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Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM), Petrol Station Attendants (PSA) and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure t...

Udonwa, N. E.; Uko, E. K.; Ikpeme, B. M.; Ibanga, I. A.; Okon, B. O.

2009-01-01

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Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM), Petrol Station Attendants (PSA) and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for m...

Udonwa, N. E.; Uko, E. K.; Ikpeme, B. M.; Ibanga, I. A.; Okon, B. O.

2009-01-01

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Working Environment Factors that Affect Quality of Work Life among Attendants in Petrol Stations in Kitale Town in Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research sought to establish working environment factors that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants in Kitale town. The objective of the study was to identify working environment aspects that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants. This study was an exploratory survey, carried out in 17 petrol stations that are located in Kitale Town, Kenya. The target population comprised 17 station managers and 170 attendants, out of which a sample of 102 respondents was selected: Seventeen (17 Petrol Station Managers using non – probabilistic purposeful sampling and eighty five (85 attendants using simple random sampling. The study used a questionnaire as an instrument for data collection. Data collected was both quantitative and qualitative, and analysis was basic descriptive in nature. The study revealed that poor safety and health, work pressure or stress, and provision of inadequate working tools are environmental aspects that bring about poor Quality of Working Life experiences at petrol stations. In conclusion, the findings were examined and then the implications discussed. General recommendations were made for the improvement of Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants.

Aloys Nyagechi Kiriago

2013-05-01

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Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM), Petrol Station Attendants (PSA) and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (Met Hb) and packed cells volume (PCV). Mean Met Hb value was higher in AM (7.3%) and PSA (5.8%) than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%). PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%), than AM (33.3%) and the subjects from the general population (40.8%). Met Hb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and Met Hb as a useful bio marker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour.

1278-01-00

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Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM, Petrol Station Attendants (PSA and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (MetHb and packed cells volume (PCV. Mean MetHb value was higher in AM (7.3% and PSA (5.8% than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%. PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%, than AM (33.3% and the subjects from the general population (40.8%. MetHb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and MetHb as a useful biomarker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour.

N. E. Udonwa

2009-01-01

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Meyrin Petrol Station  

CERN Multimedia

Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

2006-01-01

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Research of volatile organic compounds from petrol filling stations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research focuses on the environmental problem of volatile organic compounds in ambient air of petrol filling stations. The literature review of the issues, arising from petrol-related VOCs, with actual and proposed VOC emissions trends in Europe, have been performed. Besides petrol filling station’s typical technology layout, petrol nature and composition, applicable petrol vapour recovery solutions and their efficiency were examinated. The volatile organic compounds’ experimental res...

Bikbajeva, Z?ana

2008-01-01

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Immunoglobulin classes and liver function tests in Nigerian petrol attendants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prolonged exposure to petrol has been shown to be a significant health hazard, especially for skeletal, circulatory, immune and reproductive systems. The present study investigates liver functions (alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, total protein and albumin and immune functions (IgG, IgA and IgM in 29 male petrol attendants and compares them with corresponding values in 22 sex- and age-matched controls using spectrophotometry and single radial immuno-diffusion method respectively for determining the functions. All the liver function tests were similar in both petrol attendants and the controls except for significantly lower levels of ALP ( P =0.02. Also, the levels of IgG and IgA were similar in petrol attendants when compared with corresponding levels in controls, while the levels of IgM were significantly raised in petrol attendants when compared with corresponding levels in controls ( P =0.02. This study shows that parameters of liver functions are within normal range in Nigerian petrol attendants.

Akinosun O

2006-01-01

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Petrol vapour recovery at service stations: explanatory notes on the ...  

For advice given by the industry to its members about communicating with local \\authorities ... Many service stations require a pollution prevention and control \\permit for the ... Traditional active vapour recovery systems consist of a modified \\petrol delivery nozzle, ... Petrol vapour in the vehicle fuel tank headspace is.

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The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally established conditions, which depend on the situation at their petrol station. It is estimated that 4.000 petrol stations will submit an application. These conditions take into account European legislation concerning support measures and competition law. The legislator took learning experiences in the Netherlands and Denmark as a basis. These countries have launched similar funds in the past. BOFAS however goes further in its financial support.

Naeyer, F. de; Van Dyck, E. [OVAM, Mechelen (Belgium); Janssens, J.P.; Duliere, A. [BIM, Brussel (Belgium); Fondaire, D. [DGRNE, Liege (Belgium); Bodart, O. [Governement Wallon, Namur (Belgium)

2005-07-01

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The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally established conditions, which depend on the situation at their petrol station. It is estimated that 4.000 petrol stations will submit an application. These conditions take into account European legislation concerning support measures and competition law. The legislator took learning experiences in the Netherlands and Denmark as a basis. These countries have launched similar funds in the past. BOFAS however goes further in its financial support

2005-10-03

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Replacement of the pumps at the CERN petrol stations  

CERN Multimedia

The CERN petrol stations will be closed on the following dates to allow the pumps to be replaced: Prévessin petrol station: 26 and 27 November Meyrin petrol station: 28, 29 and 30 November The current fuel cards in the vehicles will have expired by the time the new pumps begin operation. All those in possession of a CERN vehicle are therefore requested to collect a transponder badge from the light- vehicle maintenance office (130/R-013), which is open from 8.00 a.m. to midday and from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Badges will be issued on presentation of the keys of the vehicle in question. TS-IC-LO Section – Tel. 77039 - 72228

2007-01-01

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Replacement of the pumps at the CERN petrol stations  

CERN Document Server

The CERN petrol stations will be closed on the following dates to allow the pumps to be replaced: Prévessin petrol station: 26 and 27 November Meyrin petrol station: 28, 29 and 30 November The current fuel cards in the vehicles will have expired by the time the new pumps begin operation. All those in possession of a CERN vehicle are therefore requested to collect a transponder badge from the light vehicle maintenance office (130/R-013), which is open from 8.00 a.m. to midday and from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Badges will be issued on presentation of the keys of the vehicle in question. TS-IC-LO Section Tel. 77039 - 72228

2007-01-01

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Electrostatic hazards with underground plastic pipes at petrol stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper analyses some ignition incidents that have been reported with insulating, (non-conductive) underground plastic pipes in retail petrol stations. The occurrence of the incidents is compared with voltage measurements, observations of the typical spread of streaming currents recorded in gasoline handling and theoretical estimates of the voltages on the pipes. The comparisons suggest that neither incendive sparks from unbonded conductors nor incendive brush discharges from insulating pipe surfaces can be ruled out although both are expected to be rare. The hazards can be prevented by using pipes with earthed conductive or dissipative inner linings.

2011-06-23

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Solar petrol station in Kassel. First public petrol station in the FRG. Solartankstelle in Kassel. Erste oeffentliche Solartankstelle im Bundesgebiet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first solar petrol station in the FRG has been set into operation under great attention of the public at the Kassel Karlsplatz on the 2nd of May 1990 at 11.00 am. The opening was the result of the good cooperation between the Staedtische Werke AG, the municipal authorities of the city of Kassel as well as the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Solartechnik Kassel e.V. which have realized this project together. It is the aim of the project to demonstrate the usability of solar mobiles in short-distance traffic which is already given today. (orig.).

Anon.

1990-06-01

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Groundwater Protection Code: Petrol stations and ... - ARCHIVE: Defra  

Nov 1, 2002 ... 1.7 Petroleum hydrocarbons are serious pollutants. ..... Environment Agency \\Emergency Number: 0800 80 70 60 ..... 4.4 The degree of risk to groundwater \\posed by the release of product during these activities ...... A3.14 However, one of \\the additives of unleaded petrol MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) is.

17

Ethanol-containing automotive fuels - a safety concept for petrol stations in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the promotion of renewable energy sources, the demand for ethanol/automotive fuels has increased, whereby the ethanol is produced from biomass. As these fuels are flammable liquids, explosion protection concepts are needed for their transport, use and storage and for the operation of petrol stations. Safety characteristics are the basis of such concepts. Since the data for ethanol, on the one hand, and for automotive petrol, on the other hand, differ considerably, the relevant data for the ethanol/automotive petrol mixtures have to be determined and the existing explosion protection concepts will possibly have to be limited or modified. For this reason the correlations between the necessary safety characteristics - flashpoint, boiling point, auto-ignition temperature, maximum experimental safe gap, upper explosion point - and the mixing ratio of ethanol and automotive fuel have been investigated. Based on the results of this investigations, those concentration limits are elaborated for which the existing safety concepts remain valid. For mixtures with an ethanol content going beyond such limits, suitable safety measures and requirements regarding explosion-protected equipment are derived. The changes that are necessary with respect to the safety concept of petrol stations when ethanol/automotive petrol mixtures are offered instead of or in addition to pure petrol are explained. (orig.)

Brandes, E.; Frobese, D.H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

2009-04-15

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Biomarkers of exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl tert-butyl ether in petrol station workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-sectional study was aimed at reconstructing the exposure to gasoline in 102 petrol station attendants by environmental and biological monitoring of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and biomonitoring of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Airborne BTEX were higher for manual refuelers than self-service assistants and were highly correlated with each other. Significant relationships were found between airborne BTX and the corresponding urinary solvents (U-BTX) and beween airborne B and urinary MTBE (U-MTBE). Smokers eliminated higher values of U-B, trans,trans-muconic (t,t-MA) and S-phenylmercapturic (S-PMA) acids but not U-MTBE. All these biomarkers were, however, significantly raised during the shift, independently from smoking. Linear regression confirmed that occupational exposure was a main predictor of U-MTBE, U-B and S-PMA values, both the latter confounded by smoking habits. The study supports the usefulness of biomonitoring even at low exposure levels. PMID:22458326

De Palma, Giuseppe; Poli, Diana; Manini, Paola; Andreoli, Roberta; Mozzoni, Paola; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

2012-06-01

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Assessment of BTX concentrations near a petrol station using passive samplers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A combined monitoring and dispersion modelling methodology was applied for assessing air quality related to concentration levels of benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) at three different levels of proximity to a petrol selected service Station: (I) next to the fuel pumps, (II) in the surrounding environment, and (III) m the background. A Gaussian dispersion model (CALINE4) was used for assessing the road traffic contribution to the local concentrations under different meteorological conditions...

Gonzalez-flesca, Norbert; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Cicolella, Andre?

2001-01-01

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Environmental Exposure to Xylenes in Drivers and Petrol Station Workers by Urinary Methylhippuric Acid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The aims of this study were evaluation of exposed to xylenes in low concentration and compare urinary level of methyl hippuric acid in taxi drivers and petrol stations workers in West of Iran.

Ar, Bahrami; Jonidi-jafari, A.; Mahjub, H.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Environmental Exposure to Xylenes in Drivers and Petrol Station Workers by Urinary Methylhippuric Acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: The aims of this study were evaluation of exposed to xylenes in low concentration and compare urinary level of methyl hippuric acid in taxi drivers and petrol stations workers in West of Iran.

Methods: This observation study was carried out on samples of the exposed men to xylenes in two occupational groups in Hamadan City (west of Iran from March 2003 to March 2004. Subjects included 45 taxi drivers and 25 petrol station workers. The study group was selected from 54 workers at petrol stations and 300 drivers by simple random sampling. Xylenes was analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID. The urinary methyl hippuric acid (MHA was analyzed with High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC equipped with an ultraviolet (UV detector.

Results: Total xylene exposure was 1.05±0.55 ppm (mean±SD with a range of 0.20-2.55 ppm that was about 4 times more than taxi drivers' exposure. The poor correlation coefficient was seen between xylenes concentration and urinary MHA for drivers (r2= 0.09 to 0.42 but significant associations were noted between urinary MHA and xylene in the breathing zone of petrol station workers (r2= 0.69 to 0.77; P< 0.05.

Conclusion: High xylenes levels are emitted in petrol stations at Iran. Urinary MHA level has a poor correlation with exposure to xylenes in drivers but has good correlation in petrol station workers.

AR Bahrami

2011-06-01

22

State of subsoil in a former petrol station: physicochemical characterization and hydrocarbon contamination evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Former petrol stations are, possibly, potential hydrocarbon contaminated soil areas due to leakage in Underground Storage Tanks and fuel dispensing activities. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in gasoline, like benzene and semi-volatile organics in diesel, are carcinogenic and very toxic substances which can involve a serious risk for ecosystem and human health. Based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography 2D results from a previous work, there have been selected three potentially contaminated goal areas in a former petrol station located in SE Spain in order to obtain soil samples by drilling and to assess the gasoline and diesel contamination. A special sampling design was carried out and soil samples for VOCs were preserved at field with a KCl solution to minimize volatilization losses. It had been chosen Headspace-GC-MS as the better technique to quantify individual VOCs and GC-FID to get a Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) assessment after a solid/fluid pressurized extraction. The physicochemical characterization of the subsoil was performed to know how humidity, clay content or pH data could be related to the presence of hydrocarbons in the soil samples. Results show that VOCs concentrations in subsoil samples of the petrol station are around ppb levels. TPH ranged between 17 mg/kg soil and 93 mg/kg soil (ppm levels) what involves diesel and gasoline leaks due to these detected residual concentrations in the subsoil. The maximum value was found at 6 m deep in an intermediate zone between Underground Storage Tanks positions (located at 4 m deep). Therefore, these results confirm that organic compounds transference with strong vertical component has taken place. It has been observed that humidity minimum values in the subsoil are related to TPH maximum values that could be explained because of the vapour phase and the retention of hydrocarbon in soil increases when humidity goes down. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in the subsoil tend to be pH-dependent and clay content dependent: maximum of adsorption taken place at minimum pH what encourage protonation and minimum clay content in the subsoil make organic compounds infiltration downstream easier. It could be noticed the importance of physicochemical subsoil characterization and contamination assessment in the subsoil of petrol stations in order to avoid the hydrocarbons pollution of the groundwater. Then plan the best remediation technique according to this characterization taking into account the residual hydrocarbon concentration in the subsoil and the associated risk for human and ecosystems.

María Rosales, Rosa; Martinez-Pagán, Pedro; Faz, Ángel; Bech, Jaume

2013-04-01

23

Evaluation of benzene exposure in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics by urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA) determination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Occupational exposure to benzene in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics was studied by examining the benzene content in both the air breathed and in the urinary metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA). Thirty petrol pump attendants and thirty mechanics (as exposed workers) and thirty adult male office workers (as non exposed workers) were involved in the study. Measures were taken at the begin and at the end of the working shifts.

 The benzene concentratio...

Teresa Cirillo; Antonio Arnese; Giuseppe Spagnoli; Renata Amodio Cocchieri; Umberto Del Prete

2004-01-01

24

Numerical investigation of VOC levels in the area of petrol stations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the area of petrol stations several Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) leak into the atmosphere due to the evaporation of liquid fuels, especially of gasoline that is predominantly composed of light hydrocarbons. The aim of the present study is to investigate the spatial distribution of various VOCs when leaked into the atmosphere in the area of a petrol station. The study is based on numerical simulations. The effect of wind speed and direction, as well as of air temperature has been studied. Gasoline components of different properties have been studied (e.g. pentane, iso-octane, o-xylene, toluene, benzene), as well as ethanol that is considered a new fuel blend component that can be found in different fractions in new gasoline blends worldwide. The area of flammable cloud near the source of the leak is investigated for various atmospheric conditions taking into account the lower and higher flammable limits of each compound. Lastly, the exposure to gasoline vapour is studied taking into consideration the recommended occupational exposure limits of various organisations. PMID:24246944

Kountouriotis, A; Aleiferis, P G; Charalambides, A G

2014-02-01

25

Petrol and oil separation plants at petrol stations. Guidelines for projecting, dimensioning, implementation and operation; Benzin- og olieudskilleranlaeg paa servicestationer. Vejledning i projektering, dimensionering, udfoerelse og drift  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this guide is to create a common technical basis of use to consultants and local authorities in Denmark in connection with the projecting and authorization of drain installations at petrol stations. It deals with regulations, including those relevant to the protection of the environment, and describes the principles of the separation process, the projecting of the drainage systems and oil separators, the dimensioning of the latter and of the sand table, the operation and maintenance of the separation plant, the bearing equipment and alarm systems, how to check newly-delivered equipment and the evaluation of the function of the old plant. (AB)

NONE

1994-12-01

26

Evaluation of benzene exposure in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics by urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA determination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Occupational exposure to benzene in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics was studied by examining the benzene content in both the air breathed and in the urinary metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA. Thirty petrol pump attendants and thirty mechanics (as exposed workers and thirty adult male office workers (as non exposed workers were involved in the study. Measures were taken at the begin and at the end of the working shifts.

 The benzene concentrations in the breathing air samples varied from 2 to 88 ?g m-3, lower than the EU acceptable limit for occupational environment. The average urinary t,t-MA in the petrol pump attendants at the begin and at the end of the working shifts ranged between 133 ± 69 and 255 ± 174 ?g g-1 creatinine and in the mechanics between 204 ± 139 and 300 ± 211 ?g g-1 creatinine, respectively.

In all the participants the mean levels of urinary t,t-MA at the end of the working shifts were significantly higher than those at the beginning. In the exposed workers mean levels of urinary t,t-MA were significantly higher than in those of the non-exposed workers. The influence of the smoking was demonstrated by the urinary t,t-MA levels in smoking non-exposed subjects.

Teresa Cirillo

2004-12-01

27

Petrol war in Nijmegen, Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since April 2000 a petrol war rages in Nijmegen and surroundings (Netherlands) whereby considerable discounts are given to the national retail prices. The cause of the war is a new unmanned petrol station of the enterprise Tango. In this article the development and the consequences of the discount at petrol stations in Nijmegen and surroundings are analyzed 3 refs

2000-07-28

28

Analysis of incidence of childhood cancer in the West Midlands of the United Kingdom in relation to proximity to main roads and petrol stations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether there is an excess of leukaemias in 0-15 year old children among those living in close proximity (within 100 m) of a main road or petrol station. METHODS: Data for 0-15 year old children diagnosed between 1990 and 1994 in the United Kingdom West Midlands were used. Postcode addresses were used to locate the point of residence which was compared with proximity to main roads and petrol stations separately, and to both together. Odds ratios (ORs) were cal...

Harrison, R. M.; Leung, P. L.; Somervaille, L.; Smith, R.; Gilman, E.

1999-01-01

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Variability of benzene exposure among filling station attendants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A monitoring survey of filling station attendants aimed at identifying sources of variability of exposure to benzene and other aromatics was carried out. Concurrent samples of the worker's breathing zone air, atmospheric air in the service station proximity, and gasoline were collected, along with information about daily workloads and other exposure-related factors. Benzene personal exposure was characterised by a small between-worker variability and a predominant within-worker variance component. Such elevated day-to-day variability yields to imprecise estimates of mean personal exposure. Almost 70% of the overall personal exposure variance was explained by a model including daily benzene from dispensed fuel, presence of a shelter over the refueling area, amount of fuel supplied to the station if a delivery occurred, and background atmospheric benzene concentration

1996-01-01

30

Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments). In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks) were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was...

Adriano Pinto Mariano; Ana Paula de Arruda Geraldes Kataoka; Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis; Daniel Marcos Bonotto

2007-01-01

31

The Petrol Station and the Internet Cafe: Rural Technospaces for Youth.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study in two Norwegian villages focused on the local gas station and the Internet cafe as "technospaces" for rural youth cultures--spaces at the intersection of technology and human interaction. The car and the Internet were given different symbolic and utility values in various youth subcultures. Local contexts influenced technology usage…

Laegran, Anne Sofie

2002-01-01

32

Geo-enviromental monitoring system of the oil storages on petrol stations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In large cities, fuel consumption is growing rapidly, and therefore the number of filling stations. And they are a source of anthropogenic impact on the environment and represent current scientific and practical task, because recently no research was conducted into the optimization of monitoring systems in the construction of gas station storage tanks, and no activity on replacing the obsolete design with new storage tanks. In this regard, much attention should be paid to the creation of geo-environmental systems integrated assessment of the environment, as well as modeling and forecasting various negative situations. In the modern world, the creation of such systems is possible with the help of modern computer tools such as geographic information systems.

Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna

2014-03-01

33

Condição auditiva de frentistas / Hearing conditions of gas stations attendants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar os limiares auditivos nas frequências convencionais e altas frequências, e ainda a integridade do arco reflexo, em frentistas. MÉTODO: foram avaliados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. Após adequação aos critérios de inclusão, a amostra ficou compos [...] ta por 24 frentistas expostos a combustíveis, 21 do gênero masculino e três do gênero feminino, com faixa etária entre 20 e 40 anos. Os exames utilizados foram audiometria tonal liminar, audiometria de altas frequências e imitanciometria. O tempo de exposição variou de um a 17 anos. O grupo controle foi composto por 24 sujeitos não expostos a qualquer agente nocivo à audição. RESULTADOS: a média dos limiares da audiometria tonal liminar e da audiometria de altas frequências foi superior no grupo estudo em todas as frequências testadas. Verificou-se diferença de limiar estatisticamente significante nas frequências de 0,5 (p=0,004), 2 (p=0,001) e 3 kHz (p=0,025), e nas frequências de 9 (p=0,007) e 10 kHz (p=0,026). Os limiares das frequências de 12,5 e 14 kHz não diferiram estatisticamente (p>0,05). Em 16, 18 e 20 kHz foi observada maior ausência de respostas no grupo estudo (p>0,05). Também se observou maior ausência de reflexos acústicos (ipsi e contralateral) no grupo estudo, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda, não houve diferença entre os grupos, para a ocorrência do reflexo ipsilateral. A ausência de reflexo contralateral foi maior no grupo estudo em todas as frequências testadas. CONCLUSÃO: frentistas com limiares auditivos normais podem apresentar alterações cocleares e centrais. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the hearing threshold in the conventional frequencies and high frequencies, and the integrity of the acoustic reflex, in subjects exposed to fuels. METHOD: attendants of three gas stations were evaluated in Santa Maria/RS. After the adaptation to the inclusion criteria, the samp [...] le was composed of 24 subjects. It was used the Pure Tone Audiometry, high frequency audiometry and acoustic immitance assessment to evaluate the sample. The time of exposition ranged from one to seventeen years. The control group was composed by 24 not exposed subjects. RESULTS: the average of the thresholds of the PTA and of the high frequency audiometry was superior in the study group in all the tested frequencies. A statistically significant difference of thresholds was verified on the frequencies of 0,5 (p=0,004), 2 (p=0,001), 3 kHz (p=0,025), and frequencies of 9 (p=0,007) e 10 kHz (p=0,026). In 16, 18, 20 kHz a greater absence of responses was observed in the study group (p>0, 05). Also it was observed a greater absence of acoustic reflexes (ipsilateral and contralateral) at the study group, on the right ear. On the left ear, there was no difference between the groups, for the occurrence of ipsilateral reflex. The absence of the contralateral reflex was superior in the study group on all frequencies tested. CONCLUSION: individuals exposed to fuels with normal hearing thresholds may have cochlear and central alterations.

Tochetto, Tania Maria; Quevedo, Lenita da Silva; Siqueira, Márcia do Amaral.

34

Petrol war in Nijmegen, Netherlands; Benzine-oorlog in Nijmegen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since April 2000 a petrol war rages in Nijmegen and surroundings (Netherlands) whereby considerable discounts are given to the national retail prices. The cause of the war is a new unmanned petrol station of the enterprise Tango. In this article the development and the consequences of the discount at petrol stations in Nijmegen and surroundings are analyzed 3 refs.

De Jong, E.; Kramer, I. [Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2000-07-28

35

[Health risk in workers at fuel stations: posture of the fuel union].  

Science.gov (United States)

The risk assessment of exposure to benzene of filling attendants in petrol stations is a main goal for Italian companies. Changes in the organisation of the service station, in gasoline composition and improvement in good working practices have been performed. To assess the implementation of these activities environmental investigation have been carried out over the last years. The results show that exposure to benzene in petrol stations is now below the limits stated by regulations in force. PMID:11084882

Giacopetti, D

2000-01-01

36

URINE LEAD LEVELS IN SERVICE STATION ATTENDANTS EXPOSED TO TETRAETHYL LEAD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: It has been pointed out that the hazard associated with the exposure to tetraethyl lead is Quite different from exposure to inorganic lead compounds, and that the measurment of urinary lead is the best indicator of tetraethy lead absorption and hence its environmental control.
Methods: Urine total lead concentrations in service station attendants in Isfahan city after ext...

Mirsattari, S. G.

2001-01-01

37

Special report: unleaded petrol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief article looks at the growth of unleaded petrol consumption in Western Europe from 1987. Although there are wide variations within various countries, the growth and consumption continues to be significant especially for those countries which have introduced tax breaks for unleaded petrol. As a result, the total emissions of lead have fallen despite petrol consumption increasing. (UK).

Anon.

1990-08-24

38

Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether and benzene among service station attendants and operators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concerns for atmospheric pollution from auto exhaust have led to the blending of {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} with motor fuels. The most common oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently required within several metropolitan areas (Denver and Phoenix) in the range of 12% of the motor fuel. Amendments to the Clean Air Act may expand this requirement to as many as 44 other areas of the United States in the near future. In consideration of the magnitude of potential uncontrolled exposures from its extensive use and a related concern involving the potential influence of MTBE blending on exposures to other constituents of gasoline (particularly benzene), an evaluation of exposures among service station attendants and operators was undertaken at the request, and in cooperation with, the American Petroleum Institute during the latter part of 1990. For application of the survey results to a broad audience, three categories or types of service stations were identified with regard to MTBE use and exposure potential: (a) service stations that do not use MTBE or use it only as an octane enhancer, (b) service stations with seasonal requirements to use 12-15% MTBE (the Denver, Colorado, and Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan areas), and (c) service stations equipped with stage II (active) vapor recovery systems (several coastal areas, most notably Southern California). 4 refs., 4 tabs.

Hartle, R. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1993-12-01

39

Traveling Salesman Approach for Solving Petrol Distribution Using Simulated Annealing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research presents an attempt to solve a logistic company's problem of delivering petrol to petrol station in the state of Johor. This delivery system is formulated as a travelling salesman problem (TSP). TSP involves finding an optimal route for visiting stations and returning to point of origin, where the inter-station distance is symmetric and known. This real world application is a deceptive simple combinatorial problem and our approach is to develop solutions based on the idea of loc...

Zuhaimy Ismail; Ibrahim, Wan R. W.

2008-01-01

40

Petrol excises in the Netherlands under review; Benzine-accijns op de helling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dutch people at the border of Germany fill up the tanks of their cars in Germany while the price per liter petrol is much lower there. The Dutch government tries to protect the Dutch petrol station owners by lowering the tax for petrol within a specific area near the border and thus to refrain Dutch car owners from refuelling their cars in Germany. The problems of `border tanking` (`grenstanken`) and the results of the petrol tax decrease for the petrol station owners are briefly discussed. 3 refs.

Bruinsma, F.R.; Rietveld, P. [Vakgroep Ruimtelijke Economie, Faculteit der Economische Wetenschappen en Econometrie, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Vuuren, D. [Tinbergen Instituut, Amsterdam/Rotterdam (Netherlands)

1998-11-27

 
 
 
 
41

Pulmonary functions in petrol pump workers: a preliminary study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occupational exposures to petrol/diesel vapors have been shown to affect functioning of different systems of the body. The present study was planned to assess the pulmonary functions in petrol pump workers (filling attendants) who are continuously exposed to petrol/diesel vapors during duty hours. Thirty healthy non-smoker males working in petrol pump for more than one year formed the study group, while thirty healthy non-smoker males from hospital staff served as control group. The pulmonary functions were assessed using computerized spirometer. The FVC and FEV1 were decreased in the study group while their ratio did not differ much. Both the inspiratory and expiratory flow rates were also decreased in the study group. These findings point towards adverse effects of petrol/diesel fumes mainly on lower airways with restrictive pattern of disease. PMID:18341220

Singhal, Mayank; Khaliq, Farah; Singhal, Siddarth; Tandon, O P

2007-01-01

42

URINE LEAD LEVELS IN SERVICE STATION ATTENDANTS EXPOSED TO TETRAETHYL LEAD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: It has been pointed out that the hazard associated with the exposure to tetraethyl lead is Quite different from exposure to inorganic lead compounds, and that the measurment of urinary lead is the best indicator of tetraethy lead absorption and hence its environmental control.
Methods: Urine total lead concentrations in service station attendants in Isfahan city after extraction were determined by graphite furnace atonic absorption spectrophotometry.
Results: Average total urine lead concentration was (69.75±14.52 mg/l (range 43 - 105 mg/l.
Discussion: All workers has urine total lead levels below the Biological threshold limit value of 150 mg/l. In addition total lead excretions did not correlate with exposure duration and age and also with individual customs such as personal hygiene and smoking habit. In general, on the basis of the present study results and current data it seems that urine total lead is not a sensitive and specific indicator for exposure to tetraethyl lead.

S.G. MIRSATTARI

2001-06-01

43

Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station / Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ). Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de um tanque [...] de armazenamento de óleo diesel subterrâneo em um posto de combustíveis. Experimentos em escala laboratorial (respirômetros de Bartha) foram utilizados para avaliar a biodegradação do óleo diesel. Estímulo da biodegradação foi realizado utilizando-se as técnicas de bioestímulo (adição de soluções de nitrogênio e fósforo ou surfactante Tween 80) e de bioaumento (consórcio bacteriano isolado de um sistema de landfarming). Para investigar as interações entre os fatores otimizadores, e encontrar a melhor combinação entre esses agentes, o estudo foi baseado em um delineamento experimental fatorial completo. A eficiência de biodegradação foi simultaneamente medida com dois métodos: respirométrico (produção de CO2 microbiano) e cromatografia gasosa. Testes de toxicidade aguda com Daphnia similis foram aplicados para examinar a eficiência dos processos em termos de geração de produtos menos tóxicos. Resultados mostraram que todas as estratégias de biorremediação aceleraram a biorremediação natural do solo contaminado e os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando os tratamentos tinham adição de nutrientes. Dados respirométricos indicaram uma máxima mineralização de hidrocarbonetos de 19,8%, obtida com a combinação dos três agentes, com uma remoção de hidrocarbonetos totais de petróleo (TPH) de 45,5% em 55 dias de tratamento. No final dos experimentos, duas espécies predominantes de bactéria foram isoladas e identificadas como Staphylococcus hominis e Kocuria palustris. Abstract in english The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments). In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel [...] oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks) were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant) and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system). To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production) and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris).

Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Kataoka, Ana Paula de Arruda Geraldes; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos.

44

Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments. In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system. To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ. Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de um tanque de armazenamento de óleo diesel subterrâneo em um posto de combustíveis. Experimentos em escala laboratorial (respirômetros de Bartha foram utilizados para avaliar a biodegradação do óleo diesel. Estímulo da biodegradação foi realizado utilizando-se as técnicas de bioestímulo (adição de soluções de nitrogênio e fósforo ou surfactante Tween 80 e de bioaumento (consórcio bacteriano isolado de um sistema de landfarming. Para investigar as interações entre os fatores otimizadores, e encontrar a melhor combinação entre esses agentes, o estudo foi baseado em um delineamento experimental fatorial completo. A eficiência de biodegradação foi simultaneamente medida com dois métodos: respirométrico (produção de CO2 microbiano e cromatografia gasosa. Testes de toxicidade aguda com Daphnia similis foram aplicados para examinar a eficiência dos processos em termos de geração de produtos menos tóxicos. Resultados mostraram que todas as estratégias de biorremediação aceleraram a biorremediação natural do solo contaminado e os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando os tratamentos tinham adição de nutrientes. Dados respirométricos indicaram uma máxima mineralização de hidrocarbonetos de 19,8%, obtida com a combinação dos três agentes, com uma remoção de hidrocarbonetos totais de petróleo (TPH de 45,5% em 55 dias de tratamento. No final dos experimentos, duas espécies predominantes de bactéria foram isoladas e identificadas como Staphylococcus hominis e Kocuria palustris.

Adriano Pinto Mariano

2007-06-01

45

Petrol injection engines. Benzineinspritzmotoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exact fuel dosage is a vital factor of influence for the operational behaviour of an automobile. Exactly dosed fuel feed directly before the inlet valves and the supply of all cylinders are important factors for the injection. The book contains: a survey of markets and opinions, a historical survey of the development of petrol injection (from mechanics to electronics); the basic physics of Otto-engine and Otto-fuel; richly illustrated structural functional and performance-related data on a variety of modern fuel injection systems as for example: direct fuel injection and suction pipe injection (Bosch); suction pipe injection (Kugelfischer); mechanical injection (Lucas), first electronically controlled injection (D-Jetronic); L-Jetronic (air-flow measurement); K-Jetronic (mechanical control); petrol injection (Pierburg; mechanical drive-less); ECI-central injection (Mitsubishi), Mono-Jetronic (Bosch); central injection.

Schweizer, W.

1983-01-01

46

Petrol from straw  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Possibilities for substituting petrol in road traffic are described in a comprehensive way. Alternatives are: liquified gas with a low pollution degree, addition of alcohol in order to avoid addition of lead, liquefaction of coal, this, however is looked upon as a dead end since it is too expensive and pollution is too high; wood carburetors can be used only in certain sectors of (agriculture, forestry); hydrogen engines if hydrogen can be produced cheaply and finally electric vehicles.

1982-01-01

47

Alternatives to fossil petrol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review is made of liquid and gaseous fuel alternatives to fossil petrol. The principal alternatives discussed are hydrogen, ethanol, methanol, methane and plant hydrocarbons. Various technologies for producing hydrogen are discussed including biophotolysis. Biological sources of ethanol, methanol and methane are examined. The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and future developments identified, e.g. increasing the productivity of sugar cane and improving fermentation and distillation efficiencies. (Refs. 30).

Spinks, A.

1982-02-01

48

WLAN Hot Spot services for the automotive and oil industries :a business analysis Or : "Refuel the car with petrol and information, both ways at the gas station"  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While you refuel for gas ,why not refuel for information or download vehicle data ? This paper analyzes in extensive detail the user segmentation by vehicle usage , service offering , and full business models from WLAN hot spot services delivered to vehicles (private, professional , public) around gas stations . Are also analyzed the parties which play a role in such service authorization, provisioning and delivery , with all the dependencies modelled by attributed digraphs . Sevice planning ...

2003-01-01

49

A petrol bitech power unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes a petrol (gasoline) engine development project to combine the duel technologies of an Otto cycle engine with a modified cooling system and a high-tech processor-controlled bottoming cycle to harness not only the waste heat from the exhaust gases but also a significant proportion of the heat lost by a conventional petrol engine to the water coolant, resulting in a very substantial increase in energy conversion efficiency.

Conway, R. [Syndicated Services, Warwick (United Kingdom)

1995-03-01

50

Benzene emission from the actual car fleet in relation to petrol composition in Denmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study covers an investigation of the trends in air pollution levels of benzene in Danish cities and their relationship with the benzene content in petrol. Petrol samples from the two refineries in Denmark as well as sold petrol from some representative Danish petrol stations were analysed. The benzene content in Danish petrol was reduced from 3.5% for 95 octane prior to 1995 to approx. 2% in 1995 and further to 1% in 1998. Air quality measurements of aromatic VOC are available from two Danish cities; Copenhagen since 1994 and Odense since 1997. Measurements of benzene, CO and NO{sub x} from these two locations were analysed using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) and trends in the actual emissions of these pollutants were determined. It is shown that the decrease in both the concentration levels and in the emissions was significantly larger for benzene than for CO and NO{sub x}. The decreasing trends of NO{sub x} and CO could be explained by the increasing fraction of petrol-fuelled vehicles with three way catalysts (TWC). The much steeper decreasing trend for benzene can most likely be attributed to a combination of the effect of the increasing share of the TWC vehicles and a simultaneous reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol. The reduction of benzene concentrations and emissions is observed despite that the total amount of aromatics in petrol has increased slightly in the same period. (Author)

Palmgren, F.; Hansen, A.B.; Berkowicz, R.; Skov, H. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark)

2001-01-01

51

Benzene emission from the actual car fleet in relation to petrol composition in Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study covers an investigation of the trends in air pollution levels of benzene in Danish cities and their relationship with the benzene content in petrol. Petrol samples from the two refineries in Denmark as well as sold petrol from some representative Danish petrol stations were analysed. The benzene content in Danish petrol was reduced from 3.5% for 95 octane prior to 1995 to approx. 2% in 1995 and further to 1% in 1998. Air quality measurements of aromatic VOC are available from two Danish cities; Copenhagen since 1994 and Odense since 1997. Measurements of benzene, CO and NOx from these two locations were analysed using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) and trends in the actual emissions of these pollutants were determined. It is shown that the decrease in both the concentration levels and in the emissions was significantly larger for benzene than for CO and NOx. The decreasing trends of NOx and CO could be explained by the increasing fraction of petrol-fuelled vehicles with three way catalysts (TWC). The much steeper decreasing trend for benzene can most likely be attributed to a combination of the effect of the increasing share of the TWC vehicles and a simultaneous reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol. The reduction of benzene concentrations and emissions is observed despite that the total amount of aromatics in petrol has increased slightly in the same period. (Author)

2001-01-01

52

Dependence of evaporation losses on petrol quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper deals with the interrelation between evaporation losses and automobile petrol quality and presents the results of research on modern petrol. It has been established that evaporation leads to an increase in heavy hydrocarbon concentration in petrol composition adversely affecting its quality and operational properties at the excess of permissible concentration.

2010-01-01

53

Hybrid petrol-electric vehicle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discussed the development of a hybrid petrol-electric vehicle which can make an important contribution to energy conservation, road safety and pollution control. The vehicle incorporates a small petrol engine for long distances and compact electric motors for city driving. Both power sources are linked to a computer-operated transmission system which permits a major reduction in engine size without loss in road power. The tranmission system incorporates two forms of energy storage, the spinning flywheel and lead-acid batteries. The transmission system is described.

