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Working Environment Factors that Affect Quality of Work Life among Attendants in Petrol Stations in Kitale Town in Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research sought to establish working environment factors that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants in Kitale town. The objective of the study was to identify working environment aspects that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants. This study was an exploratory survey, carried out in 17 petrol stations that are located in Kitale Town, Kenya. The target population comprised 17 station managers and 170 attendants, out of which a sample of 102 resp...

Aloys Nyagechi Kiriago; Bwisa, Henry M.

2013-01-01

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Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM), Petrol Station Attendants (PSA) and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure t...

Udonwa, N. E.; Uko, E. K.; Ikpeme, B. M.; Ibanga, I. A.; Okon, B. O.

2009-01-01

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Working Environment Factors that Affect Quality of Work Life among Attendants in Petrol Stations in Kitale Town in Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research sought to establish working environment factors that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants in Kitale town. The objective of the study was to identify working environment aspects that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants. This study was an exploratory survey, carried out in 17 petrol stations that are located in Kitale Town, Kenya. The target population comprised 17 station managers and 170 attendants, out of which a sample of 102 respondents was selected: Seventeen (17 Petrol Station Managers using non – probabilistic purposeful sampling and eighty five (85 attendants using simple random sampling. The study used a questionnaire as an instrument for data collection. Data collected was both quantitative and qualitative, and analysis was basic descriptive in nature. The study revealed that poor safety and health, work pressure or stress, and provision of inadequate working tools are environmental aspects that bring about poor Quality of Working Life experiences at petrol stations. In conclusion, the findings were examined and then the implications discussed. General recommendations were made for the improvement of Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants.

Aloys Nyagechi Kiriago

2013-05-01

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Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM), Petrol Station Attendants (PSA) and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (Met Hb) and packed cells volume (PCV). Mean Met Hb value was higher in AM (7.3%) and PSA (5.8%) than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%). PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%), than AM (33.3%) and the subjects from the general population (40.8%). Met Hb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and Met Hb as a useful bio marker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour.

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Exposure of petrol station attendants and auto mechanics to premium motor sprit fumes in Calabar, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM), Petrol Station Attendants (PSA) and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (MetHb) and packed cells volume (PCV). Mean MetHb value was higher in AM (7.3%) and PSA (5.8%) than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%). PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%), than AM (33.3%) and the subjects from the general population (40.8%). MetHb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and MetHb as a useful biomarker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour. PMID:19936128

Udonwa, N E; Uko, E K; Ikpeme, B M; Ibanga, I A; Okon, B O

2009-01-01

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Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM, Petrol Station Attendants (PSA and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (MetHb and packed cells volume (PCV. Mean MetHb value was higher in AM (7.3% and PSA (5.8% than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%. PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%, than AM (33.3% and the subjects from the general population (40.8%. MetHb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and MetHb as a useful biomarker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour.

N. E. Udonwa

2009-01-01

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Meyrin Petrol Station  

CERN Document Server

Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

2006-01-01

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Biomonitoring of oral epithelial cells in petrol station attendants: comparison between buccal mucosa and lateral border of the tongue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Owing to the influence of geno- and cytotoxicity on chemical carcinogenesis, studies have demonstrated that petroleum derivatives are able to induce genetic damage and cellular death with conflicting results so far. The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated oral mucosa cells from gas petrol attendants using two different anatomic buccal sites: cheek mucosa and lateral border of the tongue. A total of 23 gas petrol attendants and 23 health controls (non-exposed individuals) were included in this setting. Individuals had epithelial cells from cheek and lateral border of the tongue mechanically exfoliated, placed in fixative and dropped in clean slides which were checked for the above nuclear phenotypes. The results pointed out significant statistical differences (ppetrol attendants for both oral sites evaluated. In the same way, petroleum derivate exposure was able to increase other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis, being the most pronunciated effects as those found in the lateral border of the tongue. No interaction was observed between smoking and petroleum exposure. In summary, these data indicate that gas petrol attendants comprise a high risk group for DNA damage and cellular death. It seems that the lateral border of the tongue is a more sensitive site to geno- and cytotoxic insult induced by petroleum derivates. PMID:19559482

Martins, Renato A; Gomes, Guilherme A da Silva; Aguiar, Odair; Ribeiro, Daniel A

2009-10-01

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Immunoglobulin classes and liver function tests in Nigerian petrol attendants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prolonged exposure to petrol has been shown to be a significant health hazard, especially for skeletal, circulatory, immune and reproductive systems. The present study investigates liver functions (alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, total protein and albumin and immune functions (IgG, IgA and IgM in 29 male petrol attendants and compares them with corresponding values in 22 sex- and age-matched controls using spectrophotometry and single radial immuno-diffusion method respectively for determining the functions. All the liver function tests were similar in both petrol attendants and the controls except for significantly lower levels of ALP ( P =0.02. Also, the levels of IgG and IgA were similar in petrol attendants when compared with corresponding levels in controls, while the levels of IgM were significantly raised in petrol attendants when compared with corresponding levels in controls ( P =0.02. This study shows that parameters of liver functions are within normal range in Nigerian petrol attendants.

Akinosun O

2006-01-01

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Immunoglobulin classes and liver function tests in Nigerian petrol attendants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prolonged exposure to petrol has been shown to be a significant health hazard, especially for skeletal, circulatory, immune and reproductive systems. The present study investigates liver functions (alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein and albumin) and immune functions (IgG, IgA and IgM) in 29 male petrol attendants and compares them with corresponding values in 22 sex- and age-matched controls using spec...

Akinosun O; Arinola O; Salimonu L

2006-01-01

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The petrol station replenishment problem with time windows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the Petrol Station Replenishment Problem with Time Windows (PSRPTW) the aim is to optimize the delivery of several petroleum products to a set of petrol stations using a limited heterogeneous fleet of tank-trucks. More specifically, one must determine the quantity of each product to deliver, the assignment of products to truck compartments, delivery routes, and schedules. The objective is to maximize the total profit equal to the sales revenue, minus the sum of routing costs and of regular...

Cornillier, Fabien; Laporte, Gilbert; Boctor, Fayez F.; Renaud, Jacques

2009-01-01

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Assessing the impact of petrol stations on their immediate surroundings.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a novel methodology for evaluating the extent to which petrol stations affect their surroundings. The method is based on the fact that the ratio of the concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants in the air of the petrol stations and their surroundings (basically determined by vapor emissions from unburned gasoline) differs from the ratio found in urban air, which is mainly influenced by traffic emissions. Bearing this in mind, the spatial limit of influence of petrol stations in any direction would be the first point, moving away from the station, where the ratio becomes equal to the urban background ratio. Application of the methodology involves multipoint measuring campaigns of the air at the studied petrol station and built-up area in general and processing the data with software capable of providing isoconcentration contours. The procedure should help local authorities in terms of land management, so that a "belt" can be established around petrol stations where housing or vulnerable populations and activities such as those in schools, hospitals and community centers should be restricted. PMID:20810207

Morales Terrés, Isabel M; Miñarro, Marta Doval; Ferradas, Enrique González; Caracena, Antonia Baeza; Rico, Jonathan Barberá

2010-12-01

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The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally established conditions, which depend on the situation at their petrol station. It is estimated that 4.000 petrol stations will submit an application. These conditions take into account European legislation concerning support measures and competition law. The legislator took learning experiences in the Netherlands and Denmark as a basis. These countries have launched similar funds in the past. BOFAS however goes further in its financial support

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Replacement of the pumps at the CERN petrol stations  

CERN Document Server

The CERN petrol stations will be closed on the following dates to allow the pumps to be replaced: Prévessin petrol station: 26 and 27 November Meyrin petrol station: 28, 29 and 30 November The current fuel cards in the vehicles will have expired by the time the new pumps begin operation. All those in possession of a CERN vehicle are therefore requested to collect a transponder badge from the light- vehicle maintenance office (130/R-013), which is open from 8.00 a.m. to midday and from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Badges will be issued on presentation of the keys of the vehicle in question. TS-IC-LO Section – Tel. 77039 - 72228

2007-01-01

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Replacement of the pumps at the CERN petrol stations  

CERN Document Server

The CERN petrol stations will be closed on the following dates to allow the pumps to be replaced: Prévessin petrol station: 26 and 27 November Meyrin petrol station: 28, 29 and 30 November The current fuel cards in the vehicles will have expired by the time the new pumps begin operation. All those in possession of a CERN vehicle are therefore requested to collect a transponder badge from the light vehicle maintenance office (130/R-013), which is open from 8.00 a.m. to midday and from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Badges will be issued on presentation of the keys of the vehicle in question. TS-IC-LO Section Tel. 77039 - 72228

2007-01-01

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Electrostatic hazards with underground plastic pipes at petrol stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper analyses some ignition incidents that have been reported with insulating, (non-conductive) underground plastic pipes in retail petrol stations. The occurrence of the incidents is compared with voltage measurements, observations of the typical spread of streaming currents recorded in gasoline handling and theoretical estimates of the voltages on the pipes. The comparisons suggest that neither incendive sparks from unbonded conductors nor incendive brush discharges from insulating pipe surfaces can be ruled out although both are expected to be rare. The hazards can be prevented by using pipes with earthed conductive or dissipative inner linings.

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Electrostatic hazards with underground plastic pipes at petrol stations  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper analyses some ignition incidents that have been reported with insulating, (non-conductive) underground plastic pipes in retail petrol stations. The occurrence of the incidents is compared with voltage measurements, observations of the typical spread of streaming currents recorded in gasoline handling and theoretical estimates of the voltages on the pipes. The comparisons suggest that neither incendive sparks from unbonded conductors nor incendive brush discharges from insulating pipe surfaces can be ruled out although both are expected to be rare. The hazards can be prevented by using pipes with earthed conductive or dissipative inner linings.

Walmsley, H. L.

2011-06-01

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Assessment of occupational cytogenetic risk, among petrol station workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The focal aim of this study was to assess the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) including chromatid type aberrations (CTA) and chromosomal type aberrations (CSA), micronucleus (MN) and XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln polymorphism in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 27 petrol pump workers and same number of controls to explore the possible cytogenetic risk on occupational exposure to petrol vapors. The exposed subjects and controls were classified into two groups based on their age (group I 40 years) apart from the classification of the exposed subjects based on their exposure duration (> 8 and petrol pump workers (p petrol pump workers than in control smokers (p petrol pump workers demonstrated very less difference in allele frequency compared to controls. In conclusion, these datas indicate that petrol pump workers under risk group should be monitored for any long-term adverse effects of the exposure. PMID:20652227

Bindhya, Sadhanandhan; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Sudha, Sellapa; Mohana Devi, Subramaniam; Varsha, Prakash; Kandasamy, Kanagaraj; Gnana Prakash, Visvanathan; Sasikala, Keshavarao

2010-08-01

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Hazards Forecasting and Weights Determination during Operation and Maintenance of Petrol Fuel Station  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Petrol Fuel Stations (PFS) is the most commonly available hazardous facility within urban and rural areas. Hazardous materials such as petrol, diesel, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and kerosene oil normally sell and stores at PFS. PFS can be considered as small refinery within the city. A 3.5 year study conducted and 3216 non-compliances were recorded from PFS located in various cities of Pakistan. The operating company was ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certified. The recorded non-compliances duri...

