region and contour deformation  

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In this paper, we present a new approach for the extraction of brain tumor boundary in a series of 2D MR image slices. The shape and position of tumor in one slice could be assumed to be similar to that in its neighboring slices. Using this correlation between consecutive images, the initial plan ap...

Law, AKW; Zhu, H; Lam, FK; Chan, FHY; Chan, BCB; Lu, PP

254

Correlación tomográfica y anatomopatológica en los tumores de la región selar/ Tomographic and anatomopathological correlation in sellar region tumors Ischemic stroke  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La alta prevalencia de los macroadenomas hipofisarios en el mundo motivó la realización de esta investigación, cuyo objetivo fundamental fue demostrar el valor de la tomografía computadorizada en el diagnóstico presuntivo de la variedad histológica de los macroadenomas hipofisarios así como de otros tumores menos frecuentes de la región selar, teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico. Para ello se estudiaron 124 pacientes operados con el diagnóstico clínico y tomog (more) ráfico de macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar. Se registró la edad, sexo, clínica, signos tomográficos, resultados anatomopatológicos posquirúrgicos. Se observó mayor incidencia de los adenomas hipofisarios (110); los no secretores resultaron los predominantes (41,1 %). La mayoría de los pacientes se ubicó en las edades entre 30 y 50 años. El sexo femenino prevaleció en los adenomas adrenocorticotrópicos y los meningiomas; el masculino, en los productores de GH y de prolactina. Dentro de los signos tomográficos, la erosión de las clinoides y el dorso selar, así como la hidrocefalia predominó en los adenomas no secretores y los tumores no adenohipofisarios. Los adenomas (GH) se destacaron en la erosión del piso y en el balonamiento selar al igual que los de ACTH. Las calcificaciones fueron frecuentes en los teratomas y craneofaringiomas, al igual que la captación no homogénea del contraste, la cual fue característica en estos casos como en los quistes de la bolsa de Rathke. La tomografía computadorizada demostró ser de gran valor diagnóstico en los macroadenomas hipofisarios y otros tumores de la región selar teniendo en cuenta el cuadro clínico del paciente. Abstract in english The high prevalence of hypophyseal macroadenomas in the world motivated the conduction of this research, whose main objective was to show the value of computerized tomography in the presumptive diagnosis of the histological variety of hypophyseal macroadenomas, as well as of other less common tumors of the sellar region, taking into account the clinical picture.To this end, 124 patients operated on with the clinical and tomographic diagnosis of hypophyseal macroadenomas a (more) nd other tumors of the sellar region, were studied. Age, sex, clinic, tomographic signs, and anatomopathological results were registered. It was observed a higher incidence of the hypophyseal adenomas (110). The non-secreting adenomas proved to be the predominant (41.1 %). Most of the patients were 30-50 years old. The female sex prevailed in the adrenocorticotropic adenomas and meningiomas, whereas males predominated in the GH and prolactin-producing adenomas. Within the tomographic signs, the erosion of the clinoids and the dorsum sellae, as well as hydrocephalus predominated in the non-secreting adenomas and the non-adenohypophyseal tumors. The adenomas (GH) stood out in the erosion of the floor and in the sellar ballooning, the same as the ACTH. The calcifications were frequent in the teratomas and craniopharyngiomas, as well as the non-homogenous capture of contrast, which was characteristic in these cases, as in Rathke's pouch cysts. Computarized tomography proved to have a great diagnostic value in the hypophyseal macroadenomas and other tumors of the sellar region, taking into consideration the clinical picture of the patient.

García Moreira, Tania; Piedra Chávez, Fernando; López Arbolay, Omar; García Ferrer, Luis; Navarro Miranda, Hilca; Delgado Gutiérrez, Denise

2007-12-01

255

The pineal regulation of the immune system: 40 years since the discovery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The first observation on the relationship between the pineal gland and the immune system was done by the author of this paper in the late sixties and early seventies of the last century. After neonatal pinealectomy the thymus has been destroyed and wasting disease developed. Since that time a flood of experiments justified the observation and pointed to the prominent role of pineal in the regulation of the immune system. Melatonin, the hormone of the pineal gland stimulates immune processes acting to the immune cells' cytokine production, the haemopoiesis, and immune cell-target cell interactions. Melatonin receptors have been demonstrated and their localization and function were justified. Melatonin production by and melatonin receptors on (and in) the immune cells was proved. Melatonin agonists have been synthesized and the use of melatonin as adjuvant in the therapy of diseases connected to the immune system (cancers included) has been started. The paper summarizes the most important studies and discusses the interrelations of the data. The discussion points to the possibility of packed transport of the pineal hormone by the immune cells and to the adventages of local regulation by this transport.

Csaba G

2013-06-01

256

Teaching neuroimages: vein of Galen aneurysm mimicking pineal mass in a young adult.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 22-year-old man presented with intractable progressive headaches over 2 months. Noncontrast head CT and contrast-enhanced MRI scan revealed a hyperdense pineal-based mass (figure, A and B). Arteriogram was normal (figure, C and D).

Gokhale S; Laskowitz DT

2013-05-01

257

[Pineal hormone melatonin in low doses potentiates psychotropic and chronotropic activity of tofisopam in rats].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Combination with a low dose of pineal hormone melatonin increased the anxiolytic effect of tofisopam (subthreshold dose) in open-field and cross-maze tests, as well as its chronotropic activity in time-course of forced swimming test in rats.

Abrushanian ÉB; Popov AV

2013-01-01

258

Familial insulin-resistant diabetes, multiple somatic anomalies, and pineal hyperplasia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

West, R. J., Lloyd, J. K., and Turner, W. M. L. (1975). Archives of Disease in Childhood, 50, 703. Familial insulin-resistant diabetes, multiple somatic anomalies, and pineal hyperplasia. A syndrome comprising unusual facies, dry skin, acanthosis nigricans, thickened nails, hirsutism, dental precoci...

West, R J; Lloyd, J K; Turner, W M

259

Alterações celulares na glândula pineal de ratas albinas: efeito da estimulação sonora diária  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi observado haver uma relação entre o estímulo sonoro intenso e alterações morfológicas na glândula (g.l) pineal de ratas adultas. Estes animais foram estimulados por uma campainha elétrica, com nível de intensidade sonora em torno de 110 db, por 1, 2, 4 e 7 dias e como também por mais 10 estímulos sucessivos no sétimo dia. Foram observadas alterações celulares, tais como: núcleos picnóticos, vacuolizações e perda do aspecto lobular da distribuição dos pinealócitos, sendo que estas alterações se agravam com o aumento do número de estimulações.The authors studied the effect of noise (110 dB), delivered by an eletric bell, upon parenchima cells of pineal gland of albino female rats. Several experimental groups were previously formed and stimulated during, 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. In addition another group was formed and stimulated during 7 days plus 10 additional stimulations of about 3 minutes each after the routine stimulations in the seventh day. The authors observed that a single stimulation of about 3 minutes was sufficient to determine alterations in the parenchima cells of the pineal of experimental animals; the changes were characterized by picnolisis in some groups, whereas in others groups picnolisis and interstitials vacuolizations were evidently increased directly with stimulation. The results suggest that the sound stimulation has a destructible effect upon the parenchima cells of the pineal gland of the female albino rats.

Belarmino Alves de Azevedo; Pedro Fontana Junior

1980-01-01

260

[Effect of an ovine pineal gland extract on prolactin release in vitro  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Defatted ovine pineal powder is submitted to acetic acid extraction followed by chromatographic separation. The extracted material and one of the two separated fractions inhibit the secretion of PRL by pituitary cells in monolayer culture. Both basal and TRH stimulated secretions are reduced.

Demoulin A; Hudson B; Legros JJ; Franchimont P

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

/sup 3/H-retinol derived photopigment in chick pineal membranes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pineal glands display a day-night rhythm in the synthesis and secretion of melatonin. Dispersed chick pinealocytes retain their ability to respond to light in vitro for at least a week. Pinealocytes incubated overnight with /sup 3/H-retinol in the dark incorporate radioactivity predominantly into retinyl esters. To identify the chick pineal photopigment, SDS-PAGE was performed on radiolabelled preparations of pinealocytes and (intraocularly injected) rat retina. When intact cells or membrane preparations of cultured cells were incubated with NaCNBH/sub 3/, in the dark, a single radioactive peak with an apparent molecular weight of 32,000 daltons was observed. Rat retina preparations revealed a major peak at approximately 40,000 daltons. Protease inhibitors were present in the workup, and radioactivity corresponding to the smaller peak from pineal was not observed in retina. There was no radioactive peak when NaCNBH/sub 3/ was omitted. When samples were boiled in SDS the radioactivity shifted to the origin. These data suggest a protein in pinealocyte membranes which binds retinoid via a Schiff's base. Exposure to light of deoxycholate solubilized pineal membranes reduced the radioactivity associated with the protein. These findings raise the possibility that this protein is the pinealocyte's photopigment. Photopigments smaller than those observed in mammals have been reported in invertebrates.

Wallingford, J.; Zatz, M.

1986-05-01

262

Characterization of lymphocyte subsets over a 24-hour period in Pineal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (PALT) in the chicken  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeostatic trafficking of lymphocytes in the brain has important relevance to the understanding of CNS disease processes. The pineal gland of the chicken contains large accumulations of lymphocytes that suggest an important role related to homeostatic circadian neuro-immune interactions. The purpose of this initial study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in the pineal gland and quantitate the distribution and frequency of lymphocyte phenotypes at two time points over the 24-hour light:dark cycle. Results PALT comprised approximately 10% of the total pineal area. Image analysis of immunocytochemically stained sections showed that the majority of lymphocytes were CD3+ (80%) with the remaining 20% comprising B-cells and monocytes (Bu-1+), which tended to distribute along the periphery of the PALT. T-cell subsets in PALT included CD4+ (75–80%), CD8+ (20–25%), TCR??/V?1+ (60%), and TCR??+ (15%). All of the T-cell phenotypes were commonly found within the interfollicular septa and follicles of the pineal gland. However, the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCR??+/TCR??/V?1+ within the pineal tissue were each 1:1, in contrast to the PALT where the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCR??+/TCR??/V?1+ each approximated 1:4. Bu-1+ cells were only rarely seen in the pineal interstitial spaces, but ramified Bu-1+ microglia/macrophages were common in the pineal follicles. Effects of the 24-h light:dark cycle on these lymphocyte-pineal interactions were suggested by an increase in the area of PALT, a decline in the density of TCR??/V?1+ cells, and a decline in the area density of Bu-1+ microglia at the light:dark interphase (1900 h) compared to the dark:light interphase (0700 h). Conclusion The degree of lymphocyte infiltration in the pineal suggests novel mechanisms of neuro-immune interactions in this part of the brain. Our results further suggest that these interactions have a temporal component related to the 24-hour light:dark cycle and that CD8+ and TCR??+ T-cells are preferentially recruited to the pineal follicles. Pineal microglia/macrophages were common and represent an important candidate for mediating these lymphocyte-pineal interactions via secretion of cytokines and chemokines.

Mosenson Jeffrey A; McNulty John A

2006-01-01

263

Automatic Diagnosis of Abnormal Tumor Region from Brain Computed Tomography Images Using Wavelet Based Statistical Texture Features  

CERN Multimedia

The research work presented in this paper is to achieve the tissue classification and automatically diagnosis the abnormal tumor region present in Computed Tomography (CT) images using the wavelet based statistical texture analysis method. Comparative studies of texture analysis method are performed for the proposed wavelet based texture analysis method and Spatial Gray Level Dependence Method (SGLDM). Our proposed system consists of four phases i) Discrete Wavelet Decomposition (ii) Feature extraction (iii) Feature selection (iv) Analysis of extracted texture features by classifier. A wavelet based statistical texture feature set is derived from normal and tumor regions. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to select the optimal texture features from the set of extracted texture features. We construct the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifier and evaluate the performance of classifier by comparing the classification results of the SVM based classifier with the Back Propagation Neural network classifier(BPN...

Padma, A

2011-01-01

264

Detection and specific targeting of hypoxic regions within solid tumors: current preclinical and clinical strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poor oxygenation of solid tumors is a major indicator of adverse prognosis after standard treatment, e.g. radiotherapy. This observation founded on intratumoral pO(2) electrode measurements has been supported more recently by studies of injected hypoxia markers (pimonidazole, EF5) or hypoxia-related proteins (hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, carbonic anhydrase IX) detected immunohistochemically. Alternative approaches include imaging of tumor hypoxia by nuclear medicine studies and the measurement of hypoxia-related proteins (osteopontin) in patient plasma. Low oxygen levels as found in tumors are rarely observed in normal tissues. The presence of hypoxic tumor cells is therefore regarded not only as an adverse prognostic factor but as an opportunity for tumor-specific treatment. Classic approaches to normalize tumor oxygenation involve the breathing of modified gas mixtures and pharmacologic modification of blood flow as in the "accelerated radiotherapy, carbogen, nicotinamide" (ARCON) scheme. Specific killing of hypoxic tumor cells can potentially be achieved by hypoxia-selective cytotoxins (model substance tirapazamine), which has shown promise in head and neck cancer. Direct targeting of hypoxia-related molecules such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, the central regulator of the hypoxic response in tumor cells, is an attractive approach currently tested in preclinical models. For clinical applications, the appropriate combination of hypoxia detection for patient selection with a hypoxia-specific treatment is essential. A therapeutic benefit has been suggested for the selection of patients by plasma osteopontin level and treatment with the hypoxic radiosensitizer nimorazole in addition to radiotherapy, for selection by F-misonidazole positron-emission tomography (PET) and treatment with tirapazamine in addition to chemoradiation and for selection by pimonidazole immunohistochemistry and ARCON treatment, all in head and neck cancer. PMID:18288988

Bache, M; Kappler, M; Said, H M; Staab, A; Vordermark, D

2008-01-01

265

Identification of two regions in the p140Cap adaptor protein that retain the ability to suppress tumor cell properties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

p140Cap is an adaptor protein that negatively controls tumor cell properties, by inhibiting in vivo tumor growth and metastasis formation. Our previous data demonstrated that p140Cap interferes with tumor growth and impairs invasive properties of cancer cells inactivating signaling pathways, such as the tyrosine kinase Src or E-cadherin/EGFR cross-talk. In breast cancer p140Cap expression inversely correlates with tumor malignancy. p140Cap is composed of several conserved domains that mediate association with specific partners. Here we focus our attention on two domains of p140Cap, the TER (Tyrosine Enriched Region) which includes several tyrosine residues, and the CT (Carboxy Terminal) which contains a proline rich sequence, involved in binding to SH2 and SH3 domains, respectively. By generating stable cell lines expressing these two proteins, we demonstrate that both TER and CT domains maintain the ability to associate the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Src, to inhibit Src activation and Focal adhesion kinase (Fak) phosphorylation, and to impair in vitro and in vivo tumor cell features. In particular expression of TER and CT proteins in cancer cells inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth and directional migration at a similar extent of the full length p140Cap protein. Moreover, by selective point mutations and deletion we show that the ability of the modules to act as negative regulators of cell migration and proliferation mainly resides on the two tyrosines (Y) inserted in the EPLYA and EGLYA sequences in the TER module and in the second proline-rich stretch contained in the CT protein. Gene signature of cells expressing p140Cap, TER or CT lead to the identification of a common pattern of 105 down-regulated and 128 up-regulated genes, suggesting that the three proteins can act through shared pathways. Overall, this work highlights that the TER and CT regions of p140Cap can efficiently suppress tumor cell properties, opening the perspective that short, defined p140Cap regions can have therapeutic effects.

Sharma N; Repetto D; Aramu S; Grasso S; Russo I; Fiorentino A; Mello-Grand M; Cabodi S; Singh V; Chiorino G; Turco E; Stefano PD; Defilippi P

2013-01-01

266

Identification of two regions in the p140Cap adaptor protein that retain the ability to suppress tumor cell properties  

Science.gov (United States)

p140Cap is an adaptor protein that negatively controls tumor cell properties, by inhibiting in vivo tumor growth and metastasis formation. Our previous data demonstrated that p140Cap interferes with tumor growth and impairs invasive properties of cancer cells inactivating signaling pathways, such as the tyrosine kinase Src or E-cadherin/EGFR cross-talk. In breast cancer p140Cap expression inversely correlates with tumor malignancy. p140Cap is composed of several conserved domains that mediate association with specific partners. Here we focus our attention on two domains of p140Cap, the TER (Tyrosine Enriched Region) which includes several tyrosine residues, and the CT (Carboxy Terminal) which contains a proline rich sequence, involved in binding to SH2 and SH3 domains, respectively. By generating stable cell lines expressing these two proteins, we demonstrate that both TER and CT domains maintain the ability to associate the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Src, to inhibit Src activation and Focal adhesion kinase (Fak) phosphorylation, and to impair in vitro and in vivo tumor cell features. In particular expression of TER and CT proteins in cancer cells inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth and directional migration at a similar extent of the full length p140Cap protein. Moreover, by selective point mutations and deletion we show that the ability of the modules to act as negative regulators of cell migration and proliferation mainly resides on the two tyrosines (Y) inserted in the EPLYA and EGLYA sequences in the TER module and in the second proline-rich stretch contained in the CT protein. Gene signature of cells expressing p140Cap, TER or CT lead to the identification of a common pattern of 105 down-regulated and 128 up-regulated genes, suggesting that the three proteins can act through shared pathways. Overall, this work highlights that the TER and CT regions of p140Cap can efficiently suppress tumor cell properties, opening the perspective that short, defined p140Cap regions can have therapeutic effects.