1983-02-01

54

The complicated transition to competition in the petrol industry in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Spanish petrol market has been deeply restructured. However, the results of two decades of liberalization are mixed. A more active policy of fostering and defending competition has been missing. Reform efforts in the sector and economic analyses of the markets have overwhelming been focussed on the upstream activities of manufacturing and wholesaling. By contrast, other activities of the sector are the ones that are constraining competition. Vertical relations between petrol major companies and petrol stations have a very significant impact on the process to achieve effective competition. And access to distribution essential facilities such as pipes is a necessary condition to open up the market to new operators. In Spain, transition to competition in the petrol industry has not taken enough care on restructuring vertical relations and access to essential facilities. (Author)

2007-01-01

55

Faster growth of unleaded petrol in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1989 the pace of the transition to unleaded petrol accelerated. Over the year unleaded accounted for 25 percent of all petrol consumed in Western Europe - EC plus EFTA countries. This compares with nearly 10 percent in 1987 and 15 percent in 1988. West Germany, the largest petrol market in Europe, accounted for just over half the total unleaded sold in Europe in 1989. However, 40% of the increase of unleaded petrol in the whole of Europe in the year was accounted for by the United Kingdom where sales were boosted, as in Belgium, through the introduction of a substantial tax differential. Data are presented for the petrol grade split for all the European countries in 1989, for the increase in unleaded consumption over the year and for the availability of unleaded petrol in Europe at the beginning of 1990. (UK).

Berwick, I. (UK Petroleum Industry Association (GB))

1990-07-01

56

Traveling Salesman Approach for Solving Petrol Distribution Using Simulated Annealing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research presents an attempt to solve a logistic company's problem of delivering petrol to petrol station in the state of Johor. This delivery system is formulated as a travelling salesman problem (TSP. TSP involves finding an optimal route for visiting stations and returning to point of origin, where the inter-station distance is symmetric and known. This real world application is a deceptive simple combinatorial problem and our approach is to develop solutions based on the idea of local search and meta-heuristics. As a standard problem, we have chosen a solution is a deceptively simple combinatorial problem and we defined it simply as the time spends or distance travelled by salesman visiting n cities (or nodes cyclically. In one tour the vehicle visits each station just once and finishes up where he started. As standard problems, we have chosen TSP with different stations visited once. This research presents the development of solution engine based on local search method known as Greedy Method and with the result generated as the initial solution, Simulated Annealing (SA and Tabu Search (TS further used to improve the search and provide the best solution. A user friendly optimization program developed using Microsoft C++ to solve the TSP and provides solutions to future TSP which may be classified into daily or advanced management and engineering problems.

Zuhaimy Ismail

2008-01-01

57

Petrol supplies and consumer expectations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A formal model of the consumer's behavior given uncertain supplies of petrol is developed. The theory derived implies that consumers will attempt to purchase larger quantities than they would under certainty; although they expect to purchase less. It is shown that a service surcharge will reduce the optimal amount that the consumer attempts to purchase under uncertainty, and from this it is concluded that such a fee would save gasoline supplies. Special consideration is given to the role of the consumer's expectations and their revision in this model. 17 references, 1 figure.

Martin, R.E.

1983-01-01

58

Health Risk Assessment of Ambient Air Concentrations of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene (BTX) in Service Station Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive evaluation of the adverse health effects of human exposures to BTX from service station emissions was carried out using BTX exposure data from the scientific literature. The data was grouped into different scenarios based on activity, location and occupation and plotted as Cumulative Probability Distributions (CPD) plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) at 50% (CEXP50) and 95% (CEXP95) exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 > 1 were obtained with benzene in the scenario for service station attendants and mechanics repairing petrol dispensing pumps indicating a possible health risk. The risk was minimized for service stations using vapour recovery systems which greatly reduced the benzene exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 health risk. The lifetime excess Cancer Risk (CR) and Overall Risk Probability for cancer on exposure to benzene was calculated for all Scenarios and this was higher amongst service station attendants than any other scenario.

Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

2014-01-01

59

Process Guidance Note 1/14 (06) Unloading of Petrol into Storage at ...  

The unloading of petrol into stationary storage tanks at a service station. .... \\Further guidance on permit reviews is contained in chapter 26 of the General \\Guidance ... 2.12 Conditions should be reviewed where complaint is attributable \\to the ... It should be noted that the constructional standards for mobile containers \\are ...

60

Effects of changes in petrol taxation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to estimate and discuss some of the policy-relevant effects of petrol tax changes. Our approach is to seek to separate the extent to which each of the following variables is affected by changes in the price of petrol: (i) car ownership (ii) car use (iii) petrol consumption per km. The estimates show that the sum of (i) and (ii) results in a price-elasticity with respect to 'car traffic' equal to -0.2 in the short run, and -0.3 in the long run. Because of possibilities to increase the fuel efficiency of cars, the price-elasticity of 'petrol demand' is substantially greater: -0.3 in the short run and of the order of -0.7 in the long run. One conclusion is: A petrol price rise is considerably more effective as a measure for energy and environmental policy than for transport policy. The effect of petrol tax changes to the total tax revenue is also discussed. At last, the regional welfare distribution effects are treated in the form of estimation of regional differences to the reduction in the consumers' surplus from a petrol price increase. 19 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs

1994-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

TOXICITY OF PETROL OIL ON SPIRULINA PLATENSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1947, UN declared Spirulina as “the best food for tomorrow”. It is very rich in protein content. In the present study we have determined the effect of petrol oil on Spirulina platensis growth rate. It is exposed to different concentration of petrol oil to see the effect of petrol on the protein, carbohydrate and growth rate of Spirulina platensis. It involved 2,5,10 and 20 ml of petro oil in the media after which the survival and the growth of the S. platensis were evaluated. Although the percentage of protein and carbohydrate decreased as the quantity of the petrol oil added to the media comparison to the control samples. The results obtained in this study showed that spillage of mixture of gasoline poses threats to the survival and development of algae and plants.

Rajni Karoriya

2013-09-01

62

Survey of Present Petrol Injection Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The technical advantages of petrol injection compared to conventional carburettor systems include: precise measurement of the optimum quantity of fuel in all working conditions of the engine, supply of precisely dosed quantity of fuel to the engine inlet ...

H. Knapp

1983-01-01

63

Retrofittable alcohol/petrol carburation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work in the TNO Organization concentrates on the development of retrofittable hardware to enable cars to run on alcohol fuels as well as petrol from the same tank in all mixture ratios. Essential in this approach is a transducer which determines the alcohol/petrol ratio between 0 and 100%. Research and develoment work with respect to different types of transducers is described. Additionally an integrated system of transducer, fuel warm up, electronic circuitry and servomotor for carburetor adjustment is described.

van der Weide, J.; Ramackers, M.

1980-01-01

64

An attitude study on the environmental effects of rationing petrol in Tehran  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to assess the environmental effects of implementing petrol rationing and the issuance of fuel smartcards in central Tehran. The results and their application are significant from the perspective of preserving fuel sources and protecting the environment, both of which being among the goals of sustainable development. Through the analysis of soft data (owners of automobile and light pickup trucks attitude), 3 general hypotheses were assessed and the result was compared to hard data (the traffic situation information, petrol consumption and air pollution). The soft data was gathered using a comprehensive questionnaire which randomly distributed among 2000 automobile and pickup truck drivers in the central Tehran area who were at petrol stations to refuel their vehicles. The gathered data was then analyzed at two levels: descriptive and inferential. The results of this research reveal that according to the soft data, the smartcard project has resulted in a decline in traffic and petrol consumption and a rise in air pollution; furthermore, the positive cultural effects of this project have been comparatively prominent. The actual figures show that the project has led to lower traffic load and air pollution but petrol consumption remains the same as before. (author)

Hanafizadeh, Payam; Navardi, Zeinab; Bamdad Soofi, Jahanyar [Department of Industrial Management, Allameh Tabataba' i University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-11-15

65

An attitude study on the environmental effects of rationing petrol in Tehran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to assess the environmental effects of implementing petrol rationing and the issuance of fuel smartcards in central Tehran. The results and their application are significant from the perspective of preserving fuel sources and protecting the environment, both of which being among the goals of sustainable development. Through the analysis of soft data (owners of automobile and light pickup trucks attitude), 3 general hypotheses were assessed and the result was compared to hard data (the traffic situation information, petrol consumption and air pollution). The soft data was gathered using a comprehensive questionnaire which randomly distributed among 2000 automobile and pickup truck drivers in the central Tehran area who were at petrol stations to refuel their vehicles. The gathered data was then analyzed at two levels: descriptive and inferential. The results of this research reveal that according to the soft data, the smartcard project has resulted in a decline in traffic and petrol consumption and a rise in air pollution; furthermore, the positive cultural effects of this project have been comparatively prominent. The actual figures show that the project has led to lower traffic load and air pollution but petrol consumption remains the same as before.

2010-11-01

66

An attitude study on the environmental effects of rationing petrol in Tehran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to assess the environmental effects of implementing petrol rationing and the issuance of fuel smartcards in central Tehran. The results and their application are significant from the perspective of preserving fuel sources and protecting the environment, both of which being among the goals of sustainable development. Through the analysis of soft data (owners of automobile and light pickup trucks attitude), 3 general hypotheses were assessed and the result was compared to hard data (the traffic situation information, petrol consumption and air pollution). The soft data was gathered using a comprehensive questionnaire which randomly distributed among 2000 automobile and pickup truck drivers in the central Tehran area who were at petrol stations to refuel their vehicles. The gathered data was then analyzed at two levels: descriptive and inferential. The results of this research reveal that according to the soft data, the smartcard project has resulted in a decline in traffic and petrol consumption and a rise in air pollution; furthermore, the positive cultural effects of this project have been comparatively prominent. The actual figures show that the project has led to lower traffic load and air pollution but petrol consumption remains the same as before. (author)

2010-11-01

67

Detecting lead in petrol. Nachweis von Blei in Benzin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention concerns a process for the direct detection of lead in petrol, in which a petrol sample is burnt, the residue is collected in a weakly acid solvent and the lead is detected by a colour reaction.

Fischer, W.; Krenn, K.D.

1987-12-10

68

????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? TESTING TECHNIQUE OF MOTOR PETROL PHYSICAL STABILITY ESTIMATION AND FORECASTING ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????. ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????. ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????????????. ????????? ????????? ????????. ???????? ???????????? ???? ?? ????????????. The technique of petrol physical stability assessment and forecasting was tested. The results of study aimed at investigation of modern motor petrols evaporability are presented in the article. The refractive index is shown to be useful tool in making prognosis about evaporation losses of motor petrol. The validation of this technique was conducted and recommendations are given on its application. ???????????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????. ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????. ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????. ????????? ???????? ????????. ????????? ???????????? ?? ?? ?????????????.

Eugenya P. Pugachevskaya

2009-04-01

69

Lead in petrol. The isotopic lead experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many studies were dedicated to the evaluation of the impact of automotive lead on the environment and to the assessment of its absorption in the human population. They can be subdivided into two groups, those based on changes of air and blood lead concentrations and those based on changes of air and blood lead isotopic compositions. According to various authors, 50-66% of the lead added to petrol is mobilized in the atmosphere, while most of the remainder adheres to the walls of the exhaust system from which it is expelled by mechanical and thermal shocks in the forms of easily sedimented particles. The fraction directly emitted by engine exhaust fumes is found in the form of fine particles, which can be transferred a long way from the emitting sources. However important the contribution of petrol lead to the total airborne lead may be, our knowledge does not permit a straightforward calculation of the percentage of petrol lead in total blood lead, which of course can also originate from other sources (e.g., industrial, natural). To evaluate this percentage in 1973, the idea of the Isotopic Lead Experiment (ILE project) was conceived to label, on a regional scale, petrol with a nonradioactive lead of an isotopic composition sufficiently different from that of background lead and sufficiently stable in time. This Account summarizes the main results obtained by the ILE project.

Facchetti, S. (Commission of the European Communities Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy))

1989-10-01

70

Investigating Competition in the Retail Petrol Market.  

Science.gov (United States)

A questionnaire that college economics students can use to investigate the degree and nature of competition in the retail market for petrol is provided. A simple computer program is included to help in the analysis of the questionnaire. (Author/RM)

Davies, P.

1984-01-01

71

The complicated transition to competition in the petrol industry in Spain; La dificil conduccion de la competencia por el sector de las gasolinas en Espana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Spanish petrol market has been deeply restructured. However, the results of two decades of liberalization are mixed. A more active policy of fostering and defending competition has been missing. Reform efforts in the sector and economic analyses of the markets have overwhelming been focussed on the upstream activities of manufacturing and wholesaling. By contrast, other activities of the sector are the ones that are constraining competition. Vertical relations between petrol major companies and petrol stations have a very significant impact on the process to achieve effective competition. And access to distribution essential facilities such as pipes is a necessary condition to open up the market to new operators. In Spain, transition to competition in the petrol industry has not taken enough care on restructuring vertical relations and access to essential facilities. (Author)

Perdiguero, J.; Borrel, J. R.

2007-07-01

72

Effects of Gasoline Inhalation on Menstrual Characteristics and the Hormonal Profile of Female Petrol Pump Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing numbers of young women are employed as gasoline station attendants in most developing countries despite the lack of empirical data on the adverse reproductive health effect of this solvent. This study therefore sought to assess the effects of gasoline inhalation on the serum sex hormone profile and menstrual characteristics of female gasoline station attendants in

Ekpenyong, Christopher E.; Koofreh Davies; Nyebuk Daniel

2013-01-01

73

PETROL-INHALATION DEPENDENCE : A CASE REPORT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ms M. a 13 years old class III student presented with one year history of petrol fumes inhalation dependence and six months history of kerosene inhalation dependence. She liked the smell of fumes getting pleasant feeling of well-being and increased confidence. She though fulfilled all the criteria of inherent dependence differed from typical cases described in published reports. Like male preponderance and group activity, the prominent features of inhalation dependence were absent in our case.

Pahwa, Madhu; Baweja, Aneesh; Gupta, Vinesh; Jiloha, R. C.

1998-01-01

74

Petrol with isotopically differentiated lead added  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment is proposed aimed at determining the role of motor traffic in the pollution of the environment by lead, in particular of air, soil, vegetation, food and the human body. The technique of determining the isotopic composition of lead, used in the right way, should enable the whole problem to be solved. It is intended to add lead with a constant isotopic composition different from that of normally occuring lead, whether natural in origin or otherwise, to petrol in at least two regions of Italy. Analyses of lead samples taken from the principal mines have shown that Australian lead (Broken Hill Mine) has quite a different isotopic composition. This lead will therefore be used to prepare the antiknock additives for petrol sold in the regions in question. Adequate sampling should make it possible to determine the contribution to pollution of lead from motor vehicle exhausts. The regions chosen for the experiment are Piedmont (city and province of Turin) and Sardinia (city and province of Cagliari) - the first because of its high traffic density and level of industrialization, the second because of its remoteness and the lead content of the soil, which may affect food. Both regions present favourable conditions for supplying petrol of the intended type. The experiment is intended to last three years; the petrol with Australian lead will be marketed for a period of 18 months. The first results of analyses of the isotopic composition of lead contained in atmospheric dust in the city of Turin and of lead from a number of blood samples are reported in the paper

1974-11-18

75

Petrol consumption and redistributive effects of its taxation in Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this paper is to estimate a petrol consumption function for Spain and to evaluate the redistributive effects of petrol taxation. We use micro data from the Spanish Household Budget Survey of 1990/91 and model petrol consumption taking into account the effect that income changes may have on car ownership levels, as well as the differences that exist between expenditure and consumption. Our results show the importance that household structure, place of residence and income have...

Asensio Ruiz Alda, Francisco Javier

2006-01-01

76

Saccade dysfunction associated with chronic petrol sniffing and lead encephalopathy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In chronic petrol sniffers, recent exposure to high levels of leaded petrol may give rise to a lead encephalopathy characterised by tremor, chorea, ataxia, hyperreflexia, convulsive seizures, and death. Neurological abnormalities associated with lead encephalopathy involve the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and brain stem.

Cairney, S.; Maruff, P.; Burns, C.; Currie, J.; Currie, B.

2004-01-01

77

Quantification of ethanol in petrol-ethanol blends: use of Reichardt's E(T)(30) dye in introducing a petrol batch independent calibration procedure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Petroleum fuels are generally non-polar. The presence of ethanol in the petrol-ethanol fuel blends increases the polarity of the fuel blend. It was observed that absorption spectral shift of the Reichardt's E(T)(30) dye is sensitive to the petrol-ethanol blend polarity. It was also found that E(T)(30) dye has a characteristic ?(max) of absorption in petrol-ethanol blends irrespective of the petrol batch with which blends were prepared. In the present work, a sensitive analytical method for the petrol batch independent quantification of ethanol content in petrol-ethanol blends has been developed. PMID:23141358

Kumar, Keshav; Mishra, Ashok Kumar

2012-10-15

78

Idiosyncrasies in Australian petrol price behaviour: evidence of seasonalities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been argued that there are certain idiosyncrasies in Australian petrol price behaviour. To the extent that these idiosyncrasies result in large magnitude differences in petrol prices, they may be exploited by consumers to significantly reduce their household expenditure on the product. Similarly, such seasonalities may influence retailers in their purchase and storage decision. The objective of this paper is to test for seasonalities in the Australian retail petrol market. The approach adopted is similar to that for determining calendar anomalies as documented in the financial and commodity markets literature. We find that a monthly seasonal effect is pronounced with petrol prices lower in the months of February-May and highest in July and August. A day-of-the-week effect is also apparent and is manifest in all petrol prices for capital cities (Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney) across various years. However, the half-month effect, as is common in stock returns, is not observed. Moreover, contrary to popular belief that petrol prices are higher surrounding holidays, no evidence of the holiday effect is found. In Brisbane and Melbourne, petrol prices also have some relationship to the mood of consumers, as proxied using weather conditions. This is not observed in Adelaide and Sydney. (Author)

2000-04-01

79

Synthesis gas from petrol coke and petroleum residues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Residues rich in sulphur and heavy metals like vanadium, nickel and iron are expected to increase from the conversion processes. The bottoms from the vacuum destillation and hydrotreaters have, as a result of their sulphur and heavy metal concentration, only a limited application in catalytic processing. The alternative thermal processing route leads to increased production of petrol coke enriched in these constituents. One more source of vanadium is the catalyst wear in the hydrotreating of low grade crude. The shift from heavy oil to petrol coke for producing synthetic gas seems to be an interesting proposition. This paper discusses the technology of processing petrol coke to synthetic gas and sketches the development potential.

Gribat, A.G.

1985-06-01

80

The supply of petrol: a report on the supply in the United Kingdom of petrol by wholesale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A report by the UK Monopolies and Mergers Commission on the supply of petrol examines the extent of vertical control within the industry and concludes that it is a competitive market. Topics covered include petrol prices, profits, petrol exchange agreements, wholesaler agreements with retailers, wholesalers' ownership of retail sites and control over prices and barriers to the entry to the market. In addition to concluding that none of the facts found operate against the public interest, some recommendations regarding the future are made. (UK).

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The supply of petrol: a report on the supply in the United Kingdom of petrol by wholesale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report by the UK Monopolies and Mergers Commission on the supply of petrol examines the extent of vertical control within the industry and concludes that it is a competitive market. Topics covered include petrol prices, profits, petrol exchange agreements, wholesaler agreements with retailers, wholesalers' ownership of retail sites and control over prices and barriers to the entry to the market. In addition to concluding that none of the facts found operate against the public interest, some recommendations regarding the future are made. (UK)

1990-01-01

82

Calculation of Emissions from UK Petrol Engined Motor Vehicles,  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes the methods used to calculate emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and lead from UK petrol engined motor vehicles. Techniques account for speed-related factors, traffic activity factors, and evapor...

H. S. Eggleston

1987-01-01

83

Device for alternative operation of a petrol engine with petrol or liquefied gas. Einrichtung zum alternativen Betreiben eines Otto-Motors mit Benzin oder Fluessiggas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a petrol engine which can be driven either with petrol or liquefied gas, there is a changeover switch, with which the type of operation with petrol or liquefied gas can be changed over. The changeover switch acts on the ignition system of the engine so that when switching over from petrol to liquefied gas operation, the ignition point is advanced by a predetermined amount.

Dolderer, E.A.

1984-03-15

84

NF EN 228. - Automotive fuels. - Unleaded petrol. - Requirements and test methods; NF EN 228. - Carburants pour automobiles. - Essence sans plomb. - Exigences et methodes d'essai  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered unleaded petrol. It is applicable to unleaded petrol for use in petrol engine vehicles designed to run on unleaded petrol.

NONE

2004-04-01

85

Method for recovery of petrol gasoline from a mixture of petrol vapor and air, and a system for use in the method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a method of the type where petrol is recovered from a mixture of petrol vapor and air by absorption of the petrol in a cooled petroleum distillate, a petroleum distillate having a boiling point range higher than that of the petrol is used, and this petroleum distillate is in sequence cooled by heat exchange with a cold reservoir, brought into direct contact with the petrol/air mixture to absorb petrol, transferred to a buffer tank and transferred from the buffer tank to a stripping means which may be a distillation column. By combining cooling condensation and absorption of the petrol vapor and controlling the amount of cooled petroleum distillate brought into contact with the petrol/air mixture so that the petrol concentration in the petroleum distillate transferred to the buffer tank is substantially constant, an unprecedented optimum control of the petrol absorbing process can be obtained both in peak load and in average load operations. A system for carrying out the method is advantageous in that only the absorption means need be dimensioned for peak load operation, while the other components, such as the distillation column or a heat exchanger with associated conduits can be dimensioned for average loads, a buffer tank being provided to temporarily receive the petroleum distillate which owing to the above-mentioned control has a substantially constant, maximum petrol concentration so that the system can cope with peak loads with a surprisingly small buffer tank.

Jacobsen, A. J.

1984-10-09

86

Health Risk Assessment of Ambient Air Concentrations of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene (BTX in Service Station Environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comprehensive evaluation of the adverse health effects of human exposures to BTX from service station emissions was carried out using BTX exposure data from the scientific literature. The data was grouped into different scenarios based on activity, location and occupation and plotted as Cumulative Probability Distributions (CPD plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ at 50% (CEXP50 and 95% (CEXP95 exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 > 1 were obtained with benzene in the scenario for service station attendants and mechanics repairing petrol dispensing pumps indicating a possible health risk. The risk was minimized for service stations using vapour recovery systems which greatly reduced the benzene exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 were obtained for all other scenarios with benzene suggesting minimal risk for most of the exposed population. However, HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 was also found with toluene and xylene for all scenarios, suggesting minimal health risk. The lifetime excess Cancer Risk (CR and Overall Risk Probability for cancer on exposure to benzene was calculated for all Scenarios and this was higher amongst service station attendants than any other scenario.

Benjamin Edokpolo

2014-06-01

87

Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

2012-01-01

88

Study of cluster formation in petrol pitch by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Structural and magnetic properties of the iron containing clusters in petrol pitchs (JCCP), produced by mixing of petrol pitch's matrix with iron carbonyl complex, was studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. (orig.)

1990-07-01

89

Multipronged evaluation of genotoxicity in Indian petrol-pump workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Petrol (gasoline) contains a number of toxicants. This study used human biomonitoring to evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to benzene in petrol fumes in 100 Indian petrol-pump workers (PPWs) and an equal number of controls. The study was corroborated with in silico assessments of the Comet assay results from the human biomonitoring study. An in vitro study in human lymphocytes was also conducted to understand the genotoxicity of benzene and its metabolites. In a subset of the population studied, higher blood benzene levels were detected in the PPWs (n = 39; P benzene > catechol > 1,2,4,-benzenetriol > muconic acid. This study demonstrates that, using sensitive techniques, it is possible to detect human health risks at an early stage when intervention is possible. possible. PMID:18800353

Pandey, Alok K; Bajpayee, Mahima; Parmar, Devendra; Kumar, Rakesh; Rastogi, Subodh K; Mathur, Neeraj; Thorning, Paul; de Matas, Marcel; Shao, Qun; Anderson, Diana; Dhawan, Alok

2008-12-01

90

Linde rotary cooling system for hot petrol coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heavy refinery residues can be processed to high-quality petrol coke with different methods. Petrol coke is used mainly as a raw material for electrode graphite. In Europe, there is a demand of about 2 mio. tons a year. Before further processing, petrol coke must be cooled from about 1.400/sup 0/C - 1200/sup 0/C to 150/sup 0/C - 120/sup 0/C. For heat removal, rotary cooling systems, so-called coke cooling systems, are employed. The article shows the structure of such a cooling system and deals with the specific thermal and mechanical loads. The influence of operational and material parameters on the heat exchanging effect of the cooling system is discussed and the mechanism of heat transfer is explained. (orig.).

Braeutigam, M.; Ringer, D.

1985-05-01

91

Methanol blends - an alternative fuel for the spark ignition petrol engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author considers alternatives to petrol fuels in the light of the present oil problem including synthetic petrol from coal, methanol and shale oils, methanol from coal and ethanol from biomass, and alcohol-petrol blends. Attention is focussed on the use of petrol-methanol blends as a fuel for spark ignition engines; and the properties of methanol which make it suitable for this, and the problems of such a fuel, are considered. (12 refs.)

Letcher, T.M.

1983-01-01

92

Production of petrol from coal or natural gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pilot plant operation has shown that the Mobil MTG process is suitable for industrial scale operation. The production of methanol from natural gas and coal is discussed, as is the subsequent conversion of methanol to petrol: emphasis is placed on the best possible integration of all process plant. It is also shown for coal as raw material that simultaneous generation of petrol and SNG has considerable advantages of a thermal and financial nature. The principal process steps are described after the manner of keywords and the product costs are presented as functions of the various raw material costs.

Cornelius, G.

1982-02-01

93

Psychology of Flight Attendant’s Profession  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The profession of a flight attendant appeared in aviation in the 1920s. Professionalcommunity of flight attendants is constantly growing with the growth ofcomplexity of aviation technology, professional standards of passenger serviceand safety. The psychological scientific research was carried out by a psychologistwho worked as a flight attendant. The study revealed the psychological content,demands, peculiarities in cabin crews’ labor. A job description was accomplished.Temporal and spatia...

2012-01-01

94

Psychology of Flight Attendant’s Profession  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The profession of a flight attendant appeared in aviation in the 1920s. Professionalcommunity of flight attendants is constantly growing with the growth ofcomplexity of aviation technology, professional standards of passenger serviceand safety. The psychological scientific research was carried out by a psychologistwho worked as a flight attendant. The study revealed the psychological content,demands, peculiarities in cabin crews’ labor. A job description was accomplished.Temporal and spatial characteristics, the main contradictions, unfavorable psychogenicand stress factors in labor were examined and described. Psychological profilesof a cabin attendant and of an air passenger were drawn up.

Tatyana V. Filipieva

2012-01-01

95

Safety characteristics of ethanol / automotive petrol mixtures - additional information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Triggered by new developments in the composition of ethanol/petrol fuels (ethanol content >85 vol%) additional measurements of the maximum experimental safe gap (MESG) have been carried out. The aim of the work was to identify the ethanol concentration in the liquid mixture for which the MESG (determined at a vapour/gas mixture temperature of 50 C) becomes 0.9 mm and lower. The vapour phase composition used for these determinations was the equilibrium composition over the liquid fuel mixtures at 50 C. The liquid mixtures were prepared from respective amounts of volumes of petrol and ethanol (uncertainty of volume measurement 0.1 vol% absolute). The automotive petrol fuels used for this purpose were of unleaded petrol super grade summer quality (Eurosuper ROZ 95) which are commercially available and had a Reid vapour pressure between 580 mbar and 595 mbar (EN 228: climate zone A). For conservative conditions, summer quality was chosen because of its lower vapour pressure compared to winter quality. (orig.)

Brandes, E.; Frobese, D.H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Mitu, M.

2007-09-15

96

Condição coclear e do sistema olivococlear medial de frentistas de postos de gasolina expostos a solventes orgânicos / Cochlear condition and olivocochlear system of gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Solventes orgânicos são cada vez mais estudados em função de sua ação ototóxica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a condição das células ciliadas externas e o sistema olivococlear medial de sujeitos expostos a solventes orgânicos. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo. Foram avaliados 78 frentistas [...] de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (RS) expostos a solventes orgânicos. Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, a amostra ficou constituída por 24 sujeitos. Os procedimentos utilizados na avaliação foram anamnese audiológica, Emissões Otoacústicas Transientes (EOAT) e pesquisa do efeito supressor das EOAT. Um grupo controle (GC) composto por 23 sujeitos, foi utilizado para comparar sujeitos expostos e não-expostos. A coleta de dados foi realizada na sala de Fonoaudiologia do Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador de Santa Maria. RESULTADOS: A presença de EOAT foi maior na orelha esquerda em ambos os grupos; a média da relação sinal/ruído das EOAT de ambas as orelhas foi maior no GE; o efeito supressor das EOAT na orelha direita foi maior nos sujeitos do GE (62,5%) e na orelha esquerda foi superior no GC (86,96%), com diferença estatisticamente significante. A mediana da relação sinal/ruído das EOAT, segundo a faixa de frequência, foi maior no GC em três faixas de frequência na orelha direita e em uma na orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: Não foram encontrados sinais de alteração nas células ciliadas externas nem no sistema olivococlear medial nos sujeitos expostos a solventes orgânicos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Organic solvents have been increasingly studied due to its ototoxic action. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the conditions of outer hair cells and olivocochlear system in individuals exposed to organic solvents. METHOD: This is a prospective study. 78 gas station attendants exposed to organic solv [...] ents had been evaluated from three gas stations from Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul (RS). After applying the inclusion criteria, the sample was constituted by 24 individuals. The procedures used on the evaluation were audiological anamnesis, Transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAES) and research for the suppressive effect of TEOAES. A group control (GC) compounded by 23 individuals was compared to individuals exposed and non-exposed individuals. The data collection has been done in the room of Speech Therapy of Workers Health Reference Center of Santa Maria. RESULTS: The TEOAES presence was major in the left ear in both groups; the average relation of TEOAES signal/noise in both ears was greater in GE; the TEOAES suppressive effect in the right ear was higher in the individual of GE (62,5%) and in the left ear was superior in GC (86,96%), with statistically significant difference. The median sign/noise ratio of TEOAES, according to the frequency range, it was higher in GC in three frequencies ranges in the right ear and one in the left ear. CONCLUSION: It was not found signs of alteration on the outer hair cells neither on the olivocochlear medial system in the individuals exposed to organic solvents.

Lenita da Silva, Quevedo; Tania Maria, Tochetto; Márcia do Amaral, Siqueira.

97

Linde rotary coolers for the cooling of hot petrol coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are a number of methods that can be used to process heavy residues into high-quality petrol coke. This coke is primarily used as a raw material for electrode graphite. The annual European demand is some 2 million tons. Before further processing, the petrol coke must be cooled down from 1400-1200/sup 0/C to 150-120/sup 0/C, and this is done by means of rotary coolers, so-called coke coolers. This article describes the design of a coke cooler of this kind and deals in detail with the particular thermal and mechanical stresses arising. The effect of operating and feedstock variables on the exchange capacity of the cooler is discussed and the mechanism of heat transfer explained.

Braeutigam, M.; Ringer, D.

1985-05-01

98

Petrol with octane number 91 and 98 will disappear  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Next or may be already this year Petrol with octane number 91 and 98 will disappear from the market of the Slovak Republic. A final deadline has not been set yet. According to an explanation provided by deputy general manager for refinery and marketing of Slovnaft, a.s., Bratislava, Bela Kelemen the reason for this decision is lack of interest drivers show for this type of fuel. The consumption of diesel, on the other hand, is growing rapidly. According to representatives of Slovnaft the balance between offer and demand is tense in case of diesel, petroleum and the most used petrol with octane number 95. In their opinion this is caused mainly by the cold weather

2005-03-10

99

Production of petrol from coal and natural gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In detail, it considers the integration of the Mobil MTG process in the proven area of methanol production; operation of pilot plant has shown that this process is indeed suitable for industrial scale operation. The production of methanol from natural gas and coal is discussed, as is the subsequent conversion of methanol to petrol; emphasis is placed on the best possible integration of all process plant. Apart from the conventional steam reforming route for methanol production from natural gas, the alternative approach of combing a steam reforming plant with an autothermal cleavage step is also considered; the latter leads to a significant increase in efficiency and a reduction in investment costs. It is also shown for coal as raw material that simultaneous generation of petrol and SNG has considerable advantages of a thermal and financial nature. The principal process steps are described after the manner of keywords and the product costs are presented as functions of the various raw material costs.

Cornelius, G.; Hilsebein, W.; Supp, E.

1982-02-01

100

Implementation of Turbocharger in Petrol Engines and its Thermal Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we have discussed about turbocharging of four stroke petrol engine, difference between turbocharging of diesel and gasoline engine and possibilities to reduce losses in Exhaust system are highlighted. However, it omits to discuss two stroke engines due to their different gas exchange processes. Designing of different components involved in turbocharging is done and thermal analysis of turbocharger’s connector pipehas been done along with different kind of stress analysis.

Swapnil Bhurat, Amit Yadav , Atreya pathak

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Regional finance and competition policy: the Canary Islands petrol market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Market competition levels affect all agents of an economy: businesses, consumers and the State. Traditional analysis has evaluated the State’s effects on the other agents, but no analysis has been conducted regarding the inverse relationship. Thus, the aim of this study is to estimate the tributary income losses that low levels of competition in the retail petrol market could cause in a market, using for it the Canary Islands Autonomous Community. To begin, we will use Parker and Röller´s...

Perdiguero-garci?a, Jordi; Jime?nez, Juan Luis

2010-01-01

102

Regional Finance and Competition Policy: The Canary Islands petrol market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Market competition levels affect all agents of an economy: businesses, consumers and the State. Traditional analysis has evaluated the State’s effects on the other agents, but no analysis has been conducted regarding the inverse relationship. Thus, the aim of this study is to estimate the tributary income losses that low levels of competition in the retail petrol market could cause in a market, using for it the Canary Islands Autonomous Community. To begin, we will use P...

2010-01-01

103

Sharp increase in petrol prices and climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current increase in energy prices may be seen as good news for climate change by creating a reduction in energy consumption and therefore emissions of CO2. This study uses the GEMINI-E3 model to analyse the impact of a sharp increase in petrol prices on the world economy and on climate change. The effects of the increase are compared with those of policies for reducing greenhouse gases. (authors)

2006-01-01

104

(Indictment in a case of fetal intravenous petrol injection)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To the patient of surgical department after the operation instead of 10 percent solution of sodium chloride 20 ml of petrol was injected intravenously. After that immediately tonoclonic spasms, loss of consciousness and in 3/4 hours death followed. The doctor giving the injection was sentenced to three month imprisonment with the arrest of judgment. The nurse, who had changed the solution in the bottle in question without changing the label on it, was sentenced to four month imprisonment.

Kosa, F.

1981-01-01

105

Developments in petrol composition. Effects on air quality and health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The introduction of unleaded petrol into the USA in the early 1970s was the first example of using fuel composition to improve air quality. In this case to allow for the use of catalytic converters on new vehicles with the aim of reducing the heavy smog episodes in California which have, over the years, been so well documented. Since then an increasing tendency has been seen to apply composition specifications to fuels, reductions in lead, limits on benzene, the introduction of unleaded petrol until today there are, in the USA, reformulated petrols which include oxygenates and limits for a number of previously uncontrolled components. Later this year it is expected specifications to come out from Brussels which will limit aromatics for the first time in European fuels as well imposing tighter limits to benzene and other components. It would be fair to say that most, if not all, of these changes have been the result of pressure to improve air quality. However, it would also be fair to say that some of these changes have resulted in a worsening short-term air quality and health situations due to a lack of knowledge of the relationship between fuel composition and vehicle emissions. In an attempt to solve one apparent problem, another alternative and sometimes worse situation has been created. In this presentation this effect is demonstrated using aromatic levels and benzene emissions in particular as a means of example

Dent, N.; Gidlow, D.; Larbey, B. [Associated Octel (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

106

In one step from sugar to petrol; In een stap van suiker naar benzine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The American company Virent Energy has the technology to convert watery currents of plant sugars into petrol and petrol blending components in a 1-step process. A major advantage of this bio-petrol is that it can be fully blended with petrol from fossil fuels. Shell has recently expanded its cooperation with Virent to upscale the process. [mk]. [Dutch] Het Amerikaanse bedrijf Virent Energy Systems kan waterige stromen van plantensuikers in een 1-stapsproces omzetten in benzine en benzinemengcomponenten. Groot voordeel van deze biobenzine is dat ze volledig kan worden bijgemengd bij benzine uit fossiele brandstoffen. Shell heeft onlangs de samenwerking met Virent verlengd om het proces op te schalen.

Van Gool, J.

2008-07-01

107

Petrol and gas: an opportunity for the Arab countries?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 17 February 2006 the Institute of the Arab World (IMA) and the Franco-Arab Chamber of Commerce (CCFA) jointly organised a symposium on ''Petrol and Gas, an Opportunity for the Arab countries?''. The preparatory work had been initiated by M. Yves Guena, President of IMA and M. Serge Boidevaix, President of CCFA, with Dr Saleh Al Tayar, the Secretary-General of CCFA. An audience of more than one hundred, made up of experts, professional management, senior company directors and journalists participated. (author)

2006-04-01

108

Today some 95 percent of all petrol sold in the United Kingdom contains detergent additives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief history is given of the development of detergent additives for use in UK petrol. Topics covered include carbon deposit formation and control testing, legislation and the dramatic uptake of detergents such that approximately 95% of petrol now contains them. (UK)

Hickey, Cathryn (Shell UK Ltd. (United Kingdom))

1994-12-01

109

Compare the combustion of CNG engine with that of petrol engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted in which the combustion of a compressed natural gas (CNG) engine was compared with that of a petrol engine. Studies have shown that vehicles of natural gas (VNG) emit fewer exhaust gases. Recently, many petrol engine vehicles have been modified to CNG/petrol bi-fuel engines or mono-fuel CNG engines. Research indicates that in order to achieve low emission, petrol engine should not be changed to VNGs. Modified petrol engines cannot advance the compression ratio, intake system and igniting system. The combustion in a CNG engine and petrol engine is a premixed turbulent combustion. The flame burning velocity, combustion delay period and the heating value of charge are different. Therefore, burning CNG in a petrol engine or CNG/petrol bi-fuel engine has no advantage. The study showed that instead, it would be more economical to design natural gas engines to perform with more power and fewer emissions. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

Di, M.Y.; Yao, Y. [Hebei Normal Univ., Shijiazhuang (China); Yao, W.Y [Beijing Univ., Beijing (China). Physics College

2008-07-01

110

Disparities between Departments in France using monthly consumption of four petrol products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The disparities between Departments in France are studied as a function of monthly consumption (the average for the period 1972/81) of four petrol products (car petrol, diesel, domestic oil, and heavy oil). The hierarchy of Departments obtained is interpreted using synthetic variables created from the primary variables; and this is followed by a cartographic representation.

