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Sample records for petrol station attendants

  1. Working Environment Factors that Affect Quality of Work Life among Attendants in Petrol Stations in Kitale Town in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Aloys Nyagechi Kiriago; Bwisa, Henry M.

    2013-01-01

    This research sought to establish working environment factors that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants in Kitale town. The objective of the study was to identify working environment aspects that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants. This study was an exploratory survey, carried out in 17 petrol stations that are located in Kitale Town, Kenya. The target population comprised 17 station managers and 170 attendants, out of which a sample of 102 resp...

  2. Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Udonwa, N. E.; Uko, E. K.; Ikpeme, B. M.; Ibanga, I. A.; Okon, B. O.

    2009-01-01

    A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM), Petrol Station Attendants (PSA) and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure t...

  3. Cytogenetic biomonitoring in petrol station attendants: micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ayla; Cava?, Tolga; Ergene-Gözükara, Serap

    2003-09-01

    To study the effects of occupational exposure to petroleum derivates such as benzene, exfoliated buccal cells from 50 petrol station attendants and 50 age- and sex-matched control subjects were examined for micronucleus (MN) frequency. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis and karyolysis, were also evaluated. Benzene exposure was ascertained by measuring urinary phenol levels. The mean urinary phenol level of station workers was found to be significantly higher than that of control subjects (P < 0.05). Analysis of buccal cells revealed that MN and NA frequencies in petrol station workers were significantly higher than in control subjects (P < 0.01) and also significantly related to smoking habit (P < 0.01). Our findings indicate that the petrol station workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. PMID:12960409

  4. Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM), Petrol Station Attendants (PSA) and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (Met Hb) and packed cells volume (PCV). Mean Met Hb value was higher in AM (7.3%) and PSA (5.8%) than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%). PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%), than AM (33.3%) and the subjects from the general population (40.8%). Met Hb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and Met Hb as a useful bio marker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour.

  5. Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Udonwa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM, Petrol Station Attendants (PSA and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (MetHb and packed cells volume (PCV. Mean MetHb value was higher in AM (7.3% and PSA (5.8% than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%. PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%, than AM (33.3% and the subjects from the general population (40.8%. MetHb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and MetHb as a useful biomarker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour.

  6. Meyrin Petrol Station

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  7. Biomonitoring of oral epithelial cells in petrol station attendants: comparison between buccal mucosa and lateral border of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Renato A; Gomes, Guilherme A da Silva; Aguiar, Odair; Ribeiro, Daniel A

    2009-10-01

    Owing to the influence of geno- and cytotoxicity on chemical carcinogenesis, studies have demonstrated that petroleum derivatives are able to induce genetic damage and cellular death with conflicting results so far. The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated oral mucosa cells from gas petrol attendants using two different anatomic buccal sites: cheek mucosa and lateral border of the tongue. A total of 23 gas petrol attendants and 23 health controls (non-exposed individuals) were included in this setting. Individuals had epithelial cells from cheek and lateral border of the tongue mechanically exfoliated, placed in fixative and dropped in clean slides which were checked for the above nuclear phenotypes. The results pointed out significant statistical differences (ppetroleum derivate exposure was able to increase other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis, being the most pronunciated effects as those found in the lateral border of the tongue. No interaction was observed between smoking and petroleum exposure. In summary, these data indicate that gas petrol attendants comprise a high risk group for DNA damage and cellular death. It seems that the lateral border of the tongue is a more sensitive site to geno- and cytotoxic insult induced by petroleum derivates. PMID:19559482

  8. Effect of Exposure to Petroleum Fumes on Plasma Antioxidant Defense System in Petrol Attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Odewabi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported toxicological implications of inhalational exposure to petrol fumes in animal models; however, there is little or no documentation on the probable effect of exposure in human subjects. This study investigated the relationship between exposure to petrol fumes and lipid peroxidation and antioxidant levels among petrol station attendants in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria A total of 150 subjects consisting of 100 petrol attendants and 50 control subjects were recruited. Ten mL of blood was collected from ante-cubital vein of subjects for analysis. Results reveal that exposure to petrol fumes is associated with oxidative stress. Significant (p0.05 when compared with control. Also there was a significant decrease in total protein (p0.05 in petrol attendants compared with the control. Our findings imply that exposure to petroleum fumes is a risk factor and is associated with oxidative stress which raises the need for public awareness about the health hazards in order to enable petrol attendants to take necessary precautionary measures.

  9. Immunoglobulin classes and liver function tests in Nigerian petrol attendants

    OpenAIRE

    Akinosun O; Arinola O; Salimonu L

    2006-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to petrol has been shown to be a significant health hazard, especially for skeletal, circulatory, immune and reproductive systems. The present study investigates liver functions (alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein and albumin) and immune functions (IgG, IgA and IgM) in 29 male petrol attendants and compares them with corresponding values in 22 sex- and age-matched controls using spectrophot...

  10. The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of thuld be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally established conditions, which depend on the situation at their petrol station. It is estimated that 4.000 petrol stations will submit an application. These conditions take into account European legislation concerning support measures and competition law. The legislator took learning experiences in the Netherlands and Denmark as a basis. These countries have launched similar funds in the past. BOFAS however goes further in its financial support

  11. Replacement of the pumps at the CERN petrol stations

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The CERN petrol stations will be closed on the following dates to allow the pumps to be replaced: Prévessin petrol station: 26 and 27 November Meyrin petrol station: 28, 29 and 30 November The current fuel cards in the vehicles will have expired by the time the new pumps begin operation. All those in possession of a CERN vehicle are therefore requested to collect a transponder badge from the light vehicle maintenance office (130/R-013), which is open from 8.00 a.m. to midday and from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Badges will be issued on presentation of the keys of the vehicle in question. TS-IC-LO Section Tel. 77039 - 72228

  12. Replacement of the pumps at the CERN petrol stations

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The CERN petrol stations will be closed on the following dates to allow the pumps to be replaced: Prévessin petrol station: 26 and 27 November Meyrin petrol station: 28, 29 and 30 November The current fuel cards in the vehicles will have expired by the time the new pumps begin operation. All those in possession of a CERN vehicle are therefore requested to collect a transponder badge from the light- vehicle maintenance office (130/R-013), which is open from 8.00 a.m. to midday and from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Badges will be issued on presentation of the keys of the vehicle in question. TS-IC-LO Section – Tel. 77039 - 72228

  13. Electrostatic hazards with underground plastic pipes at petrol stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyses some ignition incidents that have been reported with insulating, (non-conductive) underground plastic pipes in retail petrol stations. The occurrence of the incidents is compared with voltage measurements, observations of the typical spread of streaming currents recorded in gasoline handling and theoretical estimates of the voltages on the pipes. The comparisons suggest that neither incendive sparks from unbonded conductors nor incendive brush discharges from insulating pipe surfaces can be ruled out although both are expected to be rare. The hazards can be prevented by using pipes with earthed conductive or dissipative inner linings.

  14. Hazards Forecasting and Weights Determination during Operation and Maintenance of Petrol Fuel Station

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M. M.; Kutty, S. R. M.; Mohd Faris Khamidi; Dominic, I. Othman P. D. D.; Olisa Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Petrol Fuel Stations (PFS) is the most commonly available hazardous facility within urban and rural areas. Hazardous materials such as petrol, diesel, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and kerosene oil normally sell and stores at PFS. PFS can be considered as small refinery within the city. A 3.5 year study conducted and 3216 non-compliances were recorded from PFS located in various cities of Pakistan. The operating company was ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certified. The recorded non-compliances duri...

  15. Assessment of BTX concentrations near a petrol station using passive samplers

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-flesca, Norbert; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Cicolella, Andre?

    2001-01-01

    A combined monitoring and dispersion modelling methodology was applied for assessing air quality related to concentration levels of benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) at three different levels of proximity to a petrol selected service Station: (I) next to the fuel pumps, (II) in the surrounding environment, and (III) m the background. A Gaussian dispersion model (CALINE4) was used for assessing the road traffic contribution to the local concentrations under different meteorological conditions...

  16. Environmental Exposure to Xylenes in Drivers and Petrol Station Workers by Urinary Methylhippuric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Ar, Bahrami; Jonidi-jafari, A.; Mahjub, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were evaluation of exposed to xylenes in low concentration and compare urinary level of methyl hippuric acid in taxi drivers and petrol stations workers in West of Iran.

  17. Environmental Exposure to Xylenes in Drivers and Petrol Station Workers by Urinary Methylhippuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Bahrami

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The aims of this study were evaluation of exposed to xylenes in low concentration and compare urinary level of methyl hippuric acid in taxi drivers and petrol stations workers in West of Iran.

    Methods: This observation study was carried out on samples of the exposed men to xylenes in two occupational groups in Hamadan City (west of Iran from March 2003 to March 2004. Subjects included 45 taxi drivers and 25 petrol station workers. The study group was selected from 54 workers at petrol stations and 300 drivers by simple random sampling. Xylenes was analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID. The urinary methyl hippuric acid (MHA was analyzed with High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC equipped with an ultraviolet (UV detector.

    Results: Total xylene exposure was 1.05±0.55 ppm (mean±SD with a range of 0.20-2.55 ppm that was about 4 times more than taxi drivers' exposure. The poor correlation coefficient was seen between xylenes concentration and urinary MHA for drivers (r2= 0.09 to 0.42 but significant associations were noted between urinary MHA and xylene in the breathing zone of petrol station workers (r2= 0.69 to 0.77; P< 0.05.

    Conclusion: High xylenes levels are emitted in petrol stations at Iran. Urinary MHA level has a poor correlation with exposure to xylenes in drivers but has good correlation in petrol station workers.

  18. Evaluation of benzene exposure in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics by urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA) determination

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Cirillo; Antonio Arnese; Giuseppe Spagnoli; Renata Amodio Cocchieri; Umberto Del Prete

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposure to benzene in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics was studied by examining the benzene content in both the air breathed and in the urinary metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA). Thirty petrol pump attendants and thirty mechanics (as exposed workers) and thirty adult male office workers (as non exposed workers) were involved in the study. Measures were taken at the begin and at the end of the working shifts.

     The benzene concentratio...

  19. Hazards Forecasting and Weights Determination during Operation and Maintenance of Petrol Fuel Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Petrol Fuel Stations (PFS is the most commonly available hazardous facility within urban and rural areas. Hazardous materials such as petrol, diesel, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG and kerosene oil normally sell and stores at PFS. PFS can be considered as small refinery within the city. A 3.5 year study conducted and 3216 non-compliances were recorded from PFS located in various cities of Pakistan. The operating company was ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certified. The recorded non-compliances during study period were categorized into 8 potential factors. These were Housekeeping (HK, Transportation Hazard (TH, Slips, Trips and Falls (STF, Carelessness (C, Fire Risks (FR, Electrical Fault (EF, Miscellaneous Cases (MC and Medical Treatment Cases (MTC. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP was used and categorized 8 factors were prioritized. The same data was further classified based upon to cause fatality, accident, incident and near miss cases. A total numbers of 14, 426, 975 and 1804, fatality, accident, incident and near miss cases were recorded. With application of Exponential Smoothing method the fatalities, accident, incident and near miss cases for the years 2011, 2012 and 2013 were forecasted. The results of AHP and forecasted hazards will be presented and discussed in this study. It is hope that the both approaches will assist health and safety professionals for future hazards predictions and hazards weights determinations. Health and safety practitioners can take remedial and preventative measures by using past data with utilization of proposed techniques.

  20. Petrol war in Nijmegen, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since April 2000 a petrol war rages in Nijmegen and surroundings (Netherlands) whereby considerable discounts are given to the national retail prices. The cause of the war is a new unmanned petrol station of the enterprise Tango. In this article the development and the consequences of the discount at petrol stations in Nijmegen and surroundings are analyzed 3 refs

  1. Environmental impact assessment of trace metal deposition around the petrol filling stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wide use of petroleum products causes contamination of air, water, soil and plants. The present study was conducted to monitor the trace metal deposition in road side soil around the petrol filling stations along the busy roads of Karachi, Pakistan. Total 21 road side soil samples were collected from selected locations of busy roads. The soil samples were digested using acid digestion method and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used for the elemental analysis. Results of the study showed that concentration of lead was highest in the soil samples ranging from 41.3 to 361 mg/kg, then copper from 23.0 to 101 mg/kg, manganese from 36.2 to 125.0 mg/kg and zinc from 27.5 to 213.0 mg/kg, respectively. The correlation-coefficient (r) was also calculated between the metals in soil samples. The correlation matrix showed that all the pollution is coming from the same source. The gravitational sedimentation and impact on vegetation of coarse fraction is responsible for the high lead contamination of vegetation and soils. Collected data showed that, almost all the pollution being generated by automobile exhaust in urban areas of Karachi. The soil acts as an important sink for pollutants released through different activities. (author)

  2. Evaluation of benzene exposure in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics by urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cirillo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Occupational exposure to benzene in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics was studied by examining the benzene content in both the air breathed and in the urinary metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA. Thirty petrol pump attendants and thirty mechanics (as exposed workers and thirty adult male office workers (as non exposed workers were involved in the study. Measures were taken at the begin and at the end of the working shifts.

     The benzene concentrations in the breathing air samples varied from 2 to 88 ?g m-3, lower than the EU acceptable limit for occupational environment. The average urinary t,t-MA in the petrol pump attendants at the begin and at the end of the working shifts ranged between 133 ± 69 and 255 ± 174 ?g g-1 creatinine and in the mechanics between 204 ± 139 and 300 ± 211 ?g g-1 creatinine, respectively.

    In all the participants the mean levels of urinary t,t-MA at the end of the working shifts were significantly higher than those at the beginning. In the exposed workers mean levels of urinary t,t-MA were significantly higher than in those of the non-exposed workers. The influence of the smoking was demonstrated by the urinary t,t-MA levels in smoking non-exposed subjects.

  3. Analysis of incidence of childhood cancer in the West Midlands of the United Kingdom in relation to proximity to main roads and petrol stations

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, R. M.; Leung, P. L.; Somervaille, L.; Smith, R.; Gilman, E.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether there is an excess of leukaemias in 0-15 year old children among those living in close proximity (within 100 m) of a main road or petrol station. METHODS: Data for 0-15 year old children diagnosed between 1990 and 1994 in the United Kingdom West Midlands were used. Postcode addresses were used to locate the point of residence which was compared with proximity to main roads and petrol stations separately, and to both together. Odds ratios (ORs) were cal...

  4. Variability of benzene exposure among filling station attendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring survey of filling station attendants aimed at identifying sources of variability of exposure to benzene and other aromatics was carried out. Concurrent samples of the worker's breathing zone air, atmospheric air in the service station proximity, and gasoline were collected, along with information about daily workloads and other exposure-related factors. Benzene personal exposure was characterised by a small between-worker variability and a predominant within-worker variance component. Such elevated day-to-day variability yields to imprecise estimates of mean personal exposure. Almost 70% of the overall personal exposure variance was explained by a model including daily benzene from dispensed fuel, presence of a shelter over the refueling area, amount of fuel supplied to the station if a delivery occurred, and background atmospheric benzene concentration

  5. Oil fuel delivery optimization for multi product and multi depot: the case of petrol station replenishment problem (PSRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjandari, Isti; Rachman, Amar; Dianawati, Fauzia; Wibowo, R. Pramono

    2011-10-01

    With the Oil and Gas Law No. 22 of 2001, national and foreign private enterprises can invest in all sectors of Oil and Gas in Indonesia. In anticipation of this free competition, Pertamina, as a state-owned enterprises, which previously had monopolized the oil and gas business activities in Indonesia, should be able to improve services as well as the efficiency in order to compete in the free market, especially in terms of cost efficiency of fuel distribution to gas station (SPBU). To optimize the distribution activity, it is necessary to design a scheduling system and its fuel delivery routes daily to every SPBU. The determination of routes and scheduling delivery of fuel to the SPBU can be modeled as a Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PSRP) with the multi-depot, multi-product, time windows and split deliveries, which in this study will be completed by the Tabu Search algorithm (TS). This study was conducted in the area of Bandung, the capital of West Java province, which is a big city and the neighboring city of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. By using the fuel delivery data for one day, the results showed a decrease of 16.38% of the distance of the route compared to the current conditions, which impacted on the reduction of distribution costs and decrease the number of total trips by 5.22% and 3.83%.

  6. Methodology for the detection of contamination by hydrocarbons and further soil sampling for volatile and semi-volatile organic enrichment in former petrol stations, SE Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda, Rosa Mari?a Rosales; Martinez Paga?n, Pedro; Cano, Angel Faz

    2012-01-01

    The optimal detection and quantification of contamination plumes in soil and groundwater by petroleum organic compounds, gasoline and diesel, is critical for the reclamation of hydrocarbons contaminated soil at petrol stations. Through this study it has been achieved a sampling stage optimization in these scenarios by means of the location of potential contamination areas before sampling with the application of the 2D electrical resistivity tomography method, a geophysical non destructive tec...

  7. The Petrol Station and the Internet Cafe: Rural Technospaces for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laegran, Anne Sofie

    2002-01-01

    A study in two Norwegian villages focused on the local gas station and the Internet cafe as "technospaces" for rural youth cultures--spaces at the intersection of technology and human interaction. The car and the Internet were given different symbolic and utility values in various youth subcultures. Local contexts influenced technology usage…

  8. Condição auditiva de frentistas Hearing conditions of gas stations attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Maria Tochetto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os limiares auditivos nas frequências convencionais e altas frequências, e ainda a integridade do arco reflexo, em frentistas. MÉTODO: foram avaliados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. Após adequação aos critérios de inclusão, a amostra ficou composta por 24 frentistas expostos a combustíveis, 21 do gênero masculino e três do gênero feminino, com faixa etária entre 20 e 40 anos. Os exames utilizados foram audiometria tonal liminar, audiometria de altas frequências e imitanciometria. O tempo de exposição variou de um a 17 anos. O grupo controle foi composto por 24 sujeitos não expostos a qualquer agente nocivo à audição. RESULTADOS: a média dos limiares da audiometria tonal liminar e da audiometria de altas frequências foi superior no grupo estudo em todas as frequências testadas. Verificou-se diferença de limiar estatisticamente significante nas frequências de 0,5 (p=0,004, 2 (p=0,001 e 3 kHz (p=0,025, e nas frequências de 9 (p=0,007 e 10 kHz (p=0,026. Os limiares das frequências de 12,5 e 14 kHz não diferiram estatisticamente (p>0,05. Em 16, 18 e 20 kHz foi observada maior ausência de respostas no grupo estudo (p>0,05. Também se observou maior ausência de reflexos acústicos (ipsi e contralateral no grupo estudo, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda, não houve diferença entre os grupos, para a ocorrência do reflexo ipsilateral. A ausência de reflexo contralateral foi maior no grupo estudo em todas as frequências testadas. CONCLUSÃO: frentistas com limiares auditivos normais podem apresentar alterações cocleares e centrais.PURPOSE: to evaluate the hearing threshold in the conventional frequencies and high frequencies, and the integrity of the acoustic reflex, in subjects exposed to fuels. METHOD: attendants of three gas stations were evaluated in Santa Maria/RS. After the adaptation to the inclusion criteria, the sample was composed of 24 subjects. It was used the Pure Tone Audiometry, high frequency audiometry and acoustic immitance assessment to evaluate the sample. The time of exposition ranged from one to seventeen years. The control group was composed by 24 not exposed subjects. RESULTS: the average of the thresholds of the PTA and of the high frequency audiometry was superior in the study group in all the tested frequencies. A statistically significant difference of thresholds was verified on the frequencies of 0,5 (p=0,004, 2 (p=0,001, 3 kHz (p=0,025, and frequencies of 9 (p=0,007 e 10 kHz (p=0,026. In 16, 18, 20 kHz a greater absence of responses was observed in the study group (p>0, 05. Also it was observed a greater absence of acoustic reflexes (ipsilateral and contralateral at the study group, on the right ear. On the left ear, there was no difference between the groups, for the occurrence of ipsilateral reflex. The absence of the contralateral reflex was superior in the study group on all frequencies tested. CONCLUSION: individuals exposed to fuels with normal hearing thresholds may have cochlear and central alterations.

  9. Condição auditiva de frentistas / Hearing conditions of gas stations attendants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tania Maria, Tochetto; Lenita da Silva, Quevedo; Márcia do Amaral, Siqueira.

    1137-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os limiares auditivos nas frequências convencionais e altas frequências, e ainda a integridade do arco reflexo, em frentistas. MÉTODO: foram avaliados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. Após adequação aos critérios de inclusão, a amostra ficou compos [...] ta por 24 frentistas expostos a combustíveis, 21 do gênero masculino e três do gênero feminino, com faixa etária entre 20 e 40 anos. Os exames utilizados foram audiometria tonal liminar, audiometria de altas frequências e imitanciometria. O tempo de exposição variou de um a 17 anos. O grupo controle foi composto por 24 sujeitos não expostos a qualquer agente nocivo à audição. RESULTADOS: a média dos limiares da audiometria tonal liminar e da audiometria de altas frequências foi superior no grupo estudo em todas as frequências testadas. Verificou-se diferença de limiar estatisticamente significante nas frequências de 0,5 (p=0,004), 2 (p=0,001) e 3 kHz (p=0,025), e nas frequências de 9 (p=0,007) e 10 kHz (p=0,026). Os limiares das frequências de 12,5 e 14 kHz não diferiram estatisticamente (p>0,05). Em 16, 18 e 20 kHz foi observada maior ausência de respostas no grupo estudo (p>0,05). Também se observou maior ausência de reflexos acústicos (ipsi e contralateral) no grupo estudo, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda, não houve diferença entre os grupos, para a ocorrência do reflexo ipsilateral. A ausência de reflexo contralateral foi maior no grupo estudo em todas as frequências testadas. CONCLUSÃO: frentistas com limiares auditivos normais podem apresentar alterações cocleares e centrais. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the hearing threshold in the conventional frequencies and high frequencies, and the integrity of the acoustic reflex, in subjects exposed to fuels. METHOD: attendants of three gas stations were evaluated in Santa Maria/RS. After the adaptation to the inclusion criteria, the samp [...] le was composed of 24 subjects. It was used the Pure Tone Audiometry, high frequency audiometry and acoustic immitance assessment to evaluate the sample. The time of exposition ranged from one to seventeen years. The control group was composed by 24 not exposed subjects. RESULTS: the average of the thresholds of the PTA and of the high frequency audiometry was superior in the study group in all the tested frequencies. A statistically significant difference of thresholds was verified on the frequencies of 0,5 (p=0,004), 2 (p=0,001), 3 kHz (p=0,025), and frequencies of 9 (p=0,007) e 10 kHz (p=0,026). In 16, 18, 20 kHz a greater absence of responses was observed in the study group (p>0, 05). Also it was observed a greater absence of acoustic reflexes (ipsilateral and contralateral) at the study group, on the right ear. On the left ear, there was no difference between the groups, for the occurrence of ipsilateral reflex. The absence of the contralateral reflex was superior in the study group on all frequencies tested. CONCLUSION: individuals exposed to fuels with normal hearing thresholds may have cochlear and central alterations.

  10. Burns following petrol sniffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janezic, T F

    1997-02-01

    Two patients with burns following petrol sniffing are presented. They sustained an 8 per cent and a 70 per cent total body surface area burn. The majority of the burned areas of both patients were full thickness and were treated by early excision and autografting, and in one patient with cultured epidermal autografts also. Both patients came from disorganized families, had behavioural problems and poor school performance. Clothes soaked with petrol, altered mental state and cigarette smoking are major risk factors for thermal injury while inhaling petrol. In order to recognize acute and chronic intoxication, burns unit staff should be aware of the clinical signs related to inhalation of petrol, especially because some of the burned petrol sniffers might not admit to petrol abuse. The social worker and psychologist are very likely to be vital in the rehabilitation of such patients. PMID:9115618

  11. URINE LEAD LEVELS IN SERVICE STATION ATTENDANTS EXPOSED TO TETRAETHYL LEAD

    OpenAIRE

    Mirsattari, S. G.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: It has been pointed out that the hazard associated with the exposure to tetraethyl lead is Quite different from exposure to inorganic lead compounds, and that the measurment of urinary lead is the best indicator of tetraethy lead absorption and hence its environmental control.
    Methods: Urine total lead concentrations in service station attendants in Isfahan city after ext...

  12. Traveling Salesman Approach for Solving Petrol Distribution Using Simulated Annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhaimy Ismail; Ibrahim, Wan R. W.

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an attempt to solve a logistic company's problem of delivering petrol to petrol station in the state of Johor. This delivery system is formulated as a travelling salesman problem (TSP). TSP involves finding an optimal route for visiting stations and returning to point of origin, where the inter-station distance is symmetric and known. This real world application is a deceptive simple combinatorial problem and our approach is to develop solutions based on the idea of loc...

  13. Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station / Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Pinto, Mariano; Ana Paula de Arruda Geraldes, Kataoka; Dejanira de Franceschi de, Angelis; Daniel Marcos, Bonotto.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ). Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de um tanque [...] de armazenamento de óleo diesel subterrâneo em um posto de combustíveis. Experimentos em escala laboratorial (respirômetros de Bartha) foram utilizados para avaliar a biodegradação do óleo diesel. Estímulo da biodegradação foi realizado utilizando-se as técnicas de bioestímulo (adição de soluções de nitrogênio e fósforo ou surfactante Tween 80) e de bioaumento (consórcio bacteriano isolado de um sistema de landfarming). Para investigar as interações entre os fatores otimizadores, e encontrar a melhor combinação entre esses agentes, o estudo foi baseado em um delineamento experimental fatorial completo. A eficiência de biodegradação foi simultaneamente medida com dois métodos: respirométrico (produção de CO2 microbiano) e cromatografia gasosa. Testes de toxicidade aguda com Daphnia similis foram aplicados para examinar a eficiência dos processos em termos de geração de produtos menos tóxicos. Resultados mostraram que todas as estratégias de biorremediação aceleraram a biorremediação natural do solo contaminado e os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando os tratamentos tinham adição de nutrientes. Dados respirométricos indicaram uma máxima mineralização de hidrocarbonetos de 19,8%, obtida com a combinação dos três agentes, com uma remoção de hidrocarbonetos totais de petróleo (TPH) de 45,5% em 55 dias de tratamento. No final dos experimentos, duas espécies predominantes de bactéria foram isoladas e identificadas como Staphylococcus hominis e Kocuria palustris. Abstract in english The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments). In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel [...] oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks) were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant) and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system). To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production) and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris).

  14. Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments. In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system. To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ. Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de um tanque de armazenamento de óleo diesel subterrâneo em um posto de combustíveis. Experimentos em escala laboratorial (respirômetros de Bartha foram utilizados para avaliar a biodegradação do óleo diesel. Estímulo da biodegradação foi realizado utilizando-se as técnicas de bioestímulo (adição de soluções de nitrogênio e fósforo ou surfactante Tween 80 e de bioaumento (consórcio bacteriano isolado de um sistema de landfarming. Para investigar as interações entre os fatores otimizadores, e encontrar a melhor combinação entre esses agentes, o estudo foi baseado em um delineamento experimental fatorial completo. A eficiência de biodegradação foi simultaneamente medida com dois métodos: respirométrico (produção de CO2 microbiano e cromatografia gasosa. Testes de toxicidade aguda com Daphnia similis foram aplicados para examinar a eficiência dos processos em termos de geração de produtos menos tóxicos. Resultados mostraram que todas as estratégias de biorremediação aceleraram a biorremediação natural do solo contaminado e os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando os tratamentos tinham adição de nutrientes. Dados respirométricos indicaram uma máxima mineralização de hidrocarbonetos de 19,8%, obtida com a combinação dos três agentes, com uma remoção de hidrocarbonetos totais de petróleo (TPH de 45,5% em 55 dias de tratamento. No final dos experimentos, duas espécies predominantes de bactéria foram isoladas e identificadas como Staphylococcus hominis e Kocuria palustris.

  15. Cochlear condition and olivocochlear system of gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tochetto, Tania Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic solvents have been increasingly studied due to its ototoxic action. Objective: Evaluate the conditions of outer hair cells and olivocochlear system in individuals exposed to organic solvents. Method: This is a prospective study. 78 gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents had been evaluated from three gas stations from Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. After applying the inclusion criteria, the sample was constituted by 24 individuals. The procedures used on the evaluation were audiological anamnesis, Transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAES and research for the suppressive effect of TEOAES. A group control (GC compounded by 23 individuals was compared to individuals exposed and non-exposed individuals. The data collection has been done in the room of Speech Therapy of Workers Health Reference Center of Santa Maria. Results: The TEOAES presence was major in the left ear in both groups; the average relation of TEOAES signal/noise in both ears was greater in GE; the TEOAES suppressive effect in the right ear was higher in the individual of GE (62,5% and in the left ear was superior in GC (86,96%, with statistically significant difference. The median sign/noise ratio of TEOAES, according to the frequency range, it was higher in GC in three frequencies ranges in the right ear and one in the left ear. Conclusion: It was not found signs of alteration on the outer hair cells neither on the olivocochlear medial system in the individuals exposed to organic solvents.

  16. Petrol Pipe Line Telemonitoring Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrasoul Jabar Alzubaidi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Petrol pipe lines are subjected to different types of malfunction. The malfunction can happen due to technical faults or it may be due to a gangsters attack on the petrol pipes in order to hinder the petrol pumping operations.. The damage of the petrol pipes causes a loss of a large amount of petrol from the pipe lines. Petrol pipe damage also causes fires and pollution to the environments . Such operations causes a lot of loss in economy to the country concerned where the sabotage took place. This paper sheds the light on this challenging issue to steady and propose an intelligent electronic circuit design solutions to this problem. An electronic circuit design based on using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA is proposed as a processor to control the petrol pipe lines. A real time monitoring cameras are installed to fulfill this task .The system design is programmable (i.e intelligent and hence the electronic actions established in the design can be modified easily..A personnel computer is used to capture the images from the cameras installed on the petrol pipe line. If any damage or attack is noticed a commands can be initiated to the electronic and electrical devices to stop the pumping operation and to close the petrol pipe line immediately. Many electrically controlled pipe closing valves are to be installed along the pipe line. These electronic closing valves are remotely controlled by the embedded system based on the (FPGA.

  17. Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em frentistas Auditory brainstem response in gas station attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenita da Silva Quevedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A ototoxidade dos solventes orgânicos pode atingir o sistema auditivo a nível coclear e retrococlear. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a integridade neurofisiológica do sistema auditivo até tronco cerebral por meio do PEATE. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo. Estudados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. A amostra ficou composta por 21 sujeitos, que foram avaliados por meio de potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico. RESULTADOS: Alteração nas latências absolutas das ondas I e III e em todas as latências interpicos, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda houve alteração na latência absoluta de todas as ondas, e em todos os intervalos interpicos. Alteração na diferença interaural da onda V foi verificada em 19% dos sujeitos. No grupo exposto há mais de cinco anos, foram estatisticamente significantes o número de sujeitos com alteração: no intervalo interpico I-V da orelha direita; na latência absoluta da onda I e no intervalo interpico III-V da orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: A exposição a combustíveis pode causar alterações no sistema auditivo central.Ototoxicity of organic solvents can affect the hearing system up to the cochlea level and the central structures of hearing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neurophysiological integrity of the hearing system in subjects exposed to fuels using ABR. METHOD: Prospective study. We evaluated attendants from three gas stations in Santa Maria/RS. The sample had 21 subjects, who were evaluated by auditory brainstem response. RESULTS: We found an alteration in the absolute latencies of Waves I and III and in all the interpeak latencies, in the right ear. In the left ear there was a change in the absolute latencies of all Waves, and in all the interpeak intervals. A change in the interaural difference of Wave V was found in 19% of the individuals. In the group exposed for more than five years, there were subjects with a statistically significant changes: in the I-V interpeak of the right ear; in the absolute latency of Wave I and in the III-V interpeak of the left year. CONCLUSION: Exposure to fuels can cause alterations in the central hearing system.

  18. Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em frentistas / Auditory brainstem response in gas station attendants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lenita da Silva, Quevedo; Tania, Tochetto; Marcia Amaral, Siqueira; Márcia Salgado, Machado.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A ototoxidade dos solventes orgânicos pode atingir o sistema auditivo a nível coclear e retrococlear. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a integridade neurofisiológica do sistema auditivo até tronco cerebral por meio do PEATE. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo. Estudados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de S [...] anta Maria/RS. A amostra ficou composta por 21 sujeitos, que foram avaliados por meio de potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico. RESULTADOS: Alteração nas latências absolutas das ondas I e III e em todas as latências interpicos, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda houve alteração na latência absoluta de todas as ondas, e em todos os intervalos interpicos. Alteração na diferença interaural da onda V foi verificada em 19% dos sujeitos. No grupo exposto há mais de cinco anos, foram estatisticamente significantes o número de sujeitos com alteração: no intervalo interpico I-V da orelha direita; na latência absoluta da onda I e no intervalo interpico III-V da orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: A exposição a combustíveis pode causar alterações no sistema auditivo central. Abstract in english Ototoxicity of organic solvents can affect the hearing system up to the cochlea level and the central structures of hearing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neurophysiological integrity of the hearing system in subjects exposed to fuels using ABR. METHOD: Prospective study. We evaluated attendants from t [...] hree gas stations in Santa Maria/RS. The sample had 21 subjects, who were evaluated by auditory brainstem response. RESULTS: We found an alteration in the absolute latencies of Waves I and III and in all the interpeak latencies, in the right ear. In the left ear there was a change in the absolute latencies of all Waves, and in all the interpeak intervals. A change in the interaural difference of Wave V was found in 19% of the individuals. In the group exposed for more than five years, there were subjects with a statistically significant changes: in the I-V interpeak of the right ear; in the absolute latency of Wave I and in the III-V interpeak of the left year. CONCLUSION: Exposure to fuels can cause alterations in the central hearing system.

  19. Benzene emission from the actual car fleet in relation to petrol composition in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study covers an investigation of the trends in air pollution levels of benzene in Danish cities and their relationship with the benzene content in petrol. Petrol samples from the two refineries in Denmark as well as sold petrol from some representative Danish petrol stations were analysed. The benzene content in Danish petrol was reduced from 3.5% for 95 octane prior to 1995 to approx. 2% in 1995 and further to 1% in 1998. Air quality measurements of aromatic VOC are available from two Danish cities; Copenhagen since 1994 and Odense since 1997. Measurements of benzene, CO and NOx from these two locations were analysed using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) and trends in the actual emissions of these pollutants were determined. It is shown that the decrease in both the concentration levels and in the emissions was significantly larger for benzene than for CO and NOx. The decreasing trends of NOx and CO could be explained by the increasing fraction of petrol-fuelled vehicles with three way catalysts (TWC). The much steeper decreasing trend for benzene can most likely be attributed to a combination of the effect of the increasing share of the TWC vehicles and a simultaneous reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol. The reduction of benzene concentrations and emissions is observed despite that the total amount of aromatics in petrol has increased slightly in the same period. (Author)eriod. (Author)

  20. Benzene emission from the actual car fleet in relation to petrol composition in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Finn; Hansen, Asger B.; Berkowicz, Ruwim; Skov, Henrik

    The present study covers an investigation of the trends in air pollution levels of benzene in Danish cities and their relationship with the benzene content in petrol. Petrol samples from the two refineries in Denmark as well as sold petrol from some representative Danish petrol stations were analysed. The benzene content in Danish petrol was reduced from 3.5% for 95 octane prior to 1995 to approx. 2% in 1995 and further to 1 % in 1998. Air quality measurements of aromatic VOC are available from two Danish cities; Copenhagen since 1994 and Odense since 1997. Measurements of benzene, CO and NO x from these two locations were analysed using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) and trends in the actual emissions of these pollutants were determined. It is shown that the decrease in both the concentration levels and in the emissions was significantly larger for benzene than for CO and NO x. The decreasing trends of NO x and CO could be explained by the increasing fraction of petrol-fuelled vehicles with three way catalysts (TWC). The much steeper decreasing trend for benzene can most likely be attributed to a combination of the effect of the increasing share of the TWC vehicles and a simultaneous reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol. The reduction of benzene concentrations and emissions is observed despite that the total amount of aromatics in petrol has increased slightly in the same period.

  1. Determinación y estandarización de plomo en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio del Estado Mérida / Blood lead determination and standardization in petrol station workers in the State of Merida

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Molina; María Luisa, Di Bernardo; Carlos, Rondón; María Ysabel, García; Pablo, Carrero; José Rafael, Luna; José Gregorio, Salazar; Alexis, Morales; Yajaira, Hernández; Jesús, Peña.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se ha determinado el contenido de plomo (Pb) en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio de la ciudad de Mérida (Venezuela) y en un grupo de personas no expuestas ocupacionalmente. Las muestras de sangre provenientes de sujetos de ambos sexos n=21 (controles) y n=65 (personal ex [...] puesto) fueron procesadas por absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica (ETAAS). Las concentraciones obtenidas de 15,27±9,62 y 83,74±28,95 µg/L para los grupos denominados como control y expuesto respectivamente, muestran diferencias altamente significativas que evidencian una exposición directa al Pb, por cuanto los valores del grupo expuesto ocupacional son más de 5 veces superiores a los del grupo control. Los resultados obtenidos también muestran que valores iguales o superiores a 54,79 µg/L son indicadores de exposición directa al Pb, permitiendo establecer valores de tolerancia entre los intervalos de 24,89 y 112,69 µg/L. Estos valores de referencia se encuentran por debajo de lo descripto por Burguera y cols. (1997), lo cual podría atribuirse al reemplazo gradual de la gasolina con plomo, en los últimos años, que ha llevado a una disminución de un 27% en los niveles de plomo en sangre, en comparación con un estudio similar realizado en esta misma ciudad en el año 1997. Abstract in english In this work the lead (Pb) content in blood was determined in petrol station workers in the city of Merida-Venezuela and in a group of people not occupationally exposed. The blood samples coming from subjects of both sexes n=21 controls and n=65 exposed workers were processed by atomic absorption wi [...] th electrothermal atomization (ETAAS). The 15.27±9.62 and 83.74±28.95 µg/L concentrations obtained for the group referred to as control and exposed respectively show highly significant differences that evidence a direct exposure to Pb, since the values of the occupationally exposed group are more than 5 times higher than those of the control group. The results obtained also show that values equal to or higher than 54.79 µg/L are indicative of direct exposure to Pb, making it possible to establish tolerance values between the 24.89 and 112.69 µg/L intervals. These reference values are below what was reported by Burguera et al (1997) which could be attributed to the gradual substitution of gasoline for lead that has originated a 27% decrease in lead levels in blood, if compared with a similar study carried out in the same city in 1997.

  2. Determinación y estandarización de plomo en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio del Estado Mérida Blood lead determination and standardization in petrol station workers in the State of Merida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Molina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se ha determinado el contenido de plomo (Pb en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio de la ciudad de Mérida (Venezuela y en un grupo de personas no expuestas ocupacionalmente. Las muestras de sangre provenientes de sujetos de ambos sexos n=21 (controles y n=65 (personal expuesto fueron procesadas por absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica (ETAAS. Las concentraciones obtenidas de 15,27±9,62 y 83,74±28,95 µg/L para los grupos denominados como control y expuesto respectivamente, muestran diferencias altamente significativas que evidencian una exposición directa al Pb, por cuanto los valores del grupo expuesto ocupacional son más de 5 veces superiores a los del grupo control. Los resultados obtenidos también muestran que valores iguales o superiores a 54,79 µg/L son indicadores de exposición directa al Pb, permitiendo establecer valores de tolerancia entre los intervalos de 24,89 y 112,69 µg/L. Estos valores de referencia se encuentran por debajo de lo descripto por Burguera y cols. (1997, lo cual podría atribuirse al reemplazo gradual de la gasolina con plomo, en los últimos años, que ha llevado a una disminución de un 27% en los niveles de plomo en sangre, en comparación con un estudio similar realizado en esta misma ciudad en el año 1997.In this work the lead (Pb content in blood was determined in petrol station workers in the city of Merida-Venezuela and in a group of people not occupationally exposed. The blood samples coming from subjects of both sexes n=21 controls and n=65 exposed workers were processed by atomic absorption with electrothermal atomization (ETAAS. The 15.27±9.62 and 83.74±28.95 µg/L concentrations obtained for the group referred to as control and exposed respectively show highly significant differences that evidence a direct exposure to Pb, since the values of the occupationally exposed group are more than 5 times higher than those of the control group. The results obtained also show that values equal to or higher than 54.79 µg/L are indicative of direct exposure to Pb, making it possible to establish tolerance values between the 24.89 and 112.69 µg/L intervals. These reference values are below what was reported by Burguera et al (1997 which could be attributed to the gradual substitution of gasoline for lead that has originated a 27% decrease in lead levels in blood, if compared with a similar study carried out in the same city in 1997.

