Design of aerospace control systems using fractional PID controller
Magdy A.S. Aboelela
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The goal is to control the trajectory of the flight path of six degree of freedom flying body model using fractional PID. The design of fractional PID controller for the six degree of freedom flying body is described. The parameters of fractional PID controller are optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO method. In the optimization process, various objective functions were considered and investigated to reflect both improved dynamics of the missile system and reduced chattering in the control signal of the controller.
On PID controller design using knowledge based fuzzy system
Jana Nowakova; Miroslav Pokorny
2012-01-01
The designing of PID controllers is a frequently discussed problem. Many of the design methods have been developed, classic (analytical tuning methods, optimization methods etc.) or not so common fuzzy knowledge based methods. The aim of design methods is in designing of controllers to achieve good setpoint following, corresponding time response etc. In this case, the new way of designing PID controller parameters is created where the above mentioned knowledge system ...
Design of PID-type controllers using multiobjective genetic algorithms.
Herreros, Alberto; Baeyens, Enrique; Perán, José R
2002-10-01
The design of a PID controller is a multiobjective problem. A plant and a set of specifications to be satisfied are given. The designer has to adjust the parameters of the PID controller such that the feedback interconnection of the plant and the controller satisfies the specifications. These specifications are usually competitive and any acceptable solution requires a tradeoff among them. An approach for adjusting the parameters of a PID controller based on multiobjective optimization and genetic algorithms is presented in this paper. The MRCD (multiobjective robust control design) genetic algorithm has been employed. The approach can be easily generalized to design multivariable coupled and decentralized PID loops and has been successfully validated for a large number of experimental cases. PMID:12398277
Design of a PID Controller for a PCR Micro Reactor
Dinca, M. P.; Gheorghe, M.; Galvin, P.
2009-01-01
Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers are widely used in process control, and consequently they are described in most of the textbooks on automatic control. However, rather than presenting the overall design process, the examples given in such textbooks are intended to illuminate specific focused aspects of selection, tuning and…
Design of Fuzzy PID controller to control DC motor with zero overshoot
Meenakshi Chourasiya; Prof. Shweta karnik
2014-01-01
Most of the real time operation based physical system, digital PID is used in field such as servo-motor/dc motor/temperature control system, robotics, power electronics etc. need to interface with high speed constraints, higher density PLD’s such as FPGA used to integrate several logics on single IC. There are some limitations in it to overcome these limitations Fuzzy logic is introduced with PID and Fuzzy PID is formed. This paper explains experimental design of Fuzzy PID con...
Hybrid intelligent PID control design for PEMFC anode system
Rui-min WANG; Ying-ying ZHANG; Guang-yi CAO
2008-01-01
Control design is important for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) generator. This work researched the anode system of a 60-kW PEMFC generator. Both anode pressure and humidity must he maintained at ideal levels during steady operation. In view of characteristics and requirements of the system, a hybrid intelligent PID controller is designed specifically based on dynamic simulation. A single neuron PI controller is used for anode humidity by adjusting the water injection to the hydrogen cell. Another incremental PID controller, based on the diagonal recurrent neural network (DRNN) dynamic identification, is used to control anode pressure to be more stable and exact by adjusting the hydrogen flow rate. This control strategy can avoid the coupling problem of the PEMFC and achieve a more adaptive ability. Simulation results showed that the control strategy can maintain both anode humidity and pressure at ideal levels regardless of variable load, nonlinear dynamic and coupling characteristics of the system. This work will give some guides for further control design and applications of the total PEMFC generator.
Sivananaithaperumal Sudalaiandi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic tuning of multivariable Fractional-Order Proportional, Integral and Derivative controller (FO-PID parameters using Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMAES algorithm. Decoupled multivariable FO-PI and FO-PID controller structures are considered. Oustaloup integer order approximation is used for the fractional integrals and derivatives. For validation, two Multi-Input Multi- Output (MIMO distillation columns described byWood and Berry and Ogunnaike and Ray are considered for the design of multivariable FO-PID controller. Optimal FO-PID controller is designed by minimizing Integral Absolute Error (IAE as objective function. The results of previously reported PI/PID controller are considered for comparison purposes. Simulation results reveal that the performance of FOPI and FO-PID controller is better than integer order PI/PID controller in terms of IAE. Also, CMAES algorithm is suitable for the design of FO-PI / FO-PID controller.
Optimal Design of PID Controller for the Speed Control of DC Motor by Using Metaheuristic Techniques
Mirza Muhammad Sabir
2014-01-01
Full Text Available DC motors are used in numerous industrial applications like servo systems and speed control applications. For such systems, the Proportional+Integral+Derivative (PID controller is usually the controller of choice due to its ease of implementation, ruggedness, and easy tuning. All the classical methods for PID controller design and tuning provide initial workable values for Kp, Ki, and Kd which are further manually fine-tuned for achieving desired performance. The manual fine tuning of the PID controller parameters is an arduous job which demands expertise and comprehensive knowledge of the domain. In this research work, some metaheuristic algorithms are explored for designing PID controller and a comprehensive comparison is made between these algorithms and classical techniques as well for the purpose of selecting the best technique for PID controller design and parameters tuning.
Design New Intelligent PID like Fuzzy Backstepping Controller
Arzhang Khajeh
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The minimum rule base Proportional Integral Derivative (PID Fuzzy backstepping Controller is presented in this research. The popularity of PID Fuzzy backstepping controller can be attributed to their robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions and partly to their functional simplicity. The process of setting of PID Fuzzy backstepping controller can be determined as an optimization task. Over the years, use of intelligent strategies for tuning of these controllers has been growing. PID methodology has three inputs and if any input is described with seven linguistic values, and any rule has three conditions we will need 7 × 7 × 7 = 343 rules. It is too much work to write 343 rules. In this research the PID-like fuzzy controller can be constructed as a parallel structure of a PD-like fuzzy controller and a PI-like controller to have the minimum rule base. However backstepping controller is work based on cancelling decoupling and nonlinear terms of dynamic parameters of each link, this controller is work based on manipulator dynamic model and this technique is highly sensitive to the knowledge of all parameters of nonlinear robot manipulator’s dynamic equation. This research is used to reduce or eliminate the backstepping controller problem based on minimum rule base fuzzy logic theory to control of flexible robot manipulator system and testing of the quality of process control in the simulation environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK Simulator.
A General Method for Designing Fractional Order PID Controller
Marzieh Safaei
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The idea of using fractional order calculus in control became apparent when this kind of calculus was accepted as a powerful tool in many applications. This resulted in a new generation of PID controller called fractional order PID Controller, named as Controller. controller is more flexible and provides a better response with larger stability region as compared with standard PID controller. This paper presents a simple and reliable method for finding the family of controllers. The required calculations are done in frequency domain based on frequency response of the system and the stability region is specified in the parameters space. This method can be used for time-delay systems and, more generally, for any system with no transfer function.
Design of Fuzzy PID controller to control DC motor with zero overshoot
Meenakshi Chourasiya
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Most of the real time operation based physical system, digital PID is used in field such as servo-motor/dc motor/temperature control system, robotics, power electronics etc. need to interface with high speed constraints, higher density PLD’s such as FPGA used to integrate several logics on single IC. There are some limitations in it to overcome these limitations Fuzzy logic is introduced with PID and Fuzzy PID is formed. This paper explains experimental design of Fuzzy PID controller. We aimed to make controller power efficient, more compact, and zero overshoot. MATLAB is used to design PID controller to calculate and plot the time response of the control system and Simulink to generate a set of coefficients.
Adaptive robust PID controller design based on a sliding mode for uncertain chaotic systems
A robust adaptive PID controller design motivated from the sliding mode control is proposed for a class of uncertain chaotic systems in this paper. Three PID control gains, K p, K i, and K d, are adjustable parameters and will be updated online with an adequate adaptation mechanism to minimize a previously designed sliding condition. By introducing a supervisory controller, the stability of the closed-loop PID control system under with the plant uncertainty and external disturbance can be guaranteed. Finally, a well-known Duffing-Holmes chaotic system is used as an illustrative to show the effectiveness of the proposed robust adaptive PID controller
Fuzzy Auto-adjust PID Controller Design of Brushless DC Motor
Yuanxi, Wang; Yali, Yu; Guosheng, Zhang; Xiaoliang, Sheng
Using conventional PID control method, to guarantee the rapidity and small overshoot dynamic and static performance of the BLDCM (brushless DC motor) system is out of the question. The control method to combine fuzzy control with PID control was fit the multivariable strong coupling nonlinear characteristic of BLDCM system. Matlab/Simulink simulation model had been built. The result of computer simulation shows that, compared with the conventional PID controller, the dynamic and static performance of fuzzy auto-adjust PID controller are put forward to optimize. The research work of this paper has profound significance for high precision controller design.
Design of an Implicit GMV-PID Controller Using Closed Loop Data
Wakitani, Shin; Hosokawa, Kei; Yamamoto, Toru
In industrial processes, PID control has been applied to a lot of real systems. The control performance strongly depends on PID parameters. Although, some schemes for tuning PID parameters have been proposed, however, these schemes need system parameters which are estimated by system identification in order to calculate PID parameters. On the other hand, model-free controller design schemes represented by VRFT or FRIT which have received much attention in last few years. These methods can calculate control parameters using closed-loop data and are expected to reduce computational costs. In this paper, a type of implicit PID controllers using closed-loop data is proposed. According to the proposed method, PID parameters are calculated based on the implicit GMVC. Moreover, the control performance can be suitably adjusted by only user-specified parameter. The effectiveness of the proposed method is numerically and experimentally evaluated.
A robust PID controller design method was proposed, which was based on PID structured weight function optimization method with linear matrix inequality techniques. By combining static H∞ loop shaping controller synthesis, a robust systematic PID iterative optimization method was given. A PID main controller of steam generator water level control system was designed by using this method. Simulation results show that the control system designed by the given method is of good robust stability and robust performance, and its synthetic control quality is better than the method of full order weight optimization (or PID structured weight optimization mentioned by this paper) combined with normal H∞ controller synthesis. (authors)
Tuning of Fuzzy PID Controllers
Jantzen, Jan
1998-01-01
Since fuzzy controllers are nonlinear, it is more difficult to set the controller gains compared to proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. This research paper proposes a design procedure and a tuning procedure that carries tuning rules from the PID domain over to fuzzy single......-loop controllers. The idea is to start with a tuned, conventional PID controller, replace it with an equivalent linear fuzzy controller, make the fuzzy controller nonlinear, and eventually fine-tune the nonlinear fuzzy controller. This is relevant whenever a PID controller is possible or already implemented....
Design of the Glass Batching-Material System Based Fuzzy-PID Combined Control
Zhisong Hou
2013-06-01
Full Text Available According to the traditional control methods of batching-material system exists defects low precision and bad real-time, this paper has proposed the combined control algorithm. This paper has designed a Fuzzy-PID control Glass batching-material system by using of combining the traditional PID and the Fuzzy control algorithm. The system uses expert system of online learning and adjusts automatically the control parameters, realize the best combination controlling precision and speed. The actual operation result of the system has proved the feasibility and validity of the Fuzzy-PID combined control.
Design And Implementation Of PID Controller Using Relay Feedback On TRMS (Twin Rotor MIMO System)
Shah, Dipesh H.
2011-12-01
Today, many process control problems can be adequately and routinely solved by conventional PID control strategies. The overriding reason that the PID controller is so widely accepted is its simple structure which has proved to be very robust with regard to many commonly met process control problems as for instance disturbances and nonlinearities. Relay feedback methods have been widely used in tuning proportional-integral-derivative controllers due to its closed loop nature. In this work, Relay based PID controller is designed and successfully implemented on TRMS (Twin Rotor MIMO System) in SISO and MIMO configurations. The performance of a Relay based PID controller for control of TRMS is investigated and performed satisfactorily. The system shares some features with a helicopter, such as important interactions between the vertical and horizontal motions. The RTWT toolbox in the MATLAB environment is used to perform real-time experiments.
Design of Multiregional Supervisory Fuzzy PID Control of pH Reactors
Shebel AlSabbah; Mujahed AlDhaifallah; Mohammad Al-Jarrah
2015-01-01
This work concerns designing multiregional supervisory fuzzy PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) control for pH reactors. The proposed work focuses, mainly, on two themes. The first one is to propose a multiregional supervisory fuzzy-based cascade control structure. It would enable modifying dynamics and enhance system’s stability. The fuzzy system (master loop) has been chosen as a tuner for PID controller (slave loop). It takes into consideration parameters uncertainties and reference tr...
Design and implementation of a new fuzzy PID controller for networked control systems.
Fadaei, A; Salahshoor, K
2008-10-01
This paper presents a practical network platform to design and implement a networked-based cascade control system linking a Smar Foundation Fieldbus (FF) controller (DFI-302) and a Siemens programmable logic controller (PLC-S7-315-2DP) through Industrial Ethernet to a laboratory pilot plant. In the presented network configuration, the Smar OPC tag browser and Siemens WinCC OPC Channel provide the communicating interface between the two controllers. The paper investigates the performance of a PID controller implemented in two different possible configurations of FF function block (FB) and networked control system (NCS) via a remote Siemens PLC. In the FB control system implementation, the desired set-point is provided by the Siemens Human-Machine Interface (HMI) software (i.e, WinCC) via an Ethernet Modbus link. While, in the NCS implementation, the cascade loop is realized in remote Siemens PLC station and the final element set-point is sent to the Smar FF station via Ethernet bus. A new fuzzy PID control strategy is then proposed to improve the control performances of the networked-based control systems due to an induced transmission delay degradation effect. The proposed strategy utilizes an innovative idea based on sectionalizing the error signal of the step response into three different functional zones. The supporting philosophy behind these three functional zones is to decompose the desired control objectives in terms of rising time, settling time and steady-state error measures maintained by an appropriate PID-type controller in each zone. Then, fuzzy membership factors are defined to configure the control signal on the basis of the fuzzy weighted PID outputs of all three zones. The obtained results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy PID control scheme in improving the performances of the implemented NCS for different transportation delays. PMID:18692184
Design of Robust Guaranteed Cost PID Controller for Networked Control Systems
Nguyen, Quang Thuan; Veselý, Vojtech
2010-03-01
The paper addresses the problem of an output feedback guaranteed cost controller design for Networked Control Systems (NCSs) with time-delay and polytopic uncertainties. By constructing a new parameter-dependent Lyapunov functional and applying the free-weighting matrices technique, the parameter-dependent, delay-dependent design method will be obtained to synthesize PID controllers achieving a guaranteed cost such that the NCSs can be stabilized for all admissible uncertainties and time-delays. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Optimal design of PID controller for second order plus time delay systems
It is well known that the effect of time delay in the forward path of control loop deteriorates the system performance and at the same time makes it difficult to compute the optimum PID controller parameters of the feedback control systems. PI/PID controller is most popular and used more than 80% in industries as well as in accelerators lab due to its simple structure and appropriate robustness. At VECC we have planned to use a PID controller for the speed control of DC motor which will be used to adjust the solenoid coil position of the 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for optimum performance during the online operation. In this paper we present a comparison of the two methods which have been used to design the optimum PID controller parameters: one by optimizing different time domain performance indices such as lAE, ITSE etc. and other using analytical formulation based on Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). We have performed numerical simulations using MATLAB and compare the closed loop time response performance measures using the PID parameters obtained from above mentioned two methods on a second order transfer function of a DC motor with time delay. (author)
Design New PID like Fuzzy CTC Controller: Applied to Spherical Motor
Mohammad shamsodini
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The minimum rule base Proportional Integral Derivative (PID Fuzzy Computed Torque Controller with application to spherical motor is presented in this research. The popularity of PID Fuzzy Computed Torque Controller can be attributed to their robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions and partly to their functional simplicity. PID methodology has three inputs and if any input is described with seven linguistic values, and any rule has three conditions we will need 343 rules. It is too much work to write 343 rules and have lots of problem to design embedded control system e.g., Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. In this research the PID-like fuzzy controller can be constructed as a parallel structure of a PD-like fuzzy controller and a conventional PI controller to have the minimum rule base and acceptable trajectory follow disturbance to control of spherical motor. However computed torque controller is work based on cancelling decoupling and nonlinear terms of dynamic parameters for each direction of three degree of freedom spherical motor, this controller is work based on motor dynamic model and this technique is highly sensitive to the knowledge of all parameters of nonlinear spherical motor’s dynamic equation. This research is used to reduce or eliminate the computed torque controller problem based on minimum rule base fuzzy logic theory to control of three degrees of freedom spherical motor system and testing of the quality of process control in the simulation environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK Simulator.
Design of PID Controller for Maglev System Based on an Improved PSO with Mixed Inertia Weight
Rongrong Song
2014-06-01
Full Text Available A Maglev system was modeled by the exact feedback linearization to achieve two same linear subsystems. The proportional-integral-differential controllers (PID based on particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm with four different inertia weights were then used to regulate both linear subsystems. These different inertia weights were Fixed Inertia Weight (FIW, Linear Descend Inertia Weight (LIW, Linear Differential Descend Inertia Weight (LDW, and mixed inertia weight (FIW–LIW-LDW. On the other hand, the parameters of the PSO-PID controllers via mixed inertia weight (FIW–LIW-LDW were optimized, the parameter values in the electromagnet 1 and electromagnet 2 were both 0.4. Simulation results demonstrate that the control performance and robustness of PSO-PID based on mixed inertia weight (FIW–LIW-LDW was superior to that of three PSO-PID controllers based on single inertia weights. For electromagnet 1, the overshoot of PSO-PID controller with mixed inertia weight reduced 3.36% than that of PSO-PID controller with FIW, 5.81% than that of PSO-PID controller with LIW, and 6.34% than that of PSO-PID controller with LDW; for electromagnet 2, the overshoot of PSO-PID controller with mixed inertia weight reduced 1.07% than that of PSO-PID controller with FIW, 12.56% than that of PSO-PID controller with LIW, 7.97% than that of PSO-PID controller with LDW; the adjusting time of PSO-PID controller with mixed inertia weight reduced 0.395s than that of PSO-PID controller with FIW, 34.1s than that of PSO-PID controller with LIW, and 33.494s than that of PSO-PID controller with LDW
AN ALGORITHM FOR DESIGN OF A PID CONTROLLER FOR MULTIVARIABLE SYSTEM USING OUTPUT FEEDBACK
Suma H
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of a proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative (PID controller for linear multivariable systems using an output feedback control law. Controller is designed as an equivalent proportionalplus- derivative controller for the augmented system formed due to the integral action. The design equations areformulated in terms of coefficient matrix of the transfer function vector of the equivalent single input (or single output system. The computation of coefficient matrix of a transfer function vector gives a simple and direct procedure for pole assignment. The design procedure does not require cyclicity as an initial condition. The controller design is illustrated with a numerical example.
Designing a Robust and Adaptive PID Controller for Gas Turbine Connected to the Generator
Mohsen Khalilpour
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Gas turbines are increasingly spread throughout the world to provide mechanical and electrical power in consumer and industrial sections. To ensure an accurate control process temperature of gas turbine with no extortionary operator involvement, a proper controller is required. Load frequency control of gas turbine is also regulates the power flow between different areas while holding the frequency constant. The main idea in this study is to assemble these 2 controllers in a unit work; the area of robust control has grown to be one of the wealthy in terms of algorithms, design techniques, analytical tools and modifications. Several books and papers already exist on the topics of parameter estimation and adaptive control. In The proposed approach, a robust and evolutionary based Proportional, Integral, Derivative (PID is utilized to control frequency-response and a robust evolutionary based Proportional, Integral (PI is utilized to control temperature. The evolutionary algorithm is used to make an optimal Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID controller Tuning parameters. The new robust PID controller is compared with a normal classic controller (Ziegler-Nichols designed by the method.
Designing robust Mixed H /H PID Controllers based Intelligent Genetic Algorithm
Ramzy S. Ali Al-Waily; Ali Abdullah K. Al-Thuwainy
2011-01-01
- It's not easy to implement the mixed / optimal controller for high order system, since in the conventional mixed / optimal feedback the order of the controller is much than that of the plant. This difficulty had been solved by using the structured specified PID controller. The merit of PID controllers comes from its simple structure, and can meets the industry processes. Also it have some kind of robustness. Even that it's hard to PID to cope the complex control p...
Design Intelligent PID like Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller for Spherical Motor
Farzin Matin
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The minimum rule base Proportional Integral Derivative (PID Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller (SMC with application to spherical motor is presented in this research. The popularity of PID Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller can be attributed to their robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions and partly to their functional simplicity. The process of setting of PID Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller can be determined as an optimization task. Over the years, use of intelligent strategies for tuning of these controllers has been growing especially in nonlinear and uncertain systems. Proportional Integral Derivative methodology has three inputs and if any input is described with seven linguistic values, and any rule has three conditions, we will need 343 rules. It is too much work to write 343 rules and have lots of problem to design embedded control system e.g., Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. In this research the PID-like fuzzy controller can be constructed as a parallel structure of a PD-like fuzzy controller and a conventional PI controller to have the minimum rule base and good trajectory follow disturbance to control of spherical motor. However Sliding Mode Controller is work based on cancelling decoupling and nonlinear terms of dynamic parameters for each direction of three degree of freedom spherical motor, this controller is work based on motor dynamic model and this technique is highly sensitive to the knowledge of all parameters of nonlinear spherical motor’s dynamic equation which caused to challenge in uncertain system. This research is used to reduce or eliminate the Sliding Mode Controller problem based on minimum rule base fuzzy logic theory to control of three degrees of freedom spherical motor system and testing of the quality of process control in the simulation environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK Simulator.
Pei, L; Theilacker, J; Soyars, W; Martinez, A; Bossert, R; DeGraff, B; Darve, C
2012-01-01
The Horizontal Test Stand (HTS) SRF Cavity and Cryomodule 1 (CM1) of eight 9-cell, 1.3GHz SRF cavities are operating at Fermilab. For the cryogenic control system, how to hold liquid level constant in the cryostat by regulation of its Joule-Thompson JT-valve is very important after cryostat cool down to 2.0 K. The 72-cell cryostat liquid level response generally takes a long time delay after regulating its JT-valve; therefore, typical PID control loop should result in some cryostat parameter oscillations. This paper presents a type of PID parameter self-optimal and Time-Delay control method used to reduce cryogenic system parameters' oscillation.
A design of LED adaptive dimming lighting system based on incremental PID controller
He, Xiangyan; Xiao, Zexin; He, Shaojia
2010-11-01
As a new generation energy-saving lighting source, LED is applied widely in various technology and industry fields. The requirement of its adaptive lighting technology is more and more rigorous, especially in the automatic on-line detecting system. In this paper, a closed loop feedback LED adaptive dimming lighting system based on incremental PID controller is designed, which consists of MEGA16 chip as a Micro-controller Unit (MCU), the ambient light sensor BH1750 chip with Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C), and constant-current driving circuit. A given value of light intensity required for the on-line detecting environment need to be saved to the register of MCU. The optical intensity, detected by BH1750 chip in real time, is converted to digital signal by AD converter of the BH1750 chip, and then transmitted to MEGA16 chip through I2C serial bus. Since the variation law of light intensity in the on-line detecting environment is usually not easy to be established, incremental Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) algorithm is applied in this system. Control variable obtained by the incremental PID determines duty cycle of Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM). Consequently, LED's forward current is adjusted by PWM, and the luminous intensity of the detection environment is stabilized by self-adaptation. The coefficients of incremental PID are obtained respectively after experiments. Compared with the traditional LED dimming system, it has advantages of anti-interference, simple construction, fast response, and high stability by the use of incremental PID algorithm and BH1750 chip with I2C serial bus. Therefore, it is suitable for the adaptive on-line detecting applications.
Design of Multiregional Supervisory Fuzzy PID Control of pH Reactors
Shebel AlSabbah
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This work concerns designing multiregional supervisory fuzzy PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative control for pH reactors. The proposed work focuses, mainly, on two themes. The first one is to propose a multiregional supervisory fuzzy-based cascade control structure. It would enable modifying dynamics and enhance system’s stability. The fuzzy system (master loop has been chosen as a tuner for PID controller (slave loop. It takes into consideration parameters uncertainties and reference tracking. The second theme concerns designing a hybrid neural network-based pH estimator. The proposed estimator would overcome the industrial drawbacks, that is, cost and size, found with conventional methods for pH measurement. The final end-user-interface (EUI front panel and the results that evaluate the performance of the supervisory fuzzy PID-based control system and hybrid NN-based estimator have been presented using the compatibility found between LabView and MatLab. They lead to conclude that the proposed algorithms are appropriate to systems nonlinearities encountered with pH reactors.
The paper deals with the development and application of a new simple empirical approach to the design of robust PID controllers for technological processes in industrial practice. The main advantage of the proposed approach is the possibility to specify the required performance before the design algorithm implementation. Identification of characteristic data of the black-box type plant with varying parameters is carried out using the sine wave excitation signal, thus allowing to design the controller without necessarily knowing the mathematical model of the plant. The proposed approach has been verified on a real-world physical process. (authors)
A Software Tool for Robust PID Design
Garpinger, Olof; Hägglund, Tore
2008-01-01
This paper presents a fast, interactive and easily modifiable software tool for robust PID design. The Matlab based program is supposed to give people with moderate knowledge on PID control a possibility to learn more and also be a future part of an autotuner. The PID design is made by minimizing the integrated absolute error value during a load disturbance on the process input. The optimization is performed with H-infinity constraints on the sensitivity and complementary sensitivity function...
Pei, L.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; Soyars, W.; Martinez, A.; Bossert, R.; DeGraff, B.; Darve, C.
2012-01-01
The Horizontal Test Stand (HTS) SRF Cavity and Cryomodule 1 (CM1) of eight 9-cell, 1.3GHz SRF cavities are operating at Fermilab. For the cryogenic control system, how to hold liquid level constant in the cryostat by regulation of its Joule-Thompson JT-valve is very important after cryostat cool down to 2.0 K. The 72-cell cryostat liquid level response generally takes a long time delay after regulating its JT-valve; therefore, typical PID control loop should result in some cryostat parameter ...
Multiobjective Optimization Design of a Fractional Order PID Controller for a Gun Control System
Qiang Gao; Jilin Chen; Li Wang; Shiqing Xu; Yuanlong Hou
2013-01-01
Motion control of gun barrels is an ongoing topic for the development of gun control equipments possessing excellent performances. In this paper, a typical fractional order PID control strategy is employed for the gun control system. To obtain optimal parameters of the controller, a multiobjective optimization scheme is developed from the loop-shaping perspective. To solve the specified nonlinear optimization problem, a novel Pareto optimal solution based multiobjective differential evolution...
Simplified Universal Intelligent PID Controller
Mohamed I. Abu El- Sebah
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Many researches give a great attention to invent different techniques for process controller application. All of them tend to simplify the controller design algorithm and make it more intelligent, but the two goals seem to be an opposite goals. Although the artificial intelligent controller is proper, they need sometimes a complicated algorithm and parameter adaptation process. This paper presents a new idea to simplify the process controller, also to make it an intelligent controller. Moreover, the proposed controller is used as universal controller. The paper also contains details of the controller design and development. This Simplified Universal Intelligent PID (SUI-PID controller is designed to yield a good command tracking for different systems. The proposed controller can be designed using a very simple logic algorithm. This algorithm adapts the controller parameters automatically, therefore no need for controller adaptation. The proposed controller is simulated using Matlab Simulation software package and applied to different systems to verify the controller properties effectiveness. The simulation results illustrate an excellent performance of the proposed controller, which used as a universal controller for any system.
Design a Novel SISO Off-line Tuning of Modified PID Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller
Ali Shahcheraghi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The Proportional Integral Derivative (PID Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller (FSMC is the most widely used control strategy in the Industry (control of robotic arm. The popularity of PID FSMC controllers can be attributed to their robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions and partly to their functional simplicity. The process of setting of PID FSMC controller can be determined as an optimization task. Over the years, use of intelligent strategies for tuning of these controllers has been growing. Biologically inspired evolutionary strategies have gained importance over other strategies because of their consistent performance over wide range of process models and their flexibility. This paper analyses the modified PID FSMC controllers based on minimum rule base for flexible robot manipulator system and test the quality of process control in the simulation environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK Simulator.
Relationship between fuzzy controllers and PID controllers
李洪兴
1999-01-01
The internal relations between fuzzy controllers and PID controllers are revealed. First, it is pointed out that a fuzzy controller with one input and one output is just a piecewise P controller. Then it is proved that a fuzzy controller with two inputs and one output is just a piecewise PD (or I) controller with interaction between P and D (or PI). At last, the conclusion that a fuzzy controller with three inputs and one output is just a piecewise PID controller with interaction among P, I and D is given. Moreover, a kind of difference scheme of fuzzy controllers is designed.
The Design of Inverted Pendulum System Based on Virtual Prototype Technology and PID Control
2010-01-01
<正>A design scheme of a single Inverted Pendulum Virtual Prototype based on the combination of software and hardware is introduced.It uses hardware platform of C8051F020 single chip and the software of Matlab,Visual Basic and Kingview.It can simulate the force and movement of Inverted Pendulum expediently and intuitively.The combination of software and hardware makes the system closer to the reality.The concrete scheme is introduced in the paper and the result of PID control which verifies the correctness of the scheme.
PID Controllers Design Applied to Positioning of Ball on the Stewart Platform
Koszewnik Andrzej
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the design and practical implementation of PID controllers for a Stewart platform. The platform uses a resistance touch panel as a sensor and servo motors as actuators. The complete control system stabilizing the ball on the platform is realized with the Arduino microcontroller and the Matlab/Simulink software. Two processes required to acquire measurement signals from the touch panel in two perpendicular directions X and Y, are discussed. The first process includes the calibration of the touch panel, and the second process - the filtering of measurement signals with the low pass Butterworth filter. The obtained signals are used to design the algorithm of the ball stabilization by decoupling the global system into two local subsystems. The algorithm is implemented in a soft real time system. The parameters of both PID controllers (PIDx and PIDy are tuned by the trial-error method and implemented in the microcontroller. Finally, the complete control system is tested at the laboratory stand.
Automatic PID Control Loops Design for Performance Improvement of Cryogenic Turboexpander
Cryogenics field involves temperature below 123 K which is much less than ambient temperature. In addition, many industrially important physical processes—from fulfilling the needs of National Thermonuclear Fusion programs, superconducting magnets to treatment of cutting tools and preservation of blood cells, require extreme low temperature. The low temperature required for liquefaction of common gases can be obtained by several processes. Liquefaction is the process of cooling or refrigerating a gas to a temperature below its critical temperature so that liquid can be formed at some suitable pressure which is below the critical pressure. Helium liquefier is used for the liquefaction process of helium gas. In general, the Helium Refrigerator/Liquefier (HRL) needs turboexpander as expansion machine to produce cooling effect which is further used for the production of liquid helium. Turboexpanders, a high speed device that is supported on gas bearings, are the most critical component in many helium refrigeration systems. A very minor fault in the operation and manufacturing or impurities in the helium gas can destroy the turboexpander. However, since the performance of expanders is dependent on a number of operating parameters and the relations between them are quite complex, the instrumentation and control system design for turboexpander needs special attention. The inefficiency of manual control leads to the need of designing automatic control loops for turboexpander. Proper design and implementation of the control loops plays an important role in the successful operation of the cryogenic turboexpander. The PID control loops has to be implemented with accurate interlocks and logic to enhance the performance of the cryogenic turboexpander. For different normal and off-normal operations, speeds will be different and hence a proper control method for critical rotational speed avoidance is must. This paper presents the design of PID control loops needed for the
Design High Efficiency-Minimum Rule Base PID Like Fuzzy Computed Torque Controller
Alireza Khalilian
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The minimum rule base Proportional Integral Derivative (PID Fuzzy Computed Torque Controller is presented in this research. The popularity of PID Fuzzy Computed Torque Controller can be attributed to their robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions and partly to their functional simplicity. The process of setting of PID Fuzzy Computed Torque Controller can be determined as an optimization task. Over the years, use of intelligent strategies for tuning of these controllers has been growing. PID methodology has three inputs and if any input is described with seven linguistic values, and any rule has three conditions we will need 343 rules. It is too much work to write 343 rules. In this research the PID-like fuzzy controller can be constructed as a parallel structure of a PD-like fuzzy controller and a PI controller to have the minimum rule base. However computed torque controller is work based on cancelling decoupling and nonlinear terms of dynamic parameters of each link, this controller is work based on manipulator dynamic model and this technique is highly sensitive to the knowledge of all parameters of nonlinear robot manipulator’s dynamic equation. This research is used to reduce or eliminate the computed torque controller problem based on minimum rule base fuzzy logic theory to control of flexible robot manipulator system and testing of the quality of process control in the simulation environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK Simulator.
Design High-Efficiency Intelligent PID like Fuzzy Backstepping Controller for Three Dimension Motor
Mahsa Piltan
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The minimum rule base Proportional Integral Derivative (PID Fuzzy backstepping Controller for three dimensions spherical motor is presented in this research. The popularity of PID Fuzzy backstepping controller can be attributed to their robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions and partly to their functional simplicity. The process of setting of PID Fuzzy backstepping controller can be determined as an optimization task. Over the years, use of intelligent strategies for tuning of these controllers has been growing. PID methodology has three inputs and if any input is described with seven linguistic values, and any rule has three conditions we will need 7 × 7 × 7 = 343 rules. It is too much work to write 343 rules. In this research the PID-like fuzzy controller can be constructed as a parallel structure of a PI-like controller and a PD-like fuzzy controller to have the minimum rule base. However backstepping controller is work based on cancelling decoupling and nonlinear terms of dynamic parameters of each dimension, this controller is work based on spherical motor dynamic model and this technique is highly sensitive to the knowledge of all parameters of nonlinear three dimension spherical motor’s dynamic equation. This research is used to reduce or eliminate the backstepping controller problem based on minimum rule base fuzzy logic theory to control of spherical motor system and testing of the quality of process control in the simulation environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK Simulator.
Designing robust Mixed H /H PID Controllers based Intelligent Genetic Algorithm
Ramzy S. Ali Al-Waily
2011-06-01
Full Text Available - It's not easy to implement the mixed / optimal controller for high order system, since in the conventional mixed / optimal feedback the order of the controller is much than that of the plant. This difficulty had been solved by using the structured specified PID controller. The merit of PID controllers comes from its simple structure, and can meets the industry processes. Also it have some kind of robustness. Even that it's hard to PID to cope the complex control problems such as the uncertainty and the disturbance effects. The present ideas suggests combining some of model control theories with the PID controller to achieve the complicated control problems. One of these ideas is presented in this paper by tuning the PID parameters to achieve the mixed / optimal performance by using Intelligent Genetic Algorithm (IGA. A simple modification is added to IGA in this paper to speed up the optimization search process. Two MIMO example are used during investigation in this paper. Each one of them has different control problem.
Optimal PID Controller Design Based on PSO-RBFNN for Wind Turbine Systems
Jau-Woei Perng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A strategy was proposed to determine the optimal operating point for the proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller of a wind turbine, and identify the stability regions in the parameter space. The proposed approach combined particle swarm optimization (PSO and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN algorithms. These intelligent algorithms are artificial learning mechanisms that can determine the optimal operating points, and were used to generate the function representing the most favorable operating parameters from each parameter of for the stability region of the PID controller. A graphical method was used to determine the 2D or 3D vision boundaries of the PID-type controller space in closed-loop wind turbine systems. The proposed techniques were demonstrated using simulations of a drive train model without time delay and a pitch control model with time delay. Finally, the 3D stability boundaries were determined the proposed graphical approach with and without time delay systems.
Design of an iterative auto-tuning algorithm for a fuzzy PID controller
Since the first application of fuzzy logic in the field of control engineering, it has been extensively employed in controlling a wide range of applications. The human knowledge on controlling complex and non-linear processes can be incorporated into a controller in the form of linguistic terms. However, with the lack of analytical design study it is becoming more difficult to auto-tune controller parameters. Fuzzy logic controller has several parameters that can be adjusted, such as: membership functions, rule-base and scaling gains. Furthermore, it is not always easy to find the relation between the type of membership functions or rule-base and the controller performance. This study proposes a new systematic auto-tuning algorithm to fine tune fuzzy logic controller gains. A fuzzy PID controller is proposed and applied to several second order systems. The relationship between the closed-loop response and the controller parameters is analysed to devise an auto-tuning method. The results show that the proposed method is highly effective and produces zero overshoot with enhanced transient response. In addition, the robustness of the controller is investigated in the case of parameter changes and the results show a satisfactory performance.
Design of an iterative auto-tuning algorithm for a fuzzy PID controller
Saeed, Bakhtiar I.; Mehrdadi, B.
2012-05-01
Since the first application of fuzzy logic in the field of control engineering, it has been extensively employed in controlling a wide range of applications. The human knowledge on controlling complex and non-linear processes can be incorporated into a controller in the form of linguistic terms. However, with the lack of analytical design study it is becoming more difficult to auto-tune controller parameters. Fuzzy logic controller has several parameters that can be adjusted, such as: membership functions, rule-base and scaling gains. Furthermore, it is not always easy to find the relation between the type of membership functions or rule-base and the controller performance. This study proposes a new systematic auto-tuning algorithm to fine tune fuzzy logic controller gains. A fuzzy PID controller is proposed and applied to several second order systems. The relationship between the closed-loop response and the controller parameters is analysed to devise an auto-tuning method. The results show that the proposed method is highly effective and produces zero overshoot with enhanced transient response. In addition, the robustness of the controller is investigated in the case of parameter changes and the results show a satisfactory performance.
Cheng-Yu Yeh
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This study aimed at the implementation and synchronization control of cardiac circuit. First, the MATLAB-Simulink was used to simulate the dynamic behavior of cardiac chaotic circuit, and simple electronic modules were used to implement the cardiac system. Then the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO was used to seek for the proportional, integral, and derivative gains of optimal PID controller, and the PID controller which could synchronize the slave cardiac circuit and the master cardiac circuit was obtained, in order to synchronize the master/slave chaotic cardiac circuits. This method can be provided for cardiac doctors to diagnose and medicate cardiac abnormality.
Multiobjective Optimization Design of a Fractional Order PID Controller for a Gun Control System
Qiang Gao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Motion control of gun barrels is an ongoing topic for the development of gun control equipments possessing excellent performances. In this paper, a typical fractional order PID control strategy is employed for the gun control system. To obtain optimal parameters of the controller, a multiobjective optimization scheme is developed from the loop-shaping perspective. To solve the specified nonlinear optimization problem, a novel Pareto optimal solution based multiobjective differential evolution algorithm is proposed. To enhance the convergent rate of the optimization process, an opposition based learning method is embedded in the chaotic population initialization process. To enhance the robustness of the algorithm for different problems, an adapting scheme of the mutation operation is further employed. With assistance of the evolutionary algorithm, the optimal solution for the specified problem is selected. The numerical simulation results show that the control system can rapidly follow the demand signal with high accuracy and high robustness, demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed controller parameter tuning method.
Li, Mingjie; Zhou, Ping; Zhao, Zhicheng; Zhang, Jinggang
2016-03-01
Recently, fractional order (FO) processes with dead-time have attracted more and more attention of many researchers in control field, but FO-PID controllers design techniques available for the FO processes with dead-time suffer from lack of direct systematic approaches. In this paper, a simple design and parameters tuning approach of two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) FO-PID controller based on internal model control (IMC) is proposed for FO processes with dead-time, conventional one-degree-of-freedom control exhibited the shortcoming of coupling of robustness and dynamic response performance. 2-DOF control can overcome the above weakness which means it realizes decoupling of robustness and dynamic performance from each other. The adjustable parameter η2 of FO-PID controller is directly related to the robustness of closed-loop system, and the analytical expression is given between the maximum sensitivity specification Ms and parameters η2. In addition, according to the dynamic performance requirement of the practical system, the parameters η1 can also be selected easily. By approximating the dead-time term of the process model with the first-order Padé or Taylor series, the expressions for 2-DOF FO-PID controller parameters are derived for three classes of FO processes with dead-time. Moreover, compared with other methods, the proposed method is simple and easy to implement. Finally, the simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of this method. PMID:26753617
Maitraye Sen
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this work, a hybrid MPC (model predictive control-PID (proportional-integral-derivative control system has been designed for the continuous purification and processing framework of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs. The specific unit operations associated with the purification and processing of API have been developed from first-principles and connected in a continuous framework in the form of a flowsheet model. These integrated unit operations are highly interactive along with the presence of process delays. Therefore, a hybrid MPC-PID is a promising alternative to achieve the desired control loop performance as mandated by the regulatory authorities. The integrated flowsheet model has been simulated in gPROMSTM (Process System Enterprise, London, UK. This flowsheet model has been linearized in order to design the control scheme. The ability to track the set point and reject disturbances has been evaluated. A comparative study between the performance of the hybrid MPC-PID and a PID-only control scheme has been presented. The results show that an enhanced control loop performance can be obtained under the hybrid control scheme and demonstrate that such a scheme has high potential in improving the efficiency of pharmaceutical manufacturing operations.
A GA-based PID active queue management control design for TCP/IP networks
In this paper, a genetic algorithm-based (GA-based) proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller as an active queue manager for Internet routers is proposed to reduce packet loss and improve network utilization in TCP/IP networks. Based on the window-based nonlinear dynamics, the TCP network was modeled as a time-delayed system with a saturated input due to the limitations of packet-dropping probability and the effects of propagation delays in TCP networks. An improved genetic algorithm is employed to derive optimal or near optimal PID control gains such that a performance index of integrated-absolute error (IAE) in terms of the error between the router queue length and the desired queue length is minimized. The performance of the proposed control scheme was evaluated in various network scenarios via a series of numerical simulations. The simulation results confirm that the proposed scheme outperforms other AQM schemes
Meysam Gheisarnezhad
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Fractional-order PID (FOPID controller is a generalization of standard PID controller using fractional calculus. Compared with the Standard PID controller, two adjustable variables “differential order” and “integral order” are added to the PID controller.Three tank system is a nonlinear multivariable process that is a good prototype of chemical industrial processes. Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm (COA, that was recently introduced has shown its good performance in optimization problems. In this study, Improved Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm (ICOA has been presented. The aim of the paper is to compare different controllers tuned with a Improved Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm (ICOA for Three Tank System. In order to compare the performance of the optimized FOPID controller with other controllers, Genetic Algorithm(GA, Particle swarm optimization (PSO, Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm (COA and Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA.
Application of Proposed Improved Relay Tuning for Design of Optimum PID Control of SOPTD Model
S.A. Misal
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The coupled tank liquid level control system approximated by the second order plus time delay (SOPTD model was considered and the proposed improved relay tuning method was applied to calculate the corrected ultimate gain (Ku. It was found that the error in calculation of ultimate gain by proposed methods has been reduced considerably than that of conventional method. The corrected Ku was used to estimate optimum PID parameters by Ziegler Nichols method. The closed loop response was obtained using optimum values of PID parameters and compared with that of conventional method. It was found that the Integral Time Absolute Error (ITAE has been decreased and robustness has been increased by proposed method I & II as compared to that of conventional method. Hence the proposed improved relay tuning method gives better performance
Ahmed Sabah Al-Araji
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the speed control of the real DC motor is experimentally investigated using nonlinear PID neural network controller. As a simple and fast tuning algorithm, two optimization techniques are used; trial and error method and particle swarm optimization PSO algorithm in order to tune the nonlinear PID neural controller's parameters and to find best speed response of the DC motor. To save time in the real system, a Matlab simulation package is used to carry out these algorithms to tune and find the best values of the nonlinear PID parameters. Then these parameters are used in the designed real time nonlinear PID controller system based on LabVIEW package. Simulation and experimental results are compared with each other and showed the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm in terms of fast and smooth dynamic response for the speed control of the real DC motor.
Xingguo Lu
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this work, we propose a new method for the optimal design and tuning of a Proportional Integral-Derivative type (PID-type interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller (IT2 FLC for Delta parallel robot trajectory tracking control. The presented methodology starts with an optimal design problem of IT2 FLC. A group of IT2 FLCs are obtained by blurring the membership functions using a variable called blurring degree. By comparing the performance of the controllers, the optimal structure of IT2 FLC is obtained. Then, a multi-objective optimization problem is formulated to tune the scaling factors of the PID-type IT2 FLC. The Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II is adopted to solve the constrained nonlinear multi-objective optimization problem. Simulation results of the optimized controller are presented and discussed regarding application in the Delta parallel robot. The proposed method provides an effective way to design and tune the PID-type IT2 FLC with a desired control performance.
Implementation of PID and Fuzzy PID controllers for Temperature control in CSTR
S. Srinivasulu Raju
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR is an important subject in chemical process and offering a diverse range of researches in the area of the chemical and control engineering. Various control approaches have been applied on CSTR to control its parameters. This paper gives the demonstration about the temperature control of CSTR reactor using a fuzzy PID controller to meet the desired temperature in presence of set point changes. The parameters of PID controller can be calculated by conducting Relay feedback on process. Fuzzy logic is one of the most successful applications of fuzzy set in which the variables are linguistic rather than numeric. The development of an effective methodology for the design of such control systems undoubtedly requires the synthesis of many concepts from artificial intelligence. The most commonly used controller in the industry field is the PID controller. Fuzzy logic controller (FLC provides an alternative to PID controller, especially when the available system models are inexact or unavailable. A FLC is based on a set of control rules (fuzzy rules among linguistic variables. CSTR system is a typical chemical reactor system with complex non-linear dynamic characteristics. The fuzzy PID control algorithm is designed for the flow process station to improve the control performance better than the conventional PID controller. PID controller works well only if the mathematical model of the system could be computed. Hence it is difficult to implement PID control for variable as well as complicated systems. The proposed method can be used to realize data process and advanced control to improve the quality of the control. The simulation is carried out and the simulation results present the flexibility of the CSTR temperature control.
The Parrot UAV Controlled by PID Controllers
Koszewnik Andrzej
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the process of modeling and designing control laws for four-rotor type of the Parrot UAV. The state space model is obtained by using several phenomena like gyroscopic effects for rigid bodies, propellers and rotors. The obtained model has been used to design PID control laws for roll, pitch, yaw angle and altitude, respectively. The numerical simulations of the closed loop model are shown that system in satisfy way stabilize flight of the quadro-rotor in all considered directions.
Robust PID design based on static H∞ loop-shaping method for steam generator water level control
The problem for control of steam generator water level is complex because its complicated shrink and parameters of its model vary with operation conditions. Static H∞ loop shaping is used to design the robust PID controller for the steam generator. Simulation results show that the control efficiency of this scheme is better than that of the other three H∞ loop shaping based methods, and the derived controller has good reference tracking capability, distribution rejection ability and acceptable control performance at different operation points. (authors)
Back stepping-Based-PID-Controller Designed for an Artificial Pancreas model
ShaimaMahmou Mahdi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Artificial pancreas is simulated to handle Type I diabetic patients under intensive care by automatically controlling the insulin infusion rate. A Backstepping technique is used to apply the effect of PID controller to blood glucose level since there is no direct relation between insulin infusion (the manipulated variable and glucose level in Bergmans system model subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test by applying a meal translated into a disturbance. Backstepping technique is usually recommended to stabilize and control the states of Bergman's class of nonlinear systems. The results showed a very satisfactory behavior of glucose deviation to a sudden rise represented by the meal that increase the blood glucose
Design of a Control System for an Autonomous Vehicle Based on Adaptive-PID
Pan Zhao
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The autonomous vehicle is a mobile robot integrating multi‐sensor navigation and positioning, intelligent decision making and control technology. This paper presents the control system architecture of the autonomous vehicle, called “Intelligent Pioneer”, and the path tracking and stability of motion to effectively navigate in unknown environments is discussed. In this approach, a two degree‐of‐freedom dynamic model is developed to formulate the path‐tracking problem in state space format. For controlling the instantaneous path error, traditional controllers have difficulty in guaranteeing performance and stability over a wide range of parameter changes and disturbances. Therefore, a newly developed adaptive‐PID controller will be used. By using this approach the flexibility of the vehicle control system will be increased and achieving great advantages. Throughout, we provide examples and results from Intelligent Pioneer and the autonomous vehicle using this approach competed in the 2010 and 2011 Future Challenge of China. Intelligent Pioneer finished all of the competition programmes and won first position in 2010 and third position in 2011.
Using PLC for Custom-design of a PID/PWM Program to Control a Heater Temperature
Mohammad A.K. Alia
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This is a practical approach to control a continuous-time process variable (temperature using a discrete controller (PLC and a custom-designed software control algorithm and hardware interface, in a closed-loop system. Unlike the conventionally known technique of transforming a digital control action into a proportional analogue one by a D/A converter followed by power amplifier, the control action was formed internally by the PLC as a PID/PWM signal, which was used to trigger the power stage. This approach helped reducing the error due D/A conversion, maximized utilization of the PLC and reduced total cost. The control system is realized by utilizing the heater of the training board (RGT1, manufactured by DL-lorenzo Company and it simulates an analogue heating control system. The PLC is Siemens Simatic S7-214 model. An experimental result has shown that the control algorithm functions perfectly.