El Moussaoui, A.

1987-01-01

111

A novel possible strategy for the management of petrol sniffing addiction in adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the 1950s there have been many reports on petrol addiction, mostly describing the practice of petrol sniffing and its acute and chronic physical and psychological effects. To the authors’ knowledge, none have described the use of opiates to manage and control this addiction.

Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mosallai, Sharif

2010-01-01

112

Airborne Lead Concentrations and the Effect of Reductions in the Lead Content of Petrol,  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead in petrol is the major source of airborne lead in the United Kingdom. On 1 January 1986 the maximum permissible lead content of petrol was reduced from 0.4 to 0.15 grams per litre. The report assesses the results available from 21 airborne lead monit...

G. McInnes

1986-01-01

113

Effects of changes in petrol taxation. Bensinskattefoeraendringars effekter; Rapport till expertgruppen foer offentlig ekonomi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to estimate and discuss some of the policy-relevant effects of petrol tax changes. Our approach is to seek to separate the extent to which each of the following variables is affected by changes in the price of petrol: (i) car ownership (ii) car use (iii) petrol consumption per km. The estimates show that the sum of (i) and (ii) results in a price-elasticity with respect to 'car traffic' equal to -0.2 in the short run, and -0.3 in the long run. Because of possibilities to increase the fuel efficiency of cars, the price-elasticity of 'petrol demand' is substantially greater: -0.3 in the short run and of the order of -0.7 in the long run. One conclusion is: A petrol price rise is considerably more effective as a measure for energy and environmental policy than for transport policy. The effect of petrol tax changes to the total tax revenue is also discussed. At last, the regional welfare distribution effects are treated in the form of estimation of regional differences to the reduction in the consumers' surplus from a petrol price increase. 19 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs

Jansson, J. O.; Wall, R.

1994-04-01

114

Lead decline in the Indian environment resulting from the petrol-lead phase-out programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, the lead content of various environmental components has decreased in response to replacement of leaded petrol by unleaded petrol. In India, 15 research studies are here assessed with respect to lead concentrations in various environmental components during the leaded petrol phase (before 1996), the transitional phase (1996-2000) and the unleaded petrol phase (2000 onwards). The Ganga River Water exhibited a decrease in lead concentration from 18.0 {mu}g/l in 1988 to 3.1 {mu}g/l in 2001. In Lucknow urban centre, mean lead concentrations in the urban air decreased from 1.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in 1994 to 0.2 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in 2002. Lead concentrations in Dalbergia sissoo tree leaves also decreased from 18.7 {mu}g/g dry wt. in 1994 to 8.3 {mu}g/g dry wt. in 2004. Mean blood-lead levels of children from Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Amritsar and Lucknow urban centres have fallen from 18.1 {mu}g/dl in the leaded petrol phase to 12.1 {mu}g/dl in the unleaded petrol phase. The petrol-lead phase-out effort in India has reduced lead concentrations in the various environmental components after 2000. It will help to reduce the exposure of millions of people to environmental lead. (author)

Singh, Amit Kumar [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226 007 (India); Singh, Munendra [Department of Geology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226 007 (India)

2006-09-15

115

Petrol-hydrogen truck with load-carrying capacity 5 tons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the results of an investigation of the petrol/hydrogen fuel system of the engine of the ZIL-130 truck, with tests on the engine and the truck with the load-carrying of 5 tons fitted with the fuel system developed. The main outcome is the reduced contents of CO, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas by a factor of 9.2, 1.9 and 7.1 respectively, the increased economical operation by 17.5%, and the decreased petrol consumption by 39.5% as compared with the petrol prototype. (author).

Belogub, A.V.; Talda, G.B. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov (Ukraine). Inst. Problem Mashinostroeniya)

1991-01-01

116

Cold start fuel consumption of a diesel and a petrol car  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements have been made of the fuel consumption of a petrol and a diesel car when starting from cold. The cars were the 1.1 liter petrol VW Golf and the 1.5 liter diesel version, which have the same passenger accommodation and nearly identical road performance. It was found that the diesel car used less fuel in the warm-up period than the petrol, both when being driven at constant speed on a test track and with the engine idling and the car stationary. (Copyright (c) Crown Copyright 1980.)

Pearce, T.C.; Waters, M.H.L.

1980-01-01

117

Heterotopic ossification of the elbows in a major petrol burn.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of a young man who developed heterotopic ossification (HO) in his elbows following an accident where he sustained petrol burns to over 60% of his body. His injuries necessitated intubation, escharotomies and a protracted intensive care unit stay that was complicated by septicaemia. Several weeks after the injury, he was diagnosed with HO in his right elbow, followed by the left elbow a week later. He was commenced on an non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, a long-term course of a bisphosphonate and regular physiotherapy. He is now waiting for the HO bone to mature before having definitive excision of his lesions in 12-18 months time. PMID:22927269

Zaman, Shahriar Raj

2012-01-01

118

Phenol oxidation of petrol refinery wastewater catalyzed by Laccase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid-state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries) have been evaluated in both systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 u/ml) was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 u/ml) was achieved in a submerged system, containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The Laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of Laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant

2002-01-01

119

Making Connections: Attending Professional Conferences  

Science.gov (United States)

Attending a professional conference is an effective way to explore and advance knowledge, skills, and careers. For graduate students, attending a conference is an effective way to explore academic fields and new professions. However, attending a professional conference requires precious resources--time and money--so the decision to attend, or not,…

Cherrstrom, Catherine A.

2012-01-01

120

DEVELOP students attend conference  

Science.gov (United States)

Last month, Madeline Brozen and Jason Jones of the DEVELOP Program at John C. Stennis Space Center joined members from the program's national office at Langley Research Center to attend the Southern Growth Policies Board annual conference in Biloxi. Pictured are (l to r): Karen Allsbrook, Jonathan Gleason, Gov. Haley Barbour, Madeline Brozen, Lindsay Rogers and Tracey Silcox.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Lead: petrol lead in the environment and its contribution to human blood lead levels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Figures are given for the amounts of naturally occurring and anthropogenic emissions of lead. Anthropogenic emissions account for about 99% of the total; 60-70% stems from the combustion of oil and petrol. The intake of lead via dust, especially for young children, is greater than originally thought; estimated contribution to the total intake: 40%. Petrol lead is a major contributor to aerosol lead (> 90%), and to the dust in houses and on the street (> 80%). The calculated and experimental estimates for the petrol lead contribution to blood vary over a wide range of values. The weight of evidence suggests that at least one-third of blood lead stems from petrol lead. 6 figs., 12 tabs., 313 refs.

Fergusson, J.E.

1986-04-01

122

Modelling the Price of Unleaded Petrol in Australia’s Capital Cities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the long-run and short-run determinants of unleaded petrol price in Australia’s capitalcities using monthly data to find out whether prices respond asymmetrically to external shocks. Based on thecointegration test results and the estimated asymmetric short-run dynamic models, it is found that: (1 in thelong-run petrol prices are mainly determined by Tapis crude oil and Singapore petrol prices; (2 there issome evidence of asymmetric price adjustments in the short-run since petrol price increases have been mostlypassed on to the consumer faster than price decreases in four capital cities. More specifically, this paperprovides convincing evidence in support of asymmetric price adjustments and the “rockets-and-feathershypothesis” in Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney. One can thus argue that there are a significantdegree of market inefficiency and/or collusion, requiring a closer government price monitoring and scrutiny.

Abbas Valadkhani

2010-06-01

123

A distinguishing method of different petrol by fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

To realize the online, rapid distinguishing of different petrol in transportation pipelines, a method based on fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance (FO-SPR) sensor is proposed. The calculation and simulation of FO-SPR end-reflection structure were carried out through fiber theoretical model and SPR principle. The impact of different parameters on sensor performance was analyzed. According to the optimized structure parameters, the FO-SPR sensor was manufactured. A wavelength modulation optical measurement system with FO-SPR sensor was established. Sample petrol of 90#, 93# and 97# and their mixture were measured. Different types of petrol were distinguished through the changes of the resonance wavelength. The experiment results showed that the measurement method could distinguish different petrol and had a good degree of distinction and repeatability. It lays the foundation for the identification of mixed product oil in transportation pipelines.

Li, Dachao; Zhu, Rui; Wu, Peng; Pang, Kai; Wu, Jianwei; Zeng, Zhoumo; Xu, Kexin

2013-03-01

124

Biological monitoring of exposure to benzene in petrol pump workers and dry cleaners.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to benzene has been monitored in petrol-pump workers and dry cleaners of Meerut City (India) by measuring phenol content of their urine samples. Average values for phenol in urine were higher in petrol-pump workers than dry cleaners. Alcoholic subjects excreted more phenol than smokers and non-vegetarians. It is concluded that alcohol can alter the susceptibility of man to benzene toxicity by affecting its metabolism. PMID:11758996

Verma, Y; Rana, S V

2001-10-01

125

The effect of reducing petrol lead on airborne lead in Wales, U. K  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Airborne lead has been measured at four urban, one semi-urban and one rural site in Wales during 1984, 1985 and 1986 to assess the effect of the reduction in lead additives in petrol which was required by an EC Directive at the beginning of 1986. The results showed a 52-61% fall in air lead in accord with the 63% reduction in petrol lead. 1 fig., 5 refs., 5 tabs.

Page, R.A.; Cawse, P.A.; Baker, S.J.

1988-01-01

126

Effectiveness and effects of attempts to regulate the UK petrol industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper evaluates the impact that investigation and regulation of the UK petrol industry has had on the profitability of the companies. Using a gross margin for petrol, we estimate a series of variable parameter autoregressive processes. The results demonstrate that the 1979 Monopolies and Mergers Commission investigation into the industry, caused a long-term decline in profit margins in the industry, despite the fact that no recommendations or undertakings were made. This cannot, however, be said for subsequent investigations. 27 refs.

Driffield, N. [Cardiff Business School, Aberconway Building, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Ioannidis, C. [Department of Economics and Finance, Brunel University, Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

2000-06-01

127

Analysis of a petrol plume over England: 18-19 January 1997  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: About 7000 tonnes of unleaded petrol were discharged into the English Channel after a tanker collision off Ostend on Saturday 18 January 1997. The petrol evaporated and the vapour plume was carried across the central part of England to Wales, resulting in reports of unidentified odours, and irritation of the eyes, skin, and upper respiratory tract. This work uses this incident to show how marine and atmospheric dispersion modelling together with routine air quality monitorin...

Welch, F.; Murray, V. S.; Robins, A. G.; Derwent, R. G.; Ryall, D. B.; Williams, M. L.; Elliott, A. J.

1999-01-01

128

Effectiveness and effects of attempts to regulate the UK petrol industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates the impact that investigation and regulation of the UK petrol industry has had on the profitability of the companies. Using a gross margin for petrol, we estimate a series of variable parameter autoregressive processes. The results demonstrate that the 1979 Monopolies and Mergers Commission investigation into the industry, caused a long-term decline in profit margins in the industry, despite the fact that no recommendations or undertakings were made. This cannot, however, be said for subsequent investigations. 27 refs

2000-06-01

129

Impact of Organic Solvents and Environmental Pollutants on the Physiological Function in Petrol Filling Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long term exposure to solvents and air pollutants can lead to deleterious effects on respiratory, haematological and thyroid functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic exposure to solvents like benzene and pollutants like carbon monoxide in petrol filling workers had adverse effect on blood parameters, thyroid and respiratory functions. The study group consisted of 42 healthy, non-smoker petrol filling workers, aged 20-50 years with work (exposure) duration from 2-1...

Nazia Uzma; Khaja Mohinuddin Salar, B. M.; Santhosh Kumar, B.; Nusrat Aziz; Anthony David, M.; Devender Reddy, V.

2008-01-01

130

Impact of Organic Solvents and Environmental Pollutants on the Physiological Function in Petrol Filling Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long term exposure to solvents and air pollutants can lead to deleterious effects on respiratory, haematological and thyroid functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic exposure to solvents like benzene and pollutants like carbon monoxide in petrol filling workers had adverse effect on blood parameters, thyroid and respiratory functions. The study group consisted of 42 healthy, non-smoker petrol filling workers, aged 20–50 years with work (exposure) duration from 2...

Uzma, Nazia; Khaja Mohinuddin Salar, B. M.; Kumar, B. Santhosh; Aziz, Nusrat; David, M. Anthony; Reddy, V. Devender

2008-01-01

131

Impact of phasing out leaded petrol on pre-1986 car fleet in Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Demand for leaded fuel is expected to fall until it is completely phased out under the combined effect of Australian Government policy, driven by health and environmental concerns, and shrinking market for this fuel. The decrease in production of leaded petrol will most likely be accelerated even without regulation as refiners start to reduce lead content in petrol when consumption becomes too low for refiners to market the product profitably or the consumer becomes unwilling to pay the increased price for it. It is estimated that when the consumption of leaded petrol declines to about 10-15 percent of the total petrol usage, it will become a specialty product and force many owners of cars with engines designed for leaded petrol to switch to low-lead (if available) or unleaded petrol. This paper estimates the Australian vehicle fleet most affected by lead phaseout and presents an overview of the phenomenon of valve seat recession (VSR) together with the design and operating parameters affecting VSR and the effectiveness of lead substitute-additives in alleviating VSR. Different low-lead and non-lead scenarios will be discussed together with the measures that can be taken to prevent VSR and protect against engine failure. (author). 7 figs., refs.

Ghojel, J.I.; Watson, H.C. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia)

1995-12-31

132

Passenger cars will soon use only supergrade petrol or diesel fuel. Petroleum industry estimates 70% share of supergrade petrol for 1990 - crude oil consumption during production keeps rising  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The trend for higher compressio ratios in engine construction with the intention of saving fuel will, according to estimates of the petroleum industry, increase the consumption of supergrade petrol in the long run. For example, the share of supergrade petrol is expected to increase from 63% in 1985 to 70% in 1990. However, increasing research octane numbers will also raise the consumption of crude oil. The mineral oil companies expect to be able to meet the fuel demand expected for 1990, in spite of the many problems to be met.

Liek, H.

1981-03-27

133

Research of combustion in older generation spark-ignition engines in the condition of use leaded and unleaded petrol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes the potential problems in the exploitation of the older generation of spark-ignition engines with higher octane number of petrol (unleaded petrol BMB 95 than required (leaded petrol MB 86. Within the experimental tests on two different engines (STEYR-PUCH model 712 and GAZ 41 by applying piezoelectric pressure sensors integrated with the engine spark plugs, acceleration sensors (accelerometers and special electronic block connected with distributor, show that the cumulative first and second theoretical phase of combustion when petrol of higher octane number (BMB 95 is used lasts slightly longer than when the low-octane petrol MB 86 is used. For new petrol (BMB 95 higher optimal angles of pre-ignition have been determined by which better performances of the engine are achieved without a danger of the combustion with detonation (also called knocking.

Bulatovi? Željko M.

2014-01-01

134

Does class attendance still matter?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the impact of class attendance on academic performance in a second year Electronics Engineering course module with online notes and no mandatory class attendance policy. The study shows that class attendance is highly correlated to academic performance, despite the availability of online class notes. In addition, there is significant correlation between class attendance and non-class contact with the lecturer and between student performance in the first year of university study and current academic performance and class attendance. However, there is no correlation between pre-university academic performance and current class attendance and academic performance. The study finds no gender bias in either class attendance or academic performance. Lastly, this being a course module open to students following different degree programmes, the study finds that a student’s choice of degree programme has no impact on class attendance and academic performance in this particular course module.

Abel Nyamapfene

2010-07-01

135

Coal petrol and SNG - alternatives for the future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If in the decades to come no alternatives are found for the conventional fuels, i.e. petrol and diesel oil, in vehicle propulsion and if the non-energetic use of mineral oil is maintained on a large scale for economic reasons although there is a technical possibility of substitution by synthesizing substances other than those derived from mineral oil, the domains of traffic and non-energetic uses will largely remain oil-dependent. Model calculations have shown however that this demand could theoretically be satisfied by the upgrading of coal, which would require substantial additional expenditure. But even if all possible energy measures are taken and on the assumption of rising oil imports, the development of nuclear power is indicated, as coal cannot act as a substitute for nuclear power and a source of fuel at the same time. The necessary volume of capital expenditure is, however, justified only if this is done with the consistent aim of reducing the dependence of oil imports. Development of even part of the coal liquefaction potential would have a favourable and lasting effect in terms of energy policy on the dependence of oil imports all over the world. (Auth.)

1981-01-01

136

LCAs of petrol and diesel - A literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have investigated the environmental impact of using biofuel in transportation compared with fossil fuels. Since these studies often use standard values for the fossil fuel reference scenario, there is a need for a thorough review of published data on fossil fuel use in transportation. This study reviewed the available literature regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy balances in petrol and diesel use and examined possible causes for the differences reported in the literature. This included differences connected to the LCA methodology itself, but also those resulting from technical and economic effects. Thirteen studies were reviewed in order to establish the level of GHG emissions and energy use in the well-to-tank perspective and, where possible, in the entire well-to-wheel perspective. The studies used different input data, allocation methods and system boundaries, but the results fell within a narrow range, since the energy content of the fuels on a tank-to-wheel basis differed only slightly, while the use phase represents most GHG emissions and energy usage in fuel life cycles. All studies reviewed reported GHG emissions values that exceeded the reference value of 83.8 g CO{sub 2}-eq/MJ fuel suggested in the EU Renewable Energy Directive.

Eriksson, Mattias; Ahlgren, Serina

2013-09-01

137

Emission factors for heavy metals from diesel and petrol used in European vehicles  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy metals constitute an important group of persistent toxic pollutants occurring in ambient air and other media. One of the suspected sources of these metals in the atmosphere is combustion of transport fuels in road vehicles. However, estimates of the emissions of these metals from road vehicles as reported in national emission inventories show a very high variability in emission factors used. This paper provides high quality data on concentrations of heavy metals in fuels and derives default emission factors from these. The paper discusses these values against the emission estimates presently reported by the Parties to the LRTAP Convention. The measured concentrations of heavy metals in petrol and diesel fuel show a high variability between different samples taken at gas stations throughout Europe. Metal concentrations in road transport fuels vary over two orders of magnitude, but all remain in the ppb region (a few tenths of a ppb to a few hundred ppb for all metals). The frequency distributions of the measurements could be approximated by lognormal distributions. The emission factors, including 95 percent confidence intervals were derived from a statistical analysis of the survey data. We could not detect a significant difference between samples from different countries. The fuel based emission factors as derived in this study are complemented with those related to unintentional lubricant oil combustion. This allowed an estimation of total exhaust heavy metal emissions for UNECE Europe, indicating that As, Hg and Se exhaust emissions were dominated by fuel combustion while Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn exhaust emissions were dominated by lubricant oil combustion. The proposed emission factors were generally lower than previously published emission factors. National emissions of heavy metals from vehicle exhaust, estimated in this study are in many cases considerably lower than those reported by the countries for this source.

Pulles, Tinus; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Appelman, Wilfred; Verheul, Marc

2012-12-01

138

Experimental analysis on a spark ignition petrol engine fuelled with LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as alternative fuel to petrol is common practise in spark ignition engines. While the main driving force to the use of LPG still remains the low cost for the end user, its favourable pollutant emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, will in the middle term probably increase interest in LPG as an IC engine fuel. In addition, there are both theoretical and technical reasons to consider LPG as an attractive fuel also in terms of engine performance. Despite the continuously increasing stock production of dual-fuel (petrol–LPG) passenger car models, doubts still exist about both real engine performance in LPG operation and the reliability of the dual-fuel feeding system. This paper deals with the theoretical advantages of using LPG as fuel for SI engines. Brake performance tests of a passenger car engine fed with petrol and LPG are analysed and compared. The stock engine has been equipped with a “third-generation” standard kit for dual-fuel operation. The performance reductions in LPG operation are discussed in both steady state and transient condition. The results of some modifications to the set-up of both the petrol and LPG metering devices, designed for a better justification of the measured performance, are also presented. -- Highlights: ? Experimental research on the actual performances of an SI engine fed with petrol and gaseous LPG. ? Theoretical advantages and drawbacks of fuelling SI ICE’s with LPG. ? Brake performance analysis shows a noticeable gap between LPG and petrol operation. ? Local measurements confirm that the thermodynamic operation of the evaporator-pressure reducer device is crucial for the engine performance. ? The performance of the up-to-date kit for petrol–LPG dual-fuel operation is greatly affected by the settings of the mechanical components of the LPG evaporator device.

2012-05-01

139

Severe petrol contamination in the aquifer of the Llobregat river delta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 16-09-91 an attack on an oil pipeline led to some 70 tons of petrol spilling out and catching fire. About 20 tons filtered down into the aquifer of the river Llobregat delta. On 08-12-91 the presence of petrol was detected in a well used for supplying water about 1 km downstream. A system was set up for monitoring and extracting the polluted ground water. The volume affected had now reached 3.5 hm''3. The decontamination costs came to 245 million pesetas in comparison to only 10 millions pesetas for the petrol spill. The cost of extracting the water was 70 pta/m''3. Finally the importance of regional planning and the need to prevent such accidents is pointed out. The means necessary to deal with them should be available. (Author)

1993-07-01

140

Council Directive of 5 December 1985 on crude-oil savings through the use of substitute fuel components in petrol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Member States shall not prevent, restrict or discourage, on the grounds of oxygenate content, the production, marketing and free movement of blended petrol containing organic oxygenate compounds. ''Petrol'' means any mixture consisting essentially of liquid hydrocarbons suitable for the operation of internal combustion spark-ignited engines. (orig./HP).

1985-12-12

 
 
 
 
141

The new BMW turbocharged six-cylinder petrol engine; Der neue aufgeladene Reihensechszylinder-Ottomotor von BMW  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After more than 20 years, BMW has again launched a new turbocharged petrol engine. The previous disadvantages of turbo technology, i.e. high fuel consumption and delayed response characteristics have now been avoided by combining second generation petrol direct injection (high-precision injection) with two compact turbochargers. (orig.)

Welter, A.; Bruener, T.; Unger, H.; Hoyer, U.; Brendel, U. [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany)

2007-02-15

142

Comparative Effects of Petrol and Diesel on Enzyme Activity in Tympanotonus fuscatus after Sublethal Exposure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pollution of the aquatic environment by petroleum and its products is common the world over. This study is aimed at examining sublethal effects of petrol and diesel on enzymes in Tympanotonus fuscatus namely: Aspartate Transaminase (AST (E.C. 2.6.1.1, Alanine Transaminase (ALT (E.C. 2.6.2.2 and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP (E.C. 3.1.3.1 activity after exposure. The periwinkles were exposed to 10.40, 15.60, 21.00, 26.00 ml L-1 and a control. The organs were removed on the sixth day and were prepared for enzymatic analysis. Enzyme activities were compared to the control value and between the toxicants. The effects of the toxicants on AST activity in the muscle and viscera were significantly different (p>0.05 from the control value (137.50±15.10 IU L-1. AST activity were raised more in petrol concentrations than the diesel concentrations in the muscle. The reverse was the case in the viscera at 15.60 ml L-1 (227.50±24.75 IU L-1. ALT activity in the muscle were not significant (p>0.05 between the toxicant media. In the viscera, significant differences (p>0.05 were observed in some of the concentrations with petrol showing higher activity. ALP activity in the muscle were not significant (p>0.05 in both media, but were more elicited in the diesel concentrations. In the viscera, the activities of ALP were more pronounced in the petrol concentrations and were significant (p>0.05 at the higher diesel concentrations. The exposure of Tympanotonus fuscatus to petrol and diesel concentrations caused changes in the enzymatic activities in the organism with those of petrol more pronounced than those of the diesel.

E.S. Edori

2014-01-01

143

Induction of microsomal drug metabolism in man and in the rat by exposure to petroleum.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine the effect of petroleum exposure on the activity of hepatic mixed function oxidase enzymes, salivary elimination kinetics of antipyrine were determined in 19 petrol station attendants and compared with 19 controls. Antipyrine half life in petrol station attendants was shorter than in controls. Microsomal preparations (10 000 x g supernatants) were prepared from six male Porton rats exposed to petrol vapour (5 ppm at an air flow rate of 41/min for eight hours a day for three weeks...

Harman, A. W.; Frewin, D. B.; Priestly, B. G.

1981-01-01

144

PHENOL OXIDATION OF PETROL REFINERY WASTEWATER CATALYZED BY LACCASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries have been evaluated in both systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml was achieved in a submerged system containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant.La lacasa se ha obtenido a través de dos sistemas de producción diferentes, el primero usando Pleurotus ostreatus en fermentación en estado sólido, el segundo usando Trametes versicolor en cultivo sumergido. Se han evaluado diferentes sustratos (derivados de la levadura, harina e industrias de la bebida en ambos sistemas. La mayor cantidad de la lacasa producida con Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml se obtuvo en un medio de salvado de trigo. El máximo nivel de concentración de la enzima usando Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml se logró en un sistema sumergido con 10% vinaza, 4,5% salvado de trigo y 0,2% de melaza por litro. El filtrado del cultivo extraído del Pleurotus ostreatus se usó para remover el fenol de las aguas residuales. El tratamiento enzimático es eficaz para un amplio rango de pH y de temperatura. El tratamiento con la lacasa se ha utilizado para desfenolizar el agua residual de las refinerías de la industria del petróleo. La ventaja de la desfenolización lacasa es que esta enzima usa el oxígeno molecular como un oxidante.

María-Carolina Vargas

2002-12-01

145

Comparison of Urinary o-Cresol and Hippuric Acid in Drivers, Gasoline Station Workers and Painters Exposed to Toluene in West of Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was evaluation of exposed to toluene and compare levels of hippuric acid and o-Cresol in taxi drivers, petrol station workers, car painters with a control group in West of Iran. The urinary o-creasol and toluene in air were analyzed by a gas chromatography and hippuric acid was extracted from urine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The significant differences in the levels of urinary o-Cresol were found in painters and petrol station workers compare...

Abdulrahman Bahrami; Ahmad Jonidi-Jafari; Behzad Folladi; Hossien Mahjub; Qolamhosien Sadri; Majid Motamed Zadeh

2005-01-01

146

Study on piston slap in petrol engine. Gasoline kikan no piston slap ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Piston slap in the petrol engine of which the piston skirt is easy to deform was studied and compared with that in the diesel engine. The lateral force working on the piston was computed from the cylinder pressure data during the actual operation of both engines. With a rise in revolution rate of both engines, the rate of change in lateral force rises in the thrust/antithrust direction. Immediately after the compression stroke, the petrol engine gives a larger change in lateral force due to the change in engine load. From the ignition dead center to the exhaust dead center, the piston behavior is common to both engines, which are however different in it during both suction and compression strokes. Judging from the comparison in clearance, the piston of petrol engine inclines toward the antithrust side near the crank angle of 180[degree]. A further computation of the inclination angle and lateral displacement of piston indicates that the above inclination changes from the antithrust side to the thrust side near the crack angle of 300[degree]. The piston skirt strain of petrol engine is large before and after the ignition dead center, and during the suction stroke. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Ochiai, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Kunimatsu, T. (Tottori Univ., Tottori (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

1993-11-30

147

Pipes, Petrol, Paint and Pewter: The Rise and Fall of Lead  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead is a good example of a metal that was used for many things over centuries--in water pipes, paints, on roofs, and in leaded petrol, for example--but was superseded as scientists discovered "new" metals, and because its toxicity became a problem. It was originally an important element in pewter utensils, alloyed with tin; it made the tin easier…

Peacock, Alan

2010-01-01

148

Analysis of Indicated Measurements for Optimising a Petrol Engine for Non-Stationary Operation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of the factors ignition timing, degree of air supply and degree of fuel supply on non-stationary petrol engine operation is done by induction of a single cylinder engine. From the results and conclusions of this analysis, a method of proceedin...

B. Winter

1984-01-01

149

Religious Attendance as Reproductive Support  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We argue that a central function of religious attendance in the contemporary U.S. is to support a high-fertility, monogamous mating strategy. Although religious attendance is correlated with many demographic, personality, moral, and behavioral variables, we propose that sexual and family variables are at the core of many of these relationships. Numerous researchers have assumed that religious socialization causes people to feel moral reactions and engage in behaviors promoted by religious gro...

Weeden, Jason; Cohen, Adam B.; Kenrick, Douglas T.

2008-01-01

150

RFID based Attendance Management System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Radio-frequency identification (RFID is a technology that uses radio waves to transfer data from an electronic tag, called RFID tag or label, attached to an object, through a reader for the purpose of identifying and tracking the object. RFID technology is a matured technology that has been widely deployed by various organizations as a part of their automation systems. In this project, an RFID based system has been built in order to produce an attendance management system. An automated attendance management software will not only make the entire process simple, but will also provide a well-structured and analyzed report of the pattern of student attendance and time management, which can further help in allocating and using the human resources in an organization to the maximum possible benefit. This system consists of two main parts which include: the hardware and the software. The hardware consists of a motor unit and RFID reader. The RFID reader, which is a low-frequency reader (125 kHz, is connected to the host computer via a serial to USB converter cable. The Time-Attendance System GUI is developed using Visual Basic.Net. The Attendance Management System provides the functionalities of the overall system such as displaying live ID tags transactions, registering ID, deleting ID, recording attendance and other minor functions. This interface was installed in the host computer.

Shashank Shukla

2013-11-01

151

Performace Test and Engine Emission on Acid Oleic Oxygenated as Additives Petrol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of oxygenated oleic acid additives in standard petrol on the engine performance and the exhaust emissions. The 4-stroke 1.5 litre engine was used on the engine test bed coupled to eddy current electric dynamometer which is also connected to CADET V12 control system and exhaust gas analyser IMR2000/2000P. The oxygenated oleic acid additives used for this experiment is fixed at 0.2% by volume due to limited quantity available. Two types of test were carried out first test is with variable speed and no loads and the second test is at constant speed of 1,400 rpm with variable loads. The experimental results showed that the brake power increased by 2%, torque by 2%, brake thermal efficiency by about 7% and specific fuel consumption decreased by about 10%. The exhaust emissions analysed are carbon monoxide, (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2 and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. The result by comparing the oxygenated petrol with the standard petrol indicated that CO gas emission depend on the engine speed which decreased with increasing speed up to 1,600 rpm and increased after that speed on test without load. The CO also decreased by about 28% on the test with loads. The emission of CO2 increased by 2.7% for tests with load and by 8% for tests without loads. The NOx emission decreased by 9% for test without load and about 7% for test with load. This study indicates that engine performance is improved by adding 0.2% oxygenated additives to standard petrol.

Irfan Wahyudi

2010-10-01

152

Multicommodity formulations for the prize collecting vehicle routing problem in the petrol industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Mobile Oil Recovery (MOR) unit is a truck designed to pump marginal oil wells in a petrol field. The MOR optimization Problem (MORP) consists in optimizing both the oil extraction and the travel costs. In this article, we describe several formulations for the MORP using a single vehicle and we propose two formulations to the case where several vehicles are used. We strengthen the proposed formulations by taking advantage of the MORP characteristics, by improving the number of subtour elim...

Duhamel, Christophe; Santos, Andre?a C.; Aloise, Dario J.

2009-01-01

153

Some investigations in design of low cost variable compression ratio two stroke petrol engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Historically two stroke engine petrol engines find wide applications in construction of two wheelers worldwide, however due to stringent environmental laws enforced universally; these engines are fading in numbers. In spite of the tight norms, internationally these engines are still used in agriculture, gensets etc. Several designs of variable compression ratio two stroke engines are commercially available for analysis purpose. In this present investigation a novel method of...

Srinivas, A.; Venkatasubbaiah, G.; Rao, P. Venkateswar; Reddy, M. Penchal

2012-01-01

154

The chances for green petrol. Alternative for MTBE is ethylene tertiary butylether  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To find a useful and environment-friendly fuel is difficult. Lead and benzene already were replaced by methyl tertiary butylether (MTBE), but this fuel additive too appears to be hazardous for man and the environment. When MTBE will be banned the chances for so-called green petrol (made from biomass) are rising. A brief overview of the developments in the field of fuel additives so far is given

2000-05-03

155

Lead in petrol and levels of lead in blood: scientific evidence and social policy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two aspects of the recent controversy about the health consequences of lead in petrol are considered. Firstly, the evidence is shown to be deficient, largely because the basic epidemiological principles of representative sampling, realistic measurement, and control of confounding variables were not followed so that valid conclusions cannot be drawn from most of the published studies. Secondly, the role of science appeared to be comprised by confusion between science per se and social policy. ...

Elwood, P. C.; Gallacher, J. E.

1984-01-01

156

Multimodality image display station  

Science.gov (United States)

The Multi-modality Image Display Station (MIDS) is designed for the use of physicians outside of the radiology department. Connected to a local area network or a host computer, it provides speedy access to digitized radiology images and written diagnostics needed by attending and consulting physicians near the patient bedside. Emphasis has been placed on low cost, high performance and ease of use. The work is being done as a joint study with the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and as part of a joint development effort with the Mayo Clinic. MIDS is a prototype, and should not be assumed to be an IBM product.

Myers, H. Joseph

1990-07-01

157

Station search  

Station search Station name: NRFA reference: Tip: e.g. 54010 Gauging authority ref: Tip: e.g. 2010 Watercourse: Tip: e.g. Stour Hydrometric Area: Tip: e.g. Severn Gauging authority region: Unspecified Anglian Midlands Rivers Agency (NI) North East North West SEPA South West Southern Thames Welsh… Related Searches: gauging stations

158

Station Capacity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity.

Landex, Alex

2011-01-01

159

Study of performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine using rice bran oil ethanol and petrol blends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, influence on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using pure rice bran oil (RBO, and its 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% blends with ethanol (ERBO and petrol (PRBO. The influence on the viscosity of the RBO with the addition of the ethanol and petrol from 200C to 700C has also been studied. The tests conducted from no load to full load of the engine with an increment of 20%of the load. The experimental test results showed that the kinematic viscosity reduced maximum by 28.3% and 31.7% with addition of ethanol and petrol respectively. The maximum brake thermal efficiency of 26.83% with ERBO2.5 and 27% with PRBO7.5 was obtained. Among the ethanol blends the minimum brake specific fuel consumption of 0.312 is observed with ERBO7.5 and among the petrol blends the minimum brake specific fuel consumption of 0.299 is observed with PRBO2.5 at full load of the engine. Lower CO emissions of 0.021 with ERBO2.5 and higher CO emissions of 0.032 observed with ERBO7.5. The CO emissions of petrol blends observed between the values of ethanol blends. The unburnt hydrocarbons increased with load in both the ethanol and petrol blends. The lower NOx emissions of 920 with ERBO2.5 and higher NOx emissions of 1045 measured with PRBO7.5. The CO2 increased to 3.72 with PRBO7.5 and reduced to 2.45 with ERBO7.5. The unused O2 increased 17.2%with ethanol blends and reduced to 13.1% with petrol blends. The smoke reduced with both the blends and lower value of 34.0% observed with PRBO7.5.

G. Venkata Subbaiah

2010-06-01

160

Station Capacity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimalplatform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station or used in a combined approach giving comprehensive knowledge about the station. Furthermore, the paper shows how the developed methods can be used to analyze initiatives for improving the capacity of a complex station like Copenhagen central station.

Landex, Alex

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

The role of regulation, fiscal incentives and changes in tastes in the diffusion of unleaded petrol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyses the diffusion of unleaded petrol in the UK. Changes in the market share of unleaded fuel are the results of changes in the composition of the car stock and changes in the choice of fuel given the car stock. We find the fuel type choices have been mainly driven by changes in tastes and learning as opposed to changes in relative prices induced by fiscal incentives. However car stock composition effects dominate the diffusion process and we find that through this route regulatory changes have made major contributions to changes in the market share of unleaded fuel. (Author)

2000-01-01

162

The role of coal, petrol and natural gas in the global ecological energy strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of coal, petrol and natural gas in the global energy balance impose a rigid international control on all harmful emissions (CO_2, SO_2, NO_x etc.) based on extended legislation. The trends for more efficient usage of fuels are discussed from ecological and energetic point of view. The alternative introduction of natural gas in the energy sector is considered. The ways for utilization of CO_2 and its recycling are discussed as well as the trends towards development of 'hydrogen' energetics. 15 refs., 2 tbs., 3 figs. (orig.)

1994-06-15

163

Substantial decrease of blood lead in Swedish children, 1978-94, associated with petrol lead.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES--To study the potential impact of environmental exposure to petrol lead, residential area, age, sex, and lead exposing hobby, on blood lead concentrations (BPb) in children. METHODS--In the south of Sweden, yearly from 1978-94, BPb was measured in 1230 boys and 1211 girls, aged between 3 and 19 (median 10; quartiles 9 and 12) years. RESULTS--For the samples of 1978, the geometric mean (GM) was 67 (range 30-250) micrograms/l in boys and 53 (18-161) micrograms/l in girls, whereas the...

Stro?mberg, U.; Schu?tz, A.; Skerfving, S.

1995-01-01

164

Attendance Control System based on RFID technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Kazakhstan, checking students' attendance is one of the important issues for universities, because many universities evaluate students attendance and while giving the final grade, professors consider their total number of appearances on classes during the whole semester. This brings to the idea of having some tool to control students attendance. Some universities prefer to use paper sheet for controlling attendance, whereas some universities prefer to use paper sheet for checking students'...

Nurbek Saparkhojayev; Selim Guvercin

2012-01-01

165

Frequent attenders' consulting patterns with general practitioners.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing literature on frequent attendance, little is known about the consulting patterns of frequent attenders with different doctors. To develop appropriate intervention strategies and to improve the clinical care of frequent attenders, a full understanding of these consulting patterns is essential. AIMS: This paper has three aims: to determine whether frequent attenders consult more with some doctors than others; to determine how many different doctors frequent atten...