Sharma, Nanaocha; Repetto, Daniele; Aramu, Simona; Grasso, Silvia; Russo, Isabella; Fiorentino, Arianna; Mello-Grand, Maurizia; Cabodi, Sara; Singh, Vijay; Chiorino, Giovanna; Turco, Emilia; Stefano, Paola Di; Defilippi, Paola

2013-01-01

267

Radiation changes in the regional lymph nodes and their influence o tumor cell migration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Experiments on rabbits have shown that morphological changes in lymph nodes developing during endolymphatic administration of colloidal 198Au bring about a decrease in the retention of tumor cells by lymph nodes. They precipitate mainly in the lymphatic ways with the disordered lymph outflow. The sorption capacity of lymph nodes increases at the expense of the enhanced function of the preserved lymphoid tissue on the 40th and 60th day. Increased penetration of tumor cells into the thoracic duct is observed on the 60th day

1980-01-01

268

Primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising in the abdominopelvic region: CT features and pathology characteristics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We analyze the computed tomography (CT) findings of a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) arising in the abdominopelvic cavity and to improve understanding of the CT images of the tumor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve cases of pPNET confirmed by histopathology were analyzed retrospectively. Image characteristics of CT scanning were analyzed and compared with the pathology of the tumors. RESULTS: There were 8 males and 4 females with mean age of 34.5 years. Unenhanced CT images showed large heterogeneous and ill-defined or well-defined masses with multiple patchy hypodense areas. The average diameter was 9.8 cm (range 4.0-17.2 cm). Contrast-enhanced CT images showed variable heterogeneous contrast enhancement with multiple non-enhancement areas. 3 cases revealed metastasis and 4 cases invaded into adjacent organs. Pathology showed areas of degeneration and necrosis in all tumors. Cluster of differentiation 99 and neurone specific enolase were detected positive in 11 and 12 cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, pPNET in the abdominopelvic cavity likely affects young adults with a slight male preponderance and tend to be large and aggressive. Although CT findings are nonspecific and variable, a large ill-defined or well-defined heterogeneous mass with multiple patchy hypodense areas reflecting their cystic degeneration and necrosis on pathology examination may suggest the diagnosis of pPNET.

Li X; Zhang W; Song T; Sun C; Shen Y

2011-10-01

269

Paragangliomas of the head and neck region (''glomus tumors''); Paragangliome der Kopf-Hals-Region (''Glomustumoren'')  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paragangliomas of the head and neck region - often incorrectly termed ''glomus tumors'' in everyday practice - are rare neoplasms that allow a radiologic diagnosis at first glance. They are found at four predilection sites; In the carotid bifurcation, at the parapharyngeal course of the vagal nerve, around the jugular foramen and in the tympanic cavity. Depending on their location and clinical manifestation they are diagnosed early or late. Therefore, their size may vary between few millimeters and several centimeters. Special problems arise when the tumors occur at multiple locations in the setting of genetic disease. Imaging is essential for establishing a diagnosis, for the description of their extension and for follow-up. Because of their high degree of vascularisation especially vagal and jugular paragangliomas are a challenge not only to the surgeon but also to the interventional neuroradiologist. Super-selective preoperative embolization can decide whether a tumor is operable or not. In individual cases infiltration of the carotid necessitates a temporary balloon test occlusion. (orig.)

Hofmann, Erich [Klinikum Fulda gAG (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Arps, Hartmut [Klinikum Fulda gAG (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Schwager, Konrad [Klinikum Fulda gAG (Germany). Klinik fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohrenkrankheiten, Kopf-, Hals- und Plastische Gesichtschirurgie und Kommunikationsstoerungen

2009-12-15

270

Construction of a 5-Mb YAC contig from the putative 10q25 tumor-suppressor region for glioblastomas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the final step of the malignant progression to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most frequent and malignant of primary brain tumors, more than 90% of the cases exhibit loss of genetic material on chromosome 10. We previously identified a 4-cM deletion interval in the 10q24-qter region that is common to all the GBM we have examined. A contig of 20 YACs spanning the 5 Mb of chromosomal DNA in the region has been assembled. Overlaps between YACs have been verified by STS content, fingerprinting analysis, and/or Alu-Alu PCR. The contig contains 17 known microsatellite markers, 15 new STSs derived from the insert ends of YACs, 9 ESTs, and 11 other STSs, for a total of 52 STSs (average marker density 1/100 kb). The physical map of this region will facilitate the search for a candidate tumor-suppressor gene(s) that is inactivated during the formation of GBM. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Albarosa, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Chiariello, E. [Istituto Nazionale Neurologico, Milan (Italy)] [and others

1997-05-01

271

Antibodies Specifically Targeting a Locally Misfolded Region of Tumor Associated EGFR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is involved in stimulating the growth of many human tumors, but the success of therapeutic agents has been limited in part by interference from the EGFR on normal tissues. Previously, we reported an antibody (mab806) against a truncated form of EGFR found commonly in gliomas. Remarkably, it also recognizes full-length EGFR on tumor cells but not on normal cells. However, the mechanism for this activity was unclear. Crystallographic structures for Fab:EGFR{sub 287-302} complexes of mAb806 (and a second, related antibody, mAb175) show that this peptide epitope adopts conformations similar to those found in the wtEGFR. However, in both conformations observed for wtEGFR, tethered and untethered, antibody binding would be prohibited by significant steric clashes with the CR1 domain. Thus, these antibodies must recognize a cryptic epitope in EGFR. Structurally, it appeared that breaking the disulfide bond preceding the epitope might allow the CR1 domain to open up sufficiently for antibody binding. The EGFR{sub C271A/C283A} mutant not only binds mAb806, but binds with 1:1 stoichiometry, which is significantly greater than wtEGFR binding. Although mAb806 and mAb175 decrease tumor growth in xenografts displaying mutant, overexpressed, or autocrine stimulated EGFR, neither antibody inhibits the in vitro growth of cells expressing wtEGFR. In contrast, mAb806 completely inhibits the ligand-associated stimulation of cells expressing EGFR{sub C271A/C283A}. Clearly, the binding of mAb806 and mAb175 to the wtEGFR requires the epitope to be exposed either during receptor activation, mutation, or overexpression. This mechanism suggests the possibility of generating antibodies to target other wild-type receptors on tumor cells.

Garrett, T.; Burgess, A; Gan, H; Luwor, R; Cartwright, G; Walker, F; Orchard, S; Clayton, A; Nice, E; et. al.

2009-01-01

272

FDG uptake and glut-1 expression in primary tumors and loco-regional lymph nodes in non-small-cell lung cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

FDG uptake level by primary tumors in NSCLC may affect the likelihood of malignant involvement in loco-regional lymph nodes (LNs). FDG uptake in tumors has been reported to be mediated by glucose transporter type 1 (Glut-I). Here, we investigated the correlations between primary tumors and loco-regional LNs in NSCLC regarding FDG uptake and Glut-1 expression. 126 NSCLC patients (M: F=103: 23, age=659.7y) who underwent curative resection and loco-regional LN dissection within 4 week period after FDG-PET study were enrolled. Maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV) by PET and %Glut-1 expression by immunostaining were compared between primary tumors and FDG uptake positive loco-regional LNs. Significant correlations were found between 52 malignant LNs and 37 primary tumors in terms of maxSUV (r=0.6451, p<0.0001) and %Glut-1 expression (r=0.8341, p<0.0001). Linear regression of the relation between maxSUVs of malignant LNs (Y) and maxSUVs of primary tumors (X) yielded the expression Y = 0.5938 + 0.4808 X with an r2 value of 0.4162. On the other hand, no significant correlation was observed between 144 benign LNs and 75 primary tumors in terms of maxSUVs (r= -0.0125, p 0.8831). Moreover, %Glut-1 expressions of pathologically proven benign LNs and primary tumors were found to be correlated (r=0.3863, p=0.0004), but r2 value was low at 0.1492. High correlations were found between primary tumors and loco-regional metastatic LNs in NSCLC regarding FDG uptake and Glut-1 expression. Mediastinal LN staging of NSCLC by FDG-PET may be improved by considering the linear correlation between FDG uptakes of metastatic LNs and primary tumors.

Lee, Won Woo; Nguyen, Xuan Canh; Chung, Jin Haeng; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Songnam (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

273

Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences designated to be on the Z_random, while one matched a W chromosome sequence and could be useful in cataloguing functionally important genes on this sex chromosome. Additionally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and validated in 10 ESTs that showed 98% or higher sequence similarity to known chicken genes. Here, we have described resources that may be useful in comparative and functional genomic analysis of genes expressed in an important organ, the pineal gland, in a model and agriculturally important organism.

Stefanie Hartman; Greg Touchton; Jessica Wynn; Tuoyu Geng; Nelson W. Chong; Ed Smith

2006-01-01

274

Simulation of peak pineal melatonin release restores sensitivity to evening melatonin injections in pinealectomized hamsters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In intact hamsters held on LD 14:10, pineal melatonin production and release peaks late in the evening. If these animals receive a daily injection of melatonin approximately 8 h before the endogenous peak (at the time of lights out), they respond with testicular regression. Pinealectomized hamsters receiving only this evening injection do not respond. The hypothesis tested here is very simple: replacement of the pineal melatonin rhythm in pinealectomized hamsters with a daily melatonin injection at the time of peak melatonin release in intact hamsters should reestablish sensitivity to evening (lights out) injections of melatonin. Conversely, melatonin replacement at times other than this should be ineffective. Pinealectomized hamsters maintained on LD 14:10 (lights 0600 - 2000 h) were injected with melatonin (15 microgram) at the time of the endogenous melatonin peak (2 h prior to lights on) and in the evening (0.5 h prior to lights out). This injection paradigm produced a rapid testicular regression that appears to be dependent on the timing of melatonin injections with respect to the animal's circadian system. Two daily injections given with the same frequency (8.5 h apart) but during a different time of the day were not effective. The results suggest that rhythmic sensitivity to melatonin is not affected by removal of the pineal, and that this gland serves as the source of endogenous melatonin, which must be present at the proper time for exogenous injections of melatonin to produce testicular regression.

Watson-Whitmyre M; Stetson MH

1983-02-01

275

Identification of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in chicken pineal gland using (/sup 3/H)rauwolscine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The norepinephrine-induced inhibition of avian pineal N-acetyltransferase activity appears to be mediated by alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. In this study, alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the chicken pineal gland were directly identified by radioligand binding. Membrane preparations of pineal glands from chickens from 1 to 6 weeks of age were examined using (/sup 3/H)rauwolscine, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, to characterize the binding sites. The results indicate no ontological change in either the affinity (KD) or density of receptor binding sites (Bmax) during the time span examined. The binding was saturable and of high affinity with a mean KD of 0.27 +/- 0.01 nM and a mean Bmax of 242 +/- 12 fmol/mg protein. Further characterization of these binding sites indicated that the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor is of the alpha 2A subtype, since prazosin and ARC-239 bound with low affinities and oxymetazoline bound with high affinity.

Bylund, D.B.; Rudeen, P.K.; Petterborg, L.J.; Ray-Prenger, C.

1988-07-01

276

Diagnosis of tumors of the pituitary region by two-plane CT scans. With special reference to operative indication for the transphenoidal approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thirty five cases of tumors in the pituitary region were analysed by two-plane CT (ordinary sections and reverse sections) in order to obtain a more accurate image of the tumor and thus establish an appropriate indication for the subnasal transsphenoidal approach. The tumors of pituitary region were classified into six groups (types I-VI) according to their degree of extension and direction of growth. Small tumors such as types I and II were detected more clearly by the reverse section than by the ordinary section. In cases of large tumors (types III-VI) relation of the tumor to the surrounding structures such as the sphenoid sinus, third ventricle, lateral ventricule, middle fossa and brain stem was accurately demonstrated by the reverse section. In the differential diagnosis of tumors in the pituitary regions, tumors showing mixed density or slightly high density and widening of the anteroposterior diameter of the sella in the precontrast reverse section and homogeneous enhancement by infusion were likely to be pituitary adenomas. One third of the pituitary adenomas showed ring-like high density in the post-contrast reverse section. Calcification was not seen in the pituitary adenomas by CT scans. All craniopharyngiomas belonged to types III-VI. Craniopharyngiomas showed high and/or low density, and various degrees of calcification in plain CT scans. Ring-like high density was seen in two thirds of the craniopharyngiomas. About one third of the craniopharyngiomas showed widening of the antero-posterior diameter of the sella.

Murata, M.; Inoue, H.; Misumi, S.; Shimizu, T.; Tamura, M. (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

1981-08-01

277

Role of magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of tumors in the cardiac region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to review the role of MRI in the assessment of heart neoplasm, 25 cases with heart neoplasm (10 myxoma, 6 rhabdomyoma, 5 angiosarcoma, 2 mesothelioma, 1 lymphoma, and 1 fibroma) were examined with MRI and echocardiography. Multislice T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images and static gradient-echo images were taken in appropriate directions with electrocardiogram gating. Gadolinium enhancement was performed in 21 cases. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in all cases. Except for the 5 patients with rhabdomyoma, the pathological diagnosis was obtained. MRI proved to be useful for tissue characterization of myxoma, angiosarcoma, mesothelioma, and fibroma in cases with tuberous sclerosis. MRI also proved to be useful for detection of the tumor, depiction of contour, relation with other cardiac structures, in cases with myxoma, angiosarcoma, mesothelioma, lymphoma, and fibroma. In the differential diagnosis, MRI provided important information in cases with myxoma, rhabdomyoma, angiosarcoma, and fibroma. In cases with tumors expanding into the mediastinum, such as mesothelioma and fibroma in this report, MRI was useful in determining the location and border. In cases with tumors adjacent to pericardium, MRI was useful in detecting pericardial invasion. Gadolinium enhancement added useful information in cases with myxoma, rhabdomyoma, angiosarcoma, and mesothelioma. The role of MRI with and without Gd enhancement differs somewhat in individual types of heart neoplasm, and adaptation must be considered in each kind of neoplasm. On the other hand, MRI is an essential examination in all cases with a cardiac mass, which has not been diagnosed, since it may provide useful information for the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

2003-01-01

278

Role of magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of tumors in the cardiac region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to review the role of MRI in the assessment of heart neoplasm, 25 cases with heart neoplasm (10 myxoma, 6 rhabdomyoma, 5 angiosarcoma, 2 mesothelioma, 1 lymphoma, and 1 fibroma) were examined with MRI and echocardiography. Multislice T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images and static gradient-echo images were taken in appropriate directions with electrocardiogram gating. Gadolinium enhancement was performed in 21 cases. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in all cases. Except for the 5 patients with rhabdomyoma, the pathological diagnosis was obtained. MRI proved to be useful for tissue characterization of myxoma, angiosarcoma, mesothelioma, and fibroma in cases with tuberous sclerosis. MRI also proved to be useful for detection of the tumor, depiction of contour, relation with other cardiac structures, in cases with myxoma, angiosarcoma, mesothelioma, lymphoma, and fibroma. In the differential diagnosis, MRI provided important information in cases with myxoma, rhabdomyoma, angiosarcoma, and fibroma. In cases with tumors expanding into the mediastinum, such as mesothelioma and fibroma in this report, MRI was useful in determining the location and border. In cases with tumors adjacent to pericardium, MRI was useful in detecting pericardial invasion. Gadolinium enhancement added useful information in cases with myxoma, rhabdomyoma, angiosarcoma, and mesothelioma. The role of MRI with and without Gd enhancement differs somewhat in individual types of heart neoplasm, and adaptation must be considered in each kind of neoplasm. On the other hand, MRI is an essential examination in all cases with a cardiac mass, which has not been diagnosed, since it may provide useful information for the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

Kaminaga, T.; Takeshita, T.; Kimura, I. [Dept. of Radiology/Pathology, Teikyo Univ. Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

2003-12-01

279

Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proton beam induced apoptosis significantly in Lewis lung carcinoma cells and hepatoma HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but slightly in leukemia Molt-4 cells. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for death rate relative to gamma ray were ranged from 1.3 to 2.1 in LLC or HepG2 but 0.7 in Molt-4 cells at 72h after irradiation. The typical apoptosis was observed by nuclear DNA staining with DAPI. By FACS analysis after stained with PI, sub-G1 cell fraction was significantly increased but G2/M phase was not altered by proton beam irradiation measured at 24 h after irradiation. Proton beam-irradiated tumor cells induced cleavage of PARP-1 and procaspases (-3 and -9) and increased the level of p53 and p21. decreased pro-lamin B. Acitivity of caspases was significantly increased after proton beam irradiation. Furthermore, ROS were significantly increased and N-acetyl cystein (NAC) pretreatment restored the apoptotic cell death induced in proton beam-irradiated cells. In conclusion, single treatment of low energy proton beam with SOBP induced apoptosis of solid tumor cells via increased ROS, active caspase -3,-9 and p53, p2.

Lee, Y. M.; Hur, T. R.; Lee, K. B.; Jeong, M. H.; Park, J. W. [Kyungbook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2007-04-15

280

The effect of tryptophan administration on the circadian rhythms of melatonin in plasma and the pineal gland of rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most physiological processes that take place in the body have a circadian rhythm which is controlled by an internal biological clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The indole melatonin synthesized in the pineal gland, acts to synchronize these biological rhythms, and also it is synthesized and released following a circadian rhythm. The present study analyzed the levels of melatonin over a 24-hour period in Wistar rats in both basal and control conditions and after the oral administration of 125 mg/kg tryptophan, the amino acid that is the precursor of this indole, for 7 days. The levels of melatonin in the plasma and the pineal gland were measured by radioimmunoassay every hour during the night, and every 4 hours during the day. The results indicated that the tryptophan administration provoked raised levels of melatonin at all hours studied in both plasma and pineal. Of the chronobiological parameters studied, there were also increases in the values of the melatonin MESOR with respect to the values obtained in the basal and control groups (the respective increases being 45% and 52% in plasma, and 46% and 47% in the pineal), as well as an advanced acrophase with respect to the basal and control groups. In summary, our findings confirm that tryptophan intake one hour before lights-off increases melatonin levels in plasma and pineal over a 24-hour period, as well as advancing the peak of its synthesis.