Highlights: • Multi-objective optimization based fractional order controller is designed for HTRS. • NSGAII is improved by iterative chaotic map with infinite collapses (ICMIC) operator. • ISE and ITSE are as chosen as objective functions in tuning parameters of HTRS. • FOPID controller outperforms the PID controller under various running conditions. • Trade-off between speed of reference tracking and damping of oscillation are shown. - Abstract: Fractional-order PID (FOPID) controller is a generalization of traditional PID controller using fractional calculus. Compared to the traditional PID controller, in FOPID controller, the order of derivative portion and integral portion is not integer, which provides more flexibility in achieving control objectives. Design stage of such an FOPID controller consists of determining five parameters, i.e. proportional, integral and derivative gains {Kp, Ki, Kd}, and extra integration and differentiation orders {λ,μ}, which has a large difference comparing with the conventional PID tuning rules, thus a suitable optimization algorithm is essential to the parameters tuning of FOPID controller. This paper focuses on the design of the FOPID controller using chaotic non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII) for hydraulic turbine regulating system (HTRS). The parameters chosen of the FOPID controller is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem, in which the objective functions are composed by the integral of the squared error (ISE) and integral of the time multiplied squared error (ITSE). The chaotic NSGAII algorithm, which is an incorporation of chaotic behaviors into NSGAII, is used as the optimizer to search true Pareto-front of the FOPID controller and designers can implement each of them based on objective functions priority. The designed chaotic NSGAII based FOPID controller procedure is applied to a HTRS system. A comparison study between the optimum integer order PID controller and optimum
Bikash Dey
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper present three different control strategies based on PI Control, PID control and Two degree of freedom PID control for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR.CSTR which offers a diverse range of application in the field of chemical engineering as well as in the control engineering and is an attractive research area for process control researchers. Our objective is to control the temperature of CSTR in presence of the set point. MATLAB SIMULINK software is used for model design and simulation
Convergence performance comparisons of PID, MRAC, and PID + MRAC hybrid controller
Zhang, Dan; Wei, Bin
2016-05-01
This study proposes a hybrid controller by combining a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control and a model reference adaptive control (MRAC), which named as PID + MRAC controller. The convergence performances of the PID control, MRAC, and hybrid PID + MRAC are also compared. Through the simulation in Matlab, the results show that the convergence speed and performance of the MRAC and the PID + MRAC controller are better than those of the PID controller. In addition, the convergence performance of the hybrid control is better than that of the MRAC control.
Hualong Xie
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A biped robot with heterogeneous legs (BRHL is proposed to provide an ideal test-bed for intelligent bionic legs (IBL. To make artificial leg gait better suited to a human, a four-bar mechanism is used as its knee joint, and a pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM is used as its driving source. The static mathematical model of PAM is established and the mechanical model of a single degree of freedom of a knee joint driven by PAM is analyzed. A control simulation of an artificial leg based on PID control algorithm is carried out and the simulation results indicate that the artificial leg can simulate precisely a normal human walking gait.
In any of the control applications, controller design is the most important part. There are different types of controller architectures available in control literature. In this research work, various low order plus dead time transfer function models of industrial boiler and heat exchanger are considered. A PI/PID controller is used to control various processes that involve boiler and heat exchanger. This comprise of controlling of parameters such as temperature, pressure, flow and level. The technique used for designing the controller is known as Internal Model Control. The designed controller has to give optimal control results irrespective of undesired situation like plant and equipment saturation. So the performance and stability is tested and verified for Linear Time Invariant Systems. (author)
PID controller simulator software for DC motor of gamma scanning
Mostly PID controller (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) has been used in industry. For certain applications, it can be used as a Proportional (P) model only, or as a Proportional-Integral (PI) model. The aim of this paper is to design a PID controller simulator software for DC motor which is used in gamma scanning system. A DC motor is described as a plant of SISO (Single Input Single Output) which is used for pulling down the load (detector + casing) and gamma radiation source (Co-60 + container) by using sling cable. A DC motor consist of an armature and a rotor, the equivalent circuit of DC motor is shown in a transfer function equation between output parameter (angular speed DC motor) and input parameter (voltage of DC motor). Methods used for the process of PID controller design is to arrange the PID controller parameter (Kc, Ti, Td) so that there are more PID controller transfer function model which are able to control angular speed of DC motor in stable condition, as design criteria requirement is needed. Design criteria requirement for control system are the settling time < 3 second, overshoot < 5%, rise time = 0.25 second, steady state gain = 1 and peak time < 3 second with step response reference 1 rad/second. The result of simulation gives several models of PID controller in function transfer equation which is similar with design criteria requirement in a equation of function transfer of order 2 for numerator and order 1 for denominator. (author)
Model Reference PID Control of an Electro-hydraulic Drive
Ayman A. Aly
2012-01-01
Hydraulic cranes are inherently nonlinear and contain components exhibiting strong friction, saturation, variable inertia mechanical loads, etc. The characteristics of these non-linear components are usually not known exactly as structure or parameters. For these reasons, tuning of the traditional PID controller parameters to control this system for the required performance faces a strong challenge. In this paper a new approach to design an adaptive PID control has the ability to solve the co...
Simplified Universal Intelligent PID Controller
Mohamed I. Abu El- Sebah
2016-01-01
Many researches give a great attention to invent different techniques for process controller application. All of them tend to simplify the controller design algorithm and make it more intelligent, but the two goals seem to be an opposite goals. Although the artificial intelligent controller is proper, they need sometimes a complicated algorithm and parameter adaptation process. This paper presents a new idea to simplify the process controller, also to make it an intellige...
Remote PID control of a DC Motor
Silva, V.; Carvalho, V.; R. M. Vasconcelos; Soares, F.
2007-01-01
This paper presents a remote experiment for controlling a DC motor. This work was part of a final year graduation project of the Industrial Electronics Course at the University of Minho. It was implemented by an undergraduate student for student use. The experiment is controlled using a PID algorithm programmed in LabView environment. The remote user can test PID digital algorithms and parameters, change reference velocity values and register the motor output velocity profile.
PID control with robust disturbance feedback control
Kawai, Fukiko; Vinther, Kasper; Andersen, Palle;
2015-01-01
Disturbance Feedback Control (DFC) is a technique, originally proposed by Fuji Electric, for augmenting existing control systems with an extra feedback for attenuation of disturbances and model errors. In this work, we analyze the robustness and performance of a PID-based control system with DFC. A...... multiplicative uncertainty model is used to represent mismatch between a nominal model and the actual plant, and expressions for robust stability, nominal and robust performance are derived. We propose a simple grid-based search algorithm that can be used to find DFC gains to achieve robust stability and...
A Practical Application of IMC-PID Controller in Unmanned Vehicle
Qin Gang; Song Le; Hu Ling
2013-01-01
In allusion to unmanned vehicle steering control of the brushless DC motor control system, traditional PID controller parameter adjustment complex, weak ability to adapt to the environment and other issues, on the basis of the analysis of internal model control and classical PID control internal corresponding relationship, comprehensive its advantages, The design uses a brushless DC motor in the steering control system for unmanned vehicles based on the internal model PID controller ( IMC-PID...
Tuning PID Controller Using Multiobjective Ant Colony Optimization
Pierre Borne; Noureddine Liouane; Ibtissem Chiha
2012-01-01
This paper treats a tuning of PID controllers method using multiobjective ant colony optimization. The design objective was to apply the ant colony algorithm in the aim of tuning the optimum solution of the PID controllers (Kp, Ki, and Kd) by minimizing the multiobjective function. The potential of using multiobjective ant algorithms is to identify the Pareto optimal solution. The other methods are applied to make comparisons between a classic approach based on the “Ziegler-Nichols” method an...
Criteria and Trade-offs in PID Design
Garpinger, Olof; Hägglund, Tore; Åström, Karl Johan
2012-01-01
Control design is a rich problem which requires that many issues such as load disturbances and set-point responses, model uncertainty, and measurement noise are taken into account. These issues are discussed for design of PI and PID controllers. The purpose is to give insight into the different criteria and their trade-offs, not to give specific tuning methods.
PID Controller Stabilization for First-order Integral Processes with Time Delay
无
2006-01-01
Due to the widespread application of the PID controller in industrial control systems, it is desirable to know the complete set of all the stabilizing PID controllers for a given plant before the controller design and tuning. In this paper,the stabilization problems of the classical proportionalintegral-derivative (PID) controller and the singleparameter PID controller (containing only one adjustable parameter) for integral processes with time delay are investigated, respectively. The complete set of stabilizing parameters of the classical PID controller is determined using a version of the Hermite-Biehler Theorem applicable to quasipolynomials. Since the stabilization problem of the single-parameter PID controller cannot be treated by the Hermite-Biehler Theorem, a simple method called duallocus diagram is employed to derive the stabilizing range of the single-parameter PID controller. These results provide insight into the tuning of the PID controllers.
Ahmed Sabah Al-Araji
2014-01-01
In this paper, the speed control of the real DC motor is experimentally investigated using nonlinear PID neural network controller. As a simple and fast tuning algorithm, two optimization techniques are used; trial and error method and particle swarm optimization PSO algorithm in order to tune the nonlinear PID neural controller's parameters and to find best speed response of the DC motor. To save time in the real system, a Matlab simulation package is used to carry out these algorithms to tu...
Fractional order PID controller for load frequency control
Highlights: • The manuscript shows the design of FOPID controller for the load frequency control. • Performance of FOPID is given for non-reheated, reheated and hydro turbine. • Performance of FOPID is compared to IMC-PID and reduced order IMC-PID design scheme. • Performance of FOPID is better than the existing techniques. - Abstract: Load frequency control (LFC) plays a very important role in providing quality power both in the case of isolated as well as interconnected power systems. In order to maintain good quality power supply, the LFC should possess robustness toward the parametric uncertainty of the system and good disturbance rejection capability. The fractional order controller has the properties such as, eliminating steady state error, robustness toward plant gain variations and also good disturbance rejection. This makes the fractional order PID (FOPID) controller quite suitable for the LFC. Therefore, in this paper a FOPID is designed for single area LFC for all three types of turbines i.e., non-reheated, reheated and hydro turbines. It is observed that the FOPID controller shows better robustness toward ±50% parametric uncertainty and disturbance rejection capability than the existing techniques. Finally, the optimization of controller parameters and robustness evaluation of the control technique is done on the basis of the integral error criterion
D. RAMA REDDY
2012-07-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the stability regions of PID (Proportional +Integral+ Derivative and a new PID with series leading correction (SLC for Networked control system with time delay. The new PID controller has a tuning parameter ‘β’. The relation between β, KP, KI and KD is derived. The effect of plant parameters on stabilityregion of PID controllers and SLC-PID controllers in first-order and second-order systems with time delay are also studied. Finally, an open-loop zero was inserted into the plant-unstable second order system with time delay so that the stability regions of PID and SLC-PID controllers get effectively enlarged. The total system isimplemented using MATLAB/Simulink.
Seltzer, S. M.
1976-01-01
The problem discussed is to design a digital controller for a typical satellite. The controlled plant is considered to be a rigid body acting in a plane. The controller is assumed to be a digital computer which, when combined with the proposed control algorithm, can be represented as a sampled-data system. The objective is to present a design strategy and technique for selecting numerical values for the control gains (assuming position, integral, and derivative feedback) and the sample rate. The technique is based on the parameter plane method and requires that the system be amenable to z-transform analysis.
PID Controller Based on Memristive CMAC Network
Lidan Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Compound controller which consists of CMAC network and PID network is mainly used in control system, especially in robot control. It can realize nonlinear tracking control of the real-time dynamic trajectory and possesses good approximation effect. According to the structure and principle of the compound controller, memristor is introduced to CMAC network to be a compound controller in this paper. The new PID controller based on memristive CMAC network is built up by replacing the synapse in the original controller by memristors. The effect of curve approximation is obtained by MATLAB simulation experiments. This network improves the response and learning speed of the system and processes better robustness and antidisturbance performance.
A toolbox for robust PID controller tuning using convex optimization
Sadeghpour, Mehdi; de Oliveira, Vinicius; Karimi, Alireza
2012-01-01
A robust PID controller design toolbox for Matlab is presented in this paper. The design is based on linearizing or convexifying the conventional non-convex constraints on the classical robustness margins or H∞ constraints. Then the existing optimization solvers can be used to compute the controller parameters. The software can be used in a wide range of controller design problems, including multi-model systems and gain-scheduled controllers. The models can be parametric or non-parametric whi...
A Practical Application of IMC-PID Controller in Unmanned Vehicle
Qin Gang
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In allusion to unmanned vehicle steering control of the brushless DC motor control system, traditional PID controller parameter adjustment complex, weak ability to adapt to the environment and other issues, on the basis of the analysis of internal model control and classical PID control internal corresponding relationship, comprehensive its advantages, The design uses a brushless DC motor in the steering control system for unmanned vehicles based on the internal model PID controller ( IMC-PID for speed. Based on the build object theoretical model, online simulation controller show that, for the design objects, based on the internal model PID controller whether the system step response or disturbance tracking control effect can reach the classic PID control requirements, also reduces the complexity and randomness of the design parameters.
Farzin Piltan
2011-10-01
Full Text Available In this study, an on-line tunable gain model free PID-like fuzzy controller (GTFLC is designed for three degrees of freedom (3DOF robot manipulator to rich the best performance. Fuzzy logic controller is studied because of its model free and high performance. Today, robot manipulators are used in unknown and unstructured environment and caused to provide sophisticated systems, therefore strong mathematical tools are used in new control methodologies to design adaptive nonlinear robust controller with acceptable performance (e.g., minimum error, good trajectory, disturbance rejection. The strategies of control robot manipulator are classified into two main groups: classical and non-classical methods, however non linear classical theories have been applied successfully in many applications, but they also have some limitation. One of the most important nonlinear non classical robust controller that can used in uncertainty nonlinear systems, are fuzzy logic controller. This paper is focuses on applied mathematical tunable gain method in robust non classical method to reduce the fuzzy logic controller limitations. Therefore on-line tunable PID like fuzzy logic controller will be presented in this paper.
Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, Arash Zargari, Mohammad Keshavarz & Ali Badri
2011-10-01
Full Text Available In this study, an on-line tunable gain model free PID-like fuzzy controller (GTFLC is designed forthree degrees of freedom (3DOF robot manipulator to rich the best performance. Fuzzy logiccontroller is studied because of its model free and high performance. Today, robot manipulatorsare used in unknown and unstructured environment and caused to provide sophisticated systems,therefore strong mathematical tools are used in new control methodologies to design adaptivenonlinear robust controller with acceptable performance (e.g., minimum error, good trajectory,disturbance rejection. The strategies of control robot manipulator are classified into two maingroups: classical and non-classical methods, however non linear classical theories have beenapplied successfully in many applications, but they also have some limitation. One of the mostimportant nonlinear non classical robust controller that can used in uncertainty nonlinear systems,are fuzzy logic controller. This paper is focuses on applied mathematical tunable gain method inrobust non classical method to reduce the fuzzy logic controller limitations. Therefore on-linetunable PID like fuzzy logic controller will be presented in this paper.
Setpoint Weighted PID Controller for the Electromechanical Actuator in Spacecraft
R. Sumathi
2014-05-01
Full Text Available An intelligent control system for the rocket engine during electromechanical stage is designed and scrutinized in this paper. The rocket is the only vehicle that lift-offs the spacecraft in the space. But, the motion of the rocket can be influenced by internal and external disturbances. Furthermore, the rocket is a multi-input and multi-output nonlinear system whose dynamics are unstable and poorly understood. So the orientation of the spacecraft in precise position is so critical. Hence, attitude control of the rocket is a big challenge with real time. To make the rocket stable against the influences, this paper has examined the control technology such as linear quadratic regulator theory and setpoint weighted proportional integral derivative controller based on the two degree of freedom mathematical model. The transient behaviour of the LQR controller is not smooth and takes more time to settle in the defined position. Specific to the deficiencies of LQR, a setpoint weighted PID controller is proposed to improve the setpoint response. In conclusion, this paper compares the performance analysis of linear quadratic regulator and setpoint weighted PID controller. The simulation results indicate that the setpoint weighted PID controller has a remarkable improvement in terms of overshoot and settling time besides reducing steady state error. The proposed setpoint weighted PID controller enhances the system performance and produces enormous stability to the rocket engine.
Wind turbine pitch control using ICPSO-PID algorithm
Xu, Chang; Tian, Qiangqiang; Shen, Wen Zhong;
2013-01-01
For the traditional simplified first-order pitch-control system model, it is difficult to describe a real dynamic characteristic of a variable pitch action system, thus a complete high order mathematical model has to be developed for the pitch control of wind turbine generation (WTG). In the paper......, a pitch controller was designed based on power and wind speed and by considering the inertia and delay characteristics of a pitch-control system to achieve a constant power output when a wind speed was beyond the rated one. A novel ICPSO-PID control algorithm was proposed based on a combination of...... controller parameters quickly; and the feed-forward controller for wind speed can improve dynamics of a pitch-control system; additionally the power controller can allow a wind turbine to have a constant power output as a wind speed is over the rated one. Compared with a conventional PID, the controller with...
ROBUST INTERNAL MODEL CONTROL STRATEGY BASED PID CONTROLLER FOR BLDCM
A.PURNA CHANDRA RAO
2010-11-01
Full Text Available All the closed loop control system requires the controller for improvement of transient response of the error signal. Though the tuning of PID controller in real time is bit difficult and moreover it lacks the disturbance rejection capability. This paper presents a tuning of PID parameters based on internal model strategy. The advantageous of the proposed control strategy is well described in the paper. To test the validity of the proposed control, it is implemented in brushless dc motor drive. The mathematical model of brushless dc motor (BLDC is presented for control design. In addition the robustness of the control strategy is discussed. The proposed control strategy possesses good transient responses and good load disturbance response. In addition, the proposed control strategy possesses good tracking ability. To test the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, the BLDC is represented in transfer function model and later implemented in test system. The results are presented to validate the proposed control strategy for BLDC drive.
Model-reference robust tuning of PID controllers
Alfaro, Victor M
2016-01-01
This book presents a unified methodology for the design of PID controllers that encompasses the wide range of different dynamics to be found in industrial processes. This is extended to provide a coherent way of dealing with the tuning of PID controllers. The particular method at the core of the book is the so-called model-reference robust tuning (MoReRT), developed by the authors. MoReRT constitutes a novel and powerful way of thinking of a robust design and taking into account the usual design trade-offs encountered in any control design problem. The book starts by presenting the different two-degree-of-freedom PID control algorithm variations and their conversion relations as well as the indexes used for performance, robustness and fragility evaluation:the bases of the proposed model. Secondly, the MoReRT design methodology and normalized controlled process models and controllers used in the design are described in order to facilitate the formulation of the different design problems and subsequent derivati...
ROBUST INTERNAL MODEL CONTROL STRATEGY BASED PID CONTROLLER FOR BLDCM
A.PURNA CHANDRA RAO; Y. P. OBULESU,; CH. SAI BABU
2010-01-01
All the closed loop control system requires the controller for improvement of transient response of the error signal. Though the tuning of PID controller in real time is bit difficult and moreover it lacks the disturbance rejection capability. This paper presents a tuning of PID parameters based on internal model strategy. The advantageous of the proposed control strategy is well described in the paper. To test the validity of the proposed control, it is implemented in brushless dc motor driv...
Fatemeh Masoudnia
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper three optimum approaches to design PID controller for a Gryphon Robot are presented. The three applied approaches are Artificial Bee Colony, Shuffled Frog Leaping algorithms and nero-fuzzy system. The design goal is to minimize the integral absolute error and reduce transient response by minimizing overshoot, settling time and rise time of step response. An Objective function of these indexes is defined and minimized applying Shuffled Frog Leaping (SFL algorithm, Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm and Nero-Fuzzy System (FNN. After optimization of the objective function, the optimal parameters for the PID controller are adjusted. Simulation results show that FNN has a remarkable effect on decreasing the amount of settling time and rise-time and eliminating of steady-state error while the SFL algorithm performs better on steady-state error and the ABC algorithm is better on decreasing of overshoot. In steady state manner, all of the methods react robustly to the disturbance, but FNN shows more stability in transient response.
Development of Solar Tracking System Using Imc-Pid Controller
Bamigboye O. Oladayo
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In the past, solar cells are hooked with fixed elevating angles, and it does not track the sun. Therefore the efficiency of the power generation is low. A solar panel receives the most sunlight when it is perpendicular to the sun’s rays, but the sunlight direction changes regularly with changing seasons and weather. There is therefore the need to track the solar panel to increase its efficiency. The stability and improved speed of response can only be achieved with appropriate controller to take care of external disturbances and design uncertainty associated with a conventional controller. The IMC controller would be used to allow good tracking ability and good load disturbance rejection Unconventional controller like fuzzy logic can be used to tune the PID controller andthe result compared with using a conventional controller like ZN. The internal model control based proportional integral derivative design procedure can be implemented in industrial processes using existing proportional integral derivative control equipment. Modeling of a dual axis solar tracker. An IMC-PID controller was developed for a dual axis solar tracker. The result of this work showed that the IMC-PID controller provided an efficient and commendable improvement in the relative stability, disturbance attenuation, set point tracking and an improved speed of response for the system
Tuning of PID Controller for A Linear Brushless DC Motor using Swarm Intelligence Technique
Pooja Sharma; Rajeev Gupta
2014-01-01
An Optimal Design of PID Controller is proposed in this paper. The Methodology of PSO Algorithm is utilized to search the optimal parameters of Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller for BLDC Motor. PSO is an Evolutionary Optimization Technique. A Linear Brushless DC Motors are known for higher efficiency and lower maintenance. The Brushless DC Motor is modeled in Simulink & tuning of PID controller using PSO is implemented in MATLAB. This Method was more efficient ...
Tuning of PID Controller for A Linear Brushless DC Motor using Swarm Intelligence Technique
Pooja Sharma,
2014-05-01
Full Text Available An Optimal Design of PID Controller is proposed in this paper. The Methodology of PSO Algorithm is utilized to search the optimal parameters of Proportional Integral Derivative (PID Controller for BLDC Motor. PSO is an Evolutionary Optimization Technique. A Linear Brushless DC Motors are known for higher efficiency and lower maintenance. The Brushless DC Motor is modeled in Simulink & tuning of PID controller using PSO is implemented in MATLAB. This Method was more efficient for Step Response Characteristics.
Differential Evolution-Based PID Control of Nonlinear Full-Car Electrohydraulic Suspensions
Jimoh O. Pedro
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a differential-evolution- (DE- optimized, independent multiloop proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller design for full-car nonlinear, electrohydraulic suspension systems. The multiloop PID control stabilises the actuator via force feedback and also improves the system performance. Controller gains are computed using manual tuning and through DE optimization to minimise a performance index, which addresses suspension travel, road holding, vehicle handling, ride comfort, and power consumption constraints. Simulation results showed superior performance of the DE-optimized PID-controlled active vehicle suspension system (AVSS over the manually tuned PID-controlled AVSS and the passive vehicle suspension system (PVSS.
Simulation and Tuning of PID Controllers using Evolutionary Algorithms
K.R.S. Narayanan; T. Jayanthi; T. Lakshmi Priyanka; S.A.V. Satya Murty
2012-01-01
The Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller is the most widely used control strategy in the Industry. The popularity of PID controllers can be attributed to their robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions and partly to their functional simplicity. The process of setting of PID controller can be determined as an optimization task. Over the years, use of intelligent strategies for tuning of these controllers has been growing. Biologically inspired evolutionary strateg...
Series pid pitch controller of large wind turbines generator
Micić Aleksandar D.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For this stable process with oscillatory dynamics, characterized with small damping ratio and dominant transport delay, design of the series PID pitch controller is based on the model obtained from the open-loop process step response, filtered with the second-order Butterworth filter Fbw. Performance of the series PID pitch controller, with the filter Fbw, is analyzed by simulations of the set-point and input/output disturbance responses, including simulations with a colored noise added to the control variable. Excellent performance/robustness tradeoff is obtained, compared to the recently proposed PI pitch controllers and to the modified internal model pitch controller, developed here, which has a natural mechanism to compensate effect of dominant transport delay. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47016
C Agees Kumar; N.Kesavan Nair
2010-01-01
PID controller is widely used for main steam temperature control of boiler unit in thermal power plant. To avoid the drawback of current PID design methods, this paper presents a new design method for multi-objective PID controller to synthetically consider system requirement in reliability and robustness. Adaptive weighted PSO (AWPSO) technique is applied to the parameter optimization design. The optimization problem considered is highly nonlinear, complex, with multiple objectives and const...
Mutation particle swarm optimization of the BP-PID controller for piezoelectric ceramics
Zheng, Huaqing; Jiang, Minlan
2016-01-01
PID control is the most common used method in industrial control because its structure is simple and it is easy to implement. PID controller has good control effect, now it has been widely used. However, PID method has a few limitations. The overshoot of the PID controller is very big. The adjustment time is long. When the parameters of controlled plant are changing over time, the parameters of controller could hardly change automatically to adjust to changing environment. Thus, it can't meet the demand of control quality in the process of controlling piezoelectric ceramic. In order to effectively control the piezoelectric ceramic and improve the control accuracy, this paper replaced the learning algorithm of the BP with the mutation particle swarm optimization algorithm(MPSO) on the process of the parameters setting of BP-PID. That designed a better self-adaptive controller which is combing the BP neural network based on mutation particle swarm optimization with the conventional PID control theory. This combination is called the MPSO-BP-PID. In the mechanism of the MPSO, the mutation operation is carried out with the fitness variance and the global best fitness value as the standard. That can overcome the precocious of the PSO and strengthen its global search ability. As a result, the MPSO-BP-PID can complete controlling the controlled plant with higher speed and accuracy. Therefore, the MPSO-BP-PID is applied to the piezoelectric ceramic. It can effectively overcome the hysteresis, nonlinearity of the piezoelectric ceramic. In the experiment, compared with BP-PID and PSO-BP-PID, it proved that MPSO is effective and the MPSO-BP-PID has stronger adaptability and robustness.
Predictive PID Control Based on GPC Control of Inverted Pendulum
Safa Bouhajar
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Having regard to the large application of the inverted pendulum in robotic system, this study is interested in controlling this process with two strategies of controls. The first proposed control is the state feedback with an observer based on the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC algorithm. In the second proposed control we used the characteristic of predictive control GPC to improve the performance of the classical PID controller. The obtained results have been discussed and compared; the simulation results obtained by the predictive PID control are mentioned.
Highlights: ► We extend the concept of co-operation and co-evolution in some PSO variants. ► We use developed co-operative PSOs in multivariable PID controller design/tuning. ► We find that co-operative PSOs converge faster and give high quality solutions. ► Dividing the search space among swarms improves search efficiency. ► The proposed methods allow the practitioner for heterogeneous problem formulation. - Abstract: In this paper, multivariable PID controller design based on cooperative and coevolving multiple swarms is demonstrated. A simplified multi-variable MIMO process model of a ball mill pulverizing system with steady state decoupler is considered. In order to formulate computational models of cooperative and coevolving multiple swarms three different algorithms like real coded PSO, discrete binary PSO (DBPSO) and probability based discrete binary PSO (PBPSO) are employed. Simulations are carried out on three composite functions simultaneously considering multiple objectives. The cooperative and coevolving multiple swarms based results are compared with the results obtained through single swarm based methods like real coded particle swarm optimization (PSO), discrete binary PSO (DBPSO), and probability based discrete binary PSO (PBPSO) algorithms. The cooperative and coevolving swarms based techniques outperform the real coded PSO, PBPSO, and the standard discrete binary PSO (DBPSO) algorithm in escaping from local optima. Furthermore, statistical analysis of the simulation results is performed to calculate the comparative reliability of various techniques. All of the techniques employed are suitable for controller tuning, however, the multiple cooperative and coevolving swarms based results are considerably better in terms of mean fitness, variance of fitness, and success rate in finding a feasible solution in comparison to those obtained using single swarm based methods.
Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications
Saraji, Ali Motalebi [Young Researchers and Elite Club, AliAbad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, AliAbad Katoul (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanbari, Mahmood [Department of Electrical Engineering, AliAbad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, AliAbad Katoul (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-12-10
Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear.
Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications
Saraji, Ali Motalebi; Ghanbari, Mahmood
2014-12-01
Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear.
Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications
Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear
PID and predictive control of electrical drives and power converters using MATLAB/Simulink
Wang, Liuping; Yoo, Dae; Gan, Lu; Ng, Ki
2015-01-01
A timely introduction to current research on PID and predictive control by one of the leading authors on the subject PID and Predictive Control of Electric Drives and Power Supplies using MATLAB/Simulink examines the classical control system strategies, such as PID control, feed-forward control and cascade control, which are widely used in current practice. The authors share their experiences in actual design and implementation of the control systems on laboratory test-beds, taking the reader from the fundamentals through to more sophisticated design and analysis. The book contains secti
Soft Real-Time PID Control on a VME Computer
Karayan, Vahag; Sander, Stanley; Cageao, Richard
2007-01-01
microPID (uPID) is a computer program for real-time proportional + integral + derivative (PID) control of a translation stage in a Fourier-transform ultraviolet spectrometer. microPID implements a PID control loop over a position profile at sampling rate of 8 kHz (sampling period 125microseconds). The software runs in a strippeddown Linux operating system on a VersaModule Eurocard (VME) computer operating in real-time priority queue using an embedded controller, a 16-bit digital-to-analog converter (D/A) board, and a laser-positioning board (LPB). microPID consists of three main parts: (1) VME device-driver routines, (2) software that administers a custom protocol for serial communication with a control computer, and (3) a loop section that obtains the current position from an LPB-driver routine, calculates the ideal position from the profile, and calculates a new voltage command by use of an embedded PID routine all within each sampling period. The voltage command is sent to the D/A board to control the stage. microPID uses special kernel headers to obtain microsecond timing resolution. Inasmuch as microPID implements a single-threaded process and all other processes are disabled, the Linux operating system acts as a soft real-time system.
Turbine speed control system based on a fuzzy-PID
SUN Jian-hua; WANG Wei; YU Hai-yan
2008-01-01
The flexibility demand of marine nuclear power plant is very high,the multiple parameters of the marine nuclear power plant with the once-through steam generator are strongly coupled,and the normal PID control of the turbine speed can't meet the control demand. This paper introduces a turbine speed Fuzzy-PID controller to coordinately control the steam pressure and thus realize the demand for quick tracking and steady state control over the turbine speed by using the Fuzzy control's quick dynamic response and PID control's steady state performance. The simulation shows the improvement of the response time and steady state performance of the control system.
Remote PID Control of a DC Motor
V. Silva
2007-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a remote experiment forcontrolling a DC motor. This work was part of a final yeargraduation project of the Industrial Electronics Course atthe University of Minho. It was implemented by anundergraduate student for students use. The experiment iscontrolled using a PID algorithm programmed in LabViewenvironment. The remote user can test PID digitalalgorithms and parameters, change reference velocity valuesand register the motor output velocity profile.
R. Arulmurugan
2012-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new dc to dc boost converter using closed loop control proportional Integral and Derivative mechanism for photovoltaic (PV standalone high voltage applications. The boost converter is composed of MOSFETs which are driven by closed loop PWM control. Many advantages including high efficiency, minimum number of switch, high voltage and power, low cost. This converter is attractive for high voltage and high power applications. The analysis and design considerations of the converter are presented. A prototype was implemented for an application requiring a 410W output power, input voltage range from 17.1-V, and a 317-V output voltage. The proposed system efficiency is about 90%.
ANFIS-PID Controller for Arm Rehabilitation Device
M.H.Jali
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the arm rehabilitation device controller based on fuzzy logic techniques is presented. Patients who has post-stroke may lose control of their upper limb. If they are treated with functional rehabilitation training, the patients can rehabilitate their motion functions and working abilities. These rehabilitation devices are used to recover the movement of arm after stroke. Many controllers had been used for the rehabilitation device and one of them is ANFIS-PID controller where Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS technique is the combination of fuzzy logic and neural network system. The objectives of this project are to develop arm rehabilitation device controller based on the ANFIS-PID technique. The development of ANFIS is purposely as an inverse model to the system and proportional-integral- erivative (PID controller as a feedback control. EMG model is integrated to the control system as reference where Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to model the EMG to position relationship. Simulation is conducted using MATLAB to validate the system performance that is integrated with EMG model. Then the performance is compared between ANFIS-PID controller and PID alone controller. ANFIS–PID controller reduced more tracking error compared to PID controller and demonstrates better results when disturbance is applied to the control system.
Digital implementation of fractional order PID controller and its application
Wang Zhenbin; Wang Zhenlei; Cao Guangyi; Zhu Xinjian
2005-01-01
A new discretization scheme is proposed for the design of a fractional order PID controller. In the design of a fractional order controller the interest is mainly focused on the s-domain, but there exists a difficult problem in the s-domain that needs to be solved, i.e. how to calculate fractional derivatives and integrals efficiently and quickly. Our scheme adopts the time domain that is well suited for Z-transform analysis and digital implementation. The main idea of the scheme is based on the definition of Grunwald-Letnicov fractional calculus. In this case some limited terms of the definition are taken so that it is much easier and faster to calculate fractional derivatives and integrals in the time domain or zdomain without loss much of the precision. Its effectiveness is illustrated by discretization of half-order fractional differential and integral operators compared with that of the analytical scheme. An example of designing fractional order digital controllers is included for illustration, in which different fractional order PID controllers are designed for the control of a nonlinear dynamic system containing one of the four different kinds of nonlinear blocks: saturation, deadzone, hysteresis, and relay.
Automatic Tuning of PID Controller for a 1-D Levitation System Using a Genetic Algorithm
Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Gerulf K.m.
2006-01-01
The automatic PID control design for a onedimensional magnetic levitation system is investigated. The PID controller is automatically tuned using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) based on a nonlinear system model. The developed controller is digitally implemented and tested....... The preliminary simulation and test results show a bright potential to use artificial intelligence methods for supporting the control design for complicated nonlinear and open-loop unstable systems....
Benxian Xiao
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Proposed the PID controller parameters tuning method based-on New Luus-Jaakola (NLJ algorithm and satisfaction idea. According to the different requirements of each performance index, designed the satisfaction function with fuzzy constraint attributes, and then determined the comprehensive satisfaction function for PID tuning by NLJ algorithm. Provided the steps of PID controller parameters tuning based on the NLJ algorithm and satisfaction, and applied this tuning method to the cascade control system of superheated steam temperature for Power Station Boiler. Finally the simulation and experiment results have shown the proposed method has good dynamic and static control performances for this complicated superheated steam temperature control system.
Intelligent PID guidance control for AUV path tracking
李晔; 姜言清; 王磊峰; 曹建; 张国成
2015-01-01
Based on rational behavior model of three layers, a tracking control system is designed for straight line tracking which is commonly used in underwater survey missions. An intelligent PID control law implemented as planning level during the control system using transverse deviation is came up with. Continuous tracking of path expressed by a point sequence can be realized by the law. Firstly, a path tracking control system based on rational behavior model of three layers is designed, mainly satisfying the needs of underactuated AUV. Since there is no need to perform spatially coupled maneuvers, the 3D path tracking control is decoupled into planar 2D path tracking and depth or height tracking separately. Secondly, planar path tracking controller is introduced. For the reason that more attention is paid to comparing with vertical position control, transverse deviation in analytical form is derived. According to the Lyapunov direct theory, control law is designed using discrete PID algorithm whose parameters obey adaptive fuzzy adjustment. Reference heading angle is given as an output of the guidance controller conducted by lateral deviation together with its derivative. For the purpose of improving control quality and facilitating parameter modifying, data normalize modules based on Sigmoid function are applied to input-output data manipulation. Lastly, a sequence of experiments was carried out successfully, including tests in Longfeng lake and at the Yellow sea. In most challenging sea conditions, tracking errors of straight line are below 2 m in general. The results show that AUV is able to compensate the disturbance brought by sea current. The provided test results demonstrate that the designed guidance controller guarantees stably and accurately straight route tracking. Besides, the proposed control system is accessible for continuous comb-shaped path tracking in region searching.
PID control for chaotic synchronization using particle swarm optimization
In this paper, we attempt to use the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller to achieve the chaos synchronization for delayed discrete chaotic systems. Three PID control gains can be optimally determined by means of using a novel optimization algorithm, called the particle swarm optimization (PSO). The algorithm is motivated from the organism behavior of fish schooling and bird flocking, and involves the social psychology principles in socio-cognition human agents and evolutionary computations. It has a good numerical convergence for solving optimization problem. To show the validity of the PSO-based PID control for chaos synchronization, several cases with different initial populations are considered and some simulation results are shown.
Interval type-2 fuzzy PID controller for uncertain nonlinear inverted pendulum system.
El-Bardini, Mohammad; El-Nagar, Ahmad M
2014-05-01
In this paper, the interval type-2 fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative controller (IT2F-PID) is proposed for controlling an inverted pendulum on a cart system with an uncertain model. The proposed controller is designed using a new method of type-reduction that we have proposed, which is called the simplified type-reduction method. The proposed IT2F-PID controller is able to handle the effect of structure uncertainties due to the structure of the interval type-2 fuzzy logic system (IT2-FLS). The results of the proposed IT2F-PID controller using a new method of type-reduction are compared with the other proposed IT2F-PID controller using the uncertainty bound method and the type-1 fuzzy PID controller (T1F-PID). The simulation and practical results show that the performance of the proposed controller is significantly improved compared with the T1F-PID controller. PMID:24661774
Integral Separation PID Control Based on Self-balanced Car Design%基于积分分离PID控制的自平衡小车设计
蒋龙; 罗亮; 王欣
2015-01-01
Based STM32F103VET6 control core chip,with accelerometer gyroscope MPU6050 constitute trolley posture detection device,with dual drive TB6612FNG drive with digital encoders DC motor a self-balanced car system was built. Integral separate PID algorithm was used to achieve a rapid and stable control of body balance. The experimental testing indicate integral separation PID algorithm can quickly and stably control the car system to reach equilibrium.%以STM32F103VET6作为控制核心芯片，采用带加速度计的陀螺仪MPU6050构成小车姿态检测装置，采用双路驱动器TB6612FNG驱动带数字编码器的直流电机搭建了自平衡小车系统。采用积分分离式PID算法实现了车身平衡的快速稳定控制。经实验证明积分分离式PID算法能够快速、稳定地控制小车系统达到平衡状态。
A Proposal of Adaptive PID Controller Based on Reinforcement Learning
WANG Xue-song; CHENG Yu-hu; SUN Wei
2007-01-01
Aimed at the lack of self-tuning PID parameters in conventional PID controllers, the structure and learning algorithm of an adaptive PID controller based on reinforcement learning were proposed. Actor-Critic learning was used to tune PID parameters in an adaptive way by taking advantage of the model-free and on-line learning properties of reinforcement learning effectively. In order to reduce the demand of storage space and to improve the learning efficiency,a single RBF neural network was used to approximate the policy function of Actor and the value function of Critic simultaneously. The inputs of RBF network are the system error, as well as the first and the second-order differences of error. The Actor can realize the mapping from the system state to PID parameters, while the Critic evaluates the outputs of the Actor and produces TD error. Based on TD error performance index and gradient descent method, the updating rules of RBF kernel function and network weights were given. Simulation results show that the proposed controller is efficient for complex nonlinear systems and it is perfectly adaptable and strongly robust, which is better than that of a conventional PID controller.
Recurrent neural networks-based multivariable system PID predictive control
ZHANG Yan; WANG Fanzhen; SONG Ying; CHEN Zengqiang; YUAN Zhuzhi
2007-01-01
A nonlinear proportion integration differentiation (PID) controller is proposed on the basis of recurrent neural networks,due to the difficulty of tuning the parameters of conventional PID controller.In the control process of nonlinear multivariable system,a decoupling controller was constructed,which took advantage of multi-nonlinear PID controllers in parallel.With the idea of predictive control,two multivariable predictive control strategies were established.One strategy involved the use of the general minimum variance control function on the basis of recursive multi-step predictive method.The other involved the adoption of multistep predictive cost energy to train the weights of the decoupling controller.Simulation studies have shown the efficiency of these strategies.
A.Selwin Mich Priyadharson
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The main objective of the combustion controller in a thermal power plant is to regulate fuel and air in proper ratio to maintain the desired steam pressure at the turbine inlet, irrespective of the changes in steam demand. To achieve a continuous supply of steam at the desired pressure conditions is difficult to cope with inherenttime delay, nonlinearity due to uncertainty of the combustion process and frequent load changes. This paper deals with the design of behavior response computation based approach to get the optimal PID controller parameters for the combustion control of utility boiler. A separate control model is developed for Fuel and Air system. The control model for fuel will drive the Fuel controller which is cascaded with Air controller. PID controller for Air and Fuelsystem will use the optimum PID parameter derived from response based computation method. Many steady state and dynamic behavioral responses were analyzed for different load conditions. A lab scale experimental setup is fabricated in the laboratory for fuel and air control and tests were carried out for several load conditions. Optimal PID controller parameters were obtained when the experimental responses have good agreement with the real time behavior responses. The advantages of the proposed design are highlighted.
IMC based robust PID controller tuning for disturbance rejection
Mohammad Shamsuzzoha
2016-01-01
It is well-known that the IMC-PID controller tuning gives fast and improved set point response but slow disturbance rejection. A modification has been proposed in IMC-PID tuning rule for the improved disturbance rejection. For the modified IMC-PID tuning rule, a method has been developed to obtain the IMC-PID setting in closed-loop mode without acquiring detailed information of the process. The proposed method is based on the closed-loop step set point experiment using a proportional only controller with gainKc0. It is the direct approach to find the PID controller setting similar to classical Ziegler-Nichols closed-loop method. Based on simulations of a wide range of first-order with delay processes, a simple correlation has been derived to obtain the modified IMC-PID controller settings from closed-loop experiment. In this method, controller gain is a function of the overshoot obtained in the closed loop set point experiment. The integral and derivative time is mainly a function of the time to reach the first peak (overshoot). Simulation has been conducted for the broad class of processes and the controllers were tuned to have the same degree of robustness by measuring the maximum sensitivity, Ms, in order to obtain a reasonable comparison. The PID controller settings obtained in the proposed tuning method show better performance and robustness with other two-step tuning methods for the broad class of processes. It has also been applied to temperature control loop in distillation column model. The result has been compared to the open loop tuning method where it gives robust and fast response.
C.Agees Kumar
2010-07-01
Full Text Available PID controller is widely used for main steam temperature control of boiler unit in thermal power plant. To avoid the drawback of current PID design methods, this paper presents a new design method for multi-objective PID controller to synthetically consider system requirement in reliability and robustness. Adaptive weighted PSO (AWPSO technique is applied to the parameter optimization design. The optimization problem considered is highly nonlinear, complex, with multiple objectives and constraints. The simulation results on an actual main steam temperature control system indicate that, the multi-objective PID controller designed by presented method, can improve the dynamic performance of main steam temperature control system, with good robustness ability.
Genetic Algorithm based PID controller for Frequency Regulation Ancillary services
Sandeep Bhongade
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the parameters of Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID controller for Automatic Generation Control (AGC suitable in restructured power system is tuned according to Generic Algorithms (GAs based performance indices. The key idea of the proposed method is to use the fitness function based on Area Control Error (ACE. The functioning of the proposed Genetic Algorithm based PID (GAPID controller has been demonstrated on a 75-bus Indian power system network and the results have been compared with those obtained by using Least Square Minimization method.
Stability Control of an Autonomous Quadcopter through PID Control Law
Nicolas Ives Roque Pacheco
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In the recent years the world has seen a astonishing ascendance of non tripulated vehicles, and among these is the quadrotors aircrafts or quadcopters. These types of aircraft have been of particular interest due to its easy maneuverability in closed and open spaces and somewhat simplified dynamics. In these paper is presented an first attempt in the built model, to control the 4 DOF(Degrees of freedom of an soon to be autonomous quadcopter through PID law in an controlled environment.
A novel auto-tuning PID control mechanism for nonlinear systems.
Cetin, Meric; Iplikci, Serdar
2015-09-01
In this paper, a novel Runge-Kutta (RK) discretization-based model-predictive auto-tuning proportional-integral-derivative controller (RK-PID) is introduced for the control of continuous-time nonlinear systems. The parameters of the PID controller are tuned using RK model of the system through prediction error-square minimization where the predicted information of tracking error provides an enhanced tuning of the parameters. Based on the model-predictive control (MPC) approach, the proposed mechanism provides necessary PID parameter adaptations while generating additive correction terms to assist the initially inadequate PID controller. Efficiency of the proposed mechanism has been tested on two experimental real-time systems: an unstable single-input single-output (SISO) nonlinear magnetic-levitation system and a nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) liquid-level system. RK-PID has been compared to standard PID, standard nonlinear MPC (NMPC), RK-MPC and conventional sliding-mode control (SMC) methods in terms of control performance, robustness, computational complexity and design issue. The proposed mechanism exhibits acceptable tuning and control performance with very small steady-state tracking errors, and provides very short settling time for parameter convergence. PMID:26117284
Stabilization and Tracking Control of Inverted Pendulum Using Fractional Order PID Controllers
Sunil Kumar Mishra; Dinesh Chandra
2014-01-01
This work focuses on the use of fractional calculus to design robust fractional-order PID (PIλDμ) controller for stabilization and tracking control of inverted pendulum (IP) system. A particle swarm optimisation (PSO) based direct tuning technique is used to design two PIλDμ controllers for IP system without linearizing the actual nonlinear model. The fitness function is minimized by running the SIMULINK model of IP system according to the PSO program in MATLAB. The performance of proposed PI...
Quarter Car Active Suspension System Control Using PID Controller tuned by PSO
Wissam H. Al-Mutar
2015-01-01
The objective of this paper is to design an efficient control scheme for car suspension system. The purpose of suspension system in vehicles is to get more comfortable riding and good handling with road vibrations. A nonlinear hydraulic actuator is connected to passive suspension system in parallel with damper. The Particles Swarm Optimization is used to tune a PID controller for active suspension system. The designed controller is applied for quarter car suspension system and result is compa...
LabVIEW FPGA Implementation Of a PID Controller For D.C. Motor Speed Control
Fakhrulddin H. Ali; Mohammed Mahmood Hussein; Sinan M.B. Ismael
2010-01-01
This Paper presents a novel hardware design methodology of digital control systems. For this, instead of synthesizing the control system using Very high speed integration circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL), LabVIEW FPGA module from National Instrument (NI) is used to design the whole system that include analog capture circuit to take out the analog signals (set point and process variable) from the real world, PID controller module, and PWM signal generator mo...
Genetic Algorithm Tuning of PID Controller in Smith Predictor for Glucose Concentration Control
Tsonyo Slavov; Olympia Roeva
2011-01-01
This paper focuses on design of a glucose concentration control system based on nonlinear model plant of E. coli MC4110 fed-batch cultivation process. Due to significant time delay in real time glucose concentration measurement, a correction is proposed in glucose concentration measurement and a Smith predictor (SP) control structure based on universal PID controller is designed. To reduce the influence of model error in SP structure the estimate of measured glucose concentration is used. For...
PID controller tuning using the magnitude optimum criterion
Papadopoulos, Konstantinos
2014-01-01
An instructive reference that will help control researchers and engineers, interested in a variety of industrial processes, to take advantage of a powerful tuning method for the ever-popular PID control paradigm. This monograph presents explicit PID tuning rules for linear control loops regardless of process complexity. It shows the reader how such loops achieve zero steady-position, velocity, and acceleration errors and are thus able to track fast reference signals. The theoretical development takes place in the frequency domain by introducing a general-transfer-function-known process model
SIMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PID-ANN CONTROLLER FOR CHOPPER FED EMBEDDED PMDC MOTOR
M. Madheswaran; Muruganandam, M.
2012-01-01
The closed loop control of PMDC drive with an inner current controller and an outer PID-ANN (Proportional Integral Derivative – Artificial Neural Network) based speed controller is designed and presented in this paper. Motor is fed by DC / DC buck converter (DC Chopper). The controller is used to change the duty cycle of the converter and thereby, the voltage fed to the PMDC motor to regulate the speed. The PID-ANN controller designed was evaluated by computer simulation and it was implemente...
SIMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PID-ANN CONTROLLER FOR CHOPPER FED EMBEDDED PMDC MOTOR
M. Madheswaran
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The closed loop control of PMDC drive with an inner current controller and an outer PID-ANN (Proportional Integral Derivative – Artificial Neural Network based speed controller is designed and presented in this paper. Motor is fed by DC / DC buck converter (DC Chopper. The controller is used to change the duty cycle of the converter and thereby, the voltage fed to the PMDC motor to regulate the speed. The PID-ANN controller designed was evaluated by computer simulation and it was implemented using an 8051 based embedded system. This system will operate in forward motoring with variable speed.
Puchalski Bartosz; Duzinkiewicz Kazimierz; Rutkowski Tomasz
2015-01-01
In the paper, analysis of multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers for steam generator of pressurized water reactor (PWR) working in wide range of thermal power changes is presented. The U-tube steam generator has a nonlinear dynamics depending on thermal power transferred from coolant of the primary loop of the PWR plant. Control of water level in the steam generator conducted by a traditional PID controller which is designed for nominal power level of the nuclear react...
Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Methods with Genetic Algorithm for FOPTD System
K. Mohamed Hussain
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Measurement of Level, Temperature, Pressure and Flow parameters are very vital in all process industries. A combination of a few transducers with a controller, that forms a closed loop system leads to a stable and effective process. This article deals with control of in the process tank and comparative analysis of various PID control techniques and Genetic Algorithm (GA technique. The model for such a Real-time process is identified as First Order Plus Dead Time (FOPTD process and validated. The need for improved performance of the process has led to the development of model based controllers. Well-designed conventional Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID controllers are the most widely used controller in the chemical process industries because of their simplicity, robustness and successful practical applications. Many tuning methods have been proposed for PID controllers. Many tuning methods have been proposed for obtaining better PID controller parameter settings. The comparison of various tuning methods for First Order Plus Dead Time (FOPTD process are analysed using simulation software. Our purpose in this study is comparison of these tuning methods for single input single output (SISO systems using computer simulation.Also efficiency of various PID controller are investigated for different performance metrics such as Integral Square Error (ISE, Integral Absolute Error (IAE, Integral Time absolute Error (ITAE, and Mean square Error (MSE is presented and simulation is carried out. Work in this paper explores basic concepts, mathematics, and design aspect of PID controller. Comparison between the PID controller and Genetic Algorithm (GA will have been carried out to determine the best controller for the temperature system.
A Practical Tuning Method for the Robust PID Controller with Velocity Feed-Back
Emre Sariyildiz
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID control is the most widely used control method in industrial and academic applications due to its simplicity and efficiency. Several different control methods/algorithms have been proposed to tune the gains of PID controllers. However, the conventional tuning methods do not have sufficient performance and simplicity for practical applications, such as robotics and motion control. The performance of motion control systems may significantly deteriorate by the nonlinear plant uncertainties and unknown external disturbances, such as inertia variations, friction, external loads, etc., i.e., there may be a significant discrepancy between the simulation and experiment if the robustness is not considered in the design of PID controllers. This paper proposes a novel practical tuning method for the robust PID controller with velocity feed-back for motion control systems. The main advantages of the proposed method are the simplicity and efficiency in practical applications, i.e., a high performance robust motion control system can be easily designed by properly tuning conventional PID controllers. The validity of the proposal is verified by giving simulation and experimental results.