  3. The complicated transition to competition in the petrol industry in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spanish petrol market has been deeply restructured. However, the results of two decades of liberalization are mixed. A more active policy of fostering and defending competition has been missing. Reform efforts in the sector and economic analyses of the markets have overwhelming been focussed on the upstream activities of manufacturing and wholesaling. By contrast, other activities of the sector are the ones that are constraining competition. Vertical relations between petrol major companies and petrol stations have a very significant impact on the process to achieve effective competition. And access to distribution essential facilities such as pipes is a necessary condition to open up the market to new operators. In Spain, transition to competition in the petrol industry has not taken enough care on restructuring vertical relations and access to essential facilities. (Author)

  4. The Health Impacts of Ethanol Blend Petrol

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary Wood; David Williams; Stephen White; Anne Tibbett; Jennifer Powell; Michael Patterson; James McGregor; Peter Nancarrow; Imants Liepa; Sunhee Lee; Sarah Lawson; Steven Lavrencic; Melita Keywood; David Jacyna; Ian Galbally

    2011-01-01

    A measurement program designed to evaluate health impacts or benefits of using ethanol blend petrol examined exhaust and evaporative emissions from 21 vehicles representative of the current Australian light duty petrol (gasoline) vehicle fleet using a composite urban emissions drive cycle. The fuels used were unleaded petrol (ULP), ULP blended with either 5% ethanol (E5) or 10% ethanol (E10). The resulting data were combined with inventory data for Sydney to determine the expected fleet emiss...

  5. Traveling Salesman Approach for Solving Petrol Distribution Using Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhaimy Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an attempt to solve a logistic company's problem of delivering petrol to petrol station in the state of Johor. This delivery system is formulated as a travelling salesman problem (TSP. TSP involves finding an optimal route for visiting stations and returning to point of origin, where the inter-station distance is symmetric and known. This real world application is a deceptive simple combinatorial problem and our approach is to develop solutions based on the idea of local search and meta-heuristics. As a standard problem, we have chosen a solution is a deceptively simple combinatorial problem and we defined it simply as the time spends or distance travelled by salesman visiting n cities (or nodes cyclically. In one tour the vehicle visits each station just once and finishes up where he started. As standard problems, we have chosen TSP with different stations visited once. This research presents the development of solution engine based on local search method known as Greedy Method and with the result generated as the initial solution, Simulated Annealing (SA and Tabu Search (TS further used to improve the search and provide the best solution. A user friendly optimization program developed using Microsoft C++ to solve the TSP and provides solutions to future TSP which may be classified into daily or advanced management and engineering problems.

  6. Effects of changes in petrol taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to estimate and discuss some of the policy-relevant effects of petrol tax changes. Our approach is to seek to separate the extent to which each of the following variables is affected by changes in the price of petrol: (i) car ownership (ii) car use (iii) petrol consumption per km. The estimates show that the sum of (i) and (ii) results in a price-elasticity with respect to 'car traffic' equal to -0.2 in the short run, and -0.3 in the long run. Because of possibilities to increase the fuel efficiency of cars, the price-elasticity of 'petrol demand' is substantially greater: -0.3 in the short run and of the order of -0.7 in the long run. One conclusion is: A petrol price rise is considerably more effective as a measure for energy and environmental policy than for transport policy. The effect of petrol tax changes to the total tax revenue is also discussed. At last, the regional welfare distribution effects are treated in the form of estimation of regional differences to the reduction in the consumers' surplus from a petrol price increase. 19 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs

  7. The Potential Of Poland's Bio-Petrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossi Mann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration to promote the bio-petrol industry is an attempt to provide a solution for some of the problems the European Union countries share, such as the decreasing importance of peripheral areas, the need to diversify energy sources and the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. Once Poland joined the EU in 2004, it became committed to adopting the organisation’s decisions regarding the bio-petrol industry and to keep up with EU production objectives. An analysis of the factors that influence the bio-petrol industry indicates that Poland has great potential in the field and the ability to become an important player on the market.

  8. TOXICITY OF PETROL OIL ON SPIRULINA PLATENSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rajni Karoriya

    2013-01-01

    In 1947, UN declared Spirulina as “the best food for tomorrow”. It is very rich in protein content. In the present study we have determined the effect of petrol oil on Spirulina platensis growth rate. It is exposed to different concentration of petrol oil to see the effect of petrol on the protein, carbohydrate and growth rate of Spirulina platensis. It involved 2,5,10 and 20 ml of petro oil in the media after which the survival and the growth of the S. platensis were evaluated. Although the ...

  9. TOXICITY OF PETROL OIL ON SPIRULINA PLATENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Karoriya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1947, UN declared Spirulina as “the best food for tomorrow”. It is very rich in protein content. In the present study we have determined the effect of petrol oil on Spirulina platensis growth rate. It is exposed to different concentration of petrol oil to see the effect of petrol on the protein, carbohydrate and growth rate of Spirulina platensis. It involved 2,5,10 and 20 ml of petro oil in the media after which the survival and the growth of the S. platensis were evaluated. Although the percentage of protein and carbohydrate decreased as the quantity of the petrol oil added to the media comparison to the control samples. The results obtained in this study showed that spillage of mixture of gasoline poses threats to the survival and development of algae and plants.

  10. An attitude study on the environmental effects of rationing petrol in Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to assess the environmental effects of implementing petrol rationing and the issuance of fuel smartcards in central Tehran. The results and their application are significant from the perspective of preserving fuel sources and protecting the environment, both of which being among the goals of sustainable development. Through the analysis of soft data (owners of automobile and light pickup trucks attitude), 3 general hypotheses were assessed and the result was compared to hard data (the traffic situation information, petrol consumption and air pollution). The soft data was gathered using a comprehensive questionnaire which randomly distributed among 2000 automobile and pickup truck drivers in the central Tehran area who were at petrol stations to refuel their vehicles. The gathered data was then analyzed at two levels: descriptive and inferential. The results of this research reveal that according to the soft data, the smartcard project has resulted in a decline in traffic and petrol consumption and a rise in air pollution; furthermore, the positive cultural effects of this project have been comparatively prominent. The actual figures show that the project has led to lower traffic load and air pollution but petrol consumption remains the same as before.

  11. An attitude study on the environmental effects of rationing petrol in Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to assess the environmental effects of implementing petrol rationing and the issuance of fuel smartcards in central Tehran. The results and their application are significant from the perspective of preserving fuel sources and protecting the environment, both of which being among the goals of sustainable development. Through the analysis of soft data (owners of automobile and light pickup trucks attitude), 3 general hypotheses were assessed and the result was compared to hard data (the traffic situation information, petrol consumption and air pollution). The soft data was gathered using a comprehensive questionnaire which randomly distributed among 2000 automobile and pickup truck drivers in the central Tehran area who were at petrol stations to refuel their vehicles. The gathered data was then analyzed at two levels: descriptive and inferential. The results of this research reveal that according to the soft data, the smartcard project has resulted in a decline in traffic and petrol consumption and a rise in air pollution; furthermore, the positive cultural effects of this project have been comparatively prominent. The actual figures show that the project has led to lower traffic load and air pollution but petrol consumption remains the same as before. (author)

  12. An attitude study on the environmental effects of rationing petrol in Tehran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanafizadeh, Payam; Navardi, Zeinab; Bamdad Soofi, Jahanyar [Department of Industrial Management, Allameh Tabataba' i University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the environmental effects of implementing petrol rationing and the issuance of fuel smartcards in central Tehran. The results and their application are significant from the perspective of preserving fuel sources and protecting the environment, both of which being among the goals of sustainable development. Through the analysis of soft data (owners of automobile and light pickup trucks attitude), 3 general hypotheses were assessed and the result was compared to hard data (the traffic situation information, petrol consumption and air pollution). The soft data was gathered using a comprehensive questionnaire which randomly distributed among 2000 automobile and pickup truck drivers in the central Tehran area who were at petrol stations to refuel their vehicles. The gathered data was then analyzed at two levels: descriptive and inferential. The results of this research reveal that according to the soft data, the smartcard project has resulted in a decline in traffic and petrol consumption and a rise in air pollution; furthermore, the positive cultural effects of this project have been comparatively prominent. The actual figures show that the project has led to lower traffic load and air pollution but petrol consumption remains the same as before. (author)

  13. Investigating Competition in the Retail Petrol Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.

    1984-01-01

    A questionnaire that college economics students can use to investigate the degree and nature of competition in the retail market for petrol is provided. A simple computer program is included to help in the analysis of the questionnaire. (Author/RM)

  14. Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market - end 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market (as at 31.12.94) are tabulated, with brand names and company names, areas of operation, and total numbers of retail petrol outlets displaying brand names, self-service sites, company-owned sites and outlets retailing Derv given. Statistics resulting from a retail marketing survey (1995) are listed and cover UK petrol sites from 1985-1994; motorway brands; a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets; UK outlets retailing derv; average UK prices for petrol and derv per litre; percentage of petrol sites per company (1994); number of company petrol sites as a percentage of total; number of outlets at hypermarkets/supermarkets; and vapour recovery sites. (UK)

  15. PETROL-INHALATION DEPENDENCE : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Pahwa, Madhu; Baweja, Aneesh; Gupta, Vinesh; Jiloha, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    Ms M. a 13 years old class III student presented with one year history of petrol fumes inhalation dependence and six months history of kerosene inhalation dependence. She liked the smell of fumes getting pleasant feeling of well-being and increased confidence. She though fulfilled all the criteria of inherent dependence differed from typical cases described in published reports. Like male preponderance and group activity, the prominent features of inhalation dependence were absent in our case.

  16. Petrol with isotopically differentiated lead added

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment is proposed aimed at determining the role of motor traffic in the pollution of the environment by lead, in particular of air, soil, vegetation, food and the human body. The technique of determining the isotopic composition of lead, used in the right way, should enable the whole problem to be solved. It is intended to add lead with a constant isotopic composition different from that of normally occuring lead, whether natural in origin or otherwise, to petrol in at least two regions of Italy. Analyses of lead samples taken from the principal mines have shown that Australian lead (Broken Hill Mine) has quite a different isotopic composition. This lead will therefore be used to prepare the antiknock additives for petrol sold in the regions in question. Adequate sampling should make it possible to determine the contribution to pollution of lead from motor vehicle exhausts. The regions chosen for the experiment are Piedmont (city and province of Turin) and Sardinia (city and province of Cagliari) - the first because of its high traffic density and level of industrialization, the second because of its remoteness and the lead content of the soil, which may affect food. Both regions present favourable conditions for supplying petrol of the intended type. The experiment is intended to last three years; the petrol with Australian lead will be marketed for a period of 18 months. The first results of analyses of the isotopic composition of lead contained in atmosphercomposition of lead contained in atmospheric dust in the city of Turin and of lead from a number of blood samples are reported in the paper

  17. Petrol consumption and redistributive effects of its taxation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Asensio Ruiz Alda, Francisco Javier

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate a petrol consumption function for Spain and to evaluate the redistributive effects of petrol taxation. We use micro data from the Spanish Household Budget Survey of 1990/91 and model petrol consumption taking into account the effect that income changes may have on car ownership levels, as well as the differences that exist between expenditure and consumption. Our results show the importance that household structure, place of residence and income have...

  18. Saccade dysfunction associated with chronic petrol sniffing and lead encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Cairney, S.; Maruff, P.; Burns, C.; Currie, J.; Currie, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In chronic petrol sniffers, recent exposure to high levels of leaded petrol may give rise to a lead encephalopathy characterised by tremor, chorea, ataxia, hyperreflexia, convulsive seizures, and death. Neurological abnormalities associated with lead encephalopathy involve the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and brain stem.

  19. Fiber optical sensor for the determination of adulteration in petrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, L. M.; Srivastava, Atul K.; Shukla, Rajesh K.; Srivastava, Anchal

    1999-07-01

    The newly designed prism based fiber optical refractometer sensor has been used to determine adulteration in petrol. A procedure for identification of the adulterant and determination of its concentration in a sample of petrol has been reported. Substances like kerosene, diesel, a mixture of these two or of aviation gasoline and kerosene have been used as adulterants.

  20. Idiosyncrasies in Australian petrol price behaviour: evidence of seasonalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been argued that there are certain idiosyncrasies in Australian petrol price behaviour. To the extent that these idiosyncrasies result in large magnitude differences in petrol prices, they may be exploited by consumers to significantly reduce their household expenditure on the product. Similarly, such seasonalities may influence retailers in their purchase and storage decision. The objective of this paper is to test for seasonalities in the Australian retail petrol market. The approach adopted is similar to that for determining calendar anomalies as documented in the financial and commodity markets literature. We find that a monthly seasonal effect is pronounced with petrol prices lower in the months of February-May and highest in July and August. A day-of-the-week effect is also apparent and is manifest in all petrol prices for capital cities (Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney) across various years. However, the half-month effect, as is common in stock returns, is not observed. Moreover, contrary to popular belief that petrol prices are higher surrounding holidays, no evidence of the holiday effect is found. In Brisbane and Melbourne, petrol prices also have some relationship to the mood of consumers, as proxied using weather conditions. This is not observed in Adelaide and Sydney. (Author)

  1. The supply of petrol: a report on the supply in the United Kingdom of petrol by wholesale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report by the UK Monopolies and Mergers Commission on the supply of petrol examines the extent of vertical control within the industry and concludes that it is a competitive market. Topics covered include petrol prices, profits, petrol exchange agreements, wholesaler agreements with retailers, wholesalers' ownership of retail sites and control over prices and barriers to the entry to the market. In addition to concluding that none of the facts found operate against the public interest, some recommendations regarding the future are made. (UK)

  2. Effects of Gasoline Inhalation on Menstrual Characteristics and the Hormonal Profile of Female Petrol Pump Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher E. Ekpenyong; Koofreh Davies; Nyebuk Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of young women are employed as gasoline station attendants in most developing countries despite the lack of empirical data on the adverse reproductive health effect of this solvent. This study therefore sought to assess the effects of gasoline inhalation on the serum sex hormone profile and menstrual characteristics of female gasoline station attendants in Nigeria, given the global increase in the rate of infertility and the existing evidence on the reproductive toxicity ...

  3. Occupational exposure of diesel station workers to BTEX compounds at a bus depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Raeesa; Curtis, Christopher J; Knight, Jasper

    2015-04-01

    Diesel fuel is known to emit pollutants that have a negative impact on environmental and human health. In developing countries like South Africa, attendants are employed to pump fuel for customers at service stations. Attendants refuel vehicles with various octane unleaded fuel, lead-replacement petrol and diesel fuel, on a daily basis. Attendants are at risk to adverse health effects associated with the inhalation of volatile organic compounds released from these fuels. The pollutants released include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX), which are significant due to their high level of toxicity. In this study, a risk assessment of BTEX was conducted at a diesel service station for public buses. Using Radiello passive samplers, it was found that benzene concentrations were above recommended international standards. Due to poor ventilation and high exposure duration, the average benzene concentration over the sampling campaign exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's chronic inhalation exposure reference concentration. Lifetime cancer risk estimation showed that on average there is a 3.78 × 10-4 cancer risk, corresponding to an average chronic daily intake of 1.38 × 10-3 mg/kg/day of benzene exposure. Additionally, there were incidences where individuals were at potential hazard risk of benzene and toluene that may pose non-carcinogenic effects to employees. PMID:25872020

  4. Occupational Exposure of Diesel Station Workers to BTEX Compounds at a Bus Depot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeesa Moolla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diesel fuel is known to emit pollutants that have a negative impact on environmental and human health. In developing countries like South Africa, attendants are employed to pump fuel for customers at service stations. Attendants refuel vehicles with various octane unleaded fuel, lead-replacement petrol and diesel fuel, on a daily basis. Attendants are at risk to adverse health effects associated with the inhalation of volatile organic compounds released from these fuels. The pollutants released include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX, which are significant due to their high level of toxicity. In this study, a risk assessment of BTEX was conducted at a diesel service station for public buses. Using Radiello passive samplers, it was found that benzene concentrations were above recommended international standards. Due to poor ventilation and high exposure duration, the average benzene concentration over the sampling campaign exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency’s chronic inhalation exposure reference concentration. Lifetime cancer risk estimation showed that on average there is a 3.78 × 10?4 cancer risk, corresponding to an average chronic daily intake of 1.38 × 10?3 mg/kg/day of benzene exposure. Additionally, there were incidences where individuals were at potential hazard risk of benzene and toluene that may pose non-carcinogenic effects to employees.

  5. Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

  6. Study of cluster formation in petrol pitch by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural and magnetic properties of the iron containing clusters in petrol pitchs (JCCP), produced by mixing of petrol pitch's matrix with iron carbonyl complex, was studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. (orig.)

  7. Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in petrol: the toxicological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, P J

    1987-12-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), when used as an octane improver in petrol, leads to increased airborne levels of manganese in the form of Mn3O4. The potential health effects of increased airborne manganese are considered in this paper. Manganese, unlike lead which it can replace in petrol, is a normal and essential component of the human diet and the intake from airborne manganese is slight by comparison to the normal dietary intake. The major toxicological effects of manganese, observed after long occupational exposure, are on the lung (manganese pneumonia) and the central nervous system (manganism). The small increase in airborne manganese from the use of MMT in petrol is 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than the level required to produce toxic symptoms of manganese exposure, even in areas of high traffic density, and no health risk from the use of MMT is likely. PMID:3438743

  8. Ham petrol fiyatlar?n?n ANFIS ile tahmini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O?uz KAYNAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ekonomik kalk?nman?n temel a??rl?kl? girdisini olu?turan ve halen dünyadaki en önemli enerji kayna?? olma özelli?ini koruyan petrol, do?rudan ya da dolayl? olarak tüm sektörleri etkilemektedir. Bu nedenle petrol piyasas?nda ve dolay?s?yla fiyat?nda ortaya ç?kan de?i?iklikler, olu?turduklar? zincirleme reaksiyonlar arac?l??? ile hem ülke, hem de dünya ekonomisi üzerinde çe?itli etkiler yaratmaktad?r. Karma??k dinamiklerinden dolay?, oldukça de?i?ken ve etkile?imli bir yap?ya sahip petrol piyasas?nda gelece?e yönelik etkili planlar yapmak için do?ru ve güvenilir tahminlere gereksinim vard?r. Bu çal??mada orta ve uzun vadeli petrol fiyatlar?n? tahmin etmek amac?yla bulan?k ç?kar?m sistemleriyle yapay sinir a?lar?n?n birle?iminden olu?an ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System kullan?lm??t?r.

  9. Modelling how much extra motorists pay on the road? A cross-sectional study of profit margins of unleaded petrol in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross profitability margin (difference between retail and wholesale prices) for unleaded petrol exhibits substantial variations across 108 cities, towns and regional centres in Australia. This paper examines if such variations (averaged during 2007–2012) can be explained by (a) transport costs proxied by the distance between retailers and wholesalers; (b) the size of the retail market; (c) market competition proxied by the number of cars in the vicinity of the retailers; (d) dummy variables capturing other qualitative attributes associated with the retailers’ locations. Three cross-sectional regressions are estimated but only one successfully passes all diagnostic tests. By identifying a number of locations exhibiting excessive profit margins, the results of this paper enhance the efficiency and transparency of petrol pricing in the retail market. It is found that the extent of excessive profiteering in Western Australia (WA) and South Australia (SA) were lower than other Australian states and territories. This important finding can be explained by a strong presence of independent petrol stations in SA and the successful price-monitoring performance of FuelWatch in WA. - Highlights: • We examine the profit margin for petrol across 108 retail locations in Australia. • No evidence of excessive profiteering was found in 76 out of 108 retail locations. • There are 13 locations in which the likelihood of abnormal margins is quite high. • Regulatory bodies have limited resources so they should target these locations

  10. Petrol with octane number 91 and 98 will disappear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Next or may be already this year Petrol with octane number 91 and 98 will disappear from the market of the Slovak Republic. A final deadline has not been set yet. According to an explanation provided by deputy general manager for refinery and marketing of Slovnaft, a.s., Bratislava, Bela Kelemen the reason for this decision is lack of interest drivers show for this type of fuel. The consumption of diesel, on the other hand, is growing rapidly. According to representatives of Slovnaft the balance between offer and demand is tense in case of diesel, petroleum and the most used petrol with octane number 95. In their opinion this is caused mainly by the cold weather

  11. Implementation of Turbocharger in Petrol Engines and its Thermal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Bhurat, Amit Yadav , Atreya pathak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have discussed about turbocharging of four stroke petrol engine, difference between turbocharging of diesel and gasoline engine and possibilities to reduce losses in Exhaust system are highlighted. However, it omits to discuss two stroke engines due to their different gas exchange processes. Designing of different components involved in turbocharging is done and thermal analysis of turbocharger’s connector pipehas been done along with different kind of stress analysis.

  12. REGIONAL ASPECTS OF BOURGAS-ALEXANDROUPOLIS PETROL PIPELINE

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinkov, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    The following scientific research discusses issues, connected to the construction of the Bourgas-Alexandroupolis petrol pipeline, from the point of view of the energy policy of the European Union (EU). The established relations between the EU and Russia lead to a demand for alternative opportunities for the construction of such infrastructure. The Bourgas-Alexandroupolis pipeline is the only infrastructural facility in this region that passes only through the territory of countries that are a...

  13. Sharp increase in petrol prices and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current increase in energy prices may be seen as good news for climate change by creating a reduction in energy consumption and therefore emissions of CO2. This study uses the GEMINI-E3 model to analyse the impact of a sharp increase in petrol prices on the world economy and on climate change. The effects of the increase are compared with those of policies for reducing greenhouse gases. (authors)

  14. Implementation of Turbocharger in Petrol Engines and its Thermal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Swapnil Bhurat, Amit Yadav

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we have discussed about turbocharging of four stroke petrol engine, difference between turbocharging of diesel and gasoline engine and possibilities to reduce losses in Exhaust system are highlighted. However, it omits to discuss two stroke engines due to their different gas exchange processes. Designing of different components involved in turbocharging is done and thermal analysis of turbocharger’s connector pipehas been done along with different kind of stress analysis.

  15. Optical sensor for the determination of adulteration in petrol: design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor, Kamal; Sinha, R. K.; Varshney, Anshu D.; Kumar, Vinit

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we report design and development of optical sensor for the determination of adulteration in petrol using optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR). OTDR is generally used to find out fault in optical fibers but we effectively use this technique for the determination of the percentage of adulteration in petrol. This OTDR method enables detection of adulteration in petrol very accurately. The OTDR measurement method reported in this paper is easy to carry out and also a cost effective tool for the determination of adulteration in petrol.

  16. Heterotopic ossification of the elbows in a major petrol burn

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, Shahriar Raj

    2012-01-01

    A case of a young man who developed heterotopic ossification (HO) in his elbows following an accident where he sustained petrol burns to over 60% of his body. His injuries necessitated intubation, escharotomies and a protracted intensive care unit stay that was complicated by septicaemia. Several weeks after the injury, he was diagnosed with HO in his right elbow, followed by the left elbow a week later. He was commenced on an non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, a long-term course of a bisp...

  17. Petrol and gas: an opportunity for the Arab countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 17 February 2006 the Institute of the Arab World (IMA) and the Franco-Arab Chamber of Commerce (CCFA) jointly organised a symposium on ''Petrol and Gas, an Opportunity for the Arab countries?''. The preparatory work had been initiated by M. Yves Guena, President of IMA and M. Serge Boidevaix, President of CCFA, with Dr Saleh Al Tayar, the Secretary-General of CCFA. An audience of more than one hundred, made up of experts, professional management, senior company directors and journalists participated. (author)

  18. Petrol and Crude Oil Prices: Asymmetric Price Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Wlazlowski, Szymon

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between crude oil prices, the dollar-pound exchange rate and petrol prices in the UK over the period 1982-2001. Quantitative methods were used to examine the existence of the long-run equilibrium and test for the presence of asymmetric patterns in the short-run responses to upstream price changes. Also the degree of asymmetry in the adjustment towards long-run equilibrium was analysed. Results confirm that short-run response is greater for increases in ups...

  19. Psychology of Flight Attendant’s Profession

    OpenAIRE

    Filipieva, Tatyana V.

    2012-01-01

    The profession of a flight attendant appeared in aviation in the 1920s. Professionalcommunity of flight attendants is constantly growing with the growth ofcomplexity of aviation technology, professional standards of passenger serviceand safety. The psychological scientific research was carried out by a psychologistwho worked as a flight attendant. The study revealed the psychological content,demands, peculiarities in cabin crews’ labor. A job description was accomplished.Temporal and spatia...

  20. A novel possible strategy for the management of petrol sniffing addiction in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mosallai, Sharif

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1950s there have been many reports on petrol addiction, mostly describing the practice of petrol sniffing and its acute and chronic physical and psychological effects. To the authors’ knowledge, none have described the use of opiates to manage and control this addiction.

  1. REGIONAL ASPECTS OF BOURGAS-ALEXANDROUPOLIS PETROL PIPELINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin KALINKOV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following scientific research discusses issues, connected to the construction of the Bourgas-Alexandroupolis petrol pipeline, from the point of view of the energy policy of the European Union (EU. The established relations between the EU and Russia lead to a demand for alternative opportunities for the construction of such infrastructure. The Bourgas-Alexandroupolis pipeline is the only infrastructural facility in this region that passes only through the territory of countries that are all members of the EU (Bulgaria and Greece. This is a circumstance that definitely makes petrol deliveries more secure. On the other hand the accomplishment of the project needs many regional ecological problems to have been solved beforehand. That’s why the research’s author suggests that such major investment projects of international significance are to be approved in advance by the countries from the Black sea area. Such a preliminary decision would be a guarantee for preserving the sustainable development of the Black sea.

  2. Ignition study of a petrol/CNG single cylinder engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N.; Saleem, Z.; Mirza, A. A.

    2005-11-01

    Benefits of laser ignition over the electrical ignition system for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engines have fuelled automobile industry and led to an extensive research on basic characteristics to switch over to the emerging technologies. This study was undertaken to determine the electrical and physical characteristics of the electric spark ignition of single cylinder petrol/CNG engine to determine minimum ignition requirements and timeline of ignition events to use in subsequent laser ignition study. This communication briefly reviews the ongoing research activities and reports the results of this experimental study. The premixed petrol and CNG mixtures were tested for variation of current and voltage characteristics of the spark with speed of engine. The current magnitude of discharge circuit was found to vary linearly over a wide range of speed but the stroke to stroke fire time was found to vary nonlinearly. The DC voltage profiles were observed to fluctuate randomly during ignition process and staying constant in rest of the combustion cycle. Fire to fire peaks of current amplitudes fluctuated up to 10% of the peak values at constant speed but increased almost linearly with increase in speed. Technical barriers of laser ignition related to threshold minimum ignition energy, inter-pulse durations and firing sequence are discussed. Present findings provide a basic initiative and background information for designing suitable timeline algorithms for laser ignited leaner direct injected CNG engines.

  3. Condição coclear e do sistema olivococlear medial de frentistas de postos de gasolina expostos a solventes orgânicos / Cochlear condition and olivocochlear system of gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lenita da Silva, Quevedo; Tania Maria, Tochetto; Márcia do Amaral, Siqueira.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Solventes orgânicos são cada vez mais estudados em função de sua ação ototóxica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a condição das células ciliadas externas e o sistema olivococlear medial de sujeitos expostos a solventes orgânicos. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo. Foram avaliados 78 frentistas [...] de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (RS) expostos a solventes orgânicos. Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, a amostra ficou constituída por 24 sujeitos. Os procedimentos utilizados na avaliação foram anamnese audiológica, Emissões Otoacústicas Transientes (EOAT) e pesquisa do efeito supressor das EOAT. Um grupo controle (GC) composto por 23 sujeitos, foi utilizado para comparar sujeitos expostos e não-expostos. A coleta de dados foi realizada na sala de Fonoaudiologia do Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador de Santa Maria. RESULTADOS: A presença de EOAT foi maior na orelha esquerda em ambos os grupos; a média da relação sinal/ruído das EOAT de ambas as orelhas foi maior no GE; o efeito supressor das EOAT na orelha direita foi maior nos sujeitos do GE (62,5%) e na orelha esquerda foi superior no GC (86,96%), com diferença estatisticamente significante. A mediana da relação sinal/ruído das EOAT, segundo a faixa de frequência, foi maior no GC em três faixas de frequência na orelha direita e em uma na orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: Não foram encontrados sinais de alteração nas células ciliadas externas nem no sistema olivococlear medial nos sujeitos expostos a solventes orgânicos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Organic solvents have been increasingly studied due to its ototoxic action. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the conditions of outer hair cells and olivocochlear system in individuals exposed to organic solvents. METHOD: This is a prospective study. 78 gas station attendants exposed to organic solv [...] ents had been evaluated from three gas stations from Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul (RS). After applying the inclusion criteria, the sample was constituted by 24 individuals. The procedures used on the evaluation were audiological anamnesis, Transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAES) and research for the suppressive effect of TEOAES. A group control (GC) compounded by 23 individuals was compared to individuals exposed and non-exposed individuals. The data collection has been done in the room of Speech Therapy of Workers Health Reference Center of Santa Maria. RESULTS: The TEOAES presence was major in the left ear in both groups; the average relation of TEOAES signal/noise in both ears was greater in GE; the TEOAES suppressive effect in the right ear was higher in the individual of GE (62,5%) and in the left ear was superior in GC (86,96%), with statistically significant difference. The median sign/noise ratio of TEOAES, according to the frequency range, it was higher in GC in three frequencies ranges in the right ear and one in the left ear. CONCLUSION: It was not found signs of alteration on the outer hair cells neither on the olivocochlear medial system in the individuals exposed to organic solvents.

  4. Phenol oxidation of petrol refinery wastewater catalyzed by Laccase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid-state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries) have been evaluated in both systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 u/ml) was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 u/ml) was achieved in a submerged system, containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The Laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of Laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant

  5. Data Mining System For Quality Prediction Of Petrol Using Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemo, Omowumi O.; Osofisan, Adenike O.; Fashina, Ebunoluwa P.; Kayode Otubu

    2012-01-01

    The increasing cry of the masses over poor quality of petroleum products most especially petrol has poised researchers and refinery engineers to devise a way of telling the class of quality of products expected from a sample crude oil without having to refine it. To this end, a system that can predict the quality and class of petrol expected from a sample crude oil is desired. Getting such accurate predictions for the class and hence the quality of petrol however can be tasking for humans. Th...

  6. Modelling the Price of Unleaded Petrol in Australia’s Capital Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Valadkhani

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run and short-run determinants of unleaded petrol price in Australia’s capitalcities using monthly data to find out whether prices respond asymmetrically to external shocks. Based on thecointegration test results and the estimated asymmetric short-run dynamic models, it is found that: (1) in thelong-run petrol prices are mainly determined by Tapis crude oil and Singapore petrol prices; (2) there issome evidence of asymmetric price adjustments in the short-run sinc...

  7. Modelling the Price of Unleaded Petrol in Australia’s Capital Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Valadkhani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the long-run and short-run determinants of unleaded petrol price in Australia’s capitalcities using monthly data to find out whether prices respond asymmetrically to external shocks. Based on thecointegration test results and the estimated asymmetric short-run dynamic models, it is found that: (1 in thelong-run petrol prices are mainly determined by Tapis crude oil and Singapore petrol prices; (2 there issome evidence of asymmetric price adjustments in the short-run since petrol price increases have been mostlypassed on to the consumer faster than price decreases in four capital cities. More specifically, this paperprovides convincing evidence in support of asymmetric price adjustments and the “rockets-and-feathershypothesis” in Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney. One can thus argue that there are a significantdegree of market inefficiency and/or collusion, requiring a closer government price monitoring and scrutiny.

  8. Analysis of a petrol plume over England: 18-19 January 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, F.; Murray, V. S.; Robins, A. G.; Derwent, R. G.; Ryall, D. B.; Williams, M. L.; Elliott, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: About 7000 tonnes of unleaded petrol were discharged into the English Channel after a tanker collision off Ostend on Saturday 18 January 1997. The petrol evaporated and the vapour plume was carried across the central part of England to Wales, resulting in reports of unidentified odours, and irritation of the eyes, skin, and upper respiratory tract. This work uses this incident to show how marine and atmospheric dispersion modelling together with routine air quality monitorin...

  9. Impact of Organic Solvents and Environmental Pollutants on the Physiological Function in Petrol Filling Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Devender Reddy, V.; Anthony David, M.; Nusrat Aziz; Santhosh Kumar, B.; Khaja Mohinuddin Salar, B. M.; Nazia Uzma

    2008-01-01

    Long term exposure to solvents and air pollutants can lead to deleterious effects on respiratory, haematological and thyroid functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic exposure to solvents like benzene and pollutants like carbon monoxide in petrol filling workers had adverse effect on blood parameters, thyroid and respiratory functions. The study group consisted of 42 healthy, non-smoker petrol filling workers, aged 20-50 years with work (exposure) duration from 2-1...

  10. Effectiveness and effects of attempts to regulate the UK petrol industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the impact that investigation and regulation of the UK petrol industry has had on the profitability of the companies. Using a gross margin for petrol, we estimate a series of variable parameter autoregressive processes. The results demonstrate that the 1979 Monopolies and Mergers Commission investigation into the industry, caused a long-term decline in profit margins in the industry, despite the fact that no recommendations or undertakings were made. This cannot, however, be said for subsequent investigations. 27 refs

  11. The ignitability of petrol vapours and potential for vapour phase explosion by use of TASER® law enforcement electronic control device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, C; Andrews, S P

    2014-12-01

    An experimental study was made of the potential of the TASER-X26™ law enforcement electronic control device to ignite petrol vapours if used by an officer to incapacitate a person soaked in petrol, or within a flammable atmosphere containing petrol vapour. Bench scale tests have shown that a wooden mannequin with pig skin covering the chest was a suitable representation of a human target. Full scale tests using the mannequin have shown that the arc from a TASER-X26™ is capable of igniting petrol/air vapours on a petrol-soaked person. Further tests in a 1/5 scale and a full scale compartment have shown that if a TASER is used within a compartment, a petrol vapour explosion (deflagration) may be achieved. It is evident from this research that if used in a flammable vapour rich environment, the device could prove fatal not only to the target but the TASER® operator as well. PMID:25498927

  12. Research of combustion in older generation spark-ignition engines in the condition of use leaded and unleaded petrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatovi? Željko M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the potential problems in the exploitation of the older generation of spark-ignition engines with higher octane number of petrol (unleaded petrol BMB 95 than required (leaded petrol MB 86. Within the experimental tests on two different engines (STEYR-PUCH model 712 and GAZ 41 by applying piezoelectric pressure sensors integrated with the engine spark plugs, acceleration sensors (accelerometers and special electronic block connected with distributor, show that the cumulative first and second theoretical phase of combustion when petrol of higher octane number (BMB 95 is used lasts slightly longer than when the low-octane petrol MB 86 is used. For new petrol (BMB 95 higher optimal angles of pre-ignition have been determined by which better performances of the engine are achieved without a danger of the combustion with detonation (also called knocking.

  13. LCAs of petrol and diesel - A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Mattias; Ahlgren, Serina

    2013-09-01

    Many life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have investigated the environmental impact of using biofuel in transportation compared with fossil fuels. Since these studies often use standard values for the fossil fuel reference scenario, there is a need for a thorough review of published data on fossil fuel use in transportation. This study reviewed the available literature regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy balances in petrol and diesel use and examined possible causes for the differences reported in the literature. This included differences connected to the LCA methodology itself, but also those resulting from technical and economic effects. Thirteen studies were reviewed in order to establish the level of GHG emissions and energy use in the well-to-tank perspective and, where possible, in the entire well-to-wheel perspective. The studies used different input data, allocation methods and system boundaries, but the results fell within a narrow range, since the energy content of the fuels on a tank-to-wheel basis differed only slightly, while the use phase represents most GHG emissions and energy usage in fuel life cycles. All studies reviewed reported GHG emissions values that exceeded the reference value of 83.8 g CO{sub 2}-eq/MJ fuel suggested in the EU Renewable Energy Directive.

  14. Coal petrol and SNG - alternatives for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If in the decades to come no alternatives are found for the conventional fuels, i.e. petrol and diesel oil, in vehicle propulsion and if the non-energetic use of mineral oil is maintained on a large scale for economic reasons although there is a technical possibility of substitution by synthesizing substances other than those derived from mineral oil, the domains of traffic and non-energetic uses will largely remain oil-dependent. Model calculations have shown however that this demand could theoretically be satisfied by the upgrading of coal, which would require substantial additional expenditure. But even if all possible energy measures are taken and on the assumption of rising oil imports, the development of nuclear power is indicated, as coal cannot act as a substitute for nuclear power and a source of fuel at the same time. The necessary volume of capital expenditure is, however, justified only if this is done with the consistent aim of reducing the dependence of oil imports. Development of even part of the coal liquefaction potential would have a favourable and lasting effect in terms of energy policy on the dependence of oil imports all over the world. (Auth.)

  15. Research of combustion in older generation spark-ignition engines in the condition of use leaded and unleaded petrol

    OpenAIRE

    Bulatovi? Željko M.; Raki? Slavko N.; Kneževi? Dragan M.; Tomi? Miroljub V.; Bojer Ljubiša M.; Radi? Dragoslav B.; Jerkin Goran L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential problems in the exploitation of the older generation of spark-ignition engines with higher octane number of petrol (unleaded petrol BMB 95) than required (leaded petrol MB 86). Within the experimental tests on two different engines (STEYR-PUCH model 712 and GAZ 41) by applying piezoelectric pressure sensors integrated with the engine spark plugs, acceleration sensors (accelerometers) and special electronic block connected w...

  16. Experimental analysis on a spark ignition petrol engine fuelled with LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as alternative fuel to petrol is common practise in spark ignition engines. While the main driving force to the use of LPG still remains the low cost for the end user, its favourable pollutant emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, will in the middle term probably increase interest in LPG as an IC engine fuel. In addition, there are both theoretical and technical reasons to consider LPG as an attractive fuel also in terms of engine performance. Despite the continuously increasing stock production of dual-fuel (petrol–LPG) passenger car models, doubts still exist about both real engine performance in LPG operation and the reliability of the dual-fuel feeding system. This paper deals with the theoretical advantages of using LPG as fuel for SI engines. Brake performance tests of a passenger car engine fed with petrol and LPG are analysed and compared. The stock engine has been equipped with a “third-generation” standard kit for dual-fuel operation. The performance reductions in LPG operation are discussed in both steady state and transient condition. The results of some modifications to the set-up of both the petrol and LPG metering devices, designed for a better justification of the measured performance, are also presented. -- Highlights: ? Experimental research on the actual performances of an SI engine fed with petrol and gaseous LPG. ? Theoretical advantages and drawbacks of fuelling SI ICE’s with LPG. ? Brake performance analysis shows a noticeable gap between LPG and petrol operation. ? Local measurements confirm that the thermodynamic operation of the evaporator-pressure reducer device is crucial for the engine performance. ? The performance of the up-to-date kit for petrol–LPG dual-fuel operation is greatly affected by the settings of the mechanical components of the LPG evaporator device.

  17. Quantification of atmospheric lead emissions from 70 years of leaded petrol consumption in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Louise Jane

    2015-06-01

    Lead is a persistent pollutant and the subject of many environmental studies, yet, in Australia, the extent of atmospheric lead emissions from the use of leaded petrol is unquantified. This paper details the first comprehensive account of leaded petrol sales and its lead concentrations over the 70 years of use in Australia. The resulting atmospheric lead emissions are calculated to provide the most complete understanding of the volume of lead released to the Australian continent from the consumption of leaded petrol. Atmospheric emissions of lead to the entire Australian continent from leaded petrol are calculated to total 240,510 tonnes over seven decades of use, peaking at 7869 tonnes in 1974. Total emissions for individual states and territories range from 1745 to 67,893 tonnes, with New South Wales responsible for the largest emissions. The effect of regulations on allowable concentrations of tetraethyl-lead additives are observed in the reduction of lead emissions in New South Wales and Victoria. The consequences to human health and the environment of leaded petrol consumption in Australia's populous cities are examined against historical air quality data and blood lead levels.

  18. Effects of Gasoline Inhalation on Menstrual Characteristics and the Hormonal Profile of Female Petrol Pump Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. Ekpenyong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of young women are employed as gasoline station attendants in most developing countries despite the lack of empirical data on the adverse reproductive health effect of this solvent. This study therefore sought to assess the effects of gasoline inhalation on the serum sex hormone profile and menstrual characteristics of female gasoline station attendants in Nigeria, given the global increase in the rate of infertility and the existing evidence on the reproductive toxicity of gasoline constituents. A site-by-site cross-sectional study of 117 female gasoline pump attendants and 118 age-matched controls was carried out between September 2011 and November 2012. The following 3 instruments were used for data collection: a semi-structured questionnaire, a female sex hormone profile assay and exposure status measures. The prevalence of menstrual disorders among the exposed and unexposed women was 37.2% and 28.5% respectively. Exposure to gasoline was significantly associated with disorders in both menstrual cycle length and quantity of flow. Specifically, exposed women had a greater than threefold increased risk of a menstrual disorder, with an odds ratio (OR of 3.25 for abnormal cycle length and OR of 4.16 for abnormal quantity of flow. In addition, longer duration of exposure (>1 year was significantly associated with higher likelihood of menstrual disorders. There were also persistent low serum levels of estradiol, and fluctuating levels of other reproductive hormones. Gasoline inhalation may interfere with ovarian functions leading to disordered menstrual characteristics and female sex hormone profiles, as well as future reproductive impairment.