Ahmed, M. M.; Kutty, S. R. M.; Mohd Faris Khamidi; Dominic, I. Othman P. D. D.; Olisa Emmanuel

2013-01-01

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Biomarkers of exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl tert-butyl ether in petrol station workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-sectional study was aimed at reconstructing the exposure to gasoline in 102 petrol station attendants by environmental and biological monitoring of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and biomonitoring of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Airborne BTEX were higher for manual refuelers than self-service assistants and were highly correlated with each other. Significant relationships were found between airborne BTX and the corresponding urinary solvents (U-BTX) and beween airborne B and urinary MTBE (U-MTBE). Smokers eliminated higher values of U-B, trans,trans-muconic (t,t-MA) and S-phenylmercapturic (S-PMA) acids but not U-MTBE. All these biomarkers were, however, significantly raised during the shift, independently from smoking. Linear regression confirmed that occupational exposure was a main predictor of U-MTBE, U-B and S-PMA values, both the latter confounded by smoking habits. The study supports the usefulness of biomonitoring even at low exposure levels. PMID:22458326

De Palma, Giuseppe; Poli, Diana; Manini, Paola; Andreoli, Roberta; Mozzoni, Paola; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
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TRAINING OF EMPLOYEES AT SERVICE STATIONS, WITHIN THE COMPANY PETROL MALOPRODAJA SLOVENIJA, D.O.O.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Education plays a very important role in our life, and we have to be aware that constant education is, after all, inevitable. The theoretical part of the thesis presents a few theories about education and motivation. This is followed by an introduction to the company Petrol Maloprodaja, d.o.o., its staffing, its organization chart and a presentation of the educational process for service station employees. The research part of the thesis indicates the results of the survey. Our main ...

Radonc?ic?, Linda

2011-01-01

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Environmental Exposure to Xylenes in Drivers and Petrol Station Workers by Urinary Methylhippuric Acid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The aims of this study were evaluation of exposed to xylenes in low concentration and compare urinary level of methyl hippuric acid in taxi drivers and petrol stations workers in West of Iran.

Ar, Bahrami; Jonidi-jafari, A.; Mahjub, H.

2011-01-01

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Petrol vapour recovery at service stations: explanatory notes on the ...  

orifice vent devices, pressure vacuum relief valves and applications for Stage II ... \\Many service stations require a pollution prevention and control permit for the ... \\European systems show that introducing an OVD allows the storage installations \\to ... Provide details of your inspection, maintenance and monitoring programme.

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Childhood leukemia and traffic air pollution in Taiwan: petrol station density as an indicator.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the relationship between traffic air pollution exposure and development of childhood leukemia (14 yr of age or younger), a matched case-control study was conducted using childhood deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 1996 through 2006. Data on all eligible childhood leukemia deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group consisted of children who died from causes other than neoplasms or diseases that were not associated with respiratory complications. The controls were pair matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. Data on the number of petrol stations in study municipalities were collected from the two major petroleum supply companies, Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) and Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC). The petrol station density (per square kilometer) (PSD) for study municipalities was used as an indicator of a subject's exposure to benzene and other hydrocarbons present in evaporative losses of petrol or to air emissions from motor vehicles. The subjects were divided into tertiles according to PSD in their residential municipality. The results showed that there was a significant exposure-response relationship between PSD and the risk of leukemia development in young children after controlling for possible confounders. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of traffic air pollution exposure in the etiology of childhood leukemia. PMID:19034797

Weng, Hsu-Huei; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

2009-01-01

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Environmental Exposure to Xylenes in Drivers and Petrol Station Workers by Urinary Methylhippuric Acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: The aims of this study were evaluation of exposed to xylenes in low concentration and compare urinary level of methyl hippuric acid in taxi drivers and petrol stations workers in West of Iran.

Methods: This observation study was carried out on samples of the exposed men to xylenes in two occupational groups in Hamadan City (west of Iran from March 2003 to March 2004. Subjects included 45 taxi drivers and 25 petrol station workers. The study group was selected from 54 workers at petrol stations and 300 drivers by simple random sampling. Xylenes was analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID. The urinary methyl hippuric acid (MHA was analyzed with High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC equipped with an ultraviolet (UV detector.

Results: Total xylene exposure was 1.05±0.55 ppm (mean±SD with a range of 0.20-2.55 ppm that was about 4 times more than taxi drivers' exposure. The poor correlation coefficient was seen between xylenes concentration and urinary MHA for drivers (r2= 0.09 to 0.42 but significant associations were noted between urinary MHA and xylene in the breathing zone of petrol station workers (r2= 0.69 to 0.77; P< 0.05.

Conclusion: High xylenes levels are emitted in petrol stations at Iran. Urinary MHA level has a poor correlation with exposure to xylenes in drivers but has good correlation in petrol station workers.

AR Bahrami

2011-06-01

26

State of subsoil in a former petrol station: physicochemical characterization and hydrocarbon contamination evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Former petrol stations are, possibly, potential hydrocarbon contaminated soil areas due to leakage in Underground Storage Tanks and fuel dispensing activities. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in gasoline, like benzene and semi-volatile organics in diesel, are carcinogenic and very toxic substances which can involve a serious risk for ecosystem and human health. Based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography 2D results from a previous work, there have been selected three potentially contaminated goal areas in a former petrol station located in SE Spain in order to obtain soil samples by drilling and to assess the gasoline and diesel contamination. A special sampling design was carried out and soil samples for VOCs were preserved at field with a KCl solution to minimize volatilization losses. It had been chosen Headspace-GC-MS as the better technique to quantify individual VOCs and GC-FID to get a Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) assessment after a solid/fluid pressurized extraction. The physicochemical characterization of the subsoil was performed to know how humidity, clay content or pH data could be related to the presence of hydrocarbons in the soil samples. Results show that VOCs concentrations in subsoil samples of the petrol station are around ppb levels. TPH ranged between 17 mg/kg soil and 93 mg/kg soil (ppm levels) what involves diesel and gasoline leaks due to these detected residual concentrations in the subsoil. The maximum value was found at 6 m deep in an intermediate zone between Underground Storage Tanks positions (located at 4 m deep). Therefore, these results confirm that organic compounds transference with strong vertical component has taken place. It has been observed that humidity minimum values in the subsoil are related to TPH maximum values that could be explained because of the vapour phase and the retention of hydrocarbon in soil increases when humidity goes down. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in the subsoil tend to be pH-dependent and clay content dependent: maximum of adsorption taken place at minimum pH what encourage protonation and minimum clay content in the subsoil make organic compounds infiltration downstream easier. It could be noticed the importance of physicochemical subsoil characterization and contamination assessment in the subsoil of petrol stations in order to avoid the hydrocarbons pollution of the groundwater. Then plan the best remediation technique according to this characterization taking into account the residual hydrocarbon concentration in the subsoil and the associated risk for human and ecosystems.

María Rosales, Rosa; Martinez-Pagán, Pedro; Faz, Ángel; Bech, Jaume

2013-04-01

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Numerical investigation of VOC levels in the area of petrol stations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the area of petrol stations several Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) leak into the atmosphere due to the evaporation of liquid fuels, especially of gasoline that is predominantly composed of light hydrocarbons. The aim of the present study is to investigate the spatial distribution of various VOCs when leaked into the atmosphere in the area of a petrol station. The study is based on numerical simulations. The effect of wind speed and direction, as well as of air temperature has been studied. Gasoline components of different properties have been studied (e.g. pentane, iso-octane, o-xylene, toluene, benzene), as well as ethanol that is considered a new fuel blend component that can be found in different fractions in new gasoline blends worldwide. The area of flammable cloud near the source of the leak is investigated for various atmospheric conditions taking into account the lower and higher flammable limits of each compound. Lastly, the exposure to gasoline vapour is studied taking into consideration the recommended occupational exposure limits of various organisations. PMID:24246944

Kountouriotis, A; Aleiferis, P G; Charalambides, A G

2014-02-01

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Evaluation of benzene exposure in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics by urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA) determination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Occupational exposure to benzene in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics was studied by examining the benzene content in both the air breathed and in the urinary metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA). Thirty petrol pump attendants and thirty mechanics (as exposed workers) and thirty adult male office workers (as non exposed workers) were involved in the study. Measures were taken at the begin and at the end of the working shifts.

 The benzene concentratio...

Teresa Cirillo; Antonio Arnese; Giuseppe Spagnoli; Renata Amodio Cocchieri; Umberto Del Prete

2004-01-01

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Contribution to ambient benzene concentrations in the vicinity of petrol stations: Estimation of the associated health risk  

Science.gov (United States)

This work examines the contribution of petrol stations to the ambient benzene concentrations and attempts to estimate the possible health risks for the people living in the vicinity of such installations. Three monitoring sites (urban, suburban and rural) were used as reference points and the benzene concentrations were recorded at several distances along their perimeter. In order to evaluate the net contribution of the petrol station to the ambient benzene concentrations, the urban background concentration, measured by passive samplers and the contribution of the roads, estimated with both the COPERT and the linear source model CALINE 4, were deduced. Validation and optimization of the modeling system COPERT and CALINE4 was done in advance to ensure the reliability of the results. It seems that petrol stations have a significant contribution to ambient benzene concentrations in their vicinity. Finally, a risk assessment evaluation was attempted in terms of increased cancer risk due to the presence of the petrol stations in an area. The results show remarkable increase of the population risks in the vicinity, ranging from 3% to 21% in comparison to the population in the rest of the town.

Karakitsios, Spyros P.; Delis, Vasileios K.; Kassomenos, Pavlos A.; Pilidis, Georgios A.

30

Petrol war in Nijmegen, Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since April 2000 a petrol war rages in Nijmegen and surroundings (Netherlands) whereby considerable discounts are given to the national retail prices. The cause of the war is a new unmanned petrol station of the enterprise Tango. In this article the development and the consequences of the discount at petrol stations in Nijmegen and surroundings are analyzed 3 refs

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Evaluation of benzene exposure in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics by urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA determination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Occupational exposure to benzene in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics was studied by examining the benzene content in both the air breathed and in the urinary metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA. Thirty petrol pump attendants and thirty mechanics (as exposed workers and thirty adult male office workers (as non exposed workers were involved in the study. Measures were taken at the begin and at the end of the working shifts.

 The benzene concentrations in the breathing air samples varied from 2 to 88 ?g m-3, lower than the EU acceptable limit for occupational environment. The average urinary t,t-MA in the petrol pump attendants at the begin and at the end of the working shifts ranged between 133 ± 69 and 255 ± 174 ?g g-1 creatinine and in the mechanics between 204 ± 139 and 300 ± 211 ?g g-1 creatinine, respectively.

In all the participants the mean levels of urinary t,t-MA at the end of the working shifts were significantly higher than those at the beginning. In the exposed workers mean levels of urinary t,t-MA were significantly higher than in those of the non-exposed workers. The influence of the smoking was demonstrated by the urinary t,t-MA levels in smoking non-exposed subjects.