李杰; 齐晓慧; 韩帅涛
2013-01-01
针对小型四旋翼飞行器姿态控制问题,设计了一种新型非线性PID姿态控制器.针对传统PID的不足,通过引入两个跟踪微分器以及误差反馈的非线性组合构成非线性PID,并结合简化的小型四旋翼飞行器数学模型,提出了一种基于新型非线性PID姿态控制方法.仿真结果表明,所设计的控制器具有较强的鲁棒性、抗干扰性以及良好的滤波性能,系统具有良好的动态和稳态性能.由于保留了传统PID优点,设计简单,对实际工程具有较大的指导价值.%A new nonlinear PID attitude controller was designed to control the attitude of a small quad-rotor aircraft.Combined with the simplified mathematical model of small quad-rotor aircraft,an attitude control method was proposed by using the new nonlinear PID attitude controller.Two tracking differentiators and a nonlinear state error feedback are used to overcome the deficiency of the traditional PID controller.The simulation results indicate that our attitude controller achieves strong robustness,anti-disturbance and high filtering performances,having high-dynamic and steady-state performances.
Puchalski Bartosz
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In the paper, analysis of multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers for steam generator of pressurized water reactor (PWR working in wide range of thermal power changes is presented. The U-tube steam generator has a nonlinear dynamics depending on thermal power transferred from coolant of the primary loop of the PWR plant. Control of water level in the steam generator conducted by a traditional PID controller which is designed for nominal power level of the nuclear reactor operates insufficiently well in wide range of operational conditions, especially at the low thermal power level. Thus the steam generator is often controlled manually by operators. Incorrect water level in the steam generator may lead to accidental shutdown of the nuclear reactor and consequently financial losses. In the paper a comparison of proposed multi region fuzzy logic controller and traditional PID controllers designed only for nominal condition is presented. The gains of the local PID controllers have been derived by solving appropriate optimization tasks with the cost function in a form of integrated squared error (ISE criterion. In both cases, a model of steam generator which is readily available in literature was used for control algorithms synthesis purposes. The proposed multi-region fuzzy logic controller and traditional PID controller were subjected to broad-based simulation tests in rapid prototyping software - Matlab/Simulink. These tests proved the advantage of multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers over its traditional counterpart.
Optimal fuzzy PID controller with adjustable factors based on flexible polyhedron search algorithm
谭冠政; 肖宏峰; 王越超
2002-01-01
A new kind of optimal fuzzy PID controller is proposed, which contains two parts. One is an on-line fuzzy inference system, and the other is a conventional PID controller. In the fuzzy inference system, three adjustable factors xp, xi, and xd are introduced. Their functions are to further modify and optimize the result of the fuzzy inference so as to make the controller have the optimal control effect on a given object. The optimal values of these adjustable factors are determined based on the ITAE criterion and the Nelder and Mead′s flexible polyhedron search algorithm. This optimal fuzzy PID controller has been used to control the executive motor of the intelligent artificial leg designed by the authors. The result of computer simulation indicates that this controller is very effective and can be widely used to control different kinds of objects and processes.
Speed Control of DC Motor under Varying Load Using PID Controller
Muhammad Rafay Khan; Aleem Ahmed Khan; Umer Ghazali
2015-01-01
DC motors are used extensively in industrial variable speed applications because of most demanding speed-torque characteristics and are simple in controlling aspects. This paper presents a DC motor speed controlling technique under varying load condition. The linear system model of separately excited DC motor with Torque-variation is designed using PID controller. A Matlab simulation of proposed system with no-Load and full-load condition is performed on Simulink platform to observe the syste...
PID Control in the Third Millennium Lessons Learned and New Approaches
Visioli, Antonio
2012-01-01
The early 21st century has seen a renewed interest in research in the widely-adopted proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. PID Control in the Third Millennium provides an overview of the advances made as a result. Featuring: · new approaches for controller tuning; · control structures and configurations for more efficient control; · practical issues in PID implementation; and · non-standard approaches to PID including fractional-order, event-based, nonlinear, data-driven and predictive control; the nearly twenty chapters provide a state-of-the-art resumé of PID controller theory, design and realization. Each chapter has specialist authorship and ideas clearly characterized from both academic and industrial viewpoints. Advances in Industrial Control aims to report and encourage the transfer of technology in control engineering. The rapid development of control technology has an impact on all areas of the control discipline. The series o...
Naeim Farouk
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The degree of speed control of ship machinery effects on the economics and optimization of the machinery configuration and operation. All marine vessel ranging need some sort of speed control system to control and govern the speed of the marine diesel engines. The main focus of this study is to apply and comparative between two specific soft-computing techniques. Fuzzy logic controller and genetic algorithm to design and tuning of PID controller for applied on speed control system of marine diesel engine to get an output with better dynamic and static performance. Simulation results show that the response of system when using genetic algorithm is better and faster than when using fuzzy tuning PID controller.
Active structural control with stable fuzzy PID techniques
Yu, Wen
2016-01-01
This book presents a detailed discussion of intelligent techniques to measure the displacement of buildings when they are subjected to vibration. It shows how these techniques are used to control active devices that can reduce vibration 60–80% more effectively than widely used passive anti-seismic systems. After introducing various structural control devices and building-modeling and active structural control methods, the authors propose offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques to solve some common problems of building-displacement measurement using accelerometers. The most popular control algorithms in industrial settings, PD/PID controllers, are then analyzed and then combined with fuzzy compensation. The stability of this combination is proven with standard weight-training algorithms. These conditions provide explicit methods for selecting PD/PID controllers. Finally, fuzzy-logic and sliding-mode control are applied to the control of wind-induced vibration. The methods described are support...
M. Antony Freeda Rani
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Permanent Magnet Brushless DC motor (PMBL DC is used in a large number of industrial and automotive applications because of their high efficiency, compactness and excellent reliability. However to design an efficient PMBL DC motor, it is necessary to provide an effective controller that has to reduce the overshoot, settling and rise time. In this study, an improved PID controller has been designed by optimizing the parameters of PID controller based on two advanced optimization techniques ANFIS and Cuckoo Search optimization for speed control of a PMBL DC motor. The proposed approach has superior features, including easy implementation, stable convergence characteristic and good computational efficiency. The PMBL DC motor is modeled in SIMULINK implementing the algorithms in MATLAB and the performance evaluation has been studied.
Speed Control of Bldc Motor Drive By Using Pid Controllers
Y.Narendra Kumar,
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper mainly deals with the Brushless DC (BLDC motor speed driving systems have sprouted in various small scale and large scale applications like automobile industries, domestic appliances etc. This leads to the development in Brushless DC motor (BLDCM. The usage of BLDC Motor enhances various performance factors ranging from higher efficiency, higher torque in low-speed range, high power density ,low maintenance and less noise than other motors. The BLDC Motor can act as an alternative for traditional motors like induction and switched reluctance motors. In this paper PID controller is implemented with speed feedback loop and it is observe that torque ripples are minimized. Simulation is carried out using MATLAB / SIMULINK. The results show that the performance of BLDC Motor is quite satisfactory for various loading conditions. Brushless DC motor drives are typically employed in speed controlled applications.
Boumediène ALLAOUA
2009-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an intelligent controller of DC Motor drive is designed using particle swarm optimization (PSO method for formative the optimal proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller Tuning parameters. The proposed approach has superior feature, including easy implementation, stable convergence characteristics and very good computational performances efficiency. The DC Motor Scheduling PID-PSO controller is modeled in MATLAB environment. Comparing with fuzzy logic controller using PSO intelligent algorithms, the planned method is more proficient in improving the speed loop response stability, the steady state error is reduced, the rising time is perfected and the disturbances do not affect the performances of driving motor with no overtaking.
Optimization of PID controller based on The Bees Algorithm for one leg of a quadruped robot
Bakırcıoğlu Veli
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we apply The Bees Algorithm to find optimal PID controller gains to control angular positions of robot leg joints with the minimum position error. In order to present more realistic simulation, system modelled in MATLAB/Simulink environment which is close to experimental set up. Solid model of system, which has two degrees of freedom, drawn by using a CAD software. Required physical specifications of robot leg for MATLAB/Simulink modelling is obtained from this CAD model. Controller of the system is designed in MATLAB/Simulink interface. Simulation results derived to show effectiveness of The Bees Algorithm to find optimal PID controller gains.
Quarter Car Active Suspension System Control Using PID Controller tuned by PSO
Wissam H. Al-Mutar
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to design an efficient control scheme for car suspension system. The purpose of suspension system in vehicles is to get more comfortable riding and good handling with road vibrations. A nonlinear hydraulic actuator is connected to passive suspension system in parallel with damper. The Particles Swarm Optimization is used to tune a PID controller for active suspension system. The designed controller is applied for quarter car suspension system and result is compared with passive suspension system model and input road profile. Simulation results show good performance for the designed controller
TORQUE RIPPLE MINIMIZATION IN SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTORS USING PID FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER
K. Deepak; Nagarajan, G.
2014-01-01
The main objective of this paper is to design a system which will have small speed ripple and also produces fast response of switch reluctance motor (SRM) for various speeds , magnetic flux and current by means of PID fuzzy logic controller. The speed of motor is get increased by means of reducing the torque value and also by means of ripple content. The SRM will haves a PI fuzzy logic controller and a derivative part. The developed novel PID-like fuzzy logic controller (FLC) ...
郭娜; 胡静涛
2014-01-01
To achieve variable rate spraying, a pressure-based variable rate spaying system was designed to control the spray rate by adjusting the opening percentage of electrical regulating valve at the bypass pipeline. This returns excessive flow discharged by a piston diaphragm pump according to the flow rate of the spray pipeline, and adjusts the boom width by shutting ON or OFF selected solenoid valves at each section. The ARM9 based variable rate controller was designed to measure the system pressure and flow rate, and generate the control signal. A commercial 3W-250 boom sprayer with 12 flat fan spray nozzles was modified to a variable rate sprayer and mounted behind the LOVAL TA800 tractor. The 12 nozzles were divided to 6 boom sections and the pump was derived by the power take-off shaft of the tractor. The variable rate sprayer was represented by a directed graph of fluid network that consists of a set of junctions, called nodes, and certain lines joining a pair of nodes, called the edges. To reduce the complexity of the spray network, the fluid resistance of the short pipeline was ignored, some nodes were merged, one virtual node was increased to represent the external atmospheric pressure, and finally the graph of the variable rate spraying system involved 6 nodes and 12 edges. The flow rate and pressure distribution within the spray network under, steady state conditions was described by the junction of continuity equations and the loop energy equations. The electrical regulating actuator was also modelled to describe the relationship between the voltage control signal and the valve opening percentage. The fuzzy-PID control algorithm was adopted for the nonlinear, time-varying variable rate spraying system to achieve better performance than with the conventional PID control algorithm. The fuzzy control algorithm was used for tuning the PID parameters online. The Smith predictor based on the system model was introduced to overcome the side effects of long time
Control of a Quadrotor Using a Smart Self-Tuning Fuzzy PID Controller
Deepak Gautam
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the modelling, simulation-based controller design and path planning of a four rotor helicopter known as a quadrotor. All the drags, aerodynamic, coriolis and gyroscopic effect are neglected. A Newton-Euler formulation is used to derive the mathematical model. A smart self-tuning fuzzy PID controller based on an EKF algorithm is proposed for the attitude and position control of the quadrotor. The PID gains are tuned using a self-tuning fuzzy algorithm. The self-tuning of fuzzy parameters is achieved based on an EKF algorithm. A smart selection technique and exclusive tuning of active fuzzy parameters is proposed to reduce the computational time. Dijkstra’s algorithm is used for path planning in a closed and known environment filled with obstacles and/or boundaries. The Dijkstra algorithm helps avoid obstacle and find the shortest route from a given initial position to the final position.
Simulation of PID Controller%PID控制器仿真研究
晏永红
2011-01-01
早在70年前就开始应用PID控制器,时至今日,PID控制器仍然是现代控制理论中应用非常广泛的技术,在此运用计算机仿真技术,对常用的几种PID控制器进行研究,得出它们在性能指标上各有所长,在设计应用中应根据稳、准、快的要求选择合适类型的PID.%70 years ago, people have begun to use PID controller. So far, PID controller has been still a wide range of technology applied in modern control theory. Using computer simulation technology, the article studied several kinds of common PID controller. The result showed that they have their advantages on performance. We should select the appropriate type of PID according to the demand for steady, accuracy, fastness in the design of the application.
REZAZADEH, A.
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear characteristics of wind turbines and electric generators necessitate complicated and nonlinear control of grid connected Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS. This paper proposes a modified self-tuning PID control strategy, using reinforcement learning for WECS control. The controller employs Actor-Critic learning in order to tune PID parameters adaptively. These Actor-Critic learning is a special kind of reinforcement learning that uses a single wavelet neural network to approximate the policy function of the Actor and the value function of the Critic simultaneously. These controllers are used to control a typical WECS in noiseless and noisy condition and results are compared with an adaptive Radial Basis Function (RBF PID control based on reinforcement learning and conventional PID control. Practical emulated results prove the capability and the robustness of the suggested controller versus the other PID controllers to control of the WECS. The ability of presented controller is tested by experimental setup.
Nuclear reactors are in nature nonlinear systems and their parameters vary with time as a function of power level. These characteristics must be considered if large power variations occur in power plant operational regimes, such as in load-following conditions. A PWR reactor has a component called pressurizer, whose function is to supply the necessary high pressure for its operation and to contain pressure variations in the primary cooling system. The use of control systems capable of reducing fast variations of the operation variables and to maintain the stability of this system is of fundamental importance. The best-known controllers used in industrial control processes are proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers due to their simple structure and robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions. However, designing a fuzzy controller is seen to be a much less difficult task. Once a Fuzzy Logic controller is designed for a particular set of parameters of the nonlinear element, it yields satisfactory performance for a range of these parameters. The objective of this work is to develop fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (fuzzy-PID) control strategies to control the level of water in the reactor. In the study of the pressurizer, several computer codes are used to simulate its dynamic behavior. At the fuzzy-PID control strategy, the fuzzy logic controller is exploited to extend the finite sets of PID gains to the possible combinations of PID gains in stable region. Thus the fuzzy logic controller tunes the gain of PID controller to adapt the model with changes in the water level of reactor. The simulation results showed a favorable performance with the use to fuzzy-PID controllers. (author)
A set of decentralized PID controllers for an – link robot manipulator
G Leena; G Ray
2012-06-01
A class of stabilizing decentralized proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers for an -link robot manipulator system is proposed. The range of decentralized PID controller parameters for an -link robot manipulator is obtained using Kharitonov theorem and stability boundary equations. Basically, the proposed design technique is based on the gain-phase margin tester and Kharitonov’s theorem that synthesizes a set of PID controllers for the linear model while nonlinear interaction terms involve in system dynamics are treated as zero. The stability analysis of the composite system with the designed set of decentralized PID controllers is investigated by incorporating bounding parameters of interconnection terms in LMI formulation. From the range of controller gains obtained by the proposed method, a genetic algorithm is adopted to get an optimal controller gains so that the tracking error is minimum. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed control scheme for solution of ﬁxed as well as time-varying trajectory tracking control problems.
Systematic design approach of fuzzy PID stabilizer for DC-DC converters
DC-DC converters process electrical energy by switching between a fixed number of configurations. The objective of controlling these systems is to provide better performances, ensure closed loop stability and guarantee a simple predictable behaviour. Based on a converter averaged model, we propose, in this paper, a systematic design approach of a fuzzy PID. The choice of controller parameters stands on the whole system stability requirements. Extension of the obtained asymptotic stability to structural stability is presented to show that the developed controller ensures also a simple and predictable behaviour of the converter. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency of the proposed fuzzy PID design approach through simulations in voltage mode as well as in current mode control
Genetic Algorithm Tuning of PID Controller in Smith Predictor for Glucose Concentration Control
Tsonyo Slavov
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on design of a glucose concentration control system based on nonlinear model plant of E. coli MC4110 fed-batch cultivation process. Due to significant time delay in real time glucose concentration measurement, a correction is proposed in glucose concentration measurement and a Smith predictor (SP control structure based on universal PID controller is designed. To reduce the influence of model error in SP structure the estimate of measured glucose concentration is used. For the aim an extended Kalman filter (EKF is designed. To achieve good closed-loop system performance genetic algorithm (GA based optimal controller tuning procedure is applied. A standard binary encoding GA is applied. The GA parameters and operators are specified for the considered here problem. As a result the optimal PID controller settings are obtained. The simulation experiments of the control systems based on SP with EKF and without EKF are performed. The results show that the control system based on SP with EKF has a better performance than the one without EKF. For a short time the controller sets the control variable and maintains it at the desired set point during the cultivation process. As a result, a high biomass concentration of 48.3 g·l-1 is obtained at the end of the process.
Xiaoli Luan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the stabilizing PID parametric region for multivariable systems. Firstly, a general equivalent transfer function parameterization method is proposed to construct the multiloop equivalent process for multivariable systems. Then, based on the equivalent single loops, a model-based method is presented to derive the stabilizing PID parametric region by using the generalized Hermite-Biehler theorem. By sweeping over the entire ranges of feasible proportional gains and determining the stabilizing regions in the space of integral and derivative gains, the complete set of stabilizing PID controllers can be determined. The robustness of the design procedure against the approximation in getting the SISO plants is analyzed. Finally, simulation of a practical model is carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
Robust PID based power system stabiliser: Design and real-time implementation
Bevrani, Hassan [Department of Electrical and Computer Eng., University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hiyama, Takashi [Department of Electrical and Computer Eng., Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Bevrani, Hossein [Department of Statistics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-02-15
This paper addresses a new robust control strategy to synthesis of robust proportional-integral-derivative (PID) based power system stabilisers (PSS). The PID based PSS design problem is reduced to find an optimal gain vector via an H{infinity} static output feedback control (H{infinity}-SOF) technique, and the solution is easily carried out using a developed iterative linear matrix inequalities algorithm. To illustrate the developed approach, a real-time experiment has been performed for a longitudinal four-machine infinite-bus system using the Analog Power System Simulator at the Research Laboratory of the Kyushu Electric Power Company. The results of the proposed control strategy are compared with full-order H{infinity} and conventional PSS designs. The robust PSS is shown to maintain the robust performance and minimise the effect of disturbances properly. (author)
A Proportional Integral Derivative (PID Feedback Control without a Subsidiary Speed Loop
M. Aboelhassan
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to design and describe the essential features of a brushless direct-current (BLDC motor. The static and dynamical state of the BLDC-Motor is designed and calculated.Within this frame-work, it has been shown that while working with the P-controller in conjunction with the subsidiary speed loop and PD-controller (with non-zero error in a steady state without a subsidiary speed loop, there is PID-controller without a subsidiary speed loop which has zero error in a steady state. The last part of this paper is dedicated to a simulation of the circle rounds of P and PID controllers with and without a subsidiary speed loop in MATLAB–SIMULINK to decide which of these controllers is suitable, available and reliable with a BLDC-Motor and their application in cutting tool machines in general.
基于模糊 PID 自动转向控制系统的研究%Automatic Steering Control System Research on Fuzzy PID
张长龙; 李文春; 马蓉; 任玲; 石翔
2016-01-01
Tractor automatic steering control system , to improve the automatic steering performance ,meet the job require-ments, design the parameter self-tuning fuzzy PID control .Design and implementation of fuzzy control rules and modify the PID three output scaling factor in real time ,improve the control performance of the system .And the fuzzy PID has car-ried on the modeling and simulation in MATLAB, the simulation results can be seen that this control method has good steady precision and adaptive ability , obviously improve the dynamic characteristic of the system , beneficial to the im-provement of the tractor automated driving accuracy .%在拖拉机自动转向控制系统中，为了提高自动转向性能，满足工作需求，设计了参数自整定的模糊 PID控制。同时，对模糊控制规则进行了设计，实现对PID3个输出比例因子进行实时修改，提高了系统的控制性能。对模糊PID 在MATLAB中进行了建模仿真，通过仿真结果可以看出：该控制方法有很好的稳态精度和自适应能力，明显改善了系统的动态特性，有利于拖拉机自动驾驶精度的提高。通过台架实验，验证了该控制方法的可行性。
Developing e-course Robust Constrained PID Control
Peter Ťapák
2011-04-01
Full Text Available This paper informs about the latest development of the blended learning course Robust Constrained PID Control and describes in details problems faced in evaluating independent work of students with real time experiments that represent the main element of the applied “learning by doing” and “learning by experimenting” approach. Basic features of the developed system that evaluates consistency of student’s results with the measured experimental data and possibilities of further system expansion to automation of offering to student constructive feedback are discussed. Simultaneously, by comparing all data of the Matlab workspace the developed system serves although as an excellent anti-plagiarism tool.
Research on the Robustness of an Adaptive PID Control of a Kind of Supersonic Missile
Gangling Jiao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the dynamic characteristic of missile system is viewed as a two-loop system, such as inner loop and outer loop and we design an adaptive PID control strategy for the pitch channel linear model of supersonic missile. The robustness of a double PID controller is analyzed by changing the aerodynamic coefficients. The control law is testified to be stable even the aerodynamic coefficients are changed between 0.7 and 1.7 times of its standard value and the control effect is compared with the sliding mode control strategy. Also the advantage and defect of both control strategy are summarized at the end of this study.
Simulation Research on Control System of Brushless DC Motor Based on Fuzzy-PID
Fanneng Zhou; Changjun Qiu; Yulin Wang; Pinghu Chen
2012-01-01
To improve the overall performance of brushless DC motor (BLDCM), fuzzy-PID controller and its application in BLDCM control system are presented. Through the analysis of the mathematical models of BLDCM and combination of fuzzy control strategy and traditional PID control strategy, the modeling and simulation are done by the fuzzy control toolbox of MATLAB. The simulation results show that the fuzzy PID control speeds up response time, reduces the overshoot, and has strong robust and adaptive...
PID Neural Network Based Speed Control of Asynchronous Motor Using Programmable Logic Controller
MARABA, V. A.
2011-11-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the structure and characteristics of PID Neural Network controller for single input and single output systems. PID Neural Network is a new kind of controller that includes the advantages of artificial neural networks and classic PID controller. Functioning of this controller is based on the update of controller parameters according to the value extracted from system output pursuant to the rules of back propagation algorithm used in artificial neural networks. Parameters obtained from the application of PID Neural Network training algorithm on the speed model of the asynchronous motor exhibiting second order linear behavior were used in the real time speed control of the motor. Programmable logic controller (PLC was used as real time controller. The real time control results show that reference speed successfully maintained under various load conditions.
Active vibration control of piezoelectric bonded smart structures using PID algorithm
Zhang Shunqi; Rüdiger Schmidt; Qin Xiansheng
2015-01-01
Thin-walled structures are sensitive to vibrate under even very small disturbances. In order to design a suitable controller for vibration suppression of thin-walled smart structures, an electro-mechanically coupled finite element (FE) model of smart structures is developed based on first-order shear deformation (FOSD) hypothesis. Considering the vibrations generated by various disturbances, which include free and forced vibrations, a PID control is implemented to damp both the free and force...
GA-BASED PID NEURAL NETVVORK CONTROL FOR MAGNETIC BEARING SYSTEMS
LI Guodong; ZHANG Qingchun; LIANG Yingchun
2007-01-01
In order to overcome the system non-linearity and uncertainty inherent in magnetic bearing systems, a GA(genetic algorithm)-based PID neural network controller is designed and trained to emulate the operation of a complete system (magnetic beating, controller, and power amplifiers).The feasibility of using a neural network to control nonlinear magnetic beating systems with unknown dynamics is demonstrated. The key concept of the control scheme is to use GA to evaluate the candidate solutions (chromosomes), increase the generalization ability of PID neural network and avoid suffering from the local minima problem in network learning due to the use of gradient descent learning method. The simulation results show that the proposed architecture provides well robust performance and better reinforcement learning capability in controlling magnetic bearing systems.
Genetic Algorithm Based PID tuning for Controlling Paraplegic Humanoid Walking Movement
Hashim Ali
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm (GA is a very useful tool to search and optimize many engineering and scientific problems. In this paper, a real time enhanced biomedical model of humanoid structure is developed in MSC visual Nastran to assist the paraplegic patient. The complexity of the model is driven by the needs that the model parameters must be estimated for an eventual individual with disability. After the development of humanoid structure an inverse model is designed to estimate the joint torques. The reference trajectories of the humanoid model are obtained from MSC visual Nastran.The controllers are designed in Matlab/ Simulink for four joints which are manually tuned simultaneously to obtain the results. Afterwards, GA is used to tune the PID controllers to find the optimal solutions which are compared with manually tuned PIDs. The results are shown and hence it is proved that GA has given a better optimized control system.
REZAZADEH, A.; SEDIGHIZADEH, M.
2010-01-01
Nonlinear characteristics of wind turbines and electric generators necessitate complicated and nonlinear control of grid connected Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). This paper proposes a modified self-tuning PID control strategy, using reinforcement learning for WECS control. The controller employs Actor-Critic learning in order to tune PID parameters adaptively. These Actor-Critic learning is a special kind of reinforcement learning that uses a single wavelet neural network to appro...
Li Jing
2016-01-01
Full Text Available For the control of the liquid level of liquid ammonia in thermal power plant’s ammonia vaporization room, traditional PID controller parameter tuning is difficult to adapt to complex control systems, the setting of the traditional PID controller parameters is difficult to adapt to the complex control system. For the disadvantage of bad parameter setting, poor performance and so on the fuzzy adaptive PID control is proposed. Fuzzy adaptive PID control combines the advantages of traditional PID technology and fuzzy control. By using the fuzzy controller to intelligent control the object, the performance of the PID controller is further improved, and the control precision of the system is improved[1]. The simulation results show that the fuzzy adaptive PID controller not only has the advantages of high accuracy of PID controller, but also has the characteristics of fast and strong adaptability of fuzzy controller. It realizes the optimization of PID parameters which are in the optimal state, and the maximum increase production efficiency, so that are more suitable for nonlinear dynamic system.
Gain Scheduling of PID Controller Based on Fuzzy Systems
Singh Sandeep
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to utilize fuzzy rules and reasoning to determine the controller parameters and the PID controller generates the control signal. The objective of this study is to simulate the proposed scheme on various processes and arrive at results providing better response of the system when compared with best industrial auto-tuning technique: Ziegler-Nichols. The proposed scheme is based upon the Ultimate Gain (Ku and the Period (Tu of the system. The error and rate of change in error gains are tuned manually to get the desired response using LabVIEW. This can also be done with various optimization techniques. A thumb rule for choosing the ranges for Kc, Kd and Ki has been obtained experimentally.
Optimization of PID Controllers Using Ant Colony and Genetic Algorithms
Ünal, Muhammet; Topuz, Vedat; Erdal, Hasan
2013-01-01
Artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms and the ant colony optimization algorithm have become a highly effective tool for solving hard optimization problems. As their popularity has increased, applications of these algorithms have grown in more than equal measure. While many of the books available on these subjects only provide a cursory discussion of theory, the present book gives special emphasis to the theoretical background that is behind these algorithms and their applications. Moreover, this book introduces a novel real time control algorithm, that uses genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization algorithms for optimizing PID controller parameters. In general, the present book represents a solid survey on artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms and the ant colony optimization algorithm and introduces novel practical elements related to the application of these methods to process system control.
S.Augustilindiya; Palani, S.; K.Vijayarekha; M.BreethiYeltsina
2013-01-01
Tuning PID controller parameters using Evolutionary algorithm for an asynchronous Buck converter is presented in this paper. PID controller is one of the solutions for controlling a Buck converter during transient conditions. There are straight forward ways for calculating the parameters for the PID controller in the literature and evolutionary algorithm based approach with a proper fitnessfunction gives superior performance when compared to other methods. Ziegler Nicholas method, Hurwitz pol...
LabVIEW FPGA Implementation Of a PID Controller For D.C. Motor Speed Control
Fakhrulddin H. Ali
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This Paper presents a novel hardware design methodology of digital control systems. For this, instead of synthesizing the control system using Very high speed integration circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL, LabVIEW FPGA module from National Instrument (NI is used to design the whole system that include analog capture circuit to take out the analog signals (set point and process variable from the real world, PID controller module, and PWM signal generator module to drive the motor. The physical implementation of the digital system is based on Spartan-3E FPGA from Xilinx. Simulation studies of speed control of a D.C. motor are conducted and the effect of a sudden change in reference speed and load are also included.
Speed Control of DC Motor under Varying Load Using PID Controller
Muhammad Rafay Khan
2015-08-01
Full Text Available DC motors are used extensively in industrial variable speed applications because of most demanding speed-torque characteristics and are simple in controlling aspects. This paper presents a DC motor speed controlling technique under varying load condition. The linear system model of separately excited DC motor with Torque-variation is designed using PID controller. A Matlab simulation of proposed system with no-Load and full-load condition is performed on Simulink platform to observe the system response. The motor speed is kept constant in this experiment. The simulation result of the experiment shows that a motor is running approximately at a constant speed regardless of a motor load. The Simulink results show that the speed of the motor is slow down only for about 270 rpm (9% in 980 milliseconds under the effect of full load. However, the motor speed is hunting about 200 rpm (6.66% in 900 milliseconds on unloading condition. It is concluded that a PID controller is successful tool for controlling the motor speed in presence of load disturbances.
The Distribution Population-based Genetic Algorithm for Parameter Optimization PID Controller
CHENQing-Geng; WANGNing; HUANGShao-Feng
2005-01-01
Enlightened by distribution of creatures in natural ecology environment, the distribution population-based genetic algorithm (DPGA) is presented in this paper. The searching capability of the algorithm is improved by competition between distribution populations to reduce the search zone.This method is applied to design of optimal parameters of PID controllers with examples, and the simulation results show that satisfactory performances are obtained.
A Fuzzy PID Approach for the Vibration Control of the FSPM
Zhu-Feng Shao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the vibration control issue of a Flexibly Supported Parallel Manipulator (FSPM, which consists of a flexible support and a rigid parallel manipulator. The distinct characteristic of an FSPM is the dynamic coupling between the rigid and flexible parts, which challenges the vibration control implemented by the rigid parallel manipulator. The research object is a 40m scale model of the Feed Support System (FSS for the Five‐hundred‐meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST project, which is composed of a cable‐driven parallel manipulator, an A‐B rotator and a rigid Stewart manipulator, assembled in series. The cable‐driven parallel manipulator is sensitive to disturbances and could lead to system vibration with a large terminal error. The rigid Stewart manipulator is designed to carry out the vibration control. Considering the time‐variability, nonlinearity and dynamic coupling of an FSPM, a fuzzy proportional–integral–derivative (PID controller is introduced. The fuzzy inference rules established on the terminal error and the error change are used to adjust the PID parameters to achieve better performance. Physical experiments are carried out and the results indicate that the fuzzy PID method can effectively promote the terminal precision and maintain system stability. The control methodology proposed in this paper is quite promising for the vibration control of an FSPM.
Genetic Optimization Algorithm of PID Decoupling Control for VAV Air-Conditioning System
WANG Jiangjiang; AN Dawei; ZHANG Chunfa; JING Youyin
2009-01-01
Variable-air-volume (VAV) air-conditioning system is a multi-variable system and has multi coupling control loops. While all of the control loops are working together, they interfere and influence each other. A multi-variable decoupling PID controller is designed for VAV air-conditioning system. Diagonal matrix decoupling method is employed to eliminate the coupling between the loop of supply air temperature and that of thermal-space air temperature. The PID controller parameters are optimized by means of an improved genetic algorithm in floating point representations to obtain better performance. The population in the improved genetic algorithm mutates before crossover, which is helpful for the convergence. Additionally the micro mutation algorithm is proposed and applied to improve the convergence during the later evolution. To search the best parameters, the optimized parameters ranges should be amplified l0 times the initial ideal parameters. The simulation and experiment results show that the decoupling control system is effective and feasible. The method can overcome the strong coupling feature of the system and has shorter governing time and less over-shoot than non-optimization PID control.
Robust Speed Control of DC Servo Motor Using PID-Neural Network Hybrid Controller
Park, Wal Seo; Jeon, Jeong Chay [Wonkwang University (Korea, Republic of)
1998-02-01
Robust control for DC servo motor is needed according to the highest precision of industrial automation. However, when a motor control system with PID controller has an effect of load disturbance, it is very difficult to guarantee the robustness of control system. As a compensation method solving this problem, in this paper, PID-neural network hybrid control method for motor control system is presented. The output of neural network controller is determined by error and rate of error change occurring in load disturbance. The robust control of DC servo motor using neural network controller is demonstrated by computer simulation. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs.
This paper proposes a new optimal fuzzy logic-based-proportional-integral-derivative (FLPID) controller for load frequency control (LFC) including superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units. Conventionally, the membership functions and control rules of fuzzy logic control are obtained by trial and error method or experiences of designers. To overcome this problem, the multiple tabu search (MTS) algorithm is applied to simultaneously tune PID gains, membership functions and control rules of FLPID controller to minimize frequency deviations of the system against load disturbances. The MTS algorithm introduces additional techniques for improvement of search process such as initialization, adaptive search, multiple searches, crossover and restarting process. Simulation results explicitly show that the performance of the optimum FLPID controller is superior to the conventional PID controller and the non-optimum FLPID controller in terms of the overshoot, settling time and robustness against variations of system parameters
Speed Control System on Marine Diesel Engine Based on a Self-Tuning Fuzzy PID Controller
Naeim Farouk
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The degree of speed control of ship machinery effects on the economics and optimization of the machinery configuration and operation. All marine vessel ranging need some sort of speed control system to control and govern the speed of the marine diesel engines. This study presents a self-tuning fuzzy PID control system for speed control system of marine diesel engine. The system under consideration is a fourth-order plant with highly dynamic and uncertain environments. The current speed controllers for marine/traction diesel engines based on PID Controller cannot fully handle the uncertainties associated with such dynamic environments. A fuzzy logic control algorithm is used to estimate the PID coefficients in order to handle such uncertainties to produce a better control performance. Simulation tests were established using Simulink of MATLAB. The obtained results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Simulation results are represented in this study.
A Nested PID Steering Control for Lane Keeping in Vision Based Autonomous Vehicles
Marino, R; SCALZI,S; Netto, M.
2009-01-01
In this paper a nested PID steering control for lane keeping in vision based autonomous vehicles is designed to perform path following in the case of roads with an uncertain curvature. The control input is the steering wheel angle: it is designed on the basis of the yaw rate, measured by a gyroscope, and the lateral offset, measured by the vision system as the distance between the road centerline and a virtual point at a fixed distance from the vehicle. No lateral acceleration and no lateral ...
Afsaneh Salehi
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Refer to this paper, an intelligent-fuzzy feed-forward computed torque estimator for Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID controller is proposed for highly nonlinear continuum robot manipulator. In the absence of robot knowledge, PID may be the best controller, because it is model-free, and its parameters can be adjusted easily and separately and it is the most used in robot manipulators. In order to remove steady-state error caused by uncertainties and noise, the integrator gain has to be increased. This leads to worse transient performance, even destroys the stability. The integrator in a PID controller also reduces the bandwidth of the closed-loop system. Model-based compensation for PD control is an alternative method to substitute PID control. Computed torque compensation is one of the nonlinear compensator. The main problem of the pure computed torque compensator (CTC was highly nonlinear dynamic parameters which related to system’s dynamic parameters in certain and uncertain systems. The nonlinear equivalent dynamic problem in uncertain system is solved by using feed-forward fuzzy inference system. To eliminate the continuum robot manipulator system’s dynamic; Mamdani fuzzy inference system is design and applied to CTC. This methodology is based on design feed-forward fuzzy inference system and applied to CTC. The results demonstrate that the model base feed-forward fuzzy CTC estimator works well to compensate linear PID controller in presence of partly uncertainty system (e.g., continuum robot.
An improved auto-tuning scheme for PID controllers.
Dey, Chanchal; Mudi, Rajani K
2009-10-01
An improved auto-tuning scheme is proposed for Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) tuned PID controllers (ZNPIDs), which usually provide excessively large overshoots, not tolerable in most of the situations, for high-order and nonlinear processes. To overcome this limitation ZNPIDs are upgraded by some easily interpretable heuristic rules through an online gain modifying factor defined on the instantaneous process states. This study is an extension of our earlier work [Mudi RK., Dey C. Lee TT. An improved auto-tuning scheme for PI controllers. ISA Trans 2008; 47: 45-52] to ZNPIDs, thereby making the scheme suitable for a wide range of processes and more generalized too. The proposed augmented ZNPID (AZNPID) is tested on various high-order linear and nonlinear dead-time processes with improved performance over ZNPID, refined ZNPID (RZNPID), and other schemes reported in the literature. Stability issues are addressed for linear processes. Robust performance of AZNPID is observed while changing its tunable parameters as well as the process dead-time. The proposed scheme is also implemented on a real time servo-based position control system. PMID:19647819
PID控制器性能评价%Performance Assessment of a PID Controller
左信; 孙金明
2005-01-01
Performance assessment of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is condueted using the PIDachievable minimum variance as a benchmark. When the process model is unknown, we can estimate the PID-achievable minimum variance and the corresponding parameters by routine closed-loop operation data. Simulation results show that the process output variance is reduced by retuning controller parameters.
The Research of PID Control in a Large Scale Helium Refrigerator
Pan, W.; Wu, J. H.; Li, L. F.; Liu, H. M.; Li, Q.
2015-12-01
In the development of a helium refrigerator, the control of load temperature stability is an important requirement. We usually use multistage control strategies to achieve the precise control of it. Each level has its strict control logic. PID controllers are the core control module in the process. Therefore, a research of its principle and parameters’ setting occupies an important position in the development work. This paper detailed describes the PID control principle used in a large scale helium refrigerator of 10kW@20K, as well as several improvements on PID parameters’ setting, by using simulations and experiments in combination. The temperature is eventually controlled more precise.
Position Control of a Pneumatic Muscle Actuator Using RBF Neural Network Tuned PID Controller
Jie Zhao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Pneumatic Muscle Actuator (PMA has a broad application prospect in soft robotics. However, PMA has highly nonlinear and hysteretic properties among force, displacement, and pressure, which lead to difficulty in accurate position control. A phenomenological model is developed to portray the hysteretic behavior of PMA. This phenomenological model consists of linear component and hysteretic component force. The latter component is described by Duhem model. An experimental apparatus is built up and sets of experimental data are acquired. Based on the experimental data, parameters of the model are identified. Validation of the model is performed. Then a novel cascade position PID controller is devised for a 1-DOF manipulator actuated by PMA. The outer loop of the controller is to cope with position control whilst the inner loop deals with pressure dynamics within PMA. To enhance the adaptability of the PID algorithm to the high nonlinearities of the manipulator, PID parameters are tuned online using RBF Neural Network. Experiments are performed and comparison between position response of RBF Neural Network based PID controller and that of classic PID controller demonstrates the effectiveness of the novel adaptive controller on the manipulator.
Multi-Drive Paper System Control Based on Multi-Input Multi-Output PID Controller
Boumediène ALLAOUA
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Paper industries require several drives for paper processing. Electronic synchronization has to be ensured for quality of produced paper rolls. Several control strategies of multi-input multi-output (MIMO system (multivariable system have been suggested based on robust control or electronic emulation of mechanical line shaft. In this paper, a multivariable proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller applied on multi-drive paper system (MDPS. The proposed controller has superior feature, including easy implementation, stable convergence characteristics and very good computational performances efficiency. The multivariable PID controller is modeled in MATLAB environment. The speed control of MDPS (in our case is a triple drive system based on multivariable PID is more proficient in improving the speed loop response stability, the steady state error is reduced, the rising time is perfected and the disturbances do not affect the performances of driving motors with no overtaking.
Optimal fractional order PID design via Tabu Search based algorithm.
Ateş, Abdullah; Yeroglu, Celaleddin
2016-01-01
This paper presents an optimization method based on the Tabu Search Algorithm (TSA) to design a Fractional-Order Proportional-Integral-Derivative (FOPID) controller. All parameter computations of the FOPID employ random initial conditions, using the proposed optimization method. Illustrative examples demonstrate the performance of the proposed FOPID controller design method. PMID:26652128
Tuning of IMC based PID controllers for integrating systems with time delay.
Kumar, D B Santosh; Padma Sree, R
2016-07-01
Design of Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID) controllers based on IMC principles for various types of integrating systems with time delay is proposed. PID parameters are given in terms of process model parameters and a tuning parameter. The tuning parameter is IMC filter time constant. In the present work, the IMC filter (Q) is chosen in such a manner that the order of the denominator of IMC controller is one less than the order of the numerator. The IMC filter time constant (λ) is tuned in such a way that a good compromise is made between performance and robustness for both servo and regulatory problems. To improve servo response of the controller a set point filter is designed such that the closed loop response is similar to that of first order plus time delay system. The proposed controller design method is applied to various transfer function models and to the non-linear model equations of jacketed CSTR to demonstrate its applicability and effectiveness. The performance of the proposed controller is compared with the recently reported methods in terms of IAE and ITAE. The smooth functioning of the controller is determined in terms of total variation and compared with recently reported methods. Simulation studies are carried out on various integrating systems with time delay to show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed controllers. PMID:27087135
Optimized linear motor and digital PID controller setup used in Mössbauer spectrometer
Kohout, Pavel; Kouřil, Lukáš; Navařík, Jakub; Novák, Petr; Pechoušek, Jiří
2014-10-01
Optimization of a linear motor and digital PID controller setup used in a Mössbauer spectrometer is presented. Velocity driving system with a digital PID feedback subsystem was developed in the LabVIEW graphical environment and deployed on the sbRIO real-time hardware device (National Instruments). The most important data acquisition processes are performed as real-time deterministic tasks on an FPGA chip. Velocity transducer of a double loudspeaker type with a power amplifier circuit is driven by the system. Series of calibration measurements were proceeded to find the optimal setup of the P, I, D parameters together with velocity error signal analysis. The shape and given signal characteristics of the velocity error signal are analyzed in details. Remote applications for controlling and monitoring the PID system from computer or smart phone, respectively, were also developed. The best setup and P, I, D parameters were set and calibration spectrum of α-Fe sample with an average nonlinearity of the velocity scale below 0.08% was collected. Furthermore, the width of the spectral line below 0.30 mm/s was observed. Powerful and complex velocity driving system was designed.
MULTI OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION OF VEHICLE ACTIVE SUSPENSION SYSTEM USING DEBBO BASED PID CONTROLLER
Kalaivani Rajagopal
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes the Multi Objective Optimization (MOO of Vehicle Active Suspension System (VASS with a hybrid Differential Evolution (DE based Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO (DEBBO for the parameter tuning of Proportional Integral Derivative (PID controller. Initially a conventional PID controller, secondly a BBO, an rising nature enthused global optimization procedure based on the study of the ecological distribution of biological organisms and a hybridized DEBBO algorithm which inherits the behaviours of BBO and DE have been used to find the tuning parameters of the PID controller to improve the performance of VASS by considering a MOO function as the performance index. Simulations of passive system, active system having PID controller with and without optimizations have been performed by considering dual and triple bump kind of road disturbances in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results show the effectiveness of DEBBO based PID (DEBBOPID in achieving the goal.
IMC-PID design based on model matching approach and closed-loop shaping.
Jin, Qi B; Liu, Q
2014-03-01
Motivated by the limitations of the conventional internal model control (IMC), this communication addresses the design of IMC-based PID in terms of the robust performance of the control system. The IMC controller form is obtained by solving an H-infinity problem based on the model matching approach, and the parameters are determined by closed-loop shaping. The shaping of the closed-loop transfer function is considered both for the set-point tracking and for the load disturbance rejection. The design procedure is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem which is solved by a specific optimization algorithm. A nice feature of this design method is that it permits a clear tradeoff between robustness and performance. Simulation examples show that the proposed method is effective and has a wide applicability. PMID:24280534
Kesavan.E; Rakesh kumar.S
2013-01-01
This paper suggests an idea to design an adaptive PID controller for Non-linear liquid tank System and is implemented in PLC. Online estimation of linear parameters (Time constant and Gain) brings an exact model of the process to take perfect control action. Based on these estimated values, the controller parameters will be well tuned by internal model control. Internal model control is an unremarkably used technique and provides well tuned controller in order to have a good controlling proce...
PID self tuning control based on Mamdani fuzzy logic control for quadrotor stabilization
Priyambodo, Tri Kuntoro, E-mail: mastri@ugm.ac.id; Putra, Agfianto Eko [Aerospace and Aeronautics Electronics Research Group, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Department of Computer Science and Electronics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Dharmawan, Andi, E-mail: andi-dharmawan@ugm.ac.id [Department of Computer Science and Electronics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)
2016-02-01
Quadrotor as one type of UAV have the ability to perform Vertical Take Off and Landing (VTOL). It allows the Quadrotor to be stationary hovering in the air. PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) control system is one of the control methods that are commonly used. It is usually used to optimize the Quadrotor stabilization at least based on the three Eulerian angles (roll, pitch, and yaw) as input parameters for the control system. The three constants of PID can be obtained in various methods. The simplest method is tuning manually. This method has several weaknesses. For example if the three constants are not exact, the resulting response will deviate from the desired result. By combining the methods of PID with fuzzy logic systems where human expertise is implemented into the machine language is expected to further optimize the control system.
PID self tuning control based on Mamdani fuzzy logic control for quadrotor stabilization
Quadrotor as one type of UAV have the ability to perform Vertical Take Off and Landing (VTOL). It allows the Quadrotor to be stationary hovering in the air. PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) control system is one of the control methods that are commonly used. It is usually used to optimize the Quadrotor stabilization at least based on the three Eulerian angles (roll, pitch, and yaw) as input parameters for the control system. The three constants of PID can be obtained in various methods. The simplest method is tuning manually. This method has several weaknesses. For example if the three constants are not exact, the resulting response will deviate from the desired result. By combining the methods of PID with fuzzy logic systems where human expertise is implemented into the machine language is expected to further optimize the control system
US Agency for International Development — PIDS is the web-based system designed to allow data input and consultative sessions by USAID/Liberia's IPs and USAID personnel. It is established and maintained by...
Active sway control of a gantry crane using hybrid input shaping and PID control schemes
Mohd Tumari, M. Z.; Shabudin, L.; Zawawi, M. A.; Shah, L. H. Ahmad
2013-12-01
This project presents investigations into the development of hybrid input-shaping and PID control schemes for active sway control of a gantry crane system. The application of positive input shaping involves a technique that can reduce the sway by creating a common signal that cancels its own vibration and used as a feed-forward control which is for controlling the sway angle of the pendulum, while the proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is used as a feedback control which is for controlling the crane position. The PID controller was tuned using Ziegler-Nichols method to get the best performance of the system. The hybrid input-shaping and PID control schemes guarantee a fast input tracking capability, precise payload positioning and very minimal sway motion. The modeling of gantry crane is used to simulate the system using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The results of the response with the controllers are presented in time domains and frequency domains. The performances of control schemes are examined in terms of level of input tracking capability, sway angle reduction and time response specification.
Active sway control of a gantry crane using hybrid input shaping and PID control schemes
This project presents investigations into the development of hybrid input-shaping and PID control schemes for active sway control of a gantry crane system. The application of positive input shaping involves a technique that can reduce the sway by creating a common signal that cancels its own vibration and used as a feed-forward control which is for controlling the sway angle of the pendulum, while the proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is used as a feedback control which is for controlling the crane position. The PID controller was tuned using Ziegler-Nichols method to get the best performance of the system. The hybrid input-shaping and PID control schemes guarantee a fast input tracking capability, precise payload positioning and very minimal sway motion. The modeling of gantry crane is used to simulate the system using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The results of the response with the controllers are presented in time domains and frequency domains. The performances of control schemes are examined in terms of level of input tracking capability, sway angle reduction and time response specification
Fuzzy PID Control Method for Internet-based Tele-operation Manipulators System
Wei Gao
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Trajectory tracking control problem for internet-based tele-operation system is researched in this paper. The control structure of master and slave tele-operation manipulators adapts bilateral servo control architecture with force deviation feedback. The simulation model of three degrees of freedom (3-DOF manipulator is presented. In order to ensure the synchronization of positions of the master and slave manipulators, a fuzzy PID control method is proposed. This control algorithm is to adjust the three parameters of PID controller online by fuzzy control method. The contrast simulation experiments of PID and fuzzy PID control methods show that the proposed control method can effectively improve the force and position tracking performance and reduce time delay.
Position Control of Pneumatic Actuator Using Self-Regulation Nonlinear PID
Syed Najib Syed Salim
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The enhancement of nonlinear PID (N-PID controller for a pneumatic positioning system is proposed to improve the performance of this controller. This is executed by utilizing the characteristic of rate variation of the nonlinear gain that is readily available in N-PID controller. The proposed equation, namely, self-regulation nonlinear function (SNF, is used to reprocess the error signal with the purpose of generating the value of the rate variation, continuously. With the addition of this function, a new self-regulation nonlinear PID (SN-PID controller is proposed. The proposed controller is then implemented to a variably loaded pneumatic actuator. Simulation and experimental tests are conducted with different inputs, namely, step, multistep, and random waveforms, to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. The results obtained have been proven as a novel initiative at examining and identifying the characteristic based on a new proposal controller resulting from N-PID controller. The transient response is improved by a factor of 2.2 times greater than previous N-PID technique. Moreover, the performance of pneumatic positioning system is remarkably good under various loads.