  19. Severe petrol contamination in the aquifer of the Llobregat river delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 16-09-91 an attack on an oil pipeline led to some 70 tons of petrol spilling out and catching fire. About 20 tons filtered down into the aquifer of the river Llobregat delta. On 08-12-91 the presence of petrol was detected in a well used for supplying water about 1 km downstream. A system was set up for monitoring and extracting the polluted ground water. The volume affected had now reached 3.5 hm''3. The decontamination costs came to 245 million pesetas in comparison to only 10 millions pesetas for the petrol spill. The cost of extracting the water was 70 pta/m''3. Finally the importance of regional planning and the need to prevent such accidents is pointed out. The means necessary to deal with them should be available. (Author)

  20. THE CONSEQUENCES OF LEAD PETROL USE ON LEAD CONTENT IN CABBAGE ALONG THE MOTORWAY

    OpenAIRE

    Matavuly, M.; Zh. Kevreshan; Dy. Yovanovicy

    2006-01-01

    Besides the negative ecological consequences, during the production of the motor petrol (alkyl lead as anti–knock compound), as well as the application (combustion in motor engines), there are the ecological consequences manifested by deposition of Pb in the soil beside the motorway. At the same time this is the end of the life cycle of the petrol. However, Pb enters the human consumption chain through the plants that absorb Pb from the soil, and it is also deposited in the human body. The ...

  1. PHENOL OXIDATION OF PETROL REFINERY WASTEWATER CATALYZED BY LACCASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Carolina Vargas

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries have been evaluated in both systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml was achieved in a submerged system containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant.La lacasa se ha obtenido a través de dos sistemas de producción diferentes, el primero usando Pleurotus ostreatus en fermentación en estado sólido, el segundo usando Trametes versicolor en cultivo sumergido. Se han evaluado diferentes sustratos (derivados de la levadura, harina e industrias de la bebida en ambos sistemas. La mayor cantidad de la lacasa producida con Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml se obtuvo en un medio de salvado de trigo. El máximo nivel de concentración de la enzima usando Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml se logró en un sistema sumergido con 10% vinaza, 4,5% salvado de trigo y 0,2% de melaza por litro. El filtrado del cultivo extraído del Pleurotus ostreatus se usó para remover el fenol de las aguas residuales. El tratamiento enzimático es eficaz para un amplio rango de pH y de temperatura. El tratamiento con la lacasa se ha utilizado para desfenolizar el agua residual de las refinerías de la industria del petróleo. La ventaja de la desfenolización lacasa es que esta enzima usa el oxígeno molecular como un oxidante.

  2. PHENOL OXIDATION OF PETROL REFINERY WASTEWATER CATALYZED BY LACCASE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María-Carolina, Vargas; Nubia E, Ramírez.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La lacasa se ha obtenido a través de dos sistemas de producción diferentes, el primero usando Pleurotus ostreatus en fermentación en estado sólido, el segundo usando Trametes versicolor en cultivo sumergido. Se han evaluado diferentes sustratos (derivados de la levadura, harina e industrias de la be [...] bida) en ambos sistemas. La mayor cantidad de la lacasa producida con Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml) se obtuvo en un medio de salvado de trigo. El máximo nivel de concentración de la enzima usando Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml) se logró en un sistema sumergido con 10% vinaza, 4,5% salvado de trigo y 0,2% de melaza por litro. El filtrado del cultivo extraído del Pleurotus ostreatus se usó para remover el fenol de las aguas residuales. El tratamiento enzimático es eficaz para un amplio rango de pH y de temperatura. El tratamiento con la lacasa se ha utilizado para desfenolizar el agua residual de las refinerías de la industria del petróleo. La ventaja de la desfenolización lacasa es que esta enzima usa el oxígeno molecular como un oxidante. Abstract in english Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries) have been evaluated in both [...] systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml) was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml) was achieved in a submerged system containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant.

  3. E-Attendant List

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    The attendant work has become important nowadays, not only in schools, but also in companies. The original attendant work is based on paper work. That seems inefficient and waste of lots of resources in real life. To solve the problems in this phase, this project had been started. The whole system is based on the website. It makes the system work in any operating system. The request of using the system is the internet connection. The tasks of this project included the design of the fram...

  4. A house with its own filling station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short article describes how a house in Erlinsbach, Switzerland was rebuilt and, at the same time, fitted with a new gas-fired heating system - and with its own natural gas filling station. The history behind this unusual project is discussed. The inclusion of a filling station in the project made it worthwhile for the gas utility to lay a connection from the gas mains to the house. The economic advantages for its builder, who sells such natural gas filling station equipment, are mentioned. The consumption of the natural gas used as motor fuel is measured and taxed separately. Equivalent fuel costs are now said by the owner to be already below today's petrol prices and will become even lower when the planned reduction of levies on such use of natural gas come into force

  5. Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG. It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationship for an isentropic compression process. This computation of compression ratio is based on an inlet air temperature of 30oC (representative of tropical ambient condition and pre-combustion temperature of 540oC (corresponding to the auto-ignition temperature of CNG. Using this value of compression ratio, a dimensional modification Quantity =1.803mm was obtained using simple geometric relationships. This value of 1.803mm is needed to increase the length of the connecting rod, the compression height of the piston or reducing the sealing plate’s thickness. After the modification process, a CNG engine of air standard efficiency 62.7% (this represents a 4.67% increase over the petrol engine, capable of a maximum power of 83.6kW at 6500rpm, was obtained.

  6. Pipes, Petrol, Paint and Pewter: The Rise and Fall of Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Lead is a good example of a metal that was used for many things over centuries--in water pipes, paints, on roofs, and in leaded petrol, for example--but was superseded as scientists discovered "new" metals, and because its toxicity became a problem. It was originally an important element in pewter utensils, alloyed with tin; it made the tin easier…

  7. DEVELOP students attend conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Last month, Madeline Brozen and Jason Jones of the DEVELOP Program at John C. Stennis Space Center joined members from the program's national office at Langley Research Center to attend the Southern Growth Policies Board annual conference in Biloxi. Pictured are (l to r): Karen Allsbrook, Jonathan Gleason, Gov. Haley Barbour, Madeline Brozen, Lindsay Rogers and Tracey Silcox.

  8. Buddy System Improves Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Carol

    1977-01-01

    The cooperative effort of pupil services staff in working with chronic absenteeism has provided a much needed service to the school. The program described has been effective in getting middle/junior high school pupils to understand the importance of good attendance and in helping counselors meet a major guidance objective. (Author)

  9. Induction of microsomal drug metabolism in man and in the rat by exposure to petroleum.

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, A. W.; Frewin, D. B.; Priestly, B. G.

    1981-01-01

    To determine the effect of petroleum exposure on the activity of hepatic mixed function oxidase enzymes, salivary elimination kinetics of antipyrine were determined in 19 petrol station attendants and compared with 19 controls. Antipyrine half life in petrol station attendants was shorter than in controls. Microsomal preparations (10 000 x g supernatants) were prepared from six male Porton rats exposed to petrol vapour (5 ppm at an air flow rate of 41/min for eight hours a day for three weeks...

  10. Comparison of Urinary o-Cresol and Hippuric Acid in Drivers, Gasoline Station Workers and Painters Exposed to Toluene in West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrahman Bahrami; Ahmad Jonidi-Jafari; Behzad Folladi; Hossien Mahjub; Qolamhosien Sadri; Majid Motamed Zadeh

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluation of exposed to toluene and compare levels of hippuric acid and o-Cresol in taxi drivers, petrol station workers, car painters with a control group in West of Iran. The urinary o-creasol and toluene in air were analyzed by a gas chromatography and hippuric acid was extracted from urine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The significant differences in the levels of urinary o-Cresol were found in painters and petrol station workers compare...

  11. Managing salinity in water associated with petrol industry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Guerrero Fajardo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a conceptual design for handling an oilfield’s industrial wastewater; its oblective was to use type-1 fractioned crystallisation within a feasible environmental and technical framework for obtaining the highest percentage of salt.La Gloria, La Gloria Norte and Morichal (all belonging to the Casanare department association stations were used for planning and analysing this handling alternative as they produce high salt-containing industrial effluent.This alternative was focused on treating 30% of the total volume of the associated water so produced. This volume is expected to be 1239 m3/d in 2000 in the oilfields being studied here. The process allows 92% retrieval from present NaCl (0.918 Ton/h, having 97% purity. Evaporation and aeration systems should be set prior to the crystallisation stage as a means of guaranteeing final product quality and making good use of the field’s facilities.

  12. Temperature dependence density and kinematic viscosity of petrol, bioethanol and their blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the flow behaviour conventional petrol, bioethanol and their blends, especially E15 and E85. The temperature dependence density and kinematic viscosity of samples have been measured and modelled. The rotary rheometer has been used to the measuring temperature dependence kinematic viscosity of fuel and blends. The digital densitometer with the fuel scale has been used to the measuring temperature dependence density of fuel and blends. The range of temperature measurement has been stated from the -10 to 40 degree C. The mathematic models (polynomial and exponential function) have been created according to the general formulae. The coefficients of determination R/sup 2/ have achieved high values 0.99 for temperature dependence density and from 0.89 to 0.97 for temperature dependence kinematic viscosity. The created mathematical models could be used to the predict flow behaviour of petrol, bioethanol and their blends. (author)

  13. Sono-electroanalysis: Application to the detection of lead in petrol

    OpenAIRE

    Blythe, An; Akkermans, Rp; Compton, Rg

    2000-01-01

    The quantitative detection of lead in petrol is shown to be possible by anodic stripping voltammetry in aqueous media under conditions of insonation-induced emulsification. An immersion horn probe is introduced into a thermostatted conventional three-electrode cell opposite a mercury plated platinum disk working electrode. Under ultrasonic emulsification of the sample, lead is preconcentrated as an amalgam on the Hg/Pt electrode surface via reduction at -1.0 V (vs. SCE). The large mass transp...

  14. Lead in petrol and levels of lead in blood: scientific evidence and social policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Elwood, P. C.; Gallacher, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Two aspects of the recent controversy about the health consequences of lead in petrol are considered. Firstly, the evidence is shown to be deficient, largely because the basic epidemiological principles of representative sampling, realistic measurement, and control of confounding variables were not followed so that valid conclusions cannot be drawn from most of the published studies. Secondly, the role of science appeared to be comprised by confusion between science per se and social policy. ...

  15. The chances for green petrol. Alternative for MTBE is ethylene tertiary butylether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find a useful and environment-friendly fuel is difficult. Lead and benzene already were replaced by methyl tertiary butylether (MTBE), but this fuel additive too appears to be hazardous for man and the environment. When MTBE will be banned the chances for so-called green petrol (made from biomass) are rising. A brief overview of the developments in the field of fuel additives so far is given

  16. Multicommodity formulations for the prize collecting vehicle routing problem in the petrol industry

    OpenAIRE

    Duhamel, Christophe; Santos, Andre?a C.; Aloise, Dario J.

    2009-01-01

    The Mobile Oil Recovery (MOR) unit is a truck designed to pump marginal oil wells in a petrol field. The MOR optimization Problem (MORP) consists in optimizing both the oil extraction and the travel costs. In this article, we describe several formulations for the MORP using a single vehicle and we propose two formulations to the case where several vehicles are used. We strengthen the proposed formulations by taking advantage of the MORP characteristics, by improving the number of subtour elim...

  17. Performace Test and Engine Emission on Acid Oleic Oxygenated as Additives Petrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Wahyudi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of oxygenated oleic acid additives in standard petrol on the engine performance and the exhaust emissions. The 4-stroke 1.5 litre engine was used on the engine test bed coupled to eddy current electric dynamometer which is also connected to CADET V12 control system and exhaust gas analyser IMR2000/2000P. The oxygenated oleic acid additives used for this experiment is fixed at 0.2% by volume due to limited quantity available. Two types of test were carried out first test is with variable speed and no loads and the second test is at constant speed of 1,400 rpm with variable loads. The experimental results showed that the brake power increased by 2%, torque by 2%, brake thermal efficiency by about 7% and specific fuel consumption decreased by about 10%. The exhaust emissions analysed are carbon monoxide, (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2 and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. The result by comparing the oxygenated petrol with the standard petrol indicated that CO gas emission depend on the engine speed which decreased with increasing speed up to 1,600 rpm and increased after that speed on test without load. The CO also decreased by about 28% on the test with loads. The emission of CO2 increased by 2.7% for tests with load and by 8% for tests without loads. The NOx emission decreased by 9% for test without load and about 7% for test with load. This study indicates that engine performance is improved by adding 0.2% oxygenated additives to standard petrol.

  18. Evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-fuelled motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.; Duffy, B. L.; Nelson, P. F.

    This study reports the identification and quantification of 1,3-butadiene in petrol and in the evaporative emissions from Australian light-duty passenger vehicles. The mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in each of the different grades of any brand of Australian petrol was found to be relatively constant for a given marketing area. However, the mass fractions vary significantly between the different brands (or refineries) from 0.004±0.001% to 0.047±0.008%. The measurements of the evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from in-service motor vehicles were performed using standard Australian Design Rule 37/00 (ADR 37/00) Sealed Housing Evaporative Determination (SHED) tests. For post-1985 catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with unleaded petrol, average evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene were 9.4 (0.7-22) and 5.0 (0.1-23) mg per test for diurnal and hot soak SHED tests, respectively. The corresponding average evaporative emissions for the older, pre-1986 non-catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with leaded petrol were 26.5 (11.7-45.4) and 9.2 (4.3-13.1) mg per test, respectively, about double the observed emissions from newer vehicles. For the complete vehicle set (all ages), the average mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in the total hydrocarbon (sum of C 1-C 10 hydrocarbons) emission was 0.21±0.14% from the diurnal phase and was 0.11±0.06% from the hot-soak phase. Evaporative emissions were estimated to contribute about 4% (ranging from 1-15%) of the total (exhaust and evaporative) emissions of 1,3-butadiene from Australian motor vehicles.

  19. HAM PETROL F?YATLARININ YAPAY S?N?R A?LARI ?LE TAHM?N? = CRUDE OIL PRICE FORECASTING WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Demi?rkoparan, Ferhan; Tas?tan, Serkan; Kaynar, Og?uz

    2010-01-01

    Almost every sector in economy is connected with oil directly or indirectly. Consequently, the changes on petrol industry, and thus, on petrol prices create various effects on both country and world economy by means of chaining reactions turning up. For making affective plans for the future about petrol industry which has a considerably unsteady and interactive structure because of its complex dynamics, straight and confidential predictions are needed. So, classical time series analysis metho...

  20. Reclamation of petrol oil contaminated soil by rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains for growing Withania somnifera a medicinal shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Das, Amar Jyoti; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2015-02-01

    Soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, cannot be used for agricultural intents due to their toxic effect to the plants. Surfactants producing by plant growth promotory rhizobacteria (PGPR) can effectively rig the problem of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and growth promotion on such contaminated soils. In the present study three Pseudomonas strains isolated from contaminated soil identified by 16S rRNA analysis were ascertained for PGPR as well as biosurfactants property. Biosurfactants produced by the strains were further characterized and essayed for rhamnolipids. Inoculation of the strains in petrol hydrocarbon contaminated soil and its interaction with Withania somnifera in presence of petrol oil hydrocarbons depict that the strains helped in growth promotion of Withania somnifera in petrol oil contaminated soil while rhamnolipids helped in lowering the toxicity of petrol oil. The study was found to be beneficial as the growth and antioxidant activity of Withania sominfera was enhanced. Hence the present study signifies that rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains could be a better measure for reclamation of petrol contaminated sites for growing medicinal plants. PMID:25480735

  1. Substantial decrease of blood lead in Swedish children, 1978-94, associated with petrol lead.

    OpenAIRE

    Stro?mberg, U.; Schu?tz, A.; Skerfving, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the potential impact of environmental exposure to petrol lead, residential area, age, sex, and lead exposing hobby, on blood lead concentrations (BPb) in children. METHODS--In the south of Sweden, yearly from 1978-94, BPb was measured in 1230 boys and 1211 girls, aged between 3 and 19 (median 10; quartiles 9 and 12) years. RESULTS--For the samples of 1978, the geometric mean (GM) was 67 (range 30-250) micrograms/l in boys and 53 (18-161) micrograms/l in girls, whereas the...

  2. The role of regulation, fiscal incentives and changes in tastes in the diffusion of unleaded petrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoneman, P. [Warwick Univ., Warwick Business School, Coventry (United Kingdom); Battisti, G. [Coventry Univ., School of Mathematical and Information Sciences, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper analyses the diffusion of unleaded petrol in the UK. Changes in the market share of unleaded fuel are the results of changes in the composition of the car stock and changes in the choice of fuel given the car stock. We find the fuel type choices have been mainly driven by changes in tastes and learning as opposed to changes in relative prices induced by fiscal incentives. However car stock composition effects dominate the diffusion process and we find that through this route regulatory changes have made major contributions to changes in the market share of unleaded fuel. (Author)

  3. The role of regulation, fiscal incentives and changes in tastes in the diffusion of unleaded petrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the diffusion of unleaded petrol in the UK. Changes in the market share of unleaded fuel are the results of changes in the composition of the car stock and changes in the choice of fuel given the car stock. We find the fuel type choices have been mainly driven by changes in tastes and learning as opposed to changes in relative prices induced by fiscal incentives. However car stock composition effects dominate the diffusion process and we find that through this route regulatory changes have made major contributions to changes in the market share of unleaded fuel. (Author)

  4. The role of coal, petrol and natural gas in the global ecological energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of coal, petrol and natural gas in the global energy balance impose a rigid international control on all harmful emissions (CO2, SO2, NOx etc.) based on extended legislation. The trends for more efficient usage of fuels are discussed from ecological and energetic point of view. The alternative introduction of natural gas in the energy sector is considered. The ways for utilization of CO2 and its recycling are discussed as well as the trends towards development of 'hydrogen' energetics. 15 refs., 2 tbs., 3 figs. (orig.)

  5. Study of performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine using rice bran oil ethanol and petrol blends

    OpenAIRE

    Venkata Subbaiah, G.; Raja Gopal, K.; Durga Prasad, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, influence on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using pure rice bran oil (RBO), and its 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% blends with ethanol (ERBO) and petrol (PRBO). The influence on the viscosity of the RBO with the addition of the ethanol and petrol from 200C to 700C has also been studied. The tests conducted from no load to full load of the engine with an increment of ...

  6. An analytic study of applying Miller cycle to reduce NOx emission from petrol engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytic investigation of applying Miller cycle to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from a petrol engine is carried out. The Miller cycle used in the investigation is a late intake valve closing version. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the cycle is presented. A comparison of the characters of Miller cycle with Otto cycle is presented. From the results of thermodynamic analyses, it can be seen that the application of Miller cycle is able to reduce the compression pressure and temperature in the cylinder at the end of compression stroke. Therefore, it lowers down the combustion temperature and NOx formation in engine cylinder. These results in a lower exhaust temperature and less NOx emissions compared with that of Otto cycle. The analytic results also show that Miller cycle ratio is a main factor to influence the combustion temperature, and then the NOx emissions and the exhaust temperature. The results from the analytic study are used to analyse and to compare with the previous experimental results. An empirical formula from the previous experimental results that showed the relation of NOx emissions with the exhaust temperature at different engine speed is presented. The results from the study showed that the application of Miller cycle may reduce NOx emissions from petrol engine

  7. THE CONSEQUENCES OF LEAD PETROL USE ON LEAD CONTENT IN CABBAGE ALONG THE MOTORWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matavuly

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides the negative ecological consequences, during the production of the motor petrol (alkyl lead as anti–knock compound, as well as the application (combustion in motor engines, there are the ecological consequences manifested by deposition of Pb in the soil beside the motorway. At the same time this is the end of the life cycle of the petrol. However, Pb enters the human consumption chain through the plants that absorb Pb from the soil, and it is also deposited in the human body. The series of analyses of the cabbage head, outer leaves and soil includes left and right sides of the motorway of each of the control points, at the distance of 1m, 2m, 5m, 10m, 100m, and 400m from the motorway, each distance on the left and right side of the motorway. The results are shown in mg Pb/kg of the sample. The quantity of Pb shows decreasing effect when the distance from the motorway, is increased.

  8. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimalplatform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station or used in a combined approach giving comprehensive knowledge about the station. Furthermore, the paper shows how the developed methods can be used to analyze initiatives for improving the capacity of a complex station like Copenhagen central station.

  9. Petrol governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taminau, Y.; Vliet, M. van [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Public Management

    1995-12-31

    As the limits of the earth`s carrying capacity come to show, increasing pressure is brought to bear on private enterprise to behave in more environmentally responsible ways. One of the rare studies, that not only focuses on the enterprise level of analyse but at the industrial chain of production is Integrated Production Chain Management (IPCM), which postulates that the chain needs to be modified in its entirety. IPCM is not just a technical coordination problem but also a organizational problem in which different interests of actors play a role. These interests must be analysed. The present article will not go into the technical bottlenecks but will go into organizational bottlenecks that are the result of conflicts of interests. The choice between different technological options is not seen as a merely `technical` one but rather as a choice between different socio-technical (sub)systems. This choice is made in an interaction process in a network of various actors, each with their own perceptions and their own interests, in situations in which information is far from conclusive. (author)

  10. Analysis of Petrol and Diesel Vapour and Vehicle Engine Exhaust Gases Using Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Cheng, P.; Špan?l, Patrik

    2002-01-01

    Ro?. 16, - (2002), s. 1124-1134. ISSN 0951-4198 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/00/0632; GA ?R GA203/02/0737 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : SIFT-MS * petrol * vehicle exhaust gas Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.372, year: 2002

  11. Effectiveness of leaded petrol phase-out in Tianjin, China based on the aerosol lead concentration and isotope abundance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase-out of leaded petrol has been a measure widely used to reduce atmospheric lead pollution. Since the 1980s, China began to promote unleaded petrol. In order to assess the effectiveness of the measure an isotope fingerprint technique was applied for aerosol samples in the city of Tianjin. After dilute acid leaching, the lead concentration and isotope abundance ratios were determined for 123 samples collected in Tianjin during eight years (1994-2001). The 206Pb / 207Pb ratio was lower in summer, when coal combustion emission was low and vehicle exhaust became more important, indicating that the 206Pb / 207Pb ratio of leaded petrol in Tianjin is lower than that of aerosol samples. The 206Pb / 207Pb ratio gradually increased from 1994 to 2001, a trend that suggests that the contribution from vehicle exhaust was diminishing. Overall, the measurements matched well with national statistical data of leaded and unleaded petrol production. After the nationwide switch to unleaded gasoline, comprehensive control measures are urgently needed to reduce air lead pollution in China, as aerosol lead reduced slightly but remains at a relatively high level

  12. Effect of sample geometry on synchronous fluorimetric analysis of petrol, diesel, kerosene and their mixtures at higher concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, D.; Mishra, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    A comparison of synchronous fluorescence scan (SFS) spectra of petrol, diesel and their mixtures with kerosene in front surface, 45{sup o} and 90{sup o} angle sample geometry as obtainable from a commercial fluorimeter reveals that 90{sup o} angle geometry provides certain distinct characteristics to SFS spectra. The presence of extensive inner filter effects and resonance energy transfer in petroleum products are the major causes of the distinctive characteristics of these spectra. These characteristics enable the development of calibration plots for mixture samples (petrol-kerosene and diesel-kerosene) based on the shift in {gamma}{sub SFS{sup max}} and SFS intensity. This novel method shows promise in detecting and estimating the contamination of petrol and diesel by kerosene. Calibration graphs obtained from SFS intensity measurement are found to be efficacious in the whole range 0-90% v/v of kerosene, and give a good linearity in the adulteration range generally found in the field (0-50% v/v) for petrol and diesel. The method is simple, rapid and superior both in terms on sensitivity (0.1% v/v) and accuracy to other analytical methods used for petroleum product analysis. (Author)

  13. Impact of Organic Solvents and Environmental Pollutants on the Physiological Function in Petrol Filling Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Devender Reddy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Long term exposure to solvents and air pollutants can lead to deleterious effects on respiratory, haematological and thyroid functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic exposure to solvents like benzene and pollutants like carbon monoxide in petrol filling workers had adverse effect on blood parameters, thyroid and respiratory functions. The study group consisted of 42 healthy, non-smoker petrol filling workers, aged 20-50 years with work (exposure duration from 2-15 years while 36 healthy subjects of the same age group served as controls. Physical examination and measurement of pulmonary functions by portable electronic spirometer were performed. Complete blood pictures (CBP were determined by normal haematology lab procedure and hormones by Chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA light absorption techniques. There was a significant decrease in the lung volumes and capacities; the restrictive pattern was more prevalent in the workers when compared with the control groups. But in the workers exposed for long period (more than 10 years the restrictive pattern was changed to mixed pattern. A significant increase in haemoglobin (Hb (>16 mg % and red blood cells (RBC (5.4 million cells/mm3 were observed in workers with longer period of exposure when compared with the control subjects (14.483 mg% and 4.83 million cells/mm3 for Hb and RBC respectively. White blood cell count except eosinophils and platelets were significantly lower in workers compared to controls. Marked increase in the tetra iodothyroinine (T4, free thyroxine (T4F level and significant decrease in thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH, and tri-iodothyronine (T3 were observed between long term exposed and non – exposed groups. Till now researchers focused only on the effect of solvents in workers professionally exposed to solvents without considering the effect of concomittant air pollution. The result obtained from present study indicates that there is a significant toxic effect of solvents and air pollutants on workers exposed for longer duration. Improved detection and prevention technologies are needed to answer environmentally related health questions for petrol filling workers.

  14. Comparative performance of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on the biofuel kinematical viscosity, brake mean effective pressure (bmep), brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a diesel engine and its brake thermal efficiency (bte). Addition into RO from 2.5 to 7.5 vol% of ethanol and petrol its viscosity at ambient temperature of 20 deg. C diminishes by 9.2-28.3% and 14.1-31.7%, respectively. Heating up to the temperature of 60 deg. C the viscosity of pure RO, blends ERO2.5-7.5 and PRO2.5-10 further diminishes 4.2, 3.9-3.8 and 3.9-3.6 times. At 1800 min-1 speed, the maximum brake mean effective pressure (bmep) higher up to 1.6% comparing with that of pure RO (0.77 MPa) ensure three agent blends EPRO5-7.5, whereas at rated 2200 min-1 speed, the bmep higher by 5.6% can be obtained when fuelling the engine with blend PRO2.5. Brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) at maximum torque (240.2 g/kWh) and rated power (234.0 g/kWh) is correspondingly lower by 3.4% and 5.5% in comparison with pure RO when biofuel blends EPRO5 and PRO2.5 are used. The biggest brake thermal efficiency at maximum torque (0.40thermal efficiency at maximum torque (0.40-0.41) and rated power (0.42-0.43) relative to that of RO (0.39) suggest blends PRO2.5 and EPRO5-7.5, respectively

  15. Cost effectiveness of introducing a new European evaporative emissions test procedure for petrol vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Gary; Martini, Giorgio; Mellios, Giorgos

    2014-10-01

    Evaporative emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) arise from the vehicle's fuel system due to changes in ambient and vehicle temperatures, and contribute to urban smog. This paper presents an economic analysis of the societal costs and benefits of implementing a revised European evaporative emission test procedure for petrol vehicles under four scenarios for the period 2015-2040. The paper concludes that the most cost-effective option is the implementation of an aggressive purging strategy over 48 h and improved canister durability (scenario 2+). The average net benefit of implementing this scenario is €146,709,441 at a 6% discount rate. Per vehicle benefits range from €6-9 but when fuel savings benefits are added, total benefits range from €13-18. This is compared to average additional cost per vehicle of €9.

  16. Some investigations in design of low cost variable compression ratio two stroke petrol engine

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivas, A; rao, P Venkateswar; Reddy, M Penchal

    2012-01-01

    Historically two stroke engine petrol engines find wide applications in construction of two wheelers worldwide, however due to stringent environmental laws enforced universally; these engines are fading in numbers. In spite of the tight norms, internationally these engines are still used in agriculture, gensets etc. Several designs of variable compression ratio two stroke engines are commercially available for analysis purpose. In this present investigation a novel method of changing the compression ratio is proposed, applied, studied and analyzed. The clearance volume of the engine is altered by introducing a metal plug into the combustion chamber. This modification permitted to have four different values of clearance value keeping in view of the studies required the work is brought out as two sections. The first part deals with the design, modification, engine fabrication and testing at different compression ratios for the study of performance of the engine. The second part deals with the combustion in engi...

  17. Price setting under cost uncertainty and menu costs - the case of the Danish petrol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper derives the optimal pricing policy for a firm facing menu costs and stochastic production cost. The pricing policy is a boundary pricing policy and numerical comparative static analysis shows how exogenous parameters - the drift and variance of the production cost, the discount factor and the menu costs - affect the boundaries. Analyzing daily data for the Danish petrol price illustrates that a boundary pricing policy indeed has been followed for the period 1988-1992, with occasional shifts in both the desired mark-up and more importantly in the width of the bounds. While the theoretical model can say nothing of the shifts in desired mark-up, changes in the width of the bounds are found to be consistent with the implications of the model. (au)

  18. Modeling for Friction of Four Stroke Four Cylinder In-Line Petrol Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Mishra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A four stroke four cylinder in-line petrol engine is modeled to estimate various performance parameters. The solution is based on tribology and dynamics principle. The detailed parameters relating to engine friction and lubrication are computed numerically for the engine firing order 1-3-4-2. The numerical method is based on finite difference method that solves coupled Reynolds Equation and Energy Equation. Output includes the movie thickness, friction force, friction power loss and temperature rise in the ring liner conjunction in all four cylinders. Transient regime of ring liner lubrication isaddressed while the same changes from hydrodynamic to mixed in an engine cycle. Momentary cessation near the top and bottom dead center that causes boundary interaction is analyzed through asperity contact. The non - Newtonian behavior of lubricant film due to pressure and temperature is addresses using viscosity -pressure- temperature inter relationship.

  19. Yearly measurements of blood lead in Swedish children since 1978: an update focusing on the petrol lead free period 1995–2001

    OpenAIRE

    Stro?mberg, Ulf; Lundh, Thomas; Schu?tz, A.; Skerfving, Staffan

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aims: To assess blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) in children not exposed to petrol lead. In a previous paper we reported the results for the period 1978–94 (2441 children measured). A substantial decrease of B-Pb was found, which reflected a beneficial effect of gradual banning of petrol lead. Since 1994, petrol sold in Sweden has not contained lead. Methods: In the south of Sweden, each year from 1995 to 2001, B-Pb was measured in 329 boys and 345 girls, aged 7–11 y...

  20. Station Occupancy Study of Seventeen Learning Resource Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    This study was directed toward station occupancy, station use, and hours and days of use in learning resource centers (LRC) in California Community Colleges. Other factors measured were day-graded students, number of faculty, off-shelf use of materials, and student attendance at print, non-print, and related instructional service areas. The study…

  1. An influence of the petrol pump for the atmospheric electric field distribution in the surroundings of the vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanovi? Alenka

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the potential and electric field distribution in the surroundings of the cargo vehicles is approximately numerically determined, when they are exposed to the Atmospheric Electric Field (AEF), having uniform intensity and vertical polarization. The cases of the cargo vehicles either isolated or near by petrol pumps are observed. Several results of total induced charge and electrical moment of the vehicle including maps of equipotential and equienergetic curves are presented. The ...

  2. Petrol contaminated groundwater treatment with air-stripper in Balassagyarmat, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater is a common environmental problem in Hungary. Leakage of underground storage tanks, pipe break or illegal tapping as well as lorry accidents can be mentioned as main reasons. MEGATERRA Ltd. elaborated, adopted and tested several groundwater clean-up methods. These methods are based on detailed survey and investigation, sampling and analysis, delineation of contaminated groundwater, risk assessment, establishment of monitoring wells, pumping tests and remediation action plan. One of these methods was implemented by MEGATERRA Ltd. in Balassagyarmat, Hungary. Contamination source was a 10 m3 vol. simple wall underground fuel-storage tank, which had been emptied. When the remediation started in April 1998, the petrol had already been accumulated on the ground water table forming a 5-7 m wide and 10-15 m long plume being expanded to SSE-NNW direction. The area of the dissolved hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater-body was 1 000 m2 and its concentration reached up to 30-40 mg/l TPH. The free-phase hydrocarbon layer was 10 cm thick. For the remediation of contaminated groundwater MEGATERRA Ltd. applied pump and treat method, namely groundwater pumping using extraction well, skimming of free-phase hydrocarbon, stripping of the contaminated ground water in air-stripper tower and draining of the treated groundwater into a drainage ditch. In the centre of the plume we established an extraction well with 300 mm diameter i an extraction well with 300 mm diameter in a 500 mm borehole. Peristaltic skimmer pump was used inside the extraction well to remove the free phase petrol from the ground water surface.Because of the intense volatility of the pollutant we applied aeration (stripping) technology. The extracted contaminated groundwater was cleaned in air-stripper equipment being able to eliminate efficiently the volatile pollutants from the water. The aeration tower is a compact cylindrical shaped column with 650 mm in diameter. Its height depends on the pollutant's type The extracted contaminated groundwater was conducted to the top of the tower and sprinkled into the air- stripper. A ventilator was connected to the bottom of the stripper, which blew the air with high pressure against the water stream. During the operation 4 544 m3 groundwater was pumped out, cleaned, drained and 110 l of free phase hydrocarbon was skimmed

  3. Filling station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A filling station for the remote filling of radioactive substances into drums, with an outlet opening for these substances, is described. To prevent contamination, a drip pan is installed below the outlet opening; the patent claims pertain to the remote control, cleaning, and replacement of the drip pan. (orig./PW)

  4. Filling station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A filling station for the remote filling of radioactive substances into drums, with an outlet opening for these substances, is described. To prevent contamination, a drip pan is installed below the outlet opening; the patent claims pertain to the remote control, cleaning, and replacement of the drip pan. (RW)

  5. Electronic Student Attendance Recording System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. AkramAbedelKarim Ahmad AbdelQader

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth technology is offering a very robust way to transfer data in faster rates within a short range wireless communication local network. Wireless and radio communication technologies are giving organizations and users many benefits such as portability and flexibility, increased productivity, and lower the installation costs.  Register the attendance and absence for students in the classroom of all educational institutions is one of the most intensive daily operations. In this paper, we are interesting to use the free wireless communication via Bluetooth technology that is available in most mobile phones and computer systems to build a computerized wireless clients-server network system. The client side will be a mobile phone that used to fill the list of attendance and absence for students in a classroom of educational institutions in an easy and fast way.  Server side will contain the centralized database and monitoring attendance system for the distributing clients connected to the system. The idea of this system is developed and implemented on real educational institution. The recorded results show that the system saves a costs and efforts and helps the educational institution to get a more effective system than the old one.

  6. Electronic Student Attendance Recording System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. AkramAbedelKarim Ahmad AbdelQader

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth technology is offering a very robust way to transfer data in faster rates within a short range wireless communication local network. Wireless and radio communication technologies are giving organizations and users many benefits such as portability and flexibility, increased productivity, and lower the installation costs.  Register the attendance and absence for students in the classroom of all educational institutions is one of the most intensive daily operations. In this paper, we are interesting to use the free wireless communication via Bluetooth technology that is available in most mobile phones and computer systems to build a computerized wireless clients-server network system. The client side will be a mobile phone that used to fill the list of attendance and absence for students in a classroom of educational institutions in an easy and fast way.  Server side will contain the centralized database and monitoring attendance system for the distributing clients connected to the system. The idea of this system is developed and implemented on real educational institution. The recorded results show that the system saves a costs and efforts and helps the educational institution to get a more effective system than the old one.

  7. Th effectiveness of soot removal techniques for the recovery of fingerprints on glass fire debris in petrol bomb cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased use of petrol bombs as an act of vengeance in Malaysia has heightened awareness for the need of research relating physical evidence found at the crime scene to the perpetrator of the crime. A study was therefore carried out to assess the effectiveness of soot removal techniques on glass fire debris without affecting the fingerprints found on the evidence. Soot was removed using three methods which were brushing, 2 % NaOH solution and tape lifting. Depending on the visibility of prints recovered, prints which were visible after soot removal were lifted directly while prints that were not visible were subjected to enhancement. Glass microscope slides were used in laboratory experiment and subjected to control burn for the formation of soot. Soot was later removed following enhancement of the prints over time (within 1 day, within 2 days and after 2 days). While in simulated petrol bomb ground experiment, petrol bombs were hurled in glass bottles and the fragments were collected. Favorable results were obtained in varying degrees using each soot removal methods. In laboratory testing, brushing and 2 % NaOH solution revealed fingerprints that were visible after removal of excess soot and were lifted directly. As for tape lifting technique, some prints were visible and were successfully lifted while those that were not visible were subjected to super glue fuming for effective fingerprint identification. (author)

  8. 45 CFR 1305.8 - Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM ELIGIBILITY, RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE IN HEAD START § 1305.8 Attendance. (a) When the monthly...

  9. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4:

  10. Flight Attendants. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the career opportunities of airline flight attendants. General information about airline hiring policies for flight attendants are discussed, and the following information about the flight attendant job classification is provided: nature of the work, working conditions, where the jobs…

  11. Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds-0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h-1. Emission factors and their relative values between the two fuel types together with a statistical significance for any difference were estimated for each parameter. In general, LPG was found to be a 'cleaner' fuel, although in most cases, the differences were not statistically significant owing to the large variations between emissions from different vehicles. The particle number emission factors ranged from 1011 to 1013 km-1 and was over 70% less with LPG compared to ULP. Corresponding differences in particle mass emission factor between the two fuels were small and ranged from the order of 10 ?g km-1 at 40 to about 1000 ?g km-1 at 100 km h-1. The count median particle diameter (CMD) ranged from 20 to 35 nm and was larger with LPG than with ULP in all modes except the idle mode. Carbon dioxide emission factors ranged from about 300 to 400 g km-1 at 40 km h-1, falling with increasing speed to about 200 g km-1 at 100 km h-1. At all speeds, the values were 10% to 18% greater with ULP than with LPGith LPG

  12. Performance Characteristics of Oxy Hydrogen Gas on Two Stroke Petrol Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Ajay Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to conserve petroleum fuels for future and to eliminate the above limitations there is a need of alternative and innovative fuel. Amongst many alternative fuels available oxy hydrogen gas and producer gas are under study in this research work. Electrolysis of water can give us hydrogen in form of Brown’s gas (HHO gas or oxy-hydrogen gas, which can be used as an alternative fuel for any internal combustion engine. Various methods for the generation of oxy-hydrogen gas are discussed in the coming paragraphs. An agricultural waste like rice husk, wood dust, and dried coconut leaves etc can also be used as an alternative fuels. An attempt has been made in this work to use alternative fuel in two stroke petrol engine. Our fore most aim in selecting this project is to use nonconventional fuel against conventional fuel which is becoming scarce and costly now days. The combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel with air produces mainly carbon dioxide (CO2 and Water (H2O. However, internal combustion engines are not perfectly efficient, so some of the fuel is not burned, which results in the presence of hydrocarbons (HC other organic compounds, carbon monoxide (CO and forming mainly nitric oxide (NO.

  13. Specifying Complex Systems in Object-Z: A Case Study of Petrol Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangping Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As modern complex systems become increasingly large, sophisticated, feature-rich and data-intensive, people have recognized the importance of precisely and unambiguously specifying them with formal methods for a number of years. This paper advocates the use of Object-Z, a formal specification language, in the description of complex systems. Object-Z is an extension to the Z language to facilitate specification in an object-oriented style. The notation Object-Z builds on Z's strengths in modeling complex data and algorithms, and on its new class structuring's strengths in succinctly specifying the various relationships and communication between objects in a large system. In detail, first we describe informally the syntax and semantics of Object-Z, highlighting those features that facilitate decomposing a large system into a collection of interacting objects and thus separating concerns. Then, we demonstrate the use of Object-Z by presenting a case study of a petrol supply system, illustrating how the system runs by communicating the constituent objects. Finally, we discuss several issues we encountered in this exercise, which may serve as feedback to the development of Object-Z.

  14. Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Mackinnon, G.; Mackenzie, A. B.; Cook, G. T.; Pulford, I. D.; Duncan, H. J.; Scott, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within ...