Teresa Cirillo

2004-12-01

32

Traffic air pollution and lung cancer in females in Taiwan: petrol station density as an indicator of disease development.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the relationship between traffic air pollution exposure and development of lung cancer in females, studies were conducted using a matched cancer case-control model into deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 1997 through 2006. Data on all eligible lung cancer deaths in females were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group consisted of women who died from causes other than neoplasms or diseases that were associated with respiratory problems. The controls were pair matched to the cancer cases by year of birth and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. Data on the number of petrol stations in study municipalities were collected from the two major petroleum supply companies, Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) and Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC). The petrol station density (per square kilometer; PSD) for study municipalities was used as an indicator of a subject's exposure to benzene and other hydrocarbons present in ambient evaporative losses of petrol or to air emissions from motor vehicles. The subjects were divided into tertiles according to PSD in their residential municipality. The results showed that there was a significant exposure-response relationship between PSD and risk of lung cancer in females after controlling for possible confounders. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of traffic air pollution exposure in the etiology of lung cancer. PMID:19308850

Chang, Chih-Ching; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

2009-01-01

33

Traffic air pollution and risk of death from bladder cancer in Taiwan using petrol station density as a pollutant indicator.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the relationship between air pollution and risk of death from bladder cancer, a matched cancer case-control study was conducted using deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 1997 through 2006. Data for all eligible bladder cancer deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group consisted of individuals who died from causes other than cancer or diseases associated with genitourinary problems. The controls were pair matched to the cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. Data for the number of petrol stations in study municipalities were collected from the two major petroleum supply companies, Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) and Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC). The petrol station density (per square kilometer) (PSD) for study municipalities was used as an indicator of a subject's exposure to benzene and other hydrocarbons present in ambient evaporative losses of petrol or to air emissions from motor vehicles. The subjects were divided into tertiles according to PSD in their residential municipality. The present study showed that individuals who resided in municipalities with high PSD levels were at an increased risk of death from bladder cancer compared to subjects living in municipalities with a low PSD level; however, the differences are not statistically significant. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of vehicular air pollutant emissions in the etiology of bladder cancer development. PMID:19953417

Ho, Chi-Kung; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Chun-Yuh

2010-01-01

34

Determination of genetic damage and urinary metabolites in fuel filling station attendants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fuel (diesel and petrol) constitutes a complex mixture of volatile flammable liquid hydrocarbons among them benzene (BZ), toluene (TOL), and xylene (XYL) are considered to be the most hazardous, predominantly BZ because of its carcinogenic potency. Exposure to these compounds may have an impact on the health of the exposed subjects. Hence, genotoxicity and quantitative analysis of these compounds was performed in blood and urine samples of 200 workers exposed to fuel in filling stations and compared to controls. The level of genetic damage was determined by micronucleus test (MNT) in buccal epithelial cells (BEC) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of fuel filling station attendants (FFSA) and compared to a matched control group. Urine analysis for BZ and its metabolites, phenol (Ph), trans, trans-Muconic Acid (t, t-MA), and S-Phenyl Mercapturic Acid (S-PMA) was done in all the study subjects. The results of our study revealed that exposure to BTX in petrol vapors induced a statistically significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and CA in the exposed subjects than in controls (P < 0.05). There was a significant rise in the levels of urinary BZ, Ph, t, t-MA, and S-PMA in the exposed subjects. Our study highlights the significance of MNT, CA, and urinary metabolites as potential biological exposure indices of genetic damage in FFSA. This study suggests the need for regular monitoring of FFSA for possible exposure to BTX as a precautionary and preventive step to minimize exposure and reduce the associated health risks. PMID:20872828

Rekhadevi, P V; Mahboob, M; Rahman, M F; Grover, Paramjit

2011-05-01

35

Analysis of incidence of childhood cancer in the West Midlands of the United Kingdom in relation to proximity to main roads and petrol stations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether there is an excess of leukaemias in 0-15 year old children among those living in close proximity (within 100 m) of a main road or petrol station. METHODS: Data for 0-15 year old children diagnosed between 1990 and 1994 in the United Kingdom West Midlands were used. Postcode addresses were used to locate the point of residence which was compared with proximity to main roads and petrol stations separately, and to both together. Odds ratios (ORs) were cal...

Harrison, R. M.; Leung, P. L.; Somervaille, L.; Smith, R.; Gilman, E.

1999-01-01

36

Evaluation of genotoxicity in petrol station workers in South India using micronucleus assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the micronucleus (MN) frequency was assessed as a measure of genotoxicity in exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa extracted from 110 petrol pump workers and 100 controls. For each individual, 3,000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed. The individuals used in the study were grouped based on their smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, and tobacco chewing habits. There was a significantly higher frequency of micronucleated cells in the exposed workers to petrol than in the unexposed control population. Smoking and drinking (alcohol) habits, age and length of occupation represent significant factors in terms of increasing the MN frequency measured in the exposed population. This study demonstrates that, using MN assay, it is possible to assess the cytogenetic damage in exposed individuals and that the significant increase in the induction of the MN in the exposed population suggests that the studied individuals may be at a higher risk of developing cancer and therefore monitored for any long term adverse effects of the exposure. PMID:20616461

Sellappa, Sudha; Sadhanandhan, Bindhya; Francis, Athena; Vasudevan, Sabari Guru

2010-01-01

37

Variability of benzene exposure among filling station attendants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A monitoring survey of filling station attendants aimed at identifying sources of variability of exposure to benzene and other aromatics was carried out. Concurrent samples of the worker's breathing zone air, atmospheric air in the service station proximity, and gasoline were collected, along with information about daily workloads and other exposure-related factors. Benzene personal exposure was characterised by a small between-worker variability and a predominant within-worker variance component. Such elevated day-to-day variability yields to imprecise estimates of mean personal exposure. Almost 70% of the overall personal exposure variance was explained by a model including daily benzene from dispensed fuel, presence of a shelter over the refueling area, amount of fuel supplied to the station if a delivery occurred, and background atmospheric benzene concentration

38

Oil fuel delivery optimization for multi product and multi depot: the case of petrol station replenishment problem (PSRP)  

Science.gov (United States)

With the Oil and Gas Law No. 22 of 2001, national and foreign private enterprises can invest in all sectors of Oil and Gas in Indonesia. In anticipation of this free competition, Pertamina, as a state-owned enterprises, which previously had monopolized the oil and gas business activities in Indonesia, should be able to improve services as well as the efficiency in order to compete in the free market, especially in terms of cost efficiency of fuel distribution to gas station (SPBU). To optimize the distribution activity, it is necessary to design a scheduling system and its fuel delivery routes daily to every SPBU. The determination of routes and scheduling delivery of fuel to the SPBU can be modeled as a Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PSRP) with the multi-depot, multi-product, time windows and split deliveries, which in this study will be completed by the Tabu Search algorithm (TS). This study was conducted in the area of Bandung, the capital of West Java province, which is a big city and the neighboring city of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. By using the fuel delivery data for one day, the results showed a decrease of 16.38% of the distance of the route compared to the current conditions, which impacted on the reduction of distribution costs and decrease the number of total trips by 5.22% and 3.83%.

Surjandari, Isti; Rachman, Amar; Dianawati, Fauzia; Wibowo, R. Pramono

2011-10-01

39

Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments). In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks) were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was...

Adriano Pinto Mariano; Ana Paula de Arruda Geraldes Kataoka; Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis; Daniel Marcos Bonotto

2007-01-01

40

The Petrol Station and the Internet Cafe: Rural Technospaces for Youth.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study in two Norwegian villages focused on the local gas station and the Internet cafe as "technospaces" for rural youth cultures--spaces at the intersection of technology and human interaction. The car and the Internet were given different symbolic and utility values in various youth subcultures. Local contexts influenced technology usage…

Laegran, Anne Sofie

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Traffic air pollution and risk of death from gastric cancer in Taiwan: petrol station density as an indicator of air pollutant exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the relationship between air pollution and risk of death attributed to gastric cancer, a matched cancer case-control study was conducted using deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 2004 through 2008. Data for all eligible gastric cancer deaths were obtained and compared to a control group consisting of individuals who died from causes other than neoplasms and diseases that were associated with gastrointestinal (GIT) disorders. The controls were pair-matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was randomly selected from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data for the number of petrol stations in study municipalities were collected from two major petroleum supply companies. The petrol station density (per square kilometer) (PSD) for study municipalities was used as an indicator of a subject's exposure to benzene and other hydrocarbons present in ambient evaporative losses of petrol or to air emissions from motor vehicles. The exposed individuals were subdivided into three categories (?25th percentile; 25th-75th percentile; >75th percentile) according to PSD in the residential municipality. Results showed that individuals who resided in municipalities with the highest PSD were at an increased risk of death attributed to gastric cancer compared to those subjects living in municipalities with the lowest PSD. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of traffic air pollution exposure in the etiology of gastric cancer. PMID:21797773

Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chen, Pei-Shih; Liao, Yen-Hsiung; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

2011-01-01

42

Geo-enviromental monitoring system of the oil storages on petrol stations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In large cities, fuel consumption is growing rapidly, and therefore the number of filling stations. And they are a source of anthropogenic impact on the environment and represent current scientific and practical task, because recently no research was conducted into the optimization of monitoring systems in the construction of gas station storage tanks, and no activity on replacing the obsolete design with new storage tanks. In this regard, much attention should be paid to the creation of geo-environmental systems integrated assessment of the environment, as well as modeling and forecasting various negative situations. In the modern world, the creation of such systems is possible with the help of modern computer tools such as geographic information systems.

Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna

2014-03-01

43

An investigation of environmental impact of aerial metal deposition around the petrol filling stations and applying remedial measures to reduce the elevated level of lead metal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The wide use of petroleum products causes contamination of air, water, soil and plants. The present study was related to monitor the aerial deposition of metals on soil and ryegrass around the fuel stations along central road of Karachi city, Pakistan. Samples of soil and ryegrass were collected from the selected locations of central road. Concentrations of selected trace metals were estimated through atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Multivariate analysis is also applied to authenticate the concentration difference between affected and control samples. Statistical analyses of metals in soil and ryegrass samples were reported in terms of average concentration of trace metals, standard deviation, median and mean values. The correlation coefficient (r was also calculated between metals in soil vs. soil and ryegrass vs. Ryegrass samples. By applying adsorption technique the beds of adsorbents like activated charcoal, cement, silica gel and calcium carbonate were placed at the petrol filling stations for the period of one month and monitor the deposited metal content.

H . Tahir

2011-09-01

44

Cortical atrophy detected by computed tomography in gasoline station attendants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution of leaded gasoline in the presence of abnormal calcifications or cortical atrophy seen in computed tomographies (CT) of the head of occupationally exposed professionals working in the centre of Athens is evaluated. One hundred and twenty-two head CTs from gas station employees and traffic-exposed professionals (taxi and bus drivers) were analyzed for evidence of cortical atrophy or abnormal calcifications. Blood lead level (BLL) of these lead occupationally exposed groups was compared with 37 non-exposed subjects. Results: All three occupationally exposed-to-lead groups had similar blood lead levels compared to the non-exposed group and within the currently accepted norms for lead. No abnormal calcifications were found. Cortical atrophy was more frequently seen in the gas station employees group using univariate and multivariate analysis. In the logistic regression model gas station employment had a stronger impact in developing cortical atrophy [odds ratio of 6.43 (1.46-28.3, 95% CI)] than BLL [odds ratio of 1.4 (1.01-2.05, 95% CI)]. These results show that employment in gasoline stations may be associated with detectable cortical atrophy in imaging studies and suggest the contribution of a leaded gasoline to its development.

Varelas, P.N.; Syrigou, A.I.; Kapaki, E.N.; Athanasopoulou, C.; Spanaki, M.V.; Papageorgiou, C.T. [Department of Neurology, Athens University School of Medicine, Aeginition Hospital, Athens (Greece); Kotoulas, G. [Department of Radiology, Athens University School of Medicine, Aretaeion Hospital, Athens (Greece)

1999-10-01

45

Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station / Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ). Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de um tanque [...] de armazenamento de óleo diesel subterrâneo em um posto de combustíveis. Experimentos em escala laboratorial (respirômetros de Bartha) foram utilizados para avaliar a biodegradação do óleo diesel. Estímulo da biodegradação foi realizado utilizando-se as técnicas de bioestímulo (adição de soluções de nitrogênio e fósforo ou surfactante Tween 80) e de bioaumento (consórcio bacteriano isolado de um sistema de landfarming). Para investigar as interações entre os fatores otimizadores, e encontrar a melhor combinação entre esses agentes, o estudo foi baseado em um delineamento experimental fatorial completo. A eficiência de biodegradação foi simultaneamente medida com dois métodos: respirométrico (produção de CO2 microbiano) e cromatografia gasosa. Testes de toxicidade aguda com Daphnia similis foram aplicados para examinar a eficiência dos processos em termos de geração de produtos menos tóxicos. Resultados mostraram que todas as estratégias de biorremediação aceleraram a biorremediação natural do solo contaminado e os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando os tratamentos tinham adição de nutrientes. Dados respirométricos indicaram uma máxima mineralização de hidrocarbonetos de 19,8%, obtida com a combinação dos três agentes, com uma remoção de hidrocarbonetos totais de petróleo (TPH) de 45,5% em 55 dias de tratamento. No final dos experimentos, duas espécies predominantes de bactéria foram isoladas e identificadas como Staphylococcus hominis e Kocuria palustris. Abstract in english The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments). In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel [...] oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks) were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant) and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system). To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production) and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris).