Neal, R. D.; Heywood, P. L.; Morley, S.

2000-01-01

166

THE CONSEQUENCES OF LEAD PETROL USE ON LEAD CONTENT IN CABBAGE ALONG THE MOTORWAY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Besides the negative ecological consequences, during the production of the motor petrol (alkyl lead as anti–knock compound, as well as the application (combustion in motor engines, there are the ecological consequences manifested by deposition of Pb in the soil beside the motorway. At the same time this is the end of the life cycle of the petrol. However, Pb enters the human consumption chain through the plants that absorb Pb from the soil, and it is also deposited in the human body. The series of analyses of the cabbage head, outer leaves and soil includes left and right sides of the motorway of each of the control points, at the distance of 1m, 2m, 5m, 10m, 100m, and 400m from the motorway, each distance on the left and right side of the motorway. The results are shown in mg Pb/kg of the sample. The quantity of Pb shows decreasing effect when the distance from the motorway, is increased.

M. Matavuly

2006-06-01

167

An analytic study of applying Miller cycle to reduce NOx emission from petrol engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analytic investigation of applying Miller cycle to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from a petrol engine is carried out. The Miller cycle used in the investigation is a late intake valve closing version. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the cycle is presented. A comparison of the characters of Miller cycle with Otto cycle is presented. From the results of thermodynamic analyses, it can be seen that the application of Miller cycle is able to reduce the compression pressure and temperature in the cylinder at the end of compression stroke. Therefore, it lowers down the combustion temperature and NOx formation in engine cylinder. These results in a lower exhaust temperature and less NOx emissions compared with that of Otto cycle. The analytic results also show that Miller cycle ratio is a main factor to influence the combustion temperature, and then the NOx emissions and the exhaust temperature. The results from the analytic study are used to analyse and to compare with the previous experimental results. An empirical formula from the previous experimental results that showed the relation of NOx emissions with the exhaust temperature at different engine speed is presented. The results from the study showed that the application of Miller cycle may reduce NOx emissions from petrol engine

2007-08-01

168

STATION NAME  

Table of Freshwater Fish Compliance (updated August 2010) STATION NAME IRISH FFD2006 FFD 2006 FFD2006 SAMPLING FFD FFD FFD GRID SANITARY ZINC REASON FOR REGIME 2007 2008 2009 To search for river, lake or canal, press ...

169

Petrol governance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the limits of the earth`s carrying capacity come to show, increasing pressure is brought to bear on private enterprise to behave in more environmentally responsible ways. One of the rare studies, that not only focuses on the enterprise level of analyse but at the industrial chain of production is Integrated Production Chain Management (IPCM), which postulates that the chain needs to be modified in its entirety. IPCM is not just a technical coordination problem but also a organizational problem in which different interests of actors play a role. These interests must be analysed. The present article will not go into the technical bottlenecks but will go into organizational bottlenecks that are the result of conflicts of interests. The choice between different technological options is not seen as a merely `technical` one but rather as a choice between different socio-technical (sub)systems. This choice is made in an interaction process in a network of various actors, each with their own perceptions and their own interests, in situations in which information is far from conclusive. (author)

Taminau, Y.; Vliet, M. van [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Public Management

1995-12-31

170

Effect of sample geometry on synchronous fluorimetric analysis of petrol, diesel, kerosene and their mixtures at higher concentration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparison of synchronous fluorescence scan (SFS) spectra of petrol, diesel and their mixtures with kerosene in front surface, 45{sup o} and 90{sup o} angle sample geometry as obtainable from a commercial fluorimeter reveals that 90{sup o} angle geometry provides certain distinct characteristics to SFS spectra. The presence of extensive inner filter effects and resonance energy transfer in petroleum products are the major causes of the distinctive characteristics of these spectra. These characteristics enable the development of calibration plots for mixture samples (petrol-kerosene and diesel-kerosene) based on the shift in {gamma}{sub SFS{sup max}} and SFS intensity. This novel method shows promise in detecting and estimating the contamination of petrol and diesel by kerosene. Calibration graphs obtained from SFS intensity measurement are found to be efficacious in the whole range 0-90% v/v of kerosene, and give a good linearity in the adulteration range generally found in the field (0-50% v/v) for petrol and diesel. The method is simple, rapid and superior both in terms on sensitivity (0.1% v/v) and accuracy to other analytical methods used for petroleum product analysis. (Author)

Patra, D.; Mishra, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemistry

2000-07-01

171

Neck injury patterns resulting from the use of petrol and electric chainsaws in suicides. Report on two cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suicides due to neck injuries caused by chainsaws are uncommon events. The cutting elements of petrol and electric chainsaws produce different features in lethal neck injuries. The accurate evaluation of the death scene, of the power and mechanical characteristics of the chainsaw and of wound morphology are all essential in distinguishing a case of suicide. PMID:24931855

Moreschi, Carlo; Da Broi, Ugo; Cividino, Sirio; Gubiani, Rino; Pergher, Gianfranco

2014-07-01

172

Effectiveness of leaded petrol phase-out in Tianjin, China based on the aerosol lead concentration and isotope abundance ratio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phase-out of leaded petrol has been a measure widely used to reduce atmospheric lead pollution. Since the 1980s, China began to promote unleaded petrol. In order to assess the effectiveness of the measure an isotope fingerprint technique was applied for aerosol samples in the city of Tianjin. After dilute acid leaching, the lead concentration and isotope abundance ratios were determined for 123 samples collected in Tianjin during eight years (1994-2001). The 206Pb / 207Pb ratio was lower in summer, when coal combustion emission was low and vehicle exhaust became more important, indicating that the 206Pb / 207Pb ratio of leaded petrol in Tianjin is lower than that of aerosol samples. The 206Pb / 207Pb ratio gradually increased from 1994 to 2001, a trend that suggests that the contribution from vehicle exhaust was diminishing. Overall, the measurements matched well with national statistical data of leaded and unleaded petrol production. After the nationwide switch to unleaded gasoline, comprehensive control measures are urgently needed to reduce air lead pollution in China, as aerosol lead reduced slightly but remains at a relatively high level

2006-07-01

173

Quantification of ethanol in ethanol-petrol and biodiesel in biodiesel-diesel blends using fluorescence spectroscopy and multivariate methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanol blended petrol and biodiesel blended diesel are being introduced in many countries to meet the increasing demand of hydrocarbon fuels. However, technological limitations of current vehicle engine do not allow ethanol and biodiesel percentages in the blended fuel to be increased beyond a certain level. As a result quantification of ethanol in blended petrol and biodiesel in blended diesel becomes an important issue. In this work, calibration models for the quantification of ethanol in the ethanol-petrol and biodiesel in the biodiesel-diesel blends of a particular batch were made using the combination of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) with principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS) and excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) with N-way Partial least square (N-PLS) and unfolded-PLS. The PCR, PLS, N-PLS and unfolded-PLS calibration models were evaluated through measures like root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and square of the correlation coefficient (R(2)). The prediction abilities of the models were tested using a testing set of ethanol-petrol and biodiesel-diesel blends of known ethanol and biodiesel concentrations, error in the predictions made by the models were found to be less than 2%. The obtained calibration models are highly robust and capable of estimating low as well as high concentrations of ethanol and biodiesel. PMID:21909636

Kumar, Keshav; Mishra, Ashok K

2012-01-01

174

Induction of microsomal drug metabolism in man and in the rat by exposure to petroleum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the effect of petroleum exposure on the activity of hepatic mixed function oxidase enzymes, salivary elimination kinetics of antipyrine were determined in 19 petrol station attendants and compared with 19 controls. Antipyrine half life in petrol station attendants was shorter than in controls. Microsomal preparations were prepared from six male Porton rats exposed to petrol vapour and six control rats maintained under the same conditions without exposure to petrol vapour. The rates of oxidative metabolism of antipyrine, aminopyrine, ethylmorphine, aniline, and benzo(a)pyrene were all increased by more than 45% in the petrol-exposed rats. The results indicate that petrol vapour is a moderately potent inducer of mixed function oxidase activity in rats, and that occupational exposure to petroleum may result in enhanced microsomal drug metabolism.

Harman, A.W.; Frewin, D.B.; Priestly, B.G.

1981-02-01

175

Impact of Organic Solvents and Environmental Pollutants on the Physiological Function in Petrol Filling Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long term exposure to solvents and air pollutants can lead to deleterious effects on respiratory, haematological and thyroid functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic exposure to solvents like benzene and pollutants like carbon monoxide in petrol filling workers had adverse effect on blood parameters, thyroid and respiratory functions. The study group consisted of 42 healthy, non-smoker petrol filling workers, aged 20-50 years with work (exposure duration from 2-15 years while 36 healthy subjects of the same age group served as controls. Physical examination and measurement of pulmonary functions by portable electronic spirometer were performed. Complete blood pictures (CBP were determined by normal haematology lab procedure and hormones by Chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA light absorption techniques. There was a significant decrease in the lung volumes and capacities; the restrictive pattern was more prevalent in the workers when compared with the control groups. But in the workers exposed for long period (more than 10 years the restrictive pattern was changed to mixed pattern. A significant increase in haemoglobin (Hb (>16 mg % and red blood cells (RBC (5.4 million cells/mm3 were observed in workers with longer period of exposure when compared with the control subjects (14.483 mg% and 4.83 million cells/mm3 for Hb and RBC respectively. White blood cell count except eosinophils and platelets were significantly lower in workers compared to controls. Marked increase in the tetra iodothyroinine (T4, free thyroxine (T4F level and significant decrease in thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH, and tri-iodothyronine (T3 were observed between long term exposed and non – exposed groups. Till now researchers focused only on the effect of solvents in workers professionally exposed to solvents without considering the effect of concomittant air pollution. The result obtained from present study indicates that there is a significant toxic effect of solvents and air pollutants on workers exposed for longer duration. Improved detection and prevention technologies are needed to answer environmentally related health questions for petrol filling workers.

V. Devender Reddy

2008-09-01

176

Comparative performance of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on the biofuel kinematical viscosity, brake mean effective pressure (bmep), brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a diesel engine and its brake thermal efficiency (bte). Addition into RO from 2.5 to 7.5 vol% of ethanol and petrol its viscosity at ambient temperature of 20 deg. C diminishes by 9.2-28.3% and 14.1-31.7%, respectively. Heating up to the temperature of 60 deg. C the viscosity of pure RO, blends ERO2.5-7.5 and PRO2.5-10 further diminishes 4.2, 3.9-3.8 and 3.9-3.6 times. At 1800 min-1 speed, the maximum brake mean effective pressure (bmep) higher up to 1.6% comparing with that of pure RO (0.77 MPa) ensure three agent blends EPRO5-7.5, whereas at rated 2200 min-1 speed, the bmep higher by 5.6% can be obtained when fuelling the engine with blend PRO2.5. Brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) at maximum torque (240.2 g/kWh) and rated power (234.0 g/kWh) is correspondingly lower by 3.4% and 5.5% in comparison with pure RO when biofuel blends EPRO5 and PRO2.5 are used. The biggest brake thermal efficiency at maximum torque (0.40-0.41) and rated power (0.42-0.43) relative to that of RO (0.39) suggest blends PRO2.5 and EPRO5-7.5, respectively

2009-03-01

177

Determination of 131Iodine Incorporation of the attending personnel at a nuclear medical clinic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During a radioiodine therapy, the patients discharge 131I also via the breathing air. At the attending personnel of a therapy station, contaminations and incorporations up to 400 Bq could be found by means of whole body counting. The height of the measured values depends only on the duration of stay of the personnel in the patients room. (orig.)

2007-01-01

178

Yearly measurements of blood lead in Swedish children since 1978: an update focusing on the petrol lead free period 1995-2001.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aims: To assess blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) in children not exposed to petrol lead. In a previous paper we reported the results for the period 1978–94 (2441 children measured). A substantial decrease of B-Pb was found, which reflected a beneficial effect of gradual banning of petrol lead. Since 1994, petrol sold in Sweden has not contained lead. Methods: In the south of Sweden, each year from 1995 to 2001, B-Pb was measured in 329 boys and 345 girls, aged ...

Stro?mberg, Ulf; Lundh, Thomas; Schu?tz, A.; Skerfving, Staffan

2003-01-01

179

Modeling for Friction of Four Stroke Four Cylinder In-Line Petrol Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A four stroke four cylinder in-line petrol engine is modeled to estimate various performance parameters. The solution is based on tribology and dynamics principle. The detailed parameters relating to engine friction and lubrication are computed numerically for the engine firing order 1-3-4-2. The numerical method is based on finite difference method that solves coupled Reynolds Equation and Energy Equation. Output includes the movie thickness, friction force, friction power loss and temperature rise in the ring liner conjunction in all four cylinders. Transient regime of ring liner lubrication isaddressed while the same changes from hydrodynamic to mixed in an engine cycle. Momentary cessation near the top and bottom dead center that causes boundary interaction is analyzed through asperity contact. The non - Newtonian behavior of lubricant film due to pressure and temperature is addresses using viscosity -pressure- temperature inter relationship.

P.C. Mishra

2013-09-01

180

Price setting under cost uncertainty and menu costs - the case of the Danish petrol market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper derives the optimal pricing policy for a firm facing menu costs and stochastic production cost. The pricing policy is a boundary pricing policy and numerical comparative static analysis shows how exogenous parameters - the drift and variance of the production cost, the discount factor and the menu costs - affect the boundaries. Analyzing daily data for the Danish petrol price illustrates that a boundary pricing policy indeed has been followed for the period 1988-1992, with occasional shifts in both the desired mark-up and more importantly in the width of the bounds. While the theoretical model can say nothing of the shifts in desired mark-up, changes in the width of the bounds are found to be consistent with the implications of the model. (au)

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Vehicle operating experience with methanol as a substitute for petrol and diesel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blends of 15% methanol with petrol containing 1% isobutanol have been utilised by 45 vehicles operated for a period of two years. An additional 907 vehicles have been operated for approximately one year to obtain information about the distribution of M15 blends, about necessary co-solvent concentrations, and about general vehicle driveability. Initial studies have also been conducted using 15-20% emulsions of methanol with diesel in diesel-cycle engines. High methanol fuels ranging from M85 to M100 have been tested in six purpose-built vehicles and 45 retrofitted vehicles involving four different types of retrofit systems. In addition, high methanol fuels have also been tested in dieselcycle engines involving two different types of purpose-built engines, together with unmodified engines.

Joyce, R.J.; Natusch, D.F.S.; Richardson, D.W.

1983-11-01

182

Recovering petrol from mixture of petrol with vapour and air where absorber only needs by dimensioned for peak load operation. [Gasoline tanking. Road vehicles]. Fremgangsmaade til genvinding af benzin fra en blanding af benzindamp og luft samt anlaeg til brug ved fremgangsmaaden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petrol is recovered from a mixture of its vapour with air by direct contact with a cooled petroleum distillate from a storage tank, then stripping the dissolved petrol so that the distillate can circulate in a closed circuit. The distillate has a higher boiling range than the petrol and is first cooled by heat-exchange with a cold reservoir, then contacted with the air-vapour mixture, and passed via a buffer tank to a stripper. The amount of distillate contacting the mixture is controlled so that the petrol concentration in the distillate transferred to the buffer tank is largely constant. Distillate passing from buffer tank to stripper is preferably heat-exchanged with distillate passing from stripper to cold reservoir, and air stripped of petrol and cooled after contact with the cooled distillate is indirectly exchanged with incoming mixture. The applications is claimed. Advantage - Efficient and economic recovery even at peak loads without needing oversize system or risky processing steps. (au)

Jacobsen, A.J.

1993-03-22

183

Station search  

…than Between AREA Value 1: AREA Value 2: SAAR: Unspecified Greater than Less than Between SAAR Value 1: SAAR Value 2: BFIHOST: Unspecified Greater than Less than Between BFIHOST Value 1: BFIHOST Value 2: PROPWET: Unspecified Greater than Less than Between PROPWET Value 1: PROPWET Value 2: FARL: Unspecified… Related Searches: gauging stations

184

Hydrogen Filling Station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4:

Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

2010-02-24

185

Process and device for recovery of hydrocarbons contained in a petrol/air mixture. Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Rueckgewinnung der in einem Benzin-Luft-Gemisch enthaltenen Kohlenwasserstoffe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to the invention, the separation of the hydrocarbons from the petrol/air mixture is done simply by condensing or freezing them out during cooling of the petrol/air mixture by at least two interchangeable heat exchangers, which can be regenerated. The petrol/air mixture being treated is itself involved in regeneration of the loaded heat exchanger. The incoming hot petrol/air mixture is first taken to the loaded heat exchanger, where it flows through the loaded heat exchanger from top to bottom, and melts the frozen hydrocarbons. The petrol/air mixture and the melted hydrocarbons are then subjected to phase separation in a separator. The petrol/air mixture occurring during phase separation is taken to a second heat exchanger and cooled in it. The hydrocarbons condensing out during cooling flow back to the separator, while the freezing hydrocarbons settle out on the heating surfaces of the heat exchanger and lead to displacement of this heat exchanger. The device for carrying out the process is also part of the invention.

Schramm, W.; Daeschler, W.; Frey, G.

1982-12-09

186

To feed on both regular grade petrol and bio-ethanol; Rouler a l'essence et au bioethanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flex fuel (E85) is a bio-fuel made up of ethanol and at least 15% of regular grade petrol (in order to enable the vehicle to start from cold). The French government has set a task force named Flex Fuel 2010 whose aim is to develop the use of flex fuel. A proportion of 7.5% of bio-fuels incorporated in car fuels is targeted for 2010. The next step will be to reach 10% in 2015 which is twice as much as imposed by the European Union. The Flex fuel allows a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions by 70%. At the beginning of next decade, a significant part of the car population will have to be able to feed indiscriminately on regular petrol or on bio-fuels as it is already the case in Brazil and in Sweden. (A.C.)

Pijaudier-Cabot, F.

2006-06-15

187

An influence of the petrol pump for the atmospheric electric field distribution in the surroundings of the vehicles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper the potential and electric field distribution in the surroundings of the cargo vehicles is approximately numerically determined, when they are exposed to the Atmospheric Electric Field (AEF), having uniform intensity and vertical polarization. The cases of the cargo vehicles either isolated or near by petrol pumps are observed. Several results of total induced charge and electrical moment of the vehicle including maps of equipotential and equienergetic curves are presented. The ...

Milovanovi? Alenka

2004-01-01

188

Some aspects on use of kerosene and petrol blends in spark-ignition engine using surge technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The object of the study reported in this paper was to investigate the possibility of using the blend of kerosene with petrol in a gasoline engines, without much losses in performance. The authors carried out experiments on a four-stroke cycle Briggs and Stratton S. I. Engine using five blends of kerosene with petrol at a compression ratios 5.3 and 7.47 to 1 with and without surge chambers, at a constant engine speed of 1500 rev/min with the following conclusions: 1. At part-load and the lower compression ratio the brake thermal efficiency is improved with percentage increase of kerosene but at the higher compression ratio it is improved only upto 50% kerosene blend with petrol. 2. The knock-free maximum bhp is reduced with (a) the percentage increase of kerosene, (b) the increase of compression ratio. 3. Use of a surge chamber increase the knock-free maximum bhp, and reduces the brake thermal efficiency.

Ghosh, B.B.

1980-12-01

189

Th effectiveness of soot removal techniques for the recovery of fingerprints on glass fire debris in petrol bomb cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increased use of petrol bombs as an act of vengeance in Malaysia has heightened awareness for the need of research relating physical evidence found at the crime scene to the perpetrator of the crime. A study was therefore carried out to assess the effectiveness of soot removal techniques on glass fire debris without affecting the fingerprints found on the evidence. Soot was removed using three methods which were brushing, 2 % NaOH solution and tape lifting. Depending on the visibility of prints recovered, prints which were visible after soot removal were lifted directly while prints that were not visible were subjected to enhancement. Glass microscope slides were used in laboratory experiment and subjected to control burn for the formation of soot. Soot was later removed following enhancement of the prints over time (within 1 day, within 2 days and after 2 days). While in simulated petrol bomb ground experiment, petrol bombs were hurled in glass bottles and the fragments were collected. Favorable results were obtained in varying degrees using each soot removal methods. In laboratory testing, brushing and 2 % NaOH solution revealed fingerprints that were visible after removal of excess soot and were lifted directly. As for tape lifting technique, some prints were visible and were successfully lifted while those that were not visible were subjected to super glue fuming for effective fingerprint identification. (author)

2011-01-01

190

Petrol contaminated groundwater treatment with air-stripper in Balassagyarmat, Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater is a common environmental problem in Hungary. Leakage of underground storage tanks, pipe break or illegal tapping as well as lorry accidents can be mentioned as main reasons. MEGATERRA Ltd. elaborated, adopted and tested several groundwater clean-up methods. These methods are based on detailed survey and investigation, sampling and analysis, delineation of contaminated groundwater, risk assessment, establishment of monitoring wells, pumping tests and remediation action plan. One of these methods was implemented by MEGATERRA Ltd. in Balassagyarmat, Hungary. Contamination source was a 10 m3 vol. simple wall underground fuel-storage tank, which had been emptied. When the remediation started in April 1998, the petrol had already been accumulated on the ground water table forming a 5-7 m wide and 10-15 m long plume being expanded to SSE-NNW direction. The area of the dissolved hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater-body was 1 000 m2 and its concentration reached up to 30-40 mg/l TPH. The free-phase hydrocarbon layer was 10 cm thick. For the remediation of contaminated groundwater MEGATERRA Ltd. applied pump and treat method, namely groundwater pumping using extraction well, skimming of free-phase hydrocarbon, stripping of the contaminated ground water in air-stripper tower and draining of the treated groundwater into a drainage ditch. In the centre of the plume we established an extraction well with 300 mm diameter in a 500 mm borehole. Peristaltic skimmer pump was used inside the extraction well to remove the free phase petrol from the ground water surface.Because of the intense volatility of the pollutant we applied aeration (stripping) technology. The extracted contaminated groundwater was cleaned in air-stripper equipment being able to eliminate efficiently the volatile pollutants from the water. The aeration tower is a compact cylindrical shaped column with 650 mm in diameter. Its height depends on the pollutant's type The extracted contaminated groundwater was conducted to the top of the tower and sprinkled into the air- stripper. A ventilator was connected to the bottom of the stripper, which blew the air with high pressure against the water stream. During the operation 4 544 m3 groundwater was pumped out, cleaned, drained and 110 l of free phase hydrocarbon was skimmed

2005-10-03

191

Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within ...

Mackinnon, G.; Mackenzie, A. B.; Cook, G. T.; Pulford, I. D.; Duncan, H. J.; Scott, E. M.

2011-01-01

192

Consumer decision-making on festival attendance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been challenging for the festival organizers to sell their festival tickets due to overcrowded festival market. To increase the ticket sale it is becoming more important to know the consumers and their decision making on festival attendance. There are many factors that influence people to make decision over festival attendance and the main purpose of this study was to identify those factors. The research was conducted for GigsWiz.com Ltd. to help the company gather information about fe...

Noman, Md Abu

2012-01-01

193

Green fuels, growth engines after petroleum; Les carburants verts, moteurs de la croissance apres le petrole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution of the new fuels to a greener environment is important and immediate. Thanks to clean novel technologies and to commercial plant projects in development, companies like Enerkem contribute to satisfy increasing global demand for clean energy. They stimulate local economies by creating jobs in an industry that offers real growth potential. Green fuels will gradually allow us to let go of non sustainable energy sources like oil to adopt a way of life based on sustainable development. They will also allow a shift towards a green economy. [French] La contribution des nouveaux carburants a un environnement plus vert est importante et immediate. Grace a des technologies propres novatrices et a des projets d'sines commerciales en developpement, des entreprises comme Enerkem contribuent a satisfaire a la demande mondiale croissante en energie propre. Elles stimulent les economies locales par la creation d'emplois dans une industrie qui offre un veritable potentiel de croissance. Les carburants verts permettront graduellement de nous affranchir des sources d'energie non renouvelables comme le petrole pour adopter un mode de vie base sur le developpement durable. Ils permettront aussi un virage vers une economie verte.

Mili, Dino

2010-09-15

194

LEG CONQUASATION CAUSED BY PETROL TILLER WITH OPEN LOWER LEG FRACTURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a 71-year old patient admitted to Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Clinic, Clinical Center Niš for the right leg conquasation. The patient was injured accidentally by a petrol tiller. On admission, both thigh and lower leg conquasation was observed with large wound on anteromedial thigh and one on medial side of the lower leg. Soft tissue and bones were covered with dirt and pieces of clothing. The wounds were thoroughly rinsed and dirt was removed followed by detailed debridement. After primary surgical treatment of the wound, open proximal lower leg fracture was stabilized with external skeletal fixation using two nails in the proximal and two nails in the distal fragment. Soft tissue defect was treated by plastic surgeon. The patient was administered anti-tetanus protection, antibiotic treatment and anticoagulant prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. Physical therapy was initiated subsequent to successful healing of the soft tissue wounds. External skeletal fixation was removed after three months for infection around the proximal nails and the treatment was contuinued using functional Sarmiento’s plaster imobilization leading to full recovery of open lower leg fracture.

Ivan Golubovi?

2014-03-01

195

Performance Characteristics of Oxy Hydrogen Gas on Two Stroke Petrol Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to conserve petroleum fuels for future and to eliminate the above limitations there is a need of alternative and innovative fuel. Amongst many alternative fuels available oxy hydrogen gas and producer gas are under study in this research work. Electrolysis of water can give us hydrogen in form of Brown’s gas (HHO gas or oxy-hydrogen gas, which can be used as an alternative fuel for any internal combustion engine. Various methods for the generation of oxy-hydrogen gas are discussed in the coming paragraphs. An agricultural waste like rice husk, wood dust, and dried coconut leaves etc can also be used as an alternative fuels. An attempt has been made in this work to use alternative fuel in two stroke petrol engine. Our fore most aim in selecting this project is to use nonconventional fuel against conventional fuel which is becoming scarce and costly now days. The combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel with air produces mainly carbon dioxide (CO2 and Water (H2O. However, internal combustion engines are not perfectly efficient, so some of the fuel is not burned, which results in the presence of hydrocarbons (HC other organic compounds, carbon monoxide (CO and forming mainly nitric oxide (NO.

G.Ajay Kumar

2013-12-01

196

Attendance Control System based on RFID technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Kazakhstan, checking students' attendance is one of the important issues for universities, because many universities evaluate students attendance and while giving the final grade, professors consider their total number of appearances on classes during the whole semester. This brings to the idea of having some tool to control students attendance. Some universities prefer to use paper sheet for controlling attendance, whereas some universities prefer to use paper sheet for checking students' attendance and after this, fill out these information into a system manually, like Kazakh-British Technical University does. However, this is not an efficient way since there will be spent much of time for calling students names and putting marks like presence or absence if the class is a lecture class, and in this class at least 5 groups are presented. Moreover, some students may call his/her friend as presence even though this student is currently absent. After thinking all these issues, authors of the following research paper decided to create a system that makes easier to check students attendance automatically, and this system is implemented in Suleyman Demirel University, Kazakhstan. Actually, this is the first time when such kind of system is being used in educational system of Kazakhstan. The system is based on RFID technology, and in this paper, details of this system are presented.

Nurbek Saparkhojayev

2012-05-01

197

Characteristics of attenders and non-attenders at an asthma education programme.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: A controlled trial of asthma education was conducted but only 51 out of 164 eligible patients participated. METHODS: Differences between subjects who participated in the trial and those who expressed initial interest but subsequently declined were studied. RESULTS: Women, non-smokers, and those whose attending physician was concerned in the study were significantly more likely to attend the programme. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with greater attendance, but this did...

Yoon, R.; Mckenzie, D. K.; Miles, D. A.; Bauman, A.

1991-01-01

198

Characteristics of attenders and their attendances at an urban accident and emergency department over a one year period.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To describe (1) the characteristics of attenders to an urban accident and emergency (A&E) department over a one year period according to the frequency of their attendance and (2) the features of their attendances according to the frequency which the patient attended the department during the study period. METHODS: A dataset containing information on all new attendances to an urban A&E department in 1995 was formed. For each attendance the following information was recorded: day of...

1999-01-01

199

Intermittent attendance at breast cancer screening  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. To determine why women skip rounds and factors influencing return of previous non attenders (PNAs to breast screening. Design and methods. Retrospective, quantitative, structured questionnaire posted to 2500 women. First PNAs did not attend their first screening appointment in 2007/2008 but then attended in 2010; First Controls first attended in 2010 without missed previous appointments. Women who attended screening in 2006 or earlier then skipped a round but returned in 2010 were Subsequent PNAs; Subsequent Controls attended all appointments.Results. More First Controls than First PNAs had family history of cancer (72.7% vs 63.2%; P=0.003; breast cancer (31.3% vs 24.8%; P=0.04. More PNAs lived rurally; more First PNAs had 3rd level education (33.2% vs 23.6%; P=0.002 and fewer had private insurance than First Controls (57.7% vs 64.8%; P=0.04. Excellent/good health was reported in First PNAs and First Controls (82.9% vs 83.2%, but fewer Subsequent PNAs than Subsequent Controls (72.7% vs 84.9%; P=0.000. Common considerations at time of missed appointment were had mammogram elsewhere (33% First PNA and postponed to next round (16% First PNA, 18.8% Subsequent PNA. Considerations when returning to screening were similar for First PNAs and Subsequent PNAs: I am older (35.4%, 29.6%, I made sure I remembered (29%, 23.6%, could reschedule (17.6%, 20.6%, illness of more concern (16.5%, 19%. More First PNAs stated my family/friends advised (22.3% vs 15.2% or my GP (12.6% vs 4.6% advised me to attend, heard good things about BreastCheck (28.8% vs 13.6%.Conclusions. Intermittent attenders do not fit socio-demographic patterns of non-attenders; GP recommendation and word of mouth were important in women’s return to screening. Fear and anxiety seem to act as a screening facilitator rather than an inhibitor.

Patricia Fitzpatrick

2013-09-01

200

Attending to objects: costs or benefits?  

Science.gov (United States)

The single-object advantage is said to occur when performance is faster and/or more accurate when the two targets to be compared appear on one object than when they appear on two different objects. The single-object advantage has been interpreted to suggest that attention can select objects rather than unparsed regions of visual space. In five experiments we explored whether directing attention to one object rather than two objects produces a benefit or a minor cost. Participants were required to compare two target features that belonged to one object, to two objects, or did not belong to any object. In addition, we varied the relevance to the task of object-related global information, such as symmetry of the object and perceptual cluttering of the background. Results showed that attending to one object in comparison to attending to no object produced a benefit only when object-related global information was relevant to the task. In contrast, when object-related global information was irrelevant to the task, attending to one object produced a cost. Thus, it can be concluded that attending to an object does not produce an absolute benefit, but rather produces a smaller cost than attending to two objects. PMID:11766140

Mapelli, Daniela; Cherubini, Paolo; Umiltà, Carlo

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Designing a heat pipe to improve the exhaust emissions from petrol engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The national engineering Laboratory and the Shell research laboratory have co-operated in applying the heat pipe to the problem of exhaust emission from petrol engine. It is known that the carbon monoxide CO, un-burnt hydrocarbons (HxCy) and oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) content of the exhaust will vary with air to fuel ratio as shown in figure (1), in a conventional car engine the maximum efficiency is achieved at 15:1 and maximum power is obtained at 12:1. It's known that as the air fuel ratio increases, the CO content decreases and HxCy, NOx go through a minimum and maximum respectively. A considerable important in both CO and NOx content could be chivied by selecting a very weak mixture, but this not possible in a standard engine carburetor system due to the ignition difficulty, because the fuel is not fully vaporized, and because the fuel is not distributed equally between the cylinders and the vapor content is not as high as it should be due to the pressure of liquid fuel. This problem could be solved by designing a heat pipe that can transferring a certain quantities of heat from the exhaust to the induction manifold at the carburetor outlet as shown in figure (2). Under this condition a mixture as lean as 22:1 will ignite with out difficulty. In this paper, a complete design of heat pipe is carried out, taking into account the necessary criteria to decide various geometrical parameters. The design has been carried out using basic formulas in thermodynamics, heat transfer and physics. The result of this design have been checked for various practical limits. (author)

2010-07-26

202

Space Station propulsion system  

Science.gov (United States)

Viewgraphs on space station propulsion systems are presented. Topics covered include: space station propulsion system requirements; space station propulsion system design; space station propulsion system drivers; hydrazine technology development; waste fluid disposal system; space station propulsion system evolution; propellant selection trade study; technology needs to water electrolysis/oxygen-hydrogen propulsion system; and technology needs for bipropellant systems.

Henderson, J.

203

A review of attendance and non-attendance studies at sporting events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite its rapid growth, in the last few years the GreekProfessional Basketball League has been concerned with the significant decrease in the general interest surrounding the game of basketball, which has resulted in a fewer number offans attending the league’s games. The Basketball Spectator Non-Attendance Scale is an instrument that facilitates the identification of factors associated with non-attendanceat professional basketball games in Greece. The scale was successfully tested for validity and reliability with a convenience sample of 270 students at the University of Athens. The design of the instrument, its practical applications and results from our initial findings are reported and explained. The paper also provides a review of attendance and non-attendance studies at sporting events, which are discussed in the context of current theoretical perspectives. Tentative recommendations are made for reaching this rather sizablenon-attendance market.

JOHN DOUVIS

2007-12-01

204

Mechanical Harvesting of Citrus Fruits for Fresh Market with a Trunk Shaker and a Hand-Held Petrol Shaker  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Harvesting is one of the more expensive tasks in a Spanish citrus crop because it is done manually. Spanish researchers are investigating the possibilities of mechanical harvesting of citrus cultivated under Spanish conditions. This paper compares two different strategies for mechanical harvesting: the use of a trunk shaker and the use of a hand-held petrol shaker. Tests were performed in lemon, orange and mandarin groves. Tree spacing was 6-7 m between rows and 2.5-4.5 m in the row. Trees we...

Torregrosa Mira, Antonio; Ortiz Sa?nchez, Mari?a Coral; Martin, B.; Moreno, R.; Molto, E.; Chueca, P.

2012-01-01

205

An influence of the petrol pump for the atmospheric electric field distribution in the surroundings of the vehicles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the potential and electric field distribution in the surroundings of the cargo vehicles is approximately numerically determined, when they are exposed to the Atmospheric Electric Field (AEF, having uniform intensity and vertical polarization. The cases of the cargo vehicles either isolated or near by petrol pumps are observed. Several results of total induced charge and electrical moment of the vehicle including maps of equipotential and equienergetic curves are presented. The Equivalent Electrode Method (EEM is used to solve this problem.

Milovanovi? Alenka

2004-01-01

206

Comparative Effects of Petrol and Diesel on Enzyme Activity in Tympanotonus fuscatus after Sublethal Exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pollution of the aquatic environment by petroleum and its products is common the world over. This study is aimed at examining sublethal effects of petrol and diesel on enzymes in Tympanotonus fuscatus namely: Aspartate Transaminase (AST) (E.C. 2.6.1.1), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) (E.C. 2.6.2.2) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) (E.C. 3.1.3.1) activity after exposure. The periwinkles were exposed to 10.40, 15.60, 21.00, 26.00 ml L-1 and a control. The organs were removed o...

Edori, O. S.; Festus, C.; Edori, E. S.

2014-01-01

207

Device for switching a petrol injection engine to gas operation state. Vorrichtung zum Umschalten eines Benzineinspritzmotors auf Gasbetrieb  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention is related to a construction of a new device for switching a petrol injection engine to gas operation. An air volume measurement system and an air filter are mounted inside the air aspiration tunnel. The invention is characterized by a system with gas feeding device and pressure cylinder mounted in front of the air inlet. The piston of the pressure cylinder activates the flat of the air inlet. By this means it is possible to achieve a good adaption of the switching device to the injection engine with air volume measuring system.

Haneklaus, H.

1981-10-01

208

Is there an asymmetry in the response of diesel and petrol prices to crude oil price changes? Evidence from New Zealand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines how pre-tax petrol and diesel prices in New Zealand respond to changes in crude oil prices using an asymmetric error correction model. Our results show that oil companies adjust diesel prices upwards faster than they adjust them downwards, and the difference is statistically significant. However we find no statistical evidence for an asymmetry in the adjustment of petrol prices even though the magnitude of estimated coefficients suggests a faster response to rising prices. As diesel pricing is not as competitive as petrol pricing, calls for further government actions and monitoring of the oil market may be justified. Our findings also have important implications for the conduct of monetary policy as the pass-through of crude oil price changes can affect cost-push inflation. (author)

2010-07-01

209

Is there an asymmetry in the response of diesel and petrol prices to crude oil price changes? Evidence from New Zealand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines how pre-tax petrol and diesel prices in New Zealand respond to changes in crude oil prices using an asymmetric error correction model. Our results show that oil companies adjust diesel prices upwards faster than they adjust them downwards, and the difference is statistically significant. However we find no statistical evidence for an asymmetry in the adjustment of petrol prices even though the magnitude of estimated coefficients suggests a faster response to rising prices. As diesel pricing is not as competitive as petrol pricing, calls for further government actions and monitoring of the oil market may be justified. Our findings also have important implications for the conduct of monetary policy as the pass-through of crude oil price changes can affect cost-push inflation. (author)

Liu, Ming-Hua [Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau (Macau); Margaritis, Dimitris; Tourani-Rad, Alireza [Faculty of Business, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand)

2010-07-15

210

Space Station Spartan Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer wil...