  15. Designing a heat pipe to improve the exhaust emissions from petrol engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national engineering Laboratory and the Shell research laboratory have co-operated in applying the heat pipe to the problem of exhaust emission from petrol engine. It is known that the carbon monoxide CO, un-burnt hydrocarbons (HxCy) and oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) content of the exhaust will vary with air to fuel ratio as shown in figure (1), in a conventional car engine the maximum efficiency is achieved at 15:1 and maximum power is obtained at 12:1. It's known that as the air fuel ratio increases, the CO content decreases and HxCy, NOx go through a minimum and maximum respectively. A considerable important in both CO and NOx content could be chivied by selecting a very weak mixture, but this not possible in a standard engine carburetor system due to the ignition difficulty, because the fuel is not fully vaporized, and because the fuel is not distributed equally between the cylinders and the vapor content is not as high as it should be due to the pressure of liquid fuel. This problem could be solved by designing a heat pipe that can transferring a certain quantities of heat from the exhaust to the induction manifold at the carburetor outlet as shown in figure (2). Under this condition a mixture as lean as 22:1 will ignite with out difficulty. In this paper, a complete design of heat pipe is carried out, taking into account the necessary criteria to decide various geometrical parameters. Th decide various geometrical parameters. The design has been carried out using basic formulas in thermodynamics, heat transfer and physics. The result of this design have been checked for various practical limits. (author)

  16. The Effects of Exposure to Petrol Vapours on Growth, Haematological Parameters and Oxidative Markers in Sprague-Dawley Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABUBAKAR, Murtala Bello; ABDULLAH, Wan Zaidah; SULAIMAN, Siti Amrah; ANG, Boon Suen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Petrol is known to be hazardous to human health and is associated with various health effects, such as haematotoxicity and oxidative stress. Although Malaysia has adopted the European fuel quality standards in recent years in order to reduce petroleum pollutants and to improve air quality, gasoline with research octane number 95 (RON95), believed to contain benzene and other toxic substances, is still widely used all over the country. This study assessed the effect of RON95 gasoline on haemtological parameters of rats after 11 weeks of exposure. Methods: A total of 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (exposed to ambient air daily) and gasoline exposed (exposed to petrol fumes at 11.13 ± 1.1cm3/h for 6h daily, 6 days/week) groups. Body weight was monitored daily. At the end of 11 weeks, the rats were sacrificed, bone marrow was extracted for cytological examination, and blood samples were collected for a full blood picture examination, full blood counts and oxidative markers. Results: The results show that gasoline inhalation was associated with a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the rate of weight gain and a reduction in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and red cell distribution width. It was also observed that the inhalation of gasoline was associated with changes in the nuclei of megakaryocytes, hence causing an increase in the percentage of abnormal megakaryocytes with detached nuclei, hypo-lobulation and/or disintegration. However, the inhalation of gasoline did not cause significant changes in oxidative markers in the erythrocytes. Conclusion: This study shows that 11 weeks of inhaling RON95 petrol vapours caused adverse effects on weight gain, blood cell indices and bone marrow megakaryocytes, but did not cause significant changes in oxidative markers in erythrocytes. The definitive effects of these changes on health require further confirmation. PMID:25892947

  17. An influence of the petrol pump for the atmospheric electric field distribution in the surroundings of the vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanovi? Alenka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the potential and electric field distribution in the surroundings of the cargo vehicles is approximately numerically determined, when they are exposed to the Atmospheric Electric Field (AEF, having uniform intensity and vertical polarization. The cases of the cargo vehicles either isolated or near by petrol pumps are observed. Several results of total induced charge and electrical moment of the vehicle including maps of equipotential and equienergetic curves are presented. The Equivalent Electrode Method (EEM is used to solve this problem.

  18. Ultra-fast selective sensing of ethanol and petrol using microwave-range metamaterial complementary split-ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Vaishali; Dhobale, Sandip; Kale, S. N.

    2014-10-01

    An extremely compact metamaterial microstrip sensor based on complementary split-ring-resonators (CSRRs) has been fabricated for chemical sensing. This device exhibits a resonance with high rejection at 4.5 GHz, which demonstrates concomitant variations when exposed to liquids of various permittivity values. The resonance frequency of CSRR is sensitive to the change in nearby dielectric material. The sensing of petrol shows a shift in frequency with a sharp dip in transmission, while, with ethanol, the frequency shift is accompanied with increase in the power of the signal. The ultra-fast reversibility and repeatability offers good headway towards hybrid fuel sensing applications.

  19. Comparative Effects of Petrol and Diesel on Enzyme Activity in Tympanotonus fuscatus after Sublethal Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Edori, E. S.; Festus, C.; Edori, O. S.

    2014-01-01

    Pollution of the aquatic environment by petroleum and its products is common the world over. This study is aimed at examining sublethal effects of petrol and diesel on enzymes in Tympanotonus fuscatus namely: Aspartate Transaminase (AST) (E.C. 2.6.1.1), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) (E.C. 2.6.2.2) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) (E.C. 3.1.3.1) activity after exposure. The periwinkles were exposed to 10.40, 15.60, 21.00, 26.00 ml L-1 and a control. The organs were removed on the sixth day an...

  20. Eski Sovyet Ülkelerinde Cari Hesap Dengesi Belirleyicileri ve Petrol Zenginli?inin Neden Oldu?u Farkl?l?klar

    OpenAIRE

    Ag?ayev, Seymur

    2013-01-01

    Bu çal??mada eski Sovyetler Birli?i ülkelerinde cari hesap dengesinin temel belirleyicilerinin ara?t?r?lmas? amaçlanm??t?r.Bu amaçla, birlik üyesi on ülkenin, petrol-do?algaz zenginli?i bak?m?ndan farkl? alt gruplar?n?n 1995-2010 dönemine ait y?ll?k verileri ve panel sabit etkiler yöntemi kullan?lm??t?r. Tahmin sonuçlar?, tüm ülke gruplar?nda yat?r?m art???n?n, finansal geli?menin ve genç nüfus oran? art???n?n cari hesap dengesini negatif ...

  1. [Selected services rights for attending physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalkhäuser, K

    2014-08-01

    Individual health insurance companies again and again refuse the remuneration of invoices submitted by attending physicians for purely private patients or for compulsory health insurance patients with additional private insurance. As a rule the refusal is based on legal precedents or sub-statutory regulations. This article aims to help attending physicians to react argumentatively to a possible rejection of private medical billing by insurance companies for inpatient attending physician services provided. PMID:25037627

  2. Is there an asymmetry in the response of diesel and petrol prices to crude oil price changes? Evidence from New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines how pre-tax petrol and diesel prices in New Zealand respond to changes in crude oil prices using an asymmetric error correction model. Our results show that oil companies adjust diesel prices upwards faster than they adjust them downwards, and the difference is statistically significant. However we find no statistical evidence for an asymmetry in the adjustment of petrol prices even though the magnitude of estimated coefficients suggests a faster response to rising prices. As diesel pricing is not as competitive as petrol pricing, calls for further government actions and monitoring of the oil market may be justified. Our findings also have important implications for the conduct of monetary policy as the pass-through of crude oil price changes can affect cost-push inflation. (author)

  3. Severe petrol contamination in the aquifer of the Llobregat river delta. Grave contaminacion por gasolina en el acuifero del delta del rio Llobregat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gonzalez, E.

    1993-07-01

    On 16-09-91 an attack on an oil pipeline led to some 70 tons of petrol spilling out and catching fire. About 20 tons filtered down into the aquifer of the river Llobregat delta. On 08-12-91 the presence of petrol was detected in a well used for supplying water about 1 km downstream. A system was set up for monitoring and extracting the polluted ground water. The volume affected had now reached 3.5 hm''3. The decontamination costs came to 245 million pesetas in comparison to only 10 millions pesetas for the petrol spill. The cost of extracting the water was 70 pta/m''3. Finally the importance of regional planning and the need to prevent such accidents is pointed out. The means necessary to deal with them should be available. (Author)

  4. Community College Attendance and Socioeconomic Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sueuk; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, 1988 (NELS: 88), this paper documents differences in the socioeconomic plans of students in two-year and four-year colleges. We found attendance at a two-year college led to a modest but statistically significant disadvantage in socioeconomic plans. However, the impact of attending a…

  5. Advanced introduction of cleaner petrol and diesel in the Netherlands. An analysis of the emission potential and cost effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005 the European Union is to introduce tighter environmental standards for road vehicle fuels. The emissions of new passenger vehicles, delivery vans and heavy good vehicles will then have to satisfy even more stringent criteria, as will petrol and diesel fuel composition, the sulphur content of which must then be down from respectively 150 and 350 parts per million to 50 ppm. In the case of petrol, the maximum permitted aromatics content is also to be reduced, from 42% to 35%. There are two motives for introducing tighter environmental criteria for vehicle fuels. In the first place it will have the direct effect of immediately reducing the noxious emissions of all road vehicles running on these fuels, because of improvements to the combustion process. In addition, there will also be a significant indirect effect. Availability of low-sulphur fuels opens the door for several new vehicle technologies. In the case of petrol vehicles it permits introduction of direct-injection (DI) lean-burn engines with catalytic NOx absorption. In diesel vehicles new types of catalytic systems can be introduced, including 'particle traps' to reduce PM10 emissions. These technologies require low-sulphur fuels to be effective. An environmental downside of these cleaner fuels is that refinery production is more energy-intensive. EU member states are free to support implementation of these 'cleaner' fuels at an earlier date if they so desire. The objective of the present study is to proe objective of the present study is to provide background data for a possible decision on accelerated introduction of these fuels in the Netherlands. The aim of this study is to investigate the environmental effects and economic costs of accelerated introduction in the Netherlands of 'cleaner' fuels satisfying the EU's '2005 standards'. Two possible dates have been considered for earlier implementation: November 2001 and June 2003. November 2001 has been taken because this is when Germany will be introducing a tax incentive for low-sulphur petrol and diesel fuels. June 2003 lies exactly halfway between this date and January 2005. It has been assumed that the 'cleaner' fuels will immediately capture 100% of the market. Diesel and petrol have been examined separately, given the fact that little synergy will be created through simultaneous introduction of the two 'clean' fuels. The direct environmental effects of these fuels on the existing vehicle fleet have been calculated using a model for the European Auto-Oil programme updated by the TNO Road Vehicles Research Unit to account for the most recent developments. The indirect environmental effects have been estimated using literature data and TNO expertise. The cost estimates are based on information provided by the oil industry and from the literature, augmented where necessary by our own calculations. Give the substantial uncertainties surrounding much of this data, in relevant cases we have made both pessimistic and optimistic estimates. By assigning a monetary value to the environmental effects these can be compared with costs, enabling the cost-effectiveness of accelerated introduction to be calculated. 37 refs

  6. A Study on Attendance and Academic Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Kristian J.; Bignoux, Stephane

    In this study we attempt to answer Romer’s (1993) question: “Should attendance be mandatory?” Contrary to many existing studies, we conclude that in the case of business and management programs the answer is ‘no’. In a study of over 900 undergraduate strategy students, spanning four academic years, we examine the link between attendance and exam results. Unlike prior research on this topic, our findings show that attendance is not the best determinant of student performance. We find instead that the best determinant of student performance for third year bachelor students is their over-all degree classification, which we see as a proxy for academic ability. We suggest that attendance may simply be a reflection of student conscientiousness, engagement and motivation. We also challenge the assumptions about gender differences found in prior research on student attendance and student performance. We do not find such differences to be consistently significant in our study.

  7. On exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled passenger cars at low ambient temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1998-11-01

    The study at hand deals with regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled cars at low ambient temperatures with present-day or near-future exhaust after treatment systems. The subject has been investigated at VTT over a decade and this report compiles data from various sub-studies carried out between the years 1993 - 1997. Each one of them viewed different aspects of the phenomenon, like determining the low-temperature response of today`s new cars employing three-way catalytic converters or assessing the long-term durability and the influence of vehicle mileage upon the low-temperature emissions performance. Within these studies, together more than 120 cars of model years from 1990 to 1997 have been tested. Most of them were normal, in-service vehicles with total mileages differing between only a few thousand kilometres for new cars up to 80,000 km or even more for the in-use vehicles. Both the US FTP75 and the European test cycle have been employed, and the ambient temperatures ranged from the baseline (+22 deg C) down to +- O deg C, -7 deg C and in some cases even to -20 deg C. The studies attested that new cars having today`s advanced emissions control systems produced fairly low levels of emissions when tested in conditions designated in the regulations that are the basis of the current new-vehicle certification. However, this performance was not necessarily attained at ambient temperatures that were below the normative range. Fairly widespread response was recorded, and cars having almost equal emissions output at baseline could produce largely deviating outcomes in low-temperature conditions. On average, CO and HC emissions increased by a factor of five to 10, depending on the ambient temperature and vehicle type. However, emissions of NO{sub x} were largely unaffected. Apart from these regulated emissions, many unregulated species were also determined, either by using traditional sampling and chromatography methods or on-line, employing the latest FTIR technology. Overall, the levels of these emissions were also mostly elevated at subnormal temperatures. Total vehicle mileage seemed not to affect cold-start emissions (CO and HC) at low temperatures. Nor did the overall durability of the emission control system appear to be worse in cold-climate conditions typical for Finland. The deterioration of the emissions performance in the tested vehicles either closely followed the average trend defined by the normal, assigned deterioration factors or was even lesser. The conclusions of this report underline the necessity of a separate low-temperature test in order to really effectively curb real-world emissions. Standards at normal temperature are no more effective alone, but need to be accompanied with additional requirements for good performance also in conditions closer to the everyday use, which comprises many cold-starts even in low ambient temperature conditions. (orig.) 75 refs.

  8. Radio Frequency Identification Based Wireless Attendance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistry Tapasvee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been rise in the number of applications based on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID systems and have been successfully applied to different areas as diverse as transportation, health-care, agriculture, and hospitality industry to name a few. RFID technology facilitates automatic wireless identification using electronic passive and active tags with suitable readers. In this paper, an attempt is made to solve recurrent lecture attendance monitoring problem in developing countries using RFID technology. The application of RFID to student attendance monitoring as developed and deployed in this study is capable of eliminating time wasted during manual collection of attendance and an opportunity for the educational administrators to capture face-to-face classroom statistics for allocation of appropriate attendance scores and for further managerial decisions.

  9. Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within 10 m of a motorway and 3 m of a minor road. Overall, the dominant source of Pb was historical emissions from nearby industrial areas. There was no discernible change in concentration or isotopic composition of Pb in surface soil or vegetation over the decade since the ban on the sale of leaded petrol. There was an order of magnitude decrease in Pb concentrations in road dust over the study period, but petrol Pb persisted at up to 43% of the total Pb concentration in 2010. Similar concentrations and spatial distributions of petrol Pb and non petrol Pb in vegetation in both 2001 and 2010, with enhanced concentrations near roads, suggested that redistribution of previously deposited material has operated continuously over that period, maintaining a transfer pathway of Pb into the biosphere. The results for vegetation and soil transects near minor roads provided evidence of a non petrol Pb source associated with roads/traffic, but surface soil samples from the vicinity of a motorway f samples from the vicinity of a motorway failed to show evidence of such a source. - Highlights: ? A 10 year study of Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in farmland. ? Soil and vegetation showed no systematic decrease in Pb concentrations over 10 years. ? Road dust Pb concentrations fell from 117 mg kg-1 in 2001 to 14.2 mg kg-1 in 2010. ? Enhancement of petrol Pb only within 10m of a motorway and 3m of a minor road.

  10. The application of product architecture in determining the concept of mini hydrogen cell for petrol powered internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Nadzirah, T. S.; Juffrizal, K.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Product architecture is a method to translate the physical element of the functional requirement within the product system and describe the connection between these physical elements. Physical element will be interpreted through parts, component or subassemblies. Method of product architecture is an effective way in determined the conceptual design because it is not only considered the way of the product to be designed but it also focused on how the product will be made, used and even maintaining the product. This paper presents the methodology of the design and development of mini hydrogen cell for petrol powered internal combustion engine through the product architecture method. This method is applied based on the four stages of the product concept development process which is product element, product cluster, product geometry and the morphological chart. From this method, the best option of the concept is selected.

  11. Consumer decision-making on festival attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Noman, Md Abu

    2012-01-01

    It has been challenging for the festival organizers to sell their festival tickets due to overcrowded festival market. To increase the ticket sale it is becoming more important to know the consumers and their decision making on festival attendance. There are many factors that influence people to make decision over festival attendance and the main purpose of this study was to identify those factors. The research was conducted for GigsWiz.com Ltd. to help the company gather information about fe...

  12. Motivation of general practitioners attending postgraduate education.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, M. H.; Murray, T. S.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 1990 Contract encouraged general practitioners to participate in continuing medical education by providing a financial incentive. AIM: The study was designed: to determine the motivation of general practitioners attending education events; and to compare motivation and reasons for attendance pre- and post-Contract at commercial and non-commercial meetings, and at the different educational categories of Disease Management (DM), Health Promotion (HP) and Service Management (SM)....

  13. Examining Factors Affecting Classroom Attendance and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tze-Ming Chou; Ya-Hui Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This study examined the relationship between four class attitudinal variables and how it affects class attendance and performance. A questionnaire was administered to 134 undergraduate students at medium sized college in Taiwan. The data included questions about the participant’s rating of the level of difficulty of the course (Difficulty), the topics covered in the course (Topics), their motivation towards attending the course (Motivation), and whether or not t...

  14. FACE RECOGNITION BASED ATTENDANCE MARKING SYSTEM?

    OpenAIRE

    K.Senthamil Selvi; P.Chitrakala; A.Antony Jenitha?

    2014-01-01

    Automatic face recognition (AFR) technologies have seen dramatic improvements in performance over the past years, and such systems are now widely used for security and commercial applications. An automated system for human face recognition in a real time background for a college to mark the attendance of their employees. So Smart Attendance using Real Time Face Recognition is a real world solution which comes with day to day activities of handling employees. The task is very di...

  15. Reducing non-attendance at outpatient clinics.

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, C. A.; Palmer, J. H.; Saxby, P. J.; Devaraj, V. S.

    1999-01-01

    Outpatient non-attendance is a common source of inefficiency in a health service, wasting time and resources and potentially lengthening waiting lists. A prospective audit of plastic surgery outpatient clinics was conducted during the six months from January to June 1997, to determine the clinical and demographic profile of non-attenders. Of 6095 appointments 16% were not kept. Using the demographic information, we changed our follow-up guidelines to reflect risk factors for multiple non-atte...

  16. Study of exhaust emissions of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on diesel engine emission characteristics and smoke opacity of the exhausts. The biggest NOx emissions, 1954 and 2078 ppm, at 2000 min-1 speed generate blends PRO10 (9.72%) and EPRO5 (11.13%) against, 1731 and 1411 ppm, produced from ERO5 (12%) and ERO10 (13.2% oxygen) blends. The carbon monoxide, CO, emissions emitted from a fully loaded engine fuelled with three agent blends EPRO5-7.5 at maximum torque and rated speed are higher by 39.5-18.8% and 27.5-16.1% and smoke opacity lower by 3.3-9.0% and 24.1-17.6% comparing with RO case. When operating at rated 2200 min-1 mode, the carbon dioxide, CO2, emissions are lower, 6.9-6.3 vol%, from blends EPRO5-7.5 relative to that from RO, 7.8 vol%, accompanied by a slightly higher emission of unburned hydrocarbons HC, 16 ppm, and residual oxygen contents O2, 10.4-12.0 vol%, in the exhausts

  17. Epidemiology of frequent attenders: a 3-year historic cohort study comparing attendance, morbidity and prescriptions of one-year and persistent frequent attenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Riet Gerben

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners spend a disproportionate amount of time on frequent attenders. So far, trials on the effect of interventions on frequent attenders have shown negative results. However, these trials were conducted in short-term frequent attenders. It would be more reasonable to target intervention at persistent frequent attenders. Typical characteristics of persistent frequent attenders, as opposed to 1-year frequent attenders and non-frequent attenders, may generate hypotheses regarding modifiable factors on which new randomized trials may be designed. Methods We used the data of all 28,860 adult patients from 5 primary healthcare centers. Frequent attenders were patients whose attendance rate ranked in the (age and sex adjusted top 10 percent during 1 year (1-year frequent attenders or 3 years (persistent frequent attenders. All other patients on the register over the 3-year period were referred to as non-frequent attenders. The lists of medical problems coded by the GP using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC were used to assess morbidity. First, we determined which proportion of 1-year frequent attenders was still a frequent attender during the next two consecutive years and calculated the GPs' workload for these patients. Second, we compared morbidity and number of prescriptions for non-frequent attenders, 1-year frequent attenders and persistent frequent attenders. Results Of all 1-year frequent attenders, 15.4% became a persistent frequent attender equal to 1.6% of all patients. The 1-year frequent attenders (3,045; 10.6% were responsible for 39% of the face-to-face consultations; the 470 patients who would become persistent frequent attenders (1.6% were responsible for 8% of all consultations in 2003. Persistent frequent attenders presented more social problems, more psychiatric problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms, but also more chronic somatic diseases (especially diabetes. They received more prescriptions for psychotropic medication. Conclusion One out of every seven 1-year-frequent attenders (15.4% becomes a persistent frequent attender. Compared with non-frequent attenders, and 1-year frequent attenders, persistent frequent attenders consume more health care and are diagnosed not only with more somatic diseases but especially more social problems, psychiatric problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms.

  18. Father attendance in nurse home visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, John R; Olds, David L

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the rates and predictors of father attendance at nurse home visits in replication sites of the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP). Early childhood programs can facilitate father involvement in the lives of their children, but program improvements require an understanding of factors that predict father involvement. The sample consisted of 29,109 low-income, first-time mothers who received services from 694 nurses from 80 sites. We conducted mixed-model multiple regression analyses to identify population, implementation, site, and nurse influences on father attendance. Predictors of father attendance included a count of maternal visits (B = 0.12, SE = 0.01, F = 3101.77), frequent contact between parents (B = 0.61, SE = 0.02, F = 708.02), cohabitation (B = 1.41, SE = 0.07, F = 631.51), White maternal race (B = 0.77, SE = 0.06, F = 190.12), and marriage (B = 0.42, SE = 0.08, F = 30.08). Random effects for sites and nurses predicted father-visit participation (2.7 & 6.7% of the variance, respectively), even after controlling for population sociodemographic characteristics. These findings suggest that factors operating at the levels of sites and nurses influence father attendance at home visits, even after controlling for differences in populations served. Further inquiry about these influences on father visit attendance is likely to inform program-improvement efforts. PMID:25521707

  19. Personality Differences Between Persons Choosing to Attend College and Persons Choosing not to Attend College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jon C.; George, Rickey

    1971-01-01

    According to the data, persons choosing to attend college have a greater need to assume leadership and be highly regarded by others. Those choosing not to attend college tend to have greater feelings of guilt when doing something wrong and to have greater feelings of inferiority. (Author)

  20. Fire Stations - 2009

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  1. Water Level Station History

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  2. Fire Stations - 2007

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  3. F87. My home - my car - my petrol station; F87. Mein Haus - mein Auto - meine Tanksstelle. Das Effizienzhaus Plus mit Elektromobilitaet in Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaely, Petra [Werner Sobek Stuttgart GmbH und Co.KG, Stuttgart (Germany); Schroth, Juergen; Schuster, Heide; Thuemmler, Thomas [WSGreen Technologies GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Sobek, Werner [Werner Sobek Stuttgart GmbH und Co.KG, Stuttgart (Germany); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Leichtbau Entwerfen und Konstruieren

    2012-07-01

    In the presence of Federal Chancellor Dr. Angela Merkel, the efficient house Plus was inaugurated in December 2011 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany). This building is a temporary dwelling with a floor space of approximately 130 square meters. This building generates all the necessary energy for the operation and comfort by itself. The generated energy also is sufficient for the annual energy demand of two electric cars and an electric bicycle. The building also serves as a showcase to inform the general public.

  4. An in vitro Assessment on the Efficacy of Clay-Based Formulated Cells of Pseudomonas Isolate UTAR EPA2 for Petrol Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S.Y. Ting

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Application of free-cell forms is usually impractical to achieve satisfactory bioremediative effect because the microbes are encumbered by the biotic and abiotic stresses from the environment. Approach: In this study, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium (Pseudomonas isolate UTAR EPA2 was formulated with various combinations of formulative materials, comprising of clay-based carrier materials such as Bentonite (B and Kaolin (K, enrichment materials such as Non-fat skimmed milk (N and Sucrose (S and a UV-protectant agent Para-aminobenzoic acid (P. Formulated cells were treated to sunlight exposure for 6 h to mimic the conditions in the environment prior to testing for their efficacy in degrading petrol, a mixed hydrocarbon substrate. Results: Cells in all formulations including free-cell suspension were able to degrade petrol with a relatively high degradation efficacy of more than 66% even after exposure to sunlight. Degradation efficacy was slightly higher for kaolin-based formulated cells compared to bentonite-based formulations, especially after exposure to sunlight, although their percentages of degradation were not statistically different. Nevertheless, kaolin-based formulations have very low viable cell count especially in formulations with P (KP, KNP, KSP, KNSP. This suggested that aside from viable cells, the physical properties of the clays could have also contributed to the degradation of petrol. Conclusion: For storage purposes and applications in the field, we suggest that the bacterium is formulated with bentonite-based formulations especially using Bentonite (B clay singly, as relatively high percentage of petrol degradation and viable cell count was achieved with this formulation.

  5. World Hydrogen Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides information on hydrogen fueling stations in the United States and other countries including Canada, Australia, Germany and Japan. Individual fueling stations are profiled, including the fuel type provided, when it was opened, how the hydrogen is produced and other details. Small photographs of each station are also included. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  6. Employer Expectations of Students Attending Job Fairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Amber

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a survey about employer expectations of students attending job fairs, including how students should conduct themselves and dress. More than one-third indicated they expect students to be knowledgeable about their company. According to respondents, lack of clear career objectives accounts for the most common mistake made by students.…

  7. Examining Factors Affecting Classroom Attendance and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tze-Ming Chou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This study examined the relationship between four class attitudinal variables and how it affects class attendance and performance. A questionnaire was administered to 134 undergraduate students at medium sized college in Taiwan. The data included questions about the participant’s rating of the level of difficulty of the course (Difficulty, the topics covered in the course (Topics, their motivation towards attending the course (Motivation, and whether or not the participants felt that the course is practical and useful to their future (Practicality. The results of the Pearson correlation coefficients showed that 4 out of the 15 correlations were statistically significant. The negative correlation found between motivation and topics; and practicality and topics suggest the attitude that when choosing courses, students tend to choose courses that they think would easy to pass. The finding that none of the variables were significantly correlated to course attendance and course performance suggests that the strongest predictor of success of a course is based on the student’s level of attendance. This lead to the discussion in the conclusion about pedagogical implications for what teachers can do in their classrooms.

  8. ANDROID BASED FINGERPRINT SENSOR ATTENDANCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliprasanna Swain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the development of an attendance management system using biometrics is proposed. As the manual method of attendance system produced errors and taking lot of time during lecture period, an efficient and organized biometrics system fo r students' attendance is purposed. The electronic system not only used to take attendance for the students, but a database is also mentioned to store all the information which can be manipulated further in future. This biometric system, which is involved in the identification and verification of each individual student by scanning the characteristics of fingerprints. This type of verification is widely used in various aspects of life for different purposes, like in security, police identification, etc. I n addition to this, once the students are registered, then respective parents and proctors are also being updated through the SMS generated by a GSM modem interfaced with the system and also an Android App is also developed to check the daily database of the student database

  9. Attendance at NHS mandatory training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Darren

    2015-02-11

    Aim To identify factors that affect NHS healthcare professionals' attendance at mandatory training sessions. Method A quantitative approach was used, with a questionnaire sent to 400 randomly selected participants. A total of 122 responses were received, providing a mix of qualitative and quantitative data. Quantitative data were analysed using statistical methods. Open-ended responses were reviewed using thematic analysis. Findings Clinical staff value mandatory training sessions highly. They are aware of the requirement to keep practice up-to-date and ensure patient safety remains a priority. However, changes to the delivery format of mandatory training sessions are required to enable staff to participate more easily, as staff are often unable to attend. Conclusion The delivery of mandatory training should move from classroom-based sessions into the clinical area to maximise participation. Delivery should be assisted by local 'experts' who are able to customise course content to meet local requirements and the requirements of different staff groups. Improved arrangements to provide staff cover, for those attending training, would enable more staff to attend training sessions. PMID:25669819

  10. Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

  11. Determinants of childhood lead exposure in the postleaded petrol era: The Tooth Fairy cohort from Newcastle upon Tyne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Susan; Manmee, Charuwan; Dirks, Wendy; Shepherd, Thomas; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja

    2014-11-19

    Lead is an environmental contaminant causing irreversible health effects in children. We used dentine lead levels as a measure of early-life lead exposure and explored determinants of lead exposure in children living in Newcastle upon Tyne, a historically industrialised UK city, in a cohort born since legislation was introduced to remove lead from petrol, paint and water pipes. The "Tooth Fairy study" cohort comprised 69 children aged 5-8 years. We collected upper deciduous incisors from children and questionnaire data from their parents in 2005. We measured lead levels in pre- and postnatal enamel and dentine using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and assessed associations between dentine lead levels and residential, dietary, lifestyle and socio-economic characteristics. Dentine lead levels were low (mean 0.26??g/g, range 0.06-0.77); however, we observed considerable variability in dentine lead levels within and between children suggestive of differing exposure levels and/or exposure sources across this population. Variables earlier documented to be associated with childhood lead levels were not found to be significant determinants of dentine lead levels in this study. Exposure pathways should continue to be investigated to enable targeted interventions and prevention of lead-induced health impacts in vulnerable populations.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 19 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.79. PMID:25407346

  12. Non-Coop Station History

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  13. A Students Attendance System Using QR Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Masalha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are becoming more preferred companions to users than desktops or notebooks. Knowing that smartphones are most popular with users at the age around 26, using smartphones to speed up the process of taking attendance by university instructors would save lecturing time and hence enhance the educational process. This paper proposes a system that is based on a QR code, which is being displayed for students during or at the beginning of each lecture. The students will need to scan the code in order to confirm their attendance. The paper explains the high level implementation details of the proposed system. It also discusses how the system verifies student identity to eliminate false registrations.

  14. A Students Attendance System Using QR Code

    OpenAIRE

    Fadi Masalha; Nael Hirzallah

    2014-01-01

    Smartphones are becoming more preferred companions to users than desktops or notebooks. Knowing that smartphones are most popular with users at the age around 26, using smartphones to speed up the process of taking attendance by university instructors would save lecturing time and hence enhance the educational process. This paper proposes a system that is based on a QR code, which is being displayed for students during or at the beginning of each lecture. The students will need to scan the co...

  15. Time Slot Management in Attended Home Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Savelsbergh, M. W. P.; Fleischmann, M.; Agatz, N. A. H.; Campbell, A.

    2011-01-01

    Many e-tailers providing attended home delivery, especially e-grocers, offer narrow delivery time slots to ensure satisfactory customer service. The choice of delivery time slots has to balance marketing and operational considerations, which results in a complex planning problem. We study the problem of selecting the set of time slots to offer in each of the zip codes in a service region. The selection needs to facilitate cost-effective delivery routes, but also needs to ensure an acceptable ...

  16. Food Service and Nutrition for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L. (editor)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the Workshop on Food Service and Nutrition for the Space Station, held in Houston, Texas, on April 10 and 11, 1984 was given. The workshop was attended by experts in food technology from industry, government, and academia. Following a general definition of unique space flight requirements, oral presentations were made on state of the art food technology with the objective of using this technology to support the space flight requirements. Numerous areas are identified which in the opinion of the conferees, would have space flight application. But additional effort, evaluation, or testing to include Shuttle inflight testing will be required for the technology to be applied to the Space Station.

  17. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  18. 5 CFR 185.124 - Subpoenas for attendance at hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Subpoenas for attendance at hearing. 185.124 Section 185.124 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.124 Subpoenas for attendance at hearing....

  19. Comparative analysis of environmental impact of S2P (Sunshine to Petrol) system for transportation fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • We study solar fuels derived from CO2 and water using the S2P framework. • S2P fuels have lower environmental impact than conventional fuels. • We evaluate the economic, environmental, and social benefits of the S2P framework. - Abstract: A previous study on Sunshine to Petrol (S2P), a technology framework to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels from CO2 and water using a concentrated solar energy source, focused on process development as well as economic evaluation. The study herein presents results from a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach to a comparative analysis of the environmental impacts of S2P-derived and petroleum-derived gasoline. Results reveal that S2P gasoline shows lower impact scores than the conventional gasoline for all evaluated impact categories. Based on the LCA results, we then analyze the environmental benefits including greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and external cost savings. We find that if S2P gasoline could be successfully introduced to satisfy the gasoline demand of a sample city, Victorville in east California, 3.6 Mt CO2-eq of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (77% of the total regional emissions) would be mitigated based on the current fleet of vehicles. The lighter impact also corresponds to 4.2 M$ annual cost savings from avoided environment damage. More generally, for each million vehicles running on S2P gasoline there would be nearly $30 M in savings and 335 M gallons of gasoline displaced, which in turn results in nearly 25.8 Mt of CO2-eq avoided

  20. Rural-Nonrural Differences in College Attendance Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Meece, Judith L.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study documented college attendance patterns of rural youth in terms of the selectivity of first postsecondary institution of attendance, the timing of transition to postsecondary education, and the continuity of enrollment. The study also examined how these college attendance

  1. Nuclear power stations licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed

  2. Siting Britain's power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background information is given about the time-scale for planning and constructing a new power station in Britain. Planning and licensing procedures are discussed, with particular reference to nuclear power stations. Technical factors to be considered are tabulated. Environmental (ecological, amenity and socio-economic) effects are discussed briefly. (U.K.)

  3. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  4. Factors Associated with Attendance and Non-Attendance of Support Groups among HIV Positive Adults Attending an Antiretroviral Community Clinic at Ekurhuleni District, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sphiwe Madiba; Olga Kekana

    2013-01-01

    Health care facilities providing antiretroviral treatment (ART) to HIV positive people have seen a decline in the uptake and use of HIV support groups. A cross sectional survey was conducted to 1) determine the characteristics of HIV positive people who have and who have not attended support groups; 2) determine factors associated with attendance of support groups; and 3) investigate perceived barriers to participate in support groups among HIV positive adults attending an ART clinic in Gaut...

  5. A Comparison of Sexual Minority Youth Who Attend Religiously Affiliated Schools and Their Nonreligious-School-Attending Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brandon T.; Heck, Nicholas C.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are an at-risk group for negative health outcomes. The present study compares descriptive characteristics and outness of sexual minority youth who attend religious schools to sexual minorities who do not attend religious schools, and also investigates if attending religiously affiliated schools is associated with levels of…

  6. Health risks of early swimming pool attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoefer, Yvonne; Zutavern, Anne; Brockow, Inken; Schäfer, Torsten; Krämer, Ursula; Schaaf, Beate; Herbarth, Olf; von Berg, Andrea; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-07-01

    Swimming pool attendance and exposure to chlorination by-products showed adverse health effects on children. We assessed whether early swimming pool attendance, especially baby swimming, is related to higher rates of early infections and to the development of allergic diseases. In 2003-2005, 2192 children were analysed for the 6-year follow-up of a prospective birth cohort study. Data on early swimming pool attendance, other lifestyle factors and medical history were collected by parental-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations. Babies who did not participate in baby swimming had lower rates of infection in the 1st year of life (i) diarrhoea: OR 0.68 CI 95% 0.54-0.85; (ii) otitis media: OR 0.81 CI 95% 0.62-1.05; (iii) airway infections: OR 0.85 CI 95% 0.67-1.09. No clear association could be found between late or non-swimmers and atopic dermatitis or hay fever until the age of 6 years, while higher rates of asthma were found (OR 2.15 95% CI 1.16-3.99), however, potentially due to reverse causation. The study indicates that, in terms of infections, baby swimming might not be as harmless as commonly thought. Further evidence is needed to make conclusions if the current regulations on chlorine in Germany might not protect swimming pool attendees from an increased risk of gastrointestinal infections. In terms of developing atopic diseases there is no verifiable detrimental effect of early swimming. PMID:17869580

  7. Multitudes attend the Night of Science

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Night of Science, which took place in the Parc de la Perle du Lac in Geneva last weekend, was a great success, with 30 000 visitors attending according to the organisers. Many curious people flocked to the stands and animations until late on Saturday night and all afternoon on Sunday. The CERN stand (photo) received a great amount of interest from participants. Both kids and adults discovered the activities of the Laboratory and the data-processing revolution initiated by CERN, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Hats off to the CERN collaborators in the Communication Group and IT Department who made this event a success.

  8. Motives for attending the Cultivaria Arts Festival

    OpenAIRE

    Saayman, Melville

    2011-01-01

    Festivals are becoming a key feature on the tourism calendar of many towns and cities. Cultivaria is one of South Africa’s newest arts festivals and is held at Paarl annually. The festival is one combining the arts, wine and food. The purpose of this research is to determine the reasons (motives) for visitors attending the festival. This information is needed so that a marketing plan can be developed, as well as to be able to ensure that visitors’ needs are fulfilled. In order to do this,...

  9. Space Station Workstation Technology Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, K. L.; Emerson, C. M.; Eike, D. R.; Malone, T. B.

    1985-03-01

    This report describes the results of a workshop conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to identify current and anticipated trends in human-computer interface technology that may influence the design or operation of a space station workstation. The workshop was attended by approximately 40 persons from government and academia who were selected for their expertise in some aspect of human-machine interaction research. The focus of the workshop was a 1 1/2 brainstorming/forecasting session in which the attendees were assigned to interdisciplinary working groups and instructed to develop predictions for each of the following technology areas: (1) user interface, (2) resource management, (3) control language, (4) data base systems, (5) automatic software development, (6) communications, (7) training, and (8) simulation. This report is significant in that it provides a unique perspective on workstation design for the space station. This perspective, which is characterized by a major emphasis on user requirements, should be most valuable to Phase B contractors involved in design development of the space station workstation. One of the more compelling results of the workshop is the recognition that no major technological breakthroughs are required to implement the current workstation concept. What is required is the creative application of existing knowledge and technology.

  10. Space Station Workstation Technology Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, K. L.; Emerson, C. M.; Eike, D. R.; Malone, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the results of a workshop conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to identify current and anticipated trends in human-computer interface technology that may influence the design or operation of a space station workstation. The workshop was attended by approximately 40 persons from government and academia who were selected for their expertise in some aspect of human-machine interaction research. The focus of the workshop was a 1 1/2 brainstorming/forecasting session in which the attendees were assigned to interdisciplinary working groups and instructed to develop predictions for each of the following technology areas: (1) user interface, (2) resource management, (3) control language, (4) data base systems, (5) automatic software development, (6) communications, (7) training, and (8) simulation. This report is significant in that it provides a unique perspective on workstation design for the space station. This perspective, which is characterized by a major emphasis on user requirements, should be most valuable to Phase B contractors involved in design development of the space station workstation. One of the more compelling results of the workshop is the recognition that no major technological breakthroughs are required to implement the current workstation concept. What is required is the creative application of existing knowledge and technology.

  11. 77 FR 30053 - Repair Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ...only on repair stations located in the United States. Total Benefits and Costs...Present value stations...Total 7 Percent 3 Percent...the estimated total compliance costs...proposed repair station manual...

  12. Minor injury attendance times to the ED.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Ciaran

    2009-07-01

    The Health Service Executive (HSE) highlights the need for effective patient throughput and management, whilst providing appropriate staffing and therapeutic interventions. It acknowledges that patient need is integral to the development of a nurse led service and advocates planning staffing levels to reflect arrival times of patients. An observational study of all patients who presented to the emergency department in July 2005 and February 2006 was undertaken (n=7768). The study identified 1577 patients suitable for treatment by the Advanced Nurse Practitioner (ANP) in these two months, which represents 20% of all patient attendances to the ED in this time period. A data collection tool was devised collectively by the ANPs to identify appropriate patients. The findings of the study revealed that 73% of patients suitable for the ANP service presented between the hours of 0800 and 2000, of which 54% attended between 0800 and 1600 h. Sunday emerged as the busiest day in July 2005 whereas Monday was found to be the busiest day in February 2006. Friday was found to be consistently busy for both months.

  13. Madrid space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, R. J.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Madrid space station, operated under bilateral agreements between the governments of the United States and Spain, is described in both Spanish and English. The space station utilizes two tracking and data acquisition networks: the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) operated under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The station, which is staffed by Spanish employees, comprises four facilities: Robledo 1, Cebreros, and Fresnedillas-Navalagamella, all with 26-meter-diameter antennas, and Robledo 2, with a 64-meter antenna.

  14. Lonely Space Station?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The space station will be sent through Congress on its own merits as a singular authorization bill, according to House Science Committee chair Robert Walker (R-Pa.). To be introduced in early May, the bill will ask for $2.1 billion a year for 6 years for a total commitment of $12.6 billion. Walker says the strategy is largely intended to prove to international partners that the American commitment to the station is indeed strong and long-term. Traditionally, the station has been susceptible to annual budget cycles, as part of the Veterans Administration-Housing and Urban Development Bill, which includes the bulk of NASA funding.

  15. Attending to the reasons for attribute non-attendance in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; MØrkbak, Morten Raun

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on behavioural reasons underlying stated attribute non-attendance. In order to identify and incorporate procedures for dealing with heterogeneous attribute processing strategies, we ask respondents follow-up questions regarding their reasons for ignoring attributes. Based on these statements, we conclude that the standard way of assigning a zero impact of ignored attributes on the likelihood is inappropriate. We find that some respondents act in accordance with the passive bounded rationality assumption since they ignore an attribute simply because it does not affect their utility. Excluding these genuine zero preferences, as the standard approach essentially does, might bias results. Other respondents claim to have ignored attributes to simplify choices. However, we find that these respondents have actually not completely ignored attributes. We argue along the rationally adaptive behavioural model that preferences are indeed elicited in these cases, and we show how using a scaling approachcan appropriately weight these observations in the econometric model. Finally, we find that some respondents ignore attributes for protest-like reasons which essentially convey no information about preferences. We suggest that using the standard approach combined with weighting procedures and recoding of non-attendance statements conditional on the specific reasons for non-attendance could be more appropriate than the current standard way of taking stated non-attendance into account.

  16. Comparison of Urinary o-Cresol and Hippuric Acid in Drivers, Gasoline Station Workers and Painters Exposed to Toluene in West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Bahrami

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of exposed to toluene and compare levels of hippuric acid and o-Cresol in taxi drivers, petrol station workers, car painters with a control group in West of Iran. The urinary o-creasol and toluene in air were analyzed by a gas chromatography and hippuric acid was extracted from urine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The significant differences in the levels of urinary o-Cresol were found in painters and petrol station workers compared to the control group (p<0.005. There was no significant correlation between toluene in air and biomarkers for taxi drivers. The lowest toluene concentration at which urinary hippuric acid increased to a measurable level was approximately 25 to 35 ppm and for o-Cresol was 2 ppm. In conclusion our results was showed that o-Cresol and hippuric acid could separate the exposed to toluene from the non-exposed when toluene in breathing zone of subjects was greater than 3 and 35 ppm, respectively. Hippuric acid and o-Cresol are not suitable biomarkers for occupations such as drivers that exposure to toluene in low concentration.