Adriano Pinto, Mariano; Ana Paula de Arruda Geraldes, Kataoka; Dejanira de Franceschi de, Angelis; Daniel Marcos, Bonotto.

2007-06-01

46

Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments. In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system. To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ. Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de um tanque de armazenamento de óleo diesel subterrâneo em um posto de combustíveis. Experimentos em escala laboratorial (respirômetros de Bartha foram utilizados para avaliar a biodegradação do óleo diesel. Estímulo da biodegradação foi realizado utilizando-se as técnicas de bioestímulo (adição de soluções de nitrogênio e fósforo ou surfactante Tween 80 e de bioaumento (consórcio bacteriano isolado de um sistema de landfarming. Para investigar as interações entre os fatores otimizadores, e encontrar a melhor combinação entre esses agentes, o estudo foi baseado em um delineamento experimental fatorial completo. A eficiência de biodegradação foi simultaneamente medida com dois métodos: respirométrico (produção de CO2 microbiano e cromatografia gasosa. Testes de toxicidade aguda com Daphnia similis foram aplicados para examinar a eficiência dos processos em termos de geração de produtos menos tóxicos. Resultados mostraram que todas as estratégias de biorremediação aceleraram a biorremediação natural do solo contaminado e os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando os tratamentos tinham adição de nutrientes. Dados respirométricos indicaram uma máxima mineralização de hidrocarbonetos de 19,8%, obtida com a combinação dos três agentes, com uma remoção de hidrocarbonetos totais de petróleo (TPH de 45,5% em 55 dias de tratamento. No final dos experimentos, duas espécies predominantes de bactéria foram isoladas e identificadas como Staphylococcus hominis e Kocuria palustris.

Adriano Pinto Mariano

2007-06-01

47

URINE LEAD LEVELS IN SERVICE STATION ATTENDANTS EXPOSED TO TETRAETHYL LEAD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: It has been pointed out that the hazard associated with the exposure to tetraethyl lead is Quite different from exposure to inorganic lead compounds, and that the measurment of urinary lead is the best indicator of tetraethy lead absorption and hence its environmental control.
Methods: Urine total lead concentrations in service station attendants in Isfahan city after extraction were determined by graphite furnace atonic absorption spectrophotometry.
Results: Average total urine lead concentration was (69.75±14.52 mg/l (range 43 - 105 mg/l.
Discussion: All workers has urine total lead levels below the Biological threshold limit value of 150 mg/l. In addition total lead excretions did not correlate with exposure duration and age and also with individual customs such as personal hygiene and smoking habit. In general, on the basis of the present study results and current data it seems that urine total lead is not a sensitive and specific indicator for exposure to tetraethyl lead.

S.G. MIRSATTARI

2001-06-01

48

Visit to Hunterston 'A' nuclear power station to attend an emergency exercise  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A visit was made to the 'A' Station. Included in the tour were the Central Control Room, the Turbine Hall, the Reactor Building and the Emergency and Health Physics Control Rooms. A reactor trip was demonstrated on the Agr simulator. The simulator is used for basic training of operators on normal reactor operating procedures and under abnormal or fault conditions. The 'B' station was also visited including the central control room gas circulator house and turbine hall. It was concluded that the accident emergency exercise at station 'A' could have been more representative of a real situation in ways that are listed. (author)

49

Benzene emission from the actual car fleet in relation to petrol composition in Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study covers an investigation of the trends in air pollution levels of benzene in Danish cities and their relationship with the benzene content in petrol. Petrol samples from the two refineries in Denmark as well as sold petrol from some representative Danish petrol stations were analysed. The benzene content in Danish petrol was reduced from 3.5% for 95 octane prior to 1995 to approx. 2% in 1995 and further to 1% in 1998. Air quality measurements of aromatic VOC are available from two Danish cities; Copenhagen since 1994 and Odense since 1997. Measurements of benzene, CO and NOx from these two locations were analysed using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) and trends in the actual emissions of these pollutants were determined. It is shown that the decrease in both the concentration levels and in the emissions was significantly larger for benzene than for CO and NOx. The decreasing trends of NOx and CO could be explained by the increasing fraction of petrol-fuelled vehicles with three way catalysts (TWC). The much steeper decreasing trend for benzene can most likely be attributed to a combination of the effect of the increasing share of the TWC vehicles and a simultaneous reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol. The reduction of benzene concentrations and emissions is observed despite that the total amount of aromatics in petrol has increased slightly in the same period. (Author)

50

Benzene emission from the actual car fleet in relation to petrol composition in Denmark  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study covers an investigation of the trends in air pollution levels of benzene in Danish cities and their relationship with the benzene content in petrol. Petrol samples from the two refineries in Denmark as well as sold petrol from some representative Danish petrol stations were analysed. The benzene content in Danish petrol was reduced from 3.5% for 95 octane prior to 1995 to approx. 2% in 1995 and further to 1 % in 1998. Air quality measurements of aromatic VOC are available from two Danish cities; Copenhagen since 1994 and Odense since 1997. Measurements of benzene, CO and NO x from these two locations were analysed using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) and trends in the actual emissions of these pollutants were determined. It is shown that the decrease in both the concentration levels and in the emissions was significantly larger for benzene than for CO and NO x. The decreasing trends of NO x and CO could be explained by the increasing fraction of petrol-fuelled vehicles with three way catalysts (TWC). The much steeper decreasing trend for benzene can most likely be attributed to a combination of the effect of the increasing share of the TWC vehicles and a simultaneous reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol. The reduction of benzene concentrations and emissions is observed despite that the total amount of aromatics in petrol has increased slightly in the same period.

Palmgren, Finn; Hansen, Asger B.; Berkowicz, Ruwim; Skov, Henrik

51

Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) frequencies in lymphocytes of gasoline station attendants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 22 men with low average exposure (229 micrograms/m3 = 0.72 ppm) to benzene and 19 control men were investigated for Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) frequency. The majority of the men (21 exposed, 19 controls) were also investigated using the micronucleus assay (MN). The exposed subjects were employed at 10 different gas stations in or near the city (Bari/South Italy). SCE frequencies were significantly related with age and smoking habits, on the contrary no relation was observed between SCE and length of employment (SCE = 7.41 + 0.03.age (*) + 0.0001.length of employment (n.s.) + 0.03.cigarette consumption (*); F = 4.87; p 4.138; p < 0.05). PMID:9711259

Bukvic, N; Bavaro, P; Elia, G; Cassano, F; Fanelli, M; Guanti, G

1998-07-01

52

Determinación y estandarización de plomo en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio del Estado Mérida / Blood lead determination and standardization in petrol station workers in the State of Merida  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se ha determinado el contenido de plomo (Pb) en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio de la ciudad de Mérida (Venezuela) y en un grupo de personas no expuestas ocupacionalmente. Las muestras de sangre provenientes de sujetos de ambos sexos n=21 (controles) y n=65 (personal ex [...] puesto) fueron procesadas por absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica (ETAAS). Las concentraciones obtenidas de 15,27±9,62 y 83,74±28,95 µg/L para los grupos denominados como control y expuesto respectivamente, muestran diferencias altamente significativas que evidencian una exposición directa al Pb, por cuanto los valores del grupo expuesto ocupacional son más de 5 veces superiores a los del grupo control. Los resultados obtenidos también muestran que valores iguales o superiores a 54,79 µg/L son indicadores de exposición directa al Pb, permitiendo establecer valores de tolerancia entre los intervalos de 24,89 y 112,69 µg/L. Estos valores de referencia se encuentran por debajo de lo descripto por Burguera y cols. (1997), lo cual podría atribuirse al reemplazo gradual de la gasolina con plomo, en los últimos años, que ha llevado a una disminución de un 27% en los niveles de plomo en sangre, en comparación con un estudio similar realizado en esta misma ciudad en el año 1997. Abstract in english In this work the lead (Pb) content in blood was determined in petrol station workers in the city of Merida-Venezuela and in a group of people not occupationally exposed. The blood samples coming from subjects of both sexes n=21 controls and n=65 exposed workers were processed by atomic absorption wi [...] th electrothermal atomization (ETAAS). The 15.27±9.62 and 83.74±28.95 µg/L concentrations obtained for the group referred to as control and exposed respectively show highly significant differences that evidence a direct exposure to Pb, since the values of the occupationally exposed group are more than 5 times higher than those of the control group. The results obtained also show that values equal to or higher than 54.79 µg/L are indicative of direct exposure to Pb, making it possible to establish tolerance values between the 24.89 and 112.69 µg/L intervals. These reference values are below what was reported by Burguera et al (1997) which could be attributed to the gradual substitution of gasoline for lead that has originated a 27% decrease in lead levels in blood, if compared with a similar study carried out in the same city in 1997.

Laura, Molina; María Luisa, Di Bernardo; Carlos, Rondón; María Ysabel, García; Pablo, Carrero; José Rafael, Luna; José Gregorio, Salazar; Alexis, Morales; Yajaira, Hernández; Jesús, Peña.

2007-06-01

53

Determinación y estandarización de plomo en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio del Estado Mérida / Blood lead determination and standardization in petrol station workers in the State of Merida  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se ha determinado el contenido de plomo (Pb) en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio de la ciudad de Mérida (Venezuela) y en un grupo de personas no expuestas ocupacionalmente. Las muestras de sangre provenientes de sujetos de ambos sexos n=21 (controles) y n=65 (personal ex [...] puesto) fueron procesadas por absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica (ETAAS). Las concentraciones obtenidas de 15,27±9,62 y 83,74±28,95 µg/L para los grupos denominados como control y expuesto respectivamente, muestran diferencias altamente significativas que evidencian una exposición directa al Pb, por cuanto los valores del grupo expuesto ocupacional son más de 5 veces superiores a los del grupo control. Los resultados obtenidos también muestran que valores iguales o superiores a 54,79 µg/L son indicadores de exposición directa al Pb, permitiendo establecer valores de tolerancia entre los intervalos de 24,89 y 112,69 µg/L. Estos valores de referencia se encuentran por debajo de lo descripto por Burguera y cols. (1997), lo cual podría atribuirse al reemplazo gradual de la gasolina con plomo, en los últimos años, que ha llevado a una disminución de un 27% en los niveles de plomo en sangre, en comparación con un estudio similar realizado en esta misma ciudad en el año 1997. Abstract in english In this work the lead (Pb) content in blood was determined in petrol station workers in the city of Merida-Venezuela and in a group of people not occupationally exposed. The blood samples coming from subjects of both sexes n=21 controls and n=65 exposed workers were processed by atomic absorption wi [...] th electrothermal atomization (ETAAS). The 15.27±9.62 and 83.74±28.95 µg/L concentrations obtained for the group referred to as control and exposed respectively show highly significant differences that evidence a direct exposure to Pb, since the values of the occupationally exposed group are more than 5 times higher than those of the control group. The results obtained also show that values equal to or higher than 54.79 µg/L are indicative of direct exposure to Pb, making it possible to establish tolerance values between the 24.89 and 112.69 µg/L intervals. These reference values are below what was reported by Burguera et al (1997) which could be attributed to the gradual substitution of gasoline for lead that has originated a 27% decrease in lead levels in blood, if compared with a similar study carried out in the same city in 1997.

Laura, Molina; María Luisa, Di Bernardo; Carlos, Rondón; María Ysabel, García; Pablo, Carrero; José Rafael, Luna; José Gregorio, Salazar; Alexis, Morales; Yajaira, Hernández; Jesús, Peña.