J. H. Lane J. R. Schulman W. M. Neupert

1985-01-01

211

ATTENDING: Critiquing a Physician's Management Plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ATTENDING system is designed to critique a physician's preoperative plan for anesthetic management. In undertaking to critique a physician's plan, ATTENDING differs from other medical decision making systems, which in effect attempt to tell a physician what to do. ATTENDING's approach may prove more acceptable clinically, and may avoid certain social, medical, and medicolegal drawbacks. To cri-tique a physician's plan, ATTENDING must confront three basic problems. 1) It must be able to explore flexibly all possible approaches for a patient's management. The formalism of an ``augmented decision network'' allows this. 2) It must be able to assess the relative risks and benefits of alternative approaches intelligently. A heuristic approach to risk analysis is outlined, based on three basic principles which are de-scribed in detail. 3) It must produce a potentially complex analysis which critiques the plan in focused, readable prose. This is facilitated by PROSENET, an approach which allows clean separation between the organization of the content of an analysis and its expression in English prose. PMID:21869130

Miller, P L

1983-05-01

212

Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

2004-01-01

213

Economic process for reduction of the benzene content of petrol. The Octenar process. Wirtschaftliches Verfahren zur Reduzierung des Benzolgehalts in Motorenbenzin. Das Octenar-Verfahren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reduction of the benzene content of petrol to about 1% and below is being demanded not only in the USA, but will also have to be met in Europe in the future. The refineries are already preparing for these developments. With the aid of extractive distillation, which has undergone some impressive process improvements in recent years, it is possible to lower the benzene content of petrol to the required levels. The Octenar Process, developed by Krupp Koppers, is also very energy-economical. (orig.).

Emmrich, G.

1992-10-01

214

Process and device for vehicles with petrol engines for locking protection or drive slip control. Verfahren und Vorrichtung fuer Kraftfahrzeuge mit Ottomotoren zur Blockierschutz- oder Antriebsschlupfregelung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These are a process and devices for vehicles with petrol engines, whose braking systems are controlled to prevent locking or slipping wheels and which use subpressure as the source of the auxiliary energy required for control, which is provided by conneting the braking system to the suction system of the petrol engine. It is proposed to stabilise engine running during the locking protection and/or drive slip control process, if required, by intervention in the control of the drive motor, e.g.: By adjustment of the throttle valve or by correction of the control times of the engine valves.

Wupper, H.; David, A.; Beilfuss, J.; Schweighoefer, B.

1990-10-31

215

An analytic study of applying Miller cycle to reduce NO{sub x} emission from petrol engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analytic investigation of applying Miller cycle to reduce nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from a petrol engine is carried out. The Miller cycle used in the investigation is a late intake valve closing version. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the cycle is presented. A comparison of the characters of Miller cycle with Otto cycle is presented. From the results of thermodynamic analyses, it can be seen that the application of Miller cycle is able to reduce the compression pressure and temperature in the cylinder at the end of compression stroke. Therefore, it lowers down the combustion temperature and NO{sub x} formation in engine cylinder. These results in a lower exhaust temperature and less NO{sub x} emissions compared with that of Otto cycle. The analytic results also show that Miller cycle ratio is a main factor to influence the combustion temperature, and then the NO{sub x} emissions and the exhaust temperature. The results from the analytic study are used to analyse and to compare with the previous experimental results. An empirical formula from the previous experimental results that showed the relation of NO{sub x} emissions with the exhaust temperature at different engine speed is presented. The results from the study showed that the application of Miller cycle may reduce NO{sub x} emissions from petrol engine.

Wang Yaodong [School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom) and Mechanical Engineering College, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China)]. E-mail: y.d.wang@ncl.ac.uk; Lin Lin [Nanning College for Vocational Technology, Nanning, Guangxi 530003 (China); Roskilly, Anthony P. [School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Zeng Shengchuo [Mechanical Engineering College, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Huang, Jincheng [Mechanical Engineering College, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); He Yunxin [Mechanical Engineering College, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Huang Xiaodong [Mechanical Engineering College, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Huang Huilan [Mechanical Engineering College, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Wei Haiyan [Mechanical Engineering College, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Li Shangping [Guangxi University of Technology, Liuzhou 545006 (China); Yang Jing [Mechanical Engineering College, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China)

2007-08-15

216

Advanced introduction of cleaner petrol and diesel in the Netherlands. An analysis of the emission potential and cost effectiveness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2005 the European Union is to introduce tighter environmental standards for road vehicle fuels. The emissions of new passenger vehicles, delivery vans and heavy good vehicles will then have to satisfy even more stringent criteria, as will petrol and diesel fuel composition, the sulphur content of which must then be down from respectively 150 and 350 parts per million to 50 ppm. In the case of petrol, the maximum permitted aromatics content is also to be reduced, from 42% to 35%. There are two motives for introducing tighter environmental criteria for vehicle fuels. In the first place it will have the direct effect of immediately reducing the noxious emissions of all road vehicles running on these fuels, because of improvements to the combustion process. In addition, there will also be a significant indirect effect. Availability of low-sulphur fuels opens the door for several new vehicle technologies. In the case of petrol vehicles it permits introduction of direct-injection (DI) lean-burn engines with catalytic NOx absorption. In diesel vehicles new types of catalytic systems can be introduced, including 'particle traps' to reduce PM10 emissions. These technologies require low-sulphur fuels to be effective. An environmental downside of these cleaner fuels is that refinery production is more energy-intensive. EU member states are free to support implementation of these 'cleaner' fuels at an earlier date if they so desire. The objective of the present study is to provide background data for a possible decision on accelerated introduction of these fuels in the Netherlands. The aim of this study is to investigate the environmental effects and economic costs of accelerated introduction in the Netherlands of 'cleaner' fuels satisfying the EU's '2005 standards'. Two possible dates have been considered for earlier implementation: November 2001 and June 2003. November 2001 has been taken because this is when Germany will be introducing a tax incentive for low-sulphur petrol and diesel fuels. June 2003 lies exactly halfway between this date and January 2005. It has been assumed that the 'cleaner' fuels will immediately capture 100% of the market. Diesel and petrol have been examined separately, given the fact that little synergy will be created through simultaneous introduction of the two 'clean' fuels. The direct environmental effects of these fuels on the existing vehicle fleet have been calculated using a model for the European Auto-Oil programme updated by the TNO Road Vehicles Research Unit to account for the most recent developments. The indirect environmental effects have been estimated using literature data and TNO expertise. The cost estimates are based on information provided by the oil industry and from the literature, augmented where necessary by our own calculations. Give the substantial uncertainties surrounding much of this data, in relevant cases we have made both pessimistic and optimistic estimates. By assigning a monetary value to the environmental effects these can be compared with costs, enabling the cost-effectiveness of accelerated introduction to be calculated. 37 refs

2000-01-01

217

Transfer stations a growing need; Estaciones de transferencia, una necesidad creciente  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Every human concentration produce wastes to be disposed. Attending their origin are classified in urban, industrial, hazardous, or domestic wastes. All these have to be collected and carried to transference station. We present the second part of a paper that describes the quantitative and design aspects of this kind of station. (Author)

Rufes Aragoncillo, E. [Ros Roca, S.A. (Spain)

1994-12-31

218

Space Station Spartan study  

Science.gov (United States)

The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

1985-01-01

219

A Students Attendance System Using QR Code  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Smartphones are becoming more preferred companions to users than desktops or notebooks. Knowing that smartphones are most popular with users at the age around 26, using smartphones to speed up the process of taking attendance by university instructors would save lecturing time and hence enhance the educational process. This paper proposes a system that is based on a QR code, which is being displayed for students during or at the beginning of each lecture. The students will need to scan the code in order to confirm their attendance. The paper explains the high level implementation details of the proposed system. It also discusses how the system verifies student identity to eliminate false registrations.

Fadi Masalha

2014-01-01

220

Defining frequent attendance in general practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background General practitioners (GPs) or researchers sometimes need to identify frequent attenders (FAs) in order to screen them for unidentified problems and to test specific interventions. We wanted to assess different methods for selecting FAs to identify the most feasible and effective one for use in a general (group) practice. Methods In the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, data were collected on 375 899 persons registered with 10...

Tm, Smits Frans; Mohrs Jacob J; Beem Ellen E; Je, Bindels Patrick; Cpm, Weert Henk

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Fumigation of a Y-shaped tunnel using a de-tuned petrol vehicle ...  

The trials in this simple tunnel system achieved concentrations of CO thought to \\be sufficient to .... The specific gravity of CO is 0.968, which is very similar to air, \\and thus no layering .... velocity meter, a hot wire anemometer. A weather station\\ ...

222

Automatic adjustment of Automobile engines to petrol/alcohol fuel mixtures by means of electronic systems. automatische anpassung von kraftfahrzeugmotoren an benzin/alkohol-mischkraftstoffe durch elektronische systeme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility was studied to adapt petrol-otto-engines with electronic systems automatically to operation with petrol/alcohol-mixed fuels. The theoretical part of it (dissertation) is dedicated to the study of requirements for engines for a selective control of parameters and to find at in how far one can use system components or methods - available or under development - for mixture formation and ignition timing. The most important research results are summarized under a headings including the following findings: a modern, computer-controlled electronic system for engines is able to adapt the fuel-air ratio and the ignition point to any point of the characteristic diagram in the best possible way; the principle of electronic fuel injection (Bosch-System) can be used for adapting the fuel metering to petrol/alcohol mixture fuelling; the fuel-air ratio can be found by determining the dielectric constant; computer-controlled adjustment of the petrol/methanol mixture ratio is reproducible with a view to a constant air-fuel ratio. (HWJ)

Wissler, G.

1983-07-15

223

Process and device to determine the fuel/air ratio of petrol engines. Verfahren und Vorrichtung zum Bestimmen des Kraftstoffverhaeltnisses von Ottomotoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a single component exhaust gas measuring process for determining the composition of the mixture of petrol engines, a flow of exhaust gas is cooled, freed of condensate, cleaned and then mixed with a clean air flow in a constant ratio. The mixture is divided and a small part of the mixture is completely oxidised and analysed.

Kampelmuehler, F.

1985-10-10

224

Process and device for using alcohol as fuel for a petrol engine. Verfahren und Einrichtung zum Verwenden von Alkoholkraftstoff als Kraftstoff fuer eine benzinbetriebene Brennkraftmaschine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention provides a process and a device for using alcohol as fuel for a petrol engine. The alcohol and the petrol are evaporated separately from separate tanks and are mixed with air, taken to the plenum chamber of an internal combustion engine, where they are combined together with the air mixed with them, before being taken to the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine. The setting of the mixing ratio between the alcohol and the petrol is done by a double-acting dosing device. The petrol is taken via a carburettor to the plenum chamber in the usual way, while the alcohol is taken via an evaporator. The alcohol is evaporated in the evaporator by hot air, which is extracted from the crankcase ventilation, is further heated by heat exchange with the exhaust gases and is supplied to the evaporator by an air supply nozzle, whose direction is transverse, preferably at a right angle to the direction of an alcohol supply nozzle, where the outlet for the alcohol/air mixture is preferably situated in the extended direction of the air supply nozzle. (orig.).

Concepcion, J.M.R.

1983-02-10

225

Automatic adjustment of automobile engines to petrol/alcohol fuel mixtures by means of electronic systems. Automatische Anpassung von Kraftfahrzeugmotoren an Benzin/Alkohol-Mischkraftstoffe durch elektronische Systeme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility was studied to adapt petrol-otto-engines with electronic systems automatically to operation with petrol/alcohol-mixed fuels. The theoretical part of it (dissertation) is dedicated to the study of requirements for engines for a selective control of parameters and to find at in how far one can use system components or methods - available or under development - for mixture formation and ignition timing. The most important research results are summarized under a headings including the following findings: a modern, computer-controlled electronic system for engines is able to adapt the fuel-air ratio and the ignition point to any point of the characteristic diagram in the best possible way; the principle of elctronic fuel injection (Bosch-System) can be used for adapting the fuel metering to petrol/alcohol mixture fuelling; the fuel-air ratio can be found by determining the dielectric constant; computer-controlled adjustment of the petrol/methanol mixture ratio is reproduceable with a view to a constant air-fuel ratio. (HWJ).

Wissler, G.

1983-07-15

226

Car fuels: next generation engines: towards a convergence between petrol and diesel; Carburants: moteurs du futur: vers une convergence entre essence et diesel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two new technologies concerning car engines: the combustion through self controlled inflammation (CAI) for petrol engines and the homogeneous combustion (HCCI) for diesel engines, will dramatically reduce the impact of transport on the environment. Both technologies are characterized by a quick combustion and a high yield at low temperature which permits a huge reduction of NO{sub x} emissions. CAI and HCCI technologies, that are expected to be broadly used in Europe by 2010, could question the replacement of petrol or diesel fuels by alternative fuels like hydrogen or natural gas. The evolution of car engines implies the development of new car fuels that fit better CAI and HCCI technologies. It seems that CAI petrol engines and HCCI diesel engines will come together in terms of physical characteristics (combustion ratio...) or in terms of pollution (emission of NO{sub x}), so this similarity could imply the same process for car fuels: diesel and petrol could converge to a unique car fuel. (A.C.)

Anon.

2002-02-01

227

The development of rhythmic attending in auditory sequences: attunement, referent period, focal attending.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is divided into three sections. The first section is theoretical; it extends Dynamic Attending Theory (Jones, M. R. Psychological Review 83 (1976) 323; Jones, M. R. Perception and Psychophysics 41(6) (1987) 631; Jones, M. R. Psychomusicology 9(2) (1990) 193; Jones, M. R., & Boltz, M. Psychological Review 96(3) (1989) 459) to developmental questions concerning tempo and time hierarchies. Generally Dynamic Attending Theory proposes that, when listening to a complex auditory sequence, listeners spontaneously focus on events occurring at an intermediate rate (the referent level), and they then may shift attention to events occurring over longer or shorter time spans, that is at lower (faster) or higher (slower) hierarchical levels (focal attending). The second section of the paper is experimental. It examines maturational changes of three dynamic attending activities involving referent period and level, attunement, and focal attending. Tasks involve both motor tapping (including spontaneous motor tempo and synchronization with simple sequences and music) and tempo discrimination. We compare performances by 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old children and adults, with or without musical training. Results indicate three changes with increased age and musical training: (1) a slowing of the mean spontaneous tapping rate (a reflection of the referent period) and mean synchronization rate (a reflection of the referent level), (2) enhanced ability to synchronize tapping and discriminate tempo (improved attunement), and (3) an enlarged range of tapping rates towards slower rates and higher hierarchical levels (improved focal attending). A final section considers results in light of the theory proposed here. It is suggested that growth trends can be expressed in terms of listeners' engagement of slower attending oscillators with age and experience, accompanied by the passage from the initial use of a single oscillator towards the coupling of multiple oscillators. PMID:11018511

Drake, C; Jones, M R; Baruch, C

2000-12-15

228

On exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled passenger cars at low ambient temperatures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study at hand deals with regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled cars at low ambient temperatures with present-day or near-future exhaust after treatment systems. The subject has been investigated at VTT over a decade and this report compiles data from various sub-studies carried out between the years 1993 - 1997. Each one of them viewed different aspects of the phenomenon, like determining the low-temperature response of today`s new cars employing three-way catalytic converters or assessing the long-term durability and the influence of vehicle mileage upon the low-temperature emissions performance. Within these studies, together more than 120 cars of model years from 1990 to 1997 have been tested. Most of them were normal, in-service vehicles with total mileages differing between only a few thousand kilometres for new cars up to 80,000 km or even more for the in-use vehicles. Both the US FTP75 and the European test cycle have been employed, and the ambient temperatures ranged from the baseline (+22 deg C) down to +- O deg C, -7 deg C and in some cases even to -20 deg C. The studies attested that new cars having today`s advanced emissions control systems produced fairly low levels of emissions when tested in conditions designated in the regulations that are the basis of the current new-vehicle certification. However, this performance was not necessarily attained at ambient temperatures that were below the normative range. Fairly widespread response was recorded, and cars having almost equal emissions output at baseline could produce largely deviating outcomes in low-temperature conditions. On average, CO and HC emissions increased by a factor of five to 10, depending on the ambient temperature and vehicle type. However, emissions of NO{sub x} were largely unaffected. Apart from these regulated emissions, many unregulated species were also determined, either by using traditional sampling and chromatography methods or on-line, employing the latest FTIR technology. Overall, the levels of these emissions were also mostly elevated at subnormal temperatures. Total vehicle mileage seemed not to affect cold-start emissions (CO and HC) at low temperatures. Nor did the overall durability of the emission control system appear to be worse in cold-climate conditions typical for Finland. The deterioration of the emissions performance in the tested vehicles either closely followed the average trend defined by the normal, assigned deterioration factors or was even lesser. The conclusions of this report underline the necessity of a separate low-temperature test in order to really effectively curb real-world emissions. Standards at normal temperature are no more effective alone, but need to be accompanied with additional requirements for good performance also in conditions closer to the everyday use, which comprises many cold-starts even in low ambient temperature conditions. (orig.) 75 refs.

Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

1998-11-01

229

Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within 10 m of a motorway and 3 m of a minor road. Overall, the dominant source of Pb was historical emissions from nearby industrial areas. There was no discernible change in concentration or isotopic composition of Pb in surface soil or vegetation over the decade since the ban on the sale of leaded petrol. There was an order of magnitude decrease in Pb concentrations in road dust over the study period, but petrol Pb persisted at up to 43% of the total Pb concentration in 2010. Similar concentrations and spatial distributions of petrol Pb and non petrol Pb in vegetation in both 2001 and 2010, with enhanced concentrations near roads, suggested that redistribution of previously deposited material has operated continuously over that period, maintaining a transfer pathway of Pb into the biosphere. The results for vegetation and soil transects near minor roads provided evidence of a non petrol Pb source associated with roads/traffic, but surface soil samples from the vicinity of a motorway failed to show evidence of such a source. - Highlights: {yields} A 10 year study of Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in farmland. {yields} Soil and vegetation showed no systematic decrease in Pb concentrations over 10 years. {yields} Road dust Pb concentrations fell from 117 mg kg{sup -1} in 2001 to 14.2 mg kg{sup -1} in 2010. {yields} Enhancement of petrol Pb only within 10m of a motorway and 3m of a minor road.

MacKinnon, G., E-mail: Gillian.MacKinnon@glasgow.ac.uk [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, East Kilbride, G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); MacKenzie, A.B., E-mail: Angus.MacKenzie@glasgow.ac.uk [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, East Kilbride, G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Cook, G.T., E-mail: Gordon.Cook@glasgow.ac.uk [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, East Kilbride, G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Pulford, I.D., E-mail: Ian.Pulford@glasgow.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Duncan, H.J., E-mail: Harry.Duncan@glasgow.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Scott, E.M., E-mail: Marian.Scott@glasgow.ac.uk [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2011-11-01

230

Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within 10 m of a motorway and 3 m of a minor road. Overall, the dominant source of Pb was historical emissions from nearby industrial areas. There was no discernible change in concentration or isotopic composition of Pb in surface soil or vegetation over the decade since the ban on the sale of leaded petrol. There was an order of magnitude decrease in Pb concentrations in road dust over the study period, but petrol Pb persisted at up to 43% of the total Pb concentration in 2010. Similar concentrations and spatial distributions of petrol Pb and non petrol Pb in vegetation in both 2001 and 2010, with enhanced concentrations near roads, suggested that redistribution of previously deposited material has operated continuously over that period, maintaining a transfer pathway of Pb into the biosphere. The results for vegetation and soil transects near minor roads provided evidence of a non petrol Pb source associated with roads/traffic, but surface soil samples from the vicinity of a motorway failed to show evidence of such a source. - Highlights: ? A 10 year study of Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in farmland. ? Soil and vegetation showed no systematic decrease in Pb concentrations over 10 years. ? Road dust Pb concentrations fell from 117 mg kg-1 in 2001 to 14.2 mg kg-1 in 2010. ? Enhancement of petrol Pb only within 10m of a motorway and 3m of a minor road.

2011-11-01

231

A Linear Programming Model for Assigning Students to Attendance Centers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A linear programing model and procedures for optimal assignment of students to attendance centers are presented. An example of the use of linear programing for the assignment of students to attendance centers in a particular school district is given. (CK)

Ontjes, Robert L.

232

Demographic characteristics of general practitioners attending educational meetings.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are many factors which influence general practitioners' behaviour with regard to attendance at education meetings. The demographic characteristics of general practitioners in the west of Scotland attending educational meetings were studied over a two year period. A total of 1672 doctors had attended sufficient sessions to claim their postgraduate education allowance and of these 1551 (93%) responded to the questionnaire. Overall attendance at meetings did not vary between age groups, bu...

Murray, T. S.; Dyker, G. S.; Kelly, M. H.; Gilmour, W. H.; Campbell, L. M.

1993-01-01

233

Study of exhaust emissions of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on diesel engine emission characteristics and smoke opacity of the exhausts. The biggest NOx emissions, 1954 and 2078 ppm, at 2000 min-1 speed generate blends PRO10 (9.72%) and EPRO5 (11.13%) against, 1731 and 1411 ppm, produced from ERO5 (12%) and ERO10 (13.2% oxygen) blends. The carbon monoxide, CO, emissions emitted from a fully loaded engine fuelled with three agent blends EPRO5-7.5 at maximum torque and rated speed are higher by 39.5-18.8% and 27.5-16.1% and smoke opacity lower by 3.3-9.0% and 24.1-17.6% comparing with RO case. When operating at rated 2200 min-1 mode, the carbon dioxide, CO2, emissions are lower, 6.9-6.3 vol%, from blends EPRO5-7.5 relative to that from RO, 7.8 vol%, accompanied by a slightly higher emission of unburned hydrocarbons HC, 16 ppm, and residual oxygen contents O2, 10.4-12.0 vol%, in the exhausts

2009-03-01

234

Defining frequent attendance in general practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GPs or researchers sometimes need to identify frequent attenders (FAs in order to screen them for unidentified problems and to test specific interventions. We wanted to assess different methods for selecting FAs to identify the most feasible and effective one for use in a general (group practice. Methods In the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, data were collected on 375 899 persons registered with 104 practices. Frequent attendance is defined as the top 3% and 10% of enlisted patients in each one-year age-sex group measured during the study year. We used these two selections as our reference standard. We also selected the top 3% and 10% FAs (90 and 97 percentile based on four selection methods of diminishing preciseness. We compared the test characteristics of these four methods. Results Of all enlisted patients, 24 % did not consult the practice during the study year. The mean number of contacts in the top 10% FAs increased in men from 5.8 (age 15–24 years to 17.5 (age 64–75 years and in women from 9.7 to 19.8. In the top 3% of FAs, contacts increased in men from 9.2 to 24.5 and in women from 14 to 27.8. The selection of FAs becomes more precise when smaller age classes are used. All selection methods show acceptable results (kappa 0.849 – 0.942 except the three group method. Conclusion To correctly identify frequent attenders in general practice, we recommend dividing patients into at least three age groups per sex.

Bindels Patrick JE

2008-04-01

235

Motives for attending the Cultivaria Arts Festival  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Festivals are becoming a key feature on the tourism calendar of many towns and cities. Cultivaria is one of South Africa’s newest arts festivals and is held at Paarl annually. The festival is one combining the arts, wine and food. The purpose of this research is to determine the reasons (motives) for visitors attending the festival. This information is needed so that a marketing plan can be developed, as well as to be able to ensure that visitors’ needs are fulfilled. In order to do this,...

Saayman, Melville

2011-01-01

236

Persistent frequent attenders in primary care: costs, reasons for attendance, organisation of care and potential for cognitive behavioural therapeutic intervention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The top 3% of frequent attendance in primary care is associated with 15% of all appointments in primary care, a fivefold increase in hospital expenditure, and more mental disorder and functional somatic symptoms compared to normal attendance. Although often temporary if these rates of attendance last more than two years, they may become persistent (persistent frequent or regular attendance). However, there is no long-term study of the economic impac...

2012-01-01

237

The International Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Users can access news articles, background information and links about the International Space Station. Materials presented here include crew biographies, expedition press kits, accounts of science experiments, and imagery taken from the station. Other features include a clock/counter that logs the station's and the crew's time in orbit and information for ground-based observers who wish to view the station as it passes overhead at night.

238

Faculty and student perceptions of post-exam attendance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This project investigated differences between faculty and student perceptions of student attendance in courses for the class period after an exam, including factors thought to influence student attendance. Participants from a single university completed a mixed-methods on-line questionnaire. Quantitative analyses revealed significant differences between faculty and student perceptions on all but one project variable. Qualitative analyses reinforced those findings and suggested that faculty misunderstand what factors actually influence student attendance. Taken together, the results suggest a substantial disconnect between faculty and student perceptions of the importance of class attendance and highlight areas for faculty to influence student attendance.

Trent W. Maurer

2009-12-01

239

Single station welding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Short- and long-term advances in pipelaying technology as a result of single station welding are discussed. The single station welding technique is considered to be the most important technological development for future pipelaying operations. There are a number of single station welding methods currently under development, including friction, flash butt, and laser welding. Each of these methods is briefly described.

Pallot, J.

1984-09-01

240

Minor injury attendance times to the ED.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The Health Service Executive (HSE) highlights the need for effective patient throughput and management, whilst providing appropriate staffing and therapeutic interventions. It acknowledges that patient need is integral to the development of a nurse led service and advocates planning staffing levels to reflect arrival times of patients. An observational study of all patients who presented to the emergency department in July 2005 and February 2006 was undertaken (n=7768). The study identified 1577 patients suitable for treatment by the Advanced Nurse Practitioner (ANP) in these two months, which represents 20% of all patient attendances to the ED in this time period. A data collection tool was devised collectively by the ANPs to identify appropriate patients. The findings of the study revealed that 73% of patients suitable for the ANP service presented between the hours of 0800 and 2000, of which 54% attended between 0800 and 1600 h. Sunday emerged as the busiest day in July 2005 whereas Monday was found to be the busiest day in February 2006. Friday was found to be consistently busy for both months.

Conlon, Ciaran

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether and benzene among service station attendants and operators.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Concerns for atmospheric pollution from auto exhaust have led to the blending of "oxygenates" with motor fuels. The most common oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently required within several metropolitan areas (Denver and Phoenix) in the range of 12% of the motor fuel. Amendments to the Clean Air Act may expand this requirement to as many as 44 other areas of the United States in the near future. In consideration of the magnitude of potential uncontrolled exposures from its ex...

Hartle, R.

1993-01-01

242

Senkung des Kraftstoffverbrauches durch Thermodynamische Optimierung des Otto-Motors. Schaltgetriebe fuer Minimalen Kraftstoffverbrauch; Optimierung des Leerlaufbetriebes (Reduction of Fuel Consumption by Thermodynamic Optimisation of the Otto (Petrol) Engine. Gearbox for Minimal Fuel Consumption; Optimisation of Idling).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the investigation was to determine whether the thermodynamically optimized Porsche petrol engine (the TOP engine), together with a suitably designed gearbox, could approach the favorable fuel consumption of a diesel engine of the same cylinder ...

V. Korte D. Gruden H. Striebich H. Lorcher

1983-01-01

243

Attending to the reasons for attribute non-attendance in choice experiments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper focuses on behavioural reasons underlying stated attribute non-attendance. In order to identify and incorporate procedures for dealing with heterogeneous attribute processing strategies, we ask respondents follow-up questions regarding their reasons for ignoring attributes. Based on these statements, we conclude that the standard way of assigning a zero impact of ignored attributes on the likelihood is inappropriate. We find that some respondents act in accordance with the passive bounded rationality assumption since they ignore an attribute simply because it does not affect their utility. Excluding these genuine zero preferences, as the standard approach essentially does, might bias results. Other respondents claim to have ignored attributes to simplify choices. However, we find that these respondents have actually not completely ignored attributes. We argue along the rationally adaptive behavioural model that preferences are indeed elicited in these cases, and we show how using a scaling approachcan appropriately weight these observations in the econometric model. Finally, we find that some respondents ignore attributes for protest-like reasons which essentially convey no information about preferences. We suggest that using the standard approach combined with weighting procedures and recoding of non-attendance statements conditional on the specific reasons for non-attendance could be more appropriate than the current standard way of taking stated non-attendance into account.

Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

2011-01-01

244

Viewpoints of the attendings and medical students about the Students' evaluation of the attendings, Mazandaran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Evaluation is one of the most important bases of promoting the quality of education. It is very important to know the attendings’ and students’ viewpoints as evaluated and evaluator groups. So in this study the viewpoint of the attendings and students of School of Medicine of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (MUMS about the students evaluation of the attendings, were studied.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-cross sectional study, all faculty members (FM and students of the school of Medicine were included in the study by census sampling.Data collection was done using a questionnaire including demographic questions and educational variables, the FM and students viewpoint about manner of evaluation (time, the way of distributing the forms and the explanation, the student's features in evaluation (awareness, truthfulness and puposes and the instrument of evaluation (questionnaires and items. Results: 345 individuals (95 FM and 250 students took part in this study. The manner of evaluation (time, distribution and explanations to most of FMs' and students’ opinion was appropriate. About student's awareness and truthfulness in filling in the questionnaires; a considerable percentage of FMs (20-40% had a negative opinion and over half of them had a negative attitude about the whole process of evaluation. About the items of theoretical, practical and clinical questionnaires, while the students laid stress on aspect such as: being a teacher and concepts transferring, on attendings opinion these aspects were less important. Conclusion: To most FMs and students opinion, the manner of evaluation is appropriate but a considerable negative attitude exists among attendings about students’ awareness and truthfulness in filling in the questionnaire. The priorities of evaluation are different in these two groups’ point if view.

M. Mahmoudi

2007-01-01

245

Persistent frequent attenders in primary care: costs, reasons for attendance, organisation of care and potential for cognitive behavioural therapeutic intervention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The top 3% of frequent attendance in primary care is associated with 15% of all appointments in primary care, a fivefold increase in hospital expenditure, and more mental disorder and functional somatic symptoms compared to normal attendance. Although often temporary if these rates of attendance last more than two years, they may become persistent (persistent frequent or regular attendance. However, there is no long-term study of the economic impact or clinical characteristics of regular attendance in primary care. Cognitive behaviour formulation and treatment (CBT for regular attendance as a motivated behaviour may offer an understanding of the development, maintenance and treatment of regular attendance in the context of their health problems, cognitive processes and social context. Methods/design A case control design will compare the clinical characteristics, patterns of health care use and economic costs over the last 10?years of 100 regular attenders (?30 appointments with general practitioner [GP] over 2?years with 100 normal attenders (6–22 appointments with GP over 2?years, from purposefully selected primary care practices with differing organisation of care and patient demographics. Qualitative interviews with regular attending patients and practice staff will explore patient barriers, drivers and experiences of consultation, and organisation of care by practices with its challenges. Cognitive behaviour formulation analysed thematically will explore the development, maintenance and therapeutic opportunities for management in regular attenders. The feasibility, acceptability and utility of CBT for regular attendance will be examined. Discussion The health care costs, clinical needs, patient motivation for consultation and organisation of care for persistent frequent or regular attendance in primary care will be explored to develop training and policies for service providers. CBT for regular attendance will be piloted with a view to developing this approach as part of a multifaceted intervention.

Morriss Richard

2012-07-01

246

Nursing research: building roads to attend  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to show the construction of the knowledge of Nursing, through the research, interrelating it with the social context and attendance to the health. Methodology: as sources of obtaining the data we had used articles of newspapers, books, as well as critical works presented in the Course of Academic Master's degree of ,ad Universities Federal de Pelotas. Texts were analyzed that focused the historical and social context of Nursing in the period from 1981 to 2000. Results: thematic nucleus emerged as "Research in nursing: articulation between theory and practice in the social context" and "Weaving bonds between the assistential nursing and the teaching". Conclusions: in the reflections accomplished in readings, discussions in classroom we evidenced that the construction process and invigoration of Nursing, as profession and science, happened through the research. The knowledge had been built with other sciences, but the construction of the scientific "know” still is a challenge for Nursing in the current society.

Samanta Bastos Maagh, Juliana Graciela Vestena Zillmer, Lenice de Castro Muniz de Quadros, Sabrina Gomes Ferreira, Caroline de Leon Linck, Eda Schwartz, Sonia Maria Könzgen Meincke, Celmira Lange

2009-07-01

247

Ozone toxicity symptoms among flight attendants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of persistent complaints of ozone-toxicity type symptoms among crew members of commercial airlines, we undertook a survey to determine the extent of the problem and the associated flight factors. Self-reported questionnaires and flight diaries were completed by 1,330 flight attendants, (FAs) working for three different airlines. Ozone-toxicity type symptoms were reported three or four times more frequently by FAs with airlines flying at high altitudes than by those with low-flying airlines. When examined by characteristics of flights, the ozone-toxicity type symptoms were significantly associated with flight altitude, duration and type of aircraft, but not with years worked, sex, medical history, or home residence. Other symptoms indicative of fatigue or stress were mainly associated with flight duration. While these indirect data cannot implicate ozone specifically, they offer evidence that ozone-related health problems do exist among a large proportion of FAs.

Reed, D.; Glaser, S.; Kaldor, J.

1980-01-01

248

Process and device for detecting oil or petrol in water. Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Feststellung von Oel oder Benzin in Wasser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The process for detecting oil or petrol in water uses a capacitative sensor responding to the different permitivity of water and oil or petrol, where the sensor is immersed in the water surface at certain time intervals. The measuring process occurs immediately after immersion. If the proportion of oil is very small compared to the amount of water, a separation container is used, through which part of the water to be monitored is passed. The sensor is fitted to the separation container in this case. Repeated immersion of the sensor in the water surface is achieved by repeated variation of the water level in the separation container. The process is particularly suitable for monitoring transformers whose oil is cooled by cooling water.

Rehm, H.

1987-04-30

249

Assistance for starting and support of mixture preparation mainly for cold starting of petrol engines. Starthilfe und Unterstuetzung der Gemischaufbereitung vornehmlich bei Kaltstart von Otto-Motoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present state of technique in the assistance for starting to support mixture preparation mainly for cold starting of petrol engines is the use of electrical resistance heating. This is required due to exhaust gas emission laws. There are processes which evaporate particles of fuel mainly in the starting phase by using an increased surface area with greater efficiency. The energy required, depending on the temperature, can be up to 700 watts, which is very high. The invention for assistance in starting and supporting the preparation of the mixture for cold starting of petrol engines makes use of ultrasonic atomisation and requires less than 1/10 to 1/100 of the energy of resistance heating. No heating time is required and there is more energy available for the starter than previously.

Reitz, J.; Mathieu, W.

1984-03-22

250

Calculated simulation of non-steady state working conditions in a single cylinder petrol engine. Rechnerische Simulation von instationaeren Betriebszustaenden an einem Einzylinder-Ottomotor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, the important parameters of mixture formation and ignition are discussed for the non-steady state working conditions of petrol engines. Using a calculated simulation for a single cylinder petrol engine, the effect of the speed of opening of the throttle valve on the filling of the engine and correspondingly on the course of the indicated work is shown. Defined defects in the air ratio and speed changes are given. A comparison with published results of measurements shows that the process of calculation shown here provides satisfactory results. The actual deviation in the air ratio, which is difficult to measure, has therefore been calculated, at least for a single cylinder engine. (orig.).

Manz, P.W.

1989-06-26

251

Field test of motor cars running on methanol-petrol mixtures. Field test methanol/benzine variabele mengsels in 15 auto's  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the Dutch National Program Plan on Energy Research the Research Institute for Road Vehicles of the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research TNO carried out a field test of motor cars using as motor fuel methanol-petrol mixtures ranging from 0% to 100% methanol. This has been made possible by using a sensor developed for alcohol-petrol mixtures coupled with a control system. The fleet, 15 Volvo 340 cars, was tested in the period July 1982-April 1985. They covered together 1,118,558 km; 'average mixture': 65% methanol; 'average fuel consumption': 14.4 liter per 100 km. Detailed information is given on: fuel consumption, performance, troubles, maintenance, etc. A special and separate appendix gives information on complaints and troubles in general and for each car individually.

Hollemans, B.; Van der Weide, J.

1985-01-01

252

Capacity at Railway Stations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end stations and overtaking stations, the dwell/layover time is recommended to be reduced to the minimum required time as it results in the lowest possible capacity consumption. For dead end stations it is furthermore recommended that the trains can use all possible tracks and not only those tracks they originally was assigned. For complex stations with shunting movement, the results of UIC 406 capacity analyses are imprecise due to different possible routes and no exact knowledge of shunting movements. For these stations it is instead recommended that they are analysed with a supplement to compensate for the inaccuracies.

Landex, Alex Technical University of Denmark,

2011-01-01

253

An in vitro Assessment on the Efficacy of Clay-Based Formulated Cells of Pseudomonas Isolate UTAR EPA2 for Petrol Degradation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Application of free-cell forms is usually impractical to achieve satisfactory bioremediative effect because the microbes are encumbered by the biotic and abiotic stresses from the environment. Approach: In this study, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium (Pseudomonas isolate UTAR EPA2 was formulated with various combinations of formulative materials, comprising of clay-based carrier materials such as Bentonite (B and Kaolin (K, enrichment materials such as Non-fat skimmed milk (N and Sucrose (S and a UV-protectant agent Para-aminobenzoic acid (P. Formulated cells were treated to sunlight exposure for 6 h to mimic the conditions in the environment prior to testing for their efficacy in degrading petrol, a mixed hydrocarbon substrate. Results: Cells in all formulations including free-cell suspension were able to degrade petrol with a relatively high degradation efficacy of more than 66% even after exposure to sunlight. Degradation efficacy was slightly higher for kaolin-based formulated cells compared to bentonite-based formulations, especially after exposure to sunlight, although their percentages of degradation were not statistically different. Nevertheless, kaolin-based formulations have very low viable cell count especially in formulations with P (KP, KNP, KSP, KNSP. This suggested that aside from viable cells, the physical properties of the clays could have also contributed to the degradation of petrol. Conclusion: For storage purposes and applications in the field, we suggest that the bacterium is formulated with bentonite-based formulations especially using Bentonite (B clay singly, as relatively high percentage of petrol degradation and viable cell count was achieved with this formulation.

A. S.Y. Ting

2010-01-01

254

The chances for green petrol. Alternative for MTBE is ethylene tertiary butylether; Kans op groenere benzine stijgt. Alternatief voor MTBE is etheen tertiair butyl ether  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To find a useful and environment-friendly fuel is difficult. Lead and benzene already were replaced by methyl tertiary butylether (MTBE), but this fuel additive too appears to be hazardous for man and the environment. When MTBE will be banned the chances for so-called green petrol (made from biomass) are rising. A brief overview of the developments in the field of fuel additives so far is given.

Van de Graaf, A.; Steentjes, A. [eds.