  17. Mesocarnivore Photo Stations [ds26

    California Department of Resources — This database was established to record furbearer and raptor presence through photographs taken at camera stations. The general study area where camera stations...

  18. Realtime USGS Streamflow Stations

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Approximately 5,000 of the 6,900 U.S. Geological Survey sampling stations are equipped with telemetry to transmit data on streamflow, temperature, and other...

  19. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  20. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  1. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas HØjlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable.

  2. Television Broadcast Stations

    Federal Communications Commission — The FCC TV Query should be used to generate lists and/or retrieve information about television broadcast stations. It provides an official listing of all TV Channels.

  3. Active Marine Station Metadata

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  4. How to reduce the petroleum dependency of Quebec? A ground breaking collective approach; Comment reduire la dependance quebecoise au petrole? Une demarche collective inedite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourke, Philippe; Caron-Malenfant, Julie

    2010-09-15

    Quebec population and socio economic agents are little or not summoned to in the definition of a vision relating to the dependency of Quebec to petroleum. The presented approach expects to include them as determining actors in the research for solutions to this collective issue, exploring aspects linked both to the energy consumption and production. The question to which the consultation is looking for answers is: How can Quebec reduce its petroleum consumption and increase its energy independence while promoting the harmonious economic and social development of its territory?. [French] La population et les agents socioeconomiques du Quebec sont peu ou pas interpelles dans la definition d'une vision entourant la dependance du Quebec au petrole. La demarche presentee prevoit les inclure comme acteurs determinants vers la recherche de solutions a cet enjeu collectif, explorant les aspects lies tant a la consommation qu'a la production energetique. La question a laquelle la consultation lancee cherchera des reponses est : Comment le Quebec peut-il diminuer sa consommation de petrole et accroitre son independance energetique tout en favorisant le developpement economique et social harmonieux de son territoire?.

  5. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  6. LAERTIS, a multidisciplinary station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Ball, A. E.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L. K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Tsagli, V.; Zhukov, V. A.

    2006-11-01

    LAERTIS, designed to collect environmental data from the deep-sea, is operated since 1999 and has been deployed several time at 4000 m depth at the NESTOR site. Power and data were transferred through a 30-km electro-optical cable to the Shore Station. In this report, we describe briefly the LAERTIS instrumentation and present typical data that were collected successfully during those deployment demonstrating the importance of a deep-sea station permanently connected to shore.

  7. Station Master Indication Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Brahmani, A.; Suresh, B.

    2014-01-01

    To give reliable visual information to the Station Master about the gate status (OPEN /CLOSE) of corresponding LC Gates. Closure and opening of the LC gate is identified using digital input. The digital input is connected to the Gate logger. Gate logger transmits this data to Communication unit at station through modem communication. Communication unit process the data and controls the tele control relays, based on the status of Gate. LED based SM indication unit is located on the top of the ...

  8. Caring Together: Activity Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Children's Museum of Indianapolis

    2006-01-01

    In this Bob the Builder(TM)-themed activity, learners explore the 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) by rotating through several activity stations. Activity stations may include: packing a lunch in reusable containers; sorting recyclable cans, plastic containers, and newspaper; playing with water in recycled containers and toys; making a collage by reusing magazine pictures; and drawing on both sides of the paper. This activity is featured on page 14 of the "Bob the Builder(TM) — Project: Build It" unit of study.

  9. Ozone toxicity symptoms among flight attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D; Glaser, S; Kaldor, J

    1980-01-01

    Because of persistent complaints of ozone-toxicity type symptoms among crew members of commercial airlines, we undertook a survey to determine the extent of the problem and the associated flight factors. Self-reported questionnaires and flight diaries were completed by 1,330 flight attendants, (FAs) working for three different airlines. Ozone-toxicity type symptoms were reported three or four times more frequently by FAs with airlines flying at high altitudes than by those with low-flying airlines. When examined by characteristics of flights, the ozone-toxicity type symptoms were significantly associated with flight altitude, duration and type of aircraft, but not with years worked, sex, medical history, or home residence. Other symptoms indicative of fatigue or stress were mainly associated with flight duration. While these indirect data cannot implicate ozone specifically, they offer evidence that ozone-related health problems do exist among a large proportion of FAs. PMID:7342754

  10. Job stress among female flight attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Leslie A; Deddens, James A; Grajewski, Barbara A; Whelan, Elizabeth A; Hurrell, Joseph J

    2003-07-01

    We evaluated the presence of chronic job stressors among flight attendants (FAs) to examine the relationships between these job stressors and psychological distress and job dissatisfaction. Seventy-three female FAs (90% participation) employed at two commercial airlines completed a detailed questionnaire. Standard questions and scale measures were used to assess job stressors, psychological distress, and job dissatisfaction. The association between job stressors and these outcomes was evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Except for fatigue, distress and job dissatisfaction were moderate to low. Job stressors were found to have a substantive effect on these outcomes, following adjustment for individual factors. Despite moderate-to-low levels of distress and dissatisfaction, targeted efforts to reduce selected job stressors and to enhance social support may be important steps toward improving the well-being and satisfaction of FAs. PMID:12855911

  11. Automation of Attendance Posting System Using Messaging Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyanaraman, Prof P.; Kappagantula Aditya

    2010-01-01

    This research highlights a new model of Attendance Posting System through mobile phones using SMS feature. The proposed system eliminates all kinds of paper work involved in traditional attendance system. This is a one step process, which eliminates redundant data and efforts. The proposed system can also be programmed to send attendance reports in the form of short messages to parents and students regularly. In the proposed system, a user is given an application which, as a prerequisite has ...

  12. Rejuvenation and Networking Motivates Librarians to Attend Conferences

    OpenAIRE

    Hultman Özek, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    A Review of: Vega, Robert D. and Ruth S. Connell. “Librarians’ Attitudes Toward Conferences: A Study.” College & Research Libraries 68.6 (2007): 503-15. Objectives – To determine why professional librarians attend or do not attend conferences and to consider their attitudes toward the various conference offerings and whether conference attendance is important to their careers. Design – An electronic mail list survey designed to collect both quantitative and qua...

  13. Frequent attenders in general practice: medical, psychological and social characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Westhead, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    A group of frequent attenders at a general practice surgery have been studied by comparison with a group of age-and sex-matched controls. Frequent attenders are distinguished by a high predisposition to neurotic illness (as measured by the `N' score of the Eysenck personality questionnaire) and a high prevalence of affective neurosis. Poor past physical health was commonly found among the frequent attenders and comprised for the most part the common chronic physical illnesses. Of the social c...

  14. An Efficient Automatic Attendance System Using Fingerprint Reconstruction Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Josphineleela. R; Ramakrishnan. M

    2012-01-01

    Biometric time and attendance system is one of the most successful applications of biometric technology. One of the main advantage of a biometric time and attendance system is it avoids "buddy-punching". Buddy punching was a major loophole which will be exploiting in the traditional time attendance systems. Fingerprint recognition is an established field today, but still identifying individual from a set of enrolled fingerprints is a time taking process. Most fingerprint-bas...

  15. UMTS Network Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed over the 30 radiometric stations. As a the result, currently it exist a stable, flexible, safe and economic infrastructure of radiometric stations and telecommunications that allows, on the one hand, to have data in real time from all 30 remote weather stations, and on the other hand allows to communicate with them in order to reprogram them and to carry out maintenance works.

  16. ILRS Station Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Carey E.; Pearlman, Michael Reisman; Torrence, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Network stations provided system configuration documentation upon joining the ILRS. This information, found in the various site and system log files available on the ILRS website, is essential to the ILRS analysis centers, combination centers, and general user community. Therefore, it is imperative that the station personnel inform the ILRS community in a timely fashion when changes to the system occur. This poster provides some information about the various documentation that must be maintained. The ILRS network consists of over fifty global sites actively ranging to over sixty satellites as well as five lunar reflectors. Information about these stations are available on the ILRS website (http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/network/stations/index.html). The ILRS Analysis Centers must have current information about the stations and their system configuration in order to use their data in generation of derived products. However, not all information available on the ILRS website is as up-to-date as necessary for correct analysis of their data.

  17. Advances in power station construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the power station projects designed, built and commissioned by the CEGB. A discussion of the considerations, evaluations and factors leading up to the decision as to when, where and what type of power station to build is followed by comprehensive accounts of oil- and coal-fired power stations, pumped storage stations and the most recent designs of nuclear power stations. Each chapter is illustrated and structured to give reference to passages on site selection and layout, choice of plant, mechanical and electrical systems, control and instrumentation, construction, capacity and fuel availability. Contents: Construction history and development. Littlebrook D: oil-fired power station. Drax: coal-fired power station. Dinorwig: pumped storage power station, and Kielder: small hydro project. Heysham 2: AGR power station. Sizewell B: PWR power station. Project management. Index

  18. Attending to the reasons for attribute non-attendance in choice experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Jensen, Carsten Lynge

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on behavioural reasons underlying stated attribute non-attendance. In order to identify and incorporate procedures for dealing with heterogeneous attribute processing strategies, we ask respondents follow-up questions regarding their reasons for ignoring attributes. Based on these statements, we conclude that the standard way of assigning a zero impact of ignored attributes on the likelihood is inappropriate. We find that some respondents act in accordance with the passive ...

  19. Attending to the reasons for attribute non-attendance in Choice Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; MØrkbak, Morten Raun

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on behavioural reasons underlying stated attribute non-attendance in choice experiments. In order to identify and incorporate procedures for dealing with heterogeneous attribute processing strategies, we ask respondents follow-up questions regarding their reasons for ignoring attributes. Based on these statements, we conclude that the standard way of assigning a zero impact of ignored attributes on the likelihood is inappropriate. We find that some respondents act in accordance with the passive bounded rationality assumption since they ignore an attribute simply because it does not affect their utility. Excluding these genuine zero preferences, as the standard approach essentially does, might bias results. Other respondents claim to have ignored attributes to simplify choices. However, we find that these respondents have actually not completely ignored attributes. We argue along the rationally adaptive behavioural model that valid preference information may indeed be elicited in these cases, and we illustrate how recoding of non-attendance statements conditional on stated reasons may be a more appropriate solution than the current standard way of taking stated non-attendance into account.

  20. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  1. A modelling study of the impact on air quality and health due to the emissions from E85 and petrol fuelled cars in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridell, Erik; Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Moldanova, Jana; Forsberg, Bertil; Sjöberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Alternative fuels are becoming more and more important for road traffic and one fuel that has been used for several years is ethanol (E85). The main discussion points regarding the environmental performance for ethanol as a fuel are related to the production. However, there are also some notable differences in the emissions between E85 and petrol fuelled vehicles. This relates to some extent to the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) but mainly to the composition of the emitted organic compounds. In the present study two fuel scenarios for passenger cars are investigated for the Västra Götaland Region in Sweden; one where the cars with Otto engines run on petrol and one where they run on E85. Two emission scenarios for 2020 are constructed for the whole Europe and coupled dispersion-chemistry modelling is applied to obtain the population exposure to key pollutants. The differences obtained from the modelling show decreased levels of NOx, ozone and benzene with E85 and increased levels of acetaldehyde in the Västra Götaland Region. For the latter the increase may be up to 80%, while NOx and ozone show decreases of up to a few per cent and a few tenths of per cent, respectively. Exposure to the different air pollutants is calculated as population-weighted concentrations. The health risk assessment, using the calculated exposure and published exposure-response functions for the relevant pollutants, shows decreased health risks in the E85 scenario relative the all-petrol scenario, due to the decreased NOx exposure, correlated with both preterm deaths and asthma. However, NOx (and NO2) may partly be indicators of unmeasured causal exhaust components in the epidemiological studies and thus the exposure-response functions for these may not be applicable in the present case where there is a difference in NOx exposure but not a proportional difference in exposure to other exhaust components normally associated with NOx. Smaller effects are expected from the changes in ozone, acetaldehyde, PM2.5 and benzene exposure. The overall difference is about 1.6 preterm deaths per year for the Västra Götaland Region, with lower values for the E85 scenario, when the uncertain differences due to the differences in NOx exposure are not considered.

  2. Solar power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, J.

    1982-11-30

    Solar power station with semiconductor solar cells for generating electric power is described, wherein the semiconductor solar cells are provided on a member such as a balloon or a kite which carries the solar cells into the air. The function of the balloon or kite can also be fulfilled by a glider or airship. The solar power station can be operated by allowing the system to ascend at sunrise and descend at sunset or when the wind is going to be too strong in order to avoid any demage.

  3. The organized Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Leong W.

    Space Station organization designers should consider the onboard stowage system to be an integral part of the environment structured for productive working conditions. In order to achieve this, it is essential to use an efficient inventory control system able to track approximately 50,000 items over a 90-day period, while maintaining peak crew performance. It is noted that a state-of-the-art bar-code inventory management system cannot satisfy all Space Station requirements, such as the location of a critical missing item.

  4. Davis Weather Station Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

    2003-08-01

    This resource provides instructions on how to log atmosphere data using a Davis weather station. A weather station is setup to measure and record atmospheric measurements at 15-minute intervals and can be transferred to the GLOBE program via email. Students can view data for their school that are continuous and show variations within a day. The data collected includes wind speed and direction and pressure thereby supporting a more complete study of meteorology using GLOBE. Students pursue a more extensive set of research investigations.

  5. Space station propulsion options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.; Valgora, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    The selection of the propulsion system for the Space Station represents a complex issue. The present paper provides a summary of the Station design factors which dictate the propulsion requirements, taking into account approaches for meeting these requirements. Factors which affect propulsion system selection are related to thrusting strategy, volume and mass limitations, safety and contamination, electrical power, time phasing, synergistic opportunities, propellant scavenging, water electrolysis, and free-flyers. In a discussion of propulsion systems, attention is given to monopropellant options, bipropellant options, and resistojets.

  6. Management of School Attendance in the UK: A Strategic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Prior to 1997, managing school attendance was the sole responsibility of the Department for Education and Skills (DfES). Since devolution, responsibility for school attendance has resided with each of the four UK-wide administrations. These are the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) in England; the Scottish Executive Education…

  7. Improving School Attendance in the New Bedford Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Heather D.

    2012-01-01

    Regular school attendance is a key contributor toward student success. Lack of attendance by its very nature removes the student from time on learning that is essential for academic success (Estridge, 2009). The reality is an absence, whether it is excused or not, means that a child is not in benefiting from educational opportunities on that day.…

  8. Cultural Patterns in Attending to Two Events at Once

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Chavez, Maricela; Rogoff, Barbara; Mejia Arauz, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    This study examined cultural differences in children's simultaneous attention to 2 events versus quick alternation in which attending to 1 event momentarily interrupted attending to another. Thirty-one 6- to 10-year-old U.S. children of Mexican and European American heritage folded paper figures with 2 other first- to third-grade children and an…

  9. Extended School Non-Attenders' Views: Developing Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Isabel Rose; Purcell, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Despite the abundance of legislation and research initiatives concerning children's participation in decision-making, there is less research in this area with regard to extended school non-attenders. Using semi-structured interviews, this research explores how the views of children and their families who have experienced school non-attendance

  10. Station-keeping guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, D. E.; Kriegsman, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    The station-keeping guidance system is described, which is designed to automatically keep one orbiting vehicle within a prescribed zone fixed with respect to another orbiting vehicle. The active vehicle, i.e. the one performing the station-keeping maneuvers, is referred to as the shuttle. The other passive orbiting vehicle is denoted as the workshop. The passive vehicle is assumed to be in a low-eccentricity near-earth orbit. The primary navigation sensor considered is a gimballed tracking radar located on board the shuttle. It provides data on relative range and range rate between the two vehicles. Also measured are the shaft and trunnion axes gimbal angles. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) is provided on board the orbiter. The IMU is used at all times to provide an attitude reference for the vehicle. The IMU accelerometers are used periodically to monitor the velocity-correction burns applied to the shuttle during the station-keeping mode. The guidance system is capable of station-keeping the shuttle in any arbitrary position with respect to the workshop by periodically applying velocity-correction pulses to the shuttle.

  11. Water Exploration Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Children's Museum

    2008-01-01

    In this activity (located on page 3 of the PDF), learners investigate the way water moves and how we can control and direct water. At the Water Exploration Station, learners experiment with various tools like eye droppers, sponges, turkey basters, etc. to move and play with the water. Included in this lesson guide are challenge questions intended to direct the learning.

  12. Space Station Final Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    An artist's conception of what the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) will look like when it is fully built and deployed. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  13. Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust in major cities in Greece in relation to the use of lead in petrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, the most important source of environmental lead pollution in cities was thought to come from the combustion of leaded petrol. A simple way to monitor the extent of this phenomenon, used in a number of studies in the past, has been to measure lead levels in street dust. Nowadays, it would be expected that lead concentrations in urban dust would have decreased from earlier values, following the progressive reduction of lead in petrol over the past few years, and this hypothesis has recently been confirmed in Manchester, UK. The object of the present work is to determine levels of lead pollution in cities in Greece on 1997 and, if possible, to discover whether similar reductions in lead concentrations have occurred there also. Surveys have been conducted in Thessaloniki, Athens and Piraeus. Samples of roadside dust were collected from streets (categorised by traffic density), national gardens and school playgrounds, and lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid. Lead concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and lead isotope ratios measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Thessaloniki showed that mean lead concentrations in all categories of location are similar to present levels in Manchester. Further, lead concentrations in dust in the busiest streets in Thessaloniki have fallen by about 55% since a previous study 17 years ago. In Athens and Piraeus, the lead levelsgo. In Athens and Piraeus, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between the various types of street. In particular, it was observed that lead levels in school playgrounds in these two cities were much higher than in similar locations in Thessaloniki and Manchester, with a possible hazard to children. Isotope ratio measurements showed that Thessaloniki's lead is isotopically distinct from that found in Athens and Piraeus, which presumably reflects differences in sources of supply

  14. Mobile environmental radiation monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mobile environmental radiation monitoring station has been developed and established for the Israeli Ministry of Environment. The radiation monitoring station is ready for immediate placing in any required location, or can be operated from a vehicle. The station collects data Tom the detector and transfers it via cellular communication network to a Computerized Control Center for data storage, processing, and display . The mobile station is fully controlled from the. Routinely, the mobile station responses to the data request accumulated since the last communication session. In case of fault or alarm condition in the mobile station, a local claim is activated and immediately initiates communication with the via cellular communication network. (authors)

  15. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping. The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high penetration of wind power is present, is considered as special case. The distribution grid in Denmark is built using larger secondary distribution transformers (e.g. 630 kVA) which in general allows higher flexibility for the installation of Central Stations, compared to Bornholm’s distribution grid. With the 3-phase AC quick charging options of 11, 22 kW and 43 kW, (IEC 62196, EN60038, EN 61851) both the Danish and Bornholm environments offer a good chance for EV integration [1]. Dealing with Fast Charging, the study determined that 300kW Fast Charging, which corresponds to 10 minutes charging for a 50 kWh battery-EV is not feasible in Bornholm at the 0.4 kV level, due to predominantly small size secondary distribution transformers, in the range of 100 - 200 kVA. This is possible at the 10kV level (MV level), if the Fast Charging station is equipped with its own dedicated transformer. With DC charging, rated at 50 kW, fast charging would be easier in both Denmark and Bornholm scenarios. For each scenario and charging power level, the possible number of EVs is estimated and finally architectural design options are proposed. Technical assessment is performed for evaluating the benefits of different charging concepts as Fast Charging and Battery Swapping as well as different loading options as DC loading versus AC loading, single phase (230V) versus three phase (400V) loading. A study on possible siting for Central Stations is performed for the Danish main land, where the average distance covered by EVs is used as input data. A finding of the study is that a reasonable number of fast charging and swapping stations are about 15, assuming that all EVs have a range of 100-120 Km. Furthermore the Bornholm case is not very relevant for fast charging or battery swapping stations, due to the relatively small dimensions of the island. Several architectures of Central Station are assessed based on different hardware components onfiguration: in particular we could have a Central Station with dedicated transformer sized ad-hoc for the DC charging equipment. On the other hand, it is possible to have a Central Station connected to an existing distribution transformer; in this case the transformer load management becomes crucial. Furthermore we could have the options of AC versus DC power distribution in a Central Station. In case of DC distribution, we could have multiple fast chargers, implemented as DC/DC converters, operating in parallel and serving different vehicles. Local active harmonics compensation is ecommended as a valid option for mitigating the effect on the grid due to fast charging equipment, in compliance to IEC/TS 61000-3-12. Among power quality issues in distribution grids with EVs, voltage drops and transformer overloading are identified in this work as most critical situations [1]. The mitigation of voltage drops within a Central Station requires the local analysis of the site and eventually the installation of energy storage systems for mitigating the drop during transients or parallel charging, in compliance to EN 50160. Transformer overloading can be prevented, providing real-time access to the local power flow data. The assumption of 50% transformer average loading is used as a single reference point in the current report. For future investigations on transformer overloading, more reference points might be necessary to represent various transformer loading levels. The subject of safety in Central Station is also addr

  16. Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Grazzini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.

    Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.

    Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern/Insular Italy. Similar geographical distributions can be noted in the attendance rates (60.5% in the North of Italy, 56% in the Central area and 38.3% in the South of Italy. Cervical cancer screening: From the data obtained by the 2006 survey, 93.5% of theoretical extension was registered in the Centre of Italy, 65% in the North and 65.5% or in the South of Italy. 38.5% of invited women underwent a Pap-test. A decreasing trend in participation can be observed from Northern (45.6% to Central (35.7%, and to Southern (28.7% Italy. Colorectal cancer screening: In 2006, theoretical extension of colorectal cancer screening in Italy was 44%, with significant differences in geographical distribution (66.1% in the North of Italy 48.5% in the Centre and about 10% in the South of our country. About 907,000 people had a faecal occult blood test in 2006 (adjusted compliance of 44.6%. Data from the survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” showed that organised screening activity can reduce social inequalities of access to cancer screening, increasing screening utilization particularly in less educated people.

    Conclusions: Organised cancer screening programmes have been extended in recent years, improving the equity in the access to early diagnosis for the people invited. However, social and geographical inequalities still remain.

  17. Factors Associated with Attendance and Non-Attendance of Support Groups among HIV Positive Adults Attending an Antiretroviral Community Clinic at Ekurhuleni District, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sphiwe Madiba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Health care facilities providing antiretroviral treatment (ART to HIV positive people have seen a decline in the uptake and use of HIV support groups. A cross sectional survey was conducted to 1 determine the characteristics of HIV positive people who have and who have not attended support groups; 2 determine factors associated with attendance of support groups; and 3 investigate perceived barriers to participate in support groups among HIV positive adults attending an ART clinic in Gauteng, South Africa. The total samples included 248 HIV positive adults and the highest proportion were females (n = 156, 62.9%. The mean age of the participants was 34.2 years, (range 18 to 56 years. Almost two thirds (n = 144, 58.1% had never attended support groups. Participants who attended support groups were more likely to be older than non-attenders (OR = 1.04, CI: 1.01 - 1.07, more likely to be taking ART medication (OR = 1.64, CI: 1.00 - 2.65 and more likely to have known of their HIV diagnosis for a longer time (OR = 2.20, CI: 1.42 - 3.40. Employed participants were less likely to attend support groups than unemployed participants (OR = 0.47, CI: 0.27 - 0.80. Concerns for privacy and confidentiality in support groups, and fear of stigma and discrimination were the key barriers to participate in support groups. Participants also perceived support groups as a service for people who could not cope with their HIV diagnosis. Health care providers who plan to start support groups should take into consideration issues of support group size, confidentiality, and timing for support group meetings. It is imperative that education on the benefits of HIV support groups forms a primary component of routine counselling for PLWHI.

  18. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  19. Social environment and frequent attendance in Danish general practice.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A lack of social support is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a decreased effect of prevention. Frequent attenders to primary care are characterised by poorer social conditions than other patients in general practice, but we do not know whether this is due to social inequalities in health or whether social factors in themselves determine the use of general practice. AIM: To examine if social factors are associated with frequent attendance in general practice after adjusting for physical and psychological health variables. DESIGN OF STUDY: Population-based cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Two hundred and twenty GPs in 132 practices in the county of Aarhus, Denmark, and the listed adult population (aged 20-64 years). METHOD: A sample of frequent attenders and infrequent attenders was drawn. The study included only those resident in the county and who had consulted a GP during the period November 1997-October 1998. A questionnaire about physical, psychological and social factors was sent to the patients. The associations between social factors and frequent attendance were adjusted for physical and psychological health and tendency towards somatisation. RESULTS: A total of 1423 (73.7%) frequent attenders and 1103 (74.9%) infrequent attenders responded. Male frequent attendance was associated, with statistical significance, with living alone and being without work or on a disability pension. Among women, lack of professional education or being without work tended to increase the likelihood of frequent attendance. CONCLUSION: This study shows that for men, social factors may in themselves determine the use of general practice. None of the investigated social factors seemed to restrict the use of general practice. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Jul

  20. Dream Anatomy Learning Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web site contains the educational materials for Dream Anatomy, a new exhibit at the National Library of Medicine. Viewable online, the exhibit offers a somewhat macabre but undeniably fascinating survey of changes in anatomical representation over the last five centuries. Recently added to the main Dream Anatomy Web site, Learning Station provides lesson plans and activities intended for 6-12 graders. The material can be used exhibit or its online version. The lesson plans titled Beginnings of Anatomical Illustrations (grades 6-12) and Anatomical Metaphors (grades 7-8) have especially strong life sciences applications. Other online activities offer "fun ways for high school and older students to explore the content of Dream Anatomy." Altogether, Dream Anatomy Learning Station offers students a unique look at the intersection of art, science, and the imagination.

  1. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  2. Robotic dissolution station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beugelsdijk, T.J.; Hollen, R.M.; Temer, D.J.; Haggart, R.J.; Erkkila, T.H.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a robotic station for dissolving active metals in acid in an automated fashion. A vessel with cap, containing the active metal is placed onto a shuttle which retracts to a point at which it is directly beneath a cap removing and retaining mechanism. After the cap is removed, a tube carrying an appropriate acid is inserted into the vessel, and the acid is introduced. The structure of the station forms an open hood which is swept of gases generated by the dissolution and the air removed to a remote location for scrubbing. After the reaction is complete, the shuttle extends and the vessel may be removed by a robot arm.

  3. Shippingport station communications program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses how the communications program for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station has a long history. It can be traced as far back as 1953, when the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) awarded a contract to Westinghouse Electric to design the nuclear portion of a power plant for electric utility use. During May of the next year, President Eisenhower initiated groundbreaking ceremonies for the construction of the commercial atomic power plant at Shippingport, Pennsylvania

  4. The nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes taking place in a nuclear power plant and the dangers arising from a nuclear power station are described. The means and methods of controlling, monitoring, and protecting the plant and things that can go wrong are presented. There is also a short discourse on the research carried out in the USA and Germany, aimed at assessing the risks of utilising nuclear energy by means of the incident tree analysis and probability calculations. (DG)

  5. Stations of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    Student groups rotate through four stations to examine light energy behavior: refraction, magnification, prisms and polarization. They see how a beam of light is refracted (bent) through various transparent mediums. While learning how a magnifying glass works, students see how the orientation of an image changes with the distance of the lens from its focal point. They also discover how a prism works by refracting light and making rainbows. And, students investigate the polar nature of light using sunglasses and polarized light film.

  6. Professional development through attending conferences: reflections of a health librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Ruth

    2015-06-01

    In this article, guest writer Ruth Jenkins from Berkshire Heathcare Foundation Trust reflects on two conferences she attended in 2014, LILAC and SLA. Through the process of reflection, she considers the benefits that attending conferences can have to library and information professionals in the health sector. In particular, she discusses the opportunities and areas for learning and professional development that conferences can offer including evidence-based practice and current awareness, gaining new knowledge and objectivity, and networking and the unexpected benefits of conferences. Ruth also offers some practical hints and tips on ways to facilitate your attendance at conferences, including through awards and funding. H.S. PMID:25943972

  7. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  8. Korea Geodetic VLBI Station Sejong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S.; Moon, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, J.; Joo, H. e.; Oh, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Sejong VLBI station has been constructed by the National Geographic Information Institute (NGII) in the Republic of Korea. It took approximately four years from 2008 to the end of 2011. In February 2012, we successfully carried out a fringe-test with the Kashima 11-m antenna of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) in Japan. In March, the Sejong station was accepted as an IVS network station by acceptance of the IVS Directing Board which was held at the 7th IVS General Meeting in Spain. This report summarizes activities of the Sejong station as a new IVS Network Station.

  9. 38 CFR 21.374 - Authorization for travel of attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Parent, (iii) Child, (iv) Brother, (v) Sister, (vi) Uncle, (vii) Aunt, (viii) Niece, or (ix) Nephew. (c) Attendant employed by the Federal government. (1) VA may authorize a person in the regular civilian...

  10. Schools K-12 - MDC_ElementaryAttendanceBoundary

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County, Public Schools attendance zones for Elementary schools (PK-5) and K-8 Centers (PK-8) schools. K-8 Centers are elementary...

  11. Demographics of enuresis patients attending a referral centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rawashdeh, Yazan F; Hvistendahl, Gitte M

    2002-01-01

    To study and compare the demography of enuretic children 7-16 years old attending a tertiary referral centre for childhood urinary incontinence, with that of normal children and what is generally known about enuretics from population-based studies.

  12. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers...WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care...

  13. The Effect of Islamic Secondary School Attendance on Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Asadullah, Niaz

    2014-01-01

    Using unique survey data on rural secondary school children, this paper evaluates the relative quality of Islamic secondary schools (i.e. madrasahs) in Bangladesh. Students attending registered madrasahs fare worse in maths and English than students attending non-madrasah schools. However, failure to account for non-random sorting over-estimates the negative influence of madrasahs on student achievement. Evidence on the magnitude of this bias is presented. Once selection effect is taken into ...

  14. Surveying the views of pupils attending supplementary schools in England

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, S

    2007-01-01

    Supplementary schooling broadly refers to extra schooling organised by and for particular ethnic groups outside of mainstream provision. This is the first study to systematically explore the attitudes of pupils attending supplementary schools in England, and is the largest ever UK study of supplementary schools and their pupils. 772 pupils aged 5-16 attending 63 supplementary schools in four major cities in England completed a questionnaire to determine their attitudes to mainstream and to su...

  15. Reproductive health outcomes among female flight attendants: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, J E; Vaughan, L M; Huete, A; Samuels, S J

    1998-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that female flight attendants may experience increased rates of spontaneous abortion. We conducted a survey of female flight attendants who were pregnant at any time between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 1991 (n = 418) using a mailed self-administered interest survey (response rate, 60 %) and follow-up questionnaire regarding reproductive outcomes and potential risk factors for adverse outcomes (response rate, 64%). The cumulative hazard of spontaneous abortion was 17% when maternal age, smoking, alcohol use, and prior spontaneous abortions were control led for, using a Cox life-table regression model. Of the female flight attendants who worked outside the home, 47 of 321 (15%) experienced a spontaneous abortion, compared with 6 of 73 (8%) who did not work outside the home during the pregnancy period (odds ratio [OR] = 1.91, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 0.78-4.66). Flight attendants who experienced a spontaneous abortion during their first pregnancy during the study period reported working significantly more flight hours per month during their pregnancy (74 hours per month) than did flight attendants who delivered a live birth (64 hours per month) (Student's t = -3.30, P = 0.002). We conclude that although the results of this study must be considered preliminary because of the relatively low overall response rate (38%), we did not find an overall increased risk for spontaneous abortion among flight attendants, compared with other working women (10%-20%). Women who continue working as flight attendants during pregnancy and those who work relatively higher numbers of flight hours during pregnancy may, however, be at increased risk for spontaneous abortion, compared with flight attendants who do not perform such work. PMID:9531091

  16. A survey of medical students attending an international ?student conference

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Mamo; Chantal Fenech

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the lifestyle choices of international medical students attending a ?student conference. ?Study Design: Questionnaire-based census study.?Methods: A pre-tested structured questionnaire was given to the 481 delegates attending an ?international medical student conference in 2009 in Macedonia. The respondents were asked ?questions on their demographics, physical activity, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, sexual ?activity and nutritional intake. The results...

  17. School attendance and child labor: A model of collective behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This paper theoretically investigates how community approval or disapproval affects school attendance and child labor and how aggregate behavior of the community feeds back towards the formation and persistence of an anti- (or pro-) schooling norm. The proposed community-model continues to take aggregate and idiosyncratic poverty into account as an important driver of low school attendance and child labor. But it provides also an explanation for why equally poor villages or regions can displa...

  18. Systematization of Angra-1 operation attendance - Maintenance and periodic testings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A maintenance analysis, their types and their functions for the safety of nuclear power plants is done. Programs and present trends in the reactor maintenance, as well as the maintenance program and periodic tests of Angra I, are analysed. The necessities of safety analysis and a systematization for maintenance attendance are discussed and the periodic testing as well as the attendance of international experience. (M.C.K.)

  19. 47 CFR 74.482 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Station identification. 74...CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL...Remote Pickup Broadcast Stations § 74.482 Station...remote pickup broadcast base or mobile station...

  20. REAL TIME FACE RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR TIME AND ATTENDANCE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    APARNA BEHARA, M.V. RAGHUNADH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available — In this paper, we have proposed an automated Face Recognition System for Time and Attendance application. The model is developed with the help of real time OpenCV library The proposed system comprised of using the Viola Jones algorithm for detecting the human faces and then the detected face is resized to the required size, this resized face is further processed by using linear stretch contrast enhancement and finally it is recognized using a simple PCA / LDA. Once recognition is done, automatically attendance will be updated in an Excel Sheet along with his name, date and time. An html file is automatically updated by our system so that a remote authenticated user can access the attendance file .Our system is integrated to an Automatic Attendance Management System, with the help of which some post attendance works like stipend amount calculation, viewing attendance report for the required date, calculating the number of hours a person is present in the class, searching for a required person in the classroom etc. Spoofing which is a major threat for our system can be avoided using Eye Blink Detector algorithm. Our system can automatically update the Database for the newly enrolled persons. The proposed system can execute the instructions given orally to it (eliminating the need of a mouse interface and can speak back to us.

  1. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder causes the AUV to rise, and emptying of the bladder allows the AUV to descend. This type of direct buoyancy control is much more energy efficient than using electrical pumps in that the inefficiencies of converting thermal energy to electrical energy to mechanical energy is avoided. AUV charging stations have been developed that use electricity produced by waves on floating buoys and that use electricity from solar photovoltaics on floating buoys. This is the first device that has absolutely no floating or visible parts, and is thus impervious to storms, inadvertent ocean vessel collisions, or enemy sabotage.

  2. Radon and Thoron Measured in Petrol and Gas-oil Exhaust Fumes by Using CR-39 and LR-115 II Nuclear Track Detectors: Radiation Doses to the Respiratory Tract of Mechanic Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdaq, M A; Chaouqi, A; Ouguidi, J; Touti, R; Mortassim, A

    2015-06-01

    Mechanic workers are exposed to exhaust fumes when controlling vehicle engines in motion inside repair shops. To assess radiation doses due to radon short-lived progeny from the inhalation of exhaust fumes by mechanic workers, concentrations of these radionuclides were measured in petrol (gasoline) and gas-oil exhaust fumes by evaluating mean critical angles of etching of the CR-39 and LR-115 type II SSNTDs for alpha particles emitted by the radon and thoron decay series. Committed effective doses due to Po and Po short-lived radon decay products from the inhalation of petrol and gas-oil exhaust fumes by workers were evaluated. A maximum value of 1.35 mSv y due to radon short-lived decay products from the inhalation of gas-oil exhaust fumes by mechanic workers was found, which is lower than the (3-10 mSv y) dose limit interval for workers. PMID:25905520

  3. Improving attendance for breast screening among recent non-attenders: a randomised controlled trial of two interventions in primary care.

    OpenAIRE

    Bankhead, C.; Richards, Sh; Peters, Tj; Sharp, Dj; Hobbs, Fd; Brown, J.; Roberts, L.; Tydeman, C.; Redman, V.; Formby, J.; Wilson, S.; Austoker, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two primary care based interventions aimed at increasing breast screening uptake for women who had recently failed to attend. SETTING: 13 General practices with low uptake in the second round of breast screening (below 60%) in north west London and the West Midlands, United Kingdom. Participants were women in these practices who were recent non-attenders for breast screening in the third round. METHODS: Pragmatic factorial ran...

  4. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  5. Cabin attendants’ exposure to vibration and shocks during landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burström, Lage; Lindberg, Lennart; Lindgren, Torsten

    2006-12-01

    The Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) has noted that cabin attendants have reported an increase in health problems associated with landing. The European Union reports cover health problems related to neck, shoulder, and lower-back injuries. Moreover, analysis of these reports shows that the problems are often associated with specific airplanes that have a longer tail behind the rear wheels and appear more often in attendants who sit in the back of planes rather then the front. Against this background, this study measures and describes the vibration during landing in specific airplanes to evaluate the health risk for the cabin attendants. Measurements were conducted on regular flights with passengers in the type of airplane, Boeing 737-800, which was related to the highest per cent of reported health problems. All measurements were performed the same day during three landings in one airplane with the same pilots and cabin attendants. The measurements were carried out simultaneously on the cabin crew seats in the back and front of the passenger cabin. Under the cabin crew's seat cushions, a triaxiell seat-accelerometer was placed to measure the vibration in three axes. The signals from the accelerometers were amplified by charge amplifiers and stored on tape. The stored data were analysed with a computer-based analyse system. For the cabin attendants, the dominant direction for the vibration load during landing is the up-and-down direction although some vibration also occurs in the other horizontal directions. The exposure to vibration is higher on the rear crew seat compared to the front seat. For instance, both the vibration dose value (VDV) and the frequency-weighted acceleration in the dominant direction are more then 50% higher on the rear seat. The frequency-weighted acceleration and the VDV measured at the crew seats are below the exposure limits as described by the European vibration directive. The evaluation of the cabin attendants' exposure to multiple shocks during landing shows that the potential of an adverse health effect for the cabin attendants is low in the front of the airplane and increases to moderate in the rear. Although this is a limited study, it could be conclude that there could be a risk for cabin attendants due to the exposure of multiple shocks. Therefore, efforts should be spent to minimize their risk by developing a better seat cushion and back support to lessen the effects of shocks. In addition, attendants should be informed about the most suitable posture to take during landing.

  6. Use of a combined personal computer and Rock-Eval in an integrated petroleum evaluation work station to estimate volumes of hydrocarbons generated and migrated in sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espitalie, J.; Lafargue, E.; Drouet, S. (Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison)

    1989-09-01

    A petroleum evaluation work station consisting in a modified Rock-Eval apparatus connected to an IBM personal computer has been designed at Institut Francais du petrole to estimate the amount of hydrocarbon generated and migrated in sedimentary basins. The work-station is provided with specific software for Rock-Eval data analysis, quick determination of kinetic parameters (Optim model), and quantitative hydrocarbon generation (Matoil model). Along with the classical Rock-Eval parameters (S{sub 0}, S{sub 1}, S{sub 2}, TOC, and T{sub max}), new parameters concerning the source rocks, such as the transformation efficiency ratio (TER), the migration efficiency ration (MER), and the initial generation capacity (IGC), are defined. These new parameters combined with geological data give access to a rapid volumetric estimation (in 10{sup 6}MT/km{sup 2}) of hydrocarbon generation and migration in the studied area. These data can be displayed on different specific maps for rapid visualization. This work station has been successfully used in the Paris and Aquitaine basins, making possible a better assessment of their petroleum potential. The petroleum evaluation work station appears to be a very valuable tool that can be used in the different phases of exploration in a sedimentary basin.

  7. Web-Server based Student Attendance System using RFIDTechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Mohammed#1 , Jyothi Kameswari U

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Most educational institutions’ administrators are concerned about student irregular attendance. Truancies can affect student overall academic performance. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure, hence inefficient. Therefore, computer based student attendance management system is required to assist the faculty and the lecturer for this time-provide much convenient method to take attendance, but some prerequisites has to be done before start using the program. Although the use of RFID systems in educational institutions is not new, it is intended to show how the use of it came to solve daily problems in our university. The system has been built using the web-based applications such as ASP.NET and IIS server to cater the recording and reporting of the students’ attendances The system can be easily accessed by the lecturers via the web and most importantly, the reports can be generated in real-time processing, thus, providing valuable information about the students’.