船用蒸汽发生器水位的模糊自适应 PID 控制%A Fuzzy Adaptive PID Water Level Control System for Marine Steam Generators
张永生; 赵淑琴
2013-01-01
为了改善蒸汽发生器水位控制的控制效果，根据模糊控制的基本原理，设计了蒸汽发生器的模糊自适应 PID 水位控制器，该控制器的模糊推理系统能够根据水位误差与误差变化率对 PID 参数进行在线整定。借助Matlab/Simulink 仿真平台，建立蒸汽发生器的仿真模型，对模糊自适应 PID 水位控制进行试验验证，计算工况为蒸汽负荷阶跃下降30%。结果表明，与常规 PID 控制相比，模糊自适应 PID 控制的超调量减小了约35%，调节时间缩短了约50%，提高了水位控制系统的控制品质。% To improve the performance of steam generators in water level control,an adaptive fuzzy PID level controller for steam generators is designed based on the fundamentals of fuzzy control theory. The fuzzy inference system of the controller is capable of on-line auto-tuning of PID parameters by making use of the water level error and error rate. To validate the design,simulation models of the steam generator were first established resorting to the Matlab/Simulink simulation platform,and experiments on the fuzzy adaptive PID level control system were then conducted under an operating condition with 30% drop in steam load steps. The results show that the fuzzy adaptive PID control,compared with the conventional PID control mode,reduces overshoot and shortens regulating time by approximately 35% and 50%,respec⁃tively,which improves the overall control performance of the level control system.
A Method for Precision Closed-Loop Irrigation Using a Modified PID Control Algorithm
Goodchild, Martin; Kühn, Karl; Jenkins, Malcolm; Burek, Kazimierz; Dutton, Andrew
2016-04-01
The benefits of closed-loop irrigation control have been demonstrated in grower trials which show the potential for improved crop yields and resource usage. Managing water use by controlling irrigation in response to soil moisture changes to meet crop water demands is a popular approach but requires knowledge of closed-loop control practice. In theory, to obtain precise closed-loop control of a system it is necessary to characterise every component in the control loop to derive the appropriate controller parameters, i.e. proportional, integral & derivative (PID) parameters in a classic PID controller. In practice this is often difficult to achieve. Empirical methods are employed to estimate the PID parameters by observing how the system performs under open-loop conditions. In this paper we present a modified PID controller, with a constrained integral function, that delivers excellent regulation of soil moisture by supplying the appropriate amount of water to meet the needs of the plant during the diurnal cycle. Furthermore, the modified PID controller responds quickly to changes in environmental conditions, including rainfall events which can result in: controller windup, under-watering and plant stress conditions. The experimental work successfully demonstrates the functionality of a constrained integral PID controller that delivers robust and precise irrigation control. Coir substrate strawberry growing trial data is also presented illustrating soil moisture control and the ability to match water deliver to solar radiation.
Juli Sardi
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In the present study, bioimpedance signals of human body was utilized to control speed of a wheelchair movement. A bioimpedance is electrically passive part contained the body tissues. The research is one of alternative solutions for patients with paralysis of the upper and lower limb. Firstly, design of system of the research consisted of bioimpedance measuring instruments and a mechanical design of the wheelchair. Bioimpedance measurement was performed by injecting a sinusoidal current source of 0.5 mArms with a frequency of 50 kHz to muscle tissue (shoulder to obtain the output voltage in the range of 0-5 Vdc. With impulse and manual thresholding methods, the voltage signal was classified into several controls command to adjust the speed and direction of the wheelchair control based on PID Controller. The experimental result of the research was realization of bioimpedance signal that used as a reference to control the direction and speed of the wheelchair with a success rate of 86.7 %. A wheelchair velocity was classified into three types of motion, namely slow, medium and fast. Slow speed has a rated speed of 30 Cm/s, medium speed value speed of 40 Cm/s and fast speed value of 50 Cm/s. The wheelchair can also turn to the left and the right in accordance with the wishes of wheelchair user beside to moving forward.
Multi-Objective PID-Controller Tuning for a Magnetic Levitation System using NSGA-II
Pedersen, Gerulf K. M.; Yang, Zhenyu
2006-01-01
This paper investigates the issue of PID-controller parameter tuning for a magnetic levitation system using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). The magnetic levitation system is inherently unstable and the PID-controller parameters are hard to find using conventional methods....... Based on four different performance measures, derived from the step response of the levitation system, the algorithm is used to find a set of non-dominated parameters for a PID-controller that can stabilize the system and minimize the performance measures....
The Redundant Arm Self-motion Control Based on Self-tuning Fuzzy PID Controller
Liu Yu(刘宇); Sun Lining; Du Zhijiang
2004-01-01
A fuzzy control algorithm based on self-tuning PID proportional factor is presented. To a certain degree, it overcomes robot motion control's nonlinearity and uncertainty caused by joints coupled and friction, and decreases overshoot of end manipulator's tracking desired curves. The controller's structure is very simple but effective. With this control method, a 7-DOF redundant arm's self-motion developed by the authors is investigated. Research results show that the said controller restrains track overshoot and possesses preferable merits.
Parul Arora, Alok Gupta
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Two Control strategies are developed to control the molecular weight in emulsion polymerization by manipulating flow-rates of water stream of jacket in first case study and the power of heater in another study. The control strategies were validated with experimental data of emulsion polymerization using Methyl methacrylate as monomer. PID controller is used to control the temperature of the reactor in both the case studies.
A fuzzy PID-controlled SMA actuator for a two-DOF joint
Shi Zhenyun
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Shape memory alloy (SMA actuator is a potential advanced component for servo-systems of aerospace vehicles and aircraft. This paper presents a joint with two degrees of freedom (DOF and a mobility range close to ±60° when driven by SMA triple wires. The fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (PID-controlled actuator drive was designed using antagonistic SMA triple wires, and the resistance feedback signal made a closed loop. Experiments showed that, with the driving responding frequency increasing, the overstress became harder to be avoided at the position under the maximum friction force. Furthermore, the hysteresis gap between the heating and cooling paths of the strain-to-resistance curve expanded under this condition. A fuzzy logic control was considered as a solution, and the curves of the wires were then modeled by fitting polynomials so that the measured resistance was used directly to determine the control signal. Accurate control was demonstrated through the step response, and the experimental results showed that under the fuzzy PID-control program, the mean absolute error (MAE of the rotation angle was about 3.147°. In addition, the investigation of the external interference to the system proved the controllable maximum output.
On Saturated PID Controllers for Industrial Robots: the PA10 Robot Arm as Case of Study
Orrante-Sakanassi, Jorge; Santibanez, Victor; Campa, Ricardo
2010-01-01
In this chapter we have proposed an alternative to the saturated nonlinear PID controller previously presented by SantibaÃ±ez et al. (2010) which, also, results from the practical implementation of the classical PID controller, by considering the natural saturations of the electronics in the control computer, servo drivers, and actuators. The stability analysis of the closedâ€“loop system is carried out by using the singular perturbation theory. Based on auxiliary Lyapunov functions, we prove...
The Self-Adaptive Fuzzy PID Controller in Actuator Simulated Loading System
Chuanhui Zhang
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the structure principle of the actuator simulated loading system with variable stiffness, and establishes the simplified model. What’s more, it also does a research on the application of the self-adaptive tuning of fuzzy PID(Proportion Integration Differentiation in actuator simulated loading system with variable stiffness. Because the loading system is connected with the steering system by a spring rod, there must be strong coupling. Besides, there are also the parametric variations accompanying with the variations of the stiffness. Based on compensation from the feed-forward control on the disturbance brought by the motion of steering engine, the system performance can be improved by using fuzzy adaptive adjusting PID control to make up the changes of system parameter caused by the changes of the stiffness. By combining the fuzzy control with traditional PID control, fuzzy adaptive PID control is able to choose the parameters more properly.
S.Augustilindiya
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Tuning PID controller parameters using Evolutionary algorithm for an asynchronous Buck converter is presented in this paper. PID controller is one of the solutions for controlling a Buck converter during transient conditions. There are straight forward ways for calculating the parameters for the PID controller in the literature and evolutionary algorithm based approach with a proper fitnessfunction gives superior performance when compared to other methods. Ziegler Nicholas method, Hurwitz polynomial method and Genetic Algorithm based method are compared. It is found that Genetic Algorithm based method yields better result. The hardware implementation of Genetic Algorithm assisted PID controller with low cost is desired and such an implementation is taken in this paper. A low cost microcontroller with built-in PWM modules is implemented and the performance is compared with simulations.
Comparison between Conventional and Fuzzy Logic PID Controllers for Controlling DC Motors
Essam Natsheh
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Fuzzy logic and proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers are compared for use in direct current (DC motors positioning system. A simulation study of the PID position controller for the armature-controlled with fixed field and field controlled with fixed armature current DC motors is performed. Fuzzy rules and the inferencing mechanism of the fuzzy logic controller (FLC are evaluated by using conventional rule-lookup tables that encode the control knowledge in a rules form. The performance assessment of the studied position controllers is based on transient response and error integral criteria. The results obtained from the FLC are not only superior in the rise time, speed fluctuations, and percent overshoot but also much better in the controller output signal structure, which is much remarkable in terms of the hardware implementation.
Please no more PID tuning rules
Oliveira, Paulo; Cunha, José Boaventura; Coelho, J. P.
2002-01-01
Despite the large number of existent design and tunig techniques, adequate PID controller tuning by plant operations is still not accomplished in many process control loops. The particle swarm optimisation algorithms is proposed as an alternative technique to design and tune PID controllers for linear single-input single-output systems. This evolutionary approach is illustrated by a simulation example, in which the PID is used to control a set of models that represents a wide variety of proce...
孙大鹰; 徐申; 孙伟锋; 陆生礼
2014-01-01
为了提高数字DC-DC变换器的瞬态响应性能，设计了一种基于数字预测控制方法的模糊PID控制器。该控制器根据Buck型DC-DC变换器的电路结构，准确预测单个开关周期或多个开关周期后的负载电压和电感电流，以克服环路时延对系统瞬态响应的影响；同时，在基本PID控制基础上引入模糊控制，实时在线调整PID控制参数，以克服变换器的非线性特性对瞬态能力的影响。所设计数字控制器经FPGA验证，结果表明，与基本PID控制相比，所设计数字预测模糊PID控制器能有效提高变换器的瞬态响应能力，变换器的瞬态响应时间缩短1/3，电压超调量小于5％。%To improve the transient response of digital DC-DC converter,a digital fuzzy proportion-al-integral-derivative (PID)controller with a prediction algorithm is proposed.In the digital control-ler,the output voltage and inductance current after one cycle or multiple cycles are predicted accu-rately based on the circuit structure of Buck DC-DC converter,which overcomes the influence of loop time delay on the transient response.Meanwhile,fuzzy control is introduced in the basic PID control to overcome the influence of the nonlinear characteristics of converter on the transient re-sponse through the real-time online regulation of PID control parameters.The proposed digital con-troller is implemented by the field programmable gate array (FPGA ).The results of verification show that the proposed controller can effectively improve the transient response of converter com-pared with basic PID control.The transient response time of converter can decrease by one third and the voltage overshoot is less than 5%.
Real-Time Control of a DC Servo Motor with Variable Load Using PID-Learning Controller
Kim, S. H. [Halla University, Wonju (Korea); Chung, I. S.; Kang, Y. H.; Nam, M. H.; Kim, L. K. [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea)
2001-03-01
This paper deals with speed control of DC servo motor using a PID controller with a gain tuning based on a Back-Propagation(BP) Learning Algorithm. Conventionally a PID controller has been used in the industrial control. But a PID controller should produce suitable parameters for each system. Also, variables of the PID controller should be changed according to environment, disturbance and loads. In this paper described by a experiment that contained a method using a PID controller with a gain tuning based on a Back-Propagation(BP) Learning Algorithm, we developed speed characteristics of a DC servo motor on variable loads. The parameters of the controller are determined by neural network performed on on-line system after training the neural network on off-line system. (author). 15 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.
PID feedback controller used as a tactical asset allocation technique: The G.A.M. model
Gandolfi, G.; Sabatini, A.; Rossolini, M.
2007-09-01
The objective of this paper is to illustrate a tactical asset allocation technique utilizing the PID controller. The proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is widely applied in most industrial processes; it has been successfully used for over 50 years and it is used by more than 95% of the plants processes. It is a robust and easily understood algorithm that can provide excellent control performance in spite of the diverse dynamic characteristics of the process plant. In finance, the process plant, controlled by the PID controller, can be represented by financial market assets forming a portfolio. More specifically, in the present work, the plant is represented by a risk-adjusted return variable. Money and portfolio managers’ main target is to achieve a relevant risk-adjusted return in their managing activities. In literature and in the financial industry business, numerous kinds of return/risk ratios are commonly studied and used. The aim of this work is to perform a tactical asset allocation technique consisting in the optimization of risk adjusted return by means of asset allocation methodologies based on the PID model-free feedback control modeling procedure. The process plant does not need to be mathematically modeled: the PID control action lies in altering the portfolio asset weights, according to the PID algorithm and its parameters, Ziegler-and-Nichols-tuned, in order to approach the desired portfolio risk-adjusted return efficiently.
Fitzpatrick, Clare K; Baldwin, Mark A; Clary, Chadd W; Maletsky, Lorin P; Rullkoetter, Paul J
2014-01-01
Validated computational knee simulations are valuable tools for design phase development of knee replacement devices. Recently, a dynamic finite element (FE) model of the Kansas knee simulator was kinematically validated during gait and deep flexion cycles. In order to operate the computational simulator in the same manner as the experiment, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was interfaced with the FE model to control the quadriceps actuator excursion and produce a target flexion profile regardless of implant geometry or alignment conditions. The controller was also expanded to operate multiple actuators simultaneously in order to produce in vivo loading conditions at the joint during dynamic activities. Subsequently, the fidelity of the computational model was improved through additional muscle representation and inclusion of relative hip-ankle anterior-posterior (A-P) motion. The PID-controlled model was able to successfully recreate in vivo loading conditions (flexion angle, compressive joint load, medial-lateral load distribution or varus-valgus torque, internal-external torque, A-P force) for deep knee bend, chair rise, stance-phase gait and step-down activities. PMID:22687046
Jantzen, Jan
1998-01-01
Design of a fuzzy controller requires more design decisions than usual, for example regarding rule base, inference engine, defuzzification, and data pre- and post processing. This tutorial paper identifies and describes the design choices related to single-loop fuzzy control, based on an...... international standard which is underway. The paper contains also a design approach, which uses a PID controller as a starting point. A design engineer can view the paper as an introduction to fuzzy controller design....
Gang Qin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The acceleration performance of EV, which affects a lot of performances of EV such as start-up, overtaking, driving safety, and ride comfort, has become increasingly popular in recent researches. An improved variable gain PID control algorithm to improve the acceleration performance is proposed in this paper. The results of simulation with Matlab/Simulink demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through the control performance of motor velocity, motor torque, and three-phase current of motor. Moreover, it is investigated that the proposed controller is valid by comparison with the other PID controllers. Furthermore, the AC induction motor experiment set is constructed to verify the effect of proposed controller.
Fuzzy-PID control algorithm of a loop reactor for microbial corrosion testing
D. Rangel-Miranda
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The thermal control of loop reactor utilized to run hydrodynamic tests of microbical corrosion, where full control of the temperature is crucial, is presented. Since the accuracy of the temperature is critical along the pipe trajectory for the microbial culture, it must be controlled with an accuracy of ± 0.5°C, which is achieved by an implemented fuzzy-PID (Proportional Integral and Derivative control algorithm, capable to provide the accuracy at the temperature range required. The system counts with an especially-designed software to program the desired temperature. Several tests were carried out at different temperatures and water volumes to characterize the rising time and thermal inertia presented by the system. As a result, the performance and power consumption were notability improved.
MATTER-ELEMENT MODELING OF PARALLEL STRUCTURE AND APPLICATION ABOUT EXTENSION PID CONTROL SYSTEM
Rongde LU; Zonghai CHEN
2006-01-01
This article describes in detail a new method via the extension predictable algorithm of the matter-element model of parallel structure tuning the parameters of the extension PID controller. In comparison with fuzzy and extension PID controllers, the proposed extension PID predictable controller shows higher control gains when system states are away from equilibrium, and retains a lower profile of control signals at the same time. Consequently, better control performance is achieved. Through the proposed tuning formula, the weighting factors of an extension-logic predictable controller can be systematically selected according to the control plant. An experimental example through industrial field data and site engineers' experience demonstrates the superior performance of the proposed controller over the fuzzy controller.
HUO Hai-bo; ZHU Xin-jian; CAO Guang-yi
2007-01-01
A kind of new design method for two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) PID regulator was presented, in which, a new global search heuristic--improved generalized extremal optimization (GEO) algorithm is applied to the parameter optimization design of 2DOF PID regulator. The simulated results show that very good dynamic response performance of both command tracking and disturbance rejection characteristics can be achieved simultaneously. At the same time, the comparisons of simulation results with the improved GA, the basic GEO and the improved GEO were given. From the comparisons, it is shown that the improved GEO algorithm is competitive in performance with the GA and basic GEO and is an attractive tool to be used in the design of two-degree-of-freedom PID regulator.
S.Swathi,; V. Vijaya Kumar Nayak
2014-01-01
This paper deals with the electronic load controller for self exited induction generator using PID plus fuzzy logic controller. The self-excited induction generators (SEIGs) are considered to be well suited for generating electricity by means of conventional energy sources and for supplying electrical energy in remote and rural areas. Induction generators have many advantages such as cost, reduced maintenance, rugged, and simple construction, brushless rotor (squirrel cage). A...
Nonlinear Dynamics Study Of Voltage Mode Controlled DC Drive With PID Controller
Sukumar Das; Shubhajit Pal
2014-01-01
This paper presents a non-linear dynamic model of a voltage controlled PMDC motor drive, based on the state vector analysis of the system is conducted. Proportional-Integral-derivative (PID) is the techniques proposed in this investigation to control the speed of a dc motor, revealing the periodic and chaotic phenomenon under different system parameter. Mathematical analysis and computer simulation are attached to verify the proposed non-linear model of the PMDC motor.
Reinforcement Learning Adaptive PID Controller for an Under-actuated Robot Arm
Adel Akbarimajd
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract: An adaptive PID controller is used to control of a two degrees of freedom under actuated manipulator. An actor-critic based reinforcement learning is employed for tuning of parameters of the adaptive PID controller. Reinforcement learning is an unsupervised scheme wherein no reference exists to which convergence of algorithm is anticipated. Thus, it is appropriate for real time applications. Controller structure and learning equations as well as update rules are provided. Simulations are performed in SIMULINK and performance of the controller is compared with NARMA-L2 controller. The results verified good performance of the controller in tracking and disturbance rejection tests.
Automatic PID Tuning Based on Genetic Algorithm for Botnia Soccer Robots
Gong, Pengju
2012-01-01
Current PID parameters of botnia soccer robot are experiential predefined. Those PID parameters are fixed on different field surface, which make the PID controller cannot perform very well. To get appropriate PID parameters based on the specific field, the genetic algorithm was used to tune the PID parameters automatically. In this thesis, a genetic algorithm program used to tune botnia soccer robot PID parameters has been designed. Meanwhile, this design has been simulated with Matlab and...
桥式起重机PSO-PID防摆控制器的设计%Design of an PSO-PID Anti-sway Controller for Overhead Crane
杜文正; 谢政; 童国林
2013-01-01
The two-dimension action mathematical model of overhead crane was built.An anti-swing control method was presented for overhead crane via PID controller,in which the PSO algorithm was used to optimize the PID parameters.The MATLAB/Simulink simulation results show that the crane trolley can be positioned accurately,and the swing of hanging weight system can be effectively restrained,which prove this method is effective.%以桥式起重机吊重防摆控制为研究对象,建立了吊重系统二维运动的数学模型,利用PSO算法优化PID参数,设计了基于粒子群算法优化的PID防摆控制器.MATLAB/Simulink仿真结果表明:采用PID参数被PSO算法优化的控制器后,起重机小车实现了无超调、无静差的快速定位,同时吊重系统摆动得到了快速有效的抑制,证明了该方法的有效性.
S.Swathi,
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the electronic load controller for self exited induction generator using PID plus fuzzy logic controller. The self-excited induction generators (SEIGs are considered to be well suited for generating electricity by means of conventional energy sources and for supplying electrical energy in remote and rural areas. Induction generators have many advantages such as cost, reduced maintenance, rugged, and simple construction, brushless rotor (squirrel cage. A three phase induction generator can be operated on a delta connection for supplying single phase loads. The main disadvantage of SEIG has is that it poor voltage regulation, and its value depends on the prime mover speed, capacitance, load current and power factor of the load. The electronic load controller (ELC can be used for maintaining constant voltage and frequency of SEIG with variable consumer load driven by constant prime mover. This paper presents the simulation design and implementation of ELC using fuzzy logic method for an SEIG feeding single-phase load. The ELC consist of a rectifier, IGBT as a chopper switch, PI controller, voltage sensor, and resistive dump load in which power consumption was varied through the duty cycle of the chopper. However an ELC consist of electronics system, in general, has complex nonlinear model with parameter variation problem, and the control need to be very fast. The fuzzy logic based controller gives nonlinear control with fast response and virtually no overshoot. The simulation of ELC for self exited induction generator is carried out on MATLAB/SIMULINK. By this proposed ELC using FLC for SEIG we can maintain the constant voltage and frequency of SEIG with variable consumer load.
Sharma, Richa; Gaur, Prerna; Mittal, A P
2015-09-01
The robotic manipulators are multi-input multi-output (MIMO), coupled and highly nonlinear systems. The presence of external disturbances and time-varying parameters adversely affects the performance of these systems. Therefore, the controller designed for these systems should effectively deal with such complexities, and it is an intriguing task for control engineers. This paper presents two-degree of freedom fractional order proportional-integral-derivative (2-DOF FOPID) controller scheme for a two-link planar rigid robotic manipulator with payload for trajectory tracking task. The tuning of all controller parameters is done using cuckoo search algorithm (CSA). The performance of proposed 2-DOF FOPID controllers is compared with those of their integer order designs, i.e., 2-DOF PID controllers, and with the traditional PID controllers. In order to show effectiveness of proposed scheme, the robustness testing is carried out for model uncertainties, payload variations with time, external disturbance and random noise. Numerical simulation results indicate that the 2-DOF FOPID controllers are superior to their integer order counterparts and the traditional PID controllers. PMID:25896827
Single Neuron PID Control of Aircraft Deicing Fluids Rapid Heating System
Bin Chen
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system is widely used in aircraft ground deicing to ensure that the operation of flights can be safe and efficient. Aiming at the temperature turbulence problem of aircraft deicing system, this paper presents the single neuron PID control strategy which combine the advantage of conventional PID control with artificial neuron control. The aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system and the scheme and working principle of the system is introduced. Simulation is executed on the basis of the mathematical model of aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system, which is built in this paper, according to a number of data collected by experiments which are operated on the experimental platform of deicing fluids rapid heating system. The simulation results show that the single neuron PID control strategy perform effectively on the temperature turbulence problem of aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system. Experiments are conducted to vertify the single neuron PID control strategy, the results of which show that the single neuron PID control strategy can achieve the request in practical application of the aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system.
Setpoint Weighted PID Controller for the Electromechanical Actuator in Spacecraft
R. Sumathi; M Usha
2014-01-01
An intelligent control system for the rocket engine during electromechanical stage is designed and scrutinized in this paper. The rocket is the only vehicle that lift-offs the spacecraft in the space. But, the motion of the rocket can be influenced by internal and external disturbances. Furthermore, the rocket is a multi-input and multi-output nonlinear system whose dynamics are unstable and poorly understood. So the orientation of the spacecraft in precise position is so critical. Hence, att...
A Comparative Analysis of Integrated Boost Flyback Converter using PID and Fuzzy Controller
R.Samuel Rajesh Babu
2015-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of Integrated boost flyback converter for Renewable energy System. IBFC is the combination of boost converter and fly back converter. The proposed converter is simulated in open and closed loop using PID and FUZZY controller. The Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC is used reduce the rise time, settling time to almost negligible and try to remove the delay time and inverted response. The performance of IBFC with fuzzy logic controller is found better instead of PID controller. The simulation results are verified experimentally and the output of converter is free from ripples and has regulated output voltage.
Das, Pramode K.; Mathew, Sam; Shaiju, A. J.; Patnaik, B. S. V.
2016-02-01
The control of vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder is a precursor to a wide range of external shear flow problems in engineering, in particular the flow-induced vibrations. In the present study, numerical simulation of an energetically efficient active flow control strategy is proposed, for the control of wake vortices behind a circular cylinder at a low Reynolds number of 100. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible and Newtonian with negligible variation in properties. Reflectionally symmetric controllers are designed such that, they are located on a small sector of the cylinder over which, tangential sliding mode control is imparted. In the field of modern controls, proportional (P), integral (I) and differential (D) control strategies and their numerous combinations are extremely popular in industrial practice. To impart suitable control actuation, the vertically varying lift force on the circular cylinder, is synthesised for the construction of an error term. Four different types of controllers considered in the present study are, P, I, PI and PID. These controllers are evaluated for their energetic efficiency and performance. A linear quadratic optimal control problem is formulated, to minimise the cost functional. By performing detailed simulations, it was observed that, the system is energetically efficient, even when the twin eddies are still persisting behind the circular cylinder. To assess the adaptability of the controllers, the actuators were switched on and off to study their dynamic response.
Energy efficiency enhancement is achieved by utilizing control algorithms that reduce overshoots and undershoots as well as unnecessary fluctuations in the amount of energy input to energy consuming systems during transient operation periods. It is hypothesized that application of control methodologies with characteristics that change with time and according to the system dynamics, identified as dynamic energy efficiency measures (DEEM), achieves the desired enhancement. The objective of this study is to simulate and analyze the effects of fuzzy logic based tuning of proportional integral derivative (F-PID) and proportional sum derivative (F-PSD) controllers for a heating and cooling energy system while accounting for the dynamics of the major system components. The procedure to achieve the objective includes utilization of fuzzy logic rules to determine the PID and PSD controllers gain coefficients so that the control laws for regulating the heat exchangers heating or cooling energy inputs are determined in each time step of the operation period. The performances of the F-PID and F-PSD controllers are measured by means of two cost functions that are based on quadratic forms of the energy input and deviation from a set point temperature. It is found that application of the F-PID control algorithm, as a DEEM, results in lower costs for energy input and deviation from a set point temperature by 24% and 17% as compared to a PID and 13% and 8% as compared to a PSD, respectively. It is also shown that the F-PSD performance is better than that of the F-PID controller
Huang, Yi-Cheng; Chan, Manuel; Hsin, Yi-Ping; Ko, Ching-Chang
This study presents the control design and tests of an intra-oral hydraulic system for quantitatively loading of a dental implant. The computer-controlled system was developed and employed for better pressure error compensation by PID (proportional-integral-derivative) control and point-to-point iterative learning algorithm. In vitro experiments showed that implant loading is precisely controlled (error 3%) for 0.5Hz loading without air inclusion, and reasonably performed (errorvivo animal studies for better understanding of how bone responds to implant loading. Quantitative information derived from this biomechanical model will add to improved designs of dental implants.
PID controller auto-tuning based on process step response and damping optimum criterion.
Pavković, Danijel; Polak, Siniša; Zorc, Davor
2014-01-01
This paper presents a novel method of PID controller tuning suitable for higher-order aperiodic processes and aimed at step response-based auto-tuning applications. The PID controller tuning is based on the identification of so-called n-th order lag (PTn) process model and application of damping optimum criterion, thus facilitating straightforward algebraic rules for the adjustment of both the closed-loop response speed and damping. The PTn model identification is based on the process step response, wherein the PTn model parameters are evaluated in a novel manner from the process step response equivalent dead-time and lag time constant. The effectiveness of the proposed PTn model parameter estimation procedure and the related damping optimum-based PID controller auto-tuning have been verified by means of extensive computer simulations. PMID:24035643
V Soni
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The combination of Grey Wolf Optimization and Pattern Search Technique (hGWO-PS has been introduced to optimize the parameters of two Degree of Freedom Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller (2DOF-PID for controlling the load frequency in Automatic Generation Control (AGC for interconnected power system. The interconnected two area power system of non-reheat thermal power plants consisting of 2DOF-PID controller in each area has been considered for design and analysis. Firstly, the proposed approach has been implemented in the aforementioned standard test system and thereafter, the robustness of the system consisting 2DOF-PID controller optimized by proposed technique has been estimated using the sensitivity analysis for the same. The robustness of the system consisting of 2DOF-PID controller optimized by proposed scheme is examined by varying the parameters of standard test system, loading conditions during operation, size and location of the disturbances. The performance of the 2DOF-PID controller optimized by proposed approach has also been compared with recently published approaches in the literature. The simulation results show that the proposed hGWOPS optimized 2DOF-PID controller shows far better performance than recently published approaches in the literature in terms of dynamic response. The simulation results also show that system performances hardly change when the operating load condition and system parameters are changed by ±50% from their nominal values, i.e. the proposed controllers are quite robust for a wide range of the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values.
Aranza, M. F.; Kustija, J.; Trisno, B.; Hakim, D. L.
2016-04-01
PID Controller (Proportional Integral Derivative) was invented since 1910, but till today still is used in industries, even though there are many kind of modern controllers like fuzz controller and neural network controller are being developed. Performance of PID controller is depend on on Proportional Gain (Kp), Integral Gain (Ki) and Derivative Gain (Kd). These gains can be got by using method Ziegler-Nichols (ZN), gain-phase margin, Root Locus, Minimum Variance dan Gain Scheduling however these methods are not optimal to control systems that nonlinear and have high-orde, in addition, some methods relative hard. To solve those obstacles, particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to get optimal Kp, Ki and Kd. PSO is proposed because PSO has convergent result and not require many iterations. On this research, PID controller is applied on AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator). Based on result of analyzing transient, stability Root Locus and frequency response, performance of PID controller is better than Ziegler-Nichols.
Control de velocidad de un motor de CD con un controlador PID Wavenet
Abraham Christian Pedroza Araujo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available El controlador más utilizado actualmente en la industria es el controlador PID. Sin embargo, el algoritmo PID lineal tiene bajo desempeño cuando el proceso a controlar presenta dinámicas complejas como zonas muertas y características no lineales. El funcionamiento del controlador PID en general, se basa en la actuación en forma proporcional, integral y derivativa sobre la señal de error e(t, definida como e(t = yref(t - y(t, con la finalidad de efectuar la señal de control u(t que manipula la salida del proceso en forma deseada como se muestra la Figura 1. Figura 1. Esquema de un control clásico. Figura 1. Esquema de un control clásico. Las constantes kp ki kd son las ganancias del PID. Existen distintas técnicas analíticas y experimentales con el fin de sintonizar esas ganancias. Una alternativa a este problema de sintonización es el controlador PID wavenet, donde por medio de una wavenet y un filtro IIR se estima la salida del sistema a controlar, lo cual se utiliza para re-sintonizar las ganancias de un PID discreto, todo esto en línea. Esta es la alternativa que se emplea en el presente trabajo de investigación y enfocada a la simulación y control de un motor de cd obteniendo resultados.
The simplicity in coding the heuristic judgment of experienced operator by means of fuzzy logic can be exploited for enhancement of energy efficiency. Fuzzy logic has been used as an effective tool for scheduling conventional PID controllers gain coefficients (F-PID). However, to search for the most desirable fuzzy system characteristics that allow for best performance of the energy system with minimum energy input, optimization techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA) could be utilized and the control methodology is identified as GA-based F-PID (GA-F-PID). The objective of this study is to examine the performance of PID, F-PID, and GA-F-PID controllers for enhancement of energy efficiency of a dynamic energy system. The performance evaluation of the controllers is accomplished by means of two cost functions that are based on the quadratic forms of the energy input and deviation from a setpoint temperature, referred to as energy and comfort costs, respectively. The GA-F-PID controller is examined in two different forms, namely, global form and local form. For the global form, all possible combinations of fuzzy system characteristics in the search domain are explored by GA for finding the fittest chromosome for all discrete time intervals during the entire operation period. For the local form, however, GA is used in each discrete time interval to find the fittest chromosome for implementation. The results show that the global form GA-F-PID and local form GA-F-PID control methodologies, in comparison with PID controller, achieve higher energy efficiency by lowering energy costs by 51.2%, and 67.8%, respectively. Similarly, the comfort costs for deviation from setpoint are enhanced by 54.4%, and 62.4%, respectively. It is determined that GA-F-PID performs better in local from than global form.
PID-Controller Tuning Optimization with Genetic Algorithms in Servo Systems
Arturo Y. Jaen-Cuellar
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Performance improvement is the main goal of the study of PID control and much research has been conducted for this purpose. The PID filter is implemented in almost all industrial processes because of its well‐ known beneficial features. In general, the whole system’s performance strongly depends on the controller’s efficiency and hence the tuning process plays a key role in the system’s behaviour. In this work, the servo systems will be analysed, specifically the positioning control systems. Among the existent tuning methods, the Gain‐ Phase Margin method based on Frequency Response analysis is the most adequate for controller tuning in positioning control systems. Nevertheless, this method can be improved by integrating an optimization technique. The novelty of this work is the development of a new methodology for PID control tuning by coupling the Gain‐Phase Margin method with the Genetic Algorithms in which the micro‐population concept and adaptive mutation probability are applied. Simulations using a positioning system model in MATLAB and experimental tests in two CNC machines and an industrial robot are carried out in order to show the effectiveness of the proposal. The obtained results are compared with both the classical Gain‐Phase Margin tuning and with a recent PID controller optimization using Genetic Algorithms based on real codification. The three methodologies are implemented using software.
Maria Isabel Berto
2004-09-01
pasteurizer heating section. As the water temperature behavior according to the same step change on the potency of the resistance depends on the working flow rate, a single controller was designed to keep this temperature at its desirable set-point, for the water flow rate, within the range of 300 to 700L/h. Three different tunings for the PID were tested: the first consisted on the implementation of a function for the calculation of the PID parameters fitted to individual values obtained from each flow rate, according to process reaction curve methodology; the second consisted on using the PID parameters calculated as the average of these individual values; at the third tuning, an adaptive function fitted with the individual parameters obtained with Aström & Hägglund methodology was used. The performance evaluation of the configured PID controllers was carried out by comparing the error index values, obtained after disturbances in the water flow rate in the closed loop system. The error indexes calculated after step changes in the water flow rate were used to evaluate the tunings. The results have shown that the third tuning, called "Bang Bang" presented minor oscillations and smaller error indexes compared to the other two methods.
Duan Haibin; Wang Daobo; Yu Xiufen
2008-01-01
As friction, intrinsic steady-state nonlinearity poses a challenging dilemma to the control system of 3-DOF (three degree of freedom) flight simulator, a novel hybrid control strategy of nonlinear PID (proportional-integral-derivative) with additional FFC (feed-forward controller) is proposed, and the hardware-in-the-loop simu-lation results are also given. Based on the description of 3-DOF flight simulator, a novel nonlinear PID theory is well introduced. Then a nonlinear PID controller with additional FFC is designed. Subsequently, the loop structure of 3-DOF flight simulator is also designed. Finally, a series of hardware-in-the-loop simulation experiments are undertaken to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed nonlinear FID controller with additional FFC for 3-DOF flight simulator.
Márcio Mendonça
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this work, it is analyzed a multivariate system control of an alcoholic fermentation process with no minimum phase. The control is made with PID classic controllers associated with a supervisory system based on Fuzzy Systems. The Fuzzy system, a priori, send set-points to PID controllers, but also adds protection functions, such as if the biomass valued is at zero or very close. The Fuzzy controller changes the campaign to prevent or mitigate the paralyzation of the process. Three control architectures based on Fuzzy Control Systems are presented and compared in performance with classic control in different campaigns. The third architecture, in particular, adds an adaptive function. A brief summary of Fuzzy theory and correlated works will be presented. And, finally simulations results, conclusions and future works end the article.
Fuzzy-PID control algorithm of a loop reactor for microbial corrosion testing
D. Rangel-Miranda; D. Alaniz-Lumbreras; Victor Castano
2015-01-01
The thermal control of loop reactor utilized to run hydrodynamic tests of microbical corrosion, where full control of the temperature is crucial, is presented. Since the accuracy of the temperature is critical along the pipe trajectory for the microbial culture, it must be controlled with an accuracy of ± 0.5°C, which is achieved by an implemented fuzzy-PID (Proportional Integral and Derivative) control algorithm, capable to provide the accuracy at the temperature range required. The system c...
Optimization of PID Controller for Brushless DC Motor by using Bio-inspired Algorithms
Sanjay Kr. Singh
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This study presents the use and comparison of various bio-inspired algorithms for optimizing the response of a PID controller for a Brushless DC Motor in contrast to the conventional methods of tuning. For the optimization of the PID controllers Genetic Algorithm, Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing have been used. PID controller tuning with soft-computing algorithms comprises of obtaining the best possible outcome for the three PID parameters for improving the steady state characteristics and performance indices like overshoot percentage, rise time and settling time. For the calculation and simulation of the results the Brushless DC Motor model, Maxon EC 45 flat ф 45 mm with Hall Sensors Motor has been used. The results obtained the optimization using Genetic Algorithms, Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing is compared with the ones derived from the Ziegler-Nichols method and the MATLAB SISO Tool. And it is observed that comparatively better results are obtained by optimization using Simulated Annealing offering better steady state response.
Self-adaptive PID controller of microwave drying rotary device tuning on-line by genetic algorithms
杨彪; 梁贵安; 彭金辉; 郭胜惠; 李玮; 张世敏; 李英伟; 白松
2013-01-01
The control design, based on self-adaptive PID with genetic algorithms(GA) tuning on-line was investigated, for the temperature control of industrial microwave drying rotary device with the multi-layer(IMDRDWM) and with multivariable nonlinear interaction of microwave and materials. The conventional PID control strategy incorporated with optimization GA was put forward to maintain the optimum drying temperature in order to keep the moisture content below 1%, whose adaptation ability included the cost function of optimization GA according to the output change. Simulations on five different industrial process models and practical temperature process control system for selenium-enriched slag drying intensively by using IMDRDWM were carried out systematically, indicating the reliability and effectiveness of control design. The parameters of proposed control design are all on-line implemented without iterative predictive calculations, and the closed-loop system stability is guaranteed, which makes the developed scheme simpler in its synthesis and application, providing the practical guidelines for the control implementation and the parameter design.
An Attitude Control of Flexible Spacecraft Using Fuzzy-PID Controller
Park, Jong-Oh; Im, Young-Do
This primary objective of this study is to demonstrate simulation and ground-based experiment for the attitude control of flexible spacecraft. A typical spacecraft structure consists of the rigid body and flexible appendages which are large flexible solar panels, parabolic antennas built from light materials in order to reduce their weight. Therefore the attitude control has a big problem because these appendages induce structural vibration under the excitation of external forces. A single-axis rotational simulator with a flexible arm is constructed with on-off air thrusters and reaction wheel as actuation. The simulator is also equipped with payload pointing capability by simultaneous thruster and DC servo motor actuation. The experiment of flexible spacecraft attitude control is performed using only the reaction wheel. Using the reaction wheel the performance of the fuzzy-PID controller is illustrated by simulation and experimental results for a single-axis rotational simulator.
Method’s and Test Stand for Electronic PID Controller
Cristian Paul Chioncel
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents method’s and a testing stand for electronic controller using for this a signal generator and a digital oscilloscope respectively the virtual instrumentation and the signal acquisitions from the controllers input and output through an data acquisition board and an PC on that Lab View program runs.
Haitao Zhang
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In the networked control system with random time delay in forward and feedback channels, a kind of controller based on Smith compensator and signal neuron incomplete differential forward PID is presented. First, using root locus method and simulink simulation software, the influences of network’s time delay on the system stability and dynamic performance are analyzed. Then, combined with incomplete differential forward PID control algorithm, Smith compensation model is established. Compared with existing Smith compensator, the proposed control model is easy to be implemented, and can also get better control performance in the case of miss-matching compensator model. Finally, the simulation research on a DC motor is done, and the simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Tuning PID controlling parameters for DC motor speed regulation
Stojanov, Done; Cveta MARTINOVSKA
2013-01-01
Modern robots are sophisticated and complex systems, composed of: sensors, high-speed processors and actuators. Different size DC electrical motors are used as actuators, converting electrical energy into mechanical movement. Without them, robots can’t perform movements, what is completely on the contrary on modern robotics concepts. Motor speed regulation is an important engineering task. Having appropriately tuned the controller, the desired speed is reached in a short time interval, with m...
数字PID控制器的FPGA实现与仿真%FPGA Implementation and Simulation of Digital PID Controller
许国宏; 宋征; 王耀磊
2015-01-01
根据增量式PID控制器的工作原理，设计了一种基于FPGA的数字PID控制器，采用FPGA并行结构，使用自顶向下的设计方法完成了控制器的VHDL分层设计，最终实现了对控制量的精确控制。经过仿真测试表明，该设计方案有效可行，并且具有结构简单、性能可靠、控制效果良好及实用性强等优点。%According to the working principle of incremental PID controller,a kind of Digital PID Controller based on FPGA is de⁃signed,and using the FPGA parallel structure,The top-down design methodology is used to complete the controller VHDL layered design,Finally realized the precise control of control quantity.Through simulation tests show that the design scheme is effective and feasible,and has the advantages of simple structure、reliable performance、good control effect and strong practicability etc.
HYBRID SYSTEM BASED FUZZY-PID CONTROL SCHEMES FOR UNPREDICTABLE PROCESS
M.K. Tan
2011-07-01
Full Text Available In general, the primary aim of polymerization industry is to enhance the process operation in order to obtain high quality and purity product. However, a sudden and large amount of heat will be released rapidly during the mixing process of two reactants, i.e. phenol and formalin due to its exothermic behavior. The unpredictable heat will cause deviation of process temperature and hence affect the quality of the product. Therefore, it is vital to control the process temperature during the polymerization. In the modern industry, fuzzy logic is commonly used to auto-tune PID controller to control the process temperature. However, this method needs an experienced operator to fine tune the fuzzy membership function and universe of discourse via trial and error approach. Hence, the setting of fuzzy inference system might not be accurate due to the human errors. Besides that, control of the process can be challenging due to the rapid changes in the plant parameters which will increase the process complexity. This paper proposes an optimization scheme using hybrid of Q-learning (QL and genetic algorithm (GA to optimize the fuzzy membership function in order to allow the conventional fuzzy-PID controller to control the process temperature more effectively. The performances of the proposed optimization scheme are compared with the existing fuzzy-PID scheme. The results show that the proposed optimization scheme is able to control the process temperature more effectively even if disturbance is introduced.
Optimization of PID controller based on The Bees Algorithm for one leg of a quadruped robot
Bakırcıoğlu Veli; Arif Şen M.; Kalyoncu Mete
2016-01-01
In this paper, we apply The Bees Algorithm to find optimal PID controller gains to control angular positions of robot leg joints with the minimum position error. In order to present more realistic simulation, system modelled in MATLAB/Simulink environment which is close to experimental set up. Solid model of system, which has two degrees of freedom, drawn by using a CAD software. Required physical specifications of robot leg for MATLAB/Simulink modelling is obtained from this CAD model. Contr...
Simulation of Using PID Controller to Control the Slug of Platform Separator%模拟 PID 控制器对平台分离器段塞的控制
倪玲英; 何生兵
2015-01-01
考虑到混相输送极易在管道的立管段形成严重段塞流，影响管道和下游油气水处理设备的正常工作，造成巨大的经济损失，利用OLGA多相流瞬态模拟软件对海底管道进行段塞流预测，并通过OLGA软件模拟PID控制器对严重段塞流的自动控制。结果表明，利用PID控制器能够有效进行严重段塞流的控制，推荐在管道设计时应用OLGA软件先进行段塞流的预测，再通过OLGA软件进行PID控制系统的参数设计。%Considering that the fatal drawback of mixing transportation is its tendency to form severe slugs, which seriously obstructs the normal operations of pipeline and its downstream processing equipment, it may result in great economy losses. Based on OLGA ( the transient multiphase flow simulator) , the severe slugs of a sub-sea pipeline is predicted.With the help of OLGA, the simulation of the controlling of severe slugs using PID controller is performed.The result shows that PID controller can effectively control severe slugs, and it is highly recommended to use OLGA to predict severe slugs and design the parameters of PID controller during pipeline design stage.
Neuron-Adaptive PID Based Speed Control of SCSG Wind Turbine System
Shan Zuo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In searching for methods to increase the power capacity of wind power generation system, superconducting synchronous generator (SCSG has appeared to be an attractive candidate to develop large-scale wind turbine due to its high energy density and unprecedented advantages in weight and size. In this paper, a high-temperature superconducting technology based large-scale wind turbine is considered and its physical structure and characteristics are analyzed. A simple yet effective single neuron-adaptive PID control scheme with Delta learning mechanism is proposed for the speed control of SCSG based wind power system, in which the RBF neural network (NN is employed to estimate the uncertain but continuous functions. Compared with the conventional PID control method, the simulation results of the proposed approach show a better performance in tracking the wind speed and maintaining a stable tip-speed ratio, therefore, achieving the maximum wind energy utilization.
The power stability of a fiber amplifier based on a multifunction card and PID control program
Zhang, Linjie; Yang, Wenguang; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, JianMing; Jia, Suotang
2016-06-01
The power stability of a fiber amplifier was significantly improved by means of simultaneously controlling the current of a fiber amplifier and the diffraction efficiency of an acousto-optical modulator. The real-time fluctuation of laser power was recorded by a multifunction card and processed by a proportional–integral–derivative (PID) control program. The feedback loop voltage was introduced to the fiber laser amplifier and acoustic-optic modulator through the analog output of the multifunction card. The control method based on a multifunction card and PID program has good scalability, flexibility and reliability for the complex system on the condition in which the frequency and power of the laser need to be precisely stabilized.
一种自适应PID控制算法%AN ADAPTIVE PID CONTROL ALGORITHM
赵建华; 沈永良
2001-01-01
In this paper, by combining PID control algorithm with adaptive technology of modern control theory, we obtain an adaptive PID control algorithm and make computer simulation for various time varying parametric models. Results of the simulation prove effectiveness of the algorithm.%将现代控制理论的自适应技术与经典的PID控制算法相结合，推导出一种自适应PID控制算法，并在计算机上对不同对象及时变参数进行了数字仿真.结果表明这种自适应PID控制算法的有效性.
de Souza Granja Barros, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Sartor, Karina
2015-12-01
The use of smarter temperature control technologies in heating systems can optimize the use of electric power and performance of piglets. Two control technologies of a resistive heating system were assessed in a pig nursery: a PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) controller and a thermostat. The systems were evaluated regarding thermal environment, piglet performance, and use of electric power for 99 days. The heating system with PID controller improved the thermal environment conditions and was significantly (P < 0.001) more efficient in terms of electricity use to produce 1 kg of body weight (2.88 kWh kg-1), specific cost (0.75 R kg-1), weight gain (7.3 kg), daily weight gain (0.21 kg day-1), and feed conversion (1.71) than the system with thermostat (3.98 kWh kg-1; 1.03 R kg-1; 5.2 kg; 0.15 kg day-1, and 2.62, respectively). The results indicate that the PID-controlled heating system is more efficient in electricity use and provides better conditions for thermal comfort and animal performance than heating with thermostat.
de Souza Granja Barros, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Sartor, Karina
2016-08-01
The use of smarter temperature control technologies in heating systems can optimize the use of electric power and performance of piglets. Two control technologies of a resistive heating system were assessed in a pig nursery: a PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) controller and a thermostat. The systems were evaluated regarding thermal environment, piglet performance, and use of electric power for 99 days. The heating system with PID controller improved the thermal environment conditions and was significantly (P electricity use to produce 1 kg of body weight (2.88 kWh kg(-1)), specific cost (0.75 R$ kg(-1)), weight gain (7.3 kg), daily weight gain (0.21 kg day(-1)), and feed conversion (1.71) than the system with thermostat (3.98 kWh kg(-1); 1.03 R$ kg(-1); 5.2 kg; 0.15 kg day(-1), and 2.62, respectively). The results indicate that the PID-controlled heating system is more efficient in electricity use and provides better conditions for thermal comfort and animal performance than heating with thermostat. PMID:26712531
Zhang, Shu; Taft, Cyrus W; Bentsman, Joseph; Hussey, Aaron; Petrus, Bryan
2012-09-01
Tuning a complex multi-loop PID based control system requires considerable experience. In today's power industry the number of available qualified tuners is dwindling and there is a great need for better tuning tools to maintain and improve the performance of complex multivariable processes. Multi-loop PID tuning is the procedure for the online tuning of a cluster of PID controllers operating in a closed loop with a multivariable process. This paper presents the first application of the simultaneous tuning technique to the multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) PID based nonlinear controller in the power plant control context, with the closed-loop system consisting of a MIMO nonlinear boiler/turbine model and a nonlinear cluster of six PID-type controllers. Although simplified, the dynamics and cross-coupling of the process and the PID cluster are similar to those used in a real power plant. The particular technique selected, iterative feedback tuning (IFT), utilizes the linearized version of the PID cluster for signal conditioning, but the data collection and tuning is carried out on the full nonlinear closed-loop system. Based on the figure of merit for the control system performance, the IFT is shown to deliver performance favorably comparable to that attained through the empirical tuning carried out by an experienced control engineer. PMID:22633781
Zhekang Dong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present an implementation scheme of memristor-based multilayer feedforward small-world neural network (MFSNN inspirited by the lack of the hardware realization of the MFSNN on account of the need of a large number of electronic neurons and synapses. More specially, a mathematical closed-form charge-governed memristor model is presented with derivation procedures and the corresponding Simulink model is presented, which is an essential block for realizing the memristive synapse and the activation function in electronic neurons. Furthermore, we investigate a more intelligent memristive PID controller by incorporating the proposed MFSNN into intelligent PID control based on the advantages of the memristive MFSNN on computation speed and accuracy. Finally, numerical simulations have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
A PSO-PID quaternion model based trajectory control of a hexarotor UAV
Artale, Valeria; Milazzo, Cristina L. R.; Orlando, Calogero; Ricciardello, Angela
2015-12-01
A quaternion based trajectory controller for a prototype of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is discussed in this paper. The dynamics of the UAV, a hexarotor in details, is described in terms of quaternion instead of the usual Euler angle parameterization. As UAV flight management concerns, the method here implemented consists of two main steps: trajectory and attitude control via Proportional-Integrative-Derivative (PID) and Proportional-Derivative (PD) technique respectively and the application of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method in order to tune the PID and PD parameters. The optimization is the consequence of the minimization of a objective function related to the error with the respect to a proper trajectory. Numerical simulations support and validate the proposed method.