Soledad Sanchez; Cristina Lucia Sanchez; Sergio Damian Paredes; Ana Beatriz Rodriguez; Carmen Barriga

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Morphology of the pineal organs of Mystus aor (Ham.) and Puntius sophore (Ham.) with special reference to their innervation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Puntius sophore and Mystus aor the pineal end-vesicle (EV) has prominent lumen which is in open communication with the third ventricle through the long hollow stalk. In both the species the EV as well as the stalk have all the three component cell types namely sensory epithelial, supportive and nerve cells. The outer segments of the photoreceptor cells gave positive reaction to PAS, alcian blue, aldehyde fuchsin, sudan black, acetic thionin and Heidenhains' iron haematoxylin, but almost negative to toluidine blue. Apart from the Palmgren, Cajal and Golgi, nerve impregnation techniques, the neurons could be identified with the aid of Heidenhains' iron haematoxylin, acetic thionin and toluidine blue. They are arranged in all planes generally in contact with the synaptic pedicles of the sensory epithelial cells. The axons of the neurons present both in EV and stalk contribute to the formation of the pineal tract which courses down the pineal stalk. Rapid Golgi technique is apparently selective as only less number of neurons are impregnated. But with Cajal and Palmgren the intense maze of axons present in the pineal could be demonstrated. In both the species bulk of the pineal tract could be traced into posterior commissure (PC) and subcommissural organ (SCO). However, in P. sophore some projections are seen entering the optic tectum and the ependymal lining of the third ventricle.

Sastry VK; Sathyanesan AG

1981-01-01

282

Radiation-induced changes in regional blood flow in human tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 43 patients the blood flow in 48 superficial metastatic tumors was measured with the 133xenon wash-out method. In all cases the blood flow was measured before the start of radiotherapy and then one week later during radiotherapy. In 36 cases the blood flow was measured after 2 weeks during radiotherapy, and in six patients the follow-up lasted 5-6 weeks. The blood flow increased during the first week of radiotherapy in the whole series from 20.1 +/- 1.0 ml/min/100g to 31.3 +/- 24.9 ml/min/100g. The increase during the first week was significant (p

1982-01-01

283

Diagnostic evaluation of breast tumors and loco-regional lymph node metastases using positron emission tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Based on the increased glucose metabolism of malignant tissue, positron emission tomography (PET), using the radiolabeled glucose analog 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), allows idenfitication of breast cancer. Based on the criteria implemented in image interpretation, sensitivity of PET imaging ranged from 68% to 94% with a specificity between 84% and 97%. However, sensitivity for small tumors ([de] Der verstaerkte Glukosestoffwechsel maligner Tumoren wird mit der Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) unter Verwendung des radioaktiv markierten Glukoseanalogons F-18-Fluordeoxyglukose (FDG) diagnostisch genutzt. In Abhaengigkeit von den Beurteilungskriterien werden Mammakarzinome mit einer Sensitivitaet von 68% bis 94% erkannt. Eine wesentliche Limitation dieser Methode in der Mammadiagnostik beruht auf der deutlich eingeschraenkten Sensitivitaet beim Nachweis kleiner Karzinome (

1997-01-01

284

Photodynamic therapy leads to complete remission of tongue tumors and inhibits metastases to regional lymph nodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In patients diagnosed with oral cancer, the most important prognostic indicator for patient survival after primary treatment is metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes or distal sites. Therefore, we evaluated the utility of photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated by aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine entrapped in liposomes for the prevention of metastasis to regional cervical lymph nodes in the Erhlich tongue cancer model. The PDT protocol led to complete remission of tongue tumours and prevented the occurrence of regional metastasis. The prevention of regional metastasis was confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. In addition, PDT treatment increased the overall survival and reduced weight loss relative to control tumour-bearing mice. Thus, PDT should be clinically evaluated for use in the prevention of cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with oral cancer. PMID:23802410

Bicalho, Leandro Santos; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Cavalcanti, Claudio Eduardo Oliveira; Simioni, Andreza Ribeiro; Bocca, Anamélia Lorenzetti; Santos, Maria de Fátima Menezes de Almeida; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

2013-05-01

285

Photodynamic therapy leads to complete remission of tongue tumors and inhibits metastases to regional lymph nodes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In patients diagnosed with oral cancer, the most important prognostic indicator for patient survival after primary treatment is metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes or distal sites. Therefore, we evaluated the utility of photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated by aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine entrapped in liposomes for the prevention of metastasis to regional cervical lymph nodes in the Erhlich tongue cancer model. The PDT protocol led to complete remission of tongue tumours and prevented the occurrence of regional metastasis. The prevention of regional metastasis was confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. In addition, PDT treatment increased the overall survival and reduced weight loss relative to control tumour-bearing mice. Thus, PDT should be clinically evaluated for use in the prevention of cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with oral cancer.

Bicalho LS; Longo JP; Cavalcanti CE; Simioni AR; Bocca AL; Santos Mde F; Tedesco AC; Azevedo RB

2013-05-01

286

Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy as a boost treatment for tumors in the head and neck region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this retrospective study was to report initial results of CyberKnife stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) boost for tumors in the head and neck area. Between March 2008 and August 2009, 10 patients were treated with SRT boost using CyberKnife system due mainly to unfavorable condition such as tumors in close proximity to serial organs or former radiotherapy fields. Treatment sites were the external auditory canal in two, the nasopharynx in one, the oropharynx in three, the nasal cavity in one, the maxillary sinus in two, and the oligometastatic cervical lymph node in one. All patients underwent preceding conventional radiotherapy of 40 to 60 Gy. Dose and fractionation scheme of the Cyberknife SRT boost was individualized, and prescribed dose ranged from 9 Gy to 16 Gy in 3 to 4 fractions. Among four patients for whom dose to the optic pathway was concerned, the maximum dose was only about 3 Gy for three patients whereas 9.6 Gy in the remaining one patient. The maximum dose for the mandible in one of three patients with oropharyngeal cancer was 19.7 Gy, whereas majority of the bone can be spared by using non-isocentric conformal beams. For a patient with nasopharyngeal cancer, the highest dose in the brain stem was 15 Gy. However, majority of the brain stem received less than 40% of the maximum dose. Although a small volume high dose area within the normal structure could be observed in several patients, results of the present study showed potential benefits of the CyberKnife SRT boost. (author)

2008-03-00

287

Alpha-2 adrenergic activity of bromocriptine and quinpirole in chicken pineal gland. Effects on melatonin synthesis and ( sup 3 H)rauwolscine binding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the pineal gland and retina of chickens, serotonin N-acetyl-transferase (NAT) activity and melatonin content are modulated by different receptors, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland and D2-dopamine receptors in retina. The effect of two D2-dopamine receptor agonists, bromocriptine and quinpirole (LY 171555), on melatonin synthesis in these tissues was investigated. Systemic administrations of bromocriptine and quinpirole decreased nocturnal NAT activity and melatonin content of both pineal gland and retina. Bromocriptine was equipotent in the two tissues, whereas quinpirole was approximately 100-fold more potent in retina than in pineal gland. In pineal gland, the suppressive effects of bromocriptine and quinpirole on NAT activity were blocked by yohimbine, a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, but not by spiperone, a D2-dopamine receptor antagonist. In contrast, bromocriptine- and quinpirole-induced decreases of the enzyme activity in retina were antagonized by spiperone, and not affected by yohimbine. The nocturnal increase of NAT activity of pineal glands in vitro was inhibited with an order of potency clonidine greater than bromocriptine greater than quinpirole. Additionally, bromocriptine and quinpirole displaced the specific binding of (3H)rauwolscine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, to membranes from chicken pineal gland, with potencies comparable to those observed for inhibition of NAT activity in vitro. It is suggested that bromocriptine and quinpirole, in addition to their D2-dopaminergic activity, can stimulate alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland of chicken.

Zawilska, J.; Iuvone, P.M. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1990-12-01

288

Immune-Pineal Axis: Nuclear Factor ?B (NF-kB) Mediates the Shift in the Melatonin Source from Pinealocytes to Immune Competent Cells  

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Pineal gland melatonin is the darkness hormone, while extra-pineal melatonin produced by the gonads, gut, retina, and immune competent cells acts as a paracrine or autocrine mediator. The well-known immunomodulatory effect of melatonin is observed either as an endocrine, a paracrine or an autocrine ...

Regina P. Markus; Erika Cecon; Marco Antonio Pires-Lapa

289

Deletion mapping of gliomas suggests the presence of two small regions for candidate tumor-suppressor genes in a 17-cM interval on chromosome 10q  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The loss of genetic material on chromosome 10q is frequent in different tumors and particularly in malignant gliomas. We analyzed 90 of these tumors and found loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in > 90% of the informative loci in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Initial studies restricted the common LOH region to 10q24-qter. Subsequently, the study of a pediatric GBM suggested D10S221 and D10S209, respectively, as centromeric and telomeric markers of a 4-cM LOH region. It is interesting to note that, in one subset of cells from this tumor, locus D10S209 seems involved in the allelic imbalance of a larger region, with D10S214 as telomeric marker. This 17-cM region contains the D10S587-D10S216 interval of common deletion recently defined on another set of gliomas. 31 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Albarosa, R.; Colombo, B.M.; Roz, L. [Istituto Nazionale Neurologico C., Besta (Italy)] [and others

1996-06-01

290

Effect of steroid on brain tumors and surround edemas : observation with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps of perfusion MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To observe the hemodynamic change in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas after steroid treatment, and then investigate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MRI. We acquired conventional and perfusion MR images in 15 patients with various intracranial tumors (4 glioblastoma multiformes, 4 meningiomas, 3 metastatic tumors, 1 anaplastic ependymoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 hemangioblastoma, and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma). For perfusion MR imaging, a 1.5T unit employing the gradient-echo EPI technique was used, and further perfusion MR images were obtained 2-10 days after intravenous steroid therapy. After processing of the raw data, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were reconstructed. The maps were visually evaluated by comparing relative perfusion in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas with that in contralateral white matter. Objective evaluations were performed by comparing the perfusion ratios of brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Visual evaluations of rCBV maps, showed that in most brain tumors (67%, 10/15), perfusion was high before steroid treatment and showed in (80%, 12/15) decreased afterwards. Objective evaluation, showed that in all brain tumors, perfusion decreased. Visual evaluation of perfusion change in peritumoral edemas revealed change in only one case, but objective evaluation indicated that perfusion decreased significantly in all seven cases. rCBV maps acquired by perfusion MR imaging can provide hemodynamic information about brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Such maps could prove helpful in the preoperative planning of brain tumor surgery and the monitoring of steroid effects during conservative treatment. (author)

2000-01-01

291

Combined general and regional anesthesia and effects on immune function in patients with benign ovarian tumors treated by laparoscopic therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Anesthesia has been shown to suppress immune function, which can negatively affect the treatment of patients with various tumors. Here, we assessed two different anesthesia methods, general versus combined regional/general, in treatment of benign ovarian tumor by laparoscopic therapy. Methods: Out of 160 patients with benign ovarian tumors treated by laparoscopic therapy, 80 received general anesthesia combined with thoracic epidural anesthesia during surgery, and 80 received general anesthesia only. Venous blood samples were obtained at the following time points: before induction of anesthesia (T0), 2 hours after anesthesia, during operation, 3 days (d) after operation, 5 d after operation, and 7 d after operation. Percentages of CD3+, CD4+, and CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes were determined at these time points by flow cytometry to assess immune function. Results: For both groups, percentages of CD3+, CD4+, and CD4+/CD8+ T cells decreased significantly from T0 to 2 hr after anesthesia (P < 0.05). These percentages decreased again during surgery. However, T cell percentages in patients receiving combined anesthesia returned to normal levels 5 d after surgery, and those receiving only intravenous anesthesia returned to normal by 7 d after surgery. There were no significant differences in CD3+, CD4+, or CD4+/CD8+ T cell percentages between the two anesthesia groups at T0 and 7 d. However, significant differences in these percentages were observed between the two groups at all other time points. Interestingly, the decrease observed within the combined group were less dramatic than those observed within the intravenous-only group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These findings indicate that, while any anesthesia may suppress immune function of patients treated by laparoscopic therapy, the effect of general anesthesia combined with thoracic epidural anesthesia on immune function was less than that produced by general anesthesia alone.

Cheng, Yong-Chong; Cheng, Xiao-Bin; Li, Xin-Jie; Wang, Feng-Zhao; Li, Zhi-Kui

2013-01-01

292

Combined general and regional anesthesia and effects on immune function in patients with benign ovarian tumors treated by laparoscopic therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Anesthesia has been shown to suppress immune function, which can negatively affect the treatment of patients with various tumors. Here, we assessed two different anesthesia methods, general versus combined regional/general, in treatment of benign ovarian tumor by laparoscopic therapy. METHODS: Out of 160 patients with benign ovarian tumors treated by laparoscopic therapy, 80 received general anesthesia combined with thoracic epidural anesthesia during surgery, and 80 received general anesthesia only. Venous blood samples were obtained at the following time points: before induction of anesthesia (T0), 2 hours after anesthesia, during operation, 3 days (d) after operation, 5 d after operation, and 7 d after operation. Percentages of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocytes were determined at these time points by flow cytometry to assess immune function. RESULTS: For both groups, percentages of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells decreased significantly from T0 to 2 hr after anesthesia (P < 0.05). These percentages decreased again during surgery. However, T cell percentages in patients receiving combined anesthesia returned to normal levels 5 d after surgery, and those receiving only intravenous anesthesia returned to normal by 7 d after surgery. There were no significant differences in CD3(+), CD4(+), or CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell percentages between the two anesthesia groups at T0 and 7 d. However, significant differences in these percentages were observed between the two groups at all other time points. Interestingly, the decrease observed within the combined group were less dramatic than those observed within the intravenous-only group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that, while any anesthesia may suppress immune function of patients treated by laparoscopic therapy, the effect of general anesthesia combined with thoracic epidural anesthesia on immune function was less than that produced by general anesthesia alone.

Cheng YC; Cheng XB; Li XJ; Wang FZ; Li ZK

2013-01-01

293

Location by paper chromatography of compensatory ovarian hypertrophy (COH) inhibiting activity in isobutanol extracts of bovine pineals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bovine pineal glands were extracted according to the methods reported by Bensinger et al. (1973) and Cheesman and Fariss (1970). Isobutanol soluble COH-inhibiting activity was further separated by chromatography on Sephadex G-15 and paper chromatography. With the Bensinger method, different active pineal fractions were obtained from Sephadex G-15 columns. Certain of those fractions were further separated by paper chromatography in butanol : acetic acid : water (4 : 1 : 1) and the COH-inhibitor was localized. The pineal COH-inhibitor could also be localized by high pressure, reverse phase liquid chromatography. More COH-inhibiting activity was extracted with the Bensinger method than with aqueous and acetic acid extraction methods used earlier by us. The Cheesman extraction method for arginine vasotocin gave less regular results in our hands than the Bensinger extraction method.

Ebels I; Benson B; Bria CF; Richardson D; Larsen BR; Hruby VJ

1979-01-01

294

Evaluation of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF) as an exposure or risk marker in three French coal mining regions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several studies have shown the crucial role of the tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}(TNF) in the fibrosis induced by dusts containing silica and its role in the transition from simple pneumoconiosis (CWSP) to progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). To evaluate the nocivity of dust exposure among coal miners (n474) from different mining regions in France (e.g. Nord-Pas de Calais, Lorraine and Provence), spontaneous and LPS or silica-induced TNF released by peripheral blood monocytes was quantified. The primary aim of this effort was to study the link between the prevalence of coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) and TNF release. TNF levels were significantly different between active miners from the three regions. However, after correction for age and region. TNF was found not to be related to dust exposure. Interestingly, a very low, homogeneous expression of TNF was observed in the group from Provence. These results are probably related to the absence of pneumoconiosis in this area. A positive relation between profusion and TNF release was found for all stimulants among retired miners with PMF. Although in retired miners TNF release was consistently higher, the design of the study does not allow this effect to be separated from that of age. Both silica and nonstimulated TNF release were found to increase with increasing radiological symptoms; the opposite was found for LPS-induced release. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Porcher, J.M.; Oberson, D.; Viseux, N.; Sebastien, P.; Honnons, S.; Auburtin, G. [INERIS, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

1994-07-01

295

Steroid hormone and antihormone induced changes in the pineal and adrenocortical karyomorphology and cell proliferation in mice ( Mus musculus )  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} In the present investigation steroid hormones, estradiol and testosterone and non-steroidal antihormones, tamoxifen and flutamide induced responsiveness in pineal and adrenal karyomorphology and cell proliferation activity was studied in post pubertal male mice (Mus musculus). Estradiol was injected at a dose of 5µg, testosterone 100 µg, tamoxifen 500 µg and flutamide 2 mg per 100 gm body weight administered intramuscularly in all cases for ten consecutive days. Control mice were similarly injected with oil vehicle 0.3 ml of peanut oil intramuscularly for same duration. The results indicated that except testosterone, all other treatments with estradiol, tamoxifen and flutamide caused significant hyperactivity of both  the pineal and the adrenal gland associated with significantly increased cell proliferation activity. On the contrary testosterone administration was inhibitory to pineal - adrenal karyometric and mitotic incidence values. It was concluded that in male post pubertal mice both pineal and adrenal shows antagonistic response towards estradiol and testosterone administration. Although tamoxifen showed estrogen agonistic behaviour, flutamide on the reverse induced pineal and adrenal cytophysiological stimulation. Such stimulatory response was antagonistic to the inhibitory response shown by pineal and adrenal karyomorphology and cell proliferation following testosterone administration.