2000-05-03

255

Frequent attenders in general practice: medical, psychological and social characteristics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A group of frequent attenders at a general practice surgery have been studied by comparison with a group of age-and sex-matched controls. Frequent attenders are distinguished by a high predisposition to neurotic illness (as measured by the `N' score of the Eysenck personality questionnaire) and a high prevalence of affective neurosis. Poor past physical health was commonly found among the frequent attenders and comprised for the most part the common chronic physical illnesses. Of the social c...

Westhead, J. N.

1985-01-01

256

Rejuvenation and Networking Motivates Librarians to Attend Conferences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A Review of: Vega, Robert D. and Ruth S. Connell. “Librarians’ Attitudes Toward Conferences: A Study.” College & Research Libraries 68.6 (2007): 503-15. Objectives – To determine why professional librarians attend or do not attend conferences and to consider their attitudes toward the various conference offerings and whether conference attendance is important to their careers. Design – An electronic mail list survey designed to collect both ...

Hultman O?zek, Yvonne

2009-01-01

257

Automation of Attendance Posting System Using Messaging Services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research highlights a new model of Attendance Posting System through mobile phones using SMS feature. The proposed system eliminates all kinds of paper work involved in traditional attendance system. This is a one step process, which eliminates redundant data and efforts. The proposed system can also be programmed to send attendance reports in the form of short messages to parents and students regularly. In the proposed system, a user is given an application which, as a prerequisite has ...

2010-01-01

258

Delivery Practices of Traditional Birth Attendants in Dhaka Slums, Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes associations among delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, and early postpartum morbidity in women in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During November 1993–May 1995, data on delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, delivery-related complications, and postpartum morbidity were collected through interviews with 1,506 women, 489 home-based birth attendants, and audits in 20 facilities where the women from this study ...

Fronczak, N.; Arifeen, S. E.; Moran, A. C.; Caulfield, L. E.; Baqui, A. H.

2007-01-01

259

Factors influencing attendance of ice hockey games in Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Commercialization of sport has been growing since 80s and club owners tend to pay more and more attention not just to cups and titles but to commercial success as well. Nevertheless, fans are still the key source of revenues. Besides direct spending while attending games popular clubs and crowded stadiums grab attention of generous advertisers. That is why the problem of sports attendance becomes more and more important though ice hockey attendance is still not the most popular topic among sp...

Arzhilovskiy, Maxim; Priyatel, Kirill

2012-01-01

260

International Space Station: Update  

Science.gov (United States)

In November 1998, Zarya was launched into space, ushering in the era of the International Space Station (featured in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). This month, the docking of the Zvezda Service Module marks the beginning of yet another phase -- in which Zvezda will serve as living quarters to the first ever resident crew (Expedition One), scheduled to arrive at the International Space Station in early November. This site from NASA provides updated information on the International Space Station, including recent news, planned missions, and a virtual tour of the (yet-to-be-completed) station.

 
 
 
 
261

Iceberg Data Collection Stations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three automatic stations have been designed for data collection from tabular iceberg drifting in the Antarctic. One station was deployed in February 1979 at 70.5S, 20.3W. Data are telemetered by satellite to Service ARGOS for dissemination and processing.

R. Boe J. Markussen J. Stroemme

1979-01-01

262

Nuclear power stations (safety)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reports a debate in the House of Commons on the safety of nuclear power stations. The debate included a discussion on: electricity production and nuclear power generation in the United Kingdom and other countries, plutonium for nuclear weapons, radiation risks and consequences from radioactive wastes and fallout, the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, and safety of magnox stations. (U.K.).

Corbyn, J.; Banks, T.; Goodlad, A.

1986-05-23

263

Wind Electric Power Station.  

Science.gov (United States)

A wind power station is described in which the structure on which the rotors are mounted may tilt as wind speed changes so that the rotors leave the vertical plane to anticipate increased wind speeds. The power station may have pulse generators located in...

H. Honnef

1974-01-01

264

Cyclical Economic Conditions and School Attendance in Costa Rica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the importance of declining economic conditions in school attendance decision making for households with teenagers aged 12-17 in Costa Rica, using a reduced-form model. The 1981-83 economic recession coincided with a large attendance drop. Household labor market characteristics and student characteristics also significantly determine…

Funkhouser, Edward

1999-01-01

265

Outreach by College Counselors: Increasing Student Attendance at Presentations  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychoeducational outreach programming by college counselors can be an effective service to meet students' needs; however, getting students to attend outreach programs on a college campus can be challenging. The authors describe a model of an outreach series and the strategies implemented to increase student attendance at the presentations.…

Marks, Lawrence I.; McLaughlin, Richard H.

2005-01-01

266

The Causes of Non-Attendance: An Empirical Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents new evidence obtained from an empirical study which used three distinct groups of professionals engaged in the attempt to "brainstorm" reasons for pupils' non-attendance. The evidence suggests that the "causes" of pupils' non-attendance can be sub-divided into three main fields: pupils who dislike coming to school; those who…

Reid, Ken

2008-01-01

267

Tracking Residents' Conference Attendance: A Reliable Solution at Last?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional methods of documenting residents= conference attendance have been unreliable. Criteria for an improved, automation-based process were identified. A new device potentially fulfilling these criteria was identified, and a pilot project of a new attendance tracking system was undertaken. Early results have been positive, but further experience is required before definitive conclusions can be reached.

Afrin, Lawrence B.

2002-01-01

268

Cultural Patterns in Attending to Two Events at Once  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined cultural differences in children's simultaneous attention to 2 events versus quick alternation in which attending to 1 event momentarily interrupted attending to another. Thirty-one 6- to 10-year-old U.S. children of Mexican and European American heritage folded paper figures with 2 other first- to third-grade children and an…

Correa-Chavez, Maricela; Rogoff, Barbara; Mejia Arauz, Rebeca

2005-01-01

269

Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.

Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.

Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern/Insular Italy. Similar geographical distributions can be noted in the attendance rates (60.5% in the North of Italy, 56% in the Central area and 38.3% in the South of Italy. Cervical cancer screening: From the data obtained by the 2006 survey, 93.5% of theoretical extension was registered in the Centre of Italy, 65% in the North and 65.5% or in the South of Italy. 38.5% of invited women underwent a Pap-test. A decreasing trend in participation can be observed from Northern (45.6% to Central (35.7%, and to Southern (28.7% Italy. Colorectal cancer screening: In 2006, theoretical extension of colorectal cancer screening in Italy was 44%, with significant differences in geographical distribution (66.1% in the North of Italy 48.5% in the Centre and about 10% in the South of our country. About 907,000 people had a faecal occult blood test in 2006 (adjusted compliance of 44.6%. Data from the survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” showed that organised screening activity can reduce social inequalities of access to cancer screening, increasing screening utilization particularly in less educated people.

Conclusions: Organised cancer screening programmes have been extended in recent years, improving the equity in the access to early diagnosis for the people invited. However, social and geographical inequalities still remain.

Grazia Grazzini

2008-06-01

270

Wanting to attend isn't just wanting to quit: why some disadvantaged smokers regularly attend smoking cessation behavioural therapy while others do not: a qualitative study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Attendance of a behavioural support programme facilitates smoking cessation. Disadvantaged smokers have been shown to attend less than their more affluent peers. We need to gain in-depth insight into underlying reasons for differing attendance behaviour in disadvantaged smokers, to better address this issue. This study aims to explore the underlying motivations, barriers and social support of smokers exhibiting different patterns of attendance at a free smoking cessation behavioural support programme in a disadvantaged neighbourhood of The Netherlands. Methods In 29 smokers undertaking smoking cessation group therapy or telephone counselling in a disadvantaged neighbourhood, qualitative interviews were completed, coded and analysed. Major themes were motivations, barriers to attend and social support. Motivations and social support were analysed with reference to the self-determination theory. Results Two distinct patterns of attendance emerged: those who missed up to two sessions (“frequent attenders”), and those who missed more than two sessions (“infrequent attenders”). The groups differed in their motivations to attend, barriers to attendance, and in the level of social support they received. In comparison with the infrequent attenders, frequent attenders more often had intrinsic motivation to attend (e.g. enjoyed attending), and named more self-determined extrinsic motivations to attend, such as commitment to attendance and wanting to quit. Most of those mentioning intrinsic motivation did not mention a desire to quit as a motivation for attendance. No organizational barriers to attendance were mentioned by frequent attenders, such as misunderstandings around details of appointments. Frequent attenders experienced more social support within and outside the course. Conclusion Motivation to attend behavioural support, as distinct from motivation to quit smoking, is an important factor in attendance of smoking cessation courses in disadvantaged areas. Some focus on increasing motivation to attend may help to prevent participants missing sessions.

2014-01-01

271

Factors Associated with Attendance and Non-Attendance of Support Groups among HIV Positive Adults Attending an Antiretroviral Community Clinic at Ekurhuleni District, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health care facilities providing antiretroviral treatment (ART to HIV positive people have seen a decline in the uptake and use of HIV support groups. A cross sectional survey was conducted to 1 determine the characteristics of HIV positive people who have and who have not attended support groups; 2 determine factors associated with attendance of support groups; and 3 investigate perceived barriers to participate in support groups among HIV positive adults attending an ART clinic in Gauteng, South Africa. The total samples included 248 HIV positive adults and the highest proportion were females (n = 156, 62.9%. The mean age of the participants was 34.2 years, (range 18 to 56 years. Almost two thirds (n = 144, 58.1% had never attended support groups. Participants who attended support groups were more likely to be older than non-attenders (OR = 1.04, CI: 1.01 - 1.07, more likely to be taking ART medication (OR = 1.64, CI: 1.00 - 2.65 and more likely to have known of their HIV diagnosis for a longer time (OR = 2.20, CI: 1.42 - 3.40. Employed participants were less likely to attend support groups than unemployed participants (OR = 0.47, CI: 0.27 - 0.80. Concerns for privacy and confidentiality in support groups, and fear of stigma and discrimination were the key barriers to participate in support groups. Participants also perceived support groups as a service for people who could not cope with their HIV diagnosis. Health care providers who plan to start support groups should take into consideration issues of support group size, confidentiality, and timing for support group meetings. It is imperative that education on the benefits of HIV support groups forms a primary component of routine counselling for PLWHI.

Sphiwe Madiba

2013-05-01

272

Device for supplying fuel in the form of a water/petrol mixture to a four-stroke internal combustion engine. Vorrichtung zur Zufuehrung von Kraftstoff in Form eines Gemisches aus Wasser und Benzin zu einer Viertaktbrennkraftmaschine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The device has a water container, which is connected to the small air nozzle of the carburetor by a float case, a water pipe, or water nozzle and an atomiser. Two petrol containers are provided, the first of which contains petrol having a low octane number and the second petrol with an octane number suitable for the engine. These are connected in parallel with the engine fuel pump by a two-way solenoid valve. An additional water nozzle is fitted to the small air nozzle, which is connected via a second water pipe to an economiser acceleration pump. This is inserted in a float case in the floor of the water container. The walls of this vessel are double walls. The space between them has the engine coolant flowing through it, which is supplied via a jacket in the two water pipes. The ends of the water pipes are connected at the side of the carburetor with the water nozzles by a solenoid valve. The solenoid valve is controlled together with the two-way solenoid valves by a heat sensor. There is a solenoid valve to interrupt the fuel supply when the engine is switched off on the tickover system of the engine. The water container has a level gauge. Using this system, the toxicity of the exhaust gases can be reduced, petrol with a lower octane number can be used and one can use a petrol/water mixture even at ambient temperatures below the freezing point of water.

Stefanov, Z.L.; Petkov, Z.I.

1984-02-02

273

???: PrimerStation  

Full Text Available 08000 08300 ?????PCR?????? | ??????? PrimerStation WWW Download ????|http: a H, Morishita S. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006 Jul 1;34(Web Server issue):W665-9. http://scholar.google.com/sc

274

Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was located on the Ohio River in Shippingport Borough (Beaver County), Pennsylvania, USA. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) constructed the plant in the mid-1950s on a seven and half acre parcel of land leased from Duquesne Light Company (DLC). The purposes were to demonstrate and to develop Pressurized Water Recovery technology and to generate electricity. DLC operated the Shippingport plant under supervision of (the successor to AEC) the Department of Energy (DOE)-Naval Reactors (NR) until operations were terminated on October 1, 1982. NR concluded end-of-life testing and defueling in 1984 and transferred the Station's responsibility to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL), Surplus Facility Management Program Office (SFMPO5) on September 5, 1984. SFMPO subsequently established the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and selected General Electric (GE) as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This report is intended to provide an overview of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project.

McKernan, M.L.

1989-12-22

275

Space Station Software Recommendations  

Science.gov (United States)

Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

Voigt, S. (editor)

1985-01-01

276

"Central Station" Londonis  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

2000-01-01

277

Noto Station Status Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The year 2011 for the Noto station has been one of great renovation and of important improvements for its observational capabilities. In particular we are able to mention four key projects that were completed or under way.

C. Contavalle C. Nocita F. Giacalone F. Schilliro G. Nicotra G. Tuccari L. Nicotra L. Papaleo M. Paterno N. Lombardo P. Cassaro P. R. Platania S. Buttaccio

2012-01-01

278

LAERTIS, a multidisciplinary station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LAERTIS, designed to collect environmental data from the deep-sea, is operated since 1999 and has been deployed several time at 4000 m depth at the NESTOR site. Power and data were transferred through a 30-km electro-optical cable to the Shore Station. In this report, we describe briefly the LAERTIS instrumentation and present typical data that were collected successfully during those deployment demonstrating the importance of a deep-sea station permanently connected to shore

2006-11-15

279

LAERTIS, a multidisciplinary station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

LAERTIS, designed to collect environmental data from the deep-sea, is operated since 1999 and has been deployed several time at 4000 m depth at the NESTOR site. Power and data were transferred through a 30-km electro-optical cable to the Shore Station. In this report, we describe briefly the LAERTIS instrumentation and present typical data that were collected successfully during those deployment demonstrating the importance of a deep-sea station permanently connected to shore.

Aggouras, G. [Technology and Neutrino Astroparticle Physics, NESTOR Institute for Deep Sea Research, Pylos (Greece); Anassontzis, E.G. [Physics Department, University of Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: eanason@phys.uoa.gr; Ball, A.E. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Chinowsky, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fahrun, E. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Kiel (Germany); Grammatikakis, G. [Physics Department, University of Crete (Greece); Green, C. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Kiel (Germany); Grieder, P. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern (Switzerland); Katrivanos, P. [NCSR ' Demokritos' , Athens (Greece); Koske, P. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Kiel (Germany); Markopoulos, E. [Technology and Neutrino Astroparticle Physics, NESTOR Institute for Deep Sea Research, Pylos (Greece); Minkowsky, P. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern (Switzerland); Nygren, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Papageorgiou, K. [Technology and Neutrino Astroparticle Physics, NESTOR Institute for Deep Sea Research, Pylos (Greece); Przybylski, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Resvanis, L.K. [Technology and Neutrino Astroparticle Physics, NESTOR Institute for Deep Sea Research, Pylos (Greece); Physics Department, University of Athens (Greece); Siotis, I. [NCSR ' Demokritos' , Athens (Greece); Sopher, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsagli, V. [Technology and Neutrino Astroparticle Physics, NESTOR Institute for Deep Sea Research, Pylos (Greece); Zhukov, V.A. [Institute For Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-11-15

280

Waste Transfer Stations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, hous...

Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Social environment and frequent attendance in Danish general practice.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: A lack of social support is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a decreased effect of prevention. Frequent attenders to primary care are characterised by poorer social conditions than other patients in general practice, but we do not know whether this is due to social inequalities in health or whether social factors in themselves determine the use of general practice. AIM: To examine if social factors are associated with frequent attendance in general practice after adjusting for physical and psychological health variables. DESIGN OF STUDY: Population-based cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Two hundred and twenty GPs in 132 practices in the county of Aarhus, Denmark, and the listed adult population (aged 20-64 years). METHOD: A sample of frequent attenders and infrequent attenders was drawn. The study included only those resident in the county and who had consulted a GP during the period November 1997-October 1998. A questionnaire about physical, psychological and social factors was sent to the patients. The associations between social factors and frequent attendance were adjusted for physical and psychological health and tendency towards somatisation. RESULTS: A total of 1423 (73.7%) frequent attenders and 1103 (74.9%) infrequent attenders responded. Male frequent attendance was associated, with statistical significance, with living alone and being without work or on a disability pension. Among women, lack of professional education or being without work tended to increase the likelihood of frequent attendance. CONCLUSION: This study shows that for men, social factors may in themselves determine the use of general practice. None of the investigated social factors seemed to restrict the use of general practice. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Jul

Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

2005-01-01

282

Comparison of Urinary o-Cresol and Hippuric Acid in Drivers, Gasoline Station Workers and Painters Exposed to Toluene in West of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of exposed to toluene and compare levels of hippuric acid and o-Cresol in taxi drivers, petrol station workers, car painters with a control group in West of Iran. The urinary o-creasol and toluene in air were analyzed by a gas chromatography and hippuric acid was extracted from urine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The significant differences in the levels of urinary o-Cresol were found in painters and petrol station workers compared to the control group (p<0.005. There was no significant correlation between toluene in air and biomarkers for taxi drivers. The lowest toluene concentration at which urinary hippuric acid increased to a measurable level was approximately 25 to 35 ppm and for o-Cresol was 2 ppm. In conclusion our results was showed that o-Cresol and hippuric acid could separate the exposed to toluene from the non-exposed when toluene in breathing zone of subjects was greater than 3 and 35 ppm, respectively. Hippuric acid and o-Cresol are not suitable biomarkers for occupations such as drivers that exposure to toluene in low concentration.

Abdulrahman Bahrami

2005-01-01

283

Demographics of enuresis patients attending a referral centre  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To study and compare the demography of enuretic children 7-16 years old attending a tertiary referral centre for childhood urinary incontinence, with that of normal children and what is generally known about enuretics from population-based studies.

Rawashdeh, Yazan F; Hvistendahl, Gitte M

2002-01-01

284

Professor Atta invited to attend WSIS as `eminent scientist'  

CERN Document Server

Ministry of Science and Technology Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman has been nominated as an "eminent scientist" to attend the roundtables during "World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)" on December 12 (1 paragraph).

2003-01-01

285

APS Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2010 APS Conferences  

Science.gov (United States)

From The Physiologist. Four travel fellows received funding to attend the 2010 APS Intersociety Meeting, ÃÂGlobal Change and Global Science: Comparative Physiology in a Changing World,ÃÂ from August 4-7, 2010 in Westminster, CO. Four travel fellows received funding to attend the APS Conference, ÃÂInflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease,ÃÂ from August 25-28, 2010 also in Westminster, CO. The application reviews were led by Committee Member, Johana Vallejo-Elias.

2010-12-01

286

A survey of medical students attending an international ?student conference  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To explore the lifestyle choices of international medical students attending a ?student conference. ?Study Design: Questionnaire-based census study.?Methods: A pre-tested structured questionnaire was given to the 481 delegates attending an ?international medical student conference in 2009 in Macedonia. The respondents were asked ?questions on their demographics, physical activity, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, sexual ?activity and nutritional intake. The results...

2012-01-01

287

Librarian Class Attendance: Blogs, statistics, outcomes and opportunities.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What, if any, are the benefits of having librarians attend lectures and seminars? In the midst of a start-up program, the librarians at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar were challenged to test new models of active participation while demonstrating positive outcomes. This paper describes the setting, methods, and outcomes associated with having librarians attend courses as active members in an evolving learning environment. Interactions with faculty and students will be analyzed to a...

2006-01-01

288

Emergency hormonal contraception usage in genitourinary medicine clinic attenders.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the indications for usage of emergency hormonal contraception amongst a population of London genitourinary medicine clinic attenders. METHODS: In a prospective study, 150 consecutive women receiving emergency hormonal contraception (EHC) were enrolled. The attending doctor completed a questionnaire of patient details and prescribed EHC with prophylactic prochlorperazine. Follow-up was arranged three weeks later, at which time outcomes and side-effects of therapy were reco...

1996-01-01

289

Systematization of Angra-1 operation attendance - Maintenance and periodic testings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A maintenance analysis, their types and their functions for the safety of nuclear power plants is done. Programs and present trends in the reactor maintenance, as well as the maintenance program and periodic tests of Angra I, are analysed. The necessities of safety analysis and a systematization for maintenance attendance are discussed and the periodic testing as well as the attendance of international experience. (M.C.K.)

1988-01-01

290

UMTS Network Stations  

Science.gov (United States)

The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed over the 30 radiometric stations. As a the result, currently it exist a stable, flexible, safe and economic infrastructure of radiometric stations and telecommunications that allows, on the one hand, to have data in real time from all 30 remote weather stations, and on the other hand allows to communicate with them in order to reprogram them and to carry out maintenance works.

Hernandez, C.

2010-09-01

291

REAL TIME FACE RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR TIME AND ATTENDANCE APPLICATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available — In this paper, we have proposed an automated Face Recognition System for Time and Attendance application. The model is developed with the help of real time OpenCV library The proposed system comprised of using the Viola Jones algorithm for detecting the human faces and then the detected face is resized to the required size, this resized face is further processed by using linear stretch contrast enhancement and finally it is recognized using a simple PCA / LDA. Once recognition is done, automatically attendance will be updated in an Excel Sheet along with his name, date and time. An html file is automatically updated by our system so that a remote authenticated user can access the attendance file .Our system is integrated to an Automatic Attendance Management System, with the help of which some post attendance works like stipend amount calculation, viewing attendance report for the required date, calculating the number of hours a person is present in the class, searching for a required person in the classroom etc. Spoofing which is a major threat for our system can be avoided using Eye Blink Detector algorithm. Our system can automatically update the Database for the newly enrolled persons. The proposed system can execute the instructions given orally to it (eliminating the need of a mouse interface and can speak back to us.

APARNA BEHARA, M.V. RAGHUNADH

2013-07-01

292

Ban on degassing of petrol is a cost-effective measure. Prevention of emission from cargo vapors in inland shipping; Verbod op ontgassen benzine is kosteneffectieve maatregel. Voorkomen van emissies van ladingdampen in de binnenvaart  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cargo vapors and other volatile organic matter are emitted from inland shipping of petrol and were, until recently, a forgotten source of emission in the Netherlands. The Dutch government plans to implement a ban on the emission of such petrol vapors, January 1, 2006. The implementation can be met in a cost effective way. [Dutch] Ladingdampen en andere vluchtige organische stoffen (VOS), ontstaan bij binnenvaarttransporten van benzine, waren tot voor kort een vergeten bron van emissie in Nederland. De overheid heeft een verbod op het vrij emitteren van deze benzinedampen aangekondigd. Aan dit verbod kan op kosteneffectieve wijze worden voldaan.

Sevenstern, M.; De Bruyn, S. [CE, Delft (Netherlands)

2004-11-01

293

Investigations of the improvement of the operating behaviour of multi-valve petrol engines with the aid of a variable inlet valve control. Untersuchungen zur Verbesserung des Betriebsverhaltens von Mehrventil-Ottomotoren mit Hilfe einer variablen Einlassventilsteuerung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential improvement of a variable inlet valve control on multi-valve petrol engines for the course of the process is shown. A survey of the system of variable valve control is first given and it is made clear which design possibilities can be used to realise such a control. The cost complexity, energy demand, noise emission and life of the different variable valve control systems for multi-valve petrol engines are then compared. The concept of such a control by means of load change calculations is submitted. Finally, thermodynamic investigations in engine operation (tickover, low/medium part load operation) are explained. (HWJ).

Boettcher, K.

1990-02-21

294

Advances in power station construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book describes the power station projects designed, built and commissioned by the CEGB. A discussion of the considerations, evaluations and factors leading up to the decision as to when, where and what type of power station to build is followed by comprehensive accounts of oil- and coal-fired power stations, pumped storage stations and the most recent designs of nuclear power stations. Each chapter is illustrated and structured to give reference to passages on site selection and layout, choice of plant, mechanical and electrical systems, control and instrumentation, construction, capacity and fuel availability. Contents: Construction history and development. Littlebrook D: oil-fired power station. Drax: coal-fired power station. Dinorwig: pumped storage power station, and Kielder: small hydro project. Heysham 2: AGR power station. Sizewell B: PWR power station. Project management. Index

1985-01-01

295

Advances in power station construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book describes the power station projects designed, built and commissioned by the CEGB. A discussion of the considerations, evaluations and factors leading up to the decision as to when, where and what type of power station to build is followed by comprehensive accounts of oil- and coal-fired power stations, pumped storage stations and the most recent designs of nuclear power stations. Each chapter is illustrated and structured to give reference to passages on site selection and layout, choice of plant, mechanical and electrical systems, control and instrumentation, construction, capacity and fuel availability. Contents: Construction history and development. Littlebrook D: oil-fired power station. Drax: coal-fired power station. Dinorwig: pumped storage power station, and Kielder: small hydro project. Heysham 2: AGR power station. Sizewell B: PWR power station. Project management. Index.

1985-01-01

296

Factors Associated with Attendance and Non-Attendance of Support Groups among HIV Positive Adults Attending an Antiretroviral Community Clinic at Ekurhuleni District, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Health care facilities providing antiretroviral treatment (ART) to HIV positive people have seen a decline in the uptake and use of HIV support groups. A cross sectional survey was conducted to 1) determine the characteristics of HIV positive people who have and who have not attended support groups;

2013-01-01

297

The effect of attendance on grade for first year economics students in University College Cork  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the relationship between attendance and grade, controlling for other factors, in first year economics courses in University College Cork. Determinants of both class attendance and grade are specified and estimated. We find that attendance is low, at least by comparison with US evidence. Hours worked and travel time are among the factors affecting class attendance. Class attendance, and especially tutorial attendance has a positive and diminishing marginal effect on grade, ...

2003-01-01

298

Caring Together: Activity Stations  

Science.gov (United States)

In this Bob the Builder(TM)-themed activity, learners explore the 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) by rotating through several activity stations. Activity stations may include: packing a lunch in reusable containers; sorting recyclable cans, plastic containers, and newspaper; playing with water in recycled containers and toys; making a collage by reusing magazine pictures; and drawing on both sides of the paper. This activity is featured on page 14 of the "Bob the Builder(TM) â Project: Build It" unit of study.

Indianapolis, The C.

2006-01-01

299

ClearStation  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by Doug Fairclough, a founding developer of Hot Wired, and Kris Shrinak, a former Wall Street trader, ClearStation provides "professional trading techniques" for both experienced and novice investors. A unique combination of graphs, daily computer-generated stock ideas, and staff educational articles help users enhance their trading strategies and portfolios. News and data providers include S&P ComStock, Zacks, and Market Guide. Registration is required and members must agree to share their ClearStation-created portfolios with other members, to increase learning and discussion on site.

300

How to reduce the petroleum dependency of Quebec? A ground breaking collective approach; Comment reduire la dependance quebecoise au petrole? Une demarche collective inedite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quebec population and socio economic agents are little or not summoned to in the definition of a vision relating to the dependency of Quebec to petroleum. The presented approach expects to include them as determining actors in the research for solutions to this collective issue, exploring aspects linked both to the energy consumption and production. The question to which the consultation is looking for answers is: How can Quebec reduce its petroleum consumption and increase its energy independence while promoting the harmonious economic and social development of its territory?. [French] La population et les agents socioeconomiques du Quebec sont peu ou pas interpelles dans la definition d'une vision entourant la dependance du Quebec au petrole. La demarche presentee prevoit les inclure comme acteurs determinants vers la recherche de solutions a cet enjeu collectif, explorant les aspects lies tant a la consommation qu'a la production energetique. La question a laquelle la consultation lancee cherchera des reponses est : Comment le Quebec peut-il diminuer sa consommation de petrole et accroitre son independance energetique tout en favorisant le developpement economique et social harmonieux de son territoire?.

Bourke, Philippe; Caron-Malenfant, Julie

2010-09-15

 
 
 
 
301

Sizewell power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reports the questions and debate by the House of Lords on the CEGB's commitments, with respect to the proposed power station at Sizewell, in advance of the Sizewell inquiry report. The topics discussed included: the merits of the AGR, public apprehension of nuclear power, the Sizewell inquiry and the PWR, and the present expenditure chargeable to the Sizewell project. (U.K.)

1986-04-16

302

COMPRESSOR STATION AUTOMATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The diploma work presents the realization of control compressor station in the laboratory for process control. It is divided into two parts, namely the theoretical part, which describes the used components and the LON technology. The second part presents the implementation of the process.

2012-01-01

303

SolStation: Saturn  

Science.gov (United States)

This SolStation site provides a detailed and well-illustrated description of the Saturn system, beginning with" Breaking News" and then moving to a description of the planet, the rings, and the moons. The many images and accompanying detailed discussion present a wealth of information. The text is written for someone with a good working understanding of introductory physics.

2008-10-28

304

Space Station: Orbiter Berthing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The berthing/docking maneuver is important for the construction and assembly of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). Berthing has a direct effect on the SSF assembly build up and SSF/Orbiter operations. The dynamics associated with the berthing activities pot...

J. Mapar Y. C. Lin M. Kilby

1992-01-01

305

Kiowa Creek Switching Station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

1990-03-01

306

Web-Server based Student Attendance System using RFIDTechnology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most educational institutions’ administrators are concerned about student irregular attendance. Truancies can affect student overall academic performance. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure, hence inefficient. Therefore, computer based student attendance management system is required to assist the faculty and the lecturer for this time-provide much convenient method to take attendance, but some prerequisites has to be done before start using the program. Although the use of RFID systems in educational institutions is not new, it is intended to show how the use of it came to solve daily problems in our university. The system has been built using the web-based applications such as ASP.NET and IIS server to cater the recording and reporting of the students’ attendances The system can be easily accessed by the lecturers via the web and most importantly, the reports can be generated in real-time processing, thus, providing valuable information about the students’.

Abdul Aziz Mohammed#1 , Jyothi Kameswari U

2013-05-01

307

How Attendance Affects the General Success of the Student  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyse the students’ attendance at the Faculty of Business and Economics. The study is divided into two parts: the first part analyses why some students are not motivated to attend lectures and practical hours while the second part analyses the impact of students’ attendance (motivation, bonus in lectures and practical hours and their final success. This paper provides results of a survey completed at the beginning of the summer semester and results of the final success in three courses for the academic year 2010/11 (Business Mathematics, Statistics and Managerial Economics with first, second and third-year students at the Faculty of Business and Economics, at South East European University in Tetovo. This paper uses logical regression to give an overview of the impact of students’ attendance (motivation, bonus at lectures and practical hours in their final success. Results show that, besides other daily engagements during studies, students have other excuses for absence from lectures and practical hours such as conditions, management and methods of teaching in the Faculty. Final results of three subjects which are considered as more practical show that attendance of students have a big influence in students’ final success. The software MedCalc was used for the elaboration of data.

Sadri Alija

2013-01-01

308

Evidence for a fixed capacity limit in attending multiple locations.  

Science.gov (United States)

A classic question concerns whether humans can attend multiple locations or objects at once. Although it is generally agreed that the answer to this question is "yes," the limits on this ability are subject to extensive debate. According to one view, attentional resources can be flexibly allocated to a variable number of locations, with an inverse relationship between the number of selected locations and the quality of information processing at each location. Alternatively, these resources might be quantized in a "discrete" fashion that enables concurrent access to a small number of locations. Here, we report a series of experiments comparing these alternatives. In each experiment, we cued participants to attend a variable number of spatial locations and asked them to report the orientation of a single, briefly presented target. In all experiments, participants' orientation report errors were well-described by a model that assumes a fixed upper limit in the number of locations that can be attended. Conversely, report errors were poorly described by a flexible-resource model that assumes no fixed limit on the number of locations that can be attended. Critically, we showed that these discrete limits were predicted by cue-evoked neural activity elicited before the onset of the target array, suggesting that performance was limited by selection processes that began prior to subsequent encoding and memory storage. Together, these findings constitute novel evidence supporting the hypothesis that human observers can attend only a small number of discrete locations at an instant. PMID:24217849

Ester, Edward F; Fukuda, Keisuke; May, Lisa M; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

2014-03-01

309

Mobile environmental radiation monitoring station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mobile environmental radiation monitoring station has been developed and established for the Israeli Ministry of Environment. The radiation monitoring station is ready for immediate placing in any required location, or can be operated from a vehicle. The station collects data Tom the detector and transfers it via cellular communication network to a Computerized Control Center for data storage, processing, and display . The mobile station is fully controlled from the. Routinely, the mobile station responses to the data request accumulated since the last communication session. In case of fault or alarm condition in the mobile station, a local claim is activated and immediately initiates communication with the via cellular communication network. (authors)

1997-11-16

310

Piping equipment; Materiel petrole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This 'blue bible' of the perfect piping-man appeals to end-users of industrial facilities of the petroleum and chemical industries (purchase services, standardization, new works, maintenance) but also to pipe-makers and hollow-ware makers. It describes the characteristics of materials (carbon steels, stainless steels, alloyed steels, special alloys) and the dimensions of pipe elements: pipes, welding fittings, flanges, sealing products, forged steel fittings, forged steel valves, cast steel valves, ASTM standards, industrial valves. (J.S.)

NONE

2001-07-01

311

The duty health physicist program at Byron Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Duty Health Physicist Program at Byron Station was established to deal with routine health physics tasks and provide an interface between frontline and upper radiation-chemistry management. The program consists of a weekly rotation of selected members of the health physics staff into the duty health physicist position to handle the assigned duty tasks. The tasks include, but are not limited to, daily isotopic and air sample review, effluent release package review, maximum permissible concentration calculations, dose approvals, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable action review of pending jobs, and general availability to answer questions and address problems in health-physics-related areas of plant operation. The daily attendance of the duty health physicist at the radiation-chemistry and station plan-of-the-day meetings has increased the overall presence and visibility of the health physics program to upper station management and other station departments. Since its inception in July of 1985, the Duty Health Physics Program has been a major contributor to the observed 50% reduction in reportable personnel errors in the radiation-chemistry department (based on personnel-error-related deviation reports and license event reports generated on the radiation-chemistry department at Byron Station). Although difficulty to quantify, other important benefits of this program are also discussed in this paper

1987-09-03

312

The duty health physicist program at Byron Nuclear Power Station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Duty Health Physicist Program at Byron Station was established to deal with routine health physics tasks and provide an interface between frontline and upper radiation-chemistry management. The program consists of a weekly rotation of selected members of the health physics staff into the duty health physicist position to handle the assigned duty tasks. The tasks include, but are not limited to, daily isotopic and air sample review, effluent release package review, maximum permissible concentration calculations, dose approvals, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable action review of pending jobs, and general availability to answer questions and address problems in health-physics-related areas of plant operation. The daily attendance of the duty health physicist at the radiation-chemistry and station plan-of-the-day meetings has increased the overall presence and visibility of the health physics program to upper station management and other station departments. Since its inception in July of 1985, the Duty Health Physics Program has been a major contributor to the observed 50% reduction in reportable personnel errors in the radiation-chemistry department (based on personnel-error-related deviation reports and license event reports generated on the radiation-chemistry department at Byron Station). Although difficulty to quantify, other important benefits of this program are also discussed in this paper.

Goldsmith, D.G.; Carey, T.R.

1987-01-01

313

Impact of Learners on Emergency Medicine Attending Physician Productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Several prior studies have examined the impact of learners (medical students or residents on overall emergency department (ED flow as well as the impact of resident training level on the number of patients seen by residents per hour. No study to date has specifically examined the impact of learners on emergency medicine (EM attending physician productivity, with regards to patients per hour (PPH. We sought to evaluate whether learners increase, decrease, or have no effect on the productivity of EM attending physicians in a teaching program with one student or resident per attending.Methods: This was a retrospective database review of an urban, academic tertiary care center with 3 separate teams on the acute care side of the ED. Each team was staffed with one attending physician paired with either one resident, one medical student or with no learners. All shifts from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2010 were reviewed using an electronic database. We predefined a shift as “Resident” if > 5 patients were seen by a resident, “Medical Student” if any patients were seen by a medical student, and “No Learners” if no patients were seen by a medical student or resident. Shifts were removed from analysis if more than one learner saw patients during the shift. We further stratified resident shifts by EM training level or off-service rotator. For each type of shift, the total number of patients seen by the attending physician was then divided by 8 hours (shift duration to arrive at number of patients per hour. Results: We analyzed a total of 7,360 shifts with 2,778 removed due to multiple learners on a team. For the 2,199 shifts with attending physicians with no learners, the average number of PPH was 1.87(95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86,1.89. For the 514 medical student shifts, the average PPH was 1.87(95% CI 1.84,1.90, p = 0.99 compared with attending with no learner. For the 1,935 resident shifts, the average PPH was 1.99(95% CI 1.97,2.00. Compared with attending physician with no learner, attending physicians with a resident saw more PPH (1.99 vs 1.87, p< 0.005. There was no statistically significant difference found between EM1: 1.98PPH, EM2: 1.99PPH, EM3: 1.99PPH, and off-service rotators: 1.99PPH. Conclusion: EM attending physicians paired with a resident in a one-on-one teaching model saw statistically significantly more patients per hour (0.12 more patients per hour than EM attending physicians alone. EM attending physicians paired with a medical student saw the same number of patients per hour compared with working alone. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(1:41–44.

Rahul Bhat

2014-02-01

314

On the Predictability of Talk Attendance at Academic Conferences  

CERN Document Server

This paper focuses on the prediction of real-world talk attendances at academic conferences with respect to different influence factors. We study the predictability of talk attendances using real-world tracked face-to-face contacts. Furthermore, we investigate and discuss the predictive power of user interests extracted from the users' previous publications. We apply Hybrid Rooted PageRank, a state-of-the-art unsupervised machine learning method that combines information from different sources. Using this method, we analyze and discuss the predictive power of contact and interest networks separately and in combination. We find that contact and similarity networks achieve comparable results, and that combinations of different networks can only to a limited extend help to improve the prediction quality. For our experiments, we analyze the predictability of talk attendance at the ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia 2011 collected using the conference management system Conferator.