Incorporation of fractional-order dynamics into an existing PI/PID DC motor control loop.
Tepljakov, Aleksei; Gonzalez, Emmanuel A; Petlenkov, Eduard; Belikov, Juri; Monje, Concepción A; Petráš, Ivo
2016-01-01
The problem of changing the dynamics of an existing DC motor control system without the need of making internal changes is considered in the paper. In particular, this paper presents a method for incorporating fractional-order dynamics in an existing DC motor control system with internal PI or PID controller, through the addition of an external controller into the system and by tapping its original input and output signals. Experimental results based on the control of a real test plant from MATLAB/Simulink environment are presented, indicating the validity of the proposed approach. PMID:26639053
Sharma, Richa; Kumar, Vikas; Gaur, Prerna; Mittal, A P
2016-05-01
Being complex, non-linear and coupled system, the robotic manipulator cannot be effectively controlled using classical proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. To enhance the effectiveness of the conventional PID controller for the nonlinear and uncertain systems, gains of the PID controller should be conservatively tuned and should adapt to the process parameter variations. In this work, a mix locally recurrent neural network (MLRNN) architecture is investigated to mimic a conventional PID controller which consists of at most three hidden nodes which act as proportional, integral and derivative node. The gains of the mix locally recurrent neural network based PID (MLRNNPID) controller scheme are initialized with a newly developed cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) based optimization method rather than assuming randomly. A sequential learning based least square algorithm is then investigated for the on-line adaptation of the gains of MLRNNPID controller. The performance of the proposed controller scheme is tested against the plant parameters uncertainties and external disturbances for both links of the two link robotic manipulator with variable payload (TL-RMWVP). The stability of the proposed controller is analyzed using Lyapunov stability criteria. A performance comparison is carried out among MLRNNPID controller, CSA optimized NNPID (OPTNNPID) controller and CSA optimized conventional PID (OPTPID) controller in order to establish the effectiveness of the MLRNNPID controller. PMID:26920088
Palomares Gonzalez, Daniel; Garcia Mendoza, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1990-12-31
A description is made of the design and evaluation of an hybrid control system, formed by a quadratic gaussian linear regulator (QLR) and proportional integral derivative (PID) type regulators. This scheme is used to control the reheater and secondary superheater steam temperatures of a steam generator model with a maximum capacity of 2,150,000 pounds per hour. Once applied to the model of a 300 MW steam power plant, this system showed better results than the traditional schemes and inclusively better than some modern control schemes. This fact characterizes it as a high potential system to be applied to steam power plants. [Espanol] Se describe el diseno y la evaluacion de un sistema de control hibrido, formado por un regulador lineal cuadratico gaussiano (RLC) y reguladores tipo proporcional integral derivativo (PID). Este esquema se utiliza para controlar las temperaturas de vapor del recalentador y sobrecalentador secundario del modelo de un generador de vapor con capacidad maxima de 2,150,000 libras por hora. Una vez aplicado al modelo de una unidad termoelectrica de 300 MW, este sistema produjo mejores resultados que los esquemas tradicionales e incluso mejores que algunos esquemas de control moderno. Esto lo caracteriza como un sistema con un alto potencial para aplicarse a unidades termoelectricas.
Brushless DC Motor Self-Adaption Fuzzy PID Control System%无刷直流电机自适应模糊PID控制系统
王国玲; 李振宇; 范自道
2013-01-01
针对无刷直流电机传统PID控制存在精度低、抗干扰能力差及模糊控制稳态精度不高等问题，研究了一种自适应模糊PID控制方法。论文分析了直流无刷电机的工作原理，建立了直流无刷电机自适应模糊PID控制系统的计算机仿真数学模型，设计了系统速度环的模糊PID控制器，仿真结果表明，与传统PID控制相比，自适应模糊PID控制的BLDCM系统具有更高的稳定性和控制精度、更快的动态响应速度。%For the lower precision,bad anti-interference capability of traditional PID control and lower stable precision of fuzzy control for brushless DC motor,an adaptive fuzzy-PID control was deeply investigated in this paper. Working theory of brushless DC motor was analyzed,the simulated mathematical model of adaptive fuzzy-PID control for brushless DC motor was established,and the fuzzy-PID controller of speed regulator was designed. The results of simulation verified the better stability,the faster dynamic speed of adaptive fuzzy-PID control for brushless DC motor compared to traditional PID control.
Control of Perceptual Image Quality Based on PID for Streaming Video
SONG Jian-xin
2003-01-01
Constant levels of perceptual quality of streaming video is what ideall users expect. In most cases, however, they receive time-varying levels of quality of video. In this paper, the author proposes a new control method of perceptual quality in variable bit rate video encoding for streaming video. The image quality calculation based on the perception of human visual systems is presented. Quantization properties of DCT coefficients are analyzed to control effectively. Quantization scale factors are ascertained based on the visual mask effect. A Proportional Integral Difference ( PID ) controller is used to control the image quality. Experimental results show that this method improves the perceptual quality uniformity of encoded video.
PID Testing Method Suitable for Process Control of Solar Cells Mass Production
Xianfang Gou
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Voltage bias of several hundred volts which are applied between solar cells and module frames may lead to significant power losses, so-called potential-induced degradation (PID, in normal photovoltaic (PV installations system. Modules and minimodules are used to conduct PID test of solar cells. The test procedure is time consuming and of high cost, which cannot be used as process monitoring method during solar cells fabrication. In this paper, three kinds of test including minimodule, Rsh, and V-Q test are conducted on solar cells or wafers with SiNx of different refractive index. All comparisons between test results of Rsh, V-Q, and minimodule tests have shown equal results. It is shown that Rsh test can be used as quality inspection of solar cells and V-Q test of coated wafer can be used as process control of solar cells.
Iqbal, Kamran; Roy, Anindo
2004-12-01
In this paper we address the problem of PID stabilization of a single-link inverted pendulum-based biomechanical model with force feedback, two levels of position and velocity feedback, and with delays in all the feedback loops. The novelty of the proposed model lies in its physiological relevance, whereby both small and medium latency sensory feedbacks from muscle spindle (MS), and force feedback from Golgi tendon organ (GTO) are included in the formulation. The biomechanical model also includes active and passive viscoelastic feedback from Hill-type muscle model and a second-order low-pass function for muscle activation. The central nervous system (CNS) regulation of postural movement is represented by a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Padé approximation of delay terms is employed to arrive at an overall rational transfer function of the biomechanical model. The Hermite-Biehler theorem is then used to derive stability results, leading to the existence of stabilizing PID controllers. An algorithm for selection of stabilizing feedback gains is developed using the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. PMID:15796343
M. N. Ab Malek
2009-01-01
Full Text Available For long time the optimization of controller parameters uses the well-known classical method such as the Ziegler-Nichols and the Cohen-Coon tuning techniques. Despite its effectiveness, these off-line tuning techniques can be time consuming especially for a case of complex nonlinear system. This paper attempts to show a great deal on how Metamodeling techniques can be utilized to tune the PID controller parameters quickly. Note that the plant use in this study is the cruise control system with 2 different models, which are the linear model and the nonlinear model. The difference between both models is that the disturbances were taken into consideration for the nonlinear model, but in the linear model the disturbances were assumed as zero. The Radial Basis Function Neural Network Metamodel is able to prove that it can minimize the time in tuning process as it is able to give a good approximation to the optimum controller parameters in both models of this system.
UAV Controller Based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and PID
Ali Moltajaei Farid
2013-01-01
Full Text Available ANFIS is combining a neural network with a fuzzy system results in a hybrid neuro-fuzzy system, capable of reasoning and learning in an uncertain and imprecise environment. In this paper, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS is employed to control an unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV. First, autopilots structure is defined, and then ANFIS controller is applied, to control UAVs lateral position. The results of ANFIS and PID lateral controllers are compared, where it shows the two controllers have similar results. ANFIS controller is capable to adaptation in nonlinear conditions, while PID has to be tuned to preserves proper control in some conditions. The simulation results generated by Matlab using Aerosim Aeronautical Simulation Block Set, which provides a complete set of tools for development of six degree-of-freedom. Nonlinear Aerosonde unmanned aerial vehicle model with ANFIS controller is simulated to verify the capability of the system. Moreover, the results are validated by FlightGear flight simulator.
Self-Tuning PID controller for autonomous car tracking in urban traffic
Alonso, Luciano; Juan P. Oria; Al-Hadithi, Basil M.; Jiménez Avello, Agustín
2013-01-01
In this paper an on line self-tuned PID controller is proposed for the control of a car whose goal is to follow another one, at distances and speeds typical in urban traffic. The bestknown tuning mechanism is perhaps the MIT rule, due to its ease of implementation. However, as it is well known, this method does not guarantee the stability of the system, providing good results only for constant or slowly varying reference signals and in the absence of noise, which are unrealistic conditions...
Murali Muniraj; Ramaswamy Arulmozhiyal
2015-01-01
A control actuation system has been used extensively in automotive, aerospace, and defense applications. The major challenges in modeling control actuation system are rise time, maximum peak to peak overshoot, and response to nonlinear system with percentage error. This paper addresses the challenges in modeling and real time implementation of control actuation system for missiles glider applications. As an alternative fuzzy-PID controller is proposed in BLDC motor drive followed by linkage m...
周世梁; 刘玉燕; 段锋
2012-01-01
The problem for control of steam generator water level is complex because its complicated shrink and parameters of its model vary with operation conditions. Static H∞loop shaping is used to design the robust PID controller for the steam generator. Simulation results show that the control efficiency of this scheme is better than that of the other three H∞loop shaping based methods, and the derived controller has good reference tracking capability, distribution rejection ability and acceptable control performance at different operation points.%核电厂蒸汽发生器(SG)水位存在“收缩”与“膨胀”的逆动力学效应、随运行功率而变化的动力学特性,对其水位控制系统在各种工况下的调节品质要求较高.本研究基于静态H∞-回路成形方法设计SG水位的鲁棒比例积分微分( PID)控制器.仿真结果证实该方法所设计的鲁棒PID控制器的有效性优于其他3种基于H∞-回路成形方法设计的控制器,所得的鲁棒PID控制器具有良好的给定值跟踪、抗干扰性能,并能在负荷变化的情况下保持较好的控制能力.
Reducing the energy consumption of an earth–air heat exchanger with a PID control system
Highlights: • The application of control actions to green technologies has been simulated. • Energy consumption of green technologies can be reduced even more. • The efficiency of green technologies can be raised. • Environmental concerns can be diminished. • The sustainability of the planet can be increased. - Abstract: Reducing environmental emissions is one of the challenges that human being has to overcome. It can only be reached with a proper energetic efficiency and management of the processes that exist in the society nowadays. Several academic works have mentioned that raising the efficiency of a process it also increases sustainability and in turn decreases the environmental impact. One process that requires much attention is the cooling and heating of buildings; this process contributes to the major part of the electric bill, in particular, if a conventional and old air conditioning is used as commonly occurs in many countries. In recent years there have been developed new alternatives that are used in few countries, such as the earth–air heat exchanger, where air is passed through a heat exchanger buried a few meters below the ground. The heat exchanger takes advantage of the well-known difference between the temperature of the surrounding air and the temperature of the ground for cooling or heating the air that is subsequently injected into the buildings. This process requires less energy, then in the present work is thought that a PID (Proportional, Integral and Derivative) controller can be applied to an earth–air heat exchanger to reduce even more the energy consumption. Therefore, a simulation of a thermodynamic model of an earth–air heat exchanger was done and used along with a PID controller, to estimate savings in energy consumption. The results show that the energy consumption can be reduced up to 87% with the PID control, hence the efficiency of the process is increased as well as the sustainability of the planet and thus the
Photovoltaic System Regulation Based on a PID Fuzzy Controller to Ensure a Fixed Settling Time
Paula A. Ortiz-Valencia
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The main objective of the controllers in photovoltaic systems (PV is to ensure the maximum extraction of the available power. Those controllers usually combine the action of a maximum power point tracking algorithm (MPPT with a voltage regulator, which has the function of rejecting disturbances at the panel terminals. Such controllers are commonly based on PI and PID structures, it requiring linearized models at an operating point. But, due to disturbances generated by the environment and the load, the operating point of the system changes drastically, which hinder to obtain the desired system performance. This paper proposes to regulate the PV system using a Fuzzy PID controller, which adapts to changes in solar irradiance and load oscillations. This characteristic guarantees a constant settling time, which is required to precisely define the period of the MPPT algorithm. In the case of classical linear controllers, the period of the MPPT algorithm is set to the worst case (longest period which generates additional power losses by slowing down the tracking of the optimal operating point. Therefore, the solution proposed in this paper improves the overall system efficiency. Finally, such a solution is validated through simulations in Matlab®.
DAHIYA, P.
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the application of hybrid opposition based disruption operator in gravitational search algorithm (DOGSA to solve automatic generation control (AGC problem of four area hydro-thermal-gas interconnected power system. The proposed DOGSA approach combines the advantages of opposition based learning which enhances the speed of convergence and disruption operator which has the ability to further explore and exploit the search space of standard gravitational search algorithm (GSA. The addition of these two concepts to GSA increases its flexibility for solving the complex optimization problems. This paper addresses the design and performance analysis of DOGSA based proportional integral derivative (PID and fractional order proportional integral derivative (FOPID controllers for automatic generation control problem. The proposed approaches are demonstrated by comparing the results with the standard GSA, opposition learning based GSA (OGSA and disruption based GSA (DGSA. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out to study the robustness of DOGSA tuned controllers in order to accommodate variations in operating load conditions, tie-line synchronizing coefficient, time constants of governor and turbine. Further, the approaches are extended to a more realistic power system model by considering the physical constraints such as thermal turbine generation rate constraint, speed governor dead band and time delay.
Stabilization of Gyrotron Frequency by PID Feedback Control on the Acceleration Voltage
Khutoryan, E. M.; Idehara, T.; Kuleshov, A. N.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Matsuki, Y.; Fujiwara, T.
2015-12-01
The results of frequency stabilization by proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback control of acceleration voltage in the 460-GHz Gyrotron FU CW GVI (the official name in Osaka University is Gyrotron FU CW GOI) are presented. The experiment was organized on the basis of the frequency modulation by modulation of acceleration voltage of beam electrons. The frequency stabilization during 10 h experiment was better than 10-6, which is compared with the results of the frequency deviation in free-running gyrotron operation.
New tuning rules for PID controllers based on IMC with minimum IAE for inverse response processes
Duby Castellanos-Cárdenas
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper new tuning rules for Proportional Integral Derivative (PID are presented, which are based on Internal Model Control (IMC. This set of equations minimizes the performance index, in this case, the Integral Absolute Error (IAE. Furthermore, a correlation is proposed in order to calculate the tuning parameter of the method, where a holding oscillation response is obtained regarding changes in the set point. This value represents a stability limit for the IMC method. The overall development is then applied to an Inverse Response System of second order and with dead time.
Implementation of ON/OFF and PID controller using TCP Protocol Based on Virtual Instrumentation
Abhyarthana Bisoyi , Umesh Chandra Pati
2013-03-01
Full Text Available LabVIEW(Laboratory Virtual InstrumentEngineering Workbenchisthe softwarewhichgives virtual existence ofhardware, reduces its costand hencetermed as Virtual Instrumentation.Thispaper deals with the implementation ofON/OFFand PID controller for controlling the temperatureof a heating element inside a wooden box with thehelp of LabVIEW. In this software,TransmissionControl Protocol (TCPis used for developing anonline transmission processbetween client andserver. Client has control overthe set point andServer has control over the temperature. Inhardware section, a DataAcquisition (DAQ cardreads temperature from sensor and delivers toServer. With the help of internet protocol,clientprovides the value ofset point according to whichthe control actions aretaken by the server.Thepaper also includes discussions regarding theadvantages and disadvantages of TCP/IP.
Pricop, Emil; Zamfir, Florin; Paraschiv, Nicolae
2015-11-01
Process control is a challenging research topic for both academia and industry for a long time. Controllers evolved from the classical SISO approach to modern fuzzy or neuro-fuzzy embedded devices with networking capabilities, however PID algorithms are still used in the most industrial control loops. In this paper, we focus on the implementation of a PID controller using mbed NXP LPC1768 development board. This board integrates a powerful ARM Cortex- M3 core and has networking capabilities. The implemented controller can be remotely operated by using an Internet connection and a standard Web browser. The main advantages of the proposed embedded system are customizability, easy operation and very low power consumption. The experimental results obtained by using a simulated process are analysed and shows that the implementation can be done with success in industrial applications.
Synthesis of a PID-controller of a trim robust control system of an autonomous underwater vehicle
Khozhaev, I. V.; Gayvoronskiy, S. A.
2016-04-01
Autonomous underwater vehicles are often used for performing scientific, emergency or other types of missions under harsh conditions and environments, which can have non-stable, variable parameters. So, the problem of developing autonomous underwater vehicle motion control systems, capable of operating properly in random environments, is highly relevant. The paper is dedicated to the synthesis of a PID-controller of a trim robust control system, capable of keeping an underwater vehicle stable during a translation at different angles of attack. In order to synthesize the PID-controller, two problems were solved: a new method of synthesizing a robust controller was developed and a mathematical model of an underwater vehicle motion process was derived. The newly developed mathematical model structure is simpler than others due to acceptance of some of the system parameters as interval ones. The synthesis method is based on a system poles allocation approach and allows providing the necessary transient process quality in a considered system.
倒立摆的模糊PID控制%Fuzzy PID Control of Inverted Pendulum
黎亮
2012-01-01
本文在研究了倒立摆的系统构成的基础上分析得到了其动力学模型,并通过线性化处理推导出倒立摆在工作点附近的线性模型.通过对影响倒立摆稳定因素的分析,提出一种模糊PID的控制策略.该控制策略包括3个环路.通过理论分析和反复调整,本文得到了3个环路控制器的优化参数.最后,通过Matlab仿真和硬件在环实验,模糊PID控制的有效性将会得到验证.%This paper analyzed the dynamical model of the inverted pendulum based on the study of system structure of the pendulum. And the linear model around the balance point was derived via linearization. Based on the analysis of the factors impacting the balance of the inverted pendulum, a fuzzy PID control strategy is proposed. The control strategy consists of three loops. Through theoretical analysis and experimental adjustment, optimized parameters of the three-loop controllers were gained in this paper. Finally, the performance of the fuzzy PID controllers were evaluated through Matlab simulation and hardware-in-the-loop experiments.
Fuzzy PID Controllers Using Matlab GUI Based for Real Time DC Motor Speed Control
Suhas Yadav*1
2014-01-01
In this paper, an integrated electronic system has been designed, constructed and tested. Controlling DC (Direct current) Motor drive is design and development of real time MATLAB –GUI based using fuzzy logic controller. First, a controller is designed according to fuzzy rules such that the systems are fundamentally robust. To obtain the globally optimal values, parameters of the fuzzy controller are improved by MATLAB-GUI based FLC and IFLC algorithms optimization model. Comp...
Calculation verification of startup method for density lock based on PID control
For the Passive Residual Heat Removal System, basing on the self-equivalence startup process, and adding pump controlling system, the startup method for density lock based on PID control system is advanced, that is, after the valve in PRHRS opening, the pump speed is controlled basing on the temperature changing in density lock, and the cold-hot liquid interface is maintained in the density lock, which ensures the PRHRS depart from the primary loop. According to the one-dimensional equations, the controlling startup process for the density lock is numerically simulated, and it is shown that under the effect of controlling system, the pressure in two loops can become balance gradually to start up the density lock successfully by changing the primary loop flux. The method makes the restrictions less and successful ration bigger for density lock startup. (authors)
Differential Evolution for Optimization of PID Gains in Automatic Generation Control
Dr. L.D. Arya,
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Automatic generation control (AGC of a multi area power system provides power demand signals for AGC power generators to control frequency and tie-line power flow due to the large load changes or other disturbances. Occurrence of large megawatt imbalance causes large frequency deviations from its nominal value which may be a threat to secure operation of power system. To avoid such situation,emergency control to maintain the system frequency using differential evolution (DE based proportionalintegral- derivative (PID controller is proposed in this paper. DE is one of the most powerful stochastic real parameter optimization in current use. DE based optimum gains give better optimal transient response of frequency and tie line power changes compared to particle swarm optimization based gains.
Research on the Temperature Controller Based on PID%基于PID的温度控制器研究
张彤
2012-01-01
温度控制应用非常广泛。采用PID的温度控制器,能极大解决温度控制中诸多问题,更有利于温度控制器在实际环境中的应用。文中详细论述了PID调节原理、PID算法的数字化分析,温度控制器分析。%The temperature controller is widely used. Adopting PID temperature controller can greatly solve many problems in temperature control and better application of temperature controller in the actual environment. This article discussed in detail the PID regulation principle, the digital analysis of PID, analysis of temperature controller.
Study of Constant Voltage Control on Small Steam Generator Based on PID Algorithm
Yanjun Xiao
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The object of this study is a kind of 3 kW small steam generator, which can recover waste heat through making use of 0.1~0.3 MPa steam. This can exploit secondary energy efficiently. The electricity generated can be commonly used as factory lighting, heating, fan and emergency power supply. But the generation voltage of the existed steam turbine is instable, especially when the steam pressure and the load of the generator changes suddenly. This can pose a threat to electrical safety and greatly limit the market of small steam generator. In this study, PID control algorithm is used to control the amount of steam into the turbine of generator system. And the closed-loop control system can make a real-time feedback regulation to the steam, so that the generator voltage can be stable. The user's electrical safety requirements are satisfied as well.
Lei Wang; Wencai Du; Hai Wang; Hong Wu
2008-01-01
A two-staged membrane separation process for hydrogen recovery from refinery gases is introduced. The principle of the gas membrane separation process and the influence of the operation temperatures are analyzed. As the conventional PID controller is difficult to make the operation temperatures steady, a fuzzy self-tuning PID control algorithm is proposed. The application shows that the algorithm is effective, the operation temperatures of both stages can be controlled steadily, and the operation flexibility and adaptability of the hydrogen recovery unit are enhanced with safety. This study lays a foundation to optimize the control of the membrane separation process and thus ensure the membrane performance.
Stability of PID-Controlled Linear Time-Delay Feedback Systems
Martelli, Gianpasquale
2008-01-01
The stability of feedback systems consisting of linear time-delay plants and PID controllers has been investigated for many years by means of several methods, of which the Nyquist criterion, a generalization of the Hermite-Biehler Theorem, and the root location method are well known. The main purpose of these researches is to determine the range of controller parameters that allow stability. Explicit and complete expressions of the boundaries of these regions and computation procedures with a finite number of steps are now available only for first-order plants, provided with one time delay. In this note, the same results, based on Pontryagin's studies, are presented for arbitrary-order plants.
PID controller tuning for the first-order-plus-dead-time process model via Hermite-Biehler theorem.
Roy, Anindo; Iqbal, Kamran
2005-07-01
This paper discusses PID stabilization of a first-order-plus-dead-time (FOPDT) process model using the stability framework of the Hermite-Biehler theorem. The FOPDT model approximates many processes in the chemical and petroleum industries. Using a PID controller and first-order Padé approximation for the transport delay, the Hermite-Biehler theorem allows one to analytically study the stability of the closed-loop system. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and develop an algorithm for selection of stabilizing feedback gains. The results are given in terms of stability bounds that are functions of plant parameters. Sensitivity and disturbance rejection characteristics of the proposed PID controller are studied. The results are compared with established tuning methods such as Ziegler-Nichols, Cohen-Coon, and internal model control. PMID:16082786
Pratap Chandra Pradhan
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a Firefly Algorithm (FA optimized fuzzy PID controller is proposed for Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area multi-source power system. Initially, a two area six units power system is used and the gains of the fuzzy PID controller are optimized employing FA optimization technique using an ITAE criterion. The superiority of the proposed FA optimized fuzzy PID controller has been demonstrated by comparing the results with some recently published approaches such as optimal control and Differential Evolution (DE optimized PID controller for the identical interconnected power system. Then, physical constraints such as Time Delay (TD, reheat turbine and Generation Rate Constraint (GRC are included in the system model and the superiority of FA is demonstrated by comparing the results over DE, Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA and Genetic Algorithm (GA optimization techniques for the same interconnected power system. Additionally, a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC is placed in the tie-line and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES units are considered in both areas. Simulation results show that the system performances are improved significantly with the proposed UPFC and SMES units. Sensitivity analysis of the system is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values. It is observed that the optimum gains of the proposed controller need not be reset even if the system is subjected to wide variation in loading condition and system parameters. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed controller design is verified by considering different types of load patterns.
Optimización de señal de control en reguladores PID con arquitectura antireset Wind-Up
Ilber Adonayt Ruge Ruge
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This paper shows the reader the methods of tuning PID controllers Kayser-Rajka (KR and Astrom-Haglund (AH, with the aim of evaluatingtheir performance against some conventional methods like Ziegler-Nichols tuning (ZN. It also shows the method for improving the control signal based on the architecture Antireset Wind-Up.
一种柔性直流输电系统PID-ANFIS优化控制方法%A control method of PID-ANFIS controller for VSC-HVDC
杨天; 霍琳琳
2015-01-01
Due to the PI control system for VSC-HVDC has problems of parameters difficult to set, too many control users, and so on, a novel controller composed of PID function and multiple-output ANFIS (PID-ANFIS) is presented, which is made up of neural network, two order fuzzy control and PID control. A treble cooperative PSO (TCPSO) is also presented to optimize PID-ANFIS controller’s neural parameters. TCPSO is forged by harmonizing the grouping cooperation, the dimension-reduced cooperation and memory cooperation, which is able to improve the precision of optimizing neural networks. This paper provides the process of PID-ANFIS parameters training by TCPSO. Then, the TCPSO based PID-ANFIS controller performs the function of direct power control. The simulation results show that the controller presented has significant advantages of faster speed, smaller overshoot and better robustness by comparing to PI and it is a viable choice for VSC-HVDC control system.%针对柔性直流输电系统(Voltage Source Converter based High-Voltage Direct-Current, VSC-HVDC)双闭环控制中PI控制存在参数整定困难及控制器数量过多等问题，提出一种具有PID功能的自适应神经元模糊推理系统(Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System with PID function, PID-ANFIS)控制器用于该系统控制。其中，PID-ANFIS控制器兼有神经网络控制、二阶模糊控制及PID功能；同时提出的基于三重合作粒子群算法(Treble Cooperative Particle Swarm Optimization, TCPSO)用于优化该控制器中神经网络参数。TCPSO采用由降维合作、分组合作与记忆合作组成的三重合作策略，极大程度上提升了神经网络参数优化的精度。深入研究了TCPSO优化PID-ANFIS控制器参数的步骤。基于TCPSO优化的PID-ANFIS控制器能够实现VSC-HVDC系统的直接功率控制效果。仿真结果表明该控制器具有控制速度快、超调量小、抗干扰能力强等优点，是VSC-HVDC控制系统的一个可行方案。
Optimal Self-Tuning PID Controller Based on Low Power Consumption for a Server Fan Cooling System
Chengming Lee
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Recently, saving the cooling power in servers by controlling the fan speed has attracted considerable attention because of the increasing demand for high-density servers. This paper presents an optimal self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller, combining a PID neural network (PIDNN with fan-power-based optimization in the transient-state temperature response in the time domain, for a server fan cooling system. Because the thermal model of the cooling system is nonlinear and complex, a server mockup system simulating a 1U rack server was constructed and a fan power model was created using a third-order nonlinear curve fit to determine the cooling power consumption by the fan speed control. PIDNN with a time domain criterion is used to tune all online and optimized PID gains. The proposed controller was validated through experiments of step response when the server operated from the low to high power state. The results show that up to 14% of a server’s fan cooling power can be saved if the fan control permits a slight temperature response overshoot in the electronic components, which may provide a time-saving strategy for tuning the PID controller to control the server fan speed during low fan power consumption.
Kuleshov, Alexei; Ueda, Keisuke; Idehara, Toshitaka
2013-01-01
High stabilization of the output power of high frequency gyrotrons for high power THzspectroscopy is an important issue in order to extend the applications of gyrotrons to wider subjects.For this objective, we tried a PID feedback control on a heater current of a triode magnetroninjection gun (MIG) for stabilization of an electron beam current and an additional PID control ofan anode voltage of the gun for direct stabilization of output power. This double PID controlachieves effective respons...
张国光
2015-01-01
In the research of underwater guidance weapons development and field test ,it needs to receive the signal ac‐quisition of underwater acoustic array ,records the data for collection .According to the need ,field data analysis and real‐time or offline processing are taken .It is important to analyze performance data to effectively improve guided weapons research of underwater acoustic signal acquisition system .An underwater acoustic signal acquisition system is proposed based on ZigBee and fuzzy PID control .The underwater acoustic signal is obtained with the ZigBee recognizer and identification model ,signal filtering and intermediate frequency amplifier design are taken ,and the effective suppression of interference noise is obtained . The experimental results show that the system has real‐time data acquisition performance ,and signal processing performance is good ,to improve the signal detection performance through the fuzzy PID control .Human‐computer interaction perform‐ance is good ,and it has good application value in underwater acoustic signal processing and information acquisition and other fields .%在水下制导武器的研究、开发、外场试验中，都需要采集水声基阵的接收信号，并实时记录采集数据，根据需要进行现场数据分析和实时或离线处理。研究水声信号采集系统对有效提高制导武器的数据分析性能具有重要意义。提出一种基于 ZigBee 和模糊 PID 控制的水声信号采集系统设计方案，通过 ZigBee 识别模型中的识别器获取 ZigBee 水声信号，进行信号滤波和中频放大设计，实现对干扰噪声的有效抑制。实验结果表明，设计的系统具有较好的实时数据采集和信号处理性能，通过模糊 PID 控制提高信号检测性能，系统的实时性和人机交互性好，在水声信号处理和信息采集等领域具有较好的应用价值。
Juli Sardi; Ali Basrah Pulungan
2014-01-01
In the present study, bioimpedance signals of human body was utilized to control speed of a wheelchair movement. A bioimpedance is electrically passive part contained the body tissues. The research is one of alternative solutions for patients with paralysis of the upper and lower limb. Firstly, design of system of the research consisted of bioimpedance measuring instruments and a mechanical design of the wheelchair. Bioimpedance measurement was performed by injecting a sinusoidal current sour...
Fuzzy PID Control System for the Pulling Technique of Laser Crystal%激光晶体提拉生长模糊PID控制系统
杨军良; 尚付鹏; 高鹏
2009-01-01
本文设计了基于ARM Cortex-M3核、针对上称重法激光晶体的生长的控制方案硬件平台,运用模糊PID自适应控制算法对称重信号进行模糊处理确定晶体生长瞬间所需的温度场,根据生长模型在理论上进行了仿真,并实际运用到TDL-J50型激光单晶炉设备,实现了激光晶体的瞬时生长速率的精确而平稳的自动控制.%Fuzzy PID control system based on ARM Cortex-M3 core has been designed for the process of pulling technique of laser crystal.The temperature distribution for the crystal growth can be determined by adapting Fuzzy PID control algorithm on the weighing singnal.According to the growth model,the simulation has been finished theoretically, the systerm has been used in TDL-J50 practically,and the accurate and stable control of crystal growing instantaneous rate for Fuzzy PID control during the crystal growing process was realized.
基于最优Oustaloup的分数阶PID参数整定%Tuning of Fractional PID Controllers Based on Optimal Oustaloup
齐乃明; 宋志国; 秦昌茂
2012-01-01
The majority of current engineering control systems use the traditional P1D controller, as the fractional order PID inherites the advantages of the traditional PID, and has better control quality and greater robustness, so for high-precision digital implementation of fractional calculus and fractional-order PID controllers practical application in complex systems of engineering. A new high-precision fractional calculus digital realization algorithm-the optimal Oustaloup digital realization was proposed, through establishs control system simulation model, uses diagram-type model combined with the optimal ITAE performance index to design fractional PID parameters, through simulation examples, the method can further optimize the controller parameters to improve control precision and control effect, it facilitate fractional order PID parameter design of non-linear systems and complex systems.%目前工程控制中大部分系统采用传统PID控制,由于分数阶PID继承了传统PID的优点,并且具有更好的控制品质及更强的鲁棒性,因此针对分数阶微积分的高精度数字实现及分教阶PID控制器在工程复杂系统中的实际应用,提出一种新的分数阶微积分高精度数字实现算法-最优Oustaloup数字实现,并建立控制系统的仿真模型,利用框图式模型结合最优ITAE性能指标来整定分数阶PID的参数.通过实例仿真验证,谊方法能进一步优化控制器参数,提高控制精度及获得更好的控制效果,便于非线性系统度复杂系统的分数阶PID参数整定.
李晶; 王旭刚
2015-01-01
Against the problems of drum water level in utility boilers,such as nonlinearity and false water level,large overshoot,slow response speed and poor anti﹣interference ability of the control system during operation,a fuzzy inference based model reference self﹣adapting internal model control (IMC)method was proposed.By combining the fuzzy control with the IMC,this method uses the relative arithmetic to design the IM controller.It regulates the fuzzy adjusting PID parameters online according to the deviation e and its changing rate ec between the reference model output and the object's actual output.Moreover,on the basis of the Simulink platform,numerical simulation was performed to verify this drum water level control sys﹣tem using the above method.At last,the results were compared with that controlled by the internal model PID.The results show that,the fuzzy PID based model reference self﹣adaptive IMC has stronger self﹣adapt﹣ability,anti﹣interference ability and better robustness,which can guarantee the stability of the water level better.%针对发电厂锅炉汽包水位具有非线性特性、存在虚假水位，且运行过程中控制系统超调量大、响应速度慢、抗干扰能力差等问题，提出了一种基于模糊推理的模型参考自适应内模控制(IMC)方法。将模糊控制方法和 IMC 方法相结合，采用相消法设计 IMC 器，根据参考模型输出与实际被控对象输出的偏差 e 及其变化率 ec 在线模糊调节 PID 参数。通过 Simulink 对基于模糊 PID 的模型参考自适应 IMC 的汽包水位控制系统进行仿真验证，并与 IMC﹣PID 的汽包水位控制系统进行对比。结果表明，基于模糊 PID 的模型参考自适应 IMC 方法自适应能力更强，抗干扰能力和鲁棒性更好，能够更好地保证水位的稳定。
Robust nonlinear PID-like fuzzy logic control of a planar parallel (2PRP-PPR) manipulator.
Londhe, P S; Singh, Yogesh; Santhakumar, M; Patre, B M; Waghmare, L M
2016-07-01
In this paper, a robust nonlinear proportional-integral-derivative (PID)-like fuzzy control scheme is presented and applied to complex trajectory tracking control of a 2PRP-PPR (P-prismatic, R-revolute) planar parallel manipulator (motion platform) with three degrees-of-freedom (DOF) in the presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. The proposed control law consists of mainly two parts: first part uses a feed forward term to enhance the control activity and estimated perturbed term to compensate for the unknown effects namely external disturbances and unmodeled dynamics, and the second part uses a PID-like fuzzy logic control as a feedback portion to enhance the overall closed-loop stability of the system. Experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. PMID:27012441
PID control of brushless DC motor and robot trajectory planning simulation with MATLAB®/SIMULINK®
Oguntoyinbo, Oludayo
2009-01-01
This report presents a PID model of a brushless dc (BLDC) motor and a robot trajectory planning and simulation. A short description of the brushless dc motor is given. For this work, mathematical models were developed and subsequently used in getting the simulation parameters. The PID model is accomplished with the use of MATLAB®/SIMULINK®. The operational parameters of the specific BLDC motor were modelled using the tuning methods which are used to develop subsequent simulations. The best PI...
Mohd Hafiz A. Jalil; Mohd Nasir Taib; M. H. Fazalul Rahiman; Rohaiza Hamdan
2015-01-01
The aim of this paper is to comprehend the performance of back calculation anti windup scheme with difference tracking time constant, Ta on Proportional – Integral - Derivative (PID) controller for improving temperature regulation of glycerin bleaching process. Several available well tuning methods including Ziegler Nichols (ZN), Internal Model Control (IMC) and Integral Square Error (ISE)-Load are used and analyzed. The performance of the controller tuning methods are compared based on per...
秦刚; 谭进; 吴丹怡; 杜超
2012-01-01
针对无刷直流电机中传统PID控制器参数调节复杂、对环境适应能力较弱等问题，在分析内模控制与经典PID控制的内部对应关系的基础上，综合其优点，设计采用了一种基于内部模型的PID控制器（简称IMC-PID）对无刷直流电机进行调速。在建立对象理论模型的基础上，通过对控制器在线仿真比较表明：针对本设计对象，基于内部模型的PID控制器不论在系统阶跃响应或是扰动跟踪等控制效果上都能到达经典PID控制的要求，同时还降低了参数设计的复杂性和随机性。%This paper focuses on the problem that complexity and inconvenience of the traditional PID controller parameters adjustment and the weakness of its ability to adapt to the environment in brushless DC motor, analyzes the internal corresponding relationship of the internal model control and the classic PID, combines their advantages, designs a PID controller based on internal model to control speed of the brnshless DC motor. Based on the creation of object theoretical models, the online simulation and compare of controller shows that： to this object, the PID controller based on internal model can reach the requirements of the classic PID control in system step response and disturbance tracking control, while reducing the complexity and randomness of the parameters design.
Typical Feedback PID Control for a Class of Process with Integrator and Dead Time%一类非自衡对象的典型反馈型PID控制
冀晓翔; 汤伟
2012-01-01
针对一类非自衡对象,提出了一种基于典型反馈模型的PID控制器(TF— PID);采用全极点型逼近方法对被控对象的时滞环节做近似处理,并在内模控制原理的基础之上导出一种基于典型反馈模型的PID控制器参数整定策略,从而得到PID控制器的整定参数；仿真结果表明,所设计的控制方法具有更优的设定值跟踪性能和干扰抑制性能,并且实现二者分离控制.%For a class of integrator and time delay process, presents a PID controller based on a typical feedback model (TF-PID). All -pole-type approximating substitute for delay part of the controlled object, and get a parameter tuning strategy of the PID controller based on the typical feedback model from IMC principle, thereby, get the tuning parameters of the PID controller. The simulation results show that the designed control method makes better set point tracking performance and the interference suppression performance, and the two performance of the system can be controlled separately.
Yu-xin Zhao; Xue Du; Geng-lei Xia
2014-01-01
This paper presents a novel wavelet kernel neural network (WKNN) with wavelet kernel function. It is applicable in online learning with adaptive parameters and is applied on parameters tuning of fractional-order PID (FOPID) controller, which could handle time delay problem of the complex control system. Combining the wavelet function and the kernel function, the wavelet kernel function is adopted and validated the availability for neural network. Compared to the conservative wavelet neural ne...
Moafi, Milad; Marzband, Mousa; Savaghebi, Mehdi;
2016-01-01
the islanded Microgrid (MG). To increase performance for a wide range of power system operating conditions, an energy management systems (EMS) is proposed based on a fuzzy fractional order PID (FFOPID) controller. It is able to analyze and simulate the dynamic behavior in grid connected MGs. This...... stability following a fault that has caused the islanded operation. Simulation results have validated the effectiveness of FFOPID controllers in the system under several scenarios with superior stabilization and more robustness in comparison with the FLPID and PID controller.......The need to reduce greenhouse effect using distributed energy resources (DER) has significantly increased in recent years, particularly with the advent of deregulated market. Climate changes causes large swings in output power of renewable resources and the resulting fluctuations in frequency in...
The Study of Inertial Platform Stabilization Loop Based on Fuzzy PID Control%模糊PID控制的惯性稳定回路
刘义; 郭建都; 金倩
2012-01-01
模糊控制可有效提高惯稳回路的控制精度.由于实际的惯稳模型对模糊信号响应不足,可对控制对象的输入信号u(k)进行适当放大以加快系统输出的响应速度.对传统PID与模糊PID控制的仿真研究结果表明,模糊自适应PID控制对惯稳回路的控制效果要明显优于传统PID,不仅几乎不存在超调量,而且tr、t(1)非常理想,因此模糊PID控制完全有可能应用于实际的惯稳回路.%Fuzzy PID control can improve the precision of stabilization loop. Since the actual model of stabilized platform can't generate adequate response to fuzzy signal, input signal of control object can be properly amplified to speed up the system output response speed. Traditional PID and Fuzzy PID Control Simulation results show that the effect of the fuzzy adaptive PID control is much better than the traditional PID control, not only nearly overshot is nearly eliminated, but and control results are satisfactory. Therefore, Fuzzy PID control can be possibly used in practical stabilized platform entirely.
Muniraj, Murali; Arulmozhiyal, Ramaswamy
2015-01-01
A control actuation system has been used extensively in automotive, aerospace, and defense applications. The major challenges in modeling control actuation system are rise time, maximum peak to peak overshoot, and response to nonlinear system with percentage error. This paper addresses the challenges in modeling and real time implementation of control actuation system for missiles glider applications. As an alternative fuzzy-PID controller is proposed in BLDC motor drive followed by linkage mechanism to actuate fins in missiles and gliders. The proposed system will realize better rise time and less overshoot while operating in extreme nonlinear dynamic system conditions. A mathematical model of BLDC motor is derived in state space form. The complete control actuation system is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink environment and verified by performing simulation studies. A real time prototype of the control actuation is developed with dSPACE-1104 hardware controller and a detailed analysis is carried out to confirm the viability of the proposed system. PMID:26613102
Safaa M. Z. Al-Ubaidi
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of conventional PID (CPID controller using Ziegler-Nichols rules and fuzzy PD (FPD controller for position servo motor control based on Lab View (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench Environment through Data Acquisition (DAQ Device PCI- 6521 of National Instrument's and Data Acquisition Accessory Board Model (CB-68LP.CPID controller is perhaps the most well-known and most widely used in industrial applications. However, it has been known that CPID controller generally don’t work well for non-linear systems, higher order and time-delayed linear system and particularly complex and vague system. To overcome these difficulties, this paper proposes to use the FPD controller for a servo motor system instead of CPID. The parameters of servo motor used are completely unknown. The FPD structure has two-input single-output and fairly similar characteristic to its conventional counterpart and provides good performance. Simple rules base are used for FPD (nine rules only. Performance evaluation was carried out via a comparison study for the proposed control scheme and other existing control scheme, such as CPID controller. The critical point for this experiment on position system is a steady state error and settling time. The performance showing that the FPD has less settling time and zero steady state error over its CPID. The algorithms of FPD and CPID controllers are implemented using PID, Fuzzy Logic and simulation toolkits of the Lab View environment.
The Self-Adaptive Fuzzy PID Controller in Actuator Simulated Loading System
Chuanhui Zhang; Xiaodong Song
2013-01-01
This paper analyzes the structure principle of the actuator simulated loading system with variable stiffness, and establishes the simplified model. What’s more, it also does a research on the application of the self-adaptive tuning of fuzzy PID(Proportion Integration Differentiation) in actuator simulated loading system with variable stiffness. Because the loading system is connected with the steering system by a spring rod, there must be strong coupling. Besides, there are also the parametri...
魏凤美; 赵育善; 师鹏
2014-01-01
建立了带有太阳翼的挠性航天器的姿态动力学模型,应用改进的罗德里格参数来描述姿态运动学模型。针对挠性航天器模型参数不确定性和环境干扰等问题,提出了变论域自整定模糊比例积分微分(PID)控制方案,构建了计算简单并且可以达到控制精度的伸缩因子。基于Matlab/Simulink进行了仿真验证,结果表明,变论域自整定模糊 PID 控制响应速度比传统PID控制、模糊PID控制快350 s,且无超调,不仅能够使航天器完成对目标姿态的机动,而且能够有效地抑制挠性太阳翼的振动。%The attitude dynamical equations of flexible spacecraft with solar panels were established, and the attitude kinematic equations were described by modified Rodrigues parameters (MRPs ) in order to prevent the singularity of the large angle maneuver. A variable universe self-tuning fuzzy PID controller was proposed for model uncertainties and environmental disturbances. A new shrinkable factor was designed, and it was easy to calculate and could achieve the accuracy. Numerical simulation based on Matlab/Simulink shows that the response of the variable universe self-tuning fuzzy PID controller are 350 s faster than that of the conventional PID and fuzzy PID controllers, and that it has no overshoot and can realize the effective control of attitude maneuver and effectively suppress the vibration of solar panels.
Dedid Cahya Happyanto
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Driving system of electric car for low speed has a performance of controller that is not easily set up on large span so it does not give a comfort to passengers. The study has been tested in the bumpy road conditions, by providing disturbances in the motor load, it is to describe the condition of the road. To improve the system performance, the speed and torque controller was applied using Field Oriented Control (FOC method. In this method, On-Line Proportional Integral Derivative Fuzzy Logic Controller (PID-FLC is used to give dynamic response to the change of speed and maximum torque on the electric car and this results the smooth movement on every change of car performance both in fast and slow movement when breaking action is taken. Optimization of membership functions in Fuzzy PID controller is required to obtain a new PID parameter values which is done in autotuning in any changes of the input or disturbance. PID parameter tuning in this case using the Ziegler-Nichols method based on frequency response. The mechanism is done by adjusting the PID parameters and the strengthening of the system output. The test results show that the controller Fuzzy Self-Tuning PID appropriate for Electric cars because they have a good response about 0.85% overshoot at to changes in speed and braking of electric cars.
Status of LHD control system design
The present status of LHD (Large Helical Device) control system design is described, emphasizing on the plasma operation modes, the architecture of the LHD control system, the real-time plasma feedback system with PID or Fuzzy controllers and the construction schedule of the LHD control system. The conceptual and detailed designs are under way taking flexible and reliable operations for physics experiments into account. (author)
Study of Fuzzy Adaptive PID Control of Brushless DC Motor%无刷直流电机模糊自适应PID控制的研究
潘晓磊; 赵川; 吕海立
2016-01-01
为了提高无刷直流电机控制系统的动、静态性能，将模糊控制结合PID控制算法应用到无刷直流电机速度控制系统中。在分析了无刷直流电机速度控制系统的基础上，利用PSIM与MATLAB／Simulink共同建立了无刷直流电动机模糊自适应PID控制的仿真模型，充分发挥了PSIM和MATLAB／Simulink各自在仿真方面的优势，简化了建立仿真模型的过程。仿真结果表明，采用模糊PID集成控制算法能够使无刷直流电机速度控制系统具有更快的响应速度和更强的抗干扰能力，对无刷直流电机控制系统的设计具有一定的指导意义。%In order to improve the static and dynamic performance of brushless DC motor control system, fuzzy control combined with PID control algorithm is applied to the brushless DC motor speed control system, the integration of fuzzy PID control algorithm. On the analysis of the brushless dc motor speed control system, using the MATLAB/Simulink to establish brushless DC motor speed control system simulation model. Among them, the control system of brushless DC motor drive model and control algorithm were established in PSIM and MATLAB/Simulink environment, give full play to their advantages, the PSIM and MATLAB simplifies the process of establishing simulation model. The simulation results show that the integration of fuzzy PID control algorithm can make the brushless DC motor speed control system has better dynamic and static performance and strong anti-jamming capability, the design of brushless DC motor control system has a certain guiding significance.
Mohammed Salem
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper an enhanced approach based on a modified biogeography optimization with predator and prey behavior (PMBBO is presented. The approach uses several predators with new proposed prey’s movement formula. The potential of using a modified predator and prey model is to increase the diversification along the optimization process so to avoid local optima and reach the optimal solution quickly. The proposed approach is used in tuning the gains of PID controller for nonlinear systems (Mass spring damper and an inverted pendulum and has given remarkable results when compared to genetic algorithm and classical BBO.
Yu-xin Zhao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel wavelet kernel neural network (WKNN with wavelet kernel function. It is applicable in online learning with adaptive parameters and is applied on parameters tuning of fractional-order PID (FOPID controller, which could handle time delay problem of the complex control system. Combining the wavelet function and the kernel function, the wavelet kernel function is adopted and validated the availability for neural network. Compared to the conservative wavelet neural network, the most innovative character of the WKNN is its rapid convergence and high precision in parameters updating process. Furthermore, the integrated pressurized water reactor (IPWR system is established by RELAP5, and a novel control strategy combining WKNN and fuzzy logic rule is proposed for shortening controlling time and utilizing the experiential knowledge sufficiently. Finally, experiment results verify that the control strategy and controller proposed have the practicability and reliability in actual complicated system.
尼文斌; 董金刚; 刘书伟; 贺丽慧; 付增良
2015-01-01
In order to accomplish the wind speed control system for a FDxx wind tunnel,a PID parameter setting method based on adaptive online genetic algorithm was designed.In the case of the limited gas source for a wind tunnel test,the algorithm can quickly establish the flow field and ensure the stability time of the flow.First,joint coding is done with these parameters. With elitist strategy adopted in early genetic evolution stage,a non-linear selection method based on roulette selection is introduced in the last period.So optimum individuals are preserved and the population diversity is increased.The fixed value thus would not be exceeded in the dynamic adjustment process.The objective function is set up with the error absolutes and variation rate accompanied by penalty functions.When the fixed value is exceeded,the excess is taken as the optimal.This method has been applied in a field debugging of FDXX wind tunnel.The result shows that it is fast,effective and reliable to use online adaptive genetic algorithms to set the PID control parameters.%风速控制是风洞的核心控制部分，风速控制系统的优劣直接影响风洞性能指标，为了完成 FDxx 风洞的风速控制系统，设计了一种基于自适应在线遗传算法的 PID 参数整定方法，在风洞气源资源有限的情况下，快速建立流场，确保流场稳定时间。首先对控制参数进行联合编码，在种群个体进化前期采用锦标赛精英保留策略，后期采用基于轮盘赌非线性选择方法，加快算法收敛速度，同时避免了算法过早陷入局部最优，交叉选用单点交叉，变异采用均匀取反法，动态调整过程为了减小甚至避免超调，采用误差绝对值及误差和误差变化率加权方式设计目标函数，并采取了惩罚措施，即一旦产生超调，将超调量作为最优指标的一项，现场测试验证了算法的可靠性及实用性。
A Study of the Design of Acceleration Control System for Missiles
Kajita, Takanori; Eguchi, Hirofumi
A 2-degrees of freedom PID controller is designed for a maneuvering acceleration control system. This design method is based on the combination of PID and IPD controller. Results show that (1) IP controller is superior to PI controller for the damper loop controller, (2) the selection of PI or IP controller as for the acceleration controller depends on the tradeoffs between the responsibility and the reduction of inverse response.