Rajasree Bandyopadhyay; Moumita DasGupta; Subrata Chakraborty

2010-01-01

296

TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

Groh, K.R.

1993-01-01

297

TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

Groh, K.R.

1993-06-01

298

A clinicopathologic analysis of primary orbital yolk sac tumor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective On rare occasions, yolk sac tumor may arise from extragonadal sites. Orbit is an unusual location for the primary development of this tumor. The presence of intracranial yolk sac tumor on biopsy always makes the diagnosis challenge for pathologists. Herein we report a case of intracranial primary yolk sac tumor in left orbital apex. The clinicopathology of this tumor and its differential diagnosis are discussed. Methods The clinical manifestation of a patient with primary yolk sac tumor occurring in left orbital apex was presented retrospectively. Resected orbital mass was routinely paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dako Envision immunohistochemical staining system was used to detect the tumor antigen expressions, including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), cytokeratin, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), CD30, CD34, CD45, CD99, CD117, synaptophysin (Syn) and chromogranin A (CgA). Results A 2-year-old boy presented with 3-month history of ptosis of eyelid and exophthalmos on left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a lesion occupied the left orbital apex with infiltration of surrounding normal structure, including left posterior ethmoid sinus, the wall of left maxillary sinus and sphenoid. However, there was no evidence of tumor infiltrating in brain parenchyma. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was removed by en bloc resection. Grossly, the biopsy specimen received in small pieces was 1.20 cm × 1.00 cm × 1.00 cm when aggregated. No fibrous capsule, necrosis, haemorrhage and gross calcification were found in the tissue fragments. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was arranged in a reticular pattern. The cells were relatively large with a clear cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei. Scattered mitotic figures were noted. Schiller-Duval bodies and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive (eosinophilic bodies) were evident in the tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor cells were diffusely positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and focal positive for AFP, CD99 and CD117, but negative for PLAP, CD30, S-100, CD45 and CD34. There was no evidence of mixture of other germ cell tumor component in this tumor by serial sections. Based on clinical presentation and histological findings, a final histological diagnosis of pure primary orbital yolk sac tumor, WHO grade ?, was made according to the criteria of WHO classification. The patient has not received chemotherapy and attended follow-up for 3 months, without any neurological deficit or signs of recurrence. Conclusion Despite the lower incidence, intracranial yolk sac tumors usually develop in the midline at the pineal or suprasellar regions occurring in children with distinctive histological features and immunohistochemical phenotypes. In general, intracranial yolk sac tumors are known to entail poor prognosis even after multidisciplinary treatment of operation, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. It is noted that intracranial yolk sac tumor should be differentiated histologically from other types of germ cell tumors and mixed germ cell tumor.

PENG Ji-ying; LI Yang; LI Bin; LUO Bo-ning; LI Zhi

2012-01-01

299

Prioritization of brain MRI volumes using medical image perception model and tumor region segmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study is to explore prioritization methods in diagnostic imaging modalities to automatically determine the contents of medical images. In this paper, we propose an efficient prioritization of brain MRI. First, the visual perception of the radiologists is adapted to identify salient regions. Then this saliency information is used as an automatic label for accurate segmentation of brain lesion to determine the scientific value of that image. The qualitative and quantitative results prove that the rankings generated by the proposed method are closer to the rankings created by radiologists. PMID:24034739

Mehmood, Irfan; Ejaz, Naveed; Sajjad, Muhammad; Baik, Sung Wook

2013-07-10

300

Neural networks combined with region growing techniques for tumor detection in [18F]-fluorothymidine dynamic positron emission tomography breast cancer studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Early detection and precise localization of malignant tumors has been a primary challenge in medical imaging in recent years. Functional modalities play a continuously increasing role in these efforts. Image segmentation algorithms which enable automatic, accurate tumor visualization and quantification on noisy positron emission tomography (PET) images would significantly improve the quality of treatment planning processes and in turn, the success of treatments. In this work a novel multistep method has been applied in order to identify tumor regions in 4D dynamic [18F] fluorothymidine (FLT) PET studies of patients with locally advanced breast cancer. In order to eliminate the effect of inherently detectable high inhomogeneity inside tumors, specific voxel-kinetic classes were initially introduced by finding characteristic FLT-uptake curves with K-means algorithm on a set of voxels collected from each tumor. Image voxel sets were then split based on voxel time-activity curve (TAC) similarities, and models were generated separately on each voxel set. At first, artificial neural networks, in comparison with linear classification algorithms were applied to distinguish tumor and healthy regions relying on the characteristics of TACs of the individual voxels. The outputs of the best model with very high specificity were then used as input seeds for region shrinking and growing techniques, the application of which considerably enhanced the sensitivity and specificity (78.65% +/- 0.65% and 98.98% +/- 0.03%, respectively) of the final image segmentation model.

Cseh, Zoltan; Kenny, Laura; Swingland, James; Bose, Subrata; Turheimer, Federico E.

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Cyclic AMP-inducible genes respond uniformly to seasonal lighting conditions in the rat pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The encoding of photoperiodic information ensues in terms of the daily profile in the expression of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-inducible genes such as the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) gene that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin formation. In the present study, we compared the influence of the photoperiodic history on the cAMP-inducible genes AA-NAT, inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER), fos-related antigen-2 (FRA-2), mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), nerve growth factor inducible gene-A (NGFI-A) and nerve growth factor inducible gene-B (NGFI-B) in the pineal gland of rats. For this purpose, we monitored the daily profiles of each gene in the same pineal gland under a long (light/dark 16:8) and a short (light/dark 8:16) photoperiod by measuring the respective mRNA amounts by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. We found that, for all genes under investigation, the duration of increased nocturnal expression is lengthened and, in relation to light onset, the nocturnal rise is earlier under the long photoperiod (light/dark 16:8). Furthermore, with the exception of ICER, all other cAMP-inducible genes tend to display higher maximum expression under light/dark 8:16 than under light/dark 16:8. Photoperiod-dependent changes persist for all of the cAMP-inducible genes when the rats are kept for two cycles under constant darkness. Therefore, all cAMP-inducible genes are also influenced by the photoperiod of prior entrained cycles. Our study indicates that, despite differences regarding the expressional control and the temporal phasing of the daily profile, cAMP-inducible genes are uniformly influenced by photoperiodic history in the rat pineal gland. PMID:16962714

Spessert, R; Gupta, B B P; Rohleder, N; Gerhold, S; Engel, L

2006-09-08

302

Cyclic AMP-inducible genes respond uniformly to seasonal lighting conditions in the rat pineal gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The encoding of photoperiodic information ensues in terms of the daily profile in the expression of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-inducible genes such as the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) gene that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin formation. In the present study, we compared the influence of the photoperiodic history on the cAMP-inducible genes AA-NAT, inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER), fos-related antigen-2 (FRA-2), mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), nerve growth factor inducible gene-A (NGFI-A) and nerve growth factor inducible gene-B (NGFI-B) in the pineal gland of rats. For this purpose, we monitored the daily profiles of each gene in the same pineal gland under a long (light/dark 16:8) and a short (light/dark 8:16) photoperiod by measuring the respective mRNA amounts by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. We found that, for all genes under investigation, the duration of increased nocturnal expression is lengthened and, in relation to light onset, the nocturnal rise is earlier under the long photoperiod (light/dark 16:8). Furthermore, with the exception of ICER, all other cAMP-inducible genes tend to display higher maximum expression under light/dark 8:16 than under light/dark 16:8. Photoperiod-dependent changes persist for all of the cAMP-inducible genes when the rats are kept for two cycles under constant darkness. Therefore, all cAMP-inducible genes are also influenced by the photoperiod of prior entrained cycles. Our study indicates that, despite differences regarding the expressional control and the temporal phasing of the daily profile, cAMP-inducible genes are uniformly influenced by photoperiodic history in the rat pineal gland.

Spessert R; Gupta BB; Rohleder N; Gerhold S; Engel L

2006-12-01

303

Pineal and gonadal influences on ultradian locomotor rhythms of male Siberian hamsters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The extent to which changes in ultradian and circadian rhythms (URs and CRs) reflect seasonal variations in pineal melatonin secretion was assessed in male Siberian hamsters transferred from long to short day lengths. The period of the locomotor activity UR increased from 2.5 h in long days to 4.5 h in short day lengths, but this and most other features of the short-day ultradian phenotype were unaffected by pinealectomy; only the short-day increase in UR amplitude was counteracted by pineal extirpation. Virtually all UR components were unaffected by gonadectomy or replacement testosterone or estradiol treatment; changes in testicular hormone secretion appear insufficient to account for seasonal fluctuation in URs. Pinealectomy did not affect activity onsets and offsets or phase angles of CR entrainment in short and long day lengths; the duration of nocturnal activity was equivalently longer in short than long days in both pinealectomized and pineal-intact hamsters. CR robustness of pinealectomized hamsters in short days was intermediate between values of long-day and short-day sham-pinealectomized males. Hourly nocturnal locomotor activity was markedly reduced in SD, and this effect was completely reversed by PINx. We conclude that seasonal transitions in UR and CR waveforms controlled by day length are mediated primarily by melatonin-independent mechanisms, with lesser contributions from melatonin-dependent processes. Most seasonal changes in ultradian and circadian rhythms in males of this species are not influenced by gonadal hormones. URs may allow animals to respond appropriately to changing environmental contingencies. In winter reduced activity combined with temporal restructuring of activity to include longer intervals of rest may be adaptive in maintaining body temperature at lower values and down-regulating energy expenditure when above ground temperatures are extremely low.

Prendergast BJ; Cable EJ; Cisse YM; Stevenson TJ; Zucker I

2013-01-01

304

Prognosis analysis of esophageal carcinoma patients with tumor loco-regional recurrence after curative surgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the outcome of radiotherapy for recurrent esophageal cancer after surgery and to determine the prognostic factors. Methods: From Jan 2005 to Dec 2009, 93 patients of esophageal carcinoma with loco-regional recurrence as the first site of failure after surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the survival. Logrank test was used to evaluate the difference between the groups. Multivariate survival analysis was conducted using a Cox proportional hazard regression model with a backward stepwise stepwise procedure. Results: The overall survival rates at 1, 2 and 3 years were 40.9%, 10.1% and 6.7%, respectively, but with a median survival time of 11.0 months (95% CI 9.4-12.6). In univariate analysis, age, PS, radiation dose and retreatment methods were independent prognostic factors. In multivariate analysis, only radiation dose and retreatment methods were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Conclusions: The prognosis of patients with post-operative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer is poor. However, a long-term survival maybe expected by definitive chemoradiotherapy. (authors)

2010-01-01

305

Bifocal intracranial tumors of nongerminomatous germ cell etiology: diagnostic and therapeutic implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with synchronous bifocal intracranial tumors (masses in the pineal and neurohypophyseal region), detectable human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels (5-100 mIU/mL), and normal alpha feto-protein (AFP) levels (?10 ng/mL) are often diagnosed empirically with pure germinoma. In such scenarios, pathologic confirmation is often deferred, given that bifocal nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) are considered rare and because available literature and research protocols support such an approach. We sought to characterize the association between bifocal intracranial tumors and NGGCT histology. METHODS: Seventy-one patients treated for intracranial germ cell tumors at Massachusetts General Hospital in 1998-2012 were identified. Patients presenting with synchronous bifocal disease were selected for further review. RESULTS: Of the 71 patients presenting with intracranial germ cell tumors, 14 (19.7%) had synchronous bifocal disease. Of these 14 patients, 7 (50.0%) had germinoma, 3 (21.4%) had NGGCT, and 4 (28.6%) had hCG levels <200 mIU/mL and normal AFP levels and were treated without pathologic confirmation. Of the 3 patients with confirmed bifocal NGGCT, 2 had detectable hCG levels with AFP <10 ng/mL and 1 patient had a detectable hCG level with a modest elevation in AFP. CONCLUSIONS: NGGCTs should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with bifocal intracranial tumors. Given differences in the management of germinomas and NGGCTs, clinicians should strongly consider a biopsy in patients presenting with bifocal masses and normal or modestly elevated biomarkers. Misclassification of such cases as germinomas could result in undertreatment and a possible increased risk for recurrence.

Aizer AA; Sethi RV; Hedley-Whyte ET; Ebb D; Tarbell NJ; Yock TI; Macdonald SM

2013-07-01

306

Novel Molecular Tumor Cell Markers in Regional Lymph Nodes and Blood Samples from Patients Undergoing Surgery for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Recent evidence suggests that microscopic lymph node metastases and circulating tumor cells may have clinical importance in lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify new molecular markers for tumor cells in regional lymph nodes (LNs) and peripheral blood (PB) from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Candidate markers were selected based on digital transcript profiling and previous literature. KRT19, CEACAM5, EPCAM, DSG3, SFTPA, SFTPC and SFTPB mRNA levels were initially validated by real-time reverse transcription PCR-based quantification in 16 NSCLC tumors and 22 LNs and 12 PB samples from individuals without known cancer. Five of the candidate markers were selected for secondary validation by quantification in parallel tumor biopsies, regional LNs and PB samples from 55 patients undergoing surgery for NSCLC. LN and PB marker status were compared to clinicopathological patient data. Results All selected markers except DSG3 were present at high levels in the primary tumors and at very low or non-detectable levels in normal LNs and PB in the first round of validation, indicating a potential for detecting tumor cells in NSCLC patients. The expression profiles of KRT19, CEACAM5, DSG3, SFTPA and SFTPC mRNA were confirmed in the larger group during the secondary validation. Using the highest normal LN level of each marker as threshold, 39 (71%) of the 55 patients had elevated levels of at least one marker in regional LNs. Similarly, 26 (47%) patients had elevated levels of at least one marker in PB. A significantly higher number of patients with adenocarcinomas had positive LN status for these markers, compared with other histological types (P?=?0.004). Conclusions Several promising molecular tumor cell markers in regional LNs and PB were identified, including the new SFTPA and SFTPC mRNAs. Clinical follow-up in a larger cohort is needed to elucidate their prognostic value.

Nordgard, Oddmund; Singh, Gurpartap; Solberg, Steinar; J?rgensen, Lars; Halvorsen, Ann Rita; Smaaland, Rune; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Helland, Aslaug

2013-01-01

307

Mapping of a candidate colorectal cancer tumor-suppressor gene to a 900-kilobase region on the short arm of chromosome 8.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on 8p occurs at high frequencies in many tumor types, including colorectal carcinoma (CRC). We previously used microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) into the CRC cell line SW620 to map a approximately 7.7-Mb colorectal cancer-suppressor region (CRCSR) at 8p22-23.1. In the current study, we transferred small fragments of this CRCSR into SW620 to refine the region further. Two microcell hybrids containing a 321- to 898-kb region around the D8S552 marker at 8p23.1 showed suppression of soft agar clonicity and tumorigenicity in athymic mice when compared to control cell lines. These data suggest that the putative colorectal tumor-suppressor gene is within this small region. We analyzed two candidate genes within this region: FLJ23749 and KIAA1456. Expression of both genes was detected in normal colonic crypt cells and in mucosa. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed downregulation of KIAA1456 in 9 of 12 primary colorectal tumors compared to matching normal mucosa, but normal or increased expression of FLJ23749. FLJ23749 was expressed in all CRC cell lines tested; however, KIAA1456 was downregulated in three cell lines, including SW620, and was restored in the suppressed microcell hybrids. 5'aza-2'Deoxycytidine treatment of the downregulated cell lines restored expression of KIAA1456, but bisulfite genomic sequencing did not show a correlation between promoter methylation and expression. Forty percent of the primary tumors showed LOH at this CRCSR locus, and mutation analysis revealed somatic mutations in 1 of 88 primary colorectal tumors for both KIAA1456 and FLJ23749. Despite the rarity of somatic mutations, the expression data suggest that KIAA1456 is still a candidate for the putative 8p colorectal cancer tumor-suppressor gene.

Flanagan JM; Healey S; Young J; Whitehall V; Trott DA; Newbold RF; Chenevix-Trench G

2004-07-01

308

Molecular changes underlying reduced pineal melatonin levels in Alzheimer disease: alterations in preclinical and clinical stages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A disturbed sleep-wake rhythm is common in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and correlated with decreased melatonin levels and a disrupted circadian melatonin rhythm. Melatonin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid are decreased during the progression of AD neuropathology (as determined by the Braak stages), already in cognitively intact subjects with the earliest AD neuropathology (Braak stages I-II) (preclinical AD). To investigate the molecular mechanisms behind the decreased melatonin levels, we measured monoamines and mRNA levels of enzymes of the melatonin synthesis and its noradrenergic regulation in pineal glands from 18 controls, 33 preclinical AD subjects, and 25 definite AD patients. Pineal melatonin levels were highly correlated with cerebrospinal fluid melatonin levels. The circadian melatonin rhythm disappeared because of decreased nocturnal melatonin levels in both the preclinical AD and AD patients. Also the circadian rhythm of beta(1)-adrenergic receptor mRNA disappeared in both patient groups. The precursor of melatonin, serotonin was stepwise depleted during the course of AD, as indicated by the up-regulated monoamine oxidase A mRNA and activity (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid:serotonin ratio). We conclude that a dysfunction of noradrenergic regulation and the depletion of serotonin by increased monoamine oxidase A result in the loss of melatonin rhythm already in preclinical AD.