Scholz, Christoph; Atzmueller, Martin; Stumme, Gerd

2014-01-01

315

Migrant home attendants: regulation and practice in 7 countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared regulation and working and living conditions of foreign home attendants in 7 countries (Canada, Germany, Israel, Singapore, Spain, United Kingdom, United States). We conducted a literature search in the PSYCinfo, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases for 2002 to 2012. We found substantial between-country differences in the legal status of migrant caregivers and regulations regarding working and living conditions and drew 3 conclusions. Improving regulations will likely improve not only the well-being of foreign home attendants but also the care they provide. Countries in which many foreign home attendants work without specific legal entry programs should rethink their policies. Finally, requiring an employer's recommendation to obtain permanent residency may constrain foreign workers from registering complaints or leaving suboptimal employment situations. PMID:24134377

Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Garms-Homolová, Vjenka; Bentwich, Miriam

2013-12-01

316

Membership and attendance patterns in Tavistock Clinic general practitioner seminars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patterns of recruitment and attendance (1951-79) of general practitioners at seminars at the Tavistock Clinic are analysed. Latterly about 40 general practitioners have attended each week; a turnover of about 15 join or leave each year; about 60 per cent stay at least two years and 40 per cent stay over three years. Half come from outside London. The ratio of men and women reflects the prevailing ratio in the profession. Most join five to 10 years after qualifying and younger general practiti...

Bourne, Stanford; Di Perna, Nancy

1980-01-01

317

Understanding non-attendance in outpatient paediatric clinics.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Outpatient clinic appointments are often not kept. There has been little study of the reasons for this, but failure to attend may affect future health. Our study was based on the children's outpatient department of a large inner city district general hospital. The parents of 34 children who had failed to keep appointments and of 12 who did attend were interviewed in depth and the appointment systems of the hospital and of a nearby regional referral centre for children were reviewed. At the di...

Andrews, R.; Morgan, J. D.; Addy, D. P.; Mcneish, A. S.

1990-01-01

318

Battery charging stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

Bergey, M.

1997-12-01

319

A modelling study of the impact on air quality and health due to the emissions from E85 and petrol fuelled cars in Sweden  

Science.gov (United States)

Alternative fuels are becoming more and more important for road traffic and one fuel that has been used for several years is ethanol (E85). The main discussion points regarding the environmental performance for ethanol as a fuel are related to the production. However, there are also some notable differences in the emissions between E85 and petrol fuelled vehicles. This relates to some extent to the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) but mainly to the composition of the emitted organic compounds. In the present study two fuel scenarios for passenger cars are investigated for the Västra Götaland Region in Sweden; one where the cars with Otto engines run on petrol and one where they run on E85. Two emission scenarios for 2020 are constructed for the whole Europe and coupled dispersion-chemistry modelling is applied to obtain the population exposure to key pollutants. The differences obtained from the modelling show decreased levels of NOx, ozone and benzene with E85 and increased levels of acetaldehyde in the Västra Götaland Region. For the latter the increase may be up to 80%, while NOx and ozone show decreases of up to a few per cent and a few tenths of per cent, respectively. Exposure to the different air pollutants is calculated as population-weighted concentrations. The health risk assessment, using the calculated exposure and published exposure-response functions for the relevant pollutants, shows decreased health risks in the E85 scenario relative the all-petrol scenario, due to the decreased NOx exposure, correlated with both preterm deaths and asthma. However, NOx (and NO2) may partly be indicators of unmeasured causal exhaust components in the epidemiological studies and thus the exposure-response functions for these may not be applicable in the present case where there is a difference in NOx exposure but not a proportional difference in exposure to other exhaust components normally associated with NOx. Smaller effects are expected from the changes in ozone, acetaldehyde, PM2.5 and benzene exposure. The overall difference is about 1.6 preterm deaths per year for the Västra Götaland Region, with lower values for the E85 scenario, when the uncertain differences due to the differences in NOx exposure are not considered.

Fridell, Erik; Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Moldanova, Jana; Forsberg, Bertil; Sjöberg, Karin

2014-01-01

320

Advances in power station construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is about the construction of modern power stations by the Central Electricity Generating Board in England and Wales from the mid-1970s to 1986. The first chapter is devoted to the considerations, evaluations and factors leading up to the decision as to when, where and what type of power station to build. This includes siting and developments in turbines, electrical power systems and primary auxiliary systems. Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5 are devoted to Littlebrook-D oil-fired station, Drax coal-fired station, Dinorwig pumped storage station and Heysham-2 advanced gas-cooled reactor nuclear station. The last of these is abstracted separately. Chapter 6 describes the intended design of Sizewell B pressurized water reactor nuclear station and is abstracted separately. Chapter 7 explains the organisation, procedures and practices relating to the management of power station projects. (U.K.)

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

MoiraStationEng.indd  

...kept the bare minimum of lines open. Moira Station survived, but...in the 1950s The station platform known as the ‘up’ line (3) is heading for...in price, but not in speed. The railway bridge (13) built...

322

Nuclear station control challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article describes the computerized control and monitoring systems being used at Scottish Nuclear's Torness advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR), said to be the most comprehensive computer system ever built for a nuclear station. The fully integrated on-line system has plant-specific features which can be described under five headings; advanced operating systems, integrated plant data acquisition, comprehensive communications facilities, process management and database management. (UK)

1993-05-01

323

Power station maintenance 2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Covering many aspects of maintenance Power Station Maintenance 2000 includes papers from a wide range of fields, covering such topics as: boiler techniques; managing people; sweating the asset; turbogenerator techniques; condition monitoring. The role of those responsible continues to change, and with the great reduction in directly employed staff numbers, it is vital that plant operators, service providers, academics, consultants, and equipment manufacturers work together and share knowledge and skills. (author)

NONE

2000-07-01

324

The Views of Learning Mentors on the Management of School Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the views of 88 learning mentors about their understanding of the management of school attendance. The data were obtained from a questionnaire that was completed in 2004 by the learning school mentors attending a conference on improving school attendance. Respondents attended from Excellence in Cites (EiC) and Education…

Reid, Ken

2007-01-01

325

Relations between Faculty Use of Online Academic Resources and Student Class Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated connections between faculty use of online resources and student class attendance. Of particular interest was whether online submission of course assignments is detrimental to attendance. Students and faculty at a small, liberal arts college completed surveys about student attendance patterns, student reasons for non-attendance,…

Kinlaw, C. Ryan; Dunlap, Linda L.; D'Angelo, Jeffrey A.

2012-01-01

326

Space station commonality analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

1988-01-01

327

Space Station fluid management logistics  

Science.gov (United States)

Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

Dominick, Sam M.

328

Space Station fluid management logistics  

Science.gov (United States)

Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

Dominick, Sam M.

1990-01-01

329

Student and Teacher Attendance: The Role of Shared Goods in Reducing Absenteeism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A theoretical model is advanced that demonstrates that, if teacher and student attendance generate a shared good, then teacher and student attendance will be mutually reinforcing. Using data from the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan, empirical evidence supporting that proposition is advanced. Controlling for the endogeneity of teacher and student attendance, the most powerful factor raising teacher attendance is the attendance of the children in the school, and the most important factor influencing child attendance is the presence of the teacher. The results suggest that one important avenue to be explored in developing policies to reduce teacher absenteeism is to focus on raising the attendance of children.

Banerjee, Ritwik; King, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

330

Traditional Birth Attendant Training and Local Birthing Practices in India  

Science.gov (United States)

Training birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training…

Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla

2011-01-01

331

Survey on eye comfort in aircraft: I. Flight attendants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive research in aviation medicine has been devoted to various aspects of vision, but there has been little attention to the eye problems of flight attendants. Flight attendants, especially contact lens wearers, have complained about eye discomfort in aircraft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate some of the conditions in aircraft that might influence their eye comfort. A questionnaire on eye comfort was developed in conjunction with the Air Safety Department of the Association of Flight Attendants and distributed through its Flightlog magazine. Of the 774 respondents, 95% reported some eye discomfort in aircraft. It is significant that both those who did and who did wear contact lenses reported similar eye problems. The most common eye problems reported were conjunctival redness and dried eyes. Smoking was indicated by the respondents to be the most noticeable factor causing eye symptoms. Aircraft cabin conditions are discussed, including relative humidity, atmospheric oxygen, and ozone concentration. Since air passengers are exposed to the same aircraft conditions as the attendants, they probably would manifest similar eye problems. PMID:464966

Eng, W G

1979-04-01

332

Improving Attendance and Behaviour in Wales: The Action Plan  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Behaviour and Attendance Review (NBAR) Report for Wales was produced in 2008. Subsequently, its recommendations were accepted by the Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) which established an Implementation Group to prepare its response in detail. A year later in April 2009 this Group presented its findings and recommendations to WAG in the…

Reid, Ken

2010-01-01

333

Computed tomography and ultrasonography as to emergency medical attendance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 786 patients and ultrasonography (US) on 83 at patients the emergency medical attendance after normal working. We experienced a lot of problems awaiting solution. As a result of this study, we think that the man who treats the emergency examination is necessary to receive the emergency training and practice in addition to the various image.

Kawachi, Toshiaki; Ichikawa, Hideo; Hikita, Minoru (Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Gifu (Japan))

1983-05-01

334

Evaluation of head CT exams: resident and attending diagnoses  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this study was to evaluate performance of radiology resident in interpretation of head CT exams ordered by emergency room physicians, and to compare their accuracy with the attending radiologists. 1324 consecutive CT head exams ordered by the ER were interpreted by radiology residents. They reported whether the case was normal or abnormal, noted the relevant findings, and reported their decision confidence using a 6-point scale. Attending neuroradiologists subsequently interpreted the exams. The exams were grouped into 3 categories based on correlation of readings: agree, disagree-insignificant, disagree-significant. There was 91% agreement between resident and attending diagnoses, 7% disagree-insignificant and 2% disagree- significant. Disagreements occurred more often on abnormal than normal cases. Disagreements occurred more often with 1st and 2nd year residents than with 3rd and 4th. Resident confidence was highest for 3rd years, followed by 4th, 2nd and 1st. The less confident a resident was in their diagnosis, the more likely a disagreement occurred. Cases in which a resident expresses a low level of confidence should be carefully checked by the attending since these cases were more often associated with a disagreement than those with high confidence.

Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Berger, William; Erly, William

2000-04-01

335

Professor's Role in Motivating Students to Attend Class  

Science.gov (United States)

It is important for college teachers to motivate their students because student motivation correlates with a student's academic achievement. This study was concerned with exploring what intrinsically motivates college students to continue attending class; what brings them to class because of a desire to be there, not because of external factors…

Brewer, Ernest W.; Burgess, David N.

2005-01-01

336

Impact of Class Lecture Webcasting on Attendance and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the impact of class lecture webcasts on students' attendance and learning. The research design employed four data collection methods in two class sections--one with webcast access and another without--of the same course taught by the same instructors. Results indicated the following four major findings. (1) The…

Traphagan, Tomoko; Kucsera, John V.; Kishi, Kyoko

2010-01-01

337

Patterns of Student Attendance, 1964-65--1967-68.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using official records and two sample surveys, this longitudinal study analyzed patterns of attendance and persistence among University of Minnesota General Extension Division evening class (EC) students. They tended to be young (under 30), male, and married. Roughly half each year were new to the university as well as to the evening classes.…

Kanun, Clara

338

The occupational health and safety of flight attendants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to perform safety-critical roles in emergency situations, flight attendants should meet minimum health standards and not be impaired by factors such as fatigue. In addition, the unique occupational and environmental characteristics of flight attendant employment may have consequential occupational health and safety implications, including radiation exposure, cancer, mental ill-health, musculoskeletal injury, reproductive disorders, and symptoms from cabin air contamination. The respective roles of governments and employers in managing these are controversial. A structured literature review was undertaken to identify key themes for promoting a future agenda for flight attendant health and safety. Recommendations include breast cancer health promotion, implementation of Fatigue Risk Management Systems, standardization of data collection on radiation exposure and health outcomes, and more coordinated approaches to occupational health and safety risk management. Research is ongoing into cabin air contamination incidents, cancer, and fatigue as health and safety concerns. Concerns are raised that statutory medical certification for flight attendants will not benefit either flight safety or occupational health. PMID:22606869

Griffiths, Robin F; Powell, David M C

2012-05-01

339

The Impact of Mass School Immunization on School Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess the impact a free, on-site influenza immunization program could have on attendance in Title 1 schools. Four Title 1 elementary schools participated in the study. Students at 2 schools were offered free FluMist[R] immunizations on site, and students at 2 control schools were not. Compliance on receiving…

Wiggs-Stayner, Kathleen S.; Purdy, Teresa R.; Go, Gailya N.; McLaughlin, Natalie C.; Tryzynka, Penny S.; Sines, Joyce R.; Hlaing, Thein

2006-01-01

340

Attending rounds: patient with hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypokalemic paralysis represents a medical emergency requiring both rapid diagnosis and treatment. In this Attending Rounds a patient with hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis is presented to emphasize the role of routine laboratory studies in the assessment of such patients so that a correct diagnosis can be made and appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. PMID:21921151

Rastegar, Asghar

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Comparative fuel consumptions of petrol- and diesel-fueled cars during short urban travels; Consommations comparees sur voitures a essence et diesels sur trajet court urbain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this talk is to compare the sensitivities of petrol- and diesel-fueled engines in identical conditions of use and installed on identical cars (same type, same model, same power) conformable to the Euro 1 legislation. The sensitivity of both type of vehicles is examined with respect to different factors such as: driving conditions, ambient temperature, engine temperature, age, mileage, and degree of maintenance. These studies were performed by the UTAC, Ricardo (UK) and the TUV (Germany). The conclusion of this comparison is that the use of the ECE and EUDC European urban cycles to compare the consumptions and pollutant emissions is not acceptable. These cycles can only be used for comparisons between vehicles with the same engine type. (J.S.)

Cayot, J.F. [Lucas (France)

1997-12-31

342

Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust in major cities in Greece in relation to the use of lead in petrol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Until recently, the most important source of environmental lead pollution in cities was thought to come from the combustion of leaded petrol. A simple way to monitor the extent of this phenomenon, used in a number of studies in the past, has been to measure lead levels in street dust. Nowadays, it would be expected that lead concentrations in urban dust would have decreased from earlier values, following the progressive reduction of lead in petrol over the past few years, and this hypothesis has recently been confirmed in Manchester, UK. The object of the present work is to determine levels of lead pollution in cities in Greece on 1997 and, if possible, to discover whether similar reductions in lead concentrations have occurred there also. Surveys have been conducted in Thessaloniki, Athens and Piraeus. Samples of roadside dust were collected from streets (categorised by traffic density), national gardens and school playgrounds, and lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid. Lead concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and lead isotope ratios measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Thessaloniki showed that mean lead concentrations in all categories of location are similar to present levels in Manchester. Further, lead concentrations in dust in the busiest streets in Thessaloniki have fallen by about 55% since a previous study 17 years ago. In Athens and Piraeus, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between the various types of street. In particular, it was observed that lead levels in school playgrounds in these two cities were much higher than in similar locations in Thessaloniki and Manchester, with a possible hazard to children. Isotope ratio measurements showed that Thessaloniki's lead is isotopically distinct from that found in Athens and Piraeus, which presumably reflects differences in sources of supply

2006-08-31

343

Learning to attend to threat accelerates and enhances memory consolidation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Practice on a procedural task involves within-session learning and between-session consolidation of learning, with the latter requiring a minimum of about four hours to evolve due to involvement of slower cellular processes. Learning to attend to threats is vital for survival and thus may involve faster memory consolidation than simple procedural learning. Here, we tested whether attention to threat modulates the time-course and magnitude of learning and memory consolidation effects associated with skill practice. All participants (N = 90) practiced in two sessions on a dot-probe task featuring pairs of neutral and angry faces followed by target probes which were to be discriminated as rapidly as possible. In the attend-threat training condition, targets always appeared at the angry face location, forming an association between threat and target location; target location was unrelated to valence in a control training condition. Within each attention training condition, duration of the between-session rest interval was varied to establish the time-course for emergence of consolidation effects. During the first practice session, we observed robust improvement in task performance (online, within-session gains), followed by saturation of learning. Both training conditions exhibited similar overall learning capacities, but performance in the attend-threat condition was characterized by a faster learning rate relative to control. Consistent with the memory consolidation hypothesis, between-session performance gains (delayed gains) were observed only following a rest interval. However, rest intervals of 1 and 24 hours yielded similar delayed gains, suggesting accelerated consolidation processes. Moreover, attend-threat training resulted in greater delayed gains compared to the control condition. Auxiliary analyses revealed that enhanced performance was retained over several months, and that training to attend to neutral faces resulted in effects similar to control. These results provide a novel demonstration of how attention to threat can accelerate and enhance memory consolidation effects associated with skill acquisition. PMID:23638100

Abend, Rany; Karni, Avi; Sadeh, Avi; Fox, Nathan A; Pine, Daniel S; Bar-Haim, Yair

2013-01-01

344

Learning to Attend to Threat Accelerates and Enhances Memory Consolidation  

Science.gov (United States)

Practice on a procedural task involves within-session learning and between-session consolidation of learning, with the latter requiring a minimum of about four hours to evolve due to involvement of slower cellular processes. Learning to attend to threats is vital for survival and thus may involve faster memory consolidation than simple procedural learning. Here, we tested whether attention to threat modulates the time-course and magnitude of learning and memory consolidation effects associated with skill practice. All participants (N?=?90) practiced in two sessions on a dot-probe task featuring pairs of neutral and angry faces followed by target probes which were to be discriminated as rapidly as possible. In the attend-threat training condition, targets always appeared at the angry face location, forming an association between threat and target location; target location was unrelated to valence in a control training condition. Within each attention training condition, duration of the between-session rest interval was varied to establish the time-course for emergence of consolidation effects. During the first practice session, we observed robust improvement in task performance (online, within-session gains), followed by saturation of learning. Both training conditions exhibited similar overall learning capacities, but performance in the attend-threat condition was characterized by a faster learning rate relative to control. Consistent with the memory consolidation hypothesis, between-session performance gains (delayed gains) were observed only following a rest interval. However, rest intervals of 1 and 24 hours yielded similar delayed gains, suggesting accelerated consolidation processes. Moreover, attend-threat training resulted in greater delayed gains compared to the control condition. Auxiliary analyses revealed that enhanced performance was retained over several months, and that training to attend to neutral faces resulted in effects similar to control. These results provide a novel demonstration of how attention to threat can accelerate and enhance memory consolidation effects associated with skill acquisition.

Abend, Rany; Karni, Avi; Sadeh, Avi; Fox, Nathan A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Bar-Haim, Yair

2013-01-01

345

Power station system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This concerns power plants (including nuclear power stations) and it is proposed to replace steam as working medium by ammonia. Condensation problems shall be solved by using an auxiliary medium (e.g. H_2O or salts like ZnCl_2(NH_3)_2 or ZN(NH_3)_4(ReO_4)_2). The working medium dissolves in the auxiliary medium, and when required it is evaporated at different places of the plant where it is used or reabsorbed in the auxiliary medium. The proposed plant is described in principle only, some variants are discussed supported by tables and diagrams. (UWI)

1979-01-01

346

Submerged AUV Charging Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder causes the AUV to rise, and emptying of the bladder allows the AUV to descend. This type of direct buoyancy control is much more energy efficient than using electrical pumps in that the inefficiencies of converting thermal energy to electrical energy to mechanical energy is avoided. AUV charging stations have been developed that use electricity produced by waves on floating buoys and that use electricity from solar photovoltaics on floating buoys. This is the first device that has absolutely no floating or visible parts, and is thus impervious to storms, inadvertent ocean vessel collisions, or enemy sabotage.

Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

2014-01-01

347

International Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide presentation reviews the research on the International Space Station (ISS), including the sponsorship of payloads by country and within NASA. Included is a description of the space available for research, the Laboratory "Rack" facilities, the external research facilities and those available from the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo), and highlights the investigations that JAXA has maintained. There is also a review of the launch vehicles and spacecraft that are available for payload transportation to the ISS, including cargo capabilities of the spacecraft.

Wahlberg, Jennifer; Gordon, Randy

2010-01-01

348

Power station chemistry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing contribution of power station chemistry to new methods of operation, which is partly due to the increased use of fossil fuels and partly due to the greater consideration given to the protection of the environment, is irreversible. This is even more valid in the case of chemical procedures which have recently found or will soon find application in power plant technology. Coal conversion and gasification, desulphurization of flue gases, reduction of NOsub(x) emissions, improvements in dust collection, utilization of power plant by-products and also problems with deposition and effluent treatment can be quoted as examples. (orig.)

1981-01-01

349

Nuclear hydrogen power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Short information about investigations on hydrogen energetics being carried out in the USSR as well as a review of the world literature on this subject are given. Combined cycles of thermochemical and electrochemical reactions applied for hydrogen and oxigen production from water are shown to be of interest, as a number of reactions in a cycle may be reduced to two, and the temperature of processes may be decreased to the temperature range specific to modern reactors. Construction features of nuclear-hydrogen power stations producing hydrogen through the use of thermo-electro-chemical cycles are considered. It is shown that at this stage it is possible to reduce time and expenses needed for realization of hydrogen production on a wide scale as compared to other reaction cycles requiring high temperatures and consequently, construction of high-temperature reactors. The conditions of energy and water transport at great distances by using hydrogen lines and the possibilities of development of desert and arid lands by using this mode of operation are considered. Possible ecological effect of hydrogen energetics development on the environment is pointed out, in particular, when power complexes are concentrated on a limited area. It is shown that it is reasonable to locate nuclear-hydrogen stations on shores

1976-01-01

350

St. George Station rehabilitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The redevelopment of the St. George Pulp and Paper (SGPP) hydroelectric station, located at the confluence of the Magaguadavic River and a tidal estuary of the Bay of Fundy in southwestern New Brunswick was discussed. Specifically, the paper discussed the technical aspects that were implemented to economically enhance the project's generating capacity, mitigate environmental impacts, and reduce construction costs. First, a description of the site was provided. During the 1980s and 1990s, SGPP examined several rehabilitation and redevelopment alternatives. The paper discussed a feasibility study and conceptual design phase which included a new dam, gated spillway, an intake located slightly downstream of the existing intake, two new steel penstocks connecting the intake to the reinforced concrete powerhouse excavated into an adjacent hillside, and a 128 metre long tailrace tunnel connecting the turbine draft tubes to the tidal gorge. The permitting and preliminary design stage that defined five major uncertainties and risks facing the proposed developed was also discussed. Last, the paper discussed the final design and construction phase and performance and operation of the station. 3 figs.

Kahl, T.L. [Kleinschmidt Associates, Pittsfield, PA (United States); Dunlap, M.L. [Kleinschmidt Associates, Strasburg, PA (United States)

2007-07-01

351

Oil and dependability: crisis management and prevention; Petrole et securite: le gestion et la prevention des crises  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil supply dependability and reliability have been subject to several crisis, at the international level such as the Gulf war, or on the French level, with strikes from the truck drivers and railways which disrupted fuel supply in France at several times. The decline in the number of service stations is also a problem. France has developed some specific crisis organizations such as oil strategic stocks (since 1925) and the DHYCA which aims is to ensure oil logistic, industrial and domestic dependability; its operation is briefly presented

Bonocori, D

1997-12-31

352

Attendance of general practitioners at child protection case conferences.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To investigate general practitioners' attendance at and views on child protection conferences and their confidence in dealing with sexual abuse in children. DESIGN--Anonymous postal questionnaire sent to all general practitioners in Tower Hamlets and review of consecutive case conferences held by social services for three months in 1989. SETTING--Tower Hamlets health district. SUBJECTS--91 general practitioners, 56 of whom (62%) responded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number of conferenc...

Lea-cox, C.; Hall, A.

1991-01-01

353

Motivation for and Benefits from Attending the AP Statistics Reading  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores the Advanced Placement® Statistics reading as a source of professional development for teachers. The study was conducted to capture the motivation for and benefits from attending the collective grading. Research has shown that examining student work during professional development has implications for teaching. The premise of this study is that Advanced Placement readings are a context for examining the impact of collective grading of student work. The purpo...

2013-01-01

354

Marketing Cultural Attractions: Understanding Non-Attendance and Visitation Barriers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to draw together the previous academic and industry research on non-attendance of cultural attractions, followed by qualitative in-depth interviews to identify commonalities or gaps in the previous research on barriers, constraints and inhibitors, as well as to propose linkages between these. Design/methodology/approach – A multi-method approach is used – where barriers, constraints and inhibitors are identified by means of thematic content analysi...

Kay, P.; Wong, P.; Polonsky, Mj

2009-01-01

355

Use of alternative medicine by patients attending a gastroenterology clinic.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We carried out a study to determine the proportion of patients attending a university-based gastroenterology outpatient clinic who sought alternative medical care for the same health problem that had prompted them to see a gastroenterologist. After the patients completed a self-administered questionnaire, the gastroenterologist gave a diagnosis and assigned a functional rating. Of the 395 patients 287 (73%) had not used alternative medicine, and 36 (9%) had sought alternative medical care for...

1990-01-01

356

PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING MEDICAL OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients attending the General Medical Out-patient department of a public hospital were selected randomly and screened by a physician and a psychiatrist independently. The data on 258 patients reveal an overall psychiatric morbidity of 36% consisting of 24% pure psychiatric illnesses and 12% with associated organic problems. Females are found to be suffering from psychiatric illnesses to a statistically significantly greater extent as compared to males. Symptoms related to the head and the ce...

1986-01-01

357

Psychosocial components of cardiac recovery and rehabilitation attendance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE—To examine the relations between demographic factors, specific psychosocial factors, and cardiac rehabilitation attendance.?DESIGN—Cohort, repeated measures design.?SETTING—A large tertiary care centre in western Canada?PATIENTS—304 consecutive consenting patients discharged following acute myocardial infarction and/or coronary artery bypass graft surgery.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—The Jenkins self-efficacy expectation scales and activity checklists of ...

King, K.; Humen, D.; Smith, H.; Phan, C.; Teo, K.

2001-01-01

358

Analysing Determinants of Match Attendance in the European Rugby Cup  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The economic literature on professional sports leagues suggests supporters' utility depends on uncertainty of outcome (competitive balance) and the quality of play. Unlike soccer, where the Champions League is dominated by teams from larger countries, our analysis indicates that the ERC exhibits high degrees of both dynamic and inter-league competitive balance. Using data from 1,096 matches played over 17 seasons, we analyse match attendances in the pool stages of the European Rugby Cup (ERC)...

Massey, Patrick; Massey, Shane; Hogan, Vincent

2012-01-01

359

Learning to Attend to Threat Accelerates and Enhances Memory Consolidation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Practice on a procedural task involves within-session learning and between-session consolidation of learning, with the latter requiring a minimum of about four hours to evolve due to involvement of slower cellular processes. Learning to attend to threats is vital for survival and thus may involve faster memory consolidation than simple procedural learning. Here, we tested whether attention to threat modulates the time-course and magnitude of learning and memory consolidation effects associate...

Abend, Rany; Karni, Avi; Sadeh, Avi; Fox, Nathan A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Bar-haim, Yair

2013-01-01

360

Naivete, projection bias, and habit formation in gym attendance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We develop a model capturing habit formation, projection bias, and present bias in an intertemporal-choice setting, and conduct a field experiment to identify its main parameters. We elicit subjects' pre- and post-treatment predictions of post-treatment gym attendance, using a habit-formation intervention based on Charness and Gneezy (2009) as an exogenous shock to treated subjects' gym preferences. Projection-biased subjects, projecting their current habit state onto their future expectation...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Obstetric complications: does training traditional birth attendants make a difference?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effect that a training intervention for traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Guatemala had on the detection of obstetric complications, the referral of patients with complications to the formal health care system, and, ultimately, those patients' utilization of essential obstetric care services. Methods. Using a quasi-experimental design, a surveillance system of births was implemented to collect population-based information from 3 518 women between 1990 and 1993. All women were interviewed postpartum by physicians. There were three key independent variables in our study: 1 geographical area (intervention community and non-intervention community, 2 time in relation to the training intervention (before or after, and 3 presence or absence of a TBA at the time of the complication. The key dependent variables for women interviewed were 1 development of an obstetric complication, 2 detection of the problem by the TBA, 3 referral to a health facility, 4 compliance with referral, and 5 use of services. Results. The incidence of postpartum complications decreased after the intervention, controlling for intervention community. On the other hand, after the intervention TBAs were less likely to recognize most maternal complications, and referral rates did not increase significantly. The likelihood of using health care services increased six-fold among women who were not attended by TBAs, and no increase was observed among those who were attended by TBAs. Conclusion. Training TBAs may have had a positive effect on the rate, detection, and referral of postpartum complications. However, the evidence is less convincing for overall increases in the detection of complications, in referral to the formal health care system, and in the utilization of essential obstetric services among women attended by TBAs.

Bailey Patricia E.

2002-01-01

362

Does distance determine who attends a university in Germany?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze the role of distance from a university in the decision to attend higher education in Germany. Students who live near a university can avoid moving and the increased living expenses by commuting. Thus, transaction cost arguments would suggest that the greater the distance to the nearest university, the lower the participation in higher education. We analyze this hypothesis by combining data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) with a database from the German Rectors' Co...

Spieß, Christa Katharina; Wrohlich, Katharina

2008-01-01

363

Training traditional birth attendants in Nigeria--the pictorial method.  

Science.gov (United States)

High maternal mortality and morbidity rates are a challenge for all involved in the care of mothers and babies. One response takes the form of an educational programme led by professional midwives to teach traditional birth attendants to recognize risk conditions and improve their care of mothers and babies. Such a programme was organized as part of a Canadian-Nigerian safe motherhood initiative, and carried out in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. PMID:8534350

Matthews, M K; Walley, R L; Ward, A; Akpaidem, M; Williams, P; Umoh, A

1995-01-01

364

Interdependence between sexual debut and church attendance in Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence of religion on an individual's life-course in general - and on sexual behaviour in particular - has long been recognised by social scientists, although few studies have explored the reciprocal causal interdependence between religiosity and sexual debut, mainly in an overwhelmingly Catholic European context. In this paper, we study the dynamic bi-directional effect between first coital experience and discontinuance of church attendance among a representative sample of Italian s...

Marcantonio Caltabiano; Gianpiero Dalla Zuanna; Alessandro Rosina

2006-01-01

365

Local control stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted.

Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wachtel, J.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Research

1993-05-01

366

Boeing: International Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Boeing, the prime contractor for the International Space Station (ISS), has developed this website to provide information on the technology of the program. The ISS will be more than four times as large as the Russian Mir when completed, and is "the largest, most complex international scientific project in history and our largest adventure into space to date." Boeing is responsible for the design, development, construction and integration of the ISS and assisting NASA in operating the orbital outpost. They provide an overview of the status of the project and describes the current configuration, components, structure, and systems with more detailed information on some sections. Visitors can follow links to also read more about the scientific research conducted by the expedition crew.

367

SMART Station Blackout Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima accident represents the latest fear of any nuclear industry whether established or just starting. Although it was a natural disaster, it must be assured that even under such circumstances, radioactive material is contained and release is avoided. Despite the possibility of radioactive release occurring over multiple consequences, such scenarios must be considered. The Fukushima scenario is considered in the SMART (System Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) design with the availability and loss of the Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS). Using the Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety (MARS) code, this paper presents the Fukushima scenario studies along with the calculated grace time as results. The results of SMART Station Black Out (SBO) analysis show grace time of almost two and a half days for the worst-case scenario

2012-03-01

368

Local control stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted

1993-10-20

369

Discharges from nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

1991-01-01

370

Access to cardiac rehabilitation does not equate to attendance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Aims: Timely access to appropriate cardiac care is critical for optimizing positive outcomes after a cardiac event. Attendance at cardiac rehabilitation (CR) remains less than optimal (10%-30%). Our aim was to derive an objective, comparable, geographic measure reflecting access to cardiac services after a cardiac event in Australia. Methods: An expert panel defined a single patient care pathway and a hierarchy of the minimum health services for CR and secondary prevention. Using geographic information systems a numeric/alpha index was modelled to describe access before and after a cardiac event. The aftercare phase was modelled into five alphabetical categories: from category A (access to medical service, pharmacy, CR, pathology within 1 h) to category E (no services available within 1 h). Results: Approximately 96% or 19 million people lived within 1 h of the four basic services to support CR and secondary prevention, including 96% of older Australians and 75% of the indigenous population. Conversely, 14% (64,000) indigenous people resided in population locations that had poor access to health services that support CR after a cardiac event. Conclusion: Results demonstrated that the majority of Australians had excellent 'geographic' access to services to support CR and secondary prevention. Therefore, it appears that it is not the distance to services that affects attendance. Our 'geographic' lens has identified that more research on socioeconomic, sociological or psychological aspects to attendance is needed. PMID:23598464

Clark, Robyn A; Coffee, Neil; Turner, Dorothy; Eckert, Kerena A; van Gaans, Deborah; Wilkinson, David; Stewart, Simon; Tonkin, Andrew M

2014-06-01

371

Integrated microfluidic probe station  

Science.gov (United States)

The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution-thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet-and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

Perrault, C. M.; Qasaimeh, M. A.; Brastaviceanu, T.; Anderson, K.; Kabakibo, Y.; Juncker, D.

2010-11-01

372

Kakrapar Atomic Power Station Gujarat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) is the fifth Atomic Power Station in India. It is a twin unit with a generating capacity of 220 MWe each. Reactors are known as Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. The heat is generated by nuclear fission using natural uranium as fuel. Unit-1 is under commercial operation since 06 May 1993 and Unit-2 since 01 September 1995. The safety performance of station is improving continuously. As on 30 September 2010, Station has record of longest reportable accident free period of 2873 days and fire free days of 4515

1993-05-06

373

The turbocharged direct-injection petrol engine. A consistent solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emission; Der hochaufgeladene Ottomotor mit Direkteinspritzung. Ein konsequenter Weg zur Reduzierung der CO{sub 2}-Emission  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compared to diesel engines, turbocharged direct-injection petrol engines are an economical alternative for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from vehicles. The possibilities and limitations of downsizing an exhaust gas turbocharged four-cylinder petrol engine were investigated at the Chair of Combustion Engine Technology at the Technical University of Dresden. It was found that the success of turbocharged, consumption-optimised engines depends not only on the choice of a suitable turbocharger system to match the engine concerned but also on having the right number of cylinders to match the turbocharger system. The increased ignition intervals mean that, in some cases, three-cylinder engines may offer a better dynamic response than four-cylinder units. (orig.)

Zellbeck, H.; Ross, T.; Guhr, C. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungsmotoren

2007-07-15

374

77 FR 11532 - Notice of Attendance at ISO New England and NEPOOL Meetings  

Science.gov (United States)

...Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Attendance at ISO New England and NEPOOL Meetings The Federal Energy...Commission and Commission staff may attend upcoming ISO New England Inc. (ISO-NE) and New England Power Pool (NEPOOL)...

2012-02-27

375

Patients attended by palliative care teams: are they always comparable populations?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients attended by palliative care teams: are they always comparable populations? To answer this question we have compared the basic epidemiological characteristics of patients attended by home palliative care teams (HPCT) in two autonomous regions of Spain.

Nabal, Maria; Barcons, Miquel; Moreno, Roberto; Busquets, Xavier; Trujillano, Javier J.; Requena, Antonio

2013-01-01

376

High-precision injection in combination with the new BMW twin-turbo petrol engine; High Precision Injection in Verbindung mit Aufladung am neuen BMW Twin-Turbo-Ottomotor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design highlights of the new engine that went into series production in mid-2006 with the 335i Couple have already been described in the February issue of the MTZ. Continuing with this report, this article deals with the functional aspects of piezo-fuel injection technology used for the first time by BMW in connection with turbocharging which BMW is again reintroducing in petrol engine construction after an absence of more than 20 years. (orig.)

Maehrle, Werner; Krauss, Michael; Luttermann, Christoph; Klauer, Norbert [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Antriebsentwicklung

2007-04-15

377

Geophysical Monitoring Station (GEMS)  

Science.gov (United States)

GEMS (GEophysical Monitoring Station) is one of three missions undergoing Phase A development for possible selection by NASA's Discovery Program. If selected, GEMS will perform the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation of Mars, filling a longstanding gap in the scientific exploration of the solar system. It will illuminate the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution, providing unique and critical information about the initial accretion of the planet, the formation and differentiation of the core and crust, and the subsequent evolution of the interior. The scientific goals of GEMS are to understand the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets through investigation of the interior structure and processes of Mars and to determine its present level of tectonic activity and impact flux. A straightforward set of scientific objectives address these goals: 1) Determine the size, composition and physical state of the core; 2) Determine the thickness and structure of the crust; 3) Determine the composition and structure of the mantle; 4) Determine the thermal state of the interior; 5) Measure the rate and distribution of internal seismic activity; and 6) Measure the rate of impacts on the surface. To accomplish these objectives, GEMS carries a tightly-focused payload consisting of 3 investigations: 1) SEIS, a 6-component, very-broad-band seismometer, with careful thermal compensation/control and a sensitivity comparable to the best terrestrial instruments across a frequency range of 1 mHz to 50 Hz; 2) HP3 (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package), an instrumented self-penetrating mole system that trails a string of temperature sensors to measure the thermal gradient and conductivity of the upper several meters, and thus the planetary heat flux; and 3) RISE (Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment), which would use the spacecraft X-band communication system to provide precision tracking for planetary dynamical studies. The two instruments are moved from the lander deck to the martian surface by an Instrument Deployment Arm, with an appropriate location identified using an Instrument Deployment Camera. In order to ensure low risk within the tight Discovery cost limits, GEMS reuses the successful Lockheed Martin Phoenix spacecraft design, with a cruise and EDL system that has demonstrated capability for safe landing on Mars with well-understood costs. To take full advantage of this approach, all science requirements (such as instrument mass and power, landing site, and downlinked data volume) strictly conform to existing, demonstrated capabilities of the spacecraft and mission system. It is widely believed that multiple landers making simultaneous measurements (a network) are required to address the objectives for understanding terrestrial planet interiors. Nonetheless, comprehensive measurements from a single geophysical station are extremely valuable, because observations constraining the structure and processes of the deep interior of Mars are virtually nonexistent. GEMS would utilize sophisticated analysis techniques specific to single-station measurements to determine crustal thickness, mantle structure, core state and size, and heat flow, providing our first real look deep beneath the surface of Mars.