  8. The trend of the total stock of the private car-petrol in Spain: Stochastic modelling using a new gamma diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this study is to model the trend of the evolution of the total stock of private petrol-driven cars. In Spain, as in other EU countries, this trend between 2000 and 2005 differed significantly from that observed from 1986 to 1999. Moreover, it varies greatly from that corresponding to the stock of diesel-driven cars, which consistently presents an exponential Gompertz-type increase. Spain constitutes a typical example of a failure to observe the maximum CO2 emission levels assigned to it by 2012 under the Kyoto Protocol (1992); a significant percentage of these excess emissions is accounted for by the land transport sector, in general, and by the private cars subsector, in particular. This paper proposes a stochastic model based on a new non homogeneous stochastic gamma-type diffusion process which it is a stochastic version of a Gamma function type deterministic growth model considered in Skiadas . We describe its main probabilistic characteristics and establish a statistical methodology by which it can be fitted to real data and obtain medium-term forecasts that, in statistical terms, are quite accurate

  9. SMART Station Blackout Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima accident represents the latest fear of any nuclear industry whether established or just starting. Although it was a natural disaster, it must be assured that even under such circumstances, radioactive material is contained and release is avoided. Despite the possibility of radioactive release occurring over multiple consequences, such scenarios must be considered. The Fukushima scenario is considered in the SMART (System Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) design with the availability and loss of the Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS). Using the Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety (MARS) code, this paper presents the Fukushima scenario studies along with the calculated grace time as results. The results of SMART Station Black Out (SBO) analysis show grace time of almost two and a half days for the worst-case scenario

  10. Space Station power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rosemary; Lee, Henry

    The DC primary power requirements are presented for Space Station Freedom. The power conversion system used is a current-fed push-pull (CFPP) converter. Large signal, small signal, and closed-loop control, analysis of the CFPP converter is presented. Both PSPICE circuit simulation and MATLAB control loop simulation along with experimental results confirm theoretical work. A prototype unit has been developed by using specially designed power components, which exhibit power conversion efficiency of more than 92 percent. By using the state-space averaging method, the Buck-like canonical model of the DC-to-DC converter unit was derived. The peak-current programming control is employed to ensure the cycle-to-cycle correction of small distribution. In the controller design, the interactions among line filter, power stage, and output filter have been taken into account.

  11. Local control stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted

  12. Agricultural Experiment Stations and Branch Stations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Calvin H.; Atucha, Amaya

    2015-01-01

    In 1887, Congress passed the Hatch Act, which formally established and provided a funding mechanism for agricultural experiment stations in each state and territory in the United States. The main purpose of agricultural experiment stations is to conduct agricultural research to meet the needs of the citizens of the United States. The objective of…

  13. On the Predictability of Talk Attendance at Academic Conferences

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Christoph; Atzmueller, Martin; Stumme, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the prediction of real-world talk attendances at academic conferences with respect to different influence factors. We study the predictability of talk attendances using real-world tracked face-to-face contacts. Furthermore, we investigate and discuss the predictive power of user interests extracted from the users' previous publications. We apply Hybrid Rooted PageRank, a state-of-the-art unsupervised machine learning method that combines information from different sources. Using this method, we analyze and discuss the predictive power of contact and interest networks separately and in combination. We find that contact and similarity networks achieve comparable results, and that combinations of different networks can only to a limited extend help to improve the prediction quality. For our experiments, we analyze the predictability of talk attendance at the ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia 2011 collected using the conference management system Conferator.

  14. Survivorship clinic group educational sessions: adoption, acceptance, and attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Alyse; Mihalis, Eva; Hamolsky, Debby; Ernest, Mary Lou; Lopez, Nancy Shepard; Hwang, Jimmy; Melisko, Michelle

    2013-03-01

    The number of breast cancer survivors now exceeds 2.5 million in the USA. In the near future, it is likely that existing systems will not be sufficient to provide follow-up care and services for all these patients. Because survivors have many concerns in common and providers may not have enough time to address them individually, group educational sessions (GES) provide an opportunity to inform patients of current breast cancer-related health issues, treatment updates, and follow-up guidelines in an efficient and structured environment. At the University of California San Francisco Breast Care Center, we implemented a GES for patients referred into the Survivorship Clinic. To improve content and convenience, patients were asked at the end of each session to complete a survey measuring their satisfaction with the GES. Clinic staff tracked GES attendance, reasons for declining participation in the GES, and utilization of the Survivorship Clinic for follow-up care. Of the 381 patients referred to the Survivorship Clinic, 177 patients have attended the GES, and 204 ultimately have not attended the GES. Eighty four of the 177 patients who attended completed a survey at the end of the GES. Ninety-five percent of these patients agreed or somewhat agreed that the information presented was clear and understandable. Eighty-five percent of patients agreed or somewhat agreed that they learned about resources for recovery. Utilization of follow-up appointments within the Survivorship Clinic was significantly higher among those who attended the GES compared to those who did not attend. Overall, the GES allows for efficient patient education, and evaluation of the GES leads to new innovations to improve survivorship care. PMID:23355280

  15. Student and Teacher Attendance: The Role of Shared Goods in Reducing Absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; King, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical model is advanced that demonstrates that, if teacher and student attendance generate a shared good, then teacher and student attendance will be mutually reinforcing. Using data from the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan, empirical evidence supporting that proposition is advanced. Controlling for the endogeneity of teacher and student attendance, the most powerful factor raising teacher attendance is the attendance of the children in the school, and the most important factor influencing child attendance is the presence of the teacher. The results suggest that one important avenue to be explored in developing policies to reduce teacher absenteeism is to focus on raising the attendance of children.

  16. Child Labour or School Attendance? Evidence from Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia. Since the data come from a household survey with information on all household members, it allows us to take account of unobserved household effects by introducing household specific effects in a logit model. The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away from school.

  17. RF-Station control crate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives a description of the electronic control-system for the RF-station of AmPS. The electronics form the connection between the computer-system and the hardware of the RF-station. Only the elements of the systems which are not described in the other NIKHEF-reports are here discussed in detail. (author). 7 figs

  18. Space Stations: Bones of Contention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Diane Byerly

    2006-01-01

    In this activity, learners make models representing bones on Earth and bones that have been in space. They discover what happens to bones without proper exercise and nutrition. This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners explore how space affects the human body and why.

  19. Balloon launching station, Mildura, Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mildura Balloon Launching Station was established in 1960 by the Department of Supply (now the Department of Manufacturing Industry) on behalf of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) to determine the content of radioactive material in the upper atmosphere over Australia. The Station location and layout, staffing, balloon launching equipment, launching, tracking and recovery are described. (R.L.)

  20. Patterns of Attendance of Children Under 12 Years at School Dental Service in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Spl; Baros, H.; O’grady, Mj; Kendall, Ge; Messer, Lb; Slack-smith, Lm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of attendance at School Dental Service (SDS) and reasons for attendance (treatment or prevention) for children in the Perth Metropolitan Area, in particular investigating the first year of SDS attendance and attendance until the year the child turned 12. The first 150 SDS records located for children from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were used for this study. Patterns of attendance of children at SDS were described...

  1. Shippingport station communications program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project, the central idea of the communications program that was developed for use was purposely designed to be as uncomplicated as possible. The central theme, that was developed and communicated, is that all nuclear plants will someday need to be retired and also decommissioned. The Shippingport Plant, originally constructed as a demonstration nuclear power plant, was now being decommissioned as a demonstration to the world-wide nuclear industry that this evolution can be done in a safe and cost-effective manner. Furthermore, the technology currently exists to complete this process. The new phase of the communications program was initiated even before the responsibility for the plant was transferred from Duquesne Light to GE. With such a change forthcoming, it was necessary to inform local officials of these plans, and the reasons for them. Equally important was the need to inform a variety of agencies and offices in the three-state area of the changes, and the continuing need to involve them in the Site Emergency Plan. This document was also revised in recognition of changing site conditions, as well as the changes in responsibility. 1 ref

  2. Space Station: Orbiter berthing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapar, J.; Lin, Y. C.; Kilby, M.

    1992-01-01

    The berthing/docking maneuver is important for the construction and assembly of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). Berthing has a direct effect on the SSF assembly build up and SSF/Orbiter operations. The dynamics associated with the berthing activities potentially large impacts on the elements ans systems (both the Orbiter and SSF) throughout the assembly sequence. These dynamics will play a major role in the development of operational requirements that need to be identified and validated in order to assure total safety and maneuver execution during the SSF construction. The berthing/docking task will consider those assembly flights where the SSF has the control authority for the combined stack (currently MB-5) and beyond. The purpose of this task is to analyze the effects of berthing dynamics and their impacts on the maneuver and operational requirements. The task objectives are the following: (1) to develop the necessary analytical tool(s) and skills that will enable the verification and certification of berthing/docking for each assembly flight; (2) to perform detailed analyses of the berthing/docking maneuvers during the SSF assembly buildup in order to verify the viability of such maneuvers; and (3) to develop the operational requirements that affect such maneuvers and establish the operational boundaries and envelops for berthing/docking during assembly and mature operations. Various topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: analysis tools and capabilities; analysis results; and ongoing work.

  3. Space station impact experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four processes serve to illustrate potential areas of study and their implications for general problems in planetary science. First, accretional processes reflect the success of collisional aggregation over collisional destruction during the early history of the solar system. Second, both catastrophic and less severe effects of impacts on planetary bodies survivng from the time of the early solar system may be expressed by asteroid/planetary spin rates, spin orientations, asteroid size distributions, and perhaps the origin of the Moon. Third, the surfaces of planetary bodies directly record the effects of impacts in the form of craters; these records have wide-ranging implications. Fourth, regoliths evolution of asteroidal surfaces is a consequence of cumulative impacts, but the absence of a significant gravity term may profoundly affect the retention of shocked fractions and agglutinate build-up, thereby biasing the correct interpretations of spectral reflectance data. An impact facility on the Space Station would provide the controlled conditions necessary to explore such processes either through direct simulation of conditions or indirect simulation of certain parameters

  4. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  5. Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 3: Space Station Habitability and Function: Architectural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc M. (editor); Eichold, Alice (editor); Heers, Susan (editor)

    1987-01-01

    Articles are presented on a space station architectural elements model study, space station group activities habitability module study, full-scale architectural simulation techniques for space stations, and social factors in space station interiors.

  6. Introverts' and Extraverts' Responses to Nonverbal Attending Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genthner, Robert W.; Moughan, James

    1977-01-01

    The different responses of introverts and extraverts to two types of helper nonverbal attending were examined. Subjects were 26 introverts and 26 extraverts, as defined by Eysenck and Eysenck's questionnaire. Introverts rated the listener higher than did extraverts, independent of his posture. (Author)

  7. ATTEND: Toward a Mindfulness-Based Bereavement Care Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Joanne; Flint, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Few, if any, mindfulness-based bereavement care models exist. The ATTEND (attunement, trust, touch, egalitarianism, nuance, and death education) model is an interdisciplinary paradigm for providers, including physicians, social workers, therapists, nursing staff, and others. Using a case example to enhance the breadth and depth of understanding,…

  8. Reducing Attendance Time in LR-EPONs With Differentiated Services

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr

    2015-04-09

    This work presents a novel on-the-fly void filling scheme for Long-Reach EPON called Size Controlled Batch Void Filling (SCBVF). SCBVF aims at reducing the time between consecutive bandwidth grants (attendance time) and hence reducing the average delay for delay-sensitive traffic.

  9. Automation of Attendance Posting System Using Messaging Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.P.Kalyanaraman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research highlights a new model of Attendance Posting System through mobile phones using SMS feature. The proposed system eliminates all kinds of paper work involved in traditional attendance system. This is a one step process, which eliminates redundant data and efforts. The proposed system can also be programmed to send attendance reports in the form of short messages to parents and students regularly. In the proposed system, a user is given an application which, as a prerequisite has to be populated with student’s data. The user needs to authenticate him/her self using a username and password. The application has a simple user interface displaying a list of students’ names and their register numbers. The user marks the presence of a student using a check box. The marked attendance is converted to a predefined report format and is then sent to a server in the form of a SMS. The SMS is the analysed at the server side and is updated to the respective students’ ERP accounts. This system does not require a third party provider like SMS Gateway Hardware or a Commercial SMS application developer. This system can be further extended as an application that can be implemented in any educational institution.

  10. Associations between Reasons to Attend and Late High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Beau; Abar, Caitlin C.; Lippold, Melissa; Powers, Christopher J.; Manning, Alice E.

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed (1) whether there were unique profiles of student self-reported reasons for attending school among 10th graders, (2) whether these profiles were differentially associated with late high-school dropout, and (3) whether parent characteristics differed across profiles. Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (N…

  11. A Theory of Attending and Reinforcement in Conditional Discriminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, John A.; Davison, Michael; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2005-01-01

    A model of conditional discrimination performance (Davison & Nevin, 1999) is combined with the notion that unmeasured attending to the sample and comparison stimuli, in the steady state and during disruption, depends on reinforcement in the same way as predicted for overt free-operant responding by behavioral momentum theory (Nevin & Grace, 2000).…

  12. Movie Ratings and Their Effect on Movie Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bruce A.

    A study was conducted to examine how the motion picture Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating system (G-PG-R-X) affects movie attendance. The study also tested the validity of two behavioral theories: (1) reactance theory, which predicts that when a behavioral freedom is restricted or eliminated an individual is motivated to restore…

  13. Student Attendance and Mobility in Minneapolis Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Elizabeth; Kapp, Lucy; Snapp, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Describes how the Minneapolis Public Schools, Minnesota, identified system-wide standards and practices to help all students achieve the goal of 95 percent attendance, an especially difficult goal for highly mobile students. The Kids Mobility Study in Minneapolis documents the connection between residential mobility and student achievement and…

  14. Psychiatric Resident and Attending Diagnostic and Prescribing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Adam C.; Schwartz, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates whether two patient population groups, under resident or attending treatment, are equivalent or different in the distribution of patient characteristics, diagnoses, or pharmacotherapy. Methods: Demographic data, psychiatric diagnoses, and pharmacotherapy data were collected for 100 random patient charts of…

  15. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...spacecraft's end of life, by depleting residual...A statement that the space station licensee has assessed...disposal plans for the space station at end of life, including the quantity of...geostationary-Earth orbit space stations, the...

  16. 47 CFR 90.647 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Station identification. ...SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations...Bands § 90.647 Station identification. ...the call sign of the base station facility...

  17. 47 CFR 90.735 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Station identification. ...SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations...Band § 90.735 Station identification. ...the call sign of the base station at 30...

  18. 78 FR 21275 - Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ...Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...station blackout mitigation strategies. Appendix A of the draft...http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html. To begin...station blackout mitigation strategies, the NRC is making...

  19. 46 CFR 185.514 - Station bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station bill. 185.514 Section 185.514 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.514 Station bill. (a) A station...

  20. Controversial power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When information on plans to build a power station in Trebisov first appeared reactions differed. A 40-billion investment in a town with more than 20% unemployment seemed attractive. But some people did not like the idea of having a power plant located in the town. Around one year after the investment was officially announced TREND returned to Trebisov. In the meantime the investor has managed to overcome one of the biggest obstacles on its way to building a new power plant. The ministry responsible gave the environmental study a positive rating. But objectors are still not sure that everything is fine. They claim that the study misinterprets data and that the ministry did not show expertise when evaluating it. 'Is it possible that a coal power plant located in a town would have twice as many positive effects on peoples' health than negative ones? Why don't we build them everywhere?'asked the chairman of the civic society, Trebisov nahlas, Gejza Gore. The developer of the project, Ceskoslovenska energeticka spolocnost (CES), Kosice is fighting back and claims that their counterpart lacks professional arguments. In the meantime it is preparing for area management proceedings. Trebisov is also involved in the discussion and claims that the town planning scheme does not include such a project. The Ministry of Construction has a different opinion. In the opinion of the Ministry the town planning scheme allows a 885-megawatt power plant to be built only a few hundred meterplant to be built only a few hundred meters away from housing estates. (author)

  1. Space station neutral external environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  2. Detection of Rogue Base Station Using MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhwinder Singh; Ramanpreet Singh

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of detectingrogue base station in WiMAX/802.16 networks. A roguebase station is an attacker station that duplicates a legitimatebase station. The rogue base station puzzles a set ofsubscribers who try to get service which they believe to be alegitimate base station. It may lead to disturbance in service.The strategy of attack depends on the type of network. Ourapproach is based on the inconsistencies in sensitivity andreceived signal strength (RSS) reports rec...

  3. Korea Geodetic VLBI Station, Sejong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donghyun, Baek; Sangoh, Yi; Hongjong, Oh; Sangchul, Han

    2013-01-01

    The Sejong VLBI station officially joined the IVS as a new Network Station in 2012. This report summarizes the activities of the Sejong station during 2012. The following are the activities at the station: 1) VLBI test observations were carried out with the Tsukuba 34-m antenna of the GSI in Japan. As a result, the Sejong antenna needs to improve its efficiency, which is currently in progress, 2) A survey to connect the VLBI reference point to GNSS and ground marks was conducted, and 3) To see the indirect effects of RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) at this place, we checked the omni-direction (AZ 0? to 360?, EL fixed at 7?) for RFI influence.

  4. Gravity Station Data for Spain

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  5. Gravity Station Data for Portugal

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 3064 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  6. Laki?j? organini? jungini? tyrimas nuo benzino degalini?

    OpenAIRE

    Bikbajeva, Z?ana

    2008-01-01

    The research focuses on the environmental problem of volatile organic compounds in ambient air of petrol filling stations. The literature review of the issues, arising from petrol-related VOCs, with actual and proposed VOC emissions trends in Europe, have been performed. Besides petrol filling station’s typical technology layout, petrol nature and composition, applicable petrol vapour recovery solutions and their efficiency were examinated. The volatile organic compounds’ experimental res...

  7. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  8. Minimizing Base Station Power Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Holtkamp, Hauke; Auer, Gunther; Bazzi, Samer; Haas, Harald

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new radio resource management algorithm which aims at minimizing the base station supply power consumption for multi-user MIMO-OFDM. Given a base station power model that establishes a relation between the RF transmit power and the supply power consumption, the algorithm optimizes the trade-off between three basic power-saving mechanisms: antenna adaptation, power control and discontinuous transmission. The algorithm comprises two steps: a) the first step estima...

  9. Internationalization of the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottmann, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

  10. An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Gizir Ergen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999 was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05.

  11. Explanations of changes in church attendance between 1970 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ingen, Erik; Moor, Nienke

    2015-07-01

    We deduce hypotheses from theories on religious change to explain changes in church attendance rates. Using a new dataset with 51 countries across a long period we apply panel regression models, which enable us to test well-known theories in a more strict and dynamic fashion than do cross-sectional studies. Our results provide new evidence for a few old ideas, but also show striking lack of evidence for ideas that appear well-accepted. Tertiary education proved to be a strong predictor of changes in church attendance. Theories about individualization were also supported. The evidence of existential insecurity as a cause of change was ambiguous: economic development and life expectancy showed significant effects but income inequality did not. We found no support for theories on social globalization and social benefit policy. Finally, we found that income inequality and urbanization were driving forces of change during the 70s and 80s, but not since 1990. PMID:26004480

  12. TEACHING, COEXISTENCE AND ATTENDANCE AT A TECHNOLOGICAL HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Carranza-Peña

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, which stems from ethnographic research, shows the importance of faculty intervention in the classroom setting in encouraging student attendance. Our findings indicate that the habitus the educator establishes can either encourage youth to continue their studies, or lead them to drop out, thus placing them at risk of addictions, illegal activities, unemployment or low-paid jobs. The Pedagogy of Hope therefore provides an option for effecting large-scale changes in personal, school, family, community and socio-economic conditions. The paper’s conclusions include providing training to teaching faculties on coexistence issues; ensuring coordination between school and family, and emphasizing an integral approach to education as means of promoting school attendance.

  13. Towards sustainable regions: the spatial distribution of electric vehicles’ recharging stations from a socio-economic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2015-01-01

    The last decades have witnessed a growing interest in electric vehicles (EV) as an integral part of the vision for sustainable regions. The main reasons include the acknowledgment of the necessity of auto-mobility, the technological advancements of electric vehicles, and the interest in petrol-free, low-emission vehicles due to the rising oil prices and global warming. Adequate on-road EV recharging infrastructure is essential in the transformation of EV into a practical transport option and the wide-scale market penetration of EV. Nevertheless, the efficient spatial distribution of EV recharging is rarely explored. current study focuses on assessing the demand driven need for on-road EV recharging stations, and finding their efficient spatial distribution, while accounting for economic, social, environmental and land-use considerations. The analysis, conducted for Demark, consists of four steps. Firstly, the demand for on-road recharging of EV’s based on the national travel demand patterns is evaluated, while considering the existence of a city-wide slow recharging network. Secondly, the Edison model for the optimal deployment of EV recharging stations is applied. The model evaluates the need for recharging at the vehicle level, and seeks the optimal deployment of recharging stations on the basis of the distribution of the potential recharging points and the inventory of candidate sites. Thirdly, the EV market share is evaluated as a function of the number of EV recharging stations by employing a discrete choice model, estimated on the basis of a stated preference survey. Last, the feasibility of the optimal EV spatial distribution of the EV charging stations is analyzed, based on the Danish official socio-economic framework (TERESA). Results show: (i) the number of required recharging stations for satisfying the travel demand, (ii) the optimal deployment of recharging stations, (iii) the change in travel patterns due to detours for EV recharging, (iv) the feasibility of the proposed infrastructure while considering economic costs and benefits for operators and users, impact on government budget as well as environmental externalities, namely pollutant emissions, carbon footprint, and noise exposure. The results demonstrate the applicability and feasibility of the proposed method for planning an EV recharging network in sustainable regions.

  14. Women attending an accident and emergency department after assaults.

    OpenAIRE

    Makower, R M; Pennycook, A G; CRAWFORD, R

    1995-01-01

    Assaults on women are a distressing aspect of A&E work. In a combined prospective and retrospective study, covering a 6-month period, 282 female victims were identified (0.75% of attendances). Although most of the injuries were relatively minor the recording of historical and social factors was poor. Attempted follow up for counselling and support proved ineffective. Better education of the doctors regarding the documentation for such patients, assessment of the social dimensions of their nee...

  15. Consequences of Magnocellular Dysfunction on Processing Attended Information in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Marti?nez, Anti?gona; Hillyard, Steven A.; Bickel, Stephan; Dias, Elisa C.; Butler, Pamela D.; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with perceptual and cognitive dysfunction including impairments in visual attention. These impairments may be related to deficits in early stages of sensory/perceptual processing, particularly within the magnocellular/dorsal visual pathway. In the present study, subjects viewed high and low spatial frequency (SF) gratings designed to test functioning of the parvocellular/magnocellular pathways, respectively. Schizophrenia patients and healthy controls attended to e...

  16. Motivation for and Benefits from Attending the AP Statistics Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Jacobbe; Hartlaub, Bradley A.; Douglas Whitaker

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the Advanced Placement® Statistics reading as a source of professional development for teachers. The study was conducted to capture the motivation for and benefits from attending the collective grading. Research has shown that examining student work during professional development has implications for teaching. The premise of this study is that Advanced Placement readings are a context for examining the impact of collective grading of student work. The purpose of the stud...

  17. Flight attendants and the sociology of emotions: Hochschild's Managed Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, Cas

    1989-01-01

    In this review article the author will attempt to contribute to the sociology of emotions by comparing Hochschild’s theoretical approach with that of Figurational or Process Sociology, and by comparing the results of her study of flight attendants in the USA with the data the author gathered in a small similar study in the Netherlands. In such a theoretical and empirical comparison the outlines of a sociology of emotions may become sharper

  18. An Efficient Automatic Attendance System Using Fingerprint Reconstruction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josphineleela. R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric time and attendance system is one of the most successful applications of biometric technology. One of the main advantage of a biometric time and attendance system is it avoids "buddy-punching". Buddy punching was a major loophole which will be exploiting in the traditional time attendance systems. Fingerprint recognition is an established field today, but still identifying individual from a set of enrolled fingerprints is a time taking process. Most fingerprint-based biometric systems store the minutiae template of a user in the database. It has been traditionally assumed that the minutiae template of a user does not reveal any information about the original fingerprint. This belief has now been shown to be false; several algorithms have been proposed that can reconstruct fingerprint images from minutiae templates. In this paper, a novel fingerprint reconstruction algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the phase image, which is then converted into the grayscale image. The proposed reconstruction algorithm reconstructs the phase image from minutiae. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is used to automate the whole process of taking attendance, manually which is a laborious and troublesome work and waste a lot of time, with its managing and maintaining the records for a period of time is also a burdensome task. The proposed reconstruction algorithm has been evaluated with respect to the success rates of type-I attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint against the original fingerprint and type-II attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint against different impressions of the original fingerprint using a commercial fingerprint recognition system. Given the reconstructed image from our algorithm, we show that both types of attacks can be effectively launched against a fingerprint recognition system.

  19. Child psychiatric disorders among primary mental health service attenders.

    OpenAIRE

    Arcelus, Jon; Vostanis, Panos

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the range of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric comorbidity among children and adolescents attending a primary mental health service (PMHS). The main psychiatric diagnostic categories were: oppositional defiant disorders (ODDs) (75.3%), anxiety disorders (36.1%), mood disorders (35.1%), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHDs) (28.9%). The study found high rates (61.8%) of psychiatric comorbidity. It concludes that training in the recogni...

  20. Interdependence between sexual debut and church attendance in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Rosina; Gianpiero Dalla Zuanna; Marcantonio Caltabiano

    2006-01-01

    The influence of religion on an individual's life-course in general - and on sexual behaviour in particular - has long been recognised by social scientists, although few studies have explored the reciprocal causal interdependence between religiosity and sexual debut, mainly in an overwhelmingly Catholic European context. In this paper, we study the dynamic bi-directional effect between first coital experience and discontinuance of church attendance among a representative sample of Italian s...

  1. Epidemiology of endometriosis in women attending family planning clinics.

    OpenAIRE

    Vessey, M. P.; Villard-Mackintosh, L; PAINTER, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe the epidemiology of endometriosis in women attending family planning clinics with special reference to contraceptive methods. DESIGN--Non-randomised cohort study with follow up of subjects for up to 23 years. Disease was measured by first hospital admission rates since endometriosis can be diagnosed with accuracy only at laparotomy or laparoscopy. SETTING--17 family planning centres in England and Scotland. SUBJECTS--17,032 married white women aged 25-39 years at entry ...

  2. Obstetric complications: does training traditional birth attendants make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Patricia E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effect that a training intervention for traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Guatemala had on the detection of obstetric complications, the referral of patients with complications to the formal health care system, and, ultimately, those patients' utilization of essential obstetric care services. Methods. Using a quasi-experimental design, a surveillance system of births was implemented to collect population-based information from 3 518 women between 1990 and 1993. All women were interviewed postpartum by physicians. There were three key independent variables in our study: 1 geographical area (intervention community and non-intervention community, 2 time in relation to the training intervention (before or after, and 3 presence or absence of a TBA at the time of the complication. The key dependent variables for women interviewed were 1 development of an obstetric complication, 2 detection of the problem by the TBA, 3 referral to a health facility, 4 compliance with referral, and 5 use of services. Results. The incidence of postpartum complications decreased after the intervention, controlling for intervention community. On the other hand, after the intervention TBAs were less likely to recognize most maternal complications, and referral rates did not increase significantly. The likelihood of using health care services increased six-fold among women who were not attended by TBAs, and no increase was observed among those who were attended by TBAs. Conclusion. Training TBAs may have had a positive effect on the rate, detection, and referral of postpartum complications. However, the evidence is less convincing for overall increases in the detection of complications, in referral to the formal health care system, and in the utilization of essential obstetric services among women attended by TBAs.

  3. The Miksova water power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This leaflet describes the Miksova water power station. The Miksova water power station is part of the second derived cascade of hydro power stations on the river Vah. It was built at the end of a huge development in Slovak hydro-energy in the late 1950's and the beginning of the 1960's. It is the second water power station on this derived cascade, which is situated downstream the Hricov reservoir and water power station. At the power station, three turbine sets with vertical Kaplan turbines are installed with a total power output of 3 x 31.2 = 93.6 MW. With this power output the Miksova water power station (Miksova I) was the biggest water power station in the Slovak Republic until the construction of Pumping water power station Liptovska Mara. And it is still the biggest channel water power station on the Vah so far. It was put into operation during the period 1963 to 1965. There are three turbine sets with Kaplan turbines from CKD Blansko, with a synchronous hydro-alternator installed in the power station. Their installed capacity is 93.6 MW in total and the projected annual production of electrical energy is 207 GWh. The turbines are fi ve-bladed (on the Hricov and Povazska Bystrica water power stations they are four-bladed) and the impeller wheel has a diameter of 4800 mm. They are designed for extension of the head from 24.1 to 22.21 m and each of them has an absorption capacity of 134 m3.s-1 nd a nominal operating speed of 2.08 m3.s-1, runaway speed 4.9 m3.s-1. Each synchronous hydro-alternator has a maximum power output of 31.2 MW, a nominal voltage of 10.5 kV and power factor cos ? of 0.8. Power from the power station is led out through 110 kV switchgear. The water power station operates under automatic turbine mode of operation with remote indication and control from the Dispatch Centre at Vodne elektrarne, in Trencin. From start of operation until the end of 2003 all three turbine sets operated for a total of 450,500 running hours and the Miksova water power station produced total of about 7,161,342 MWh of electricity in its 40 years of activity. According to its functionality, the Miksova pumped storage station (Miksova II) the upper reservoir of which was built from 1963 to 1966 on the Benovsky stream, was an interesting hydro-energy construction. The lower reservoir was formed by the enlarged discharge channel of the Miksova water power station. This power station was a pilot project, at which pumping reversible turbines and other mechanical-technical equipment for hydro power stations were tested, especially for the future construction of PVE Ruzin and Liptovska Mara. A turbine set with a diagonal reversible turbine and an installed capacity of 2.6 MW, which had an operational capacity of 11.2 m3.s-1 in a turbine mode of operation and using a head of 22 to 28 m, was installed in the machine room. It pumped 8.8 m3.s-1 of water with a power input of 3.1 MW in a pumping mode of operation. During the period of its operation from 1971 to 1984, pumping hydro power station Miksova II produced a total of 13,042 MWh of electricity in total, but by testing reversible turbines and the simulation of some special hydraulic phenomena, this power station lost its importance as low-efficiency source, stopped working and its technological equipment was demounted. Experiences from its construction and from its few years of operation were later used during the construction of our pumping hydro power stations. Prolonging its operating period should help with the installation of a bigger basin on the inflow, from which a greater amount of water could be used for the generation of electrical power in turbine mode of operation

  4. Consequences of magnocellular dysfunction on processing attended information in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Antígona; Hillyard, Steven A; Bickel, Stephan; Dias, Elisa C; Butler, Pamela D; Javitt, Daniel C

    2012-06-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with perceptual and cognitive dysfunction including impairments in visual attention. These impairments may be related to deficits in early stages of sensory/perceptual processing, particularly within the magnocellular/dorsal visual pathway. In the present study, subjects viewed high and low spatial frequency (SF) gratings designed to test functioning of the parvocellular/magnocellular pathways, respectively. Schizophrenia patients and healthy controls attended to either the low SF (magnocellularly biased) or high SF (parvocellularly biased) gratings. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and recordings of event-related potentials (ERPs) were carried out during task performance. Patients were impaired at detecting low-frequency targets. ERP amplitudes to low-frequency gratings were diminished, both for the early sensory-evoked components and for the attend minus unattend difference component (the selection negativity), which is regarded as a neural index of feature-selective attention. Similarly, fMRI revealed that activity in extrastriate visual cortex was reduced in patients during attention to low, but not high, SF. In contrast, activity in frontal and parietal areas, previously implicated in the control of attention, did not differ between patients and controls. These findings suggest that impaired sensory processing of magnocellularly biased stimuli lead to impairments in the effective processing of attended stimuli, even when the attention control systems themselves are intact. PMID:21840846

  5. 28 CFR 92.6 - What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police...Criteria § 92.6 What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police...an “institution of higher education” means an...

  6. 77 FR 26537 - Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Leadership Development Program Graduation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ...Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Leadership Development Program Graduation/Induction...Commission and/or Commission staff may attend the following event: FERC Leadership Development Program...

  7. 14 CFR 135.341 - Pilot and flight attendant crewmember training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...and flight attendant crewmember training programs. 135.341 Section 135...flight attendant crewmember training programs. (a) Each certificate...and maintain an approved pilot training program, and each certificate...

  8. 77 FR 11532 - Notice of Attendance at ISO New England and NEPOOL Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ...Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Attendance at ISO New England and NEPOOL Meetings The Federal Energy...Commission and Commission staff may attend upcoming ISO New England Inc. (ISO-NE) and New England Power Pool (NEPOOL)...

  9. 47 CFR 97.201 - Auxiliary station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary station. 97.201 Section 97.201...SERVICE Special Operations § 97.201 Auxiliary station. (a) Any amateur station...Extra Class operator license may be an auxiliary station. A holder of a...

  10. Space Station Freedom as an engineering experiment station: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M. Frank

    In this presentation, the premise that Space Station Freedom has great utility as an engineering experiment station will be explored. There are several modes in which it can be used for this purpose. The most obvious are space qualification, process development, in space satellite repair, and materials engineering. The range of engineering experiments which can be done at Space Station Freedom run the gamut from small process oriented experiments to full exploratory development models. A sampling of typical engineering experiments are discussed in this session. First and foremost, Space Station Freedom is an elaborate experiment itself, which, if properly instrumented, will provide engineering guidelines for even larger structures which must surely be built if humankind is truly 'outward bound.' Secondly, there is the test, evaluation and space qualification of advanced electric thruster concepts, advanced power technology and protective coatings which must of necessity be tested in the vacuum of space. The current approach to testing these technologies is to do exhaustive laboratory simulation followed by shuttle or unmanned flights. Third, the advanced development models of life support systems intended for future space stations, manned mars missions, and lunar colonies can be tested for operation in a low gravity environment. Fourth, it will be necessary to develop new protective coatings, establish construction techniques, evaluate new materials to be used in the upgrading and repair of Space Station Freedom. Finally, the industrial sector, if it is ever to build facilities for the production of commercial products, must have all the engineering aspects of the process evaluated in space prior to a commitment to such a facility.

  11. Serpentes da Bacia petrolífera de Urucu, município de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil / Snakes of the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Lúcia da Costa, Prudente; Gleomar Fabiano, Maschio; Maria Cristina dos, Santos-Costa; Darlan Tavares, Feitosa.

    Full Text Available Um inventário estruturado de serpentes foi realizado na Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura (BOGPM), localizada na Bacia Petrolífera de Urucu, Município de Coari, Amazonas, nos anos de 2003, 2004 e 2007. Nas quatro expedições realizadas (51 dias de coleta) foram registradas 47 espécies de serpen [...] tes, pertencentes a sete famílias e 33 gêneros. Foram utilizados quatro métodos complementares de amostragem de serpentes: armadilha de interceptação e queda, encontros ocasionais, procura limitada por tempo a pé e procura limitada por tempo de carro. Das 47 espécies coletadas, Liophis reginae (n= 14), Philodryas viridissima (n= 9), Philodryas boulengeri (n= 7) e Oxybelis fulgidus (n= 7) foram as mais abundantes em toda região. O maior número de espécies e espécimes foi registrado pela procura limitada por tempo de carro (52,8%). Estudos anteriores indicam que as localidades ao sul do Rio Amazonas (como região Leste do Pará, Usina Hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, e de Samuel, Estado de Rondônia) apresentam maior riqueza quando comparadas às regiões ao norte do Amazonas (como Município de Manaus, Reserva do INPA-WWF e Usina Hidrelétrica de Balbina, Estado do Amazonas). Desta forma, é possível inferir que o levantamento das serpentes da região de Urucu ainda não esteja completo, sendo necessário um maior esforço de coleta para que novos registros sejam adicionados para a área. Abstract in english A structured snake inventory was carried out at the Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura (BOGPM), located at the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, during 2003, 2004 and 2007. Throughout four sampling expeditions (51 collection days), seven species of snakes, belonging to seven [...] families and 33 genera, were recorded. Four complementary sampling methods were used: pitfall traps with drift fence, occasional encounters, time-limited search on foot and time-limited search by car. Of the 47 collected species Liophis reginae (n= 14), Philodryas viridissima (n= 9), Philodryas boulengeri (n= 7) and Oxybelis fulgidus (n= 7) were the most abundant in the region. The highest number of species and specimens was obtained by the time-limited search by car (n=52.8%). Previous studies indicate that localities south of the Amazonas river (such as the eastern region of Pará and Tucuruí, state of Para, and Samuel Hydroelectric Plants, state of Rondônia) present a greater richness when compared to those north of the Amazonas river (such as the mucipality of Manaus, INPA-WWF Reserve and Balbina Hydroelectric Plant, state of Amazonas).Thus, it is possible to infer that the snake inventory in Urucu region is not yet complete, requiring more sampling efforts so that new records can be obtained for the area.

  12. Development of Attendance Database System Using Bar-coded Student Card

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Fadlil; Kartika Firdausy; Fauzi Hermawan

    2008-01-01

    The calculation of the level of attendance is very important, because one indicator of a person's credibility can be seen from the level of attendance. For example, at a university, data about the level of attendance of a student in a lecture is very important as one of components in the assessment. The manual presence system is considered less effective. This research presents the draft of presence system using bar codes (barcodes) as input data representing the attendance. The presence syst...

  13. Home Team Advantage in the NBA: The Effect of Fan Attendance on Performance

    OpenAIRE

    La, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Our study aims to estimate the effect of fan attendance on performance in the National Basketball Association (NBA). We use game day and adverse weather as instruments for attendance. Using two-stage least squares, we fail to find a statistically significant effect of attendance on overall game outcomes. However, again using two stage least squares, we do find a statistically significant effect on away team's free throw percentage. We find that an increase in percent attendance by 10 percenta...

  14. The Role of Attendance in Lecture Classes: You Can Lead a Horse to Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    A review of prior research on the role of attendance policies in large lecture classes (including psychology) is presented. This research showed that although students often did not attend class, various policies were effective in getting students to the classroom. Moreover, some research showed that an attendance policy did not lower instructor…

  15. Motivating Attendance in a First-Year Mathematics Course Using "House Cash"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellermeyer, S. F.; Leeds, E. M.; Banker, T. G.

    2011-01-01

    Poor class attendance is detrimental to student success. This is especially true in entry-level college mathematics courses, where habitual non-attendance can have lasting effects that greatly limit a student's options for continued academic success. The purpose of this study was to design an attendance incentive and to evaluate its impact on…

  16. College Student Attendance: Impact of Instructor Immediacy and Verbal Aggression. Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Kelly A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the attendance behaviors of undergraduate students. Much of the existing literature had focused on student variables in determining attendance in the classroom. In the present study, the focus was on students' perceptions of instructor behaviors instead. Students completed questionnaires and reported their own attendance in…

  17. What Is the Influence of a Compulsory Attendance Policy on Absenteeism and Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jason L.; Lee-Partridge, Joo Eng; Jarmoszko, A. Tomasz; Petkova, Olga; D'Onofrio, Marianne J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors utilized a quasiexperimental design across sections of managerial communication and management information systems classes (N = 212) to test the impact of compulsory attendance policies on student absenteeism and performance. Students in the compulsory attendance policy condition received an attendance policy that punished excessive…

  18. Reviewing nuclear power station achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For measurement of nuclear power station achievement against original purchase the usual gross output figures are of little value since the term loosely covers many different definitions. An authentically designed output figure has been established which relates to net design output plus house load at full load. Based on these figures both cumulative and moving annual load factors are measured, the latter measuring the achievement over the last year, thus showing trends with time. Calculations have been carried out for all nuclear stations in the Western World with 150 MW(e) gross design output and above. From these are shown: moving annual load factor indicating relative station achievements for all the plants; cumulative load factors from which return of investment can be calculated; average moving annual load factors for the four types of system Magnox, PWR, HWR, and BWR; and a relative comparison of achievement by country in a few cases. (U.K.)

  19. Space Station Photovoltaic power modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatro, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    Silicon cell Photovoltaic (PV) power modules are key components of the Space Station Electrical Power System (EPS) scheduled to begin deployment in 1994. Four PV power modules, providing 75 KWe of user ac power, form the cornerstone of the EPS; which is comprised of Photovoltaic (PV) power modules, Solar Dynamic (SD) power modules, and the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system. The PV modules are located on rotating outboard sections of the Space Station (SS) structure and each module incorporates its own nickel-hydrogen energy storage batteries, its own thermal control system, and some autonomous control features. The PV modules are a cost-effective and technologically mature approach for providing reliable SS electrical power and are a solid base for EPS growth, which is expected to reach 300 KWe by the end of the Space Station's 30-year design lifetime.

  20. 76 FR 22733 - Cable Statutory License: Specialty Station List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ...specialty station status of those television stations identified as such...operator may carry the signal of a television station classified as a specialty...a specialty station as ``a commercial television broadcast station that...

  1. Space Stations: Sponge Spool Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Diane Byerly

    2006-01-01

    In this activity, learners simulate what happens to a human spine in space by making Sponge Spool Spines (alternating sponge pieces and spools threaded on a pipe cleaner). This represents a human spine on Earth, with the discs (sponges) pressed between the spinal vertebrae (the wooden spools). Learners measure the spine length, dip it in a glass of water (simulating microgravity), and then re-measure the spine. They will find it has expanded, just like in space! This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners explore how space affects the human body and why.

  2. Space Station personal hygiene study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejean, Stephen E.; Booher, Cletis R.

    1986-01-01

    A personal hygiene system is currently under development for Space Station application that will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on earth. This paper addresses the study approach for specifying both primary and contingency personal hygiene systems and provisions for specified growth. Topics covered are system definition and subsystem descriptions. Subsystem interfaces are explored to determine which concurrent NASA study efforts must be monitored during future design phases to stay up-to-date on critical Space Station parameters. A design concept for a three (3) compartment personal hygiene facility is included as a baseline for planned test and verification activities.