Wu YH; Feenstra MG; Zhou JN; Liu RY; Toranõ JS; Van Kan HJ; Fischer DF; Ravid R; Swaab DF

2003-12-01

309

[Pineal gland and brain structures monoamine oxidase activity in rats of different age  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Total monoamine oxidase activity was investigated in the pineal gland (epiphysis) and in three brain structures with the use of spectrophotometric method based on kynuramine oxidative deamination, the product (4-hydroxyquinoline) formation being detected at 327 nm. Female Wistar rats used for the experiment were 1.5-2, 4-5 and over 12 months old. In the pineal gland, olfactory tubercle cortex and median eminence (with surrounding tissue) the lowest activities (nmol/min per mg of the protein, M +/- m) were found in the group of rats aged 4-5 months (1.20 +/- 0.11; 0.62 +/- 0.05 and 4.36 +/- 0.25, respectively), whereas in the medial preoptic area the lowest activity was found in rats aged 1.5-2 months (1.55 +/- 0.11). In all of the four structures the highest activities were found in the group of rats aged over 12 months (2.17 +/- 0.40; 0.8 +/- 0.04; 6.61 +/- 0.56 and 2,01 +/- 0.15, respectively). The data obtained agree with the hypothesis that low monoamine concentrations in some brain areas (including some hypothalamic structures) of aged rats, are due to, at least partly, an increase in monoamine oxidase activity.

Razygraev AV; Arutiunian AV

2008-01-01

310

[Pineal gland and brain structures monoamine oxidase activity in rats of different age].  

Science.gov (United States)

Total monoamine oxidase activity was investigated in the pineal gland (epiphysis) and in three brain structures with the use of spectrophotometric method based on kynuramine oxidative deamination, the product (4-hydroxyquinoline) formation being detected at 327 nm. Female Wistar rats used for the experiment were 1.5-2, 4-5 and over 12 months old. In the pineal gland, olfactory tubercle cortex and median eminence (with surrounding tissue) the lowest activities (nmol/min per mg of the protein, M +/- m) were found in the group of rats aged 4-5 months (1.20 +/- 0.11; 0.62 +/- 0.05 and 4.36 +/- 0.25, respectively), whereas in the medial preoptic area the lowest activity was found in rats aged 1.5-2 months (1.55 +/- 0.11). In all of the four structures the highest activities were found in the group of rats aged over 12 months (2.17 +/- 0.40; 0.8 +/- 0.04; 6.61 +/- 0.56 and 2,01 +/- 0.15, respectively). The data obtained agree with the hypothesis that low monoamine concentrations in some brain areas (including some hypothalamic structures) of aged rats, are due to, at least partly, an increase in monoamine oxidase activity. PMID:19432173

Razygraev, A V; Arutiunian, A V

2008-01-01

311

Concentrations of estradiol in ewe cerebrospinal fluid are modulated by photoperiod through pineal-dependent mechanisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the ewe, seasonal anestrus results from an increased responsiveness of the hypothalamus to the negative feedback of estradiol (E2) on the gonadotropic axis under long-day conditions. However, this seasonal effect could also depend upon variable uptake of steroids by the brain. The aim of the present experiment was to compare the concentration of E2 in the blood plasma and in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the third ventricle in groups of ovariectomized, estradiol treated ewes maintained under short day (SD) or long day (LD) conditions and to study the involvement of the pineal gland in this photoperiodic regulation. Pinealectomized and sham-operated ewes were equipped with an intracerebral cannula to sample the CSF. The plasma E2 concentrations showed no difference between LD and SD in sham-operated and pinealectomized animals. In contrast, in the CSF, E2 concentration was higher in the LD than the SD group, and pinealectomy suppressed this effect of photoperiod. Concomitantly, the stimulatory effect of SD on luteinizing hormone levels observed in sham-operated ewes was abolished by pinealectomy. The results demonstrate that LD increases the E2 concentration in the CSF by a mechanism involving the pineal gland.

Thiery JC; Lomet D; Schumacher M; Liere P; Tricoire H; Locatelli A; Delagrange P; Malpaux B

2006-11-01

312

Tumor Volume of Resectable Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagogastric Junction at Multidetector CT: Association with Regional Lymph Node Metastasis and N Stage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purpose: To determine whether the volume of resectable adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) measured at multidetector computed tomography (CT) is associated with regional lymph node metastasis and N stage. Materials and Methods: The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Two hundred sixteen patients with resectable AEG prospectively underwent contrast material-enhanced thoracoabdominal multidetector CT less than 2 weeks before curative resection. Gross tumor volume was retrospectively measured on CT scans. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify whether gross tumor volume is associated with regional lymph node metastasis. The Mann-Whitney U test was performed to compare gross tumor volume among N stages, with Bonferroni correction for multigroup comparisons. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine if gross tumor volume could help classify N stage. Results: Univariate analysis showed that gross tumor volume is associated with regional lymph node metastasis (P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that gross tumor volume is an independent risk factor of lymph node metastasis (P = .023, odds ratio = 2.791). The Mann-Whitney U test showed that gross tumor volume could help differentiate between stage N0 and stages N1-N2 or N1-N3 disease and between stages N1-N2 and stage N3 disease (P < .0001 for all). In patients with stage T1-T3 AEG, gross tumor volume could help differentiate between stage N0 and stages N1-N2 (cutoff, 15.23 cm(3)) or N1-N3 (cutoff, 17.16 cm(3)) disease and between stages N1-N2 and stage N3 disease (cutoff, 33.96 cm(3)). In patients with stage T3 AEG, gross tumor volume could help differentiate stage N0 from stages N1-N2 (cutoff, 18.41 cm(3)) or N1-N3 (cutoff, 19.30 cm(3)) disease and stages N1-N2 from stage N3 disease (cutoff, 33.96 cm(3)). Conclusion: Gross tumor volume of AEG measured with multidetector CT is associated with regional lymph node metastasis and N stage. © RSNA, 2013.

Li R; Chen TW; Hu J; Guo DD; Zhang XM; Deng D; Li H; Chen XL; Tang HJ

2013-10-01

313

Mixed germ cell tumour of the pineal region : a case report.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An intracranial mixed germ cell tumour with germinoma and teratoma components is reported. The patient presented with parinaud?s syndrome and precocious puberty. The treatment involved partial surgical debulking followed by whole brain radiotherapy (4500 cGY in 25 fraction over 5 weeks) and chemotherapy (consisting of cisplatin and etoposide). Post treatment MRI showed no residual lesion. The controversies in the management are discussed.

Tandon N; Chopra R; Ghoshal S; Singh P; Sharma B

1999-01-01

314

Delayed Diagnosis in Children with Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To review symptoms and provider history in a large cohort of patients with germ cell tumors (GCTs) to highlight the variety of manifestations and assess the effect of delayed diagnosis on outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Patients treated for intracranial pure germinoma and nongerminomatous GCTs at Massachusetts General Hospital between 1998 and 2012 were included (n = 70). The primary outcome was time from onset of symptoms to diagnostic imaging. Delay was defined as an interval of ?6 months. RESULTS: The median duration of symptoms before diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging was 6 months (range, 2 days to 72 months). Thirty-eight of the 70 patients (54%) had a delayed diagnosis. Patients with suprasellar tumors presented with symptoms related to endocrinopathies, and patients with pineal region tumors presented with symptoms related to hydrocephalus. Most of the patients were evaluated by a general pediatrician (49%) and/or pediatric subspecialists (66%) before diagnosis. Patients with delayed diagnosis saw a greater number of physicians before diagnosis (P = .006). The majority of patients (63%) with delayed diagnosis were seen by 2 or more physicians, and many (40%) were seen by 2 or more subspecialists. Progression-free survival was similar in the patients with delayed diagnosis and those without delayed diagnosis (P = .90), but the former were more likely to present with disseminated disease at diagnosis (34% vs 6%; P = .007). CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of patients with GCT experience a delay in time to diagnosis, in some cases despite evaluation by general pediatricians and specialists. This delay increases the risk of disseminated disease.

Sethi RV; Marino R; Niemierko A; Tarbell NJ; Yock TI; Macdonald SM

2013-07-01

315

Cartesian theories on the passions, the pineal gland and the pathogenesis of affective disorders: an early forerunner.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between physical and functional alterations in the pineal gland, the 'passions' (emotions or feelings) and psychopathology has been a constant throughout the history of medicine. One of the most influential authors on this subject was René Descartes, who discussed it in his work The Treatise on the Passions of the Soul (1649). Descartes believed that 'passions' were sensitive movements that the soul, located in the pineal gland, experienced due to its union with the body, by circulating animal spirits. Descartes described sadness as one of the six primitive passions of the soul, which leads to melancholy if not remedied. Cartesian theories had a great deal of influence on the way that mental pathologies were considered throughout the entire 17th century and during much of the 18th century, but the link between the pineal gland and psychiatric disorders it was definitively highlighted in the 20th century, with the discovery of melatonin in 1958. The recent development of a new pharmacological agent acting through melatonergic receptors (agomelatine) has confirmed the close link between the pineal gland and affective disorders.

López-Muñoz F; Alamo C

2011-03-01

316

Cartesian theories on the passions, the pineal gland and the pathogenesis of affective disorders: an early forerunner.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between physical and functional alterations in the pineal gland, the 'passions' (emotions or feelings) and psychopathology has been a constant throughout the history of medicine. One of the most influential authors on this subject was René Descartes, who discussed it in his work The Treatise on the Passions of the Soul (1649). Descartes believed that 'passions' were sensitive movements that the soul, located in the pineal gland, experienced due to its union with the body, by circulating animal spirits. Descartes described sadness as one of the six primitive passions of the soul, which leads to melancholy if not remedied. Cartesian theories had a great deal of influence on the way that mental pathologies were considered throughout the entire 17th century and during much of the 18th century, but the link between the pineal gland and psychiatric disorders it was definitively highlighted in the 20th century, with the discovery of melatonin in 1958. The recent development of a new pharmacological agent acting through melatonergic receptors (agomelatine) has confirmed the close link between the pineal gland and affective disorders. PMID:20836904

López-Muñoz, F; Alamo, C

2010-09-14

317

Modification of loco-regional microenvironment in brain tumors by spinal cord stimulation. Implications for radio-chemotherapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effectiveness of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in high grade gliomas (HGG) depends on tumor micro-environment. We summarize our experience of the influence of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) on this micro-environment. Patients with HGG (n = 26) were assessed pre- and post-SCS, using: (1) Doppler in middle cerebral arteries (MCA) and (2) in common carotid arteries (CCA); (3) tumor blood-flow using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); (4) tumor-pO(2) (mmHg) using polarographic probes (eight tumor areas from five patients); and (5) tumor glucose metabolism using (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ((18)FDG) positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET). Pre-SCS: tumor blood-flow was lower (P < 0.001) than peri-tumor areas and healthy contra-lateral areas. Tumor-pO(2) was lower (P < 0.042) than healthy tissue. Tumor glucose metabolism was higher than peri-tumor areas (P = 0.017) and healthy contra-lateral areas (P = 0.048). Post-SCS: there were increases in: MCA blood-flow (P ? 0.002), CCA blood-flow (P ? 0.013), tumor blood-flow (P = 0.033), tumor glucose metabolism (P = 0.027) and tumor-pO(2) (P = 0.022). The percentage of hypoxic values decreased (P = 0.007). SCS can modify tumor micro-environment. The potential usefulness of SCS in improving the effectiveness of radio-chemotherapy in HGG needs to be evaluated.

Clavo B; Robaina F; Valcarcel B; Catala L; Perez JL; Cabezon A; Jorge IJ; Fiuza D; Hernandez MA; Jover R; Carreras JL

2012-01-01

318

[Late effects of experimental ablation of the pineal gland on ultrastructural morphometric changes in thymic epithelial cells].  

Science.gov (United States)

The late effect of surgical ablation of pineal gland on the morphometric changes in epithelial cells of rat thymus were investigated. The aim of this study is to determine a possible existence of sex-different changes in composition of the epithelial cell component unit long after pinealecotmy what could be important for the subtle understanding of mutual correlation between pincal body and thymus. This article presents results of stereological ultrastructure parameters of thymuscortical and medullar epithelial cells of male and female rats two month after pinealectomy. The experimental animals were divide into two groups: an experimental one (pinealectomized) and the control group (shampinealectomized). Pinealectomized animals were submitted to surgical ablation of pineal gland while the control were undertaken the same surgical treatment but without removal of the pineal gland. Animals were sacrificed 60 th days following the surgery treatment. Parasagital pieces of thymus tissue were fixed by means of immersion in glutaraldehyde and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. Using Weibls multipurpose test system and multilevel sampling technique on electron micrographs the volume and surface density of nucleus (Vu, Sv) and cytoplasm of cortical and medullar thymus epithelial cells were calculated. At the different magnification level were established the volume and surface density of mitochondria (Vvm, Svm) endoplasmic reticulum (Vvr, Svr), vacoule(Vuv) as well as numerical density of mitochondria (Nvm). Our analysis has conformed statistically significant increase in Vv of reticulum and vacuole in both sex of pinealectomized rats. Sv of plasmalema, reticulum and mitochondrial membrane are markedly increased in thymus medullar epithelial cells of pienalectomized rats. Vv of mitochondria is significantly increased in cortical epithelial cells of pienalectomized animals. Results allow us to confirm that mutual correlation between pineal gland and thymus exists but present findings seem to support the concept of sex independent inhibitory action of pineal gland on thymus cortical and medullar epithelial cells. PMID:10872267

Susko, I; Mornjakovi?, Z; Alicelebi?, S

2000-01-01

319

Daily oscillation of gene expression in the retina is phase-advanced with respect to the pineal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The photoreceptive retina and the non-photoreceptive pineal gland are components of the circadian and the melatonin forming system in mammals. To contribute to our understanding of the functional integrity of the circadian system and the melatonin forming system we have compared the daily oscillation of the two tissues under various seasonal lighting conditions. For this purpose, the 24-h profiles of the expression of the genes coding for arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), nerve growth factor inducible gene-A (NGFI-A), nerve growth factor inducible gene-B (NGFI-B), retinoic acid related orphan receptor beta (RORbeta), dopamine D4 receptor, and period2 (Per2) have been simultaneously recorded in the retina and the pineal gland of rats under short day (light/dark 8:16) and long day (light/dark 16:8) conditions. We have found that the cyclical patterns of all genes are phase-advanced in the retina, often with a lengthened temporal interval under short day conditions. In both tissues, the AA-NAT gene expression represents an indication of the output of the relevant pacemakers. The temporal phasing in the AA-NAT transcript amount between the retina and the pineal gland is retained under constant darkness suggesting that the intrinsic self-cycling clock of the retina oscillates in a phase-advanced manner with respect to the self-cycling clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which controls the pineal gland. We therefore conclude that daily rhythms in gene expression in the retina are phase-advanced with respect to the pineal gland, and that the same temporal relationship appears to be valid for the self-cycling clocks influencing the tissues. PMID:18321474

Bai, Lin; Zimmer, Sybille; Rickes, Oliver; Rohleder, Nils; Holthues, Heike; Engel, Lydia; Leube, Rudolf; Spessert, Rainer

2008-02-09

320

[Late effects of experimental ablation of the pineal gland on ultrastructural morphometric changes in thymic epithelial cells  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The late effect of surgical ablation of pineal gland on the morphometric changes in epithelial cells of rat thymus were investigated. The aim of this study is to determine a possible existence of sex-different changes in composition of the epithelial cell component unit long after pinealecotmy what could be important for the subtle understanding of mutual correlation between pincal body and thymus. This article presents results of stereological ultrastructure parameters of thymuscortical and medullar epithelial cells of male and female rats two month after pinealectomy. The experimental animals were divide into two groups: an experimental one (pinealectomized) and the control group (shampinealectomized). Pinealectomized animals were submitted to surgical ablation of pineal gland while the control were undertaken the same surgical treatment but without removal of the pineal gland. Animals were sacrificed 60 th days following the surgery treatment. Parasagital pieces of thymus tissue were fixed by means of immersion in glutaraldehyde and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. Using Weibls multipurpose test system and multilevel sampling technique on electron micrographs the volume and surface density of nucleus (Vu, Sv) and cytoplasm of cortical and medullar thymus epithelial cells were calculated. At the different magnification level were established the volume and surface density of mitochondria (Vvm, Svm) endoplasmic reticulum (Vvr, Svr), vacoule(Vuv) as well as numerical density of mitochondria (Nvm). Our analysis has conformed statistically significant increase in Vv of reticulum and vacuole in both sex of pinealectomized rats. Sv of plasmalema, reticulum and mitochondrial membrane are markedly increased in thymus medullar epithelial cells of pienalectomized rats. Vv of mitochondria is significantly increased in cortical epithelial cells of pienalectomized animals. Results allow us to confirm that mutual correlation between pineal gland and thymus exists but present findings seem to support the concept of sex independent inhibitory action of pineal gland on thymus cortical and medullar epithelial cells.