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Determinación y estandarización de plomo en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio del Estado Mérida Blood lead determination and standardization in petrol station workers in the State of Merida  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se ha determinado el contenido de plomo (Pb en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio de la ciudad de Mérida (Venezuela y en un grupo de personas no expuestas ocupacionalmente. Las muestras de sangre provenientes de sujetos de ambos sexos n=21 (controles y n=65 (personal expuesto fueron procesadas por absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica (ETAAS. Las concentraciones obtenidas de 15,27±9,62 y 83,74±28,95 µg/L para los grupos denominados como control y expuesto respectivamente, muestran diferencias altamente significativas que evidencian una exposición directa al Pb, por cuanto los valores del grupo expuesto ocupacional son más de 5 veces superiores a los del grupo control. Los resultados obtenidos también muestran que valores iguales o superiores a 54,79 µg/L son indicadores de exposición directa al Pb, permitiendo establecer valores de tolerancia entre los intervalos de 24,89 y 112,69 µg/L. Estos valores de referencia se encuentran por debajo de lo descripto por Burguera y cols. (1997, lo cual podría atribuirse al reemplazo gradual de la gasolina con plomo, en los últimos años, que ha llevado a una disminución de un 27% en los niveles de plomo en sangre, en comparación con un estudio similar realizado en esta misma ciudad en el año 1997.In this work the lead (Pb content in blood was determined in petrol station workers in the city of Merida-Venezuela and in a group of people not occupationally exposed. The blood samples coming from subjects of both sexes n=21 controls and n=65 exposed workers were processed by atomic absorption with electrothermal atomization (ETAAS. The 15.27±9.62 and 83.74±28.95 µg/L concentrations obtained for the group referred to as control and exposed respectively show highly significant differences that evidence a direct exposure to Pb, since the values of the occupationally exposed group are more than 5 times higher than those of the control group. The results obtained also show that values equal to or higher than 54.79 µg/L are indicative of direct exposure to Pb, making it possible to establish tolerance values between the 24.89 and 112.69 µg/L intervals. These reference values are below what was reported by Burguera et al (1997 which could be attributed to the gradual substitution of gasoline for lead that has originated a 27% decrease in lead levels in blood, if compared with a similar study carried out in the same city in 1997.

Laura Molina

2007-06-01

55

The complicated transition to competition in the petrol industry in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Spanish petrol market has been deeply restructured. However, the results of two decades of liberalization are mixed. A more active policy of fostering and defending competition has been missing. Reform efforts in the sector and economic analyses of the markets have overwhelming been focussed on the upstream activities of manufacturing and wholesaling. By contrast, other activities of the sector are the ones that are constraining competition. Vertical relations between petrol major companies and petrol stations have a very significant impact on the process to achieve effective competition. And access to distribution essential facilities such as pipes is a necessary condition to open up the market to new operators. In Spain, transition to competition in the petrol industry has not taken enough care on restructuring vertical relations and access to essential facilities. (Author)

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The Health Impacts of Ethanol Blend Petrol  

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A measurement program designed to evaluate health impacts or benefits of using ethanol blend petrol examined exhaust and evaporative emissions from 21 vehicles representative of the current Australian light duty petrol (gasoline) vehicle fleet using a composite urban emissions drive cycle. The fuels used were unleaded petrol (ULP), ULP blended with either 5% ethanol (E5) or 10% ethanol (E10). The resulting data were combined with inventory data for Sydney to determine the expected fleet emiss...

Rosemary Wood; David Williams; Stephen White; Anne Tibbett; Jennifer Powell; Michael Patterson; James McGregor; Peter Nancarrow; Imants Liepa; Sunhee Lee; Sarah Lawson; Steven Lavrencic; Melita Keywood; David Jacyna; Ian Galbally

2011-01-01

57

Traveling Salesman Approach for Solving Petrol Distribution Using Simulated Annealing  

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Full Text Available This research presents an attempt to solve a logistic company's problem of delivering petrol to petrol station in the state of Johor. This delivery system is formulated as a travelling salesman problem (TSP. TSP involves finding an optimal route for visiting stations and returning to point of origin, where the inter-station distance is symmetric and known. This real world application is a deceptive simple combinatorial problem and our approach is to develop solutions based on the idea of local search and meta-heuristics. As a standard problem, we have chosen a solution is a deceptively simple combinatorial problem and we defined it simply as the time spends or distance travelled by salesman visiting n cities (or nodes cyclically. In one tour the vehicle visits each station just once and finishes up where he started. As standard problems, we have chosen TSP with different stations visited once. This research presents the development of solution engine based on local search method known as Greedy Method and with the result generated as the initial solution, Simulated Annealing (SA and Tabu Search (TS further used to improve the search and provide the best solution. A user friendly optimization program developed using Microsoft C++ to solve the TSP and provides solutions to future TSP which may be classified into daily or advanced management and engineering problems.

Zuhaimy Ismail

2008-01-01

58

Variability of benzene exposure among filling station attendants; Variabilita` dell`esposizione a benzene tra gli addetti all`erogazione di carburanti  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A monitoring survey of filling station attendants aimed at identifying sources of variability of exposure to benzene and other aromatics was carried out. Concurrent samples of the worker`s breathing zone air, atmospheric air in the service station proximity, and gasoline were collected, along with information about daily workloads and other exposure-related factors. Benzene personal exposure was characterised by a small between-worker variability and a predominant within-worker variance component. Such elevated day-to-day variability yields to imprecise estimates of mean personal exposure. Almost 70% of the overall personal exposure variance was explained by a model including daily benzene from dispensed fuel, presence of a shelter over the refueling area, amount of fuel supplied to the station if a delivery occurred, and background atmospheric benzene concentration.

Carere, A.; Iacovella, N.; Turrio Baldassarri, L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Comparata ed Ecotossicologia; Fuselli, S.; Iavarone, I.; Lagorio, S.; Proietto, A.R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

1996-12-01

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Effects of changes in petrol taxation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to estimate and discuss some of the policy-relevant effects of petrol tax changes. Our approach is to seek to separate the extent to which each of the following variables is affected by changes in the price of petrol: (i) car ownership (ii) car use (iii) petrol consumption per km. The estimates show that the sum of (i) and (ii) results in a price-elasticity with respect to 'car traffic' equal to -0.2 in the short run, and -0.3 in the long run. Because of possibilities to increase the fuel efficiency of cars, the price-elasticity of 'petrol demand' is substantially greater: -0.3 in the short run and of the order of -0.7 in the long run. One conclusion is: A petrol price rise is considerably more effective as a measure for energy and environmental policy than for transport policy. The effect of petrol tax changes to the total tax revenue is also discussed. At last, the regional welfare distribution effects are treated in the form of estimation of regional differences to the reduction in the consumers' surplus from a petrol price increase. 19 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs

60

TOXICITY OF PETROL OIL ON SPIRULINA PLATENSIS  

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Full Text Available In 1947, UN declared Spirulina as “the best food for tomorrow”. It is very rich in protein content. In the present study we have determined the effect of petrol oil on Spirulina platensis growth rate. It is exposed to different concentration of petrol oil to see the effect of petrol on the protein, carbohydrate and growth rate of Spirulina platensis. It involved 2,5,10 and 20 ml of petro oil in the media after which the survival and the growth of the S. platensis were evaluated. Although the percentage of protein and carbohydrate decreased as the quantity of the petrol oil added to the media comparison to the control samples. The results obtained in this study showed that spillage of mixture of gasoline poses threats to the survival and development of algae and plants.

Rajni Karoriya

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Health risk assessment of ambient air concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) in service station environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive evaluation of the adverse health effects of human exposures to BTX from service station emissions was carried out using BTX exposure data from the scientific literature. The data was grouped into different scenarios based on activity, location and occupation and plotted as Cumulative Probability Distributions (CPD) plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) at 50% (CEXP50) and 95% (CEXP95) exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 > 1 were obtained with benzene in the scenario for service station attendants and mechanics repairing petrol dispensing pumps indicating a possible health risk. The risk was minimized for service stations using vapour recovery systems which greatly reduced the benzene exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 station attendants than any other scenario. PMID:24945191

Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

2014-06-01

62

An attitude study on the environmental effects of rationing petrol in Tehran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to assess the environmental effects of implementing petrol rationing and the issuance of fuel smartcards in central Tehran. The results and their application are significant from the perspective of preserving fuel sources and protecting the environment, both of which being among the goals of sustainable development. Through the analysis of soft data (owners of automobile and light pickup trucks attitude), 3 general hypotheses were assessed and the result was compared to hard data (the traffic situation information, petrol consumption and air pollution). The soft data was gathered using a comprehensive questionnaire which randomly distributed among 2000 automobile and pickup truck drivers in the central Tehran area who were at petrol stations to refuel their vehicles. The gathered data was then analyzed at two levels: descriptive and inferential. The results of this research reveal that according to the soft data, the smartcard project has resulted in a decline in traffic and petrol consumption and a rise in air pollution; furthermore, the positive cultural effects of this project have been comparatively prominent. The actual figures show that the project has led to lower traffic load and air pollution but petrol consumption remains the same as before.

63

An attitude study on the environmental effects of rationing petrol in Tehran  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to assess the environmental effects of implementing petrol rationing and the issuance of fuel smartcards in central Tehran. The results and their application are significant from the perspective of preserving fuel sources and protecting the environment, both of which being among the goals of sustainable development. Through the analysis of soft data (owners of automobile and light pickup trucks attitude), 3 general hypotheses were assessed and the result was compared to hard data (the traffic situation information, petrol consumption and air pollution). The soft data was gathered using a comprehensive questionnaire which randomly distributed among 2000 automobile and pickup truck drivers in the central Tehran area who were at petrol stations to refuel their vehicles. The gathered data was then analyzed at two levels: descriptive and inferential. The results of this research reveal that according to the soft data, the smartcard project has resulted in a decline in traffic and petrol consumption and a rise in air pollution; furthermore, the positive cultural effects of this project have been comparatively prominent. The actual figures show that the project has led to lower traffic load and air pollution but petrol consumption remains the same as before. (author)

Hanafizadeh, Payam; Navardi, Zeinab; Bamdad Soofi, Jahanyar [Department of Industrial Management, Allameh Tabataba' i University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-11-15

64

An attitude study on the environmental effects of rationing petrol in Tehran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to assess the environmental effects of implementing petrol rationing and the issuance of fuel smartcards in central Tehran. The results and their application are significant from the perspective of preserving fuel sources and protecting the environment, both of which being among the goals of sustainable development. Through the analysis of soft data (owners of automobile and light pickup trucks attitude), 3 general hypotheses were assessed and the result was compared to hard data (the traffic situation information, petrol consumption and air pollution). The soft data was gathered using a comprehensive questionnaire which randomly distributed among 2000 automobile and pickup truck drivers in the central Tehran area who were at petrol stations to refuel their vehicles. The gathered data was then analyzed at two levels: descriptive and inferential. The results of this research reveal that according to the soft data, the smartcard project has resulted in a decline in traffic and petrol consumption and a rise in air pollution; furthermore, the positive cultural effects of this project have been comparatively prominent. The actual figures show that the project has led to lower traffic load and air pollution but petrol consumption remains the same as before. (author)

65

TESTING TECHNIQUE OF MOTOR PETROL PHYSICAL STABILITY ESTIMATION AND FORECASTING  

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Full Text Available  The technique of petrol physical stability assessment and forecasting was tested. The results of study aimed at investigation of modern motor petrols evaporability are presented in the article. The refractive index is shown to be useful tool in making prognosis about evaporation losses of motor petrol. The validation of this technique was conducted and recommendations are given on its application.

Sergey V. Boychenko

2009-04-01

66

Investigating Competition in the Retail Petrol Market.  

Science.gov (United States)

A questionnaire that college economics students can use to investigate the degree and nature of competition in the retail market for petrol is provided. A simple computer program is included to help in the analysis of the questionnaire. (Author/RM)

Davies, P.