Copot, Cosmin; Zhong, Yu; Ionescu, Clara; Keyser, Robin
2013-06-01
In this paper, two methods to tune a fractional-order PI λ D μ controller for a mechatronic system are presented. The first method is based on a genetic algorithm to obtain the parameter values for the fractionalorder PI λ D μ controller by global optimization. The second method used to design the fractional-order PI λ D μ controller relies on an auto-tuning approach by meeting some specifications in the frequency domain. The real-time experiments are conducted using a Steward platform which consists of a table tilted by six servo-motors with a ball on the top of the table. The considered system is a 6 degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) motion platform. The feedback on the position of the ball is obtained from images acquired by a visual sensor mounted above the platform. The fractional-order controllers were implemented and the performances of the steward platform are analyzed.
Teddy Sudewo
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Pada fase penerbangan quadcopter, fase landing (pendaratan merupakan fase paling kritis, dimana resiko terjadi kecelakaan paling besar. Permasalahan tersebut muncul karena adanya beberapa kendala, seperti kendala pada struktur rangka pesawat yang kecil, peningkatan beban pada sayap pesawat serta pengaruh angin sehingga menyebabkan pesawat tidak stabil. Pada penelitian tugas akhir ini, didesain suatu sistem kontrol pada UAV quadcopter menggunakan kontrol PID dengan Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC. Sistem pengendalian berbasis MRAC menawarkan beberapa kelebihan untuk mengatasi karakteristik plant non-linear salah satunya quadcopter. MRAC merupakan kontrol adaptif dimana performansi keluaran sistem (proses akan mengikuti performansi keluaran model referensinya. Pada tugas akhir ini, model referensi sudah ditentukan diawal dan spesifikasinya tetap sehingga dapat langsung didisain mekanisme adaptasi dari MRAC. Parameter proses θ (a1,a2,b0,b1 diestimasi menggunakan metode Extended Least Square, parameter proses tersebut akan mentuning parameter kontroler (k0,k1,k2,k3 sehingga menghasilkan sinyal kontrol PID. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa ketika terjadi perubahan parameter pada plant, kontroler mampu memperbaiki respon agar tetap dapat mengikuti model referensinya dan dalam mengatasi gangguan metode adaptasi MRAC memiliki kemampuan yang baik dilihat dari waktu yang dibutuhkan yang relatif singkat.
Design Intelligent Model-free Hybrid Guidance Controller for Three Dimension Motor
Abdol Majid Mirshekaran
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The minimum rule base Proportional Integral Derivative (PID Fuzzy hybrid guidance Controller for three dimensions spherical motor is presented in this research. A three dimensions spherical motor is well equipped with conventional control techniques and, in particular, various PID controllers which demonstrate a good performance and successfully solve different guidance problems. Guidance control in a three dimensions spherical motor is performed by the PID controllers producing the control signals which are applied to systems torque. The necessary reference inputs for a PID controller are usually supplied by the system's sensors based on different data. The popularity of PID Fuzzy hybrid guidance Controller can be attributed to their robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions and partly to their functional simplicity. PID methodology has three inputs and if any input is described with seven linguistic values, and any rule has three conditions we will need 343 rules. It is too much work to write 343 rules. In this research the PID-like fuzzy controller can be constructed as a parallel structure of a PD-like fuzzy controller and a conventional PI controller to have the minimum rule base. Linear type PID controller is used to modify PID fuzzy logic theory to design hybrid guidance methodology. This research is used to reduce or eliminate the fuzzy and conventional PID controller problem based on minimum rule base fuzzy logic theory and modified it by PID method to control of spherical motor system and testing of the quality of process control in the simulation environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK Simulator.
MATLAB GUI İLE DA MOTOR İÇİN PID DENETLEYİCİLİ ARAYÜZ TASARIMI
ÖZLÜK, M. Fatih; SAYAN, H.Hüseyin
2013-01-01
DC motors are widely used in industry. PID control mechanism can achieve the controlling of these motors easily and effectively. Changes in the parameters of PID controller affect the DC motor control and transient and steady-state behavior of the overall control system. In this study, we design an interface with MATALB GUI to observe step response of a DC motor depending on changes of DC motor and PID parameters. The interface both provides the convenience to practitioners in determining the...
On the fragility of fractional-order PID controllers for FOPDT processes.
Padula, Fabrizio; Visioli, Antonio
2016-01-01
This paper analyzes the fragility issue of fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers applied to integer first-order plus-dead-time processes. In particular, the effects of the variations of the controller parameters on the achieved control system robustness and performance are investigated. Results show that this kind of controllers is more fragile with respect to the standard proportional-integral-derivative controllers and therefore a significant attention should be paid by the user in their tuning. PMID:26639055
Parameter Turning of PID Controller Based on Molecular Beacon DNA Computing
Yourui Huang; Xiaomin Tian; Jing Wang; Hongping Zhou
2012-01-01
Molecular beacon deoxyribonucleic acid computing is new research focus of intelligent control theory in recent years, it is also new bionic algorithm. It is well known that a very important problem how to determine or tune the proportional integral derivative controller parameters, because these parameters have a great influence on the stability and the performance of the control system. Parameter turning of proportional integral derivative controller by using molecular beacon deoxyribonuclei...
A novel PID-based control approach for switched-reluctance motors
Loria, Antonio; Espinosa-Perez, G.; Chumacero, Erik
2012-01-01
We propose a control strategy for switched-reluctance motors with unknown load, which consists in two separate control loops, for the rotor (mechanical) dynamics and the stator (electrical) dynamics. The novelty of the approach resides in using an alternative rotor model which corresponds to that of an harmonic oscillator hence, it is linear in the rotation coordinates. The control law is of proportional-integral-derivative type and it is implemented through a virtual control input, generated...
Saturated Steam Power Generation Control Model Based on Fuzzy-PID%基于模糊自适应 PID 的饱和蒸汽发电控制研究
陈琳; 吴青柏; 张立杰
2013-01-01
饱和蒸汽发电项目中汽轮机是一个典型的工业过程控制对象，具有时变、非线性和滞后等显著特点。基于汽轮机发电机运行过程的控制要求，提出了一种自适应模糊PID控制方法。结合汽轮机发电机运行和模糊PID控制解决非线性、滞后性及时变等问题的特点，基于从发电站现场采集到的数据，建立了控制模型，并利用MATLAB／Simulink对系统进行了仿真，从而验证了该方案的可行性，为发电机控制提出了一种新的方案。%The steam turbine in saturated steam power generation project is a typical industrial process control object ,with the features such as time‐varying ,nonlinear and hysteresis .Based on the control requirement of steam turbine generator operation ,this paper put forward a kind of adaptive fuzzy PID control method .Combining the features of the steam turbine generator operation and fuzzy PID controller ,the paper analyzed the data collected from power station ,established a control model ,and carried out the simulation study by MATLAB/Simulink .The simulation results verify the feasibility of this scheme and lay a good foundation for the control scheme’s application in generator operation process .
刘保杰; 强宝民
2012-01-01
For the problem of real-time performance and severe time-variable of a electro-hydraulic proportional valve for cylin-der position control system,a new type of PID algorithm was suggested. The fuzzy control combined the algorithm formed fuzzy-PID control, and the application of these algorithm on electro-hydraulic proportional position control system was researched. The tracking effects on sine signals were compared conventional PID control with fuzzy-PID control though defferent experimental conditions. The results show that the fuzzy-PID control have better accuracy and stability than the conventional PID control.%针对电液比例阀控缸位置控制系统实时性能差和具有严重时变性的特点,设计了一种新型PID控制算法,并将该算法与模糊控制相结合构成Fuzzy-PID控制,对其在电液比例位置控制系统上的应用进行研究.通过实验比较不同工况下该系统Fuzzy-PID控制和常规PID控制对正弦信号的跟踪效果.结果表明:Fuzzy-PID控制比常规PID控制具有更好的精度和稳定性.
Novel Approach to Nonlinear PID Parameter Optimization Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm
Duan Hai-bin; Wang Dao-bo; Yu Xiu-fen
2006-01-01
This paper presents an application of an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to optimize the parameters in the design of a type of nonlinear PID controller. The ACO algorithm is a novel heuristic bionic algorithm, which is based on the behaviour of real ants in nature searching for food. In order to optimize the parameters of the nonlinear PID controller using ACO algorithm,an objective function based on position tracing error was constructed, and elitist strategy was adopted in the improved ACO algorithm. Detailed simulation steps are presented. This nonlinear PID controller using the ACO algorithm has high precision of control and quick response.
Farzin Piltan
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Congetive method is used in this research to create portfilo of movement robot manipulator. Gradient descent (GD artificial intelligence based switching feedback linearization controller was used and robot’s postures and trajectory were expected in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Feedback linearization controller (CTC is an influential nonlinear controller to certain systems which it is based on feedback linearization and computes the required torques using the nonlinear feedback control law in certain systems. Practically a large amount of systems have uncertainties accordingly this method has a challenge. Switching feedback linearization controller is a significant combination nonlinear stable-robust controller under condition of partly uncertain dynamic parameters of system. This technique is used to control of highly nonlinear systems especially in nonlinear time varient nonlinear dynamic system. To increase the stability and robustness with regards to improve the robustness switching methodology is applied to feedback linearization controller. Lyapunov stability is proved in proposed controller based on switching function. To compensate for the dependence on switching parameters baseline methodology is used.The nonlinear model dynamic formulation problem in uncertain system can be solved by using artificial intelligence theorem. Fuzzy logic theory is used to estimate the system dynamic. Forward kinematics implemented the manipulator's movements. Results validated the robot's range of possible postures and trajectories.
A new multiobjective performance criterion used in PID tuning optimization algorithms.
Sahib, Mouayad A; Ahmed, Bestoun S
2016-01-01
In PID controller design, an optimization algorithm is commonly employed to search for the optimal controller parameters. The optimization algorithm is based on a specific performance criterion which is defined by an objective or cost function. To this end, different objective functions have been proposed in the literature to optimize the response of the controlled system. These functions include numerous weighted time and frequency domain variables. However, for an optimum desired response it is difficult to select the appropriate objective function or identify the best weight values required to optimize the PID controller design. This paper presents a new time domain performance criterion based on the multiobjective Pareto front solutions. The proposed objective function is tested in the PID controller design for an automatic voltage regulator system (AVR) application using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed performance criterion can highly improve the PID tuning optimization in comparison with traditional objective functions. PMID:26843978
Azolibe, Ifeanyi; McGookin, Euan
2015-01-01
The test of fuel control systems used on civil aircraft engines is performed with a network of distributed and, by design, isolated systems. The co-ordination of these test systems is performed manually by human operators in order to verify the airworthiness of a fuel control system throughout the products’ lifecycle. The main objective of this study is the automation of an existing network of systems for fuel control tests. The aspect of automation that is considered in this paper is the con...
A Fuzzy PID Approach for the Vibration Control of the FSPM
Zhu-Feng Shao; Xiaoqiang Tang; Li-Ping Wang; Zheng You
2013-01-01
This paper focuses on the vibration control issue of a Flexibly Supported Parallel Manipulator (FSPM), which consists of a flexible support and a rigid parallel manipulator. The distinct characteristic of an FSPM is the dynamic coupling between the rigid and flexible parts, which challenges the vibration control implemented by the rigid parallel manipulator. The research object is a 40m scale model of the Feed Support System (FSS) for the Five‐hundred‐meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope ...
Design Robust Controller for Rotary Kiln
Omar D. Hernández-Arboleda; Paula A. Ortiz-Valencia; Jorge A. Herrera-Cuartas
2013-01-01
This paper presents the design of a robust controller for a rotary kiln. The designed controller is a combination of a fractional PID and linear quadratic regulator (LQR), these are not used to control the kiln until now, in addition robustness criteria are evaluated (gain margin, phase margin, strength gain, rejecting high frequency noise and sensitivity) applied to the entire model (controller-plant), obtaining good results with a frequency range of 0.020 to 90 rad/s, which contributes to t...
Design Robust Controller for Rotary Kiln
Omar D. Hernández-Arboleda
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a robust controller for a rotary kiln. The designed controller is a combination of a fractional PID and linear quadratic regulator (LQR, these are not used to control the kiln until now, in addition robustness criteria are evaluated (gain margin, phase margin, strength gain, rejecting high frequency noise and sensitivity applied to the entire model (controller-plant, obtaining good results with a frequency range of 0.020 to 90 rad/s, which contributes to the robustness of the system.
Laroche, E. [Lab. des Sciences de l' Image, de l' Informatique et de la Teledetection, UMR 7005, Pole API, 67 - Illkirch (France); Mendes, E. [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris, UMR 8507, 91 - Gilf sur Yvette (France); Louis, J.P.; Bonnassieux, Y.; Abou-Kandil, H. [Laboratoire d' Electricite, Signaux et Robotique, UPRESA 8029, 94 - Cachan (France)
2002-07-01
In this paper is presented a method for tuning a robust controller well adapted for positioning a load of variable inertia fed by an electric actuator. This method relies on a multi-model pole assignment and minimizes effect of measurement noise. It has been implemented on the benchmark 'fast transitic' located at the LGEP. Thus compared to a classical pole assignment method, the gain of robustness has been shown. The actuator used is an induction machine with flux-oriented control, which is known for its sensitivity to rotor parameter estimation errors. In order to check robustness, a model accounting to this phenomenon is developed and stability margins are computed. (authors)
Genetic Algorithm Based PID tuning for Controlling Paraplegic Humanoid Walking Movement
Hashim Ali; Ikramullah; Irfan, M.; Mohsin Shahzad; Aftab, M.
2012-01-01
Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a very useful tool to search and optimize many engineering and scientific problems. In this paper, a real time enhanced biomedical model of humanoid structure is developed in MSC visual Nastran to assist the paraplegic patient. The complexity of the model is driven by the needs that the model parameters must be estimated for an eventual individual with disability. After the development of humanoid structure an inverse model is designed to estimate the joint torques. ...
Hendre Angga Prasetya
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Seiring dengan adanya perkembangan sistem otomasi dalam dunia otomotif saat ini. dituntut untuk menghasilkan mesin dengan kadar emisi gas buang yang berada diambang batas kewajaran dan hemat bahan bakar sehingga diperlukan suatu sistem terhadap berbagai macam variabel yang mempengaruhi performansi mesin. Untuk menjaga supaya pemakaian bahan bakar pada kondisi optimal dapat diperoleh dengan cara mengatur waktu injeksi bahan bakar. Sistem waktu injeksi bahan bakar ini dipengaruhi oleh kecepatan mesin dan tekanan pada intake manifold. Dengan adanya pengaturan terhadap waktu injeksi bahan bakar akan meningkatkan efektifitas pembakaran yang secara tidak langsung juga mengurangi kadar emisi pada gas buang pada saat kondisi kecepatan stasioner. Pada tugas akhir ini, akan dilakukan penelitian tentang pengaruh waktu pengapian dan waktu injeksi yang diterapkan pada sistem pengaturan injeksi bahan bakar yang diaplikasikan pada mesin Mitsubishi 4G63 untuk mengatur waktu injeksi bahan bakar dan waktu pengapian pada saat mesin dalam kecepatan stasioner. Penelitian ini diujikan pada mesin Mitsubshi 4G63 empat silinder sebagai plant dengan kondisi kecepatan stasioner. Penerapan PID Predictive Air-Ratio Controller memberikan waktu injeksi yang tepat pada saat kecepatan stasioner sehingga dapat menmaksimalkan perbandingan rasio udara sebesar 14,7 :1 standar performansi mesin .
HYBRID MODELING OF POWER PLANT AND CONTROLLING USING FUZZY P+ID WITH APPLICATION
Hassen T. Dorrah; Magdy A.S. Aboelela; Marwa M. Abdulmoneim
2012-01-01
This paper provides a method one can model manufacturing processes in hybrid systems framework utilizing simple bond graph to determine the flow of events and differential equation models that describe the system dynamics. Controlling of these systems can be easy to develop. “Modeling and Simulation of thermal Power generation Station for power control” will be presented by using hybrid bond graph approach. This work includes the structure and components of the thermal electrical power genera...
Computer-aided control system design
Control systems are typically implemented using conventional PID controllers, which are then tuned manually during plant commissioning to compensate for interactions between feedback loops. As plants increase in size and complexity, such controllers can fail to provide adequate process regulations. Multivariable methods can be utilized to overcome these limitations. At the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, modern control systems are designed and analyzed with the aid of MVPACK, a system of computer programs that appears to the user like a high-level calculator. The software package solves complicated control problems, and provides useful insight into the dynamic response and stability of multivariable systems
直接甲醇燃料电池的模糊PID控制研究%Fuzzy PID control of the direct methanol fuel cell
廉洁; 陈雨
2012-01-01
The direct methanol fuel cell(DMFC) is regarded as a complex nonlinear systems.With the help of modern control theory and fuzzy control technology,the state space model is established,the adaptive parameters fuzzy PID controller is designed,fuzzy control rules are provided,and a multi input-output system is converted to a single input-output system.Using Matlab simulation software simulation of the system is made in which the cathode air feed speed is the input quantities and the output power is output quantity.The results show that designed control program can effectively improve the performance of the DMFC system.%视直接甲醇燃料电池DMFC（Direct Methanol Fuel Cell）为复杂的非线性系统,综合应用现代控制理论和模糊控制技术,建立状态空间模型,设计参数自适应模糊PID控制器,规定模糊控制规则,把多输入多输出系统转换为单输入单输出系统.采用Matlab软件,对以阴极空气进料速度为输入量,以电堆的输出功率为输出量的系统进行仿真.结果表明,所设计的控制方案能够有效提高DMFC系统的工作性能.
基于模糊PID在饼干生产线温度控制的研究%Biscuit Production Line Temperature Control Research Based on Fuzzy PID
2013-01-01
In view of the temperature control process in the very great time hysteresis and the very strong environment disturbance,can not satisfy the request well with the general PID control method, the compatible fuzzy regular strategy adjusts PID to be possible very good solution this question. Uses the MATLAB simulation research, composes one based on the fuzzy-PID control temperature control system, the application result indicated that this control has the good sound of something astir state property energy, compatibility strong and so on characteristics.% 针对温度控制过程中很大的时滞性和很强的环境性干扰，用一般的PID控制方法不能很好地满足要求，兼容模糊规则策略调节PID可以很好的解决这个问题。采用MATLAB仿真研究，组成一个基于模糊-PID控制的温度调节系统，应用结果表明，该控制具有良好的动静态性能，适应性强等特点。
Application of dimensional analysis in systems modeling and control design
Balaguer, Pedro
2013-01-01
Dimensional analysis is an engineering tool that is widely applied to numerous engineering problems, but has only recently been applied to control theory and problems such as identification and model reduction, robust control, adaptive control, and PID control. Application of Dimensional Analysis in Systems Modeling and Control Design provides an introduction to the fundamentals of dimensional analysis for control engineers, and shows how they can exploit the benefits of the technique to theoretical and practical control problems.
程启明; 闵乐聪; 李芹; 王志萍
2009-01-01
火电厂钢球磨煤机的负荷对象具有大滞后、慢时变、强非线性等复杂特性,采用常规控制方法难以获得满意的控制效果,提出了基于灰色预测PID控制的球磨机负荷控制方法,它融合了灰色预测与常规PID控制这两者的设计思想,将灰色预测在线预测结果代替被控对象测量值,再进行PID控制运算.Simulink仿真结果表明,灰色预测PID控制在控制的快速性、稳定性、适应性、鲁棒性、抗干扰性上均优于常规PID控制和带Simth预估PID控制.%The load of a ball mill in a thermal power plant features such complicated characteristics as a big lagging,slow time variation and strong non-linearity etc.,and it is difficult for conventional control methods to obtain a satisfactory control effectiveness.Therefore,the authors have presented a method for controlling the load of a ball mill based on a grey prediction PID(proportional,integral and differential) control,which integrates the design approach of the grey prediction with that of the conventional PID control,replaces the measured values of the controlled object with the on-line predicted results obtained from the grey prediction,and then performs a PID control operation.The Simulink simulation results show that the grey prediction-based PID control is superior to the conventional PID control and Simth-prediction-based PID one in respect of speediness,stability,adaptability,robustness and disturbance-resistant capability.
Cotton-gin automation by using adaptive fuzzy immune PID controller%基于自适应模糊免疫PID的轧花自动控制系统
董全成; 冯显英
2013-01-01
轧花自动控制是棉花加工过程自动化的重要环节，对棉花加工质量、产量等有着重要影响。以轧花机喂花辊的转速作为控制量，在含潮率、籽棉等级等因素发生变化时，通过调节喂花辊转速，来实时控制喂花量大小，以保持合适的籽棉卷的密度，来达到轧花自动控制的目的。根据轧花工艺特点，用模糊控制、免疫控制与传统PID控制相结合，设计了自适应模糊免疫PID控制系统来控制喂花辊的转速，通过实时修正PID参数来保持控制系统的稳定性。用Matlab对自适应模糊免疫PID、模糊免疫PID和自适应模糊PID 3种控制系统进行了仿真比较分析，同时对基于自适应模糊免疫PID控制的轧花实时运行数据进行了分析，仿真及运行结果表明所设计控制系统在轧花自动控制中是有效和可行的，其在稳定性、鲁棒性上比其他2种智能控制系统性能优越。该控制方法为轧花自动控制提供了一种新的控制策略。%The cotton-gin automation is an important component in the cotton production process and also can affect cotton production quality, output, and profit etc. If keeping a constant seed cotton feed rate, a jam would appeared likely between the rotary knife and ribs of the cotton-gin stand when the moisture regain or seed cotton grade changed. In this paper, the automatic control system was designed that monitored and adjusted the seed cotton feed rate to produce a pre-selected load level on the cotton-gin stand rotary knife while automatically compensating for differences in the seed cotton such as trash and moisture regain content. In this automatic control system, an electrical transducer that is part of the automatic control system measured the input signal from a motor driving the rotary knife, and then proportionately converted and sent this signal as a direct current to the PLC by the AD module. Then the PLC sent the numerical signal to
Optimal controller design for structural damage detection
Lew, Jiann-Shiun
2005-03-01
The virtual passive control technique has recently been applied to structural damage detection, where the virtual passive controller only uses the existing control devices, and no additional physical elements are attached to the tested structure. One important task is to design passive controllers that can enhance the sensitivity of the identified parameters, such as natural frequencies, to structural damage. This paper presents a novel study of an optimal controller design for structural damage detection. We apply not only passive controllers but also low-order and fixed-structure controllers, such as PID controllers. In the optimal control design, the performance of structural damage detection is based on the application of a neural network technique, which uses the pattern of the correlation between the natural frequency changes of the tested system and the damaged system.
Ueda, Keisuke; Matsuki, Yoh; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka
2016-09-01
A 394-GHz gyrotron, FU CW GII, has been designed at the University of Fukui, Japan, for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) experiments at 600-MHz 1H resonant frequency. After installation at the Institute for Protein Research (IPR), Osaka University, Japan, a PID feedback control system was equipped to regulate the electron gun heater current for stabilization of the electron beam current, which ultimately achieved stabilization of output power when operating in continuous wave (CW) mode. During exploration to further optimize operating conditions, a continuous tuning bandwidth of approximately 1 GHz was observed by varying the operating voltage at a fixed magnetic field. In the frequency range required for positive DNP enhancement, the output power was improved by increasing the magnetic field and the operating voltage from their initial operational settings. In addition, fine tuning of output frequency by varying the cavity cooling water temperature was demonstrated. These operating conditions and ancillary enhancements are expected to contribute to further enhancement of SSNMR signal.
Ueda, Keisuke; Matsuki, Yoh; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka
2016-04-01
A 394-GHz gyrotron, FU CW GII, has been designed at the University of Fukui, Japan, for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) experiments at 600-MHz 1H resonant frequency. After installation at the Institute for Protein Research (IPR), Osaka University, Japan, a PID feedback control system was equipped to regulate the electron gun heater current for stabilization of the electron beam current, which ultimately achieved stabilization of output power when operating in continuous wave (CW) mode. During exploration to further optimize operating conditions, a continuous tuning bandwidth of approximately 1 GHz was observed by varying the operating voltage at a fixed magnetic field. In the frequency range required for positive DNP enhancement, the output power was improved by increasing the magnetic field and the operating voltage from their initial operational settings. In addition, fine tuning of output frequency by varying the cavity cooling water temperature was demonstrated. These operating conditions and ancillary enhancements are expected to contribute to further enhancement of SSNMR signal.
Ming-Shyan Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An automatic guided vehicle (AGV is extensively used for productions in a flexible manufacture system with high efficiency and high flexibility. A servomotor-based AGV is designed and implemented in this paper. In order to steer the AGV to go along a predefined path with corner or arc, the conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID control is used in the system. However, it is difficult to tune PID gains at various conditions. As a result, the neural network (NN control is considered to assist the PID control for gain tuning. The experimental results are first provided to verify the correctness of the neural network plus PID control for 400 W-motor control system. Secondly, the AGV includes two sets of the designed motor systems and CAN BUS transmission so that it can move along the straight line and curve paths shown in the taped videos.
A novel adaptive PID controller based on Actor-Critic learning%基于执行器-评价器学习的自适应PID控制
陈学松; 杨宜民
2011-01-01
Owing to the lack of the self-tuning for PID parameters in typical PID（T-PID） controllers, a self tuning PID control strategy using Actor-Critic learning（AC-PID） is proposed. Actor-Critic learning is used to tune PID parameters of the controller in an adaptive way. The policy function of Actor and the value function of Critic are approximated by a simple radial basis function neural network. The system error, the first and the second-order differences of system error are employed as inputs to the radial basis function network. The mapping from the system states to PID parameters is realized by the Actor, and the temporal difference（TD） error is evaluated by the Critic. Based on the structure of Actor-Critic learning and TD error performance index, the block diagram of the controller is developed. Two simulation results show that the proposed controller is efficient and perfectly adaptable with fast responses, providing better performances than the typical PID controller.%针对传统PID控制器无法在线自整定参数的不足，提出了一种基于执行器一评估器（Actor-Critic，AC）学习的自适应PID控制器结构与学习算法．该控制器利用AC学习实现PID参数的自适应整定，采用一个径向基函数网络同时对Actor的策略函数和Critic的值函数进行逼近．径向基函数网络的输入为系统误差、误差的一次差分和二次差分，Actor实现系统状态到PID参数的映射，Critic则对Actor的输出进行评判并且生成时序差分（temporaldifference，TD）误差信号．基于AC学习的体系结构和TD误差性能指标，给出了控制器设计的步骤流程图．两个仿真实验表明：与传统的PID控制器相比，基于AC学习的PID控制器在响应速度和自适应能力方面要优于传统PID控制器．
Design of multivariable controllers for robot manipulators
Seraji, H.
1986-01-01
The paper presents a simple method for the design of linear multivariable controllers for multi-link robot manipulators. The control scheme consists of multivariable feedforward and feedback controllers. The feedforward controller is the minimal inverse of the linearized model of robot dynamics and contains only proportional-double-derivative (PD2) terms. This controller ensures that the manipulator joint angles track any reference trajectories. The feedback controller is of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) type and achieves pole placement. This controller reduces any initial tracking error to zero as desired and also ensures that robust steady-state tracking of step-plus-exponential trajectories is achieved by the joint angles. The two controllers are independent of each other and are designed separately based on the linearized robot model and then integrated in the overall control scheme. The proposed scheme is simple and can be implemented for real-time control of robot manipulators.
Fractional order differentiation and robust control design crone, h-infinity and motion control
Sabatier, Jocelyn; Melchior, Pierre; Oustaloup, Alain
2015-01-01
This monograph collates the past decade’s work on fractional models and fractional systems in the fields of analysis, robust control and path tracking. Themes such as PID control, robust path tracking design and motion control methodologies involving fractional differentiation are amongst those explored. It juxtaposes recent theoretical results at the forefront in the field, and applications that can be used as exercises that will help the reader to assimilate the proposed methodologies. The first part of the book deals with fractional derivative and fractional model definitions, as well as recent results for stability analysis, fractional model physical interpretation, controllability, and H-infinity norm computation. It also presents a critical point of view on model pseudo-state and “real state”, tackling the problem of fractional model initialization. Readers will find coverage of PID, Fractional PID and robust control in the second part of the book, which rounds off with an extension of H-infinity ...
PID Neural Network Decoupling Control Based on Particle Swarm Optimization%基于粒子群算法的PID神经网络解耦控制
周西峰; 林莹莹; 郭前岗
2013-01-01
基于粒子群的优化算法具有对整个参数空间进行高效并行搜索的特点以及PID神经网络的自调节和自适应特性，设计了具有PID结构的多变量自适应神经网络控制器。该算法采用粒子群算法优化PID神经网络初始权值，并将优化后的最优初始权值控制非线性耦合系统。系统仿真结果表明，粒子群优化后的PID神经网络控制器具有逼近控制目标更快、响应时间较短的显著优点。该控制策略可在大范围内克服系统的非线性和强耦合问题，具有一定的理论研究价值和工程实用价值。%The automatic control of such a system is a research focus in the process control area. A multivariable adaptive PID Artificial Neural Network ( ANN) controller was introduced,which was based on the characteristics of Particle Swarm Optimization ( PSO) algo-rithm searching the parameter space concurrently and efficiently,and the self-regulation and adaptability of PID artificial neuron net-works. Utilize the PSO to optimize the initial weight value of PID neural network,successfully achieve the control strategy of a nonlinear coupling system using the improved PID neural network with those obtained from the original PID neural network. The new control strate-gy could overcome nonlinear and strong coupling features of the system in a wide range and is expected to have certain theoretical and en-gineering application value.
Brushless DC motor control system based on expert PID%基于专家PID的直流无刷电机控制系统＊
张浩; 吴新开
2015-01-01
由于直流无刷电机存在时变性、非线性、不确定性、难以建模等特点，采用常规的PID很难达到理想的控制效果。通过专家PID控制理论并结合实践研究，提出一种高性能的速度控制方案。基于多旋翼飞行器常用的无刷电机转速控制这一实验平台，采用编码器测速实现无刷电机的闭环控制。无刷电机速度PID控制器的引入，开辟了多旋翼飞行器电机控制和姿态控制的新思路。%The brushless DC motor has the characteristics of time varing, nonliner, uncertainty and hardly modeling, so it is difficult to obtain ideal control effect by using conventional PID control. It is hoped to find a high-performance speed control scheme through the theory and practical research of expert PID. Based on the experiment platform of commonly used brushless motor speed control for multi rotor aircraft, the encoder is applied to measure the rotational speed and realize its closed-loop control. The introduction of brushless motor speed PID controller has opened up new ideas for motor control and attitude control of multi rotor aircraft.
Ming-Shyan Wang; Seng-Chi Chen; Po-Hsiang Chuang; Shih-Yu Wu; Fu-Shung Hsu
2015-01-01
An automatic guided vehicle (AGV) is extensively used for productions in a flexible manufacture system with high efficiency and high flexibility. A servomotor-based AGV is designed and implemented in this paper. In order to steer the AGV to go along a predefined path with corner or arc, the conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control is used in the system. However, it is difficult to tune PID gains at various conditions. As a result, the neural network (NN) control is consider...
Exploration of Fuzzy-PID Technology Applied to Water Level Control of Boiler%模糊PID技术在控制锅炉汽包水位的初探
张鑫; 舒凌峰; 吕坤
2013-01-01
The boiler automatic control level in our company is low now. There are many problems, such as incomplete burning high oxygen content and great heat loss of exhaust gas. These problems not only results in low boiler thermal efficiency and big waste of energy directly, but also brings about great harm to the surroundings. Therefore,it is importan to perfect the boiler computer control system. Based on Siemens 300PLC platform, Fuzzy-PID controller is designed for the boiler control system in our company to overcome the shortcomings of great inertia and non-linearity of the boiler control system . The whole control system is made have a good effect in combination with high of steady-state accuracy of PIO control.On the basis of combining Fuzzy-PID control with traditional PID control, a complete and practical automatic control system is designed for the boiler in our company.%目前使用的锅炉自动控制水平较低,存在燃烧不彻底、排烟氧含量偏高、排烟热损失大等问题,直接造成了锅炉热效率低下和大量能源的浪费,同时也给环境带来很大的污染,所以完善锅炉的计算机控制具有重要的意义.采用西门子300PLC为开发平台,设计模糊PID控制器应用于锅炉控制系统克服了锅炉控制系统的大惯性、非线性等特点,并结合PID控制稳态精度高的特点,使控制系统有良好的控制效果.在研究模糊控制与传统PID控制相结合的基础上,以锅炉为对象,设计了一套完善、实用的自动控制系统.
Pérez-Molina, Manuel; Pérez-Polo, Manuel F.
2014-10-01
This paper analyzes a controlled servomechanism with feedback and a cubic nonlinearity by means of the Bogdanov-Takens and Andronov-Poincaré-Hopf bifurcations, from which steady-state, self-oscillating and chaotic behaviors will be investigated using the center manifold theorem. The system controller is formed by a Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative action (PID) that allows to stabilize and drive to a prescribed set point a body connected to the shaft of a DC motor. The Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation is analyzed through the second Lyapunov stability method and the harmonic-balance method, whereas the first Lyapunov value is used for the Andronov-Poincaré-Hopf bifurcation. On the basis of the results deduced from the bifurcation analysis, we show a procedure to select the parameters of the PID controller so that an arbitrary steady-state position of the servomechanism can be reached even in presence of noise. We also show how chaotic behavior can be obtained by applying a harmonical external torque to the device in self-oscillating regime. The advantage of achieving chaotic behavior is that it can be used so that the system reaches a set point inside a strange attractor with a small control effort. The analytical calculations have been verified through detailed numerical simulations.
A Neuro-Inspired Spike-Based PID Motor Controller for Multi-Motor Robots with Low Cost FPGAs
Anton Civit-Balcells
2012-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present a neuro-inspired spike-based close-loop controller written in VHDL and implemented for FPGAs. This controller has been focused on controlling a DC motor speed, but only using spikes for information representation, processing and DC motor driving. It could be applied to other motors with proper driver adaptation. This controller architecture represents one of the latest layers in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN, which implements a bridge between robotics actuators and spike-based processing layers and sensors. The presented control system fuses actuation and sensors information as spikes streams, processing these spikes in hard real-time, implementing a massively parallel information processing system, through specialized spike-based circuits. This spike-based close-loop controller has been implemented into an AER platform, designed in our labs, that allows direct control of DC motors: the AER-Robot. Experimental results evidence the viability of the implementation of spike-based controllers, and hardware synthesis denotes low hardware requirements that allow replicating this controller in a high number of parallel controllers working together to allow a real-time robot control.
Design of a DSP-based servo speed controller
Lu, Jialing
1992-01-01
The brushless servo drive is arguably the most important emerging drive category for robotics, machine tools and other applications. This places increasingly high demands on the servo motor and controller. The brushless servo drive is arguably the most important emerging drive category for robotics, machine tools and other applications. This places increasingly high demands on the servo motor and controller. Two PID design methods are studied for the speed controller, an "analog...
1978-08-01
Information used in the evaluation of design of Solar Control's solar heating and cooling system controller and the Solarstat is presented. System performance specifications, design data brochures, and detailed design drawings are presented.
An optimal fuzzy PID power system stabilizer for single machine infinite bus system
This study represents a design of an optimal fuzzy Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) power system stabilizer for single machine infinite bus power system. The aim of the control is to enhance the stability and to improve the dynamic response of the single machine infinite bus power system operating at different conditions. Speed deviation and acceleration of synchronous machine are chosen as the input signals to the fuzzy controllers. These variables take significant effects on damping of the generator shaft mechanical oscillations. The three parameters of PID controller are computed using the fuzzy membership functions depending on these variables. The inference mechanism of the fuzzy PID controller is represented by three (7x7) decision tables. The controller is simulated for implementing of the study. The simulations are performed under different operating conditions. Also a mechanical disturbance which has square wave waveform and 0,5 magnitude is injected to system from Tm input point during 0,5 s. Simulation results also are compared with conventional power system stabilizer, PID power system stabilizer and fuzzy power system stabilizer in order to show effectiveness of the proposed controller. Key Words: Power system stabilizer, fuzzy PID controller, single-machine infinite-bus model, fuzzy logic
Galvanometer control system design of aerial camera motion compensation
Qiao, Mingrui; Cao, Jianzhong; Wang, Huawei; Guo, Yunzeng; Hu, Changchang; Tang, Hong; Niu, Yuefeng
2015-10-01
Aerial cameras exist the image motion on the flight. The image motion has seriously affected the image quality, making the image edge blurred and gray scale loss. According to the actual application situation, when high quality and high precision are required, the image motion compensation (IMC) should be adopted. This paper designs galvanometer control system of IMC. The voice coil motor as the actuator has a simple structure, fast dynamic response and high positioning accuracy. Double-loop feedback is also used. PI arithmetic and Hall sensors are used at the current feedback. Fuzzy-PID arithmetic and optical encoder are used at the speed feedback. Compared to conventional PID control arithmetic, the simulation results show that the control system has fast response and high control accuracy.
Kwolek, J M; Goodman, D S; Smith, W W
2015-01-01
Simultaneous laser locking of IR and UV lasers to a visible reference laser is demonstrated via a Fabry-Perot cavity. LabVIEW is used to analyze the input and an internal PID algorithm converts the Fabry-Perot signal to an analog locking feedback signal. The locking program stabilized both lasers to a long term stability of less than 12 MHz, with the lab-built IR laser undergoing signi?cant improvement in frequency stabilization. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of a simple computer-controlled, non temperature-stabilized Fabry-Perot locking scheme for our applications, laser cooling of Ca+ ions, and its use in other applications with similar modest frequency stabilization requirements.
Simulation Study of CVT Speed Ratio based on Fuzzy- PID Control Theory%基于模糊PID控制的CVT速比仿真研究
周萍; 聂晋; 孙跃东
2011-01-01
Aiming at a certain motorcycle type equipped with the metal - belt continuously variable transmission ( CVT), torque model and fuel consumption model of its engine are established which provides target curves concerning to rotation speed adjustment features. Then after the aimed speed ratios of CVT was acquired, the driveline model is simplified in a mass - concentration method. Based on the fuzzy - PID principles, a fuzzy - PID control algorithm to optimize the performance is put forward where speed ratio change rate of CVT is regarded as the control object. In the platform of simulink, simulation is done for the auto model with CVT containing this algorithm in variable cases of starting - up, accelerating and braking. The results could demonstrate that the real ratio can follow the target ratio exactly as expected.%针对装备金属带式无级变速器的某款具体车型,建立了其发动机的转矩模型和油耗模型,基于此得出了目标转速调节特性曲线.之后,确定了无级变速传动的目标速比,并按照质量集中法简化了传动系统的模型.结合模糊PID的控制原理,提出了以CVT速比变化率为控制对象的模糊PID控制算法.在SIMULINK平台下对包含该控制算法的CVT整车模型进行了起步、加速以及爬坡等工况的仿真研究.结果表明,实际速比对目标速比有很好的跟随效果.
M. Bonesini(Sezione INFN Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Milano, Italy)
2008-01-01
The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will carry out a systematic investigation of ionization cooling of a muon beam. As the emittance measurement will be done on a particle-by-particle basis, sophisticated beam instrumentation is needed to measure particle coordinates and timing vs RF. A PID system based on three time-of-flight stations, two Aerogel Cerenkov detectors and a KLOE-like calorimeter has been constructed in order to keep beam contamination ($e, \\pi$) well be...
Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann
2003-05-01
The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.
Analysis and design of hybrid control systems
Malmborg, J.
1998-05-01
Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs
Fuzzy PID-based control of the walk-aided exoskeleton robot%基于模糊PID的助行外骨骼机器人控制研究
钟翠华; 沈林勇; 任昭霖; 邵文韫
2011-01-01
为了研究外骨骼机器人的步态控制,提出了一种基于模糊PID的算法,首先给出机器人的一般增量式PID控制算法,然后根据机器人关节角度误差和误差变化量的参数,选择了隶属函数,最后结合实际操作经验,建立了模糊规则表,完成了对PID参数的在线自整定.试验结果表明,模糊PID控制方法能够使外骨骼机器人平稳运动,初步实现了机器人的步态控制.%In order to realize the gait control, the fuzzy PID-based control algorithm was proposed.Firstly, the general incremental PID control algorithm of the robot was given.Then, the membership functions were selected according to the parameters of the angle error and the variations of the error of the robot.Finally, the table of fuzzy control was established for the online auto-tuning of the PID parameters based on the actual operating experience.The test results show that the fuzzy PID control could make the exoskeleton robot walk steadily and finish the gait control of the robot preliminarily.
Kang, Y.H.; Kim, L.K. [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea)
2002-06-01
We designed a neuro-fuzzy controller to improve some problems that are happened when the DC servo motor is controlled by a PID controller or a fuzzy logic controller. Our model proposed in this paper has the stable and accurate responses, and shortened settling time. To prove the capability of the neuro-fuzzy controller designed in this paper, the proposed controller is applied to the speed control of DC servo motor. The results showed that the proposed controller did not produce the overshoot, which happens when PID controller is used, and also it did not produce the steady state error when FLC is used. And also, it reduced the settling time about 10%. In addition, we could be aware that our model was only about 60% of the value of current peak of PID controller. (author). 10 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.
Cascade PID control in the application of wind cabinet%串级PID控制在风柜控制中的应用
胡蕾; 詹惠琴; 刘子宽
2011-01-01
在我国洁净室技术起始于上世纪60年代,当时,洁净室技术是为满足军工、精密仪器、航空仪表和电子行业的产品质量需求,满足这些行业加工和实验研究的精密化、微型化、纯度、质量和可靠性而诞生的一门新兴技术[1]。利用PID控制原理,基于STEP7和WINCC的串级PID来控制风柜的阀门,从而实现对被控区域温湿度精准的控制。该系统控制方案已经应用于某实验室的洁净室控制风柜,使用结果表明,该系统控制方案具有控制方便,控制效果好,响应速度快,稳定度高,精度高等优点,且各项性能指标均符合要求。%Clean room technology in China was originated in the 60s of last century.At the time,clean room technology for the quality requirements of military,precision instruments,aircraft instrumentation and electronics industry,was borned as an emerging technology,to meet the needs of these industries processing and experimental study of precision,miniaturization,purity,quality and reliability.The system uses PID control principle,adopts Siemens PLC S7-300,on the base of STEP7 and WINCC＇ s cascade PID to control air cabinet,to achieve the precise temperature and humidity on the charged area。The system control program has been applied to a laboratory clean room control air cabinet,The results show that the system control program is easy to control,good effect,Fast response;High stability;and high precision。 Besides,the performance indicators are in line with requirements.
骆云志; 张春华; 王钤
2014-01-01
A method of electro-hydraulic proportional position control based on fuzzy PID self-tuning control strategy is designed, in the light of the problem of servo control precision because of the hysteresis, uncertainty and nonlinearity of work devices and hydraulic system of the robotic excavator. Introduce the structure of electro-hydraulic proportional positional control system and the principle of fuzzy self-tuning PID controller parameters, forms the fuzzy PID control rule table. It also introduces a method of midpoint down fusion fuzzy inference and defuzzification techniques. Simulating and experimental results indicate the method has good robustness and meets technology requirements.%针对挖掘机器人工作装置液压系统存在滞后、不确定性和非线性，不能实现有效精确控制的问题，设计一种基于模糊PID的电液比例位置自调整控制策略。介绍了电液比例位置控制系统组成和自调整模糊PID控制器原理，建立了控制规则表，采用中点向下融合法进行模糊推理和去模糊化处理。仿真与实验验证结果表明：该控制方法具有很好的鲁棒性，控制效果满足技术要求。
A Neuro-Inspired Spike-Based PID Motor Controller for Multi-Motor Robots with Low Cost FPGAS
Anton Civit-Balcells; Rafael Paz-Vicente; Dominguez-Morales, Manuel J.; Alejandro Linares-Barranco; Gabriel Jimenez-Moreno; Angel Jimenez-Fernandez
2012-01-01
In this paper we present a neuro-inspired spike-based close-loop controller written in VHDL and implemented for FPGAs. This controller has been focused on controlling a DC motor speed, but only using spikes for information representation, processing and DC motor driving. It could be applied to other motors with proper driver adaptation. This controller architecture represents one of the latest layers in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN), which implements a bridge between robotics actuators and s...
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMBEDDED DC MOTOR CONTROLLER USING A PID ALGORITHM
Jones, Omar
2010-01-01
This project was held at London South Bank University in the UK, with corporation with staff from Linköping University in Sweden as Bachelor thesis. This report will guide you through the used techniques in order to achieve a successful cooler/Fan project with a minimum budget and good energy saving methods. The steps of setting the used software and components are supported with figures and diagrams. You will find full explanation of the used components and mathematics, in additional to a co...
Semerjyan, Vardan; Yuan, Tao
2011-04-01
Sodium (Na) Faraday filters based spectrometer is a relatively new instrument to study sodium nightglow as well as sodium and oxygen chemistry in the mesopause region. Successful spectrometer measurement demands highly accurate control of filter temperature. The ideal, long-term operation site for the Na spectrometer is an isolated location with minimum nocturnal sky background. Thus, the remote control of the filter temperature is a requirement for such operation, whereas current temperature controllers can only be operated manually. The proposed approach is aimed to not only enhance the temperature control, but also achieve spectrometer's remote and autonomous operation. In the meantime, the redesign should relief the burden of the cost for multi temperature controllers. The program will give to the operator flexibility in setting the operation temperatures of the Faraday filters, monitoring the temperature variations, and logging the data during the operation. Research will make diligent efforts to attach preliminary data analysis subroutine to the main control program. The real-time observation results will be posted online after the observation is completed. This approach also can be a good substitute for the temperature control system currently used to run the Lidar system at Utah State University (USU).
Applied Control Systems Design
Mahmoud, Magdi S
2012-01-01
Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...
张文凡; 廖辉
2012-01-01
Aiming at the problem that load of drill string motion compensation system is very heavy in deep-sea, which will take a long response time of system, and the process of compensation movement occurred delaying and oscillating, the feedward PID controller of drill string motion compensation system was put forward, on the basis of the forecast output of the trend of load, a feed forward compensation control method was used to reduce the effects of the changement of the load, improve the respons time of system. Meanwhile, a PID feed back control method was used to reduce the errors which caused by others reason, improve the control accuration of the system. The research results show that this method has some guidance and practical value to the design of controller of high inertia loads of motion compensation device in deep-sea.%针对“深海钻柱运动补偿系统负载大时,钻柱运动补偿系统响应的时间长,使得补偿系统在控制过程中出现滞后、反馈补偿出现振荡”等问题,设计了钻柱运动补偿系统中的前馈PID控制器.根据对负载变化趋势的预测结果,采取前馈补偿的方法来减小补偿系统负载变化对钻压产生的影响,提高了系统的响应速度；同时,引入PID反馈控制消除补偿系统在前馈控制过程中产生的误差,提高了系统跟踪补偿的精度.研究结果表明,该方法对于大惯性负载的运动补偿装置控制器的设计具有一定的借鉴意义和实用价值.
Bonesini, M
2008-01-01
The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will carry out a systematic investigation of ionization cooling of a muon beam. As the emittance measurement will be done on a particle-by-particle basis, sophisticated beam instrumentation is needed to measure particle coordinates and timing vs RF. A PID system based on three time-of-flight stations, two Aerogel Cerenkov detectors and a KLOE-like calorimeter has been constructed in order to keep beam contamination ($e, \\pi$) well below 1%. The MICE time-of-flight system will measure timing with a resolution better than 70 ps per plane, in a harsh environment due to high particle rates, fringe magnetic fields and electron backgrounds from RF dark current.
AI-based adaptive control and design of autopilot system for nonlinear UAV
Anil Kumar Yadav; Prerna Gaur
2014-08-01
The objective of this paper is to design an autopilot system for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to control the speed and altitude using electronic throttle control system (ETCS) and elevator, respectively. A DC servo motor is used for designing of ETCS to control the throttle position for appropriate amount of air mass flow. Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based controllers such as fuzzy logic PD, fuzzy logic PD + I, self-tuning fuzzy logic PID (STF-PID) controller and fuzzy logic-based sliding mode adaptive controller (FLSMAC) are designed for stable autopilot system and are compared with conventional PI controller. The target of throttle, speed and altitude controls are to achieve a wide range of air speed, improved energy efficiency and fuel economy with reduced pollutant emission. The energy efficiency using specific energy rate per velocity of UAV is also presented in this paper.
Induction motor control design
Marino, Riccardo; Verrelli, Cristiano M
2010-01-01
""Nonlinear and Adaptive Control Design for Induction Motors"" is a unified exposition of the most important steps and concerns in the design of estimation and control algorithms for induction motors. A single notation and modern nonlinear control terminology is used to make the book accessible to readers who are not experts in electric motors at the same time as giving a more theoretical control viewpoint to those who are. In order to increase readability, the book concentrates on the induction motor, eschewing the much more complex and less-well-understood control of asynchronous motors. The
张小川; 魏建新; 郭鲁; 吴杰
2012-01-01
以足球机器人系统为实验平台,论证了遗传算法模糊PID控制技术应用于足球机器人运动控制的可行性,并提出了具体实施方法。将传统PID控制与模糊控制相结合,通过PID算法提高控制准确性,通过模糊推理实现在线调整kp、ki、kd等关键参数,提高系统的控制性能。改进了模糊控制中的控制规则和隶属函数,提高了合理性和系统控制精度。仿真结果表明,该方法比一般PID控制方法具有更好的控制性能指标。%An application of Fuzzy-PID based on genetic algorithms in soccer robot control is presen- ted based on soccer robot system after analyzing the kinematic model of soccer robots. The concrete implementation method of combining PID control with fuzzy control is put forward. The accuracy is en- sured by PID controller, whose performance can be enhanced with the kp, ki and kd key parameters which come from the fuzzy control. At the same time, this paper improved the control rules and mem- bership functions in the fuzzy control, so as to improve the reasonableness and the control precision of the system. Experimental results show that the control performance index based on GA is better than that of the general PID parameters tuning methods.