Susko I; Mornjakovi? Z; Alicelebi? S

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

KDM4A lysine demethylase induces site-specific copy gain and rereplication of regions amplified in tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acquired chromosomal instability and copy number alterations are hallmarks of cancer. Enzymes capable of promoting site-specific copy number changes have yet to be identified. Here, we demonstrate that H3K9/36me3 lysine demethylase KDM4A/JMJD2A overexpression leads to localized copy gain of 1q12, 1q21, and Xq13.1 without global chromosome instability. KDM4A-amplified tumors have increased copy gains for these same regions. 1q12h copy gain occurs within a single cell cycle, requires S phase, and is not stable but is regenerated each cell division. Sites with increased copy number are rereplicated and have increased KDM4A, MCM, and DNA polymerase occupancy. Suv39h1/KMT1A or HP1? overexpression suppresses the copy gain, whereas H3K9/K36 methylation interference promotes gain. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of a chromatin modifier results in site-specific copy gains. This begins to establish how copy number changes could originate during tumorigenesis and demonstrates that transient overexpression of specific chromatin modulators could promote these events. PMID:23871696

Black, Joshua C; Manning, Amity L; Van Rechem, Capucine; Kim, Jaegil; Ladd, Brendon; Cho, Juok; Pineda, Cristiana M; Murphy, Nancy; Daniels, Danette L; Montagna, Cristina; Lewis, Peter W; Glass, Kimberly; Allis, C David; Dyson, Nicholas J; Getz, Gad; Whetstine, Johnathan R

2013-07-18

322

M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophage infiltration of regional lymph nodes is associated with nodal lymphangiogenesis and occult nodal involvement in pN0 pancreatic cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are reportedly involved in lymphangiogenesis in primary tumors, playing a crucial role in lymphatic metastasis. Furthermore, nodal lymphangiogenesis precedes and promotes regional lymph node (RLN) metastasis. We investigated the relationship of M2-polarized TAM infiltration of the RLNs, nodal lymphangiogenesis, and occult nodal involvement in pN0 pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Hematoxylin-eosin-stained primary tumor and regional LN specimens from 40 patients diagnosed with pN0 pancreatic cancer according to the pathological TNM classification were assessed. To evaluate lymphangiogenesis, lymphatic vessel density was measured by using D2-40 antibody. CD163 and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 antibodies were used to detect M2-polarized TAMs and isolated tumor cells in the RLNs, respectively. RESULTS: The nodal lymphatic vessel density had a strong association with the M2-polarized TAM density in the RLNs (P < 0.0001). Most of these TAMs expressed vascular endothelial growth factor C. Furthermore, in the RLNs, the M2-polarized TAM density was significantly associated with the incidence of isolated tumor cells (P = 0.0477). CONCLUSIONS: M2-polarized TAM infiltration of RLNs is significantly associated with nodal lymphangiogenesis and occult nodal involvement in pN0 pancreatic cancer. Node-infiltrating M2-polarized TAMs may facilitate nodal lymphangiogenesis via the production of vascular endothelial growth factor C and thus promote RLN metastasis.

Kurahara H; Takao S; Maemura K; Mataki Y; Kuwahata T; Maeda K; Sakoda M; Iino S; Ishigami S; Ueno S; Shinchi H; Natsugoe S

2013-01-01

323

Tumor hypoxia at the micro-regional level: clinical relevance and predictive value of exogenous and endogenous hypoxic cell markers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Background and purpose: Tumor oxygenation is recognized as an important determinant of the outcome of radiotherapy and possibly also of other treatment modalities in a number of tumor types and in particular in squamous cell carcinomas. The hypoxic status of various solid tumors has been related to a poor prognosis due to tumor progression towards a more malignant phenotype, with increased metastatic potential, and an increased resistance to treatment. It has been demonstrated in head and neck cancer that hypoxic radioresistance can be successfully counteracted by hypoxia modifying approaches. The microregional distribution and the level of tumor hypoxia depend on oxygen consumption and temporal and spatial variations in blood supply. It is unclear if severely hypoxic cells can resume clonogenicity when O2 and nutrients become available again as a result of (treatment related) changes in the tumor microenvironment. Non-terminally differentiated hypoxic cells that are capable of proliferation are important for outcome because of their resistance to radiotherapy and possibly other cytotoxic treatments. Various exogenous and endogenous markers for hypoxia are currently available and can be studied in relation to each other, the tumor architecture and the tumor microenvironment. Use of nitroimidazole markers with immunohistochemical detection allows studying tumor cell hypoxia at the microscopic level. Co-registration with other microenvironmental parameters, such as vascular architecture (vascular density), blood perfusion, tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis, offers the possibility to obtain a comprehensive functional image of tumor patho-physiology and to study the effects of different modalities of cancer treatment. Conclusion: A number of functional microregional parameters have emerged that are good candidates for future use as indicators of tumor aggressiveness and treatment response. The key question is whether these parameters can be used as tools for selection of treatment strategies for individual patients. This requires testing of these markers in prospective randomized clinical trials comparing standard treatment against experimental treatments targeting the relevant microregional constituent

2003-01-01

324

Tumor hypoxia at the micro-regional level: clinical relevance and predictive value of exogenous and endogenous hypoxic cell markers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tumor oxygenation is recognized as an important determinant of the outcome of radiotherapy and possibly also of other treatment modalities in a number of tumor types and in particular in squamous cell carcinomas. The hypoxic status of various solid tumors has been related to a poor prognosis due to tumor progression towards a more malignant phenotype, with increased metastatic potential, and an increased resistance to treatment. It has been demonstrated in head and neck cancer that hypoxic radioresistance can be successfully counteracted by hypoxia modifying approaches. The microregional distribution and the level of tumor hypoxia depend on oxygen consumption and temporal and spatial variations in blood supply. It is unclear if severely hypoxic cells can resume clonogenicity when O(2) and nutrients become available again as a result of (treatment related) changes in the tumor microenvironment. Non-terminally differentiated hypoxic cells that are capable of proliferation are important for outcome because of their resistance to radiotherapy and possibly other cytotoxic treatments. Various exogenous and endogenous markers for hypoxia are currently available and can be studied in relation to each other, the tumor architecture and the tumor microenvironment. Use of nitroimidazole markers with immunohistochemical detection allows studying tumor cell hypoxia at the microscopic level. Co-registration with other microenvironmental parameters, such as vascular architecture (vascular density), blood perfusion, tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis, offers the possibility to obtain a comprehensive functional image of tumor patho-physiology and to study the effects of different modalities of cancer treatment. CONCLUSION: A number of functional microregional parameters have emerged that are good candidates for future use as indicators of tumor aggressiveness and treatment response. The key question is whether these parameters can be used as tools for selection of treatment strategies for individual patients. This requires testing of these markers in prospective randomized clinical trials comparing standard treatment against experimental treatments targeting the relevant microregional constituent.

Bussink J; Kaanders JH; van der Kogel AJ

2003-04-01

325

Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as 'possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal cells into cancer cells. Owing to high utilisation of electricity in day-to-day life, exposure to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal gland activity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may influence the pineal gland is still unsolved. The pineal gland is likely to sense EMFs as light but, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data of human and animal studies of changes in melatonin levels due to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields exposure were analysed. Then, the results of this study were compared with the International Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental results in the literature for the biological effect of magnetic fields, in order to quantify the effects. The results show that this comparison does not seem to be consistent despite the fact that it offers an advantage of drawing attention to the importance of the exposure limits to weak EMFs. In addition to those inconsistent results, the following were also observedfrom this work: (i) the ICNIRP recommendations are meant for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii) the significance of not replicating the existing experimental studies is another limitation in the power-frequency EMFs. Regardless of these issues, the above observation agrees with our earlier study in which it was confirmed that it is not a reliable method to characterise biological effects by observing only the ratio of AC magnetic field strength to frequency. This is because exposure duration does not include the ICNIRP limit. Furthermore, the results show the significance of disruption of melatonin due to exposure to weak EMFs, which may possibly lead to long-term health effects in humans.

Halgamuge MN

2013-05-01

326

Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as 'possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal cells into cancer cells. Owing to high utilisation of electricity in day-to-day life, exposure to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal gland activity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may influence the pineal gland is still unsolved. The pineal gland is likely to sense EMFs as light but, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data of human and animal studies of changes in melatonin levels due to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields exposure were analysed. Then, the results of this study were compared with the International Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental results in the literature for the biological effect of magnetic fields, in order to quantify the effects. The results show that this comparison does not seem to be consistent despite the fact that it offers an advantage of drawing attention to the importance of the exposure limits to weak EMFs. In addition to those inconsistent results, the following were also observedfrom this work: (i) the ICNIRP recommendations are meant for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii) the significance of not replicating the existing experimental studies is another limitation in the power-frequency EMFs. Regardless of these issues, the above observation agrees with our earlier study in which it was confirmed that it is not a reliable method to characterise biological effects by observing only the ratio of AC magnetic field strength to frequency. This is because exposure duration does not include the ICNIRP limit. Furthermore, the results show the significance of disruption of melatonin due to exposure to weak EMFs, which may possibly lead to long-term health effects in humans. PMID:23051584

Halgamuge, Malka N

2012-10-10

327

Changes of regional perfusion in metastatic brain tumor and peritumoral area after radiosurgery. A study by {sup 123I}-IMP dynamic SPECT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes of regional perfusion in the tumor, peritumoral edematous area and juxtatumor brain after radiosurgical treatment for metastatic brain tumor were investigated by dynamic SPECT using {sup 123}I-IMP. The SPECT was performed in 12 patients before and 1, 7 and 30 days after stereotactic irradiation. A region of interest (ROI) was selected each in the tumor, peritumoral edematous area, juxtatumor brain and ipsilateral cerebellum. Radioactivity in each ROIs was counted on early SPECT based on dynamic SPECT from 0 to 5 minutes. Mean count/pixel in each ROIs was divided by mean count/pixel in the ROI of the ipsilateral cerebellum and its value was designated as a count ratio (CR). Relative change of post-treatment CRs investigated assuming the pre-treatment CRs as 1.0. rCR in the tumor did not show any significant change after radiosurgical treatment. rCR in the edematous area and the juxtatumor brain increased at 7 days after irradiation [Mean{+-}SD 1.434{+-}0.409 (p<0.05), 1.248{+-}0.228 (p<0.05) by Mann-Whitney test] and at 30 days [1.359{+-}0.245 (p<0.01), 1.301{+-}0.287 (p<0.01)] respectively. Computed tomography revealed no change in the maximum diameter of the tumor at 1 month after irradiation but a significant reduction in the diameter [0.744{+-}0.227 (p<0.02)] at 2 months. Early improvement of regional cerebral blood flow in the juxtatumor areas after radiosurgery suggested that radiosurgery could be effective treatment for metastatic brain tumor. (author).

Sugou, Nobuo; Shibata, Iekado; Nemoto, Akio [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

1996-02-01

328

Identification and characterization of delta opioid binding sites in the bovine pineal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bovine pineal membranes were shown to possess a single class of high-affinity binding sites for the opioid peptide, [125I]iodiotyrosyl27-beta-endorphin (beta E) (Kd = 47 pM, Bmax = 2.4 fmol/mg of tissue). The rank order of potency at this beta E site was deltorphin greater than [D-Ser2]-Leu-enkephalin-Thr greater than [D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin much greater than dermorphin greater than [D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly5-ol]enkephalin much greater than (5 alpha,7 alpha,8 beta)-(-)-N-methyl-N-[7-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1- oxaspiro(4,5)dec-8-yl

Aloyo VJ

1992-07-01

329

Anti tumor Necrosis Factor - Alpha Adalimumab for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS-I): A Case Series.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Evidence suggests tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) mediates, at least in part, symptoms and signs in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Here, we present a case series of patients with CRPS type 1, in whom the response to the anti-TNF-? adalimumab was assessed. METHODS: Ten patients with CRPS type 1 were recruited. Assessments were performed before treatment, at 1 week, and 1, 3, and 6 months following 3 biweekly subcutaneous injections (40 mg/0.8 mL) adalimumab (Humira(®) ) and included the followings: Pain intensity using a 0-10 cm visual analog scale; the Short Form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire; the Beck Depression Inventory; the SF-36 questionnaire and mechanical and thermal thresholds (Von frey hair and Thermal Sensory Analyzer, respectively). In addition to the description of individual patient responses, both intention to treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were performed for the entire group. RESULTS: Three subgroups of patients were identified (3 patients in each): "nonresponders", "partial responders", and "robust responders" in whom improvement in almost all parameters was noted. Both the ITT and PP analyses demonstrated only a trend toward improvement in mechanical pain thresholds following treatment (ITT ?² = 13.83, P = 0.008; PP ?² = 10.29, P = 0.036). CONCLUSION: These results suggest adalimumab, and possibly other anti-TNF-?, can be potentially useful in some (although not in all) patients with CRPS type 1. These preliminary results along with the growing body of evidence which points to the involvement of TNF-? in the pathogenesis of CRPS justify further studies in this area.

Eisenberg E; Sandler I; Treister R; Suzan E; Haddad M

2013-05-01

330

Anti tumor Necrosis Factor - Alpha Adalimumab for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS-I): A Case Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Evidence suggests tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) mediates, at least in part, symptoms and signs in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Here, we present a case series of patients with CRPS type 1, in whom the response to the anti-TNF-? adalimumab was assessed. METHODS: Ten patients with CRPS type 1 were recruited. Assessments were performed before treatment, at 1 week, and 1, 3, and 6 months following 3 biweekly subcutaneous injections (40 mg/0.8 mL) adalimumab (Humira(®) ) and included the followings: Pain intensity using a 0-10 cm visual analog scale; the Short Form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire; the Beck Depression Inventory; the SF-36 questionnaire and mechanical and thermal thresholds (Von frey hair and Thermal Sensory Analyzer, respectively). In addition to the description of individual patient responses, both intention to treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were performed for the entire group. RESULTS: Three subgroups of patients were identified (3 patients in each): "nonresponders", "partial responders", and "robust responders" in whom improvement in almost all parameters was noted. Both the ITT and PP analyses demonstrated only a trend toward improvement in mechanical pain thresholds following treatment (ITT ?² = 13.83, P = 0.008; PP ?² = 10.29, P = 0.036). CONCLUSION: These results suggest adalimumab, and possibly other anti-TNF-?, can be potentially useful in some (although not in all) patients with CRPS type 1. These preliminary results along with the growing body of evidence which points to the involvement of TNF-? in the pathogenesis of CRPS justify further studies in this area. PMID:23668697

Eisenberg, Elon; Sandler, Ifat; Treister, Roi; Suzan, Erica; Haddad, May

2013-05-13

331

Genetic analysis of tumorigenesis: a conserved region in the human and Chinese hamster genomes contains genetically identified tumor-suppressor genes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Regional chromosome homologies were found in a comparison of human 11p with Chinese hamster 3p. By use of probes that recognize six genes of human 11p (INS, CAT, HBBC, CALC, PTH, and HRAS), the corresponding genes were localized by in situ hybridization on Chinese hamster chromosome 3. INS and CAT were located close to the centromere on 3p, whereas HBBC, CALC, and PTH were at 3q3-4 and HRAS at 3q4. Extensive prior data from chromosome studies of tumorigenic and tumor-derived Chinese hamster cells have suggested the presence of a tumor-suppressor gene on 3p. Two tumor-suppressor genes have been described on human 11p, one linked to CAT and one to INS. The present study raises the possibility that the Chinese hamster suppressor may be closely linked to INS or CAT

1987-01-01

332

The Study Drug Pathomorphism And Immunohistochemical Parameters Of Tumor In Endoarterial Of Regional Long-Term Chemotherapy In Treatment Of Cervical Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: To improve the results of radiotherapy for cervical cancer used local and systemic radio-modification drugs.Materials and methods: 1984 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (2b - 3a stage), which at one stage of complex treatment by a course indo-arterial of regional long-term poly-chemotherapy (EARDPHT) mode: methotrexate - 50 mg/m2, the first 12 hours, fluorouracil 1000 mg/m2, over the next 12 hours and cisplatin - 100 mg/m2, for 48 hours, 2 stage - surgical treatment in the volume expanding hysterectomy 3 type (modification of Wertheim - Meigs).Results: The results of treatment of locally cervical cancer using VADRPHT, depending on the unilateral and bilateral tumor invasion in parametrial tissue showed that under unilateral lesion of parametrium results of treatment were higher than for the bilateral involvement of parametrium. Medical pathomorphosis in tumors of different severity was observed in 86.9% of patients, metastasis to regional lymph nodes were detected in 36% of operated patients, and also studied the degree of therapeutic pathomorphosis in lymph nodes. There was revealed that the complete regression of tumors, 5 - year survival rate is 98%, whereas in tumor regression of more than 50% of the original volume – 78.5%, with stabilization of tumor - no more than 58.4%.Conclusion:  The study of molecular-biological parameters of the tumor cells show the effectiveness of conducted neo-advent indo-arterial chemotherapy and play an important role in further treatment and prediction of disease.

V Navruzova; N Yuldasheva

2013-01-01

333

Changes of regional perfusion in metastatic brain tumor and peritumoral area after radiosurgery. A study by 123I-IMP dynamic SPECT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes of regional perfusion in the tumor, peritumoral edematous area and juxtatumor brain after radiosurgical treatment for metastatic brain tumor were investigated by dynamic SPECT using 123I-IMP. The SPECT was performed in 12 patients before and 1, 7 and 30 days after stereotactic irradiation. A region of interest (ROI) was selected each in the tumor, peritumoral edematous area, juxtatumor brain and ipsilateral cerebellum. Radioactivity in each ROIs was counted on early SPECT based on dynamic SPECT from 0 to 5 minutes. Mean count/pixel in each ROIs was divided by mean count/pixel in the ROI of the ipsilateral cerebellum and its value was designated as a count ratio (CR). Relative change of post-treatment CRs investigated assuming the pre-treatment CRs as 1.0. rCR in the tumor did not show any significant change after radiosurgical treatment. rCR in the edematous area and the juxtatumor brain increased at 7 days after irradiation [Mean±SD 1.434±0.409 (p

1996-01-01

334

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis and treatment masking the ophthalmic clinical presentation of a pineal gland tumour in a teenager.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 17-year-old male was found to have a fourth cranial nerve palsy and chronic papilloedema following his presentation to our institution with a 6-week history of blurred vision in both eyes and vertical binocular diplopia. A diagnosis of pineal germinoma was made following imaging studies and endoscopic neurosurgical biopsy of the tumour. He was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 3 years earlier and treated with amphetamines. Since this diagnosis, he continued to suffer from hyperactive behaviour, poor concentration, worsening headaches and insomnia. Pineal pathology has a known association with sleep disturbance through the disturbance of melatonin synthesis and/or metabolism. This case report serves to highlight how the presence of organic brain disease presenting to an eye department can be masked by a diagnosis of ADHD.