  3. Business earth stations for telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Walter L.; Rouffet, Denis

    The current status of technology for small commercial satellite-communication earth stations is reviewed on the basis of an application study undertaken in the U.S. and Europe. Chapters are devoted to an overview of satellite communication networks, microterminal design and hardware implementation, microterminal applications, the advantages of microterminals, typical users, services provided, the U.S. market for small earth stations, network operators, and the economics of satellite and terrestrial communication services. Consideration is given to the operation of a microterminal network, standards and regulations, technological factors, space-segment requirements, and insurance aspects. Diagrams, graphs, tables of numerical data, and a glossary of terms are provided.

  4. 76 FR 26949 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...installation of an overhead flight attendant rest compartment. The applicable airworthiness...installing an overhead flight attendant rest (OFAR) compartment creates a...

  5. 76 FR 44246 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ...Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...installation of an overhead flight attendant rest compartment. The applicable airworthiness...installing an overhead flight attendant rest (OFAR) compartment creates a...

  6. Neuropathy in a petrol sniffer.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, D. M.; Ramsey, J.; Schwartz, M. S.; Dookun, D.

    1986-01-01

    A 4 year old boy developed a profound motor neuropathy after repeated deliberate inhalation of petroleum vapour. The condition was characterised by extreme slowing of the nerve conduction velocity. He made a gradual recovery over six months. The neuropathy was attributed to the N-hexane component of petroleum.

  7. Petroleum price; Prix du petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurice, J

    2001-07-01

    The oil market is the most volatile of all markets, with the exception of the Nasdaq. It is also the biggest commodity market in the world. Therefore one cannot avoid forecasting oil prices, nor can one expect to avoid the forecasting errors that have been made in the past. In his report, Joel Maurice draws a distinction between the short term and the medium-long term in analysing the outlook for oil prices. (author)

  8. Public outreach: Multitudes attend the Night of Science

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Night of Science, which took place in the parc de la Perle du Lac in Geneva last weekend, was a great success, with 30000 visitors attending according to the organisers. Many curious people flocked to the stands and animations until late on Saturday night and all afternoon on Sunday. The CERN stand (photo) received a great amount of interest from participants. Both kids and adults discovered the activities of the Laboratory and the data-processing revolution initiated by CERN, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Hats off to the CERN collaborators in the Communication Group and IT Department who made this event a success.

  9. Attendances at a casualty department for sport related injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Bedford, P. J.; Macauley, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    In a prospective study over a period of 5 months (July-November, 1982), 506 patients were treated at a District General Hospital for a sports related injury. All the patients were seen initially in the Casualty Department and the majority of attendances (58%) were due to injuries caused by the two principal contact sports--Association and Rugby football. There were 294 patients (58%) aged 21 or less and 45 (9%) were aged 15. The study was intended to provide a summary that would quantify the ...

  10. Sexual behaviour in women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, B. A.; Bond, R. A.; Macrae, K. D.

    1988-01-01

    In 1025 women attending a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic, sexual experience had started at an increasingly early age during the past 30 years, from a mode of 19 in the early 1950s to 16 in the early 1980s. Up to the age of 40, sexually active older women had as many recent sexual partners as younger women. Oral intercourse (fellatio) was practised by 714 (70%) women, and 378 (37%) experienced ejaculation in the mouth. Anal intercourse was practised by 200 (20%) women and 90 (9%) experien...

  11. Merchant funding for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next frontier for project finance is merchant generation: the financing of IPPs without long-term offtake contracts. Banks are just beginning to finance merchant generation power stations. One of the first was Destec's Indian Queens project in Cornwall, UK. Bruce Johnston and Martin Bartlam of Wilde Sapte discuss the project. (UK)

  12. Decommissioning of CANDU nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several scenarios are presented for decommissioning of a 600 MW(e) CANDU power station. Time and cost estimates are given. Problems peculiar to the art like activity, decontamination, and dismantling procedures are analyzed. Man-rem exposures are predicted. (E.C.B.)

  13. Modular fast reactor power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reseach and development progress on metal fuel element (U-Pu-Zr), pyrometallurgical reprocessing and inherent safety for FBR are summarized. Based on this some design studies of modular FBR power station in U.S.A. since the 1980s are introduced

  14. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  15. Space Station-Baseline Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  16. Religious attendance after elevated depressive symptoms: is selection bias at work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Balbuena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine if selection bias could be a reason that religious attendance and depression are related, the predictive value of elevated depressive symptoms for a decrease in future attendance at religious services was examined in a longitudinal panel of 1,673 Dutch adults. Religious attendance was assessed yearly over five years using the single question, “how often do you attend religious gatherings nowadays?” Depressive symptoms were assessed four times within the first year using the Depression subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Logistic regression models of change in attendance were created, stratifying by baseline attendance status. Attenders who developed elevated symptoms were less likely to subsequently decrease their attendance (relative risk ratio: 0.55, 95% CI [0.38–0.79] relative to baseline as compared to those without elevated symptoms. This inverse association remained significant after controlling for health and demographic covariates, and when using multiply imputed data to account for attrition. Non-attenders were unlikely to start attending after elevated depressive symptoms. This study provides counter evidence against previous findings that church attenders are a self-selected healthier group.

  17. Factors associated with non-attendance, opportunistic attendance and reminded attendance to cervical screening in an organized screening program: a cross-sectional study of 12,058 Norwegian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Tormod

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer incidence and mortality may be reduced by organized screening. Participant compliance with the attendance recommendations of the screening program is necessary to achieve this. Knowledge about the predictors of compliance is needed in order to enhance screening attendance. Methods The Norwegian Co-ordinated Cervical Cancer Screening Program (NCCSP registers all cervix cytology diagnoses in Norway and individually reminds women who have no registered smear for the past three years to make an appointment for screening. In the present study, a questionnaire on lifestyle and health was administered to a random sample of Norwegian women. The response rate was 68%. To address the predictors of screening attendance for the 12,058 women aged 25-45 who were eligible for this study, individual questionnaire data was linked to the cytology registry of the NCCSP. We distinguished between non-attendees, opportunistic attendees and reminded attendees to screening for a period of four years. Predictors of non-attendance versus attendance and reminded versus opportunistic attendance were established by multivariate logistic regression. Results Women who attended screening were more likely than non-attendees to report that they were aware of the recommended screening interval, a history of sexually transmitted infections and a history of hormonal contraceptive and condom use. Attendance was also positively associated with being married/cohabiting, being a non-smoker and giving birth. Women who attended after being reminded were more likely than opportunistic attendees to be aware of cervical cancer and the recommended screening interval, but less likely to report a history of sexually transmitted infections and hormonal contraceptive use. Moreover, the likelihood of reminded attendance increased with age. Educational level did not significantly affect the women's attendance status in the fully adjusted models. Conclusions The likelihood of attendance in an organized screening program was higher among women who were aware of cervical screening, which suggests a potential for a higher attendance rate through improving the public knowledge of screening. Further, the lower awareness among opportunistic than reminded attendees suggests that physicians may inform their patients better when smears are taken at the physician's initiative.

  18. Developing capacity amongst adolescents attending a leadership camp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jo-Celene, de Jongh; Lisa, Wegner; Patricia, Struthers.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to reduce risk-taking behaviour amongst adolescents and for them to become involved in promoting their own health and wellbeing, as well as that of their communities. One aspect of a promoting health in schools approach is to develop young people's competencies in understanding and i [...] nfluencing, their lifestyles and living conditions. This article focusses on how leadership capacity was developed in a group of learners who attended a leadership camp as part of a health promoting school project in the Western Cape. The aim of the study was to explore a group of learners' experiences of their participation in a leadership camp and how this developed their leadership skills. The study was conducted using an explorative qualitative approach. Two focus groups were conducted with six learners who attended the camp. Four themes emerged from the thematic analysis of the data: (1) Becoming myself; (2) Learning life's lessons; (3) I can take on the world; and (4) Health promoting schools make a difference in my life. The findings of the study indicate that developing leadership capacity is embedded within, and part of, a broader process of empowerment. Occupational therapists' understanding of the link between health and occupation enables them to make a valuable contribution to planning and implementing appropriate leadership camps for adolescents.

  19. Tarapur atomic power station: analysis of station blackout scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contractor, A.D.; Lele, H.G.; Vaze, K.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Reactor Safety Division; Srivastava, A.

    2015-03-15

    India is currently operating two BWR built by General Electric Company. The design features of these reactors are similar to the Fukushima's BWR except some better containment features in Indian BWR. This paper discusses the enveloping scenario of station blackout of infinite duration with no operator action and no component failure. The paper describes the details of modelling the TAPS-BWR plant model including SCDAP modelling of reactor core in system code RELAP5 and further thermal hydraulic safety assessment of station blackout scenario. The analysis brought out effectively the response of the plant to this high-pressure severe accident scenario. The time line of the severe accident progression will give details of various stages of accident progression along with hydrogen generation, which will be useful in evolving suitable severe accident management guidelines.

  20. Tarapur atomic power station: analysis of station blackout scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is currently operating two BWR built by General Electric Company. The design features of these reactors are similar to the Fukushima's BWR except some better containment features in Indian BWR. This paper discusses the enveloping scenario of station blackout of infinite duration with no operator action and no component failure. The paper describes the details of modelling the TAPS-BWR plant model including SCDAP modelling of reactor core in system code RELAP5 and further thermal hydraulic safety assessment of station blackout scenario. The analysis brought out effectively the response of the plant to this high-pressure severe accident scenario. The time line of the severe accident progression will give details of various stages of accident progression along with hydrogen generation, which will be useful in evolving suitable severe accident management guidelines.

  1. Automation as a strategic toll for service stations management; Automacao como ferramenta aliada a gestao de postos de servicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcello Cyrino [GILBARCO do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Automacao

    2004-07-01

    The use of automation systems will be approached as fundamental tool in the control of sales in the pumps as well electronic management of stock in the tanks on a consolidated and integrated way, offering reliability and total control in the administration of fuel resale, no matter if the user be a one station owner, a group of dozens stations, or oil companies in general. These systems allow the local control in the gas station as well remotely through internet access or other kind of communication interface which be Also available. We will give some examples, as the possibility of remote stock management through a communication link between the oil company and gas station, in order to setup in the system a minimum stock level in each tank, that when being reached sends an automatic alarm for the oil company and another alarm for the station operator, so that the replenishment is programmed immediately without the need of sending purchase order by fax, e mail or telephone. This process brings a huge reduction of costs in the delivery logistics as well in the operational costs, reverting directly on a growth of the gas station and dealer's profit. Through this control, is also possible the remote management of fuel leak alarms in attendance to CONAMA 273, making possible a shared control and offering higher safety for both parts involved, considering the concept of environmental co-responsibility between gas station and oil company (dealer). (author)

  2. In situ radio-frequency heating for soil remediation at a former service station: case study and general aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huon, G.; Simpson, T.; Maini, G. [Ecologia Environmental Solutions Ltd., Sittingbourne, Kent (United Kingdom); Holzer, F.; Kopinke, F.D.; Roland, U. [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Environmental Engineering, Leipzig (Germany); Will, F. [Total UK, Watford (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    In situ radio-frequency heating (ISRFH) was successfully applied during remediation of a former petrol station. Using a three-electrode array in combination with extraction wells for soil vapor extraction (SVE), pollution consisting mainly of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and mineral oil hydrocarbons (in total about 1100 kg) was eliminated from a chalk soil in the unsaturated zone. Specially designed rod electrodes allowed selective heating of a volume of approximately 480 m{sup 3}, at a defined depth, to a mean temperature of about 50 C. The heating drastically increased the extraction rates. After switching off ISRFH, SVE remained highly efficient for some weeks due to the heat-retaining properties of the soil. Comparison of an optimized regime of ISRFH/SVE with conventional ''cold'' SVE showed a reduction of remediation time by about 80 % while keeping the total energy consumption almost constant. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Spent fuel canister docking station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working report for the spent fuel canister docking station presents a design for the operation and structure of the docking equipment located in the fuel handling cell for the spent fuel in the encapsulation plant. The report contains a description of the basic requirements for the docking station equipment and their implementation, the operation of the equipment, maintenance and a cost estimate. In the designing of the equipment all the problems related with the operation have been solved at the level of principle, nevertheless, detailed designing and the selection of final components have not yet been carried out. In case of defects and failures, solutions have been considered for postulated problems, and furthermore, the entire equipment was gone through by the means of systematic risk analysis (PFMEA). During the docking station designing we came across with needs to influence the structure of the actual disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel, too. Proposed changes for the structure of the steel lid fastening screw were included in the report. The report also contains a description of installation with the fuel handling cell structures. The purpose of the docking station for the fuel handling cell is to position and to seal the disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel into a penetration located on the cell floor and to provide suitable means for executing the loading of the disposal canister and the changing of atmosphere. The designed docking station consisphere. The designed docking station consists of a docking ring, a covering hatch, a protective cone and an atmosphere-changing cap as well as the vacuum technology pertaining to the changing of atmosphere and the inert gas system. As far as the solutions are concerned, we have arrived at rather simple structures and most of the actuators of the system are situated outside of the actual fuel handling cell. When necessary, the equipment can also be used for the dismantling of a faulty disposal canister, cut from its upper end by machining. The overall cost estimate for the manufacture of the equipment, value added tax not included, totalled 669 000 EUR, of which 189 000 EUR constituted designing costs and 73 000 EUR installation costs. (orig.)

  4. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...using Basic Exchange Telephone Radio Systems in the Rural Radiotelephone Service...6) Stations operating pursuant to paging geographic area authorizations...to another station within the same system. [59 FR 59507, Nov. 17,...

  5. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  6. 76 FR 3064 - Travelers Information Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ...stations to areas near roads...states that the local government...commercial AM radio station...or ambient radio frequency noise levels...to provide local governments...evacuation areas.'' The...setting up a `network,' or...

  7. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  8. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97...of time on the common data base coordinated, maintained...

  9. Long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience among British adults: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossary, Arwa; Harrison, Victoria E; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    There is inconclusive evidence on the value of regular dental attendance. This study explored the relationship between long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience. We used retrospective data from 3,235 adults, ? 16 yrs of age, who participated in the Adult Dental Health Survey in the UK. Participants were classified into four groups (always, current, former, and never regular-attenders) based on their responses to three questions on lifetime dental-attendance patterns. The association between dental-attendance patterns and caries experience, as measured using the decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index, was tested in negative binomial regression models, adjusting for demographic (sex, age, and country of residence) and socio-economic (educational attainment, household income, and social class) factors. A consistent pattern of association between long-term dental attendance and caries experience was found in adjusted models. Former and never regular-attenders had a significantly higher DMFT score and numbers of decayed and missing teeth, but fewer filled teeth, than always regular-attenders. No differences in DMFT or its components were found between current and always regular-attenders. The findings of this study show that adults with different lifetime trajectories of dental attendance had different dental statuses. PMID:25521216

  10. It Doesn’t Hurt to Ask: Assessing Default Effects in a Brazilian Gas Station

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Mittelman; Fernando Macieira; Marcos Avila

    2014-01-01

    When an option is set as the default and as a result people are more likely to choose it, we call it a default effect. In this research we investigated whether drivers were more likely to choose a more expensive type of fuel if it was set as the default option by a mere suggestion from the gas station attendant. In the first study, we collected data showing that drivers did not believe they could be affected by default options. The second study, however, refuted these findings: we conducted a...

  11. Ergonomic Application on the Work Station Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work station layout in the ideal way has been made. The dimension of the work station is 9.4 m x 7.1 m. The workers to be stationed should feel comfort. This can be done by honoring the dimensions and the sum of the tools that should be stationed and also the free space that should be mention between the tools as state in EPRI, NP-2411. (author)

  12. Space Station solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  13. Characteristics and prevalence of hardcore smokers attending UK general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Tim

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking remains a public health problem and although unsolicited GPs' advice against smoking causes between one and three percent of smokers to stop, a significant proportion of smokers are particularly resistant to the notion of stopping smoking. These resistant smokers have been called "hardcore smokers" and although 16% of smokers in the community are hardcore, little is known about hardcore smokers presenting to primary care physicians. Consequently, this study reports the characteristics and prevalence of hardcore smokers attending UK GPs. Methods A cross-sectional survey using data from two different research projects was conducted. Data for this analysis had been collected from surgery consultation sessions with 73 GPs in Leicestershire, England, (42 GPs from one project. Research assistants distributed pre-consultation questionnaires to 4147 adults attending GPs' surgery sessions. Questionnaires identified regular smokers, the proportion of hardcore smokers and their characteristics. Non-hardcore and hardcore smokers' ages, gender and nicotine addiction levels were compared. Results 1170 regular smokers attended surgery sessions and, 16.1% (95% CI, 14.1 to 18.4 were hardcore smokers. Hardcore smokers had higher levels of nicotine addiction than others (p = 0.000, measured by the Heaviness of Smoking Index and were more likely to be male [50.5% hardcore versus 35.3% non-hardcore, (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.4 to 2.6] but no age differences were observed between groups. Conclusion A significant minority of the smokers who present in general practice are resistant to the notion of smoking cessation and these smokers are more heavily nicotine addicted than others. Although clinical guidelines suggest that GPs should regularly advise all smokers against smoking, it is probable that hardcore smokers do not respond positively to this and help to make up the 97%–99% of smokers who do not quit after being advised to stop smoking by GPs. General practitioners need to find approaches for raising the issue of smoking during consultations in ways that do not reinforce the negative opinions of hardcore smokers concerning smoking cessation.

  14. Make Your Own Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this OLogy activity, kids learn about climate and atmospheric conditions by making their own weather station. The activity begins with an overview that explains that weather happens in the atmosphere, where conditions are always changing. Students are given step-by-step, illustrated directions to make a wind vane, a rain gauge and a barometer. The activity includes a printable Weather Chart and wind vane cutouts.

  15. Nuclear Station Facilities Improvement Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective facilities improvement program will include a plan for the temporary relocation of personnel during the construction of an adjoining service building addition. Since the smooth continuation of plant operation is of paramount importance, the phasing plan is established to minimize the disruptions in day-to-day station operation and administration. This plan should consider the final occupancy arrangements and the transition to the new structure; for example, computer hookup and phase-in should be considered. The nuclear industry is placing more emphasis on safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. In order to do this, more emphasis is placed on operations and maintenance. This results in increased size of managerial, technical and maintenance staffs. This in turn requires improved office and service facilities. The facilities that require improvement may include training areas, rad waste processing and storage facilities, and maintenance facilities. This paper discusses an approach for developing an effective program to plan and implement these projects. These improvement projects can range in magnitude from modifying a simple system to building a new structure to allocating space for a future project. This paper addresses the planning required for the new structures with emphasis on site location, space allocation, and internal layout. Since facility planning has recently been completed by Sargent and Leyden at six U. S. nuclear stations, specific e at six U. S. nuclear stations, specific examples from some of those plants are presented. Site planning and the establishment of long-range goals are of the utmost importance when undertaking a facilities improvement program for a nuclear station. A plan that considers the total site usage will enhance the value of both the new and existing facilities. Proper planning at the beginning of the program can minimize costs and maximize the benefits of the program

  16. 47 CFR 73.624 - Digital television broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2002: all remaining commercial television stations; (iv...facilities for all commercial and noncommercial television stations that will...facilities for all commercial and noncommercial television stations that...

  17. Microbiology on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L. (editor); Mcginnis, Michael R. (editor); Mishra, S. K. (editor); Wogan, Christine F. (editor)

    1991-01-01

    This panel discussion convened in Houston, Texas, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, on November 6 to 8, 1989, to review NASA's plans for microbiology on Space Station Freedom. A panel of distinguished scientists reviewed, validated, and recommended revisions to NASA's proposed acceptability standards for air, water, and internal surfaces on board Freedom. Also reviewed were the proposed microbiology capabilities and monitoring plan, disinfection procedures, waste management, and clinical issues. In the opinion of this advisory panel, ensuring the health of the Freedom's crews requires a strong goal-oriented research effort to determine the potential effects of microorganisms on the crewmembers and on the physical environment of the station. Because there are very few data addressing the fundamental question of how microgravity influences microbial function, the panel recommended establishing a ground-based microbial model of Freedom, with subsequent evaluation using in-flight shuttle data. Sampling techniques and standards will be affected by both technological advances in microgravity-compatible instrumentation, and by changes in the microbial population over the life of the station.

  18. CNG Fuelling Stations Design Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I. Overview (a) Compressed Natural Gas - CNG:- Natural Gas, as an alternative fuel for vehicles, is supplied from the Natural Gas Distribution Network to the CNG fuelling stations to be compressed to 250 bars. It is then dispensed, to be stored on board of the vehicle at about 200 bars in a cylinder installed in the rear, under carriage, or on top of the vehicle. When the Natural Gas is required by the engine, it leaves the cylinder traveling through a high pressure pipe to a high pressure regulator, where the pressure is reduced close to atmospheric pressure, through a specially designed mixer, where it is properly mixed with air. The mixture then flows into the engine's combustion chamber, and is ignited to create the power required to drive the vehicle. (b) CNG Fuelling Stations General Description: as Supply and Metering The incoming gas supply and metering installation primarily depend on the pressure and flow demands of the gas compressor. Natural Gas Compressor In general, gas compressors for natural gas filling stations have relatively low flow rates

  19. Optimization of station battery replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

  20. Associations between respiratory illnesses and secondhand smoke exposure in flight attendants: A cross-sectional analysis of the Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redberg Rita F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS is associated with increased risk of respiratory illness, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Prior to smoking bans on airlines in the late 1980s, flight attendants were exposed to a significant amount of SHS. In the present study, we examine associations between flight attendant SHS exposure and development of respiratory illnesses and cardiovascular disease. Methods Between December 2006 and October 2010, three hundred sixty-two flight attendants completed an online questionnaire with information regarding experience as a flight attendant, medical history, smoking history, and SHS exposure. Rates of illnesses in flight attendants were compared with an age and smoking history matched population sample from NHANES 2005-2006. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of reported medical conditions and pre-ban years of exposure. Results Compared with the sample from NHANES 2005-2006, flight attendants had increased prevalence of chronic bronchitis (11.7% vs. 7.2%, p Conclusions Flight attendants experience increased rates of respiratory illnesses compared to a population sample. The frequency of symptoms of nasal congestion, throat or eye irritation is associated with occupational SHS exposure in the pre-smoking ban era.

  1. Learning where to Attend with Deep Architectures for Image Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Denil, Misha; Larochelle, Hugo; de Freitas, Nando

    2011-01-01

    We discuss an attentional model for simultaneous object tracking and recognition that is driven by gaze data. Motivated by theories of perception, the model consists of two interacting pathways: identity and control, intended to mirror the what and where pathways in neuroscience models. The identity pathway models object appearance and performs classification using deep (factored)-Restricted Boltzmann Machines. At each point in time the observations consist of foveated images, with decaying resolution toward the periphery of the gaze. The control pathway models the location, orientation, scale and speed of the attended object. The posterior distribution of these states is estimated with particle filtering. Deeper in the control pathway, we encounter an attentional mechanism that learns to select gazes so as to minimize tracking uncertainty. Unlike in our previous work, we introduce gaze selection strategies which operate in the presence of partial information and on a continuous action space. We show that a s...

  2. Motivation for and Benefits from Attending the AP Statistics Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Jacobbe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the Advanced Placement® Statistics reading as a source of professional development for teachers. The study was conducted to capture the motivation for and benefits from attending the collective grading. Research has shown that examining student work during professional development has implications for teaching. The premise of this study is that Advanced Placement readings are a context for examining the impact of collective grading of student work. The purpose of the study was to examine the motivation of and benefits for AP Statistics reading participants. The results suggest that analysis of student work may be a method to address teachers' preparation to teach statistics at the level expected by recent reform movements in the field of statistics education.

  3. Ancient Chinese observations of physical phenomena attending solar eclipses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The realization that solar activity probably undergoes changes in qualitative character on time scales greater than the 11 or 22 year cycle but short compared to the duration of recorded history gives renewed importance to historical documents describing the state of solar activity. Modern eclipse observation reveal the presence of solar acitivity through the appearance of coronal structures and prominences. It has been widely remarked that eclipse records prior to the 18th century are uniformly silent on these conspicuous solar eclipse features, raising the possibility, however unlikely, that a change in solar activity has occurred which rendered them only recently noticeable. We present here material from ancient Chinese sources, primarily astrological, that describe phenomena attending solar eclipses that are almost certainly coronal structures and prominences. Thus, these aspects of the present character of solar activity have apparently occurred at other times in history, if not continuously. (orig.)

  4. Interdependence between sexual debut and church attendance in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rosina

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of religion on an individual's life-course in general - and on sexual behaviour in particular - has long been recognised by social scientists, although few studies have explored the reciprocal causal interdependence between religiosity and sexual debut, mainly in an overwhelmingly Catholic European context. In this paper, we study the dynamic bi-directional effect between first coital experience and discontinuance of church attendance among a representative sample of Italian students. Both effects work, contrasting the results of other authors regarding the USA, where only the effect of religion on sex has been detected. The present results do not change when the two processes are considered simultaneously and unobserved heterogeneity is taken into account. Some possible explanations are discussed.

  5. Where to look? Automating attending behaviors of virtual human characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra Khullar, S.; Badler, N. I.

    2001-01-01

    This research proposes a computational framework for generating visual attending behavior in an embodied simulated human agent. Such behaviors directly control eye and head motions, and guide other actions such as locomotion and reach. The implementation of these concepts, referred to as the AVA, draws on empirical and qualitative observations known from psychology, human factors and computer vision. Deliberate behaviors, the analogs of scanpaths in visual psychology, compete with involuntary attention capture and lapses into idling or free viewing. Insights provided by implementing this framework are: a defined set of parameters that impact the observable effects of attention, a defined vocabulary of looking behaviors for certain motor and cognitive activity, a defined hierarchy of three levels of eye behavior (endogenous, exogenous and idling) and a proposed method of how these types interact.

  6. Associations between respiratory illnesses and secondhand smoke exposure in flight attendants: A cross-sectional analysis of the Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Alexis L; Haight, Thaddeus J; Redberg, Rita F

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with increased risk of respiratory illness, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Prior to smoking bans on airlines in the late 1980s, flight attendants were exposed to a significant amount of SHS. In the present study, we examine associations between flight attendant SHS exposure and development of respiratory illnesses and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Between December 2006 and October 2010, three hundred sixty-two flight attendants completed an online questionnaire with information regarding experience as a flight attendant, medical history, smoking history, and SHS exposure. Rates of illnesses in flight attendants were compared with an age and smoking history matched population sample from NHANES 2005-2006. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of reported medical conditions and pre-ban years of exposure. RESULTS: Compared with the sample from NHANES 2005-2006, flight attendants had increased prevalence of chronic bronchitis (11.7% vs. 7.2%, p service as a flight attendant in the pre-smoking ban era and illnesses. However, in this same group, there was a significantly increased risk of daily symptoms (vs. no symptoms) of nasal congestion, throat, or eye irritation per 10-year increase of years of service as a flight attendant prior to the smoking ban (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.41 - 3.24). CONCLUSIONS: Flight attendants experience increased rates of respiratory illnesses compared to a population sample. The frequency of symptoms of nasal congestion, throat or eye irritation is associated with occupational SHS exposure in the pre-smoking ban era. PMID:21943016

  7. Men and women who attend Al-anon: gender differences in reasons for attendance, health status and personal functioning, and drinker characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nicole A; Cronkite, Ruth; Moos, Rudolf; Timko, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Although Al-Anon Family Groups (Al-Anon) is the most common source of help for people concerned about someone else's drinking, only 16% of members are men. To identify gender differences, we compared demographics, reasons for attendance, health status, and personal functioning, and drinker characteristics of 174 men and women attending Al-Anon. Men and women were similar in most areas; however, some key differences emerged. Men reported better overall mental health than women, and described some differing concerns and drinker characteristics. With this information, healthcare providers may facilitate men's participation in Al-Anon by addressing their unique concerns and possible barriers to attendance. PMID:25245105

  8. Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, James Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

  9. Women’s Social Networks and Birth Attendant Decisions: Application of the Network-Episode Model

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Joyce K.; Hruschka, Daniel; Bernard, H. Russell; Sibley, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the association of women's social networks with the use of skilled birth attendants in uncomplicated pregnancy and childbirth in Matlab, Bangladesh. The Network-Episode Model was applied to determine if network structure variables (density / kinship homogeneity / strength of ties) together with network content (endorsement for or against a particular type of birth attendant) explain the type of birth attendant used by women above and beyond the variance explained by women'...

  10. A Multivariate Process Model of Adolescent 12-Step Attendance and Substance Use Outcome Following Inpatient Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2000-01-01

    A common recommendation for youth treated for substance abuse is to attend 12-step groups. However, little is known regarding the effects of this adult-derived prescription on substance use outcomes for teens. This study examined (a) the relation between 12-step attendance and substance use outcome in the 6 months postdischarge from inpatient care and (b) a process model of how 12-step attendance during the first 3 months postdischarge affects proximal outcomes of motivation, coping, and self...

  11. Effects of Training Attendance on Muscle Strength of Young Men after 11 Weeks of Resistance Training

    OpenAIRE

    Martim Bottaro; Paulo Gentil

    2013-01-01

    urpose: Training attendance is an important variable for attaining optimal results after a resistance training (RT) program, however, the association of attendance with the gains of muscle strength is not well defined. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to verify if attendance would affect muscle strength gains in healthy young males.Methods: Ninety two young males with no previous RT experience volunteered to participate in the study. RT was performed 2 days a week for 11 weeks. ...

  12. Metabolic syndrome among students attending a historically black college: prevalence and gender differences

    OpenAIRE

    Topè Avinash M; Rogers Phyllis F

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence rate of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among college students attending any Historically Black College and University (HBCU), which are mostly attended by young African Americans (AA). We report the prevalence and gender differences in the components of MetS in a sample population from an HBCU campus. Methods Three hundred and seventy six (218 females and 158 males) first year college students (average age 19.8 years), attending Kentucky...

  13. School attendance, health-risk behaviors, and self-esteem in adolescents applying for working papers.

    OpenAIRE

    Suss, A. L.; Tinkelman, B. K.; Freeman, K.; Friedman, S. B.

    1996-01-01

    Since health-risk behaviors are often encountered in clusters among adolescents, it was hypothesized that adolescents with poor school attendance would be associated with more health-risk behaviors (e.g., substance use, violence) than those who attend school regularly. This study assessed the relationship between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors, and described health-risk behaviors and self-esteem among adolescents seeking employment. In this cross-sectional study, school atte...

  14. Usability of wind data of meteorological stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is questioned whether the wind monitoring network in the Dutch part of the North Sea can be used during validation of a numerical wind atlas.Six (Dutch) offshore meteorological stations and eight coastal stations from the HYDRA-database of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) were considered. It was found that: the periods that were available simultaneously were at least six years; each year the potential wind velocities can be described by the Weibull distribution; in the first year (2002) that delivers model data of wind velocity frequency distributions. The coastal stations had lower shape factors than the statistics tells. The sea stations do not differ from statistics; there is one coastal station (Vlissingen) and one sea station (Oosterschelde) that delivers Weibull parameters that are doubtful; data from all the remaining stations compare satisfactory

  15. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

  16. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

  17. Smos Land Product Validation Activities at the Valencia Anchor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    ABSTRACT Soil moisture is a key parameter controlling the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. In spite of being important for weather and climate modeling, this parameter is not well observed at a global scale. The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Mission was designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to measure soil moisture over continental surfaces as well as surface salinity over the oceans. Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products, namely soil moisture content and vegetation water content. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA has defined and designed a SMOS V alidation Rehearsal C ampaign P lan which purpose is to repeat the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim is to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations, and to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real C ommissioning P hase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 has been chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. The ground soil moisture stations will also be used to study the correlation between soil moisture and the Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI), obtained from remote sensing data, which will allow us to produce soil moisture maps for the whole control area. These soil moisture fields will then be compared to those obtained from HIRLAM (HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model ). Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations will also be performed over the control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft. The payload for the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign will consist of the following instruments: (i) L-band radiometer EMIRAD provided by the Technical University of Denmark (TUD), (ii) HUT-2D L-band imaging interferometric radiometer provided by TKK, (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system provided by Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC), (iv) IR sensor provided by the Finnish Institute of Maritime Research (FIMR), (v) a low resolution digital video camera Together with the ground soil moisture measurements, other ground and meteorological measurements obtained from the Valencia Anchor Station site will be used to simulate passive microwave brightness temperature so as to have satellite "match ups" for validation purposes and to test retrieval algorithms. The spatialization of the ground measurements up to a SMOS pixel will be carried out by using a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) model (SUR- FEX) from Mátéo France. Output data, particularly soil moisture, will then used to simulate ee the L-band surface emission through the use of the L-MEB (L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere) model. This paper will present an overview of the whole Valencia Anchor Station Experimental Plan making more emphasis on the development of the ground activities which are considered a key element for the performance of the different validation components.

  18. Hideout return at Ginna Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Station characteristics are given and the chemistry control is identified. Hideout return data were presented for a normal refueling outage shutdown that occurred on March 1, 1985, a power reduction (to 35%) that occurred on September 22, 1985 and a plant trip and hot standby that occurred on September 28, 1985. These three different types of transients demonstrated how dependent the return from hideout is on the reactor power level and reactor coolant temperature. The composition of the Lake Ontario condenser cooling water and the Ginna normal steam generator chemistry are identified. Results of the studies are presented

  19. Neutron proton crystallography station (PCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Zoe [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kovalevsky, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Hannah [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mustyakimov, Marat [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The PCS (Protein Crystallography Station) at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a unique facility in the USA that is designed and optimized for detecting and collecting neutron diffraction data from macromolecular crystals. PCS utilizes the 20 Hz spallation neutron source at LANSCE to enable time-of-flight measurements using 0.6-7.0 {angstrom} neutrons. This increases the neutron flux on the sample by using a wavelength range that is optimal for studying macromolecular crystal structures. The diagram below show a schematic of PCS and photos of the detector and instrument cave.

  20. Power station wastes - practicable means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight into some of the practical problems that beset a typical power station Health Physicist striving to meet the demands of best practice in relation to the control of radioactive discharges and disposals. It is important to recognise that the requirements of various groups must be considered when dealing with this subject and conflicts can exist between groups and even within one group. For example the requirements of the Regulators, the requirements of the Company, the requirements of other bodies and the requirements of the public must all be taken into account. (author)

  1. The APS optics topography station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in-house station for topographic testing of x-ray optical elements for the Advanced Photon Source experimental beamlines was set up by the Experimental Facilities Division of Argonne National Laboratory. A new double-crystal x-ray diffractometer was designed and built keeping in mind the need for testing large crystals possibly attached to cooling manifolds and lines. A short description of the new facility is given. The instrument performance fully satisfies imposed requirements, and the machine was successfully used for testing several silicon and diamond crystals

  2. Associations between respiratory illnesses and secondhand smoke exposure in flight attendants: A cross-sectional analysis of the Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Redberg Rita F; Haight Thaddeus J; Beatty Alexis L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with increased risk of respiratory illness, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Prior to smoking bans on airlines in the late 1980s, flight attendants were exposed to a significant amount of SHS. In the present study, we examine associations between flight attendant SHS exposure and development of respiratory illnesses and cardiovascular disease. Methods Between December 2006 and October 2010, three hundred sixty-two flight atte...

  3. Local society and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was made by the expert committee on region investigation, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum Inc., in fiscal years 1981 and 1982 in order to grasp the social economic influence exerted on regions by the location of nuclear power stations and the actual state of the change due to it, and to search for the way the promotion of local community should be. The influence and the effect were measured in the regions around the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., the Mihama Power Station of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., and the Genkai Nuclear Power Station of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc. The fundamental recognition in this discussion, the policy of locating nuclear power stations and the management of regions, the viewpoint and way of thinking in the investigation of the regions where nuclear power stations are located, the actual state of social economic impact due to the location of nuclear power stations, the connected mechanism accompanying the location of nuclear power stations, and the location of nuclear power stations and the acceleration of planning for regional promotion are reported. In order to economically generate electric power, the rationalization in the location of nuclear power stations is necessary, and the concrete concept of building up local community must be decided. (Kako, I.)

  4. Testing EDM of Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirbus Ján

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.

  5. Space station operating system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  6. International Space Station payload accommodations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Daniel W.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a low Earth orbiting facility for conducting research in life science, microgravity, Earth observations, and Engineering Research and Technology. Assembled on-orbit at a nominal altitude of 220 nautical miles, it will provide a shirt-sleeve environment for conducting research in six laboratories: the US Laboratory (US Lab), the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), the European Columbus Orbiting Facility (COF), the Centrifuge Accommodations Module (CAM), and the Russian Research Modules. Supplies will be replenished using the Multi-Purpose Pressurized Logistics Module (MPLM), a conditioned pressurized transport carrier which will also return passive and perishable payload cargo to earth. External Earth observations can be performed by utilizing the payload attachment points on the truss, the Russian Science Power Platform, the JEM Exposed Facility (EF), and the COF backporch. The pressurized and external locations are equipped with a variety of electrical, avionics, fluids, and gas interfaces to support the experiments. ISS solar arrays, thermal radiators, communication system, propulsion, environmental control, and robotic devices provide the infrastructure to support sustained research. This paper, which reflects the design maturity of payload accommodations at the time of its submittal (10/20/98), is primarily based on the assembly complete configuration of the station. As the design matures, ISS Payload Accommodations will be updated to reflect qualification tests of components and associated analyses of the integrated performance.

  7. Waste management at power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like most other industrial processes, nuclear power stations produce waste in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. Gaseous and liquid wastes are routinely discharged from the stations after suitable treatment, the residual radioactivity being diluted and dispersed in the environment. The discharges are controlled and authorised under the Radioactive Substances Act and the environmental impact is minimal. In recent years low level wastes (LLW) have been sent to BNFL's disposal site at Drigg. Recent charges at Drigg have resulted in changed arrangements for the transport and disposal of low level wastes. This disposal route will be used until an alternative facility is brought into operation. Consideration is being given to volume reduction by supercompaction. Small amounts of intermediate level waste (ILW) such as spent ion exchange resins are now stored pending the availability of a disposal route. Such as a mobile waste treatment plant. In the case of Magnox debris a demonstration dissolution plant has been constructed at Dungeness and this will significantly reduce the volume of waste being stored whilst retaining the bulk of the activity on site for later treatment. At Trawsfynydd a few debris store will hold the fuel element debris in 500 litre drums. (author)

  8. Insurance of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical utility companies have invested large sums in the establishment of nuclear facilities. For this reason it is normal for these companies to attempt to protect their investments as much as possible. One of the methods of protection is recourse to insurance. For a variety of reasons traditional insurance markets are unable to function normally for a number of reasons including, the insufficient number of risks, an absence of meaningful accident statistics, the enormous sums involved and a lack of familiarity with nuclear risks on the part of insurers, resulting in a reluctance or even refusal to accept such risks. Insurers have, in response to requests for coverage from nuclear power station operators, established an alternative system of coverage - insurance through a system of insurance pools. Insurers in every country unite in a pool, providing a net capacity for every risk which is a capacity covered by their own funds, and consequently without reinsurance. All pools exchange capacity. The inconvenience of this system, for the operators in particular, is that it involves a monopolistic system in which there are consequently few possibilities for the negotiation of premiums and conditions of coverage. The system does not permit the establishment of reserves which could, over time, reduce the need for insurance on the part of nuclear power station operators. Thus the cost of nuclear insurance remains high. Alternatives to the poor system of insurance are expes to the poor system of insurance are explored in this article. (author)

  9. Space Station Biological Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wade, C. E.; Givens, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    To meet NASA's objective of using the unique aspects of the space environment to expand fundamental knowledge in the biological sciences, the Space Station Biological Research Project at Ames Research Center is developing, or providing oversight, for two major suites of hardware which will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The first, the Gravitational Biology Facility, consists of Habitats to support plants, rodents, cells, aquatic specimens, avian and reptilian eggs, and insects and the Habitat Holding Rack in which to house them at microgravity; the second, the Centrifuge Facility, consists of a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge that will provide acceleration levels between 0.01 g and 2.0 g and a Life Sciences Glovebox. These two facilities will support the conduct of experiments to: 1) investigate the effect of microgravity on living systems; 2) what level of gravity is required to maintain normal form and function, and 3) study the use of artificial gravity as a countermeasure to the deleterious effects of microgravity observed in the crew. Upon completion, the ISS will have three complementary laboratory modules provided by NASA, the European Space Agency and the Japanese space agency, NASDA. Use of all facilities in each of the modules will be available to investigators from participating space agencies. With the advent of the ISS, space-based gravitational biology research will transition from 10-16 day short-duration Space Shuttle flights to 90-day-or-longer ISS increments.