Design and development of Low Level RF (LLRF) control system
All the linear accelerator cavities of Radioactive Ion Beam have separate RF power amplifiers. In these accelerators, high stabilities of the order of ± 0.5% in amplitude and ± 0.5° in phase of RF signal inside the cavities are required for proper and efficient acceleration of RIB. For this purpose, a low level RF (LLRF) control system is being designed which includes amplitude and phase controllers to ensure efficient and stable operation of the RF accelerators. The RF output of the LLRF system is finally amplified and fed to the accelerator cavities. The LLRF system is based on IQ (In-phase and Quadrature) modulation-demodulation technique in which an IQ modulator and a demodulator has been used to control the amplitude and phase of the RF carrier signal. The HigH-speed DAC and ADC have been used for processing the in-phase (I) and quadrature-phase (Q) components of the RF signal. This system is a closed-loop feedback control system. The feedback signal is obtained from the pick-up of accelerator cavity. PID control method is used to regulate the amplitude and phase of the RF signal to the desired/set value. The control system is optimized for minimum response time with satisfactory performance. The transfer function of the PID controller and the RF cavity is compared with the transfer function of a first order system and the values of proportional gain (Kp), integral gain (Ti) and derivative gain (Td) are obtained from Matlab- Simulink Simulation. The PID controller has been implemented into a high speed microcontroller (LPC2478) for fast operation. A GUI has been developed in NI LabView software to monitor the Amplitude and Phase of the RF signal and control manually if required. The detailed design and development of the control system will be discussed in this paper. (author)
基于模糊PID的全方位移动机器人运动控制%Motion Control of Omni-directional Robot Based on Fuzzy PID Control
田琦; 李琪; 姚鹏; 赵媛
2011-01-01
通过对足球机器人运动学模型的分析,考虑到系统的时变、非线性和干扰大等特点,以全向移动机器人为研究平台,提出一种将模糊控制与传统的PID控制相结合的方法,应用到足球机器人的运动控制系统中。针对足球机器人运动控制中的重点问题,着重提出了基于模糊控制的动态调整PID控制器的3个参数kp、ki、kd的设计方法。实验表明,该控制器能较好地改善控制系统对轮速的控制效果。%Through analysis of the kinematics model of soccer robot,with time change,nonlinear and other characteristics of this system in consideration,a control method combining fuzzy control with traditional PID control is presented.To solve the problems of robot soccer motion system,the methods of dynamically regulate the three PID parameters（kp,ki,kd） based on fuzzy control is proposed.The improvement of control effect is verified by experimental result.
Brushless DC Motor Control System Design Based on DSP2812
Wei Min
2016-01-01
Full Text Available By comparison various control methods currently for permanent magnet brushless DC motor, on the basis of motor principle analysis, a current smallest and most real-time all-digital rare earth permanent magnet brushless DC motor control system is designed. The high-speed digital signal processor DSP2812 is applied as the main control unit. The fuzzy PID control algorithm is used to control rectifier regulator and speed, which the speed and current is double closed loop in the system. The principle of control system, control strategy and software is analyzed in this paper. The system has some features such as less overshoot, rapid response speed, good performance of anti-jamming, simple structure, high control precision, flexible in changing control policies and so on. Validity of the design is verified by prototype test.
A MATLAB and.NET based Windows Application for controller design using Genetic algorithm
Batık, Zeynep; KAÇAR, Sezgin; ÇAVUŞOĞLU, Ünal; Akif AKGÜL; Sevin, Abdullah
2014-01-01
In this study, it is purposed that a windows application based on Genetic Algorithms (GA) is developed by using MATLAB and.NET platforms together. Controller design for automatic control systems has been choosen as the implementation field. For realizing the application, the GA and Builder NE tools of MATLAB programme have been utilized and the interface has been designed by Visual Studio. As the result, a software for determining the coefficients of P, PI and PID controllers by GA optimizati...
Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.
2012-02-21
A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.
Nutrient Control Design Manual
The purpose of this EPA design manual is to provide updated, state‐of‐the‐technology design guidance on nitrogen and phosphorus control at municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs). Similar to previous EPA manuals, this manual contains extensive information on the principles ...
Matausek, M R; Ribić, A I
2009-10-01
This paper presents an effective design and robust tuning method for the control structure based on a series PD controller and a simple Disturbance Observer. All elements of the proposed controller are directly obtained from the low-order Integrating First-Order Plus Dead-Time (IFOPDT) model, used to approximate essential dynamic characteristics of lag-dominant stable, integrating and unstable plants. The structure of the proposed controller is an effective, easy to implement and tune, extension of the series PID controller. For the same robustness, a better disturbance rejection response is obtained by the proposed controller than that of the PID, by adjusting only two parameters with a clear meaning. A comparison with well-tuned PIDs, done by simulations, and the experimental results, obtained on a real thermal power plant, confirm that high performance and robustness are obtained, for dynamic characteristics common to industrial processes. PMID:19586624
Design and improvement of nuclear reactor power controller
Background: The proportion of nuclear power is gradually increasing in China's energy structure. Purpose: On one hand, power grid and power plant coordination in the electricity grid system requires the nuclear power plants to adapt the needs of the peak regulation, frequency modification (FM), and even the grid AGC (Automatic Gain Control) mode. On the other hand, it is necessary to design a control system that can adapt the model G for the operation requirements, and ensure the safe and economic performance. Methods: With an experimental reactor as the research object and MATLAB/SIMULINK as test toolkit, we designed an improved the reactor power control system, and adopted three-loop PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) control system to ensure the precision control of a control rod. Results: The simulation results show that the method presented in the paper achieved better tracking performance and robustness. It can work against the unmeasurable disturbances. Conclusion: It is of practical significance for the reactor participating in the peak regulation of power grid, and the three-loop PID control system shows its improvement for reactor power control. (authors)
牛江川; 樊波; 林茂; 苏杨
2012-01-01
This article proposed the optimized PID controller plan to increase the quality of the Static Inverter output voltage in the arms system, according to the error signal size this plan uses of the particle swarm optimization PID controller parameters adjusting conveniently, real-time makes the online adjustment to the system control measures. Based on Matlab/Simulink, the system was simulated under the circumstance of the Static Inverter. Compare with the normal PID control, the analysis of the optimized PID controller simulation results showed that the overshoot was reduced, the quality of anti-interference and robust were enhanced, and it needs short time to attain balance after the outside interference, it also enables the voltage of the static inverter around the specified value.%为提高某武器系统静止变频电源（简称静变电源）输出电压的质量,本文研究了基于优化PID的控制方法,根据误差信号的波动大小,利用粒子群算法在线优化PID控制器的参数,并实时地对系统控制量进行调整。在Matlab/Simulink环境下,对于系统在静变电源控制中的应用进行了仿真。并与常规的PID控制进行比较,仿真结果表明采用粒子群优化的PID控制器减少了超调量,抗干扰性和鲁棒性强,受外界干扰后恢复平衡所需的时间短,也使得系统输出电压能够维持在给定值附近。
The aim of this study is to identify current alternatives for the implementation of digital controllers in the level control of steam generators of nuclear power PWR (Pressurized Water Reaetor). It is intended to identify the types of digital controls that are available from the theoretical and conceptual viewpoints for this purpose. We investigate the advantages and disadvantages of each controller model. From this assessment are pointed the most suitable models in hierarchical scale. This evaluation also serves to suggest possible types of control installation as a whole, where the level control of the steam generators becomes just one of many controls that are part of the plant. In this case, the use of digital controls allows the non-linear and multivariable treatment which is characteristic of complex systems, such as the nuclear power generation. The treatment of nonlinearities and multivariable aspects allows a more detailed study of the stability of these plants when they are subject to transients or several accidents, such as the case of losing external power of transients. In the specific case of steam generators, the instabilities result from the emergence of the shrink and swell phenomenas, depending on the load variations of thermonuclear plant. The application of several types and digital controllers, considering these inherent characteristics of the level control of steam generators, allows to infer which types of controllers are more appropriate to treat instabilities of this type and to make conjectures in its use for the cases of more complex instabilities, considering the integration of all nucleus-plant controls.
基于STC89C58的PID控制电动车翘翘板%Electric Car Seesaw Controlled by PID Algorithm Based on STC89C58 MCU
刘潇
2013-01-01
本设计采用STC89 C58作为核心处理器，以步进电机为驱动电机。主要功能包括PID算法对步进电机运动控制，角度信号采集与处理，红外循迹。本系统实验最终结果为电动车沿引黑线运动至翘翘板平衡点，经过一定的动态平衡后在翘翘板中间平衡。%This design uses a STC89C58 as the core processor and the stepper motor as the driving motor .The key features include stepper motor motion control with PID algorithm;signal acquisition and processing , and the infrared tracking .The end result of experi-ments on the system for electric motor car shows that when it moves along the black line to the seesaw balance point and after a certain amount of dynamic equilibrium , the motor car will be balanced between the seesaw .
ROBUST TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR A CHEMICAL PROCESS
G.Glan Devadhas
2010-10-01
Full Text Available This paper attempts to tuning out a new PID control strategy to provide Robust Control for a Chemical process. Chemical process control is a challenging problem due to the strong on-line non-linearity and extreme sensitivity to disturbances of the process. The proposed method has the advantage that it takes into account all the parameters variations associated with the process. The variations in the process parameters are modeled as a gaussian noise and an adaptive gaussian filter is placed in the feedback path. The adaptivegaussian filter in the feedback path adapts its filter coefficients based on a kalman estimation algorithm. This adaptive filter adapts so as to maintain the mean square error a minimum. The LQG (Linear Quadratic Gaussian in Robust Control is used in designing of the proposed strategy. The analysis of a PID tuning [7] strategy and the necessity of such an adaptive strategy is also explored in this paper. The proposed strategy of Robust Control has been designed for a First Order Lag Plus Delay (FOLPD process. The proposed strategy ofRobust Control has been simulated for an FOLPD process in SIMULINK.
Yen, John; Wang, Haojin; Daugherity, Walter C.
1992-01-01
Fuzzy logic controllers have some often-cited advantages over conventional techniques such as PID control, including easier implementation, accommodation to natural language, and the ability to cover a wider range of operating conditions. One major obstacle that hinders the broader application of fuzzy logic controllers is the lack of a systematic way to develop and modify their rules; as a result the creation and modification of fuzzy rules often depends on trial and error or pure experimentation. One of the proposed approaches to address this issue is a self-learning fuzzy logic controller (SFLC) that uses reinforcement learning techniques to learn the desirability of states and to adjust the consequent part of its fuzzy control rules accordingly. Due to the different dynamics of the controlled processes, the performance of a self-learning fuzzy controller is highly contingent on its design. The design issue has not received sufficient attention. The issues related to the design of a SFLC for application to a petrochemical process are discussed, and its performance is compared with that of a PID and a self-tuning fuzzy logic controller.
Primary Immuno-deficiencies (PID
Javad Ghaffari1
2009-01-01
Full Text Available (Received 6 June, 2009 ; Accepted 22 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Primary immune-deficiencies (PID are associated with a wide range of clinical disorders along with variable symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate and improve our knowledge regarding PID from patients that were referred to Booali Sina Hospital.Materials and methods: We evaluated all of PID`s that were referred to Booali Sina Hospital from their data records. Demography, clinical and laboratory data were recorded and then analyzed.Results: In the duration of 3 years, we had 10 patients with PID (7 males and 3 females. Of these cases, 5 had hum oral (50%, 1case had phagocytic (10%, 3 cases had cellular (30% and 1 case had hyper IgE syndrome (10%. Many of them had respiratory and otitis media infections, while a few patients had adenitis, gastroenteritis, liver abscesses, bleedings and malignancy.Conclusion: PID is a diverse disorder that involves different immune systems. Knowledge from patient’s clinical symptoms and consideration in their differential diagnosis can be helpful in early diagnosis and an effective treatment.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(70: 76-80 (Persian
Implementasi Kontrol PID pada Mesin Pengembang Roti
Novianti Yuliarmas
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Besides the ingredient composition, another important thing in the process of making dough is proofing, ie. dough rising process prior to roasting process. Proofing process requires a stable temperature to ensure that the dough is well rising. The purpose of this research is to make a proofing machine that uses DHT11 as a temperature sensor. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID controller is implemented to guarantee that the machine remains at the temperature of 350Celcius, in which the fermentation process would success. PID control has been implemented in fluorescent lamp which been set its dim light to generate heat until it reach a predetermined set point value. The temperature was monitored using LCD and set to remain stable with the help of fan. The proofing process will last for 15 minutes which ended by the sound of the buzzer. The testing result shows that the value of , , will reach set point value within 120 seconds.
Allan, Brian; Owens, Lewis
2010-01-01
In support of the Blended-Wing-Body aircraft concept, a new flow control hybrid vane/jet design has been developed for use in a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) offset inlet in transonic flows. This inlet flow control is designed to minimize the engine fan-face distortion levels and the first five Fourier harmonic half amplitudes while maximizing the inlet pressure recovery. This concept represents a potentially enabling technology for quieter and more environmentally friendly transport aircraft. An optimum vane design was found by minimizing the engine fan-face distortion, DC60, and the first five Fourier harmonic half amplitudes, while maximizing the total pressure recovery. The optimal vane design was then used in a BLI inlet wind tunnel experiment at NASA Langley's 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel. The experimental results demonstrated an 80-percent decrease in DPCPavg, the reduction in the circumferential distortion levels, at an inlet mass flow rate corresponding to the middle of the operational range at the cruise condition. Even though the vanes were designed at a single inlet mass flow rate, they performed very well over the entire inlet mass flow range tested in the wind tunnel experiment with the addition of a small amount of jet flow control. While the circumferential distortion was decreased, the radial distortion on the outer rings at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP) increased. This was a result of the large boundary layer being distributed from the bottom of the AIP in the baseline case to the outer edges of the AIP when using the vortex generator (VG) vane flow control. Experimental results, as already mentioned, showed an 80-percent reduction of DPCPavg, the circumferential distortion level at the engine fan-face. The hybrid approach leverages strengths of vane and jet flow control devices, increasing inlet performance over a broader operational range with significant reduction in mass flow requirements. Minimal distortion level requirements
Control by design essentially means that the environmental/health impact of a facility where radioactive material is managed can be controlled by the design features of the facility. This is an attractive concept, but it can easily be misused or abused. This presentation concentrates on problems involving storage of tailings and waste rock associated with uranium mining and milling/processing. The wastes and tailings resulting from the extraction and processing of uranium ore contain very long-lived radionuclides. For the case where the Thorium-232 (Th-232) series radionuclides are present at environmental levels and would not be included in an impact assessment, then even if all the uranium is removed by processing, the longest half-life radionuclide in the wastes/tailings (Th-230) has a half-life of 75,000 years. This is much longer than the time period for which one can expect man-made barriers to retain their integrity. If some uranium is still present in the wastes/tailings, then the half-life is much longer. These issues need to be considered by designers of waste management facilities. Another issue associated with uranium wastes and tailings is leaching. Water penetrating into a waste rock pile will leach radionuclides from the waste, and transport these radionuclides down through the material beneath the waste and into any aquifers that are present. The time scales for this leaching process (in the absence of designed barriers) are much less than 75,000 years. Even with such barriers in place, the effect of the barrier is to delay rather than completely prevent the downward transport of radionuclides. The effects of processes such as erosion and events such as earthquakes and floods also have to be taken into account when designing waste storage and disposal facilities. Once again it is not good practice to assume that features incorporated into the facility at the design stage to minimise the effects of these processes and events will remain effective
一种陀螺稳定平台自适应模糊-PID复合控制方法%Adaptive fuzzy-PID hybrid control method of gyro stabilized platform
朱倚娴; 陆源; 许江宁; 程向红
2014-01-01
机械摩擦、器件工作饱和区等不确定因素会导致陀螺稳定平台系统参数的波动和非线性特性，为解决非线性因素对稳定平台控制系统性能的影响，提出了一种自适应模糊-PID复合控制方法。引入自适应因子δ实现模糊控制和PID控制的复合，误差较大时增强模糊控制的作用以加快系统响应，误差较小时增强PID控制的作用以实现无静差调节。采用自调整量化因子ker(er)、kec(ec)实现基本论域的在线调整，提高了模糊控制器的灵敏度。仿真结果表明，在干扰冲击和短时常值干扰情况下，自适应模糊-PID复合控制与常规模糊控制相比，抗干扰能力显著增强，平台稳定精度提高0.4'左右。%System parameters of gyro stabilized platform are unpredictable because of the uncertainty factors such as mechanical friction, the saturation characteristic of the driver module, etc. To suppress the error caused by the nonlinear characteristics, an adaptive fuzzy-PID hybrid control method is proposed. The adaptive factorδis set up to combine fuzzy control and PID control. When the large attitude error of the platform is detected, the effect of fuzzy control is enhanced to decrease the system response time. And the conventional PID control effect is enhanced to eliminate the static error when the attitude error is small. Self-adjusting quantitative factors ker(er) andkec(ec) are proposed to adjust the basic domain of the fuzzy controller online, which improves the sensitivity of the control loop. The simulation results show that, in both cases of pulse and step interference,theadaptive fuzzy-PID hybrid control can improve the accuracy of platform attitude about 0.4 arc min and enhance its capability of anti-jamming compared to ordinary fuzzy control.
Design of Attitude Control System for UAV Based on Feedback Linearization and Adaptive Control
Wenya Zhou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Attitude dynamic model of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is multi-input multioutput (MIMO, strong coupling, and nonlinear. Model uncertainties and external gust disturbances should be considered during designing the attitude control system for UAVs. In this paper, feedback linearization and model reference adaptive control (MRAC are integrated to design the attitude control system for a fixed wing UAV. First of all, the complicated attitude dynamic model is decoupled into three single-input single-output (SISO channels by input-output feedback linearization. Secondly, the reference models are determined, respectively, according to the performance indexes of each channel. Subsequently, the adaptive control law is obtained using MRAC theory. In order to demonstrate the performance of attitude control system, the adaptive control law and the proportional-integral-derivative (PID control law are, respectively, used in the coupling nonlinear simulation model. Simulation results indicate that the system performance indexes including maximum overshoot, settling time (2% error range, and rise time obtained by MRAC are better than those by PID. Moreover, MRAC system has stronger robustness with respect to the model uncertainties and gust disturbance.
熊中刚; 叶振环; 贺娟; 陈连贵; 令狐金卿
2015-01-01
为实现复杂环境下小型农业机械田间作业时的路径跟踪控制，提出了基于免疫模糊PID （比例－积分－微分）的智能路径跟踪控制方法．首先，路径跟踪控制被分解为自动直线导航和自动转向控制任务，并分别构建了能够实现自动导航的模糊控制器和基于免疫模糊PID控制的自动转向方法．该设计在无人驾驶高速插秧机硬件系统基础上，开发了基于双激光源定位技术、电子罗盘和角度传感器的自动导航控制系统．其次，根据自动导航控制系统构造和工作原理，提出了直线和曲线路径跟踪的方法．最后，利用Matlab/Simulink仿真平台和插秧机的运动学模型对所设计的路径跟踪控制原理和模糊控制器进行了有效性验证，同时完成了包括直线和曲线的路径跟踪试验．当插秧机以1 m/s的速度进行直线跟踪时，最大跟踪偏差只有4 cm，平均跟踪偏差为0.84 cm；当以同样的速度做曲线跟踪时，曲线路径跟踪时的最大偏差为0.6 m，平均跟踪偏差控制在12 cm以内．仿真和试验结果表明，该套控制系统能够有效地控制无人驾驶高速插秧机按预定路径行走．%An intelligent path tracking control method is proposed based on fuzzy immune PID (proportional-integral-differential), to realize path tracking control for small agricultural machinery in complex environment. Firstly, a path tracking control task is decomposed into linear automatic navigation control task and automatic steering control task, and a fuzzy controller for automatic navigation and an automatic steering control method based on fuzzy immune PID are constructed. An automatic navigation control system is developed with dual laser source localization technology, electronic compass and angle sensor based on the hardware system of the unmanned high speed transplanter. Secondly, the straight line and the curve line path tracking methods are
Design of a synchronization control system for lithography based on repetitive control method
Hao, Zhongyang; Peng, Guiyong; Li, Xin; Chen, Xinglin
2013-01-01
A repetitive control theory is proposed to solve the synchronization problem between the wafer stage and reticle stage. A macro-micro control method is used based on a macro-micro control structure in which a linear motor is combined with a voice coil motor. A synchronization controller of the reticle stage is added base on the conventional PID control system. The repetitive controller is designed based on the repeated movement of the reticle stage and the wafer stage during the scan and exposure period, and the effects of synchronization control system can be improved because of the repetitive control can effectively track and inhibit the periodicity excitation signal. The repetitive control system effectively reduces the synchronization error during the scan and exposure period，in the meanwhile keep the tracking accuracy and dynamic characters. Simulation results show that the synchronization error can be reduced effectively.
Intelligent Controller Design for a Chemical Process
Mr. Glan Devadhas G
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Chemical process control is a challenging problem due to the strong on*line non*linearity and extreme sensitivity to disturbances of the process. Ziegler – Nichols tuned PI and PID controllers are found to provide poor performances for higher*order and non–linear systems. This paper presents an application of one*step*ahead fuzzy as well as ANFIS (adaptive*network*based fuzzy inference system tuning scheme for an Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor CSTR process. The controller is designed based on a Mamdani type and Sugeno type fuzzy system constructed to model the dynamics of the process. The fuzzy system model can take advantage of both a priori linguistic human knowledge through parameter initialization, and process measurements through on* line parameter adjustment. The ANFIS, which is a fuzzy inference system, is implemented in the framework of adaptive networks. The proposed ANFIS can construct an input*output mapping based on both human knowledge (in the form of fuzzy if*then rules and stipulated input*output data pairs. In this method, a novel approach based on tuning of fuzzy logic control as well as ANFIS for a CSTR process, capable of providing an optimal performance over the entire operating range of process are given. Here Fuzzy logic control as well as ANFIS for obtaining the optimal design of the CSTR process is explained. In this approach, the development of rule based and the formation of the membership function are evolved simultaneously. The performance of the algorithm in obtaining the optimal tuning values has been analyzed in CSTR process through computer simulation.
邹益民
2014-01-01
The oil-water separation process of the gathering and transportation union station was the key procedure to ensure the quality of crude oil product.In this paper, on the basis of in-depth study of the dynamics behavior of oil-water separation and settlement process, its mathematical model was de-duced.The single neuron PID controller had the self-learning and adaptive capabilities, thus to some extends, solved the difficulties for traditional PID lack of tuning controller parameters on line real-time, and improved the controller ability of adapting to system and environmental change.In SIMULINK, a va-riety of custom simulation models could be built using S-Function conveniently and flexibly.As used herein, the dynamic model of single neuron PID controller was built quickly by SIMULINK S-Function Builder module, and the single neuron PID control algorithm was also simulation researched in SIMU-LINK.Simulation results showed that algorithm could effectively improve the control quality.%集输联合站的油水分离是保证产出原油质量的关键工艺过程。该文在对油水分离沉降过程动态特性深入研究的基础之上，给出了其数学模型。单神经元PID控制具有自学习和自适应能力，在一定程度上解决了传统PID调节器不易在线实时整定参数的不足，提高了控制器对系统和环境变化的适应能力。 SIMULINK中可用S-Function方便灵活地构建各种自定义仿真模型。该文使用SIMULINK中的S-Function Builder模块以快速构建单神经元PID控制模块，并在SIMU-LINK中对单神经元PID控制方案进行了仿真研究，仿真结果表明该算法可获得更好的调节质量。
Power System Stabilizer Design Based on Model Reference Robust Fuzzy Control
Mohammad Reza Yazdchi
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Power System Stabilizers (PSS are used to generate supplementary damping control signals for the excitation system in order to damp the Low Frequency Oscillations (LFO of the electric power system. The PSS is usually designed based on classical control approaches but this Conventional PSS (CPSS has some problems in power system control and stability enhancement. To overcome the drawbacks of CPSS, numerous techniques have been proposed in literatures. In this study a new method based on Model Reference Robust Fuzzy Control (MRRFC is considered to design PSS. In this new approach, in first an optimal PSS is designed in the nominal operating condition and then power system identification is used to obtain model reference of power system including optimal PSS. With changing system operating condition from the nominal condition, the error between obtained model reference and power system response in sent to a fuzzy controller and this fuzzy controller provides the stabilizing signal for damping power system oscillations just like PSS. In order to model reference identification a PID type PSS (PID-PSS is considered for damping electric power system oscillations. The parameters of this PID-PSS are tuned based on hybrid Genetic Algorithms (GA optimization method. The proposed MRRFC is evaluated against the CPSS at a single machine infinite bus power system considering system parametric uncertainties. The simulation results clearly indicate the effectiveness and validity of the proposed method.
Pathway Interaction Database (PID) —
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) in collaboration with Nature Publishing Group has established the Pathway Interaction Database (PID) in order to provide a highly structured, curated collection of information about known biomolecular interactions and key cellular processes assembled into signaling pathways.
Investigation of optimal control system for arc spraying
Li Heqi; Li Chunxu
2005-01-01
Arc-voltage feedback PID ( Proportional plus Integral plus Differential) controller and arc-current feedback PID controller are designed with an algorithm of discrete PID. In order to realize parameters optimization and adaptation of the arc-spraying process and to reduce blindness in selecting process parameters, a serial communication interface between PC and MCU (Micro Control Unit) is designed so that on-line modification of the PID control parameters is implemented. A genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize PID control parameters. Meanwhile, the error between the actual value and the setting value of spraying current is selected as the judgment criterion to determine the adaptability for the algorithm. The best optimal population of PID control parameters can be obtained, so that the optimal controlling in arc-spraying process is realized and an excellent coating of arc-spraying is obtained.
曹健; 李超顺; 张楠; 曾探; 陈海兵; 朱耀伟
2016-01-01
Because of the complex structure, complicated operation modes and frequently switching of operating conditions, the pumped storage unit (PSU) is easily tends to fall into the“S” feature area. Compared to conventional hydroelectric generating unit, it faces more stability problems and risk of deteriorating the power supply quality and stability of the entire grid. Respect to the disadvantages of PID control on PSU, this paper proposed fractional PID (FOPID) control and corresponding parameter optimization method. In order to improve the effectiveness of parameter optimization of FOPID control, a fuzzy gravitational search algorithm (FGSA) is proposed. In the searching process, the FGSA tunes the gravitational attenuation index adaptively by fuzzy inference. By controlling the value of the gravitational constant, the exploration and exploitation of the algorithm can be adjusted dynamically as to improve the ability of the algorithm to optimize parameters. An actual pumped storage power station unit is taken into consideration in our country. Based on comparisons of the control strategies combined of different optimization methods and PID control rules, it’s found that the proposed FGSA-FOPID control strategy can effectively improve the dynamic performance of pumped storage unit regulating system under unload condition with speed disturbance.%由于抽水蓄能机组水泵水轮机调节系统结构复杂，工况类型多且转换频繁，容易受水泵水轮机全特性曲线反“S”特性的影响，因此其运行稳定问题比一般机组更加严峻，严重时甚至会影响到电网的供电质量和安全稳定。本文针对传统 PID 控制在抽水蓄能机组应用中的不足，提出了抽水蓄能机组的分数阶 PID （FOPID）控制及其参数优化方法。为提高FOPID控制参数优化效果，提出了一种模糊引力搜索算法（FGSA），该算法在迭代搜索过程中，对引力衰减指数进行动态的模糊推理，
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Fact Sheet
... sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a serious condition, in women. 1 in 8 women with a history of PID experience difficulties getting pregnant. You can prevent PID if you ... sexually transmitted diseases. The content here can be syndicated (added to ...
A PID autotuner utilizing GPC and constraint optimization
Henningsen, Arne; Christensen, Anders; Ravn, Ole
generalized predictive control criterion, and the PID structure is ensured by constraining the parameters to a feasible set defined by the discrete-time Euler approximation of the ideal continuous-time PID controller. The algorithm is extended by incorporating constraints on the amplitude and slew-rate of the......A solution to the PID autotuning problem is presented which involves constraining the parameters of a discrete second-order discrete-time controller. The integrator is forced into the regulator by using a CARIMA model. The discrete-time regulator parameters are calculated by optimizing a...... control signal. Simulation studies for a system of coupled tanks have indicated that the method performs well, and that signal limitations can be included in a straightforward manner...
Simple PID parameter tuning method based on outputs of the closed loop system
Han, Jianda; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Ziya; He, Yuqing
2016-04-01
Most of the existing PID parameters tuning methods are only effective with pre-known accurate system models, which often require some strict identification experiments and thus infeasible for many complicated systems. Actually, in most practical engineering applications, it is desirable for the PID tuning scheme to be directly based on the input-output response of the closed-loop system. Thus, a new parameter tuning scheme for PID controllers without explicit mathematical model is developed in this paper. The paper begins with a new frequency domain properties analysis of the PID controller. After that, the definition of characteristic frequency for the PID controller is given in order to study the mathematical relationship between the PID parameters and the open-loop frequency properties of the controlled system. Then, the concepts of M-field and θ-field are introduced, which are then used to explain how the PID control parameters influence the closed-loop frequency-magnitude property and its time responses. Subsequently, the new PID parameter tuning scheme, i.e., a group of tuning rules, is proposed based on the preceding analysis. Finally, both simulations and experiments are conducted, and the results verify the feasibility and validity of the proposed methods. This research proposes a PID parameter tuning method based on outputs of the closed loop system.
Simple PID parameter tuning method based on outputs of the closed loop system
Han, Jianda; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Ziya; He, Yuqing
2016-05-01
Most of the existing PID parameters tuning methods are only effective with pre-known accurate system models, which often require some strict identification experiments and thus infeasible for many complicated systems. Actually, in most practical engineering applications, it is desirable for the PID tuning scheme to be directly based on the input-output response of the closed-loop system. Thus, a new parameter tuning scheme for PID controllers without explicit mathematical model is developed in this paper. The paper begins with a new frequency domain properties analysis of the PID controller. After that, the definition of characteristic frequency for the PID controller is given in order to study the mathematical relationship between the PID parameters and the open-loop frequency properties of the controlled system. Then, the concepts of M-field and θ-field are introduced, which are then used to explain how the PID control parameters influence the closed-loop frequency-magnitude property and its time responses. Subsequently, the new PID parameter tuning scheme, i.e., a group of tuning rules, is proposed based on the preceding analysis. Finally, both simulations and experiments are conducted, and the results verify the feasibility and validity of the proposed methods. This research proposes a PID parameter tuning method based on outputs of the closed loop system.
江思敏; 王先逵
2014-01-01
在加工高精度非圆零件时，通常先产生非圆零件的轮廓生成直线伺服器的运动轨迹，然后高响应直线伺服器按照生成的运动轨迹进行往复运动，并和驱动非圆零件的主轴同步控制。非圆零件加工轨迹的控制精度是影响零件数控加工的重要因素。提出一种基于扰动观测的数字 PID 和迭代学习复合控制算法，根据非圆轮廓轨迹表现的周期性特征，使用数字 PID 和迭代学习控制的方法，可以有效达到非圆零件加工的控制精度，加工过程中的扰动同样影响零件的加工精度，通过扰动观测器来实现对扰动的有效反馈补偿控制，提高系统的控制精度，从而使非圆截面的切削控制精度得到提高，非圆零件的加工精度也可以得到显著提高。%During machining the high accuracy non-circular part, normally the trajectory of non-circular part profile is generated, and then the fast response linear servo motor drive the cutting tool to do reciprocating moving, and control the cutting tool synchronously with the spindle. The control accuracy of the non-circular part trajectory is critical to affect the non-circular part CNC machining. Based on the periodic features of non-circular profile trajectory, the control algorithm which is hybrid control of PID and iterative learning control has been effectively developed for non-circular profile generation. Because the load disturbance can negatively affect the control accuracy, so the disturbance observer is integrated to the control algorithm. The final motion accuracy of linear actuator has been improved, and the machining accuracy of the non-circular turning is improved.
Improved PSO-based Multivariable PID-like Neural Network Control%基于改进PSO算法的多变量PID型神经网络控制
冯冬青; 邢广成; 费敏锐; 陈铁军
2011-01-01
Making full use of the advantages of simple construction and strong stability of PID and self-learning and adaptability of neural networks, introducing PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithm, a multivariable adaptive neural network conroller was designed. It was composed of a hybrid locally connected recurrent network with an activation feedback and an output feedback in the hidden layer, PSO algorithm was applied in neural network parameter leaming. On the basis of the research and analysis for PSO, the variability factor and inertia weight self-adaptability strategy were introduced to improve the PSO algorithm. The improved PSO algorithm not only plays the advantage of fast convergence speed, but also conquers the shortcoming of PSO algorithm which is easily plunging into the local minimum, and improved the performance of control system greatly. Finally, simulation of the control of double inverted pendulum shows that the proposed algorithm has strong robust ability.%充分利用PID结构简单、稳定性强的良好性能以及神经网络的自学习和自适应的特长,引入粒子群优化(PSO)学习算法,设计一种多变量自适应PID型神经网络控制器.神经网络的隐含层由带有输出反馈和激活反馈的混合局部连接递归网络组成,采用PSO学习算法优化神经网络参数.在深入研究分析PSO算法的基础上,引入变异因子和惯性权重自适应策略对该算法进行改进,既发挥了PSO算法随机优化收敛速度快的优点,又克服了该算法易陷入局部最优点的缺点,显著提高了控制系统的性能指标.最后,通过对二级倒立摆控制的仿真分析,证明该算法具有较强的鲁棒性.
Simulation research on control algorithm of differential pressure casting process
Chai Yan; Jie Wanqi; Yang Bo
2009-01-01
To improve the precision of the filling pressure curve of differential pressure casting controlled with PID controller,the model of differential pressure casting process is established and two pressure-difference control systems using PID algorithm and Dahlin algorithm are separately designed in MATLAB. The scheduled pressure curves controlled with PID algorithm and Dahlin algorithm,respectively,are comparatively simulated in MATLAB.The simulated pressure curves obtained show that the control precision with Dahlin algorithm is higher than that with PID algorithm in the differential pressure casting process,and it was further verified by production practice.
Integrated control-structure design
Hunziker, K. Scott; Kraft, Raymond H.; Bossi, Joseph A.
1991-01-01
A new approach for the design and control of flexible space structures is described. The approach integrates the structure and controller design processes thereby providing extra opportunities for avoiding some of the disastrous effects of control-structures interaction and for discovering new, unexpected avenues of future structural design. A control formulation based on Boyd's implementation of Youla parameterization is employed. Control design parameters are coupled with structural design variables to produce a set of integrated-design variables which are selected through optimization-based methodology. A performance index reflecting spacecraft mission goals and constraints is formulated and optimized with respect to the integrated design variables. Initial studies have been concerned with achieving mission requirements with a lighter, more flexible space structure. Details of the formulation of the integrated-design approach are presented and results are given from a study involving the integrated redesign of a flexible geostationary platform.
FPGA-BASED CONTROL OF THERMOELECTRIC COOLERS FOR LASER DIODE TEMPERATURE REGULATION
AHTESHAM ALI
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller is the most used controller in the industry. Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs allow efficient implementation of PID controllers. This paper presents the temperature regulation of a 48W laser diode through thermoelectric coolers (TECs. The temperature regulation system is designed and tested. The results demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of PID control through FPGA.
Plasma Response Models for Controller Design on TCV
Lister, J. B.; Vyas, P.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M.; Villone, F.; Coutlis, A.; Limebeer, D. J. N.; Wainwright, J. P.
1997-11-01
The control of the plasma position and shape on present tokamaks is usually based on simple but reliable PID controllers. These controllers are either empirically tuned or based on simplistic models. More detailed models could be exploited by modern control theory to benefit the controller design, since the improvement in performance depends on the accuracy of the model. Linearized models of the plasma shape and position have been developed for TCV limited and diverted plasmas. These include a simple rigid current displacement model for zIp and the CREATE-L model for position and shape. The latter is an a priori phenomenological model which assumes that the plasma is in permanent MHD equilibrium and that the current profile is determined by only l_i, β_p, and I_p. Variations of the CREATE-L model based on different assumptions are also tested. A purely mathematical model developed from experimental observations on TCV was also developed. The accuracy and consistency of these models has been extensively tested on TCV and the CREATE-L model is in excellent agreement with open and closed loop experiments. The implications for controller design on TCV, and the suitability of these models for ITER controller design is assessed.
Non-Contact Electromagnetic Exciter Design with Linear Control Method
Wang, Lin; Xiong, Xianzhi; Xu, Hua
2016-04-01
A non-contact type force actuator is necessary for studying the dynamic performance of a high-speed spindle system owing to its high-speed operating conditions. A non-contact electromagnetic exciter is designed for identifying the dynamic coefficients of journal bearings in high-speed grinding spindles. A linear force control method is developed based on PID controller. The influence of amplitude and frequency of current, misalignment and rotational speed on magnetic field and excitation force is investigated based on two-dimensional finite element analysis. The electromagnetic excitation force is measured with the auxiliary coils and calibrated by load cells. The design is validated by the experimental results. Theoretical and experimental investigations show that the proposed design can accurately generate linear excitation force with sufficiently large amplitude and higher signal to noise ratio. Moreover, the fluctuations in force amplitude are reduced to a greater extent with the designed linear control method even when the air gap changes due to the rotor vibration at high-speed conditions. Besides, it is possible to apply various types of excitations: constant, synchronous, and non-synchronous excitation forces based on the proposed linear control method. This exciter can be used as linear-force exciting and controlling system for dynamic performance study of different high-speed rotor-bearing systems.
Gu, Jian; Ai, Yong
2015-10-01
In order to improve the dynamic tracking performance of coarse tracking system in space optical communication, a new control method based on active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) is proposed. Firstly, based on the structure analysis of coarse tracking system, the simplified system model was obtained, and then the extended state observer was designed to calculate state variables and spot disturbance from the input and output signals. Finally, the ADRC controller of coarse tracking system is realized with the combination of nonlinear PID controller. The simulation experimental results show that compared with the PID method, this method can significantly reduce the step response overshoot and settling time. When the target angular velocity is120mrad/s, tracking error with ADRC method is 30μrad, which decreases 85% compared with the PID method. Meanwhile the disturbance rejection bandwidth is increased by 3 times with ADRC. This method can effectively improve the dynamic tracking performance of coarse tracking and disturbance rejection degree, with no need of hardware upgrade, and is of certain reference value to the wide range and high dynamic precision photoelectric tracking system.
Design, modelling and control of a micro-positioning actuator based on magnetic shape memory alloys
Minorowicz, Bartosz; Leonetti, Giuseppe; Stefanski, Frederik; Binetti, Giulio; Naso, David
2016-07-01
This paper presents an actuator based on magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) suitable for precise positioning in a wide range (up to 1 mm). The actuator is based on the spring returned operating mode and uses a Smalley wave spring to maintain the same operating parameters of a classical coil spring, while being characterized by a smaller dimension. The MSMA element inside the actuator provides a deformation when excited by an external magnetic field, but its behavior is characterized by an asymmetric and saturated hysteresis. Thus, two models are exploited in this work to represent such a non-linear behavior, i.e., the modified and generalized Prandtl–Ishlinskii models. These models are particularly suitable for control purposes due to the existence of their analytical inversion that can be easily exploited in real time control systems. To this aim, this paper investigates three closed-loop control strategies, namely a classical PID regulator, a PID regulator with direct hysteresis compensation, and a combined PID and feedforward compensation strategy. The effectiveness of both modelling and control strategies applied to the designed MSMA-based actuator is illustrated by means of experimental results.
Ravi Samikannu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The temperature control in plastic extrusion machine is an important factor to produce high quality plastic products. The first order temperature control system in plastic extrusion comprises of coupling effects, long delay time and large time constants. Controlling temperature is very difficult as the process is multistage process and the system coupled with each other. In order to conquer this problem the system is premeditated with neuro fuzzy controller using LabVIEW. Approach: The existing technique involved is conventional PID controller, Neural controller, mamdani type Fuzzy Logic Controller and the proposed method is neuro fuzzy controller. Results: Manifest feature of the proposed method is smoothing of undesired control signal of conventional PID, neural controller and mamdani type FLC controller. The software incorporated the LabVIEW graphical programming language and MATLAB toolbox were used to design temperature control in plastic extrusion system. Hence neuro fuzzy controller is most powerful approach to retrieve the adaptiveness in the case of nonlinear system. Conclusion: The tuning of the controller was synchronized with the controlled variable and allowing the process at its desired operating condition. The results indicated that the use of proposed controller improve the process in terms of time domain specification, set point tracking and also reject disturbances with optimum stability.
Tsukaya, Hirokazu
2012-01-01
The safety of genetically modified crops remains a contested issue, given the potential risk for human health and the environment. To further reduce any risks and alleviate public concerns, terminator technology could be used both to tag and control genetically modified plants.
Fundamentals of corrosion control design
Perrigo, L.D.; Jensen, G.A.
1979-03-01
The development of corrosion control design principles and practice is discussed. It is concluded that by applying simple and straightforward principles to the design of systems, buildings and equipment, operational corrosion problems may be reduced or avoided. These corrosion control design principles are concerned with promoting the use of orientation, layout, and configuration to avoid the holdup of solutions, abrupt flow changes, impingement and stagnant areas. Climatic conditions and terrain are important siting considerations in reducing atmospheric corrosion of buildings and facilities. A determined effort is needed to broaden the understanding of anticorrosion design measures and principles because these are not widely known and recognized by designers and architects.
乌建中; 侯贤士; 陈吉
2009-01-01
The hydraulic turnover mechanism,using a dual cylinder hinge,is an advanced blade mould closing equipment of high technologies,mostly used for megawatt class wind blades above 40 meters,where more than three mechanisms are arranged along one blade mould at the same time.Obviously,there will be an unbalanced load on each mechanism due to the irregular shape of moulds and the inaccurate installing locations.The synchronous performance of multiple rotating arms.during a large-angle rotating process,directly influences the service life of blade moulds and the production quality of wind blades.For the turnover mechanism toenjoy high reliability,adaptability and control accuracy,a newcontrol method using the distributed single neuron PID algorithm is proposed for a synehmnons control of angular displacement of rotating arms.An improved LMS algorithm is used in the learning process,and the gain of the neuron output is adjusted automatically by the neuron based on the motion analysis results.Through rotating motion analysis with iterations,some basic parameters aredetermined,and a mechanical and hydraulic combined simulation model in AMESim is established,including a planar mechanical model.The LabVIEW subprogram of neuron PID could be nm through dynamic shared memory simultaneously.Finally,the results of traditional PID and neuron PID are shown in the gaule plot.It is shown through simulation results as well as practical applications that this method enjoys a good conlaml accuracy for nonlinear and time variant unbalanced systems.%大型风电叶片模具的合模或脱模,采用双缸铰接的液压翻转机构,其在大角度翻转过程中多转臂同步性能将直接影响翻转模具的寿命和叶片生产质量.针对该翻转设备可靠性、适应性和控制精度要求较高的特点,提出一种分布式的单神经元PID控制算法对机构转臂进行角位移同步控制,学习过程采用改进的LMS算法,并根据运动分析结果实现神经元输
Model validation and higher order sliding mode controller design for a research reactor
Qaiser, S.H. [Center for Advanced Studies in Engineering, 19 Ataturk Avenue, Islamabad (Pakistan); Bhatti, A.I. [Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Iqbal, Masood [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: masiqbal@hotmail.com; Samar, R. [Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Qadir, J. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2009-01-15
The paper pertains to model validation and novel higher order sliding mode controller design for a nuclear research reactor. Sliding mode controllers for nuclear reactors were reported before but higher order sliding mode controllers have added advantage of reduced chattering. As a first step of model development a simulation model of control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) has been developed using SIMULINK. This model has been validated with a lab based CRDM model, which is similar to Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) CRDM system. The nonlinear model of PARR-1 has been tuned and validated with experimental data. This model has been subsequently used for higher order sliding mode controller design and performance evaluation. Certain parameter values have also been recalculated to ensure model accuracy. Based on the validated model a robust nonlinear controller for controlling output power by manipulating control rod position has been developed and simulated. The new controller showed improved performance as compared to the classical PID controller.
Model validation and higher order sliding mode controller design for a research reactor
The paper pertains to model validation and novel higher order sliding mode controller design for a nuclear research reactor. Sliding mode controllers for nuclear reactors were reported before but higher order sliding mode controllers have added advantage of reduced chattering. As a first step of model development a simulation model of control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) has been developed using SIMULINK. This model has been validated with a lab based CRDM model, which is similar to Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) CRDM system. The nonlinear model of PARR-1 has been tuned and validated with experimental data. This model has been subsequently used for higher order sliding mode controller design and performance evaluation. Certain parameter values have also been recalculated to ensure model accuracy. Based on the validated model a robust nonlinear controller for controlling output power by manipulating control rod position has been developed and simulated. The new controller showed improved performance as compared to the classical PID controller
Drag-based composite super-twisting sliding mode control law design for Mars entry guidance
Zhao, Zhenhua; Yang, Jun; Li, Shihua; Guo, Lei
2016-06-01
In this paper, the drag-based trajectory tracking guidance problem is investigated for Mars entry vehicle subject to uncertainties. A composite super twisting sliding mode control method based on finite-time disturbance observer is proposed for guidance law design. The proposed controller not only eliminates the effects of matched and mismatched disturbances due to uncertainties of atmospheric models and vehicle aerodynamics but also guarantees the continuity of control action. Numerical simulations are carried out on the basis of Mars Science Laboratory mission, where the results show that the proposed methods can improve the Mars entry guidance precision as compared with some existing guidance methods including PID and ADRC.
Integrated controls design optimization
Lou, Xinsheng; Neuschaefer, Carl H.
2015-09-01
A control system (207) for optimizing a chemical looping process of a power plant includes an optimizer (420), an income algorithm (230) and a cost algorithm (225) and a chemical looping process models. The process models are used to predict the process outputs from process input variables. Some of the process in puts and output variables are related to the income of the plant; and some others are related to the cost of the plant operations. The income algorithm (230) provides an income input to the optimizer (420) based on a plurality of input parameters (215) of the power plant. The cost algorithm (225) provides a cost input to the optimizer (420) based on a plurality of output parameters (220) of the power plant. The optimizer (420) determines an optimized operating parameter solution based on at least one of the income input and the cost input, and supplies the optimized operating parameter solution to the power plant.
Design and Simulation of Different Controllers for Stabilizing Inverted Pendulum System
Rahul Kr. Rai
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The Inverted Pendulum system has been identified for implementing controllers as it is an inherently unstable system having nonlinear dynamics. The system has fewer control inputs than degrees of freedom which makes it fall under the class of under-actuated systems. It makes the control task more challenging making the inverted pendulum system a classical benchmark for the design, testing, evaluating and comparing. The inverted pendulum to be discussed in this paper is an inverted pendulum mounted on a motor driven cart. The aim is to stabilize the system such that the position of the cart on the track is controlled quickly and accurately so that the pendulum is always erected in its vertical position. In this paper the linearized model was obtained by Jacobian matrix method. The Matlab-Simulink models have been developed for simulation for optimal control design of nonlinear inverted pendulum-cart dynamic system using different control methods. The methods discussed in this paper are a double Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID control method, a modern Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR control method and a combination of PID and Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR control methods. The dynamic and steady state performance are investigated and compared for the above controllers.
Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout
2012-07-01
The aim of this study is to identify current alternatives for the implementation of digital controllers in the level control of steam generators of nuclear power PWR (Pressurized Water Reaetor). It is intended to identify the types of digital controls that are available from the theoretical and conceptual viewpoints for this purpose. We investigate the advantages and disadvantages of each controller model. From this assessment are pointed the most suitable models in hierarchical scale. This evaluation also serves to suggest possible types of control installation as a whole, where the level control of the steam generators becomes just one of many controls that are part of the plant. In this case, the use of digital controls allows the non-linear and multivariable treatment which is characteristic of complex systems, such as the nuclear power generation. The treatment of nonlinearities and multivariable aspects allows a more detailed study of the stability of these plants when they are subject to transients or several accidents, such as the case of losing external power of transients. In the specific case of steam generators, the instabilities result from the emergence of the shrink and swell phenomenas, depending on the load variations of thermonuclear plant. The application of several types and digital controllers, considering these inherent characteristics of the level control of steam generators, allows to infer which types of controllers are more appropriate to treat instabilities of this type and to make conjectures in its use for the cases of more complex instabilities, considering the integration of all nucleus-plant controls.
Controlling radiated emissions by design
Mardiguian, Michel
2014-01-01
The 3rd edition of Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design has been updated to reflect the latest changes in the field. New to this edition is material related to technical advances, specifically super-fast data rates on wire pairs, with no increase in RF interference. Throughout the book, details are given to control RF emissions using EMC design techniques. This book retains the step-by-step approach for incorporating EMC into every new design from the ground up. It describes the selection of quieter IC technologies, their implementation into a noise-free printed circuit layout, and the gathering of these into a low emissions package. Also included is how to design an I/O filter, along with connectors and cable considerations. All guidelines are supported throughout with comprehensive calculated examples. Design engineers, EMC specialists, and technicians will benefit from learning about the development of more efficient and economical control of emissions.
Decoupling Control Design for the Module Suspension Control System in Maglev Train
Guang He
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An engineering oriented decoupling control method for the module suspension system is proposed to solve the coupling issues of the two levitation units of the module in magnetic levitation (maglev train. According to the format of the system transfer matrix, a modified adjoint transfer matrix based decoupler is designed. Then, a compensated controller is obtained in the light of a desired close loop system performance. Optimization between the performance index and robustness index is also carried out to determine the controller parameters. However, due to the high orders and complexity of the obtained resultant controller, model reduction method is adopted to get a simplified controller with PID structure. Considering the modeling errors of the module suspension system as the uncertainties, experiments have been performed to obtain the weighting function of the system uncertainties. By using this, the robust stability of the decoupled module suspension control system is checked. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed decoupling design method is validated by simulations and physical experiments. The results illustrate that the presented decoupling design can result in a satisfactory decoupling and better dynamic performance, especially promoting the reliability of the suspension control system in practical engineering application.