1984-01-01

67

Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market - end 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market (as at 31.12.94) are tabulated, with brand names and company names, areas of operation, and total numbers of retail petrol outlets displaying brand names, self-service sites, company-owned sites and outlets retailing Derv given. Statistics resulting from a retail marketing survey (1995) are listed and cover UK petrol sites from 1985-1994; motorway brands; a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets; UK outlets retailing derv; average UK prices for petrol and derv per litre; percentage of petrol sites per company (1994); number of company petrol sites as a percentage of total; number of outlets at hypermarkets/supermarkets; and vapour recovery sites. (UK)

68

PETROL-INHALATION DEPENDENCE : A CASE REPORT  

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Ms M. a 13 years old class III student presented with one year history of petrol fumes inhalation dependence and six months history of kerosene inhalation dependence. She liked the smell of fumes getting pleasant feeling of well-being and increased confidence. She though fulfilled all the criteria of inherent dependence differed from typical cases described in published reports. Like male preponderance and group activity, the prominent features of inhalation dependence were absent in our case.

Pahwa, Madhu; Baweja, Aneesh; Gupta, Vinesh; Jiloha, R. C.

1998-01-01

69

Petrol with isotopically differentiated lead added  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment is proposed aimed at determining the role of motor traffic in the pollution of the environment by lead, in particular of air, soil, vegetation, food and the human body. The technique of determining the isotopic composition of lead, used in the right way, should enable the whole problem to be solved. It is intended to add lead with a constant isotopic composition different from that of normally occuring lead, whether natural in origin or otherwise, to petrol in at least two regions of Italy. Analyses of lead samples taken from the principal mines have shown that Australian lead (Broken Hill Mine) has quite a different isotopic composition. This lead will therefore be used to prepare the antiknock additives for petrol sold in the regions in question. Adequate sampling should make it possible to determine the contribution to pollution of lead from motor vehicle exhausts. The regions chosen for the experiment are Piedmont (city and province of Turin) and Sardinia (city and province of Cagliari) - the first because of its high traffic density and level of industrialization, the second because of its remoteness and the lead content of the soil, which may affect food. Both regions present favourable conditions for supplying petrol of the intended type. The experiment is intended to last three years; the petrol with Australian lead will be marketed for a period of 18 months. The first results of analyses of the isotopic composition of lead contained in atmosphercomposition of lead contained in atmospheric dust in the city of Turin and of lead from a number of blood samples are reported in the paper

70

Petrol consumption and redistributive effects of its taxation in Spain  

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The objective of this paper is to estimate a petrol consumption function for Spain and to evaluate the redistributive effects of petrol taxation. We use micro data from the Spanish Household Budget Survey of 1990/91 and model petrol consumption taking into account the effect that income changes may have on car ownership levels, as well as the differences that exist between expenditure and consumption. Our results show the importance that household structure, place of residence and income have...

Asensio Ruiz Alda, Francisco Javier

2006-01-01

71

Effects of Gasoline Inhalation on Menstrual Characteristics and the Hormonal Profile of Female Petrol Pump Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing numbers of young women are employed as gasoline station attendants in most developing countries despite the lack of empirical data on the adverse reproductive health effect of this solvent. This study therefore sought to assess the effects of gasoline inhalation on the serum sex hormone profile and menstrual characteristics of female gasoline station attendants in

Ekpenyong, Christopher E.; Koofreh Davies; Nyebuk Daniel

2013-01-01

72

Groundwater Protection Code: Petrol stations and other fuel ...  

Nov 1, 2002 ... (engineering) properties and the corrosion characteristics of the ground .... Older \\tanks are most likely to be single skinned and constructed from steel. .... \\maintenance and repair works undertaken during the lifetime of the ...

73

Saccade dysfunction associated with chronic petrol sniffing and lead encephalopathy  

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Background: In chronic petrol sniffers, recent exposure to high levels of leaded petrol may give rise to a lead encephalopathy characterised by tremor, chorea, ataxia, hyperreflexia, convulsive seizures, and death. Neurological abnormalities associated with lead encephalopathy involve the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and brain stem.

Cairney, S.; Maruff, P.; Burns, C.; Currie, J.; Currie, B.

2004-01-01

74

Idiosyncrasies in Australian petrol price behaviour: evidence of seasonalities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been argued that there are certain idiosyncrasies in Australian petrol price behaviour. To the extent that these idiosyncrasies result in large magnitude differences in petrol prices, they may be exploited by consumers to significantly reduce their household expenditure on the product. Similarly, such seasonalities may influence retailers in their purchase and storage decision. The objective of this paper is to test for seasonalities in the Australian retail petrol market. The approach adopted is similar to that for determining calendar anomalies as documented in the financial and commodity markets literature. We find that a monthly seasonal effect is pronounced with petrol prices lower in the months of February-May and highest in July and August. A day-of-the-week effect is also apparent and is manifest in all petrol prices for capital cities (Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney) across various years. However, the half-month effect, as is common in stock returns, is not observed. Moreover, contrary to popular belief that petrol prices are higher surrounding holidays, no evidence of the holiday effect is found. In Brisbane and Melbourne, petrol prices also have some relationship to the mood of consumers, as proxied using weather conditions. This is not observed in Adelaide and Sydney. (Author)

75

The supply of petrol: a report on the supply in the United Kingdom of petrol by wholesale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report by the UK Monopolies and Mergers Commission on the supply of petrol examines the extent of vertical control within the industry and concludes that it is a competitive market. Topics covered include petrol prices, profits, petrol exchange agreements, wholesaler agreements with retailers, wholesalers' ownership of retail sites and control over prices and barriers to the entry to the market. In addition to concluding that none of the facts found operate against the public interest, some recommendations regarding the future are made. (UK)

76

RESULTS OF PILOT RESEARCHES OF PETROL OIL FRACTIONS  

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Full Text Available In the article we show the results of pilot studies of petrol and oil fractions, their main physical and chemical properties, density and DNP, a liquid phase, two-phase area, critical area and boundary curves

Kharchenko P. M.

2014-04-01

77

Study of cluster formation in petrol pitch by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Structural and magnetic properties of the iron containing clusters in petrol pitchs (JCCP), produced by mixing of petrol pitch's matrix with iron carbonyl complex, was studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. (orig.)

78

Petrol with octane number 91 and 98 will disappear  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Next or may be already this year Petrol with octane number 91 and 98 will disappear from the market of the Slovak Republic. A final deadline has not been set yet. According to an explanation provided by deputy general manager for refinery and marketing of Slovnaft, a.s., Bratislava, Bela Kelemen the reason for this decision is lack of interest drivers show for this type of fuel. The consumption of diesel, on the other hand, is growing rapidly. According to representatives of Slovnaft the balance between offer and demand is tense in case of diesel, petroleum and the most used petrol with octane number 95. In their opinion this is caused mainly by the cold weather

79

Implementation of Turbocharger in Petrol Engines and its Thermal Analysis  

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Full Text Available In this paper we have discussed about turbocharging of four stroke petrol engine, difference between turbocharging of diesel and gasoline engine and possibilities to reduce losses in Exhaust system are highlighted. However, it omits to discuss two stroke engines due to their different gas exchange processes. Designing of different components involved in turbocharging is done and thermal analysis of turbocharger’s connector pipehas been done along with different kind of stress analysis.

Swapnil Bhurat, Amit Yadav , Atreya pathak

2012-12-01

80

MOTIVACIJA ZA IZOBRAŽEVANJE V PODJETJU PETROL, D. D.  

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Motivacija predstavlja klju?ni pomen v vsakdanjem življenju. ?e nismo motivirani, težko dosežemo dolo?en cilj. Prav tako pa si brez izobraževanja danes ne znamo ve? predstavljati življenja. V diplomskem delu smo predstavili motivacijo za izobraževanje v podjetju Petrol, d. d. Diplomsko delo sestavljata teoreti?ni in raziskovalni del. V teoreti?nem delu smo obravnavali opredelitev pojma motivacija, opredelitev motivov, vlogo nadrejenih v procesu motivacije, osebnostne tipe zapo...

Z?ibert, S?pela

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Implementation of Turbocharger in Petrol Engines and its Thermal Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we have discussed about turbocharging of four stroke petrol engine, difference between turbocharging of diesel and gasoline engine and possibilities to reduce losses in Exhaust system are highlighted. However, it omits to discuss two stroke engines due to their different gas exchange processes. Designing of different components involved in turbocharging is done and thermal analysis of turbocharger’s connector pipehas been done along with different kind of stress analysis.

Swapnil Bhurat, Amit Yadav

2012-01-01

82

Sharp increase in petrol prices and climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current increase in energy prices may be seen as good news for climate change by creating a reduction in energy consumption and therefore emissions of CO2. This study uses the GEMINI-E3 model to analyse the impact of a sharp increase in petrol prices on the world economy and on climate change. The effects of the increase are compared with those of policies for reducing greenhouse gases. (authors)

83

Regional finance and competition policy: the Canary Islands petrol market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Market competition levels affect all agents of an economy: businesses, consumers and the State. Traditional analysis has evaluated the State’s effects on the other agents, but no analysis has been conducted regarding the inverse relationship. Thus, the aim of this study is to estimate the tributary income losses that low levels of competition in the retail petrol market could cause in a market, using for it the Canary Islands Autonomous Community. To begin, we will use P...

Perdiguero-garci?a, Jordi; Jime?nez, Juan Luis

2010-01-01

84

Psychology of Flight Attendant’s Profession  

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Full Text Available The profession of a flight attendant appeared in aviation in the 1920s. Professionalcommunity of flight attendants is constantly growing with the growth ofcomplexity of aviation technology, professional standards of passenger serviceand safety. The psychological scientific research was carried out by a psychologistwho worked as a flight attendant. The study revealed the psychological content,demands, peculiarities in cabin crews’ labor. A job description was accomplished.Temporal and spatial characteristics, the main contradictions, unfavorable psychogenicand stress factors in labor were examined and described. Psychological profilesof a cabin attendant and of an air passenger were drawn up.

Tatyana V. Filipieva

2012-01-01

85

Prices at the filling station and far journeys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Car drivers in Western Europe are paying the highest fuel prices at the filling station. The Netherlands is in the leading group when it comes to the prices of petrol and diesel. This is the outcome of a study conducted by the German research organization GTZ among 174 countries.

86

A novel possible strategy for the management of petrol sniffing addiction in adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the 1950s there have been many reports on petrol addiction, mostly describing the practice of petrol sniffing and its acute and chronic physical and psychological effects. To the authors’ knowledge, none have described the use of opiates to manage and control this addiction.

Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mosallai, Sharif

2010-01-01

87

Petrol and gas: an opportunity for the Arab countries?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 17 February 2006 the Institute of the Arab World (IMA) and the Franco-Arab Chamber of Commerce (CCFA) jointly organised a symposium on ''Petrol and Gas, an Opportunity for the Arab countries?''. The preparatory work had been initiated by M. Yves Guena, President of IMA and M. Serge Boidevaix, President of CCFA, with Dr Saleh Al Tayar, the Secretary-General of CCFA. An audience of more than one hundred, made up of experts, professional management, senior company directors and journalists participated. (author)

88

With petrol prices at an all-time high, the government is under pressure to cut fuel duty as a  

With petrol prices at an all-time high, the government is under pressure to cut fuel ...the acknowledgement of a continued steady increase in petrol prices.The implication is that policymakers need ...to come clean about petrol prices continuing to increase rather than pretending this can change.

89

Data Mining System For Quality Prediction Of Petrol Using Artificial Neural Network  

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The increasing cry of the masses over poor quality of petroleum products most especially petrol has poised researchers and refinery engineers to devise a way of telling the class of quality of products expected from a sample crude oil without having to refine it. To this end, a system that can predict the quality and class of petrol expected from a sample crude oil is desired. Getting such accurate predictions for the class and hence the quality of petrol however can be tasking for humans. Th...