Cunniffe G; Murthy R; Beigi B

2010-12-01

335

Protective role of buffalo pineal proteins on arsenic-induced oxidative stress in blood and kidney of rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to various toxic metals has become an increasingly recognized source of ill- ness in human and animals, worldwide. Arsenic (As) and its compounds cause adverse health effects in animals and humans. Recently, it has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have antioxidants role due to secretary product other than melatonin. With keeping this view, pre-sent investigation tested effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins (PP) on arsenic-induced oxidative stress in RBCs (Red blood cells) and kidney of rats. Methods: Eighteen adult female Wistar rats were grouped into group-I (Control), group-II (Arsenic control), and group-III (Arsenic + Pineal proteins). Experimental rats were given 100 ppm arsenic (p.o.) for 4 weeks alone or along with pineal proteins at a dose of 100 µg/kg body weight (i.p.). Results: Interestingly, arsenic ex-posure led to the stimulation of kidney catalase (CAT) activity, but inhibition of RBCs CAT activ-ity and significantly (P<0.05) increased the RBCs and kidney lipid peroxidation level (LPO). How-ever, arsenic treatment caused depletion of glu- tathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) in kidney tissues. In RBCs, only GR and CAT activity were significantly (P<0.05) declined. These changes were significantly (P<0.05) reversed by PP treatment in arsenic exposed animals. Conclusion: Therefore, present study indicated the significant protecting effect of buf-falo (Bubalus bubalis) PP against arsenic in-duced-oxidative stress through antioxidant de-fense systems in rats.

Vijay K. Bharti; R. S. Srivastava

2009-01-01

336

The expression of Per1 and Aa-nat genes in the pineal gland of postnatal rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis is controlled by the master clock, suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The level of melatonin changes throughout the aging process. The SCN's rhythm is driven by autoregulatory feedback loop composed of a set of clock genes families and their corresponding proteins. The Period (Per1), one of clock gene develops gradually during postnatal ontogenesis in the rat SCN and is also expressed in the pineal gland. OBJECTIVE: It is of interest to study the relationship between the postnatal development of Per1 and Aa-nat, genes that produce the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin synthesis, in the pineal. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Daily profiles of mRNA expression of Per1 and Aa-nat were analyzed in the pineal gland of pups at postnatal ages 4 (P4), P8, P16 and P32, at puberty age of 6 weeks; and in 8 week-old adult rats by real-time PCR. RESULTS: As early as P4, Per1 and Aa-nat mRNAs were expressed and existed at relatively high levels during the nighttime. They gradually increased until puberty and decreased at 8 weeks of age. Additionally, the nocturnal changes of Per1 and Aa-nat mRNA levels in the rat pineal gland from P4 to adults were strongly correlated at r = 0.97 (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The present data indicate that there is a close relationship between the expression pattern of Per1 and that of melatonin synthesis during the development of postnatal rats.

Wongchitrat P; Govitrapong P; Phansuwan-Pujito P

2012-12-01

337

Phosphodiesterase 10A in the rat pineal gland: localization, daily and seasonal regulation of expression and influence on signal transduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is highly expressed in striatal spiny projection neurons and represents a therapeutic target for the treatment of psychotic symptoms. As reported previously [J Biol Chem 2009; 284:7606-7622], in this study PDE10A was seen to be additionally expressed in the pineal gland where the levels of PDE10A transcript display daily changes. As with the transcript, the amount of PDE10A protein was found to be under daily and seasonal regulation. The observed cyclicity in the amount of PDE10A mRNA persists under constant darkness, is blocked by constant light and is modulated by the lighting regime. It therefore appears to be driven by the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Since adrenergic agonists and dibutyryl-cAMP induce PDE10A mRNA, the in vitro clock-dependent control of Pde10a appears to be mediated via a norepinephrine ? ?-adrenoceptor ? cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway. With regard to the physiological role of PDE10A in the pineal gland, the specific PDE10A inhibitor papaverine was seen to enhance the adrenergic stimulation of the second messenger cAMP and cGMP. This indicates that PDE10A downregulates adrenergic cAMP and cGMP signaling by decreasing the half-life of both nucleotides. Consistent with its effect on cAMP, PDE10A inhibition also amplifies adrenergic induction of the cAMP-inducible gene arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) which codes the rate-limiting enzyme in pineal melatonin formation. The findings of this study suggest that Pde10a expression is under circadian and seasonal regulation and plays a modulatory role in pineal signal transduction and gene expression. PMID:21474921

Spiwoks-Becker, Isabella; Wolloscheck, Tanja; Rickes, Oliver; Kelleher, Debra K; Rohleder, Nils; Weyer, Veronika; Spessert, Rainer

2011-04-07

338

Phosphodiesterase 10A in the rat pineal gland: localization, daily and seasonal regulation of expression and influence on signal transduction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is highly expressed in striatal spiny projection neurons and represents a therapeutic target for the treatment of psychotic symptoms. As reported previously [J Biol Chem 2009; 284:7606-7622], in this study PDE10A was seen to be additionally expressed in the pineal gland where the levels of PDE10A transcript display daily changes. As with the transcript, the amount of PDE10A protein was found to be under daily and seasonal regulation. The observed cyclicity in the amount of PDE10A mRNA persists under constant darkness, is blocked by constant light and is modulated by the lighting regime. It therefore appears to be driven by the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Since adrenergic agonists and dibutyryl-cAMP induce PDE10A mRNA, the in vitro clock-dependent control of Pde10a appears to be mediated via a norepinephrine ? ?-adrenoceptor ? cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway. With regard to the physiological role of PDE10A in the pineal gland, the specific PDE10A inhibitor papaverine was seen to enhance the adrenergic stimulation of the second messenger cAMP and cGMP. This indicates that PDE10A downregulates adrenergic cAMP and cGMP signaling by decreasing the half-life of both nucleotides. Consistent with its effect on cAMP, PDE10A inhibition also amplifies adrenergic induction of the cAMP-inducible gene arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) which codes the rate-limiting enzyme in pineal melatonin formation. The findings of this study suggest that Pde10a expression is under circadian and seasonal regulation and plays a modulatory role in pineal signal transduction and gene expression.

Spiwoks-Becker I; Wolloscheck T; Rickes O; Kelleher DK; Rohleder N; Weyer V; Spessert R

2011-01-01

339

Conformal radiotherapy with intensity modulation, regional deep hyperthermia and total androgen suppression in patients with a high risk prostate tumor, operated or not. Preliminary results in 20 patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: to evaluate the feasibility and the toxicity of association of I.M.R.T., regional deep hyperthermia and complete androgenic elimination for the patients suffering of a high risk prostate tumor. Conclusion: According to our experience the association of pelvis I.M.R.T., a complement of prostate irradiation, a regional deep hyperthermia and complete androgenic elimination by analog is feasible. In comparison with the modest toxicity that we previously observed for patients treated by three dimensional conformal radiotherapy limited to the prostate associated to a regional deep hyperthermia and a complete androgenic elimination, the tolerance of the association of pelvic I.M.R.T.,regional deep hyperthermia and complete androgenic elimination turns out better. (N.C.)

2009-01-01

340

Plasma corticosterone elevation inhibits the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) in the Syrian hamster pineal gland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated how the mild stress-induced increase in endogenous corticosterone affected the pineal gland in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). The animals were maintained under constant light for 1 day, instead of a cycle of 14:10-h, to increase the circulating corticosterone levels during the daytime. The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB), which is the pivotal transcription factor for stress and injury, presented a daily rhythm in normal animals. NFKB nuclear content increased linearly from the onset of light [Zeitgeber Time 0 (ZT0)] until ZT11 and decreased after ZT12 when the plasma corticosterone peak was detected in normal animals. However, the 24-h profiles of the two curves were different, and they did not clearly support an exclusive relationship between corticosterone levels and NFKB content. Therefore, we tested the effect of increased endogenous corticosterone through inducing mild stress by maintaining daytime illumination for one night. This stressful condition, which increased daytime corticosterone levels, resulted in a daytime decrease in NFKB nuclear content, and this was inhibited by mifepristone. Overall, this study shows that NFKB has a daily rhythm in Syrian hamster pineal glands and, by increasing endogenous corticosterone with a stressful condition, NFKB activity is regulated. Therefore, this study suggests that the pineal gland in the Syrian hamster is a sensor of stressful conditions.

Ferreira ZS; Bothorel B; Markus RP; Simonneaux V

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Cancer as the main aging factor for humans: the fundamental role of 5-methoxy-tryptamine in reversal of cancer-induced aging processes in metabolic and immune reactions by non-melatonin pineal hormones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aging and advanced cancer are characterized by similar neuroendocrine and immune deficiencies; the most important of them consist of diminished nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin (MLT) and decreased production of IL-2. At present, however, it is known that the pineal gland may produce indole hormones other than MLT. The most investigated of them is represented by 5-methoxy-tryptamine (5-MTT), which may exert antitumor, anticachectic, and immunomodulating effects under experimental conditions, in addition to those effects produced by MLT itself. In an attempt to obtain some preliminary data in human subjects about the potential therapeutic properties of 5-MTT, three different studies of 5-MTT have been carried out in advanced solid tumor patients. The first study of MLT plus 5-MTT included 14 thrombocytopenic cancer patients who did not respond to MLT alone. In the second study we have compared the clinical efficacy of MLT plus 5-MTT in a group of 25 untreatable metastatic cancer patients to the results obtained in a control group of 25 cancer patients receiving MLT alone. Finally, the third study of MLT plus 5-MTT included 14 untreatable metastatic cancer patients who did not respond to MLT alone. In all of these studies, MLT and 5-MTT were given orally at the level of 20 mg/day in the evening and at 5 mg/day during the period of maximum light. A normalization of platelet number was achieved by MLT plus 5-MTT in 5 of 14 (36%) thrombocytopenic cancer patients who did not respond to MLT alone. The percentage of disease control obtained by MLT plus 5-MTT in untreatable metastatic cancer patients was significantly higher than that achieved by MLT alone (15/25 [60%] vs. 8/25 [32%], P < 0.05). Finally, the association of 5-MTT with MLT induced disease stabilization in 4 of 14 (29%) untreatable metastatic cancer patients who did not respond to MLT alone.

Lissoni P; Messina G; Rovelli F

2012-12-01

342

Cancer as the main aging factor for humans: the fundamental role of 5-methoxy-tryptamine in reversal of cancer-induced aging processes in metabolic and immune reactions by non-melatonin pineal hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aging and advanced cancer are characterized by similar neuroendocrine and immune deficiencies; the most important of them consist of diminished nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin (MLT) and decreased production of IL-2. At present, however, it is known that the pineal gland may produce indole hormones other than MLT. The most investigated of them is represented by 5-methoxy-tryptamine (5-MTT), which may exert antitumor, anticachectic, and immunomodulating effects under experimental conditions, in addition to those effects produced by MLT itself. In an attempt to obtain some preliminary data in human subjects about the potential therapeutic properties of 5-MTT, three different studies of 5-MTT have been carried out in advanced solid tumor patients. The first study of MLT plus 5-MTT included 14 thrombocytopenic cancer patients who did not respond to MLT alone. In the second study we have compared the clinical efficacy of MLT plus 5-MTT in a group of 25 untreatable metastatic cancer patients to the results obtained in a control group of 25 cancer patients receiving MLT alone. Finally, the third study of MLT plus 5-MTT included 14 untreatable metastatic cancer patients who did not respond to MLT alone. In all of these studies, MLT and 5-MTT were given orally at the level of 20 mg/day in the evening and at 5 mg/day during the period of maximum light. A normalization of platelet number was achieved by MLT plus 5-MTT in 5 of 14 (36%) thrombocytopenic cancer patients who did not respond to MLT alone. The percentage of disease control obtained by MLT plus 5-MTT in untreatable metastatic cancer patients was significantly higher than that achieved by MLT alone (15/25 [60%] vs. 8/25 [32%], P MLT induced disease stabilization in 4 of 14 (29%) untreatable metastatic cancer patients who did not respond to MLT alone. PMID:23451999

Lissoni, Paolo; Messina, Giuseppina; Rovelli, Franco

2012-12-01

343

A common region of deletion on chromosome 17q in both sporadic and familial epithelial ovarian tumors distal to BRCA1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Linkage analysis in familial breast and ovarian cancer and studies of allelic deletion in sporadic ovarian tumors have identified a region on chromosome 17q containing a candidate tumor-suppressor gene (referred to as BRCA1) of likely importance in ovarian carcinogenesis. We have examined normal and tumor DNA samples from 32 patients with sporadic and 8 patients with familial forms of the disease, for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 21 loci on chromosome 17 (7 on 17p and 14 on 17q). LOH on 17p was 55% (22/40) for informative 17p13.1 and 17p13.3 markers. When six polymorphic markers flanking the familial breast/ovarian cancer susceptibility locus on 17q12-q21 were used, LOH was 58% (23/40), with one tumor showing telomeric retention. Evaluation of a set of markers positioned telomeric to BRCA1 resulted in the highest degree of LOH, 73% (29/40), indicating that a candidate locus involved in ovarian cancer may reside distal to BRCA1. Five of the tumors demonstrating allelic loss for 17q markers were from individuals with a strong family history of breast and ovarian cancer. More important, two of these tumors (unique patient number [UPN] 57 and UPN 79) retained heterozygosity for all informative markers spanning the BRCA1 locus but showed LOH at loci distal to but not including the anonymous markers CMM86 (D17S74) and 42D6 (D17S588), respectively. Deletion mapping of seven cases (two familial and five sporadic) showing limited LOH on 17q revealed a common region of deletion, distal to GH and proximal to D17S4, that spans {approximately} 25 cM. These results suggest that a potential tumor-suppressor gene involved in both sporadic and familial ovarian cancer may reside on the distal portion of chromosome 17q and is distinct from the BRCA1 gene. 58 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Godwin, A.K.; Vanderveer, L.; Schultz, D.C.; Altomare, D.A.; Buetow, K.H.; Daly, M.; Getts, L.A.; Masny, A.; Rosenblum, N. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

1994-10-01

344

[The diagnosis value of malignant tumors in the Oral and Maxillofacial region using healthy person's free radical of hair  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Electron spin Resonance(ESR) was used to determine the free radical of hair from 324 cases.These cases included 185 healthy persons,33 benign tumor patients,84 malignant cases and 22 oral mucosa disease cases.The determined results were controlled with pathologic diagnosis to analyse the accordance. The result showed the positive rates of above mentioned cases were 5.9%,6.1%,84.52%and 9.1% respectively.The significant differences were observed when comparing the results of malignant cases with healthy person and benign tumor cases with healthy person and benign tumor cases(P<0.01).The ESR saturation power points of some malignant cases rose to above border-line(>10.0mW) after treatment.These results indicated using ESR to diagnosis early malignant cases and follow treatment effect possess certain clinical value.

Chen JW; Qiu WL; He RG; Lin GC; Zhang ZY

1995-03-01

345

[The diagnosis value of malignant tumors in the Oral and Maxillofacial region using healthy person's free radical of hair  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron spin Resonance(ESR) was used to determine the free radical of hair from 324 cases.These cases included 185 healthy persons,33 benign tumor patients,84 malignant cases and 22 oral mucosa disease cases.The determined results were controlled with pathologic diagnosis to analyse the accordance. The result showed the positive rates of above mentioned cases were 5.9%,6.1%,84.52%and 9.1% respectively.The significant differences were observed when comparing the results of malignant cases with healthy person and benign tumor cases with healthy person and benign tumor cases(Ppower points of some malignant cases rose to above border-line(>10.0mW) after treatment.These results indicated using ESR to diagnosis early malignant cases and follow treatment effect possess certain clinical value. PMID:15160094

Chen, J W; Qiu, W L; He, R G; Lin, G C; Zhang, Z Y

1995-03-01

346

RECOGNITION OF N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE (GLyNAc) AND POLY-N-ACETYLLACTOSAMINE RESIDUES IN VESSELS OF THE RAT PINEAL GLAND/ RECONOCIMIENTO DE RESIDUOS DE N-ACETILGLUCOSAMINA (GLyNAc) Y POLI-N-ACETILLACTOSAMINA EN VASOS DE LA GLÁNDULA PINEAL DE RATAS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las lectinas son proteínas que contienen áreas singulares para el reconocimiento de secuencias de azúcares en los glicoconjugados. La lecitina del tomate Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL) es capaz de reconocer específicamente los residuos de N-acetil-glucosamina (Gly-Nac) y poli-N-acetil-lactosamina. Utilizamos la técnica histoquímica para LEL conjugada a la biotina con el propósito de investigar en la glándula pineal de ratones adultos y durante el desarrollo, las es (more) tructuras morfológicas capaces de unirse a esta lecitina. Nuestros resultados experimentales mostraron un material de coloración por la LEL, solamente en la superficie de las células endoteliales de todos los vasos sanguíneos y en todas las regiones de la glándula. La excepción ocurrió en los ratones con un día pos-natal (PN1), donde solamente los vasos de la región más periférica de la glándula presentaban coloración marrón amarillenta por la LEL, pero ninguno presentaba esta coloración en la región más central de la glándula. La reacción apareció especialmente en el espacio interno de las pseudo-rosetas, demostrando así que este espacio está, seguramente, representado por un vaso Abstract in english Lectins are proteins with binding sites that recognize a specific sequence of sugar moieties in complex glycoconjugates. In the present study the tomato lectin ­ Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL) (a selective microglial and endothelial marker) has been reported to recognize specific residues of N-acetylglucosamine (GlyNAc) and poly-N-acetyllactosamine. In the pineal gland the biotinylated LEL was used to investigate the appearance of these sugar residues in the structures of (more) the rats during their development and adult life. Our results showed that the binding of LEL occurred exclusively in the material adherents on surface of the endothelia of the vessels in the peripheral and central regions of the gland. An exception can be cited to rats in first postnatal day where the vessels in the central region did not display the LEL-reaction. In all animals studied and, from 3- postnatal day onwards the LEL-reactions could be observed within the central space of pseudo-rosettes also characterizing this space as a vessel

Ferreira-Medeiros, Mildred; Correa-Gillieron, Elenice

2004-12-01

347

Physical mapping of chromosome 17p13.3 in the region of a putative tumor suppressor gene important in medulloblastoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deletion mapping of a medulloblastoma tumor panel revealed loss of distal chromosome 17p13.3 sequences in tumors from 14 of 32 patients (44%). Of the 14 tumors showing loss of heterozygosity by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, 14 of 14 (100%) displayed loss of the telomeric marker p144-D6 (D17S34), while a probe for the ABR gene on 17p13.3 was lost in 7 of 8 (88%) informative cases. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we localized the polymorphic marker (VNTR-A) of the ABR gene locus to within 220 kb of the p144-D6 locus. A cosmid contig constructed in this region was used to demonstrate by fluorescence in situ hybridization that the ABR gene is oriented transcriptionally 5{prime} to 3{prime} toward the telomere. This report provides new physical mapping data for the ABR gene, which has not been previously shown to be deleted in medulloblastoma. These results provide further evidence for the existence of a second tumor suppressor gene distinct from p53 on distal chromosome 17p. 12 refs., 3 figs.