Banerdt, B.; Dehant, V. M.; Lognonne, P.; Smrekar, S. E.; Spohn, T.; GEMS Mission Team

2011-12-01

378

Stanwell power station project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) being developed for installation at the Stanwell power station in Queensland Australia. Stanwell Corporation Limited (SCL). Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd. And the universities of Sidney and New South Wales are cooperating in the project, and this first plant being partly funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The solar plant will be attached to a 1440 MW(e) coal fired plant. The 17000 m{sup 2} array will be the largest array in Australia, producing a peak of 13 MW of thermal energy which will offset the use of coal in the generation of electricity. It will use direct steam generation and will feed either steam or hot water at 265 Celsius degrees directly into the power station preheating cycle. The CLFR system, first developed by the University of Sidney and Solsearch Pty. Ltd., is simple and offers small reflector size, low structural cost, fixed receiver geometry. Initial installed plant costs are approximately US$1000 per kWe, but this includes the effect of high up-front design costs and the cost should drop substantially in the second and subsequent plants. [Spanish] Proyecto de la Planta Electrica Stanwell este articulo describe el Reflector Lineal Compacto Fresnel (CLFR, siglas en ingles) que se esta desarrollando para la instalacion de la planta electrica Stanwell en Queensland, Australia. La Corporacion Stanwell Limited (SCL), Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd., las universidades de Sidney y de New South Wales estan cooperando en este proyecto, y esta primera planta esta parcialmente auspiciada por la Australian Greenhouse Office. La planta solar sera anexa a una planta de carbon de 1440 MW(e). Este arreglo de 17000 m{sup 2} sera el mayor en Australia y producira un maximo de 13 MW en energia termica la cual contrarrestara el uso del carbon en la generacion de electricidad. Utilizara generacion con vapor directo y alimentara ya sea vapor o agua caliente a 265 grados Celsius directamente al ciclo de precalentamiento de la planta. El sistema CLFR, desarrollado primero por la Universidad de Sidney y Solsearch Pty. Ltd., es muy sencillo y ofrece un tama pequeno de reflector, bajo costo estructural y geometria de receptor fijo. Los costos iniciales de instalacion son de aproximadamente US$1000 por kWe, pero esto incluye los costos del efecto del diseno de alta prioridad y los costos deben disminuir control eficiente para obtener un trabajosubsecuentes.

Mills, David R; J Dey, Christopher [University of Sidney, Sidney (Australia); Morrison, Graham L [University of New South Wales, Sidney (Australia)

2000-07-01

379

Swedish encapsulation station review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

1998-06-01

380

Low energy identification station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is very important to be able to measure the production rate of the radioactive ions out of the SPIRAL target and source. This is the reason why an identification station will be installed in the injection line of the CIME cyclotron. Otherwise identification will be only possible at high energy by time-of-flight or energy loss. The identification process makes use of the radioactive decay directly or by measuring the half life with a chopper. Detectors include: one or two germanium detectors for gamma rays, a plastic scintillator for ?- rays and a silicon detector for proton emission. A schematic view of the system is presented, where the different elements and detectors are shown, including the tape mechanism allowing the half-life measurements. In the table, typical SPIRAL beams and their way of identification are also presented. The construction is a large collaboration of SPIRAL between GANIL groups and other laboratories (LPC Caen and IPN Orsay). It is currently being assembled at the LPC site where it will be tested prior to its final installation in the beam line at the beginning of 1998. (authors)

1997-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Space station impact experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four processes serve to illustrate potential areas of study and their implications for general problems in planetary science. First, accretional processes reflect the success of collisional aggregation over collisional destruction during the early history of the solar system. Second, both catastrophic and less severe effects of impacts on planetary bodies survivng from the time of the early solar system may be expressed by asteroid/planetary spin rates, spin orientations, asteroid size distributions, and perhaps the origin of the Moon. Third, the surfaces of planetary bodies directly record the effects of impacts in the form of craters; these records have wide-ranging implications. Fourth, regoliths evolution of asteroidal surfaces is a consequence of cumulative impacts, but the absence of a significant gravity term may profoundly affect the retention of shocked fractions and agglutinate build-up, thereby biasing the correct interpretations of spectral reflectance data. An impact facility on the Space Station would provide the controlled conditions necessary to explore such processes either through direct simulation of conditions or indirect simulation of certain parameters

1986-05-01

382

Accelerated GLAS exposure station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is being developed by NASA/GSFC to measure the dynamics of the ice sheet mass balance, land, and cloud and atmospheric properties. An instrument altimetric resolution of 10 cm per shot is required. The laser transmitter will be a diode pumped, Q-switched, Nd:YAG laser producing 1064 nm, 100 mJ, 4 ns pulses at 40 Hz repetition rate in a TEM? mode. A minimum lifetime goal of 2 billion shots is required per laser transmitter. The performance of the GLAS laser can be limited by physical damage to the optical components caused by the interaction of intense laser energy with the optical coatings and substrates. Very little data exists describing the effects of long duration laser exposure, of 4 ns pulses, on an optical component. An Accelerated GLAS Exposure Station (AGES) is being developed which will autonomously operate and monitor the GLAS laser at an accelerated rate of 500 Hz. The effects of a large number of laser shots will be recorded. Parameters to be monitored include: laser power, pulsewidth, beam size, laser diode drive current and power, Q-switch drive voltage, temperature, and humidity. For comparison, one set of AGES-sister optical components will be used in the non-accelerated GLAS laser and another will be evaluated by a commercial optical damage test facility

1994-10-24

383

Controversial power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When information on plans to build a power station in Trebisov first appeared reactions differed. A 40-billion investment in a town with more than 20% unemployment seemed attractive. But some people did not like the idea of having a power plant located in the town. Around one year after the investment was officially announced TREND returned to Trebisov. In the meantime the investor has managed to overcome one of the biggest obstacles on its way to building a new power plant. The ministry responsible gave the environmental study a positive rating. But objectors are still not sure that everything is fine. They claim that the study misinterprets data and that the ministry did not show expertise when evaluating it. 'Is it possible that a coal power plant located in a town would have twice as many positive effects on peoples' health than negative ones? Why don't we build them everywhere?'asked the chairman of the civic society, Trebisov nahlas, Gejza Gore. The developer of the project, Ceskoslovenska energeticka spolocnost (CES), Kosice is fighting back and claims that their counterpart lacks professional arguments. In the meantime it is preparing for area management proceedings. Trebisov is also involved in the discussion and claims that the town planning scheme does not include such a project. The Ministry of Construction has a different opinion. In the opinion of the Ministry the town planning scheme allows a 885-megawatt power plant to be built only a few hundred meters away from housing estates. (author)

2008-02-21

384

Functional Limitations and Religious Service Attendance among African American and White Older Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Church attendance is associated with improved health and well-being among older adults, but older adults with functional limitations may have difficulty attending church services. This article examines differences in the association between functional limitations and church attendance in a sample of 987 elderly African American and white…

Roff, Lucinda Lee; Klemmack, David L.; Simon, Cassandra; Cho, Gi Won; Parker, Michael W.; Koenig, Harold G.; Sawyer-Baker, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.

2006-01-01

385

The Effect of Attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities on Future Wages of Black Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on 1,192 students from the National Longitudinal Survey-High School Class of 1972 showed that, although the precollege characteristics of black students who attended historically black colleges/universities (HBCUs) predicted lower wages, the value added to future wages from HBCU attendance was 38% higher than that from attending traditionally…

Constantine, Jill M.

1995-01-01

386

Utilising Multimedia ESP Programme in Enhancing Flight Attendants' Safety Knowledge and Problem Solving Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

A multimedia English for Specific Purposes (ESP) programme was developed to train flight attendants. The programme comprised of two units. Unit one is listening comprehension, which provides the flight attendants' with specific information of Airbus A340. Unit two is reading comprehension, which provides the flight attendants with the emergency…

Bani-Salameh, Zakaria A.; Kabilan, Muhammad K.; Bani-Salalmeh, Lina

2011-01-01

387

The Relationship between Urban Students Attending Religious Revival Services and Academic and Social Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the effects of attending religious revival services on the educational and behavioral outcomes of urban students. Specifically, the influence of attending the most recognized revival of the past decade is analyzed. Urban student attendees from throughout the United States attend, are surveyed, and then are randomly selected to…

Jeynes, William H.

2005-01-01

388

Sexual behaviour in women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 1025 women attending a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic, sexual experience had started at an increasingly early age during the past 30 years, from a mode of 19 in the early 1950s to 16 in the early 1980s. Up to the age of 40, sexually active older women had as many recent sexual partners as younger women. Oral intercourse (fellatio) was practised by 714 (70%) women, and 378 (37%) experienced ejaculation in the mouth. Anal intercourse was practised by 200 (20%) women and 90 (9%) experien...

Evans, B. A.; Bond, R. A.; Macrae, K. D.

1988-01-01

389

76 FR 44246 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment  

Science.gov (United States)

...Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...installation of an overhead flight attendant rest compartment. The applicable airworthiness...installing an overhead flight attendant rest (OFAR) compartment creates a...

2011-07-25

390

76 FR 26949 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment  

Science.gov (United States)

...Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest...AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...of an overhead flight attendant rest...or appropriate safety standards for...Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and...the Federal Aviation Administration...of the overhead flight attendant...

2011-05-10

391

The Trencin water power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This leaflet describes the Trencin water power station. The Trencin water power station was built seven years after the Dubnica nad Vahom water power station started its operation and was the last stage of the first and the oldest derived cascade of water power stations on the Vah River. After completing water power stations at Ladce (1936), Ilava (1946) and Dubnica nad Vahom (1949) and before constructing the Trencin water power station, the whole second derived cascade of water power stations including water power stations at Kostolna, Nove Mesto nad Vahom and Horna Streda was built as soon as possible mainly because the need to get compensation for discontinued electricity supplies as well as energetic coal from the Czech Republic. Hereby, experiences from the construction of previous grades were used, mainly as far as the dimensioning was concerned, as the fi rst installed power stations had, in comparison with the growing requirements on the electricity supplies, very low absorption capacity - only 150 m3.s-1. Thus the Trencin power station (original name was the Skalka power station) was already dimensioned for the same absorption capacity as the cascade located downstream the river, that is 180 m3.s-1. That was related also to growing demands on electricity supplies during the peaks in the daily electric system load diagram, and thus to the transfer from continuous operation of the water power station to semi-peak or even peak performance. According to the standards of power station classification, the Trencin water power station is a medium size, low pressure, channel power station with two units equipped by Kaplan turbines and synchronous hydro-alternators. The water power station installed capacity is 16.1 MW in total and its designed annual production of electrical energy for medium water year is 85,000 MWh, while the average annual production during the last 30 years is 86,252 MWh. Installed unit has a four-blade Kaplan turbine with the diameter of the impeller wheel 3800 mm. Its water absorption maximum flow is 90 m3.s-1 and operational extension of the head between 13.85 and 10,35 m. Maximum power output of the generator is 11.5 MVA, a nominal voltage 10.5 kV and the power factor cos ? = 0.7. The power station has a block arrangement with its output led out through the 22 kV switchgear that is connected to the 110 kV switchgear. The big inner cubicle-type switchgear of 22 kV provides power supplies for many industrial plants in Trencin and for the city of Trencin itself, as well as interconnection with neighbouring water power stations

2005-01-01

392

The trend of the total stock of the private car-petrol in Spain: Stochastic modelling using a new gamma diffusion process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main aim of this study is to model the trend of the evolution of the total stock of private petrol-driven cars. In Spain, as in other EU countries, this trend between 2000 and 2005 differed significantly from that observed from 1986 to 1999. Moreover, it varies greatly from that corresponding to the stock of diesel-driven cars, which consistently presents an exponential Gompertz-type increase. Spain constitutes a typical example of a failure to observe the maximum CO2 emission levels assigned to it by 2012 under the Kyoto Protocol (1992); a significant percentage of these excess emissions is accounted for by the land transport sector, in general, and by the private cars subsector, in particular. This paper proposes a stochastic model based on a new non homogeneous stochastic gamma-type diffusion process which it is a stochastic version of a Gamma function type deterministic growth model considered in Skiadas . We describe its main probabilistic characteristics and establish a statistical methodology by which it can be fitted to real data and obtain medium-term forecasts that, in statistical terms, are quite accurate

2009-01-01

393

Mechanics: next generation engines: towards a convergence between petrol and diesel; Mecanique: moteurs du futur: vers une convergence entre l'essence et le diesel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Throughout the world car manufacturers are developing 2 new technologies : combustion through self controlled inflammation (CAI) for petrol engines and homogeneous combustion (HCCI) for diesel engines. This represents an important step towards a cleaner and more fuel efficient engine. This article reviews the different efforts made by car manufacturers to improve car motors. Toyota is developing on one of its models, the process Unibus which allows an important reduction of the production of nitrogen oxides in certain operating modes of the engine. Fiat is improving its ''common rail multijet'' technology by adding a variable distribution (Uniair), it gives to the engine more flexibility and efficiency. The IFP (French institute of petroleum) proposes a new approach of diesel homogeneous combustion by developing strategies of multi-injection, this approach reduces the production of NO{sub x} by a factor of 100. EUCAR (European association of car manufacturers) expects that the internal combustion engine would stay the basis of car engines till at least 2020 and that CAI and HCCI technologies would be broadly used from 2010. (A.C.)

Anon.

2002-07-01

394

47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...station protection of TV broadcast stations. 73.6016 Section 73.6016 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6016 Digital Class A TV station protection of TV...

2010-10-01

395

Reproductive tract infections among women attending gynaecology outpatient department  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Women often suffer silently with reproductive tract infections (RTIs and sexually active young women are particularly susceptible to sexually transmitted Infections (STIs. The study aimed to know the prevalence of reproductive tract infections among married women attending Gynecological Outpatients Department of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH, Kathmandu, Nepal.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hospital based crosssectional design was used to investigate RTIs among women attending outpatients department of Gynae and Obstetrics, TUTH from July to November, 2006. A total of 208 samples from 104 women were examined microscopically and culture using standard microbial technique to investigate etiological agents of RTIs. Study samples were selected and examined on the basis of either having discharge or complaints of lower abdominal pain.RESULTS: A total of 208 samples collected from 104 patients were examined and 26% samples were positive for different causative agents of RTIs. Thirty percent of women reported having symptoms related to RTIs and was common in young married women. Nineteen percent had STIs. Thirteen percent had trichomonasis and 7% had gonorrhoea identified in Gram stained smears and cultures. Many women had endogenous RTIs. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 15% and vaginal candidiasis in 25% of women.CONCLUSIONS: Young married women have a high prevalence of RTIs. Education and outreach programs are needed to reduce embarrassment and lack of knowledge related to RTIs. The low socio?economic status of women appears to have influence on high rate of infections.

Bohara MS

2012-09-01

396

75 FR 22674 - Moynihan Station Development Project  

Science.gov (United States)

...James A. Farley Building and its Western Annex into a new intermodal transportation facility, to be called the Daniel Patrick Moynihan Station (Moynihan Station). Moynihan Station would be one component of the Project that would also...

2010-04-29

397

Smart grid stations; Smarte nettstasjoner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy industry in Norway is facing a significant upgrading of infrastructure for production, distribution and use of electrical energy. A smart grid station will be a key component in the development of a smart grid. (AG)

Aksdal, Geir Nilsen; Nilsen, Richard

2010-07-01

398

Measuring stations for gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the deisgn of 24 measuring stations belonging to the National Institute of Radiation Protection in Sweden. The routine methods of the recording and assessment of gamma radiation are dealt with. (G.B.)

1981-01-01

399

Australian power station NOx overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper summarises the combustion and NOx control equipment in Australian power station boilers fired with black (bituminous) coal, which are all located in NSW and Queensland power stations; indicative specifications of their coal supplies and the governing emission control regulations; NOx formation factors; and measured emissions as functions of load and air distribution for a 600 MW unit operation in NSW`s Hunter Valley. The paper contains the text of the presentation and a printout of the overheads/viewgraphs.

Lowe, A. [Pacific Power International Pty. Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

1999-06-01

400

Internationalization of the Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

Lottmann, R. V.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Advances in power station construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is about power stations - specifically about the construction of modern power stations by the Central Electricity Generating Board in England and Wales over the past decade. It describes the work of the CEGB's Generation Development and Construction Division, perhaps better known throughout the world as simply 'Barnwood' where it has its Headquarters in Gloucester, UK. Barnwood was formed in the early 1970s to concentrate the CEGB's then dispersed engineering construction resources to cope with the smaller number but greatly increased size and complexity of modern power station projects. Perhaps uniquely over the ten years since its formation Barnwood has managed the construction of all types of station; coal-fired, oil-fired, nuclear, pumped storage and hydro. This book tells the story of these various projects and gives detailed descriptions of the respective stations. However, it is not intended as a comprehensive description of power station technology. Rather it is intended to convey the scale of such projects and the many decisions and compromises which have to be made in the course of managing their construction

1986-01-01

402

Ancient Chinese observations of physical phenomena attending solar eclipses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The realization that solar activity probably undergoes changes in qualitative character on time scales greater than the 11 or 22 year cycle but short compared to the duration of recorded history gives renewed importance to historical documents describing the state of solar activity. Modern eclipse observation reveal the presence of solar acitivity through the appearance of coronal structures and prominences. It has been widely remarked that eclipse records prior to the 18th century are uniformly silent on these conspicuous solar eclipse features, raising the possibility, however unlikely, that a change in solar activity has occurred which rendered them only recently noticeable. We present here material from ancient Chinese sources, primarily astrological, that describe phenomena attending solar eclipses that are almost certainly coronal structures and prominences. Thus, these aspects of the present character of solar activity have apparently occurred at other times in history, if not continuously. (orig.)

1980-01-01

403

Traditional birth attendants in Bophuthatswana (Bo-Mmaabotsetse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey was conducted among the 104 traditional birth attendants (hommaabotsetse in Bophuthatswana during the 1985 winter vacation. The objective of the survey was to estimate the number of women practising as well as provide their characteristics and practices. Findings revealed that bommaabotsetse were elderly women with an average age of 58 years, were married and had a considerable period of experience. Preference for delivery in a health service, which is not always accessible, is discussed with a suggestion of a few options. It is concluded that some women in rural Bophuthatswana make a conscious choice of home delivery even when modern delivery facilities are available. A training programme for bommaabotsetse with adequate support and supervision is recommended.

C. Ntoane

1988-09-01

404

Motivation for and Benefits from Attending the AP Statistics Reading  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explores the Advanced Placement® Statistics reading as a source of professional development for teachers. The study was conducted to capture the motivation for and benefits from attending the collective grading. Research has shown that examining student work during professional development has implications for teaching. The premise of this study is that Advanced Placement readings are a context for examining the impact of collective grading of student work. The purpose of the study was to examine the motivation of and benefits for AP Statistics reading participants. The results suggest that analysis of student work may be a method to address teachers' preparation to teach statistics at the level expected by recent reform movements in the field of statistics education.

Tim Jacobbe

2013-04-01

405

Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words  

Science.gov (United States)

Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

1998-01-01

406

The Miksova water power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This leaflet describes the Miksova water power station. The Miksova water power station is part of the second derived cascade of hydro power stations on the river Vah. It was built at the end of a huge development in Slovak hydro-energy in the late 1950's and the beginning of the 1960's. It is the second water power station on this derived cascade, which is situated downstream the Hricov reservoir and water power station. At the power station, three turbine sets with vertical Kaplan turbines are installed with a total power output of 3 x 31.2 = 93.6 MW. With this power output the Miksova water power station (Miksova I) was the biggest water power station in the Slovak Republic until the construction of Pumping water power station Liptovska Mara. And it is still the biggest channel water power station on the Vah so far. It was put into operation during the period 1963 to 1965. There are three turbine sets with Kaplan turbines from CKD Blansko, with a synchronous hydro-alternator installed in the power station. Their installed capacity is 93.6 MW in total and the projected annual production of electrical energy is 207 GWh. The turbines are fi ve-bladed (on the Hricov and Povazska Bystrica water power stations they are four-bladed) and the impeller wheel has a diameter of 4800 mm. They are designed for extension of the head from 24.1 to 22.21 m and each of them has an absorption capacity of 134 m3.s-1 nd a nominal operating speed of 2.08 m3.s-1, runaway speed 4.9 m3.s-1. Each synchronous hydro-alternator has a maximum power output of 31.2 MW, a nominal voltage of 10.5 kV and power factor cos ? of 0.8. Power from the power station is led out through 110 kV switchgear. The water power station operates under automatic turbine mode of operation with remote indication and control from the Dispatch Centre at Vodne elektrarne, in Trencin. From start of operation until the end of 2003 all three turbine sets operated for a total of 450,500 running hours and the Miksova water power station produced total of about 7,161,342 MWh of electricity in its 40 years of activity. According to its functionality, the Miksova pumped storage station (Miksova II) the upper reservoir of which was built from 1963 to 1966 on the Benovsky stream, was an interesting hydro-energy construction. The lower reservoir was formed by the enlarged discharge channel of the Miksova water power station. This power station was a pilot project, at which pumping reversible turbines and other mechanical-technical equipment for hydro power stations were tested, especially for the future construction of PVE Ruzin and Liptovska Mara. A turbine set with a diagonal reversible turbine and an installed capacity of 2.6 MW, which had an operational capacity of 11.2 m3.s-1 in a turbine mode of operation and using a head of 22 to 28 m, was installed in the machine room. It pumped 8.8 m3.s-1 of water with a power input of 3.1 MW in a pumping mode of operation. During the period of its operation from 1971 to 1984, pumping hydro power station Miksova II produced a total of 13,042 MWh of electricity in total, but by testing reversible turbines and the simulation of some special hydraulic phenomena, this power station lost its importance as low-efficiency source, stopped working and its technological equipment was demounted. Experiences from its construction and from its few years of operation were later used during the construction of our pumping hydro power stations. Prolonging its operating period should help with the installation of a bigger basin on the inflow, from which a greater amount of water could be used for the generation of electrical power in turbine mode of operation

2005-01-01

407

Associations between respiratory illnesses and secondhand smoke exposure in flight attendants: A cross-sectional analysis of the Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS is associated with increased risk of respiratory illness, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Prior to smoking bans on airlines in the late 1980s, flight attendants were exposed to a significant amount of SHS. In the present study, we examine associations between flight attendant SHS exposure and development of respiratory illnesses and cardiovascular disease. Methods Between December 2006 and October 2010, three hundred sixty-two flight attendants completed an online questionnaire with information regarding experience as a flight attendant, medical history, smoking history, and SHS exposure. Rates of illnesses in flight attendants were compared with an age and smoking history matched population sample from NHANES 2005-2006. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of reported medical conditions and pre-ban years of exposure. Results Compared with the sample from NHANES 2005-2006, flight attendants had increased prevalence of chronic bronchitis (11.7% vs. 7.2%, p Conclusions Flight attendants experience increased rates of respiratory illnesses compared to a population sample. The frequency of symptoms of nasal congestion, throat or eye irritation is associated with occupational SHS exposure in the pre-smoking ban era.

Redberg Rita F

2011-09-01

408

Towards sustainable regions: the spatial distribution of electric vehiclesâ?? recharging stations from a socio-economic perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The last decades have witnessed a growing interest in electric vehicles (EV) as an integral part of the vision for sustainable regions. The main reasons include the acknowledgment of the necessity of auto-mobility, the technological advancements of electric vehicles, and the interest in petrol-free, low-emission vehicles due to the rising oil prices and global warming. Adequate on-road EV recharging infrastructure is essential in the transformation of EV into a practical transport option and the wide-scale market penetration of EV. Nevertheless, the efficient spatial distribution of EV recharging is rarely explored. current study focuses on assessing the demand driven need for on-road EV recharging stations, and finding their efficient spatial distribution, while accounting for economic, social, environmental and land-use considerations. The analysis, conducted for Demark, consists of four steps. Firstly, the demand for on-road recharging of EVâ??s based on the national travel demand patterns is evaluated, while considering the existence of a city-wide slow recharging network. Secondly, the Edison model for the optimal deployment of EV recharging stations is applied. The model evaluates the need for recharging at the vehicle level, and seeks the optimal deployment of recharging stations on the basis of the distribution of the potential recharging points and the inventory of candidate sites. Thirdly, the EV market share is evaluated as a function of the number of EV recharging stations by employing a discrete choice model, estimated on the basis of a stated preference survey. Last, the feasibility of the optimal EV spatial distribution of the EV charging stations is analyzed, based on the Danish official socio-economic framework (TERESA). Results show: (i) the number of required recharging stations for satisfying the travel demand, (ii) the optimal deployment of recharging stations, (iii) the change in travel patterns due to detours for EV recharging, (iv) the feasibility of the proposed infrastructure while considering economic costs and benefits for operators and users, impact on government budget as well as environmental externalities, namely pollutant emissions, carbon footprint, and noise exposure. The results demonstrate the applicability and feasibility of the proposed method for planning an EV recharging network in sustainable regions.

Christensen, Linda; Kaplan, Sigal

409

Shippingport Station decommissioning project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station located on the Ohio River, 30 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Shippingport Station is the first commercial size nuclear power plant to undergo decommissioning in the United Staes. The plant is located on approximately 7 acres of land owned by the Duquesne Light Company (DLC) and leased to the U.S. Government. DLC operates two nuclear power plants, Beaver Valley 1 and 2, located immediately adjacent to the site and the Bruce Mansfield coal-fired power plant is also within the immediate area. The Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September, 1984. The Shippingport Station consists of a 275' x 60' fuel handling building containing the reactor containment chamber, the service building, the turbine building, the radioactive waste processing building, the administration building and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops and most of the containment structures are located below grade. Structures owned by the U.S. Government including the fuel handling building, service building, contaminated equipment room, the boiler chambers, the radioactive waste processing building and the decontamination and laydown buildings will be dismantled and removed to 3 feet below grade. The area will then be filled with clean soil and graded. The turbine building, testing and training building and the administration building are owned by DLC and will remain

1985-01-01

410

Douglas Point Generating Station Commissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses a number of the interesting experiences encountered at the Douglas Point Nuclear Power Station. Sufficient background with respect to the basic process, equipment location, and commissioning history is given so that those not familiar with the station may follow the remainder of the paper. Three commissioning philosophies followed in the commissioning of Canadian nuclear power stations are mentioned: (1) no ordinary water used for commissioning heavy-water systems: (2) fuelling machines used for initial fuel loading; (3) no portable steam-generating equipment for preliminary turbine-generator run up. Against this background the following experiences are mentioned: low power physics measurements; fuel channel replacement and faulty booster removal; heat transport pressure control; ion-exchange resin in the heat transport system; heat transport pumps; boiler level control; possible fretting of pressure tubes; turbine operation; heavy-water experience. The paper concludes by mentioning some important lessons learned from the experience to date and states confidence in the future of Douglas Point Generating Station, and future Canadian nuclear power stations. (author)

1968-04-01

411

Shippingport station decommissioning project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS), the first commercial-sized nuclear power plant in the United States to undergo complete dismantlement. SAPS is located near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on approximately seven acres of land owned by Duquesne Light Company (DLC), and leased to the US Department of Energy. The Station consists of a 275' by 60' Fuel Handling Building containing the Reactor Containment Chamber, the Service Building, the Turbine Building, the Radioactive Waste Processing Building, the Administration Building, and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops; most of the containment structures are located below grade. Shippingport Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September 1984. At that time, responsibility for the plant was transferred from DOE Office of Assistant Secretary for Naval Reactors (NE-60) to DOE Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action (NE-20) and then to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL). Also at that time, responsibility for the operation/decommissioning of the station systems passed from DLC to General Electric Company (GE). A caretaker and site preparation period lasted from September, 1984 to September, 1985, at which time decommissioning activities started. The decommissioning period is scheduled as September, 1985 through April, 1990. Project total estimated cost is $98.3 million

1986-07-20

412

$425 million for space station  

Science.gov (United States)

The Space Station will funded at only about half of the $767 million requested in the 1988 budget for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and overall the agency will receive $8,856 billion for the current fiscal year (FY) in the deficit-reduction package passed by Congress in late December. Despite an earlier complaint that reductions in the space station budget would kill the program and an apparent lack of support from the White House, NASA's official reaction was full of good cheer.NASA will be able to use the $425 million in two installments, $200 million now and $225 million in June. In October, NASA administrator James Fletcher stated in a letter to Senator Jake Garn (R-Utah) that if the space station received no more than $440 million, he would “recommend termination” of the program. But after the budget was approved, NASA said that the $425 million “reflected the strong commitment of the President and the Congress to proceed with the development of a space station.” A recent request to President Reagan from congressional proponents of the station for a letter of support for the multibillion dollar project was declined.

Maggs, William Ward

413

Attendance Logging In Webserver Using Multi Node Embedded System Connected Through Wi-Fi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present age, we are in need of fully automated attendance logging system. The design of Remote Attendance Logging System and its control is a challenging part.  RFID reader reads the RFID tag, and the details of the tag is logged in the embedded system. The Web based distributed measurement and control is slowly replacing parallel architectures due to its non-crate architecture which reduces complexities. A new kind  of expandable, distributed large attendance logging system based on...

Mohammed Bilal

2012-01-01

414

Women’s Social Networks and Birth Attendant Decisions: Application of the Network-Episode Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the association of women's social networks with the use of skilled birth attendants in uncomplicated pregnancy and childbirth in Matlab, Bangladesh. The Network-Episode Model was applied to determine if network structure variables (density / kinship homogeneity / strength of ties) together with network content (endorsement for or against a particular type of birth attendant) explain the type of birth attendant used by women above and beyond the variance explained by women'...

Edmonds, Joyce K.; Hruschka, Daniel; Bernard, H. Russell; Sibley, Lynn

2012-01-01

415

A Multivariate Process Model of Adolescent 12-Step Attendance and Substance Use Outcome Following Inpatient Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A common recommendation for youth treated for substance abuse is to attend 12-step groups. However, little is known regarding the effects of this adult-derived prescription on substance use outcomes for teens. This study examined (a) the relation between 12-step attendance and substance use outcome in the 6 months postdischarge from inpatient care and (b) a process model of how 12-step attendance during the first 3 months postdischarge affects proximal outcomes of motivation, coping, and self...

Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Brown, Sandra A.

2000-01-01

416

Why patients do not attend cardiac rehabilitation: role of intentions and illness beliefs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE—Many patients fail to attend cardiac rehabilitation. Attempts to identify sociodemographic or clinical predictors of non-attendance have not been very successful; therfore, this study aimed to determine whether the illness beliefs held during hospitalisation by patients who had suffered acute myocardial infarction or who had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery could predict cardiac rehabilitation attendance.?SUBJECTS AND METHODS—152 patients were prospectively s...

Cooper, A.; Lloyd, G.; Weinman, J.; Jackson, G.

1999-01-01

417

Prompt letters to reduce non-attendance: applying evidence based practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Non-attendance rates in psychiatric outpatient clinics have been a topic of considerable interest. It is measured as an indicator of quality of service provision. Failed attendances add to the cost of care as well as having an adverse impact on patients leading to missing medications, delay in identifying relapses and increasing waiting list time. Recent trials have demonstrated that prompting letters sent to patients led to a decrease in non-attendance ra...

Jayaram Mahesh; Rattehalli Ranganath D; Kader Ihsan

2008-01-01

418

Barrier-focused intervention to increase colonoscopy attendance among nonadherent high-risk populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: To increase attendance for colonoscopy among nonadherent high-risk individuals for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in China.METHODS: During the first 12 mo without intervention, only 428 of the 2398 high-risk subjects attended a scheduled colonoscopy examination. The 1970 subjects who did not attend for CRC screening were enrolled in the present study. Prior barrier investigation was performed to ascertain the reasons for nonadherence. A barrier-focused intervention program was then es...

Wen Meng, Xi-wen Bi

2009-01-01

419

International Space Station in Orbit  

Science.gov (United States)

This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by one of the crewmembers of the STS-105 mission from the Shuttle Orbiter Discovery after separating from the ISS. The STS-105 mission was the 11th ISS assembly flight and its goals were the rotation of the ISS Expedition Two crew with Expedition Three crew, and the delivery of supplies utilizing the Italian-built Multipurpose Logistic Module (MPLM) Leonardo. Aboard Leonardo were six resupply stowage racks, four resupply stowage supply platforms, and two new scientific experiment racks, EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Racks 4 and 5, which added science capabilities to the ISS. Another payload was the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), which included materials and other types of space exposure experiments mounted on the exterior of the ISS.

2001-01-01

420

IMPLEMENTATION OF CLASSROOM ATTENDANCE SYSTEM BASED ON FACE RECOGNITION IN CLASS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The face is the identity of a person. The methods to exploit this physical feature have seen a great change since the advent of image processing techniques. The attendance is taken in every schools, colleges and library. Traditional approach for attendance is professor calls student name & record attendance. It takes some time to record attendance. Suppose duration of class of one subject is about 50 minutes & to record attendance takes 5 to 10 minutes. For each lecture this is wastage of time. To avoid these losses, we are about use automatic process which is based on image processing. In this novel approach, we are using face detection & face recognition system. This face detection differentiates faces from non-faces and is therefore essential for accurate attendance. The other strategy involves face recognition for marking the student’s attendance. The Raspberry pi module is used for face detection & recognition. The camera will be connected to the Raspberry pi module. The student database is collected. The database includes name of the students, there images & roll number. This raspberry pi module will be installed at the front side of class in such a way that we can capture entire class. Thus with the help of this system, time will be saved. With the help of this system, it is so convenient to record attendance. We can take attendance on any time.

Ajinkya Patil

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
421

Analyses of power station economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of construction, fuel and other running costs of electricity production based on conventional coal/oil-fired plants and on atomic power stations. These types of stations are selected: a 600 MW coal/oil-fired plant, a 900 MW atomic power plant of LWR type, and a 635 MW atomic power plant of CANDU type. The comparison serves to elucidate the immediate effects on social economics that the choice between conventional and atomic power production must be presumed to have for investments, fuel consumption, running costs and consumer prices for electricity, as well as for currency costs and employment during the construction and operation of power plants. (B.P.)

1976-01-01

422

Oral Health Status of Disabled Individuals Attending Special Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of the dmft-DMFT indexes and the oral hygiene status of 136 individuals attending a special school for the disabled. Methods: Participants were grouped according to disability [Mental Retardation (MR), Cerebral Palsy (CP), Autistic Disorder (AD), Down Syndrome (DS), Other (OTH)] and age [2–6 years (n=24), 7–12 years (50 children) and 13+ years (62 children]. Caries examinations were carried out in accordance with WHO criteria and oral cleanliness was evaluated by visually assessing the presence of plaque on teeth. Results: The age range of patients was 2–26 years (mean age: 11.89±5.19 years). Mean dmft and DMFT scores by age group were as follows: 2–6 years: dmft=2.04±2.24; 7–12 years: dmft=2.24±2.60, DMFT=0.98±2.58; 13+years: DMFT=2.68±2.91. Overall, 15.4% of children had no caries or fillings. While dmft and DMFT levels (P>.05) did not vary significantly by type of disability, oral cleanliness did. Children with autism were observed to maintain the best oral hygiene and those with mental retardation (MR), the poorest. Conclusions: It is important for the dentist to concentrate on a preventive approach and provide proper dental education to parents of disabled individuals. Among the children with disabilities, more attention should be paid to the oral hygiene of MR group.

Altun, Ceyhan; Guven, Gunseli; Akgun, Ozlem Marti; Akkurt, Meltem Derya; Basak, Feridun; Akbulut, Erman

2010-01-01

423

[Infectious diseases among Brazilian preschool children attending daycare centers].  

Science.gov (United States)

The scope of this article is to analyze the prevalence and factors associated with the development of infectious diseases that affect children in daycare centers, namely respiratory infections, diarrheal disease and parasitic infections. Bibliographic research was conducted in the MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases, and observational studies were included. 129 studies were identified, of which 21 were considered relevant to this study, namely two longitudinal and 19 cross-sectional studies. The systematization of the reviewed studies highlighted: i) the presence of intestinal parasites was the main outcome analyzed, followed by respiratory infections; ii) only one study investigated the occurrence of diarrheal disease; iii) the Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent parasitosis; iv) the variables that were most often associated with the development of intestinal parasitosis were child age, family income and maternal education; v) the attendance at daycare centers was a risk factor for intestinal parasites and respiratory infections. Respiratory and parasitic infections are major problems in institutionalized children in daycare centers. The reduction of such diseases involves a complex web of socio-economic, sanitation and daycare center infrastructure aspects. PMID:24863828

Pedraza, Dixis Figueroa; Queiroz, Daiane de; Sales, Márcia Cristina

2014-02-01

424

RFID in cloud environment for Attendance monitoring system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID initially is of great use in the marketing field render billing easy. It came into effect since world war-II attained its wide spread recognition only when Walmart introduced it as ‘mandate’. An object within the range of 20 feet can be easily tracked with the aid of its unique barcode using RFID chip. It is sophisticated than the primitive barcode techniques as there is no need of positioning of the scanner. Cloud computing is a system which provides access to all soft ware’s without installation, for a desired time period, at a specific cost, only with the help of a single web browser.. Interfacing RFID with cloud computing would be more beneficiary in solving current issues. Technological updates can be done without any technical support. This paper presents theoverview of interfacing RFID with cloud computing for updating students’ attendance and updating it into the parents’ corner and faculty mails. By considering the present issue, providing unique RFID code to the students reduce malpractice and human error. Also Human resources can be saved by the application of cloud computing. Time management is the most effective advantage gained from the use ofRFID and cloud computing.

A.Parvathy

2013-06-01

425

Balancing Attended and Global Stimuli in Perceived Video Quality Assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The visual attention mechanism plays a key role in the human perception system and it has a significant impact on our assessment of perceived video quality. In spite of receiving less attention from the viewers, unattended stimuli can still contribute to the understanding of the visual content. This paper proposes a quality model based on the late attention selection theory, assuming that the video quality is perceived via two mechanisms: global and local quality assessment. First we model several visual features influencing the visual attention in quality assessment scenarios to derive an attention map using appropriate fusion techniques. The global quality assessment as based on the assumption that viewers allocate their attention equally to the entire visual scene, is modeled by four carefully designed quality features. By employing these same quality features, the local quality model tuned by the attention map considers the degradations on the significantly attended stimuli. To generate the overall video quality score, global and local quality features are combined by a content adaptive linear fusion method and pooled over time, taking the temporal quality var