Adeyemo, Omowumi O.; Osofisan, Adenike O.; Fashina, Ebunoluwa P.; Kayode Otubu

2012-01-01

90

Modelling the Price of Unleaded Petrol in Australia’s Capital Cities  

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This paper examines the long-run and short-run determinants of unleaded petrol price in Australia’s capitalcities using monthly data to find out whether prices respond asymmetrically to external shocks. Based on thecointegration test results and the estimated asymmetric short-run dynamic models, it is found that: (1) in thelong-run petrol prices are mainly determined by Tapis crude oil and Singapore petrol prices; (2) there issome evidence of asymmetric price adjustments in the short-run si...

Abbas Valadkhani

2010-01-01

91

Phenol oxidation of petrol refinery wastewater catalyzed by Laccase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid-state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries) have been evaluated in both systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 u/ml) was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 u/ml) was achieved in a submerged system, containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The Laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of Laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant

92

Modelling the Price of Unleaded Petrol in Australia’s Capital Cities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the long-run and short-run determinants of unleaded petrol price in Australia’s capitalcities using monthly data to find out whether prices respond asymmetrically to external shocks. Based on thecointegration test results and the estimated asymmetric short-run dynamic models, it is found that: (1 in thelong-run petrol prices are mainly determined by Tapis crude oil and Singapore petrol prices; (2 there issome evidence of asymmetric price adjustments in the short-run since petrol price increases have been mostlypassed on to the consumer faster than price decreases in four capital cities. More specifically, this paperprovides convincing evidence in support of asymmetric price adjustments and the “rockets-and-feathershypothesis” in Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney. One can thus argue that there are a significantdegree of market inefficiency and/or collusion, requiring a closer government price monitoring and scrutiny.

Abbas Valadkhani

2010-06-01

93

Fumigation of a Y-shaped tunnel using a de-tuned petrol vehicle ...  

Defra (2005c) identified an idling, de-tuned petrol engine without catalytic \\converter .... Blackshaw, 1979; Deng & Chang, 1986; Pelz & Gemmeke, 1988; \\Ross et al.,. 1998). ...... however if this had been significant the engine would \\have cut out.

94

Research of the diesel engine performance parameters when operating on rape oil and petrol blends  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The theme of the Kornelijus Cebyla Master degree final project is „Research of the diesel engine performance parameters when operating on rape oil and petrol blends“. The research work consists of 71 pages, 6 tables, 46 pictures and 14 appendixes. There were used 24 references. The research was started in year 2003 and finisched in 2005 at Lithuanian University of Agriculture. The purpose of this project – to quality a develop of usage rape oil and petrol blends as a fuel in diesel...

C?ebyla, Kornelijus

2005-01-01

95

Effectiveness and effects of attempts to regulate the UK petrol industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates the impact that investigation and regulation of the UK petrol industry has had on the profitability of the companies. Using a gross margin for petrol, we estimate a series of variable parameter autoregressive processes. The results demonstrate that the 1979 Monopolies and Mergers Commission investigation into the industry, caused a long-term decline in profit margins in the industry, despite the fact that no recommendations or undertakings were made. This cannot, however, be said for subsequent investigations. 27 refs

96

Research of combustion in older generation spark-ignition engines in the condition of use leaded and unleaded petrol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes the potential problems in the exploitation of the older generation of spark-ignition engines with higher octane number of petrol (unleaded petrol BMB 95 than required (leaded petrol MB 86. Within the experimental tests on two different engines (STEYR-PUCH model 712 and GAZ 41 by applying piezoelectric pressure sensors integrated with the engine spark plugs, acceleration sensors (accelerometers and special electronic block connected with distributor, show that the cumulative first and second theoretical phase of combustion when petrol of higher octane number (BMB 95 is used lasts slightly longer than when the low-octane petrol MB 86 is used. For new petrol (BMB 95 higher optimal angles of pre-ignition have been determined by which better performances of the engine are achieved without a danger of the combustion with detonation (also called knocking.

Bulatovi? Željko M.

2014-01-01

97

Coal petrol and SNG - alternatives for the future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If in the decades to come no alternatives are found for the conventional fuels, i.e. petrol and diesel oil, in vehicle propulsion and if the non-energetic use of mineral oil is maintained on a large scale for economic reasons although there is a technical possibility of substitution by synthesizing substances other than those derived from mineral oil, the domains of traffic and non-energetic uses will largely remain oil-dependent. Model calculations have shown however that this demand could theoretically be satisfied by the upgrading of coal, which would require substantial additional expenditure. But even if all possible energy measures are taken and on the assumption of rising oil imports, the development of nuclear power is indicated, as coal cannot act as a substitute for nuclear power and a source of fuel at the same time. The necessary volume of capital expenditure is, however, justified only if this is done with the consistent aim of reducing the dependence of oil imports. Development of even part of the coal liquefaction potential would have a favourable and lasting effect in terms of energy policy on the dependence of oil imports all over the world. (Auth.)

98

LCAs of petrol and diesel - A literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have investigated the environmental impact of using biofuel in transportation compared with fossil fuels. Since these studies often use standard values for the fossil fuel reference scenario, there is a need for a thorough review of published data on fossil fuel use in transportation. This study reviewed the available literature regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy balances in petrol and diesel use and examined possible causes for the differences reported in the literature. This included differences connected to the LCA methodology itself, but also those resulting from technical and economic effects. Thirteen studies were reviewed in order to establish the level of GHG emissions and energy use in the well-to-tank perspective and, where possible, in the entire well-to-wheel perspective. The studies used different input data, allocation methods and system boundaries, but the results fell within a narrow range, since the energy content of the fuels on a tank-to-wheel basis differed only slightly, while the use phase represents most GHG emissions and energy usage in fuel life cycles. All studies reviewed reported GHG emissions values that exceeded the reference value of 83.8 g CO{sub 2}-eq/MJ fuel suggested in the EU Renewable Energy Directive.

Eriksson, Mattias; Ahlgren, Serina

2013-09-01

99

Emission factors for heavy metals from diesel and petrol used in European vehicles  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy metals constitute an important group of persistent toxic pollutants occurring in ambient air and other media. One of the suspected sources of these metals in the atmosphere is combustion of transport fuels in road vehicles. However, estimates of the emissions of these metals from road vehicles as reported in national emission inventories show a very high variability in emission factors used. This paper provides high quality data on concentrations of heavy metals in fuels and derives default emission factors from these. The paper discusses these values against the emission estimates presently reported by the Parties to the LRTAP Convention. The measured concentrations of heavy metals in petrol and diesel fuel show a high variability between different samples taken at gas stations throughout Europe. Metal concentrations in road transport fuels vary over two orders of magnitude, but all remain in the ppb region (a few tenths of a ppb to a few hundred ppb for all metals). The frequency distributions of the measurements could be approximated by lognormal distributions. The emission factors, including 95 percent confidence intervals were derived from a statistical analysis of the survey data. We could not detect a significant difference between samples from different countries. The fuel based emission factors as derived in this study are complemented with those related to unintentional lubricant oil combustion. This allowed an estimation of total exhaust heavy metal emissions for UNECE Europe, indicating that As, Hg and Se exhaust emissions were dominated by fuel combustion while Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn exhaust emissions were dominated by lubricant oil combustion. The proposed emission factors were generally lower than previously published emission factors. National emissions of heavy metals from vehicle exhaust, estimated in this study are in many cases considerably lower than those reported by the countries for this source.

Pulles, Tinus; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Appelman, Wilfred; Verheul, Marc

2012-12-01

100

Experimental analysis on a spark ignition petrol engine fuelled with LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as alternative fuel to petrol is common practise in spark ignition engines. While the main driving force to the use of LPG still remains the low cost for the end user, its favourable pollutant emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, will in the middle term probably increase interest in LPG as an IC engine fuel. In addition, there are both theoretical and technical reasons to consider LPG as an attractive fuel also in terms of engine performance. Despite the continuously increasing stock production of dual-fuel (petrol–LPG) passenger car models, doubts still exist about both real engine performance in LPG operation and the reliability of the dual-fuel feeding system. This paper deals with the theoretical advantages of using LPG as fuel for SI engines. Brake performance tests of a passenger car engine fed with petrol and LPG are analysed and compared. The stock engine has been equipped with a “third-generation” standard kit for dual-fuel operation. The performance reductions in LPG operation are discussed in both steady state and transient condition. The results of some modifications to the set-up of both the petrol and LPG metering devices, designed for a better justification of the measured performance, are also presented. -- Highlights: ? Experimental research on the actual performances of an SI engine fed with petrol and gaseous LPG. ? Theoretical advantages and drawbacks of fuelling SI ICE’s with LPG. ? Brake performance analysis shows a noticeable gap between LPG and petrol operation. ? Local measurements confirm that the thermodynamic operation of the evaporator-pressure reducer device is crucial for the engine performance. ? The performance of the up-to-date kit for petrol–LPG dual-fuel operation is greatly affected by the settings of the mechanical components of the LPG evaporator device.

 
 
 
 
101

Analyse of some organic and anorganic compounds in air near petrol stations. Technical aspects and results  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In de maanden april tot en met september 1987 zijn in de stad Utrecht diverse metingen verricht, ten behoeve van het onderzoek: "Verspreiding van benzeen rondom benzinestations". Met behulp van meetwagens zijn op verschillende locaties rondom drie benzinestations bemonsteringen uitgevoerd ter bepaling van benzeenconcentraties.Tevens is tolueen bemonsterd en zijn de concentraties van koolstofmonoxide, stikstofmonoxide en ozon bepaald. Meteorologische omstandig...

Hp, Bos; Jt, Schippers; Fj, Michel

2012-01-01

102

Severe petrol contamination in the aquifer of the Llobregat river delta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 16-09-91 an attack on an oil pipeline led to some 70 tons of petrol spilling out and catching fire. About 20 tons filtered down into the aquifer of the river Llobregat delta. On 08-12-91 the presence of petrol was detected in a well used for supplying water about 1 km downstream. A system was set up for monitoring and extracting the polluted ground water. The volume affected had now reached 3.5 hm''3. The decontamination costs came to 245 million pesetas in comparison to only 10 millions pesetas for the petrol spill. The cost of extracting the water was 70 pta/m''3. Finally the importance of regional planning and the need to prevent such accidents is pointed out. The means necessary to deal with them should be available. (Author)

103

Comparative Effects of Petrol and Diesel on Enzyme Activity in Tympanotonus fuscatus after Sublethal Exposure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pollution of the aquatic environment by petroleum and its products is common the world over. This study is aimed at examining sublethal effects of petrol and diesel on enzymes in Tympanotonus fuscatus namely: Aspartate Transaminase (AST (E.C. 2.6.1.1, Alanine Transaminase (ALT (E.C. 2.6.2.2 and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP (E.C. 3.1.3.1 activity after exposure. The periwinkles were exposed to 10.40, 15.60, 21.00, 26.00 ml L-1 and a control. The organs were removed on the sixth day and were prepared for enzymatic analysis. Enzyme activities were compared to the control value and between the toxicants. The effects of the toxicants on AST activity in the muscle and viscera were significantly different (p>0.05 from the control value (137.50±15.10 IU L-1. AST activity were raised more in petrol concentrations than the diesel concentrations in the muscle. The reverse was the case in the viscera at 15.60 ml L-1 (227.50±24.75 IU L-1. ALT activity in the muscle were not significant (p>0.05 between the toxicant media. In the viscera, significant differences (p>0.05 were observed in some of the concentrations with petrol showing higher activity. ALP activity in the muscle were not significant (p>0.05 in both media, but were more elicited in the diesel concentrations. In the viscera, the activities of ALP were more pronounced in the petrol concentrations and were significant (p>0.05 at the higher diesel concentrations. The exposure of Tympanotonus fuscatus to petrol and diesel concentrations caused changes in the enzymatic activities in the organism with those of petrol more pronounced than those of the diesel.