  10. Learning where to attend with deep architectures for image tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denil, Misha; Bazzani, Loris; Larochelle, Hugo; de Freitas, Nando

    2012-08-01

    We discuss an attentional model for simultaneous object tracking and recognition that is driven by gaze data. Motivated by theories of perception, the model consists of two interacting pathways, identity and control, intended to mirror the what and where pathways in neuroscience models. The identity pathway models object appearance and performs classification using deep (factored)-restricted Boltzmann machines. At each point in time, the observations consist of foveated images, with decaying resolution toward the periphery of the gaze. The control pathway models the location, orientation, scale, and speed of the attended object. The posterior distribution of these states is estimated with particle filtering. Deeper in the control pathway, we encounter an attentional mechanism that learns to select gazes so as to minimize tracking uncertainty. Unlike in our previous work, we introduce gaze selection strategies that operate in the presence of partial information and on a continuous action space. We show that a straightforward extension of the existing approach to the partial information setting results in poor performance, and we propose an alternative method based on modeling the reward surface as a gaussian process. This approach gives good performance in the presence of partial information and allows us to expand the action space from a small, discrete set of fixation points to a continuous domain. PMID:22509964

  11. Balancing Attended and Global Stimuli in Perceived Video Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari

    2011-01-01

    The visual attention mechanism plays a key role in the human perception system and it has a significant impact on our assessment of perceived video quality. In spite of receiving less attention from the viewers, unattended stimuli can still contribute to the understanding of the visual content. This paper proposes a quality model based on the late attention selection theory, assuming that the video quality is perceived via two mechanisms: global and local quality assessment. First we model several visual features influencing the visual attention in quality assessment scenarios to derive an attention map using appropriate fusion techniques. The global quality assessment as based on the assumption that viewers allocate their attention equally to the entire visual scene, is modeled by four carefully designed quality features. By employing these same quality features, the local quality model tuned by the attention map considers the degradations on the significantly attended stimuli. To generate the overall video quality score, global and local quality features are combined by a content adaptive linear fusion method and pooled over time, taking the temporal quality variation into consideration. The experimental results have been compared to results from appropriate eye tracking and video quality assessment experiments, demonstrating promising performance.

  12. RFID in cloud environment for Attendance monitoring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Parvathy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID initially is of great use in the marketing field render billing easy. It came into effect since world war-II attained its wide spread recognition only when Walmart introduced it as ‘mandate’. An object within the range of 20 feet can be easily tracked with the aid of its unique barcode using RFID chip. It is sophisticated than the primitive barcode techniques as there is no need of positioning of the scanner. Cloud computing is a system which provides access to all soft ware’s without installation, for a desired time period, at a specific cost, only with the help of a single web browser.. Interfacing RFID with cloud computing would be more beneficiary in solving current issues. Technological updates can be done without any technical support. This paper presents theoverview of interfacing RFID with cloud computing for updating students’ attendance and updating it into the parents’ corner and faculty mails. By considering the present issue, providing unique RFID code to the students reduce malpractice and human error. Also Human resources can be saved by the application of cloud computing. Time management is the most effective advantage gained from the use ofRFID and cloud computing.

  13. Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women Attending a Hospital in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is an important risk factor for pregnancy complications. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its related factors in a population of pregnant women. A cross sectional study was done on 426 women who were attended to an obstetrics ward of a hospital in Iran. A 35 item questionnaire was completed by the respondents. The life time prevalence of domestic violence was 42% and it was 19.3% during pregnancy. There was no relation between socioeconomic status, women`s education and employment and age of marriage with domestic violence. Unemployment, addiction and alcohol use among husbands were related to domestic violence. Slapping and punching were the most common kinds of violent behavior. The prevalence of domestic violence even during pregnancy is high in Iran, so there is a need to increase the awareness of the community and empower the health workers and professionals in order to prevent and control this problem.

  14. Burnout and workplace deviance among flight attendants in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Su-Chiun; Hsieh, An-Tien

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between burnout and workplace deviance, identified as a component of job performance, was examined. Burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory which has three dimensions, Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Reduced Personal Accomplishment. Workplace deviance was defined as voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and threatens the well-being of an organization, its members, or both. This was assessed with the Workplace Deviance Scale, measuring the extent to which the participants had engaged in workplace deviant behavior such as taking property from work without permission, making fun of someone at work, or cursing at someone at work. Anonymous questionnaires with stamped envelopes were distributed to a sample of 1,470 Taiwanese flight attendants at the Arrival Hall of Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport. A response rate of 22.45% was obtained. After cases with missing data (n = 27) had been eliminated, the sample totaled 303, 17 men and 286 women. The average age was 28.7 yr. (SD = 4.6). Results of hierarchical regression showed that Depersonalization scores were significantly predictive of Workplace Deviance scores but not Emotional Exhaustion and Reduced Personal Accomplishment scores. Possible reasons and implications of these findings were discussed. PMID:18175485

  15. Public Staff Meetings – thank you for a large attendance

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The public meetings of the Staff Association which took place recently were attended by about 500 staff, a large fraction of them young and on a limited duration (LD) contract. The audience mainly shared the worries of the Staff Association concerning the low number of IC post openings in this and the coming years. Moreover, after the meeting several LD contract holders contacted the Staff Association to express their point of view and to put forward their ideas to tackle this problem. As explained in those meetings, the Staff Association emphasizes that personnel policy should not be guided by self-imposed quota, even under pressure by the Member States. As we have repeated several times, CERN needs a total staff complement well beyond the baseline ceiling of 2250, the number agreed by Council, if it has to guarantee an efficient and excellence level of service to the ever-growing user community, which has almost doubled over the last decade. Moreover, the indefinite contract (IC) component should stan...

  16. Differences in Students' Motivation to Attend College: Large versus Small High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horyna, Brittney; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between the variables: school size, motivation, and college attendance to determine if the size of a student's high school, along with his/her motivational tendencies, influenced the student's choice to pursue a college education. Data was gathered from college students attending a small mid-west…

  17. 34 CFR 694.6 - Who may provide GEAR UP services to students attending private schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who may provide GEAR UP services to students attending private schools...AWARENESS AND READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.6 Who may provide GEAR UP services to students attending private...

  18. Frequency of CPV infection in vaccinated puppies that attended puppy socialization classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepita, Meredith E; Bain, Melissa J; Kass, Philip H

    2013-01-01

    Socialization is one method of preventing behavior problems in dogs; however, some oppose socialization before 16 wk of age due to the risk of contracting infectious diseases. The objectives of this study were to determine if puppies that attended puppy socialization classes and were vaccinated by a veterinarian at least once were at an increased risk of confirmed canine parvovirus (CPV) infection compared with puppies that did not attend classes and to determine the frequency of suspected CPV infection in puppies vaccinated at least once that attended classes with trainers. Twenty-one clinics in four cities in the United States provided information regarding demographics, vaccination, CPV diagnosis, and class attendance for puppies ? 16 wk of age. In addition, 24 trainers in those same cities collected similar information on puppies that attended their classes. In total, 279 puppies attended socialization classes and none were suspected of or diagnosed with CPV infection. Results indicated that vaccinated puppies attending socialization classes were at no greater risk of CPV infection than vaccinated puppies that did not attend those classes. PMID:23325595

  19. Increasing Activity Attendance and Engagement in Individuals with Dementia Using Descriptive Prompts

    OpenAIRE

    Brenske, Shasta; Rudrud, Eric H; Schulze, Kimberly A.; Rapp, John T

    2008-01-01

    The effects of providing descriptive prompts to increase activity attendance and engagement in 6 individuals with dementia were evaluated using a reversal design. The results showed that providing descriptive prompts increased activity attendance and engagement for all participants. The results support the use of antecedent interventions for increasing appropriate behavior by individuals with dementia.

  20. Neurophysiological signals of ignoring and attending are separable and related to performance during sustained intersensory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartowicz, Agatha; Simpson, Gregory V; Haber, Catherine M; Cohen, Mark S

    2014-09-01

    The ability to attend to an input selectively while ignoring distracting sensations is thought to depend on the coordination of two processes: enhancement of target signals and attenuation of distractor signals. This implies that attending and ignoring may be dissociable neural processes and that they make separable contributions to behavioral outcomes of attention. In this study, we tested these hypotheses in the context of sustained attention by measuring neurophysiological responses to attended and ignored stimuli in a noncued, continuous, audiovisual selective attention task. We compared these against responses during a passive control to quantify effects of attending and ignoring separately. In both sensory modalities, responses to ignored stimuli were attenuated relative to a passive control, whereas responses to attended stimuli were enhanced. The scalp topographies and brain activations of these modulatory effects were consistent with the sensory regions that process each modality. They also included parietal and prefrontal activations that suggest these effects arise from interactions between top-down and sensory cortices. Most importantly, we found that both attending and ignoring processes contributed to task accuracy and that these effects were not correlated--suggesting unique neural trajectories. This conclusion was supported by the novel observation that attending and ignoring differed in timing and in active cortical regions. The data provide direct evidence for the separable contributions of attending and ignoring to behavioral outcomes of attention control during sustained intersensory attention. PMID:24666167

  1. A Theory of Attending, Remembering, and Reinforcement in Delayed Matching to Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, John A.; Davison, Michael; Odum, Amy L.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2007-01-01

    A theory of attending and reinforcement in conditional discriminations (Nevin, Davison, & Shahan, 2005) is extended to working memory in delayed matching to sample by adding terms for disruption of attending during the retention interval. Like its predecessor, the theory assumes that reinforcers and disruptors affect the independent probabilities…

  2. An Examination of Academic Outcomes for Students Who Attend a School-Based Afterschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    While most research on the benefits of afterschool programs has shown positive behavioral outcomes, the results on academic outcomes have been mixed. This study focused on academic outcomes to further explore whether students who regularly attended a school-based afterschool program showed greater academic gains than students who did not attend.…

  3. Infant Feeding among Women Attending an Immunisation Clinic at a Tertiary Health Institution in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatiregun, A. A.; Abegunde, V. O.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal characteristics can affect a mother's decision to breastfeed. This study used a cross-sectional design to assess maternal variables and infant feeding patterns among nursing mothers attending an immunisation clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of 264 mothers who consecutively attended the immunisation clinic and met certain inclusion…

  4. 76 FR 4104 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance at Midwest ISO Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ...of Commission Staff Attendance at Midwest ISO Meetings January 13, 2011. The Federal...Commission staff may attend the following Midwest ISO-related meetings during the 2011 year...November 16 [cir] December 6 Midwest ISO Informational Forum (3 p.m.-5...

  5. 75 FR 51996 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance at Midwest ISO Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ...of Commission Staff Attendance at Midwest ISO Meetings August 16, 2010. The Federal...Commission staff may attend the following Midwest ISO-related meetings: Advisory Committee...November 17 [cir] December 1 Midwest ISO Informational Forum (3 p.m.-5...

  6. 75 FR 3228 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance at Midwest ISO Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...of Commission Staff Attendance at Midwest ISO Meetings January 12, 2010. The Federal...Commission staff may attend the following Midwest ISO-related meetings: Advisory Committee...November 17 [cir] December 1 Midwest ISO Informational Forum (3 p.m.-5...

  7. Determinants of Spectator Attendance at Historically Black Colleges' and Universities' Football Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Donnie

    2011-01-01

    Spectator attendance is a popular topic in the sport management literature. However, the primary focus of work done in this area has been examining professional sports, with collegiate sports lagging far behind. The impetus behind the focus on spectator attendance in collegiate sports is the potential impact it can have on increasing revenue in…

  8. Effect of a reorganized after-hours family practice service on frequent attenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A governmental reorganization of the after-hours general practice service in Denmark was launched in January 1992. The biggest change was the introduction of mandatory county-wide telephone triage systems staffed by general practitioners. This study assesses the effect of this reorganization on the use of services by frequent attenders (FAs). METHODS: From 1990 to 1994, methods of contact and annual costs per attender were analyzed in an ecological time-trend study based on aggregated administrative data collected from the database of the Public Health Insurance, Aarhus County, Denmark (600,000 inhabitants). The study only included attenders ages 18 and over. FAs were defined as the group that, within each calendar year (12 months), had 4 or more contacts with the after-hours family practice service. RESULTS: FAs made up 9.5% of the attenders and accounted for more than 40% of the contacts and the aggregate costs. The effect of the reorganization was a 12% decrease in the number of attenders, a 16% decrease in the number of contacts, and a 29% decrease in the costs. Reorganization had a significantly bigger effect on FA attendance than on non-FA attendance, and more than half of the overall reduction in use of services could be ascribed to changes in FA behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The reorganization of the after-hours service produced a significant fall in attendance and costs, especially with respect to adult FAs.

  9. Sources of the wind power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with problems of the wind power stations. Describes the basic properties of wind energy. Shows and describes the different types of electrical machines used as a source of electricity in the wind power stations. Shows magnetic fields synchronous generator with salient poles and permanent magnets in the program FEMM. Describes methods for assessing of reversing the effects of the wind power stations on the distribution network. (Authors)

  10. Spanish National GPS Reference Station Network (ERGPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Morin, Juan Francisco; Sa?nchez Sobrino, Jose? A.; Quiro?s Donate, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    The Instituto Geográfico Nacional de España, thought its geodesy department, since 1997 has carried out the establisment of a GPS Reference Station Network (ERGPS) delivered all around Spain which allows millimetric co-ordinate results, as well as velocity fields in a Global Reference System (ITRFxx). It serves as support for other geodetic networks. Some of these stations are being integrated into the EUREF (EUropean REference Frame) Permanent Station Network. The ERGPS forms the zero orde...

  11. Optimization Model of Extension of Classification Station

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Wang; Lijuan Wang; Tianwei Zhang; Qingdong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Classification station plays an important role in railway transportation. It faced various possible schemes when marshaling station would be extended. Decision makers were concern to how to choose feasible extension scheme so as to minimize the total investment. Based on the actual development, optimization model of extension of classification station is built. The objective function is to minimize the total investment, subject to three groups: First is th...

  12. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: overview and justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this booklet is to brief the reader on the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and to summarize the benefits of funding the project in FY 1984. Background information on the station and the decommissioning project is provided in this section of the booklet; the need for a reactor decommissining demonstration is discussed in the next section; and a summary of how the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) provides the needed demonstration is provided in the final section

  13. NRC's object-oriented simulator instructor station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a comprehensive simulator upgrade program, the simulator computer systems associated with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) nuclear power plant simulators were replaced. Because the original instructor stations for two of the simulators were dependent on the original computer equipment, it was necessary to develop and implement new instructor stations. This report describes the Macintosh-based Instructor Stations developed by NRC engineers for the General Electric (GE) and Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) simulators

  14. Flight Attendants’ Emotional Labor and Exhaustion in the Taiwanese Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ping CHANG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Few research studies have discussed the two variables of emotional labor and emotional exhaustion, and even fewer have examined flight attendants as the research subject. The current study employed a questionnaire method to examine 353 Taiwanese flight attendants’ feelings about emotional labor, the status of their emotional exhaustion, and the relationship between emotional labor and emotional exhaustion. The research results indicate that: 1 while the degree of emotional labor operating on female flight attendants is on the medium to high side, the attendants’ perception of emotional exhaustion is only medium; 2 female flight attendants’ emotional labor has a significant positive correlation with their emotional exhaustion; and 3 among the perspectives of emotional labor, the qualities of “deep emotional masking” and “multiformity” have a significant predictive effect on emotional exhaustion.

  15. Tracing Utopia in 'Utopia Station'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    This paper will discuss how avant-garde rhetoric and working methods are used to rethink exhibition-making in the wake of the ‘relational aesthetics’ and visual art of the 90s. With Utopia Station curated by Molly Nesbit, Hans Ulrich Obrist, and Rirkrit Tiravanija as key example, we will look at the many layers of discourse, ‘thinking-in-process’ and collaboration. These processes led to particular presentational formats (display) and architectural frameworks for activities, and gave way to a variety of other material and situated performative modes of audience encounters. Here, we can trace avant-garde ideas about radical democracy through open processes and active involvement of audience-participants, we can trace formal (architectural) structures back to the Russian constructivism and many other links back in time, but the central question remains if theses ethical-political and aesthetic gestures carries the same meaning and function in a contemporary culture. Utopia Station unfolded over a long period of time, starting with different gatherings in 2002, continuing with diverse ‘stations’ at the Venice Biennial (2003), Haus der Kunst in Munich (2004), and the World Social Forum in Porte Alegre (2005). Much criticism has hit the project both during the process and in its after-match (e.g. Rogoff, R. in Frieze #77, 2003 and Foster, Krauss, Bois, Buchloh, 2005). Ten years on, however, the discussion – although less heated – is still pertinent when it comes the status of the individual artwork, modes of display, and the particular types of sociality potentially produced in exhibitions. The notion of utopia has moved back into fashion in recent years (with a readers such as Utopia (Documents in Contemporary Art) ed. Richard Noble (2009) and Utopia & Contemporary Art at Arken Museum of Modern Art (Publication due in 2012)). But it seems to differ noticeable from the ideologically driven concept(s) of the 20th century avant-garde. The paper will suggest that we in experiments with openness and structure, with an ambivalent engagement in popular culture and everyday life, and complex double strategy of collaboration with and subversion of institutional and societal structures and revive avant-garde strategies re-imagine utopia.

  16. Live From Space Station Outreach Payload Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Live from Space Station? Outreach Payload (LFSSOP) is a technologically challenging, exciting opportunity for university students to conduct significant...

  17. Environmental assessment, proposed generating station for Darlington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document indicates the intention of Ontario Hydro to seek approval from the Provincial Government for its plan to construct and operate a 3400 MWe nuclear generating station at the Darlington site, west of Bowmanville. This preliminary proposal also contains the environmental assessment. The environmental section of this proposal describes and assesses the existing environment and the environmental influences which would occur due to the construction and operation of a nuclear generating station, consisting of four 850 MW units, at the Darlington site. This proposed station is similar to the Bruce GS A station presently under construction. (author)

  18. Geodynamic Grounds for Hydro Power Stations Locations

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Development of Scientific and Methodical Basis for Optimal Location of Hydropower Stations (HPS) Taking into Account Geodynamical Conditions and Risk of Danger Appearance of Natural and Technogenious Processes

  19. Do women requesting only contraception find attendance at an integrated sexual health clinic more stigmatizing than attendance at a family planning–only clinic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauer U

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike Sauer,1 Arti Singh,2 Punam Rubenstein,1 Rudiger Pittrof3 1Department of Reproductive and Sexual Health Services, Enfield Community Services, London, UK; 2University Health Services, KNUST Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana, 3Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Trust, London, UK Purpose: Both sexually transmitted infections and the genitourinary medicine clinics that patients attend for management of sexually transmitted infections are stigmatized by patients’ perceptions. The aim of this study was to assess whether women requesting contraception only find attendance at an integrated sexual health clinic (ISHC more stigmatizing than attendance at a family planning (FP–only clinic. Patients and methods: Women requesting contraception only were asked to complete a stigma assessment questionnaire in the waiting room of the clinic they attended. Ease of understanding was assessed for each item of the questionnaire prior to commencement of the survey. The questionnaire was given to women attending either an ISHC or a FP-only clinic. Results: One hundred questionnaires that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were returned. The users of FP-only services were generally older than the users of ISHCs and were more likely than the users of ISHCs to classify themselves as UK white. Stigma perception was significantly higher for the ISHC than the FP-only clinic. Conclusion: The results of this research indicate that among women who request contraception only, perceived stigma is higher when they attend an ISHC than when they attend a FP-only clinic. As this survey only enrolled clinic users, the authors were unable to assess whether integration generates sufficient stigma to deter some women from accessing contraception from integrated services. Of all stigma-related issues, disclosure concerns are likely to be the most important to the service user. Stigma is not an issue of overriding concern for most service users. Keywords: stigma, one-stop shop, sexually transmitted diseases, contraception

  20. The remote security station (RSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that, as an outgrowth of research into physical security systems, Sandia is investigating robotic technologies for improving physical security performance and flexibility. Robotic systems have the potential to allow more effective utilization of security personnel, especially in scenarios where they might be exposed to harm. They also can supplement fixed site installations where sensors have failed or where transient assets are present. The Remote Security Station (RSS) program for the defense Nuclear Agency is developing a proof-of-principle robotic system which will be used to evaluate the role, and associated cost, of robotic technologies in exterior physical security systems. The RSS consists of three primary elements: a fixed but quickly moveable tripod with intrusion detection sensors and assessment camera; a mobile robotic platform with a functionally identical security module; and a control console which allows an operator to perform security functions and teleoperate the mobile platform

  1. Space Station tethered waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Charles C.

    1988-01-01

    The Shuttle Transportation System (STS) launches more payload to the Space Station than can be returned creating an accumulation of waste. Several methods of deorbiting the waste are compared including an OMV, solid rocket motors, and a tether system. The use of tethers is shown to offer the unique potential of having a net savings in STS launch requirement. Tether technology is being developed which can satisfy the deorbit requirements but additional effort is required in waste processing, packaging, and container design. The first step in developing this capability is already underway in the Small Expendable Deployer System program. A developmental flight test of a tether initiated recovery system is seen as the second step in the evolution of this capability.

  2. Space Station Biological Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox will accommodate use by two crew persons simultaneously and the capability for real time video down-link and data acquisition. In house testbeds and Phase B studies of the centrifuge validated the concepts of vibration isolation and autobalancing systems to meet the ISSA microgravity requirements. The vibration isolation system is effective above the centrifuge rotation frequency while the autobalancing system on the rotor removes vibration at and below the rotation rate. Torque of the Station, induced by spin-up/spindown of the centrifuge, can be minimized by controlling spin-up/spin-down rates. The SSBRP and ISSA will provide the opportunity to perform long-term, repeatable and high quality science. The long duration increments available on the Station will permit multigeneration studies of both plants and animals which have not previously been possible. The u-g habitat racks and the eight habitat centrifuge will accommodate sufficient number of specimens to permit statistically significant sampling of specimens to investigate the time course of adaptation to altered gravity environments. The centrifuge will, for the first time, permit investigators to use gravity itself as a tool to investigate fundamental processes, to investigate the intensity and duration of gravity to maintain normal structure and function, to separate the effects of u-g from other environmental factors and to examine artificial gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physical deconditioning observed during space flight.

  3. Nuclear power station project management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book covers the project management of two major engineering projects from commissioning through design and construction to operation. Based on experience gained with Heysham 2 and Torness AGR stations, the contributions in this book show how the highest standards of construction quality can be reconciled with the major economic advantages of building quickly. Other topics covered include probabilistic risk assessment, seismic design, computer aided design and manufacture, simulators and the use of robotic techniques. This book has wide relevance to the management of any large-scale capital-intensive project, as well as specific application to AGRs and the nuclear industry. There are twenty-four papers, all indexed separately. The discussion following each section is included. (author)

  4. Improving nuclear power station output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total annual output of Nuclear Electric's five advanced gas cooled reactor (AGR) stations has increased by more than 80% from 21.7 to 39.3 TW·h over the last four years since the company was formed. This has been achieved through increasing both the capability (maximum power output) and the availability of the reactors. The successive stages of technical modifications, testing and safety case preparation and approval by which the capability of each of the reactor units was raised, whilst ensuring safety, are detailed and the further stages that are planned for the future are outlined. The availability of the reactors has been increased by removing the constraints associated with refuelling operations, reducing statutory overhaul lengths and frequency, and reducing unplanned losses. In 1990, the fuel routes at four of the five stations operated too slowly to supply the fuel needed by the reactors and also required substantial periods of outage of the fuel route for modifications in order to consolidate their off-load refuelling safety cases. The programmes of work undertaken are outlined and the improved performance of the fuel route operations to match the increased output of reactor units is detailed. The future developments, particularly of on-load refuelling, are outlined. The lengths of statutory outages have been reduced by improved management and performance of plant operations and maintenance, and permission has also been received to extend the period betwo been received to extend the period between overhauls from 24 to 36 months. Unplanned losses have also been reduced. The improvements in output have not been achieved at the expense of safety nor by increasing the resources deployed. Indeed the reverse is true; key safety indicators show an improvement in both nuclear and industrial safety; and the manpower employed at the AGRs and the total annual expenditure in real terms have both decreased over the past four years. (author). 7 figs, 1 tab

  5. 47 CFR 95.139 - Adding a small base station or a small control station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS...139 Adding a small base station or a small control...one or more small base stations or a small control...at any point where radio services are...

  6. Distinct neural correlates of attending speed vs. coherence of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kau, S; Strumpf, H; Merkel, C; Stoppel, C M; Heinze, H-J; Hopf, J-M; Schoenfeld, M A

    2013-01-01

    Attention to specific features of moving visual stimuli modulates the activity in human cortical motion sensitive areas. In this study we employed combined event-related electrophysiological, magnetencephalographic (EEG, MEG) and hemodynamic functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures of brain activity to investigate the precise time course and the neural correlates of feature-based attention to speed and coherence. Subjects were presented with an aperture of dots randomly moving either slow or fast, at the same time displaying a high or low level of coherence. The task was to attend either the speed or the coherence and press a button upon the high speed or high coherence stimulus respectively. When attention was directed to the speed of motion enhanced neural activity was found in the dorsal visual area V3a and in the IPL, areas previously shown to be specialized for motion processing. In contrast, when attention was directed to the coherence of motion significant hemodynamic activity was observed in the parietal areas fIPS and SPL that are specialized for the processing of complex motion patterns. Concurrent recordings of the event-related electro- and magnetencephalographic responses revealed that the speed-related attentional modulations of activity occurred at an earlier time range (around 240-290 ms), while the coherence-related ones occurred later (around 320-370 ms) post-stimulus. The current results suggest that the attentional selection of motion features modulates neural processing in the lowest-tier regions required to perform the task-critical discrimination. PMID:22963856

  7. Estimating Pedestrian flows at train stations using the Station Transfer Model:

    OpenAIRE

    Den Heuvel, J. P. A.; Dekkers, K.; Vos, S.

    2012-01-01

    Train stations play a vital role in the door to door travel experience of train passengers. From the passengers’ value of time perspective, the station is the weakest link in total time value of the journey. Within the station the transfer function – moving between the various transport modes and waiting at the next service - is the core function, because it connects all transport modes. Therefore, an optimal transfer process is a key requirement for a well performing station. The basi...

  8. Re-attenders to the emergency department of a major urban hospital serving a population of 290,000.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramasubbu, B

    2015-01-01

    The national Emergency Medicine Programme (EMP) in Ireland, defines a re-attender as any patient re-presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) within 28 days with the same chief complaint. A retrospective, electronic patient record audit was carried out on all re-attenders to Connolly ED during November 2012. There were 2919 attendances made up from 2530 patients; 230 patients re-attended a total of 389 times. The re-attendance rate was 13% (389\\/2919). 63 (27%) were frequent presenters. There was a significantly higher admission rate at second attendance than first (89 (39%) vs 39 (17%), p < 0.001). 25% (57\\/230) of patients \\'left before completion of treatment\\' (LBCT) at first attendance (significantly higher than the number at second attendance (p < 0.01)). 14\\/57 (25%) of those who LBCT at first attendance required admission at second attendance. 28\\/89 (31%) of second attendance admissions were failed discharges from first attendance. Reasons for re-attendance are multi-factorial and include both patient and departmental factors.

  9. Home birth attendants in low income countries: who are they and what do they do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garces Ana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly half the world’s babies are born at home. We sought to evaluate the training, knowledge, skills, and access to medical equipment and testing for home birth attendants across 7 international sites. Methods Face-to-face interviews were done by trained interviewers to assess level of training, knowledge and practices regarding care during the antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum periods. The survey was administered to a sample of birth attendants conducting home or out-of-facility deliveries in 7 sites in 6 countries (India, Pakistan, Guatemala, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Zambia. Results A total of 1226 home birth attendants were surveyed. Less than half the birth attendants were literate. Eighty percent had one month or less of formal training. Most home birth attendants did not have basic equipment (e.g., blood pressure apparatus, stethoscope, infant bag and mask manual resuscitator. Reporting of births and maternal and neonatal deaths to government agencies was low. Indian auxilliary nurse midwives, who perform some home but mainly clinic births, were far better trained and differed in many characteristics from the birth attendants who only performed deliveries at home. Conclusions Home birth attendants in low-income countries were often illiterate, could not read numbers and had little formal training. Most had few of the skills or access to tests, medications and equipment that are necessary to reduce maternal, fetal or neonatal mortality.

  10. An investigation into why patients do not attend for out-patient radiology appointments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Patients who do not attend (DNA) for out-patient hospital appointments cause delays in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of their own, and other patient's, illnesses, with potentially hazardous consequences. This also impacts upon waiting lists. Failure to attend is viewed as a specific type of non-compliance and social cognition theories have been applied to previous studies in an attempt to uncover the reasons why patients choose not to keep their appointments. Methods: A case-control study was conducted throughout the X-ray departments of a District General type of NHS Trust, using telephone interview questionnaires based on the Health Belief Model, in an attempt to identify any significant differences between attenders and non-attenders, so that likely non-attenders could be targeted. Results: Principal reasons for non-attendance were that the patient forgot or that they did not receive their appointment. The results differed from previous research, in that specific health beliefs were not the primary reasons for non-attendance. Departments that gave patients the opportunity to arrange their appointments for a mutually convenient time had exceptionally low DNA rates, as did those which had rigorous confirmation systems in place

  11. 47 CFR 90.425 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES...at which the communications originate. (3) When a mobile station transmits...co-channel communications are completed...1) It is a mobile station operating...9) It is a wireless microphone...

  12. GSFC contamination monitors for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosso, P. A.; Tveekrem, J. L.; Coopersmith, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the Work Package 3 activities in the area of neutral contamination monitoring for the Space Station. Goddard Space Flight Center's responsibilities include the development of the Attached Payload Accommodations Equipment (APAE), the Polar Orbiting Platform (POP), and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS). GSFC will also develop the Customer Servicing Facility (CSF) in Phase 2 of the Space Station.

  13. 47 CFR 74.682 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...lieu of its own or associated TV station call sign during the...feed through its own associated TV broadcast station it shall perform...uninterrupted transmission or a series of intermittent transmissions...assure that result. (f) TV microwave boosters...

  14. Present trends in HVDC converter station design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Lennart; Asplund, Gunnar; Bjorklund, Hans; Flisberg, Gunnar [ABB Power Systems AB, Ludvika (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    HVDC converter station technology has developed rapidly to satisfy increasing requirements during past 10 - 15 years, but there has not been any dramatic changes since thyristor valves were introduced in the mid 70s. This paper describes some recent and expected future developments, that will substantiality change and simplify future converter stations. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  16. Welding/brazing for Space Station repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David W.; Babel, H. W.; Conaway, H. R.; Hooper, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on welding/brazing for space station repair are presented. Topics covered include: fabrication and repair candidates; debris penetration of module panel; welded repair patch; mechanical assembly of utility fluid line; space station utility systems; Soviet aerospace fabrication - an overview; and processes under consideration.

  17. Radionuclide Monitoring Stations in CTBT verification regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) will be established across the world to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The IMS will be capable of detecting and identifying nuclear explosions detonated within the atmosphere, underwater and underground. Three hundred and twenty-one monitoring stations will be set around the world as a monitoring network of the IMS. The four technologies of seismology, hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide will be used for monitoring purposes. In order to build the radionuclide monitoring network, 80 radionuclide stations were chosen. Particles in the atmosphere are collected on a filter at each station to measure radioactivity by a HP-Ge detector. Stations will be certified as one of the IMS station by the CTBT organization with satisfaction of technical and operational requirements. Further, 40 out of these 80 stations are be equipped with an automatic radioactive noble gas sampler/analyzer. The JAERI-Tokai is establishing infrastructure to host radionuclide air monitoring equipment for two radionuclide stations in Japan: one is in Takasaki, Gunma prefecture, and the other is in Kunigami-gun, Okinawa prefecture. This paper presents the current status of the establishment and promising performance of the stations in Japan. (author)

  18. S. Pellegrino and Brasimone seismic stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the technical features relative to the S. Pellegrino and Brasimone seismic stations. The stations have been modified in order to realize a central data acquisition system; in this way seismic signals are sent to Brasimone Center through telephone pair and are recorded in continuous form. (author)

  19. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  20. von Braun 1952 Space Station Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-01-01

    This is a von Braun 1952 space station concept. In a 1952 series of articles written in Collier's, Dr. Wernher von Braun, then Technical Director of the Army Ordnance Guided Missiles Development Group at Redstone Arsenal, wrote of a large wheel-like space station in a 1,075-mile orbit. This station, made of flexible nylon, would be carried into space by a fully reusable three-stage launch vehicle. Once in space, the station's collapsible nylon body would be inflated much like an automobile tire. The 250-foot-wide wheel would rotate to provide artificial gravity, an important consideration at the time because little was known about the effects of prolonged zero-gravity on humans. Von Braun's wheel was slated for a number of important missions: a way station for space exploration, a meteorological observatory and a navigation aid. This concept was illustrated by artist Chesley Bonestell.

  1. 76 FR 29805 - Submission for Review: Verification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-49

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for...of Full-Time School Attendance, RI...Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day...Office of Personnel Management. Title: Verification of Full-Time School Attendance....

  2. 76 FR 54810 - Submission for Review: 3206-0215, Verification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-49

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for...of Full-Time School Attendance, RI...Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 30-Day...Office of Personnel Management. Title: Verification of Full-Time School Attendance....

  3. 75 FR 63168 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ...Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting and the Entergy Regional...attendance is part of the Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting October 20, 2010 (8...

  4. 76 FR 13613 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the ICT Stakeholders Policy Committee and Entergy Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ...Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the ICT Stakeholders Policy Committee and Entergy Regional State Committee...attendance is part of the Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting March 16, 2011 (1...

  5. 75 FR 23262 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ...Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting and the Entergy Regional...attendance is part of the Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting May 12, 2010 (8...

  6. 75 FR 41858 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ...Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting July 12, 2010. The Federal...attendance is part of the Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting July 21, 2010 (1...

  7. Psychiatric morbidity among children who are frequent attenders in general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, F. M.; Garralda, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    This two-part cross-sectional study set out to determine the frequency and nature of psychiatric disorder among children aged seven to 12 years who were frequent attenders at one of two general practices. The first part of the study was an interview survey with a sample of 109 children who attended frequently (four or more times in one year) and 23 children who had not attended in one year. Descriptive information from a structured parental interview was used to diagnose childhood psychiatric...

  8. 47 CFR 95.25 - Land station description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...description. (a) A land station is a unit which transmits...from which every land station transmits must be within an area where radio services are regulated...d) A small control station is any control station...power). (e) A small base station is any...

  9. Distribution of Monocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Air of Gas Pump Stations and Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdorahman Bahrami

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The incomplete burning of fuel in engine of vehicles, evaporation of petrol from gas stations, and also car carburetor cause unburned hydrocarbons to be emitted in ambient air of cities and gas station locations. From unburned hydrocarbons; monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon influence to citizen's health and benzene is known as carcinogenic compounds. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the distribution benzene, toluene, para-, orto- and meta-xylenes in ambient air of gas station locations and ambient air of Hamadan County, Iran.

    Methods: For this purpose, a size of 50 samples was obtained with charcoal tube and personal pump sampling. Samples were analyzed with gas chromatography equipped with flame ionizing detector.

    Results: The results of data analysis were showed a significant difference between mean concentration of monocyclic aromatic in gas station locations and ambient air of Hamadan city (P = 0.005 and the mean concentration of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in spring and summer was more than Autumn and winter (P = 0.005.

    Conclusion: Low fuel prices and old motor technology, imply very large exhaust gas and particulate emissions. Other ancillary factors are cited as well, including the relative shortage of modes of public transport, the relatively advanced age of cars and the consequent inefficiencies of their motors.

  10. Simulators of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the simulators of nuclear power stations used for the training of operators and for the analysis of operations. It reviews the development of analogical, hybrid and digital simulators up to the present, indicating the impact resulting from the TMI-2 accident. It indicates, the components of simulators and the present accepted terminology for a classification of the various types of simulators. It reviews the present state of the art of the technology: how a basic mathematical model of a nuclear power system is worked out and what are the technical problems associated with more accurate models. Examples of elaborate models are given: for a PWR pressurizer, for an AGR steam generator. It also discusses certain problems of hardware technology. Characteristics of present replica simulators are given with certain details: simulated transient evolutions and malfunctions, accuracy of simulation. The work concerning the assessment of the validity of certain simulators is reported. A list of simulator manufacturers and a survey of the principal simulators in operation in the countries of the European Community, in the United States, and in certain other countries are presented. Problem associated with the use of simulators as training facilities, and their use as operational devices are discussed. Studies and research in progress for the expected future development of simulators are reviewed

  11. Visual Attending Preferences in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison between Live and Video Presentation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa; Azuma, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    Visual attending patterns of children with ASD differ from those of typically developing (TD) children. Children with ASD spend less time visually attending to relevant people and stimuli than do TD children. Impaired visual attending patterns can greatly decrease the effectiveness of therapy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the…

  12. 78 FR 55121 - Submission for Review: Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance for the School Year, RI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ...School Attendance for the School Year, RI 25-14 and Information; and Instructions...School Attendance for the School Year, RI 25-14A AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel...School Attendance For The School Year, RI 25-14; and Information and...

  13. School Attendance in Nigeria: Understanding the Impact and Intersection of Gender, Urban-Rural Residence, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Aramide; Jensen, Leif; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a research which examines the impact of religion, gender, and parental socioeconomic status on school attendance in Nigeria. Researchers found that both gender and parental socioeconomic status have significant impacts on school attendance. Although gender is an important determinant of school attendance, indicators of…

  14. Projects submitted to international science and technology center by Institute of Combustion Problems. Production of powder magnet materials on the basis of natural oxide minerals for purification of the water surface from oil and petrol pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goal: To obtain a cheap magnet sorbent with high sorbing activity to move off oil and petrol pollution from the surface of water and to purify pools and sewage waters. Task: By mechanical and chemical treatment of natural oxide compounds with a member of selected components there is synthesized a fine-dispersed powder material with micro composition structure of the particles (dielectric nucleus, conductive and magnet surface layers). Formation of surface layers is determined by the regime of mechanical and chemical treatment and alloying additives of the mixture, Properties of the treated powder depend finally on the structure and properties of synthesized surface layers organically connected between themselves and a nuclear carrier of a particle. Due to the characteristics of magnet permeability obtained oxide material is not worse than metallic powders of iron and its alloys. Besides, it has a high corrosion stability and stability of magnet properties in the humid environment and at heating up to 600 C. High sorbing activity provides absolute purification of water surface from oils at small residence times with polluted surface. Peculiarities of state of the particles surface of synthesized material provide structural stability of sorbed mass which enables moving it off from the water surface by mechanic or magnet techniques. By the method being used and feedstock synthesized magnet powder is very cheap and can be used after regeneration directly or as a construction material

  15. Evaluación de la supervivencia de Trichocereus terscheckii en suelos contaminados con residuos y productos peligrosos de estaciones de servicio / Evaluation of Trichocereus terschecki survival in soils contaminated with hazardous wastes and products from petrol pumps

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Plaza; M L, de Viana; A V, Cazón.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación de suelos por hidrocarburos provenientes de residuos peligrosos de estaciones de servicios es un tema de relevancia y que debe ser abordado. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la supervivencia de Trichocereus terschekii expuesta a distintas concentraciones de nafta, gasoil y ac [...] eite quemado, y a lodo y suelo empetrolado ("landfarming"). El bioensayo se realizó en laboratorio, siguiendo un diseño completamente aleatorizado con cuatro réplicas por tratamiento, con temperatura y luz constante. Para cada tratamiento se usaron nueve plántulas de tres meses de edad. La superviviencia de las plántulas fue menor en las dos concentraciones de nafta y gasoil ensayadas, y mayor a las dos concentraciones de aceite quemado y en suelo empetrolado. Abstract in english The contamination of soil by hydrocarbons from waste of petrol pump is an important subject to board. The objective of this work was to study the effect of different concentrations of gas oil, naphtha and burned oil, and of mud and landfarming upon Trichocereus terscheckii survival. The bioassay was [...] carried out in laboratory following a complete randomized design with four replicates for treatment, with constant temperature and light. There were nine plantules (three months years old) for treatment. Survival of plantules was lower at both gas oil and naphtha concentrations examined, and higher in burned oil and landfarming.

  16. 76 FR 5799 - Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Leadership Development Program Induction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...and Staff Attendance at FERC Leadership Development Program Induction Ceremony January 26, 2011. The Federal Energy Regulatory...the following event: FERC Leadership Development Program Induction Ceremony: 888 First Street, NE., Washington, DC...

  17. Effect of Sleep Skills Education on Sleep Quality in Patients Attending a Psychiatry Partial Hospitalization Program

    OpenAIRE

    Khawaja, Imran S.; Dieperink, Michael E.; Thuras, Paul; Kunisaki, Ken M.; Schumacher, Marianne M.; Germain, Anne; Amborn, Becky; Hurwitz, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I)–informed sleep skills education on sleep quality and initial sleep latency in patients attending a psychiatry partial hospitalization program.

  18. 75 FR 47302 - Notice of FERC Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting, Entergy ICT...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting, Entergy ICT Tranmission Planning Summit and Entergy SPP RTO Planning Process...Street, New Orleans, LA 70130, 504-525-2500. Entergy ICT Transmission Planning Summit August 11, 2010 (8:30...

  19. Muscle oxygenation, EMG, and cardiovascular responses for cabin attendants vs. controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Larsen, Lisbeth HØjkjær

    2013-01-01

    The goal was to investigate the effect of acute moderate hypobaric exposure on the physiological responses to sustained contractions (local) and light to moderate dynamic exercise (systemic) for cabin attendants (CAB) and a matched control group (CON).

  20. 38 CFR 21.4277 - Discontinuance: unsatisfactory progress, conduct and attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...to the requirement that the veteran or eligible person, having commenced the pursuit of such program, continues to maintain satis- factory attendance in accordance with the regularly prescribed standards and practices of the institution in which he...