李璀; 刘荣; 邓艾; 唐超
2012-01-01
针对X光机应用技术要求,分析了X光机高压电源内部结构,结合小波神经网络控制技术,设计了基于粒子群算法（PSO）的小波神经网络PID（WNN-PID）自适应控制器,并应用于X光机高压电源,通过与其它控制器对比,证明了该控制器具有更好的控制性能。%In this paper,we focused on the requirements of the application technology of X-ray machine,to analyze the internal structure of the high voltage power supply X-ray machine;and then,we combine with the wavelet neural network control technology,designed the WNN-PID adaptive controller which is based on the PSO.Finally,we apply this controller to the high voltage power supply X-ray machine,and it is proved that it has a better control performance as compared with the other controllers.
Design and simulation of a motion controller for a wheeled mobile-robot autonomous navigation
Alhaj Ali, Souma M.; Hall, Ernest L.
2005-10-01
This paper describes the development of PD, PID Computed-Torque (CT), and a PD digital motion controller for the autonomous navigation of a Wheeled Mobile Robot (WMR) in outdoor environments. The controllers select the suitable control torques, so that the WMR follows the desired path produced from a navigation algorithm described in a previous paper. PD CT, PID CT, and PD digital controllers were developed using a linear system design procedure to select the feedback control signal that stabilizes the tracking error equation. The torques needed for the motors were computed by using the inverse of the dynamic equation for the WMR. Simulation software was developed to simulate the performance and efficiency of the controllers. Simulation results verified the effectiveness of the controllers under different motion trajectories, comparing the performance of the three controllers shows that the PD digital controller was the best where the tracking error did not exceed .05 using 20 msec sample period. The significance of this work lies in the development of CT and digital controllers for WMR navigation, instead of robot manipulators. These CT controllers will facilitate the use of WMRs in many applications including defense, industrial, personal, and medical robots.
Design of Electric Bicycle Controller
Jie Cong
2009-01-01
This article introduces a sort of intelligent brushless DC motor driver and its concrete application in electric bicycle, and discusses the hardware and software design scheme of the controller, and realizes the speed control, over-current protection and battery under-voltage protection of the brushless DC motor. And the experiment result indicates that the control effect is good, and it could fulfill the application requirement of electric bicycle.
Anti-rollover Control System Design of Articulated Off-road Vehicles
Wang Shuai
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper designs an anti-rollover control system to improve articulated off-road vehicle rollover safety. This controller consists two level control which target to two different instability stages: 1 the active swing bridge adjustment control algorithm for the first stage instability; and 2 the active braking control algorithm for the second stage instability. The first level control is based on fuzzy PID control and second is based on switch control, they work together to prevent the articulated wheel loader from rollover accident. Multi-body dynamics model of a ZL50 articulated wheel loader is built by commercial software RecurDyn, and the MBD model and controller model were co-simulated under the same solver in RecurDyn/CoLink. The co-simulation results show that, during the high speed steering rollover process, these two level controller work efficiently to reduce the roll angle and improve the vehicle rollover stability.
Ergonomics and control room design
The application of ergonomic principles to the design process and some aspects of the Sizewell B control room is discussed. Also outlined is the management process which ensures that these principles are applied systematically throughout the design development activity and highlights the functional requirements which must also be met in the creation of a total man-machine system package which meets all the technical design criteria. The ergonomics requirements are part of this process and extend into all aspects of design ranging from such matters as workplace organization to environmental factors, social engineering, communications and aesthetics. (author)
Robust control design with MATLAB
Gu, Da-Wei; Konstantinov, Mihail M
2013-01-01
Robust Control Design with MATLAB® (second edition) helps the student to learn how to use well-developed advanced robust control design methods in practical cases. To this end, several realistic control design examples from teaching-laboratory experiments, such as a two-wheeled, self-balancing robot, to complex systems like a flexible-link manipulator are given detailed presentation. All of these exercises are conducted using MATLAB® Robust Control Toolbox 3, Control System Toolbox and Simulink®. By sharing their experiences in industrial cases with minimum recourse to complicated theories and formulae, the authors convey essential ideas and useful insights into robust industrial control systems design using major H-infinity optimization and related methods allowing readers quickly to move on with their own challenges. The hands-on tutorial style of this text rests on an abundance of examples and features for the second edition: · rewritten and simplified presentation of theoretical and meth...
Large HTGR control room design
The standard HTGR control room arrangement is based on an extensive program that started with a study of human engineering principles and evolved with the use of a full-scale mock-up employed to arrive at an optimized control board layout and select proper components for the man-machine interface. The integrated control system makes extensive use of a dual computer as a tool for data collection, alarming, and formating information for the operator, using cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as the prime display. Window type annunciators, recorders, and large pistol-grip switches have been replaced by multicolor CRTs, line printers, and miniature pushbutton switches designed into a compact monitoring and control console. The console is designed for stand-up and sit-down operation and is shaped for maximum operator convenience. Indicators and controls are functionally arranged so the operator can easily scan, compare like parameters, and respond to abnormal conditions. A summary is presented of the features General Atomic has included in the HTGR control room design and of approaches used to develop a modern design that meets General Atomic's objectives as well as current regulatory and code requirements. (U.S.)
ISABELLE control system: design concepts
ISABELLE is a Department of Energy funded proton accelerator/storage ring being built at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, New York). It is large (3.8 km circumference) and complicated (approx. 30,000 monitor and control variables). It is based on superconducting technology. Following the example of previous accelerators, ISABELLE will be operated from a single control center. The control system will be distributed and will incorporate a local computer network. An overview of the conceptual design of the ISABELLE control system will be presented
PID Control Based on IMC and Its Application on AMB%内模PID控制在磁悬浮轴承中的应用
宋朋飞; 张建生
2014-01-01
在分析磁悬浮轴承( AMB)数学模型的基础上，针对磁悬浮轴承非线性、不稳定、易于振荡等问题，提出了基于内模控制的研究策略。对于实时在线控制系统，内模控制不依赖被控对象的准确模型，具有操作简便、易于控制等优点。 Matlab仿真结果表明，该控制策略具有快速反应速度，对于转子运动的稳定性要求显示了良好性能。%Based on the analysis of the magnetic suspension bearing mathematical model and due to its nonlinearity,unstability and easy oscil ation,this paper puts forward the strategy based on the internal model control research. For the real-time on-line control system,the internal model control which does not rely on the accurate model of the control ed object is characteristic of easy operation and control. Matlab simulation results show that the control strategy is of fast response speed,and perfect rotor movement stability.
Design of a wind turbine pitch angle controller for power system stabilisation
Jauch, Clemens; Islam, S.M.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar;
2007-01-01
The design of a PID pitch angle controller for a fixed speed active-stall wind turbine, using the root locus method is described in this paper. The purpose of this controller is to enable an active-stall wind turbine to perform power system stabilisation. For the purpose of controller design, the...... transfer function of the wind turbine is derived from the wind turbine's step response. The performance of this controller is tested by simulation, where the wind turbine model with its pitch angle controller is connected to a power system model. The power system model employed here is a realistic model of...... controller can effectively contribute to power system stabilisation. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
The focusing DIRC: An innovative PID detector
The FDIRC (Focusing Detector of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) is a new concept of PID (Particle IDentification) detector aimed at separating kaons from pions up to a few GeV/c. It is the successor of the BABAR DIRC and benefits from the knowledge accumulated with a first FDIRC prototype built and operated at SLAC. The FDIRC is intended to be used in an environment with a luminosity 100 times higher than for BABAR and Belle. Backgrounds will be higher as well; yet, the FDIRC has been designed to perform at least as well as the BABAR DIRC. The main improvement is a complete redesign of the photon camera, moving from a huge tank of ultra-pure water to much smaller focusing cameras with solid fused-silica optics. Furthermore, the detection chain will be 10 times faster than in BABAR to reject more background and to measure more accurately Cherenkov angles. This is achieved using H-8500 MaPMTs and a new front-end electronics (FEE) with significantly improved timing precision, higher hit rate capability, and small dead time. A full-scale FDIRC prototype covering 1/12th of the barrel azimuth is installed at SLAC and has just started recording cosmic-ray data. In this paper, we summarize the FDIRC design, present the status of the prototype test at SLAC and review the ongoing work to analyse the data
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Treatment and Care
... Herpes Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ... is pelvic inflammatory disease treated? Several types of antibiotics can cure PID. Antibiotic treatment does not, however, reverse any ...
Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2013-10-01
This report documents the current status of the modeling, control design, and embedded control research for the magnetic bearing canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating instrumentation and controls (I{\\&}C) into nuclear power plant components. This pump is a highly inter-connected thermo/electro/mechanical system that requires an active control system to operate. Magnetic bearings are inherently unstable system and without active, moment by moment control, the rotor would contact fixed surfaces in the pump causing physical damage. This report details the modeling of the pump rotordynamics, fluid forces, electromagnetic properties of the protective cans, active magnetic bearings, power electronics, and interactions between different dynamical models. The system stability of the unforced and controlled rotor are investigated analytically. Additionally, controllers are designed using proportional derivative (PD) control, proportional integral derivative (PID) control, voltage control, and linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control. Finally, a design optimization problem that joins the electrical, mechanical, magnetic, and control system design into one problem to balance the opposing needs of various design criteria using the embedded system approach is presented.
Evolutionary Design of Controlled Structures
Masters, Brett P.; Crawley, Edward F.
1997-01-01
Basic physical concepts of structural delay and transmissibility are provided for simple rod and beam structures. Investigations show the sensitivity of these concepts to differing controlled-structures variables, and to rational system modeling effects. An evolutionary controls/structures design method is developed. The basis of the method is an accurate model formulation for dynamic compensator optimization and Genetic Algorithm based updating of sensor/actuator placement and structural attributes. One and three dimensional examples from the literature are used to validate the method. Frequency domain interpretation of these controlled structure systems provide physical insight as to how the objective is optimized and consequently what is important in the objective. Several disturbance rejection type controls-structures systems are optimized for a stellar interferometer spacecraft application. The interferometric designs include closed loop tracking optics. Designs are generated for differing structural aspect ratios, differing disturbance attributes, and differing sensor selections. Physical limitations in achieving performance are given in terms of average system transfer function gains and system phase loss. A spacecraft-like optical interferometry system is investigated experimentally over several different optimized controlled structures configurations. Configurations represent common and not-so-common approaches to mitigating pathlength errors induced by disturbances of two different spectra. Results show that an optimized controlled structure for low frequency broadband disturbances achieves modest performance gains over a mass equivalent regular structure, while an optimized structure for high frequency narrow band disturbances is four times better in terms of root-mean-square pathlength. These results are predictable given the nature of the physical system and the optimization design variables. Fundamental limits on controlled performance are discussed
Aerodynamic design via control theory
Jameson, Antony
1988-01-01
The question of how to modify aerodynamic design in order to improve performance is addressed. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey of the subject is included.
基于模糊PID方法的盾构掘进姿态控制研究%Research on Shield Boring Attitude Control Based on Fuzzy PID Algorithm
龚国芳; 洪开荣; 周天宇; 侯典清; 王林涛
2014-01-01
针对盾构掘进过程中姿态主要依赖操作人员施工经验手工调整、掘进轨迹精度主要依赖人员熟练性的情况，提出基于双闭环反馈自动控制盾构掘进轨迹的方法，通过主反馈实现掘进斜度的实时更新，局部反馈实现液压缸的速度控制。分析表明，局部反馈精度决定了预调偏差大小，在掘进轨迹控制中至为关键，因此以球铰支撑推进系统为例分析单环掘进前后液压缸的几何关系，推导左右推进液压缸速度关于掘进斜度、掘进速度的数学解析式，采用AMESim和MATLAB联合仿真工具搭建了推进速度控制的模糊PID模型，仿真分析非均载荷下推进液压缸的速度控制，并以盾构模拟推进试验台为例进行推进速度控制试验。结果表明：基于模糊PID控制策略的推进液压缸速度控制可实现较准确的盾构掘进轨迹，为盾构失准问题的进一步解决提供了理论基础和现实依据。%Considering the fact that the attitude of shield during the boring process is mainly controlled by manual adjustment according to personal experience and that the precision of shield boring trajectory mainly depends on personal proficiency,the authors propose the automatic shield attitude control method based on dual closed-loop feedback.The automatic shield attitude control method proposed contains a main-loop feedback that updates the tunneling trajectory and a local feedback that controls the velocity of the thrust cylinders.Succedent analysis shows that the local-feedback control is crucial.Therefore,the authors analyze the geometric relation of hydraulic cylinders before and after one-ring boring based on a spherical-hinge support thrust system,and deduce the mathematical expression of shield attitude and velocity of thrust cylinders on the left and right sides.The authors achieve the simulation of the velocity control system based on fuzzy PID by using AMEsim and MATLAB software
Design Fabrication & Real Time Vision Based Control of Gaming Board
Muhammad Nauman Mubarak
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents design, fabrication and real time vision based control of a two degree of freedom (d.o.f robot capable of playing a carom board game. The system consists of three main components: (a a high resolution digital camera (b a main processing and controlling unit (c a robot with two servo motors and striking mechanism. The camera captures the image of arena and transmits it to central processing unit. CPU processes the image and congregate useful information using adaptive histogram technique. Congregated information about the coordinates of the object is then sent to the RISC architecture based microcontroller by serial interface. Microcontroller implements inverse kinematics algorithms and PID control on motors with feedback from high resolution quadrature encoders to reach at the desired coordinates and angles. The striking unit exerts a controlled force on the striker when it is in-line with the disk and carom hole (or, pocket. The striker strikes with the disk and pots (to hit (a ball into a pocket it in the pocket. The objective is to develop an intelligent, cost effective and user friendly system that fulfil the idea of technology for entertainment.
Design of reconfigurable logic controllers
Bukowiec, Arkadiusz; Doligalski, Michał; Tkacz, Jacek
2016-01-01
This book presents the original concepts and modern techniques for specification, synthesis, optimisation and implementation of parallel logical control devices. It deals with essential problems of reconfigurable control systems like dependability, modularity and portability. Reconfigurable systems require a wider variety of design and verification options than the application-specific integrated circuits. The book presents a comprehensive selection of possible design techniques. The diversity of the modelling approaches covers Petri nets, state machines and activity diagrams. The preferences of the presented optimization and synthesis methods are not limited to increasing of the efficiency of resource use. One of the biggest advantages of the presented methods is the platform independence, the FPGA devices and single board computers are some of the examples of possible platforms. These issues and problems are illustrated with practical cases of complete control systems. If you expect a new look at the recon...
Practical control of SAGD wells with dual tubing strings
Stone, Terry; Brown, George; Guyagular, Baris; Bailey, William J.; Hin-Sum Law, David [Society of Petroleum Engineers (Canada)
2011-07-01
Dual tubing strings are often used in SAGD systems to regulate and improve injection and production, but problems may occur with the control and design of this multiple tube system. This paper discusses the benefits of using a proportional-integrated-derivative (PID) feedback controller to monitor temperature differences. After reviewing applications of permanent temperature sensing, the well model, and PID controller, the paper introduces results from simulations that fall into two cases. The first case modeled a dual tubing configuration and compared scenarios where PID controllers were used, to scenarios in which they were not used. The second case modeled a three tubing string configuration with the use of PID controllers. It was found that the use of a third tubing string allowed the SAGD process to achieve an improved cOSR more quickly and in all cases the PID controller was able to improve oil production over that for steam injected.
André Luis Bonifácio de CARVALHO
2009-11-01
Full Text Available información de salud como una herramienta estratégica para ayudar a ampliar la capacidad de los argumentos de los ciudadanos en defensa de sus intereses, convirtiéndose en una poderosa herramienta para garantizar el derecho de la ciudadanía. Para poner de relieve tanto la ejecución por el Oficina de Gestión Estratégica y Participativa del Programa de Inclusión Digital, aprobado por el Consejo Nacional de Salud, cuyo objetivo es ayudar a garantizar que los consejeros de salud a una información adecuada y adquirir las habilidades necesarias para la comunicación digital para el ejercicio de control social, utilizando tres estrategias, a saber, la adquisición de equipo, conectividad, y la formación de consejeros.
Computational Aspects of Controller Design
Novák, Miroslav
Praha: ÚTIA AV ČR, 2006 - (Šmídl, V.; Přikryl, J.; And rýsek, J.), s. 1-14 ISBN 80-903834-1-6. [International PhD Workshop on Interplay of Societal and Technical Decision-Making, Young Generation Viewpoint /7./. Hrubá Skála (CZ), 25.09.2006-30.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/03/0449; GA AV ČR 1ET100750401; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0271; GA AV ČR IAA1075403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Controller design * optimization * Controller tuning * LQ controller Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory
L Khakim
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Penelitian ini adalah penelitian pengembangan desain rancang bangun sistem pengendalian otomatis yang digerakkan dengan dua motor DC sehingga mampu mempertahankan kelembaman pada arahnya. Sistem otomatis ini terdiri dari sensor KMZ51 sebagai komponen feedback dan dua motor DC sebagai komponen plant. Pengujian dari sistem otomatis dibagi menjadi tiga yaitu pengujian sensor KMZ51, pengujian PWM sebagai penggerak motor DC dan pengujian performansi kontrol PID. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan nilai ketelitian sensor 99.17%. Pada pengujian PWM diperoleh error pengukuran 1.07% dan pengujian performansi sistem didapatkan bahwa penerapan kontrol PID dapat mengatur putaran motor DC sehingga model sistem mampu mempertahankan arahnya pada set point yang telah ditentukan dengan nilai overshoot maximum kurang dari 10%, rise time 2 detik dan settling time kurang dari 5% yang diperoleh pada Kp= 27, Ki= 6, dan Kd= 40 menggunakan metode trial and error.Â This research is design of automatic control system which driven by two DC motors that can keep the inertia of direction. The system is composed of sensor KMZ51 as feedback component and two DC motors as plant component. Testing of the automated system divided into three, KMZ51 sensor testing, PWM testing as drive DC motors, and performance testing of PID control system. The results show that the sensor accuracy values 99.17%, on testing the PWM measurement error obtained 1.07%, and testing of performance system obtained that the application of PID control can adjust DC motors rotation so that the model system is able to maintain direction the set point specified with maximum overshoot less than 10%, rise time of 2 seconds and settling time less than 5% were obtained at Kp= 27, Ki= 6, and Kd= 40 using trial and error method
Due to the tragic accident of radioactive contaminant spread from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, the necessity of unmanned systems for radiation monitoring has been increasing. This paper concerns the flight controller design of an unmanned airplane which has been developed for radiation monitoring around the power plant. The flight controller consists of conventional control elements, i.e. Stability/Control Augmentation System (S/CAS) with PI controllers and guidance loops with PID controllers. The gains in these controllers are designed by minimizing appropriately defined cost functions for several possible models and disturbances to produce structured robust flight controllers. (This method is called as 'multiple model approach'.) Control performance of our flight controller was evaluated through flight tests and a primitive flight of radiation monitoring in Namie-machi in Fukushima prefecture was conducted in Jan. 2014. Flight results are included in this paper. (author)
Synthesis water level control by fuzzy logic
P. Berk
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose: This paper focuses on evolving of two types fuzzy and classical PID liquid level controller and examining whether they are better able to handle modelling uncertainties. A two stage strategy is employed to design the synthesis fuzzy and classical PID controller with the process of the first and second order and implements disorder (quadratic function.Design/methodology/approach: The synthesis of fuzzy and classical PID liquid level controller was realized with the HP laptop 6830s Compaq NA779ES, software Matlab/Simulink 2008b, FIS (Fuzzy Inference System soft logical tool, input-output unit 500 Dragon Rider and ultrasonic sensor. Using the simulation program Matlab/Simulink/FIS we simulate the operation of fuzzy and classical controller in the liquid level regulating cycle and made a comparison between fuzzy and classical controller functioning.Findings: From the responses to step fuzzy and classical controller for first-order process shows that the actual value of the controlled variable takes the value one. Fuzzy and classical PID controller does not allow control derogation, which is also inappropriate for fuzzy and classical control cycle with incorporating disturbance. Classical PID controller in the first-order process provides short-term regulation, such as fuzzy PID controller. In fuzzy control cycle with fuzzy PID controller and incorporating disturbance in the process of second-order the control cycle is stable and at certain predetermined parameters (integral gain a control does not allow deviations.Research limitations/implications: In future research, the robustness of the fuzzy logic controller will be investigated in more details.Practical implications: Using fuzzy liquid level controller can reduce power consumption by 25%. Originality/value: Fuzzy logic controller is useful in applications of nonlinear static characteristic, where classical methods with usually classical PID controllers cannot be a satisfactory outcome
Practical design control implementation for medical devices
Justiniano, Jose
2003-01-01
Bringing together the concepts of design control and reliability engineering, this book is a must for medical device manufacturers. It helps them meet the challenge of designing and developing products that meet or exceed customer expectations and also meet regulatory requirements. Part One covers motivation for design control and validation, design control requirements, process validation and design transfer, quality system for design control, and measuring design control program effectiveness. Part Two discusses risk analysis and FMEA, designing-in reliability, reliability and design verific
冯新强; 韦根原
2015-01-01
针对热工系统中普遍存在的一阶时滞、二阶时滞热工过程，提出以ITAE指标为目标函数，利用黄金分割法对IMC⁃PID的滤波器参数进行优化。首先，仿真研究了ITAE指标函数对滤波器参数呈单峰性的特点，然后采用黄金分割法对滤波器参数进行快速寻优，从而使系统响应达到最优性能指标。仿真结果表明，该方法能够快速地寻优出滤波器参数，对热工系统的控制研究以及运行操作人员具有一定的指导意义。%For the prevalent one order⁃delay plus dead time, second order⁃delay plus dead time thermal process, this paper proposes a method to ITAE index as an objective function, use the golden section method to optimize the IMC⁃PID filter parameters. First, simulation of the filter parameters ITAE index shows a single peak characteris⁃tics, then the study uses the golden section method for rapid optimization of the filter parameters, allowing the sys⁃tem to achieve optimal performance. Simulation results show that this method can quickly optimize the filter param⁃eters, which may provide guidance for research and operational control of the operator of thermal systems.
Fuzzy Control for Food Agricultural Robotics of a Degree
Lepeng Song
2014-02-01
Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the fuzzy control for food agricultural robotics of a degree. Weeding robots can replace humans weeding activities, since the control system with nonlinear, robustness and a series of complex time-varying characteristics of the traditional PID control of the food agricultural robot end of the operation control effect cannot achieve the desired results, therefore, the design for the traditional use of classical PID control algorithm to control the food agricultural robot end of the operation of a series of drawbacks, combining cutting-edge control theory, fuzzy rule-based adaptive PID control strategy to control the entire system, so as to achieve the desired control effect. Experimental results show that the fuzzy adaptive PID control method for robot end postural control has better adaptability and track-ability.
LMR design to facilitate control
Recent testing in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) has demonstrated the potential for passively accomplishing basic reactor safety functions. Tests have shown that reactor feedbacks can safely shut down the reactor for loss of flow and loss of heat sink accidents and that natural convection can subsequently cool the reactor without aid of active components. Analysis has indicated that passive safety for the transient overpower and loss of coolant events can also be achieved for a larger LMR with metal fuel. The analyses and experiments suggest that there will be both special constraints and opportunities for the design of automatic control and protection systems for inherently safe reactor plants. The constraints are generally a restriction on the ''control band'' of active components so that they cannot override the reactivity feedbacks, or natural convective heads which otherwise inherently carry out the safety functions. The opportunities for improvement of reactor controls are generally in two areas. First the complexity of safety systems (which evolves from the philosophy of safety reliability through redundancy, diversity and independence) can be reduced. The reliability and diverse nature of passive shutdown, convective heat removal and hydrostatic mitigation of leaks in the primary boundary allow considerable simplification or deletion of active control and protection system, while at the same time improving reliability of the safety functions. 10 refs., 4 figs
Robust motion control design for dual-axis motion platform using evolutionary algorithm
Horn-Yong Jan; Chun-Liang Lin; Ching-Huei Huang; Thong-Shing Hwang
2008-12-01
This paper presents a new approach to deal with the dual-axis control design problem for a mechatronic platform. The cross-coupling effect leading to contour errors is effectively resolved by incorporating a neural net-based decoupling compensator. Conditions for robust stability are derived to ensure the closedloop system stability with the decoupling compensator. An evolutionary algorithm possessing the universal solution seeking capability is proposed for ﬁnding the optimal connecting weights of the neural compensator and PID control gains for the and axis control loops. Numerical studies and a real-world experiment for a watch cambered surface polishing platform have veriﬁed performance and applicability of our proposed design.
Optimization and simulation of the feedback control system of HL-2A
Making use of the MATLAB language to analyze the stability of the plasma current and radial position control system in the HL-2A, the PID controller is designed and the system response is simulated. (authors)
DSP controlled power converter
Chan, CH; Pong, MH
1995-01-01
A digital controller is designed and implemented by a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) to replace the Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) and error amplifier compensation network in a two wheeler forward converter. The DSP controller is designed in three approaches: a) Discretization of analog controller - the design is based on the transfer function of the error amplifier compensation network. b) Digital PID controller design - the design is based on the general form of the pulse transfer function of ...
Genetic Design of an Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Controller for Velocity Regulation in a DC Motor
Yazmin Maldonado
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes the design of a Type‐2 Fuzzy Logic Controller (T2‐FLC using Genetic Algorithms (GAs. The T2‐FLC was tested with different levels of uncertainty to regulate velocity in a Direct Current (DC motor. The T2‐FLC was synthesized in Very High Description Language (VHDL code for a Field‐programmable Gate Array (FPGA, using the Xilinx System Generator (XSG of Xilinx ISE and Matlab‐Simulink. Comparisons were made between the Type‐1 Fuzzy Logic Controller and the T2‐FLC in VHDL code and a Proportional Integral Differential (PID Controller so as to regulate the velocity of a DC motor and evaluate the difference in performance of the three types of controllers, using the t‐student test statistic.
Linear Design Approach to a Fuzzy Controller
Jantzen, Jan
1999-01-01
A ball-balancer, basically an inverted pendulum problem, is stabilised by a linear controller. With certain design choices, a fuzzy controller is equivalent to a summation; thus it can replace the linear controller. It can be claimed, that the fuzzy controller performs at least as well as the...... linear controller, since the linear controller is contained in the fuzzy controller. The approach makes it somewhat easier to design a fuzzy controller....
Linear Design Approach to a Fuzzy Controller
Jantzen, Jan
A ball-balancer, basically an inverted pendulum problem, is stabilised by a linear controller. With certain design choices, a fuzzy controller is equivalent to a summation; thus it can replace the linear controller. It can be claimed, that the fuzzy controller performs at least as well as the...... linear controller, since the linear controller is contained in the fuzzy controller. The approach makes it somewhat easier to design a fuzzy controller....
Some control design experiments with HIFOO
Henrion, Didier
2006-01-01
A new MATLAB package called HIFOO was recently proposed for H-infinity fixed-order controller design. This document illustrates how some standard controller design examples can be solved with this software.
Governors for hydro-turbine speed control in power generation: a SIMO robust design approach
This paper presents a robust single-input multi-output design approach for governors for speed control of hydro-turbines. A nonlinear turbine model is developed to include effects of water hammer, travelling waves and inelastic water penstocks. Norm bounded uncertainties and disturbances are briefly discussed to investigate measures of robustness. The polynomial robust H∞ optimisation method is used in design. The robust governor ensures that the overall system remains asymptotically stable for all norm bounded uncertainties and permanent system oscillations. Results are compared with conventional PI and PID designs and presented in the time and frequency domains. It is demonstrated that the proposed robust governor improves the performance significantly even in the presence of uncertainties
Designing of Proportional Sliding Mode Controller for Linear One Stage Inverted Pendulum
Anirban Banrejee
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The control of Inverted Pendulum (IP is a hugely complex task. A great deal of nonlinearity is present inherently and as well as affected by the surrounding external conditions. The sliding mode controller (SMC is very robust inherently. It is used in this paper to control the IP. This paper examines the designing of sliding mode controller (SMC for a linear inverted pendulum (IP. The paper highlights the important features of the sliding mode and also throws ample lights on the designing guidelines. The paper puts special impetus on the mathematical modeling of the controller. The robustness of the design of SMC with proportional control is amply displayed with the help of simple mathematics. It gives rise to a controller which can control a highly nonlinear system like IP quite efficiently. The performance of the SMC is compared with fuzzy and PID controller. The edge this controller poses is the key aspect of this paper. External disturbances and internal inaccuracies are also introduced to the system to bring out the robustness of the controller to the fore. Background on sliding mode and the pendulum are provided. Simulation results are displayed in a vivid manner and explained suitably.
10 CFR 72.146 - Design control.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design control. 72.146 Section 72.146 Energy NUCLEAR... Design control. (a) The licensee, applicant for a license, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC... shall establish measures for the identification and control of design interfaces and for...
Design concept of Hydro cascade control system
In this paper a design concept of the comple hydro cascade scheme is presented with the design parameters of the main technical features. The cascade control system architecture is designed considering up-to-date communication and information technology. The control algorithm is based on Pond Level Control and Economic Load Allocation concepts.
Guidelines for control room design reviews
The control room design review is part of a broad program being undertaken by the nuclear industry and the government to ensure consideration of human factors in nuclear power plant design and operation. The purpose of the control room design review described by these guidelines is to (1) review and evaluate the control room workspace, instrumentation, controls, and other equipment from a human factors engineering point of view that takes into account both system demands and operator capabilities; and (2) to identify, assess, and implement control room design modifications that correct inadequate or unsuitable items. The scope of the control room design review described by these guidelines covers the human engineering review of completed control rooms; i.e., operational control rooms or those at that stage of the licensing process where control room design and equipment selection are committed. These guidelines should also be of use during the design process for new control rooms. However, additional analyses to optimize the allocation of functions to man and machine, and further examination of advanced control system technology, are recommended for new control rooms. Guidelines and references for comprehensive system analyses designed to incorporate human factors considerations into the design and development of new control rooms are presented in Appendix B. Where possible, a generic approach to the control room design review process is encouraged; for example, when control room designs are replicated wholly or in part in two or more units. Even when designs are not replicated exactly, generic reviews which can be modified to account for specific differences in particular control rooms should be considered. Industry organizations and owners groups are encouraged to coordinate joint efforts and share data to develop generic approaches to the design review process. The control room design review should accomplish the following specific objectives. To determine
Prototyping qualitative controllers for fuzzy-logic controller design
Qualitative controls can be designed for linear and nonlinear models with the same computational complexity. At the same time they show the general form of the proper control. These properties can help ease the design process for quantitative controls. In this paper qualitative controls are used as prototypes for the design of linear or nonlinear, and in particular Sugeno-type fuzzy, controls. The LMS identification method is used to approximate the qualitative control with the nearest fuzzy control. The method is applied to the problem of position control in a permanent magnet synchronous motor; moreover, the performance and the robustness of the two controllers are compared
PID Gain Tuning for Disturbance Attenuation FRIT Method
Masuda, Shiro
This review paper shows a PID gains tuning method from one-shot experimental data generated by test signal added at input signal in an off-line manner, so that the output signal could follow the prescribed reference model output. We call the method a “disturbance attenuation FRIT method” because the test signal added at input signal is a benchmark signal evaluating disturbance attenuation property. The experimental result for helicopter attitude control model is demonstrated to show the effectiveness of the disturbance attenuation FRIT method.
Design techniques for mutlivariable flight control systems
1981-01-01
Techniques which address the multi-input closely coupled nature of advanced flight control applications and digital implementation issues are described and illustrated through flight control examples. The techniques described seek to exploit the advantages of traditional techniques in treating conventional feedback control design specifications and the simplicity of modern approaches for multivariable control system design.
Roman Czyba
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the different control strategies for the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV. The control task is formulated as an angular stabilization of the four rotor platform, and also as a tracking problem of chosen state variables. The PID algorithm has been considered in three structures in respect of the optimal control signal applied to the actuators. For better performance of the quadrotor in hover mode the cascade control system has been proposed. The simulation results of attitude control with different PID controller architectures are presented, and confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control structure and theoretical expectations. Moreover, the design and the practical realization of the control architecture on the experimental aerial vehicle are described. The fast prototyping method together with Matlab/Simulink software and DAQ hardware are used for both evolution and validation of control algorithms. The capacity of the attitude stabilization system is important in the development process of more advanced functionality of autonomous flying vehicles; therefore it needs to be highlighted and taken into careful consideration.
Batch process design: an overview from control
Zuluaga Bedoya, Christian Camilo
2015-01-01
Abstract: batch process design: an overview from control In this work, the topic of batch process design is addressed, through an analysis of the phenomenological-based model and using set-theoretic methods to deduce process constraints and parametric effects in state controllability. A review of literature is presented about characterization of batch process from point of view of design problem. Furthermore simultaneous process and control design is also reviewed, considering the main contri...
Mechanical engineers' handbook, design, instrumentation, and controls
Kutz, Myer
2015-01-01
Full coverage of electronics, MEMS, and instrumentation andcontrol in mechanical engineering This second volume of Mechanical Engineers' Handbookcovers electronics, MEMS, and instrumentation and control, givingyou accessible and in-depth access to the topics you'll encounterin the discipline: computer-aided design, product design formanufacturing and assembly, design optimization, total qualitymanagement in mechanical system design, reliability in themechanical design process for sustainability, life-cycle design,design for remanufacturing processes, signal processing, dataacquisition and dis
An FPGA-Based Multiple-Axis Velocity Controller and Stepping Motors Drives Design
Lai Chiu-Keng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A Field Programmable Gate Array based system is a great hardware platform to support the implementation of hardware controllers such as PID controller and fuzzy controller. It is also programmed as hardware accelerator to speed up the mathematic calculation and greatly enhance the performance as applied to motor drive and motion control. Furthermore, the open structure of FPGA-based system is suitable for those designs with the ability of parallel processing or soft code processor embedded. In this paper, we apply the FPGA to a multi-axis velocity controller design. The developed system integrated three functions inside the FPGA chip, which are respectively the stepping motor drive, the multi-axis motion controller and the motion planning. Furthermore, an embedded controller with a soft code processor compatible to 8051 micro-control unit (MCU is built to handle the data transfer between the FPGA board and host PC. The MCU is also used to initialize the motion control and run the interpolator. The designed system is practically applied to a XYZ motion platform which is driven by stepping motors to verify its performance.
PRESSURE FORCE CONTROL FOR FABRICATION OF PLASTIC MICROFLUIDIC CHIPS WITH HOT EMBOSSING METHOD
LIU Chong; LIAO Junfeng; WANG Xiaodong; WANG Liding
2007-01-01
A pressure force control system for hot embossing of microfluidic chips is designed with a moment motor and a ball bearing lead screw. Based on the numeric PID technique, the algorithm of pulsant integral accelerated PID control is presented and the negative effects of nonlinearity from friction, clearance and saturation are eliminated. In order to improve the quick-response characteristic, independent thread technique is adopted. The method of pressure force control based on pulsant integral accelerated PID control and independent thread technique is applied with satisfactory control performance.
Investigation of Optimal Control System for Arc Spraying
LIHe-qi; LIChun-xu; CHENKe-xuan; LUGuang
2004-01-01
An arc voltage feedback PID controller and arc current feedback PID controller are designed with a controlal gorithm of discrete PID separately to realize optimal control in computer controlling arc-spraying system. In order to realize optimization and adaptation of the arc-spraying process parameters as well as to reduce blindness in selecting process parameters, a serial communication interface between a PC for spraying data acquisition and a MCU of the control system is designed so that on-line modification of the PID control parameters is implemented. At the same time, a genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the control parameters of PID controller, where the difference between the actually sampled value and the setting value of spraying current is made as the judgment criterion to determine the adaptability. The given range of control parameters varies from 0 to 15 and is to be encoded by a coding of four-bit binary string. The optimal population of control parameters of the PID controller can be obtained through reproduction, crossing and mutation, so that the optimal controlling in arc-spraying process is realized and an excellent coating of arc spraying is obtained.
LWR control assembly designs: A historical perspective
Control rod designs and materials have evolved in response to performance problems in both PWRs and BWRs. Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) due to absorber swelling has primarily affected BWR control rods with B4C absorbers, but has also occurred in PWRs with Ag-In-Cd absorbers. The primary problems for some designs of PWR control rods have been wear of the rodlets against upper internal components and swelling with tip wear and cracking. Competition amongst vendors for supplying control rod reloads has also resulted in design improvements. This paper provides an historical review of PWR and BWR control rod designs, their problems and remedies. (author)
Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD)
Stoner, Frank T.
1993-01-01
The design of modern aerospace systems relies on the efficient utilization of computational resources and the availability of computational tools to provide accurate system modeling. This research focuses on the development of a computer aided control system design application which provides a full range of stability analysis and control design capabilities for aerospace vehicles.
Regulatory control of fuel design and manufacturing
The regulatory control of the design and manufacturing of the nuclear fuel and of the control rods aims to ensure conformance to set requirements during normal operating conditions, anticipated operational transients and postulated accident conditions. The regulatory control of design, manufacturing, receiving inspections and the start of operation of the nuclear fuel are specified in the guide. The regulatory control procedure also applies to the control rods and the shield elements
Robust Decentralized Controller Design: Subsystem Approach
Rosinová, Danica; Thuan, Nguyen Quang; Veselý, Vojtech; Marko, L'ubomír
2012-01-01
The paper addresses the problem of the robust output feedback PI controller design for complex large-scale stable systems with a state decentralized control structure. A decentralized control design procedure is proposed for static output feedback control which is based on solving robust control design problems of subsystems' size. The presented approach is based on the Generalized Gershgorin Theorem and uses the so-called equivalent subsystems approach to consider the interactions in the local robust controller design. The resulting decentralized control scheme has been successfully tested on two examples: a linearized model of three interconnected boiler-turbine subsystems and a linear model of four cooperating DC motors where the problem is to design four local PI controllers for a large scale system which will guarantee robust stability and performance of the closed-loop uncertain system.
Control room and ergonomic design
The important basis for the configuration of the control room of a nuclear power station is the concept for controlling a fault and that for controlling normal operation. The tasks resulting from this for the control room personnel are decided by the control room concept. In this configuration process (from the division of process control tasks between the system components operators and control technology to the configuration of individual means of operation) the characteristics and capabilities of the personnel, which are subject to special requirements as regards their qualifications, are observed. New concepts which are only now technically feasible are therefore being developed for information processing and display, in order to give the personnel a better oversight of the state and trends of the plant. (orig./DG)
Model identification and controller design of a fish-like robot
Ariyanto, Irfan; Kang, Taesam; Chan, Wai Leung; Lee, Youngjae
2007-04-01
Robotic fish is an interesting and prospective subject to develop. The simplest fish swimming mode to be mimicked for fish robots is the ostraciiform mode which only requires caudal fin flapping. An almost submerged ostraciiform fish robot was constructed to study its swimming characteristics. The swimming direction can be controlled by changing the mean angle of caudal fin oscillation. Experiments were conducted to study the behavior of the fish robot and in particular, the transfer function between swimming path angular rate and mean angle of the caudal fin oscillation were identified. Error to signal ratio quantity was used to determine how well the model fits with the experimental data. This identification model was used to design a 2-degree-of-freedom PID controller that meets some specific requirements to improve the steering performance.
Design and position control of AF lens actuator for mobile phone using IPMC-EMIM
Kim, Sung-Joo; Kim, Chul-Jin; Park, No-Cheol; Yang, Hyun-Seok; Park, Young-Pil; Park, Kang-Ho; Lee, Hyung-Kun; Choi, Nak-Jin
2008-03-01
IPMC-EMIM (Ionic Polyer Metal Composites + 1-ethyl-3- methyl imidazolium trifluromethane sulfonate, EMIM-Tfo) is fabricated by substituting ionic liquid for water in Nafion film, which improves water sensitiveness of IPMC and guarantees uniform performance regardless of the surrounding environment. In this paper, we will briefly introduce the procedure of fabrication of IPMC-EMIM and proceed to introduce the Hook-type actuator using IPMC-EMIM and application to AF Lens actuator. Parameters of Hook-type actuator are estimated from experimental data. In the simulation, The proposed AF Lens Actuator is assumed to be a linear system and based on estimated parameters, PID controller will be designed and controlled motion of AF Lens actuator will be shown through simulation.
Model-based control structure design of a full-scale WWTP under the retrofitting process.
Machado, V C; Lafuente, J; Baeza, J A
2015-01-01
The anoxic-oxic (A/O) municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Manresa (Catalonia, Spain) was studied for a possible conversion to an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2/O) configuration to promote enhanced biological phosphorus removal. The control structure had to be redesigned to satisfy the new necessity to control phosphorus concentration, besides ammonium and nitrate concentrations (main pollutant concentrations). Thereby, decentralized control structures with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers and centralized control structures with model-predictive controllers (MPC) were designed and tested. All the designed control structures had their performance systematically tested regarding effluent quality and operating costs. The centralized control structure, A2/O-3-MPC, achieved the lowest operating costs with the best effluent quality using the A2/O plant configuration for the Manresa WWTP. The controlled variables used in this control structure were ammonium in the effluent, nitrate at the end of the anoxic zone and phosphate at the end of the anaerobic zone, while the manipulated variables were the internal and external recycle flow rates and the dissolved oxygen setpoint in the aerobic reactors. PMID:26038931
Targeted NGS: a cost effective approach to molecular diagnosis of PIDs
Jennifer eStoddard
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Background: Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs are a diverse group of disorders caused by multiple genetic defects. Obtaining a molecular diagnosis for PID patients using a phenotype-based approach is often complex, expensive, and not always successful. Next-generation sequencing (NGS methods offer an unbiased genotype-based approach, which can facilitate molecular diagnostics.Objective: To develop an efficient NGS method to identify variants in PID-related genes.Methods: We performed HaloPlex custom target enrichment and NGS using the Ion Torrent PGM to screen 173 genes in 11 healthy controls, 13 PID patients previously evaluated with either an identified mutation or SNP, and 120 patients with undiagnosed PIDs. Sensitivity and specificity were determined by comparing NGS and Sanger sequencing results for 33 patients. Run metrics and coverage analyses were done to identify systematic deficiencies. Results: A molecular diagnosis was identified for 18 of 120 patients who previously lacked a genetic diagnosis, including 9 who had atypical presentations and extensive previous genetic and functional studies. Our NGS method detected variants with 98.1% sensitivity and >99.9% specificity. Uniformity was variable (72-89% and we were not able to reliably sequence 45 regions (45/2455 or 1.8% of total regions due to low (<20 average read depth or <90% region coverage; thus, we optimized probe hybridization conditions to improve read-depth and coverage for future analyses, and established criteria to help identify true-positives. Conclusion: While NGS methods are not as sensitive as Sanger sequencing for individual genes, targeted NGS is a cost-effective, first-line genetic test for the evaluation of patients with PIDs. This approach decreases time to diagnosis, increases diagnostic rate, and provides insight into the genotype-phenotype correlation of PIDs in a cost-effective way.
Jesus Patricio Ordaz Oliver
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a stability analysis for LNDS (Lagrangian nonlinear dynamical systems with dynamic uncertain using a PID controller with external disturbances rejection based on attractive ellipsoid methods, since the PID-CT (proportional integral derivative computed torque compensator has been used for the nonlinear trajectory tracking of an LNDS, when there are external perturbations and system uncertainties. The global system convergence of the trivial solution has not been proved. In this sense, we propose an approach to find the gains of the nonlinear PID-CT controller to guarantee the boundedness of the trivial solution by means of the concept of the UUB (uniform-ultimately bounded stability. In order to show the effectiveness of the methodology proposed, we applied it in a real 2-DoF robot system.
Adaptive fuzzy multivariable controller design based on genetic algorithm for an air handling unit
In HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems, effective thermal management is required because energy and operation costs of buildings are directly influenced by how well an air-conditioning system performs. HVAC systems are typically nonlinear time varying with disturbances, where conventional PID controllers may trade-off between stability and rise time. To overcome this limitation, a Genetic Algorithm based AFLC (Adaptive Fuzzy Logic Controller design has been proposed for the multivariable control of temperature and humidity of a typical AHU (air handling unit by manipulating valve positions to adjust the water and steam flow rates. Modulating equal percentage Globe valves for chilled water and steam have been modeled according to exact flow rates of water and steam. A novel method for the adaptation of FLC (Fuzzy Logic Controller by modifying FRM (Fuzzy Rule Matrix based on GA (genetic algorithm) has been proposed. This requires re-designing the complete FLC in MATLAB/Simulink whose procedure has also been proposed. The proposed adaptive controller outperforms the existing fuzzy controller in terms of steady state error, rise time and settling time. - Highlights: • GA based Adaptive Fuzzy Logic Controller to improve performance of HVAC system. • Multivariable control of an air handling unit to adjust the water and steam flow rates. • Significant improvement in steady state error, rise time and settling time of the control system
Design controls for the medical device industry
Teixeira, Marie B
2013-01-01
The second edition of a bestseller, Design Controls for the Medical Device Industry provides a comprehensive review of the latest design control requirements, as well as proven tools and techniques to ensure your company's design control program evolves in accordance with current industry practice. The text assists in the development of an effective design control program that not only satisfies the US FDA Quality System Regulation (QSR) and ISO 9001 and 13485 standards, but also meets today's third-party auditor/investigator expectations and saves you valuable time and money.The author's cont
Stabilizing sliding mode control design and application for a dc motor: Speed control
Rhif, Ahmed
2012-01-01
The regulation by sliding mode control (SMC) is recognized for its qualities of robustness and dynamic response. This article will briefly talk about the regulation principles by sliding mode as well as the application of this approach to the adjustment of a speed control DC motor bench using the TY36A/EV unit. This unit, from Electronica Veneta products, uses a PID controller to control the speed and position of the DC motor. Our purpose is to improve the set time answer and the robustness o...
ZHU Yu; LIU Xinggao; CHU Jian
2006-01-01
Interaction between overhead and bottom composition loops of internal thermally coupled distillation columns (ITCDIC)with four purities are analyzed by means of relative gain array, condition number and singular value decomposition, which indicates that high- and very high-purity ITCDIC are well coupled and ill-conditioned systems with severe gain directionality problem. Based on the above dynamic behaviors, suitable control schemes of four different purity systems are studied. In low-purity system, internal model control (IMC) is better than decentralized proportion integral differential (D-PID) control in terms of response speed and remaining errors. Inmoderate-purity system, D-PID can effectively reject large load disturbances while IMC fails due to severe mismatch between model and plant. In high-purity system, neither IMC nor D-PID can provide satisfactory control so that modified IMC and multivariable PID with singular value decomposition scheme are presented respectively to improve control performances. Finally, in very high-purity systems, the combined feed-forward and feedback control scheme is proposed to deal with extremely sluggish responses to load disturbances.
Bastiaens, Tim; Claes, Laurence; Smits, Dirk; De Clercq, Barbara; De Fruyt, Filip; Rossi, Gina; Vanwalleghem, Dominique; Vermote, Rudi; Lowyck, Benedicte; Claes, Stephan; De Hert, Marc
2016-02-01
The factor structure and the convergent validity of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), a self-report questionnaire designed to measure personality pathology as advocated in the fifth edition, Section III of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), are already demonstrated in general population samples, but need replication in clinical samples. In 240 Flemish inpatients, we examined the factor structure of the PID-5 by means of exploratory structural equation modeling. Additionally, we investigated differences in PID-5 higher order domain scores according to gender, age and educational level, and explored convergent and discriminant validity by relating the PID-5 with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire and by comparing PID-5 scores of inpatients with and without a DSM-IV categorical personality disorder diagnosis. Our results confirmed the original five-factor structure of the PID-5. The reliability and the convergent and discriminant validity of the PID-5 proved to be adequate. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25736039
Computing strategy for PID calibration samples for LHCb Run 2
Anderlini, Lucio; Lupton, Olli; Sciascia, Barbara; Gligorov, Vladimir
2016-01-01
The samples for the calibration of the Particle Identification (PID) are sets of data collected by LHCb where decay candidates have a kinematic structure which allows unambiguous identification of one the daughters with a selection strategy not relying on its PID-related variables. PID calibration samples are used in a data-driven technique to measure the efficiency of selection requirements on PID variables in many LHCb analyses. Since the second run of the LHCb experiment, PID variable are computed as part of the software trigger and then refined in the offline reconstruction (this includes two different applications, named Brunel and DaVinci). Physics analyses rely on selections combining PID requirements on the online and offline versions of the PID variables. Because of the large, but not full, correlation between online and offline PID variables, the PID samples must be built such that it is possible to access, particle by particle, both versions of the full PID information, such that combined requireme...
Aerogel RICH for the Belle II forward PID
Nishida, S.; Adachi, I.; Hamada, N.; Hara, K.; Iijima, T.; Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H.; Kawai, H.; Korpar, S.; Kriz^an, P.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Ŝantelj, L.; Seljak, A.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Tahirovic, E.; Yoshida, K.; Yusa, Y.
2014-12-01
The Belle II spectrometer, a follow up of the very successful Belle experiment, is under construction at the SuperKEKB electron-positron collider at KEK in Japan. For the PID system in the forward region of the spectrometer, a proximity focusing ring-imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counter with an aerogel radiator is being developed. The counter will provide a 4σ separation of pions and kaons up to momenta of 4 GeV/c. For the position sensitive photon sensor, a 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector (HAPD) has been developed with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. The readout electronics is based on the custom developed ASIC. The design of the components is currently being finalized and part of their mass production have already started. Herein, we report the final design of the counter and a prototype test conducted with test beams at DESY.
Mehrdad Jafarboland
2014-01-01
Full Text Available High speed boats are small kind of boats which are piloted with boatman.These boats are usually used in strategic commissions like military which fast speeds and good manoeuvrability are of essential importance.Rough sea path, marine turbulences and multi input multi output nonlinear dynamical model of this boats,make it very difficult to pilot and manoeuvre them.in this paper,.two controller are designed and proposed for pursuing desired path and manoeuvring fast speeds.Fuzzy controller is compared with the result of PID controller. Simulation results also indicate that these proposed controllers have suitable responses and can pilot the boat in the best manner.