E.S. Edori

2014-01-01

104

THE STORAGE OF OIL DERIVATES IN THE STORAGE PETROL RA?E  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

V diplomskem delu je predstavljeno delovanje procesov v skladiš?u naftnih derivatov skladiš?a Petrol Ra?e. Skladiš?e ima za skladiš?enje dve vrsti rezervoarjev, podzemne in nadzemne rezervoarje. Za pre?rpavanje se uporabljata dva pre?rpališ?a, pre?rpališ?e za goriva, pripeljana z avto cisternami, in pre?rpališ?e za goriva, pripeljana z ?elezniškimi cisternami. Cilj diplomske naloge je izboljšati proces jemanja vzorcev goriv v skladiš?u Petrol Ra?e, delo olajšati t...

S?korja, Barbara

2011-01-01

105

Effects of Gasoline Inhalation on Menstrual Characteristics and the Hormonal Profile of Female Petrol Pump Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing numbers of young women are employed as gasoline station attendants in most developing countries despite the lack of empirical data on the adverse reproductive health effect of this solvent. This study therefore sought to assess the effects of gasoline inhalation on the serum sex hormone profile and menstrual characteristics of female gasoline station attendants in Nigeria, given the global increase in the rate of infertility and the existing evidence on the reproductive toxicity of gasoline constituents. A site-by-site cross-sectional study of 117 female gasoline pump attendants and 118 age-matched controls was carried out between September 2011 and November 2012. The following 3 instruments were used for data collection: a semi-structured questionnaire, a female sex hormone profile assay and exposure status measures. The prevalence of menstrual disorders among the exposed and unexposed women was 37.2% and 28.5% respectively. Exposure to gasoline was significantly associated with disorders in both menstrual cycle length and quantity of flow. Specifically, exposed women had a greater than threefold increased risk of a menstrual disorder, with an odds ratio (OR of 3.25 for abnormal cycle length and OR of 4.16 for abnormal quantity of flow. In addition, longer duration of exposure (>1 year was significantly associated with higher likelihood of menstrual disorders. There were also persistent low serum levels of estradiol, and fluctuating levels of other reproductive hormones. Gasoline inhalation may interfere with ovarian functions leading to disordered menstrual characteristics and female sex hormone profiles, as well as future reproductive impairment.

Christopher E. Ekpenyong

2013-07-01

106

PHENOL OXIDATION OF PETROL REFINERY WASTEWATER CATALYZED BY LACCASE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La lacasa se ha obtenido a través de dos sistemas de producción diferentes, el primero usando Pleurotus ostreatus en fermentación en estado sólido, el segundo usando Trametes versicolor en cultivo sumergido. Se han evaluado diferentes sustratos (derivados de la levadura, harina e industrias de la be [...] bida) en ambos sistemas. La mayor cantidad de la lacasa producida con Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml) se obtuvo en un medio de salvado de trigo. El máximo nivel de concentración de la enzima usando Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml) se logró en un sistema sumergido con 10% vinaza, 4,5% salvado de trigo y 0,2% de melaza por litro. El filtrado del cultivo extraído del Pleurotus ostreatus se usó para remover el fenol de las aguas residuales. El tratamiento enzimático es eficaz para un amplio rango de pH y de temperatura. El tratamiento con la lacasa se ha utilizado para desfenolizar el agua residual de las refinerías de la industria del petróleo. La ventaja de la desfenolización lacasa es que esta enzima usa el oxígeno molecular como un oxidante. Abstract in english Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries) have been evaluated in both [...] systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml) was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml) was achieved in a submerged system containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant.

María-Carolina, Vargas; Nubia E, Ramírez.

2002-12-01

107

PHENOL OXIDATION OF PETROL REFINERY WASTEWATER CATALYZED BY LACCASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries have been evaluated in both systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml was achieved in a submerged system containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant.La lacasa se ha obtenido a través de dos sistemas de producción diferentes, el primero usando Pleurotus ostreatus en fermentación en estado sólido, el segundo usando Trametes versicolor en cultivo sumergido. Se han evaluado diferentes sustratos (derivados de la levadura, harina e industrias de la bebida en ambos sistemas. La mayor cantidad de la lacasa producida con Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml se obtuvo en un medio de salvado de trigo. El máximo nivel de concentración de la enzima usando Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml se logró en un sistema sumergido con 10% vinaza, 4,5% salvado de trigo y 0,2% de melaza por litro. El filtrado del cultivo extraído del Pleurotus ostreatus se usó para remover el fenol de las aguas residuales. El tratamiento enzimático es eficaz para un amplio rango de pH y de temperatura. El tratamiento con la lacasa se ha utilizado para desfenolizar el agua residual de las refinerías de la industria del petróleo. La ventaja de la desfenolización lacasa es que esta enzima usa el oxígeno molecular como un oxidante.

María-Carolina Vargas

2002-12-01

108

PHENOL OXIDATION OF PETROL REFINERY WASTEWATER CATALYZED BY LACCASE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La lacasa se ha obtenido a través de dos sistemas de producción diferentes, el primero usando Pleurotus ostreatus en fermentación en estado sólido, el segundo usando Trametes versicolor en cultivo sumergido. Se han evaluado diferentes sustratos (derivados de la levadura, harina e industrias de la be [...] bida) en ambos sistemas. La mayor cantidad de la lacasa producida con Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml) se obtuvo en un medio de salvado de trigo. El máximo nivel de concentración de la enzima usando Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml) se logró en un sistema sumergido con 10% vinaza, 4,5% salvado de trigo y 0,2% de melaza por litro. El filtrado del cultivo extraído del Pleurotus ostreatus se usó para remover el fenol de las aguas residuales. El tratamiento enzimático es eficaz para un amplio rango de pH y de temperatura. El tratamiento con la lacasa se ha utilizado para desfenolizar el agua residual de las refinerías de la industria del petróleo. La ventaja de la desfenolización lacasa es que esta enzima usa el oxígeno molecular como un oxidante. Abstract in english Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries) have been evaluated in both [...] systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml) was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml) was achieved in a submerged system containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant.

María-Carolina, Vargas; Nubia E, Ramírez.

109

A house with its own filling station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This short article describes how a house in Erlinsbach, Switzerland was rebuilt and, at the same time, fitted with a new gas-fired heating system - and with its own natural gas filling station. The history behind this unusual project is discussed. The inclusion of a filling station in the project made it worthwhile for the gas utility to lay a connection from the gas mains to the house. The economic advantages for its builder, who sells such natural gas filling station equipment, are mentioned. The consumption of the natural gas used as motor fuel is measured and taxed separately. Equivalent fuel costs are now said by the owner to be already below today's petrol prices and will become even lower when the planned reduction of levies on such use of natural gas come into force

110

Induction of microsomal drug metabolism in man and in the rat by exposure to petroleum.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine the effect of petroleum exposure on the activity of hepatic mixed function oxidase enzymes, salivary elimination kinetics of antipyrine were determined in 19 petrol station attendants and compared with 19 controls. Antipyrine half life in petrol station attendants was shorter than in controls. Microsomal preparations (10 000 x g supernatants) were prepared from six male Porton rats exposed to petrol vapour (5 ppm at an air flow rate of 41/min for eight hours a day for three weeks...

Harman, A. W.; Frewin, D. B.; Priestly, B. G.

1981-01-01

111

Pipes, Petrol, Paint and Pewter: The Rise and Fall of Lead  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead is a good example of a metal that was used for many things over centuries--in water pipes, paints, on roofs, and in leaded petrol, for example--but was superseded as scientists discovered "new" metals, and because its toxicity became a problem. It was originally an important element in pewter utensils, alloyed with tin; it made the tin easier…

Peacock, Alan

2010-01-01

112

On-road remote sensing of petrol vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the real world on-road petrol vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitric oxide (NO) were investigated at nine sites in Hong Kong. A regression analysis approach based on the measured petrol vehicle emission data was also used to estimate the on-road petrol vehicle emission factors of CO, HC and NO with respect to the effects of instantaneous vehicle speed and acceleration/deceleration profiles for local urban driving patterns. The results show that the petrol vehicle model years, engine sizes and driving patterns have a strong correlation on their emission factors. A comparison of average petrol vehicle emission factors in different engine sizes and European vehicle emission standards was also presented. The deviation of the average emission factors of aggregate petrol vehicle reflects on the variability of local road condition, vehicle traffic fleet and volume, driving pattern, fuel composition and ambient condition etc. Finally, a unique database of the correlation of petrol vehicle emission factors on different model years and engine sizes for urban driving patterns in Hong Kong was established.

Chan, T. L.; Ning, Z.; Leung, C. W.; Cheung, C. S.; Hung, W. T.; Dong, G.

113

Does class attendance still matter?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the impact of class attendance on academic performance in a second year Electronics Engineering course module with online notes and no mandatory class attendance policy. The study shows that class attendance is highly correlated to academic performance, despite the availability of online class notes. In addition, there is significant correlation between class attendance and non-class contact with the lecturer and between student performance in the first year of university study and current academic performance and class attendance. However, there is no correlation between pre-university academic performance and current class attendance and academic performance. The study finds no gender bias in either class attendance or academic performance. Lastly, this being a course module open to students following different degree programmes, the study finds that a student’s choice of degree programme has no impact on class attendance and academic performance in this particular course module.

Abel Nyamapfene

2010-07-01

114

Does class attendance still matter?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a study on the impact of class attendance on academic performance in a second year Electronics Engineering course module with online notes and no mandatory class attendance policy. The study shows that class attendance is highly correlated to academic performance, despite the availability of online class notes. In addition, there is significant correlation between class attendance and non-class contact with the lecturer and between student performance in the first year of ...

Abel Nyamapfene

2010-01-01

115

Traffic accidents in the transport of petroleum products in company Petrol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis we will present, explore and define the main concepts of logistics, traffic and transport and describe the rules for transporting dangerous goods in road transport which includes petroleum products. We will also present the causes of road accidents and their consequences, which will be the central theme of the thesis. In the second part we will present Petrol transport routes of petroleum products in Slovenia, traffic accidents within the company and of dealing with these. ...

Vodopivc, Natas?a

2013-01-01

116

Sono-electroanalysis: Application to the detection of lead in petrol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The quantitative detection of lead in petrol is shown to be possible by anodic stripping voltammetry in aqueous media under conditions of insonation-induced emulsification. An immersion horn probe is introduced into a thermostatted conventional three-electrode cell opposite a mercury plated platinum disk working electrode. Under ultrasonic emulsification of the sample, lead is preconcentrated as an amalgam on the Hg/Pt electrode surface via reduction at -1.0 V (vs. SCE). The large mass transp...

Blythe, An; Akkermans, Rp; Compton, Rg

2000-01-01

117

Some investigations in design of low cost variable compression ratio two stroke petrol engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Historically two stroke engine petrol engines find wide applications in construction of two wheelers worldwide, however due to stringent environmental laws enforced universally; these engines are fading in numbers. In spite of the tight norms, internationally these engines are still used in agriculture, gensets etc. Several designs of variable compression ratio two stroke engines are commercially available for analysis purpose. In this present investigation a novel method of...

Srinivas, A.; Venkatasubbaiah, G.; Rao, P. Venkateswar; Reddy, M. Penchal

2012-01-01

118

MOTIVATION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE ENTERPRISE CONTACT CENTER PETROL D.D.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Motivation is crucial for the success of each enterprise. Rightly motivated employees need to know what encourages them toward successful work. Healthy relations, mutual respect, trust and appropriate payment for the work that is done are those factors which motivate each one of us the most to achieve the company goals. The study is divided into theoretical and practical part and talks about the motivation of employees in their company Petrol, d.d. In the theoretical part we have summ...

S?c?ernjavic?, Nina

2012-01-01

119

ENERGETSKI PREGLED PODJETJA PETROL ENERGETIKA D.O.O. RAVNE NA KOROŠKEM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diplomska naloga je obsežen energetski pregled podjetja Petrol Energetika, d. o. o, Ravne na Koroškem. Naloga upošteva navodila iz Metodologije energetskega pregleda in Priro?nika za izvajalce