McDonald, J.D.; Daneshvar, L.; Willert, J.R. [Univ. of California, San Franciso, CA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

348

Meta-analysis of cancer gene expression signatures reveals new cancer genes, SAGE tags and tumor associated regions of co-regulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cancer is among the major causes of human death and its mechanism(s) are not fully understood. We applied a novel meta-analysis approach to multiple sets of merged serial analysis of gene expression and microarray cancer data in order to analyze transcriptome alterations in human cancer. Our methodology, which we denote 'COgnate Gene Expression patterNing in tumours' (COGENT), unmasked numerous genes that were differentially expressed in multiple cancers. COGENT detected well-known tumor-associated (TA) genes such as TP53, EGFR and VEGF, as well as many multi-cancer, but not-yet-tumor-associated genes. In addition, we identified 81 co-regulated regions on the human genome (RIDGEs) by using expression data from all cancers. Some RIDGEs (28%) consist of paralog genes while another subset (30%) are specifically dysregulated in tumors but not in normal tissues. Furthermore, a significant number of RIDGEs are associated with GC-rich regions on the genome. All assembled data is freely available online (www.oncoreveal.org) as a tool implementing COGENT analysis of multi-cancer genes and RIDGEs. These findings engender a deeper understanding of cancer biology by demonstrating the existence of a pool of under-studied multi-cancer genes and by highlighting the cancer-specificity of some TA-RIDGEs.

Kavak E; Unlü M; Nistér M; Koman A

2010-11-01

349

An agent-based model identifies MRI regions of probable tumor invasion in a patient with glioblastoma  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an application of a previously developed agent-based glioma model (Chen et al 2009 Biosystems 95 234-42) for predicting spatio-temporal tumor progression using a patient-specific MRI lattice derived from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) data. Agents representing collections of migrating glioma cells are initialized based upon voxels at the outer border of the tumor identified on T1-weighted (Gd+) MRI at an initial time point. These simulated migratory cells exhibit a specific biologically inspired spatial search paradigm, representing a weighting of the differential contribution from haptotactic permission and biomechanical resistance on the migration decision process. ADC data from 9 months after the initial tumor resection were used to select the best search paradigm for the simulation, which was initiated using data from 6 months after the initial operation. Using this search paradigm, 100 simulations were performed to derive a probabilistic map of tumor invasion locations. The simulation was able to successfully predict a recurrence in the dorsal/posterior aspect long before it was depicted on T1-weighted MRI, 18 months after the initial operation.

Chen, L. Leon; Ulmer, Stephan; Deisboeck, Thomas S.

2010-01-01

350

Serial MR diffusion to predict treatment response in high-grade pediatric brain tumors: a comparison of regional and voxel-based diffusion change metrics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Assessment of treatment response by measuring tumor size is known to be a late and potentially confounded response index. Serial diffusion MRI has shown potential for allowing earlier and possibly more reliable response assessment in adult patients, with limited experience in clinical settings and in pediatric brain cancer. We present a retrospective study of clinical MRI data in children with high-grade brain tumors to assess and compare the values of several diffusion change metrics to predict treatment response. METHODS: Eighteen patients (age range, 1.9-20.6 years) with high-grade brain tumors and serial diffusion MRI (pre- and posttreatment interval range, 1-16 weeks posttreatment) were identified after obtaining parental consent. The following diffusion change metrics were compared with the clinical response status assessed at 6 months: (1) regional change in absolute and normalized apparent diffusivity coefficient (ADC), (2) voxel-based fractional volume of increased (fiADC) and decreased ADC (fdADC), and (3) a new metric based on the slope of the first principal component of functional diffusion maps (fDM). RESULTS: Responders (n = 12) differed significantly from nonresponders (n = 6) in all 3 diffusional change metrics demonstrating higher regional ADC increase, larger fiADC, and steeper slopes (P < .05). The slope method allowed the best response prediction (P < .01, ?(2) = 0.78) with a classification accuracy of 83% for a slope of 58° using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that diffusion change metrics are suitable response predictors for high-grade pediatric tumors, even in the presence of variable clinical diffusion imaging protocols.

Rodriguez Gutierrez D; Manita M; Jaspan T; Dineen RA; Grundy RG; Auer DP

2013-08-01

351

Increased DNA methylation in the HoxA5 promoter region correlates with decreased expression of the gene during tumor promotion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Promoter-region DNA methylation inhibits transcription. A two-stage SENCAR (sensitive to mouse carcinogenesis) mouse skin carcinogenicity model was used to examine gene-specific changes in methylation during skin tumor promotion. Analysis was performed on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated skin promoted with 9, 18, 27, or 36 mg cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) for 9 wk, or 27 mg CSC for 9 wk and sacrificed 6 wk afterwards (recovery group). Additionally, tumors arising following promotion with 27 mg CSC for 29 wk were assessed. Gene array analysis identified differentially expressed genes. Expression of HoxA5, a tumor suppressor gene, was decreased following 9 wk of treatment with 27 mg CSC, and returned to control levels during recovery. HoxA5 promoter methylation was measured with the enzymatic regional methylation assay (ERMA). DNA was bisulfite-modified, PCR-amplified with primers containing dam sites, incubated with [14C-methyl] S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and dam methyltransferase for DNA quantification, then incubated with [3H-methyl] SAM and SssI methylase to quantify methylation status. Higher 3H/14C ratios indicate increased methylation. The 3H/14C ratios of animals promoted with 27 or 36 mg CSC (48.2 +/- 6.9 and 24.2 +/- 6.1, respectively) were higher than the control or recovery group ratios (12.3 +/- 0.1 and 12.6 +/- 0.3, respectively); sequence analysis supported these findings. Increased methylation of p16 or O6 methylguanine methyltranferase (MGMT) was detected in 4/8 (50%) of the tumor samples from mice promoted with 27 mg CSC. These data suggest that increased DNA methylation contributes to the downregulation of HoxA5, and combined with hypermethylation of p16 or MGMT, this might facilitate the clonal expansion of increasingly aberrant cells during promotion.

Watson RE; Curtin GM; Hellmann GM; Doolittle DJ; Goodman JI

2004-09-01

352

BMP signaling orchestrates photoreceptor specification in the zebrafish pineal gland in collaboration with Notch.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A variety of signaling pathways have been shown to regulate specification of neuronal subtype identity. However, the mechanisms by which future neurons simultaneously process information from multiple pathways to establish their identity remain poorly understood. The zebrafish pineal gland offers a simple system with which to address questions concerning the integration of signaling pathways during neural specification as it contains only two types of neurons - photoreceptors and projection neurons. We have previously shown that Notch signaling inhibits the projection neuron fate. Here, we show that BMP signaling is both necessary and sufficient to promote the photoreceptor fate. We also demonstrate that crosstalk between BMP and Notch signaling is required for the inhibition of a projection neuron fate in future photoreceptors. In this case, BMP signaling is required as a competence factor for the efficient activation of Notch targets. Our results indicate that both the induction of a photoreceptor fate and the interaction with Notch relies on a canonical BMP/Smad5 pathway. However, the activation of Notch-dependent transcription does not require a canonical Smad5-DNA interaction. Our results provide new insights into how multiple signaling influences are integrated during cell fate specification in the vertebrate CNS.

Quillien A; Blanco-Sanchez B; Halluin C; Moore JC; Lawson ND; Blader P; Cau E

2011-06-01

353

Electron microscopic studies on the pineal organ of the antarctic penguin, (Pygoscelis papua).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pineal organ of the migratory antarctic penguin, Pygoscelis papua, has a lobular structure. Clusters formed by different types of parenchymal cells are separated by connective tissue septa containing blood vessels. The predominant cell type displays a well-developed Golgi complex, free ribosomes, clear and granular vesicles (secretory granules), and lysosomes. Other cell types found in the gland are supporting and ependymal-like cells. The former contain dense bodies and filament bundles, the latter possess abundant cilia and clusters of ribosomes. Typical photoreceptor elements are lacking. Blood vessels are located within a perivascular space bordered by basal laminae. This perivascular space extends between the basal protrusions of the parenchymal cells. The presence of pinocytotic vesicles, secretory granules and cytoplasmic processes in the vicinity of these spaces suggests active sites of transport and exchange of substances. Intercellular conaliculi-like spaces are surrounded by parenchymal cells rich in microvilli. These cancliculi are continuous with the cavities (invaginations) of secretory and other parenchymal cells.

Piezzi RS; Gutiérrez LS

1975-12-01

354

Second primary brain tumors following cranial irradiation for pediatric solid brain tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: We describe our institution's experience with seven patients who developed second brain tumors following cranial irradiation. METHODS: The median age at first irradiation was 8 years (range, 3-20 years). Initial diagnoses were two cases of germinoma, one non-germinomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT), three cases of medulloblastoma, and one pineal gland tumor (pathology undetermined). All patients received craniospinal irradiation followed by local boost and the median dose to the initial tumor area was 54.0 Gy (range, 49.8-60.6 Gy). Four patients (two medulloblastomas, one germinoma, and one NGGCT) received chemotherapy. RESULTS: Second brain tumors were diagnosed a median of 114 months (range, 64-203) after initial radiation. Pathologic diagnoses were one glioblastoma, two cases of anaplastic astrocytoma, one medulloblastoma, one low-grade glioma, one high-grade glial tumor, and one atypical meningioma. Five patients underwent surgical resection with subsequent radiotherapy. One anaplastic astrocytoma patient received chemotherapy only following stereotactic biopsy. The meningioma patient was alive 32 months after total resection and radiosurgery for subsequent recurrences. Six patients died within 18 months and most deaths were due to disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients diagnosed with second brain tumors had received high-dose, large-volume radiotherapy with chemotherapy at a young age. Further studies are required to determine the relationship between radiotherapy/chemotherapy and the development of secondary brain tumors.

You SH; Lyu CJ; Kim DS; Suh CO

2013-10-01

355

Reduction of the nocturnal rise in pineal melatonin levels in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields in utero and for 23 days after birth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields of either 10, 65, or 130 kV/m from conception to 23 days of age exhibited reduced peak nighttime pineal melatonin contents compared to unexposed controls. As a group, the exposed rats also exhibited a phase delay, estimated at approximately 1.4 hours, in the occurrence of the nocturnal melatonin peak. No clear dose-response relationship was noticed over the range of electric field strengths used as treatments in these experiments. These are the first studies concerned with the effects of electric field exposure on the pineal melatonin rhythm in immature rats. The findings are generally consistent with those obtained using adult rats, where electric field exposure has been shown to abolish the nighttime rhythm in pineal melatonin concentrations.

Reiter, R.J.; Anderson, L.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Wilson, B.W.

1988-01-01

356

Reduction of the nocturnal rise in pineal melatonin levels in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields in utero and for 23 days after birth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields of either 10, 65, or 130 kV/m from conception to 23 days of age exhibited reduced peak nighttime pineal melatonin contents compared to unexposed controls. As a group, the exposed rats also exhibited a phase delay, estimated at approximately 1.4 hours, in the occurrence of the nocturnal melatonin peak. No clear dose-response relationship was noticed over the range of electric field strengths used as treatments in these experiments. These are the first studies concerned with the effects of electric field exposure on the pineal melatonin rhythm in immature rats and the findings are generally consistent with those obtained using adult rats, where electric field exposure has been shown to abolish the nighttime rhythm in pineal melatonin concentrations. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Reiter, R.J.; Anderson, L.E.; Buschbom, R.I.; Wilson, B.W.

1988-02-01

357

[The sexual peculiarities of aging changes in circannual rhythms of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus functions in healthy subjects].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The interrelations of circannual rhythms of the functional state of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex, thymus in healthy women and men from 20 to 79 years were studied. Fluctuations of melatonin, ACTH, cortisol and thymic serum factor, which were exchanged in aging (the season peaks of hormones and its acrophase) were found in blood of healthy 20-29 years old people. The changes of rhythmicity of indices were in male earlier (pineal gland and hypophysis over 30 years, thymus and adrenal cortex over 40 years) and more impressive than in women. The aging changes of pineal gland function's rhythm in healthy subjects have important role for changes of interrelations of circannual rhythms hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus.

2013-01-01

358

Determination of regional blood-tissue transfer constants and initial (plasma) volume in brain and brain tumors using 68Ga-EDTA and dynamic positron emission tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beagle dogs with Avian Sarcoma Virus induced brain tumors were studied under pentobarbital anesthesia at 8 to 10 wks of age when they demonstrated contrast enhancing lesions on CT scans of 1.5 cm or greater diameter. Four to 6 mCi of /sup 68/Ga-EDTA in saline was intravenously infused over 3 min, arterial blood rapidly sampled, and serial 30 sec scans obtained on the Neuro-PET. The scanning period and interval between blood sampling was gradually increased after 5-6 min; 25 min scans were obtained from 30 min until the end of the experiments (2 to 4 hrs). Fifteen min prior to the end of the experiments, 1 mCi of /sup 14/C-..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) was intravenously injected, arterial blood sampled, the animal killed with intravenous KCl, and the brain rapidly frozen for later processing of histology and quantitative autoradiography. Regions of interest could be outlined on the basis of histology image overlays and directly compared with the /sup 14/C-AIB autoradiographic images. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant blood-tumor barrier in these experimental animals and suggest that similar studies could be performed in patients with brain tumors in order to individualize their chemotherapy.

Blasberg, R.G.; Wright, D.C.; Patlak, C.S.; Brooks, R.A.; Carson, R.E.; Groothuis, D.R.; DiChiro, G.

1984-01-01

359

Steroid Hormones and Antihormones can Reverse the Castration Induced Stimulation of the Pineal and Adrenal Karyomorphology and Cell Proliferation in Mice (Mus musculus)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present investigation, influence of castration and castrated animals supplemented with steroid hormones and antihormones on pineal-adrenal karyomorphology and dynamics were studied in post pubertal male mice. A group of thirty five mice were orchidectomized and (N = 7) sham operated, were kept in laboratory condition for 30 days. Such castrated were separately supplemented with estradiol at a dose of 5 g, testosterone at a dose of 100 g and antihormones, tamoxifen at a dose of 500 g and flutamide at 2 g daily (all at doses per 100 g.b.w.) for ten consecutive days following thirty days of post castration. Present data reveal that both pineal and adrenal gland nuclear size and cell proliferation were significantly increased in thirty days post orchidectomized mice compared to control animals. The values are control pinealocyte nuclear diameter (dim): 4.750.06; castrated pinealocyte nuclear diameter (m): 5.340.04 (p<0.001). Control pineal M% 1.250.07; castrated pineal M% 2.020.11 (p<0.001). In control adrenal, representative of zones was Z. fasciculata nuclear diameter (m) (5.110.04); castrated Z. fasciculata nuclear diameter (m) 5.410.03 (p<0.001). Control adrenal M% (1.030.06) castrated adrenal M% (1.630.09) p<0.001. It was further observed that such pineal and adrenal stimulation in orchidectomized mice were significantly decreased when orchidectomized mice were administered with steroid hormones (estradiol and testosterone) and antihormones (tamoxifen and flutamide) compared to orchidectomized mice. Our study indicates that there exists a mutual stimulatory relationship between pineal and adrenal under conditions of steroid deprivation. However, exogenous administration of steroid hormones and antihormones to those castrated mice caused inhibition of these two peripheral endocrine glands.

R. Bandyopadhyay; N. Chakraborty; M. DasGupta; S. Chakraborty

2011-01-01

360

Screening for Microsatellite Instability Identifies Frequent 3?-Untranslated Region Mutation of the RB1-Inducible Coiled-Coil 1 Gene in Colon Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Coding region microsatellite instability (MSI) results in loss of gene products and promotion of microsatellite-unstable (MSI-H) carcinogenesis. Recent studies have indicated that MSI within 3?-untranslated regions (3?UTRs) may post-transcriptionally dysregulate gene products. Within this context, we conducted a broad mutational survey of 42 short 3?UTR microsatellites (MSs) in 45 MSI-H colorectal tumors and their corresponding normal colonic mucosae. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to estimate the overall susceptibility of MSs to MSI in MSI-H tumors, the observed MSI frequency of each MS was correlated with its length, interspecies sequence conservation level, and distance from some genetic elements (i.e., stop codon, polyA signal, and microRNA binding sites). All MSs were stable in normal colonic mucosae. The MSI frequency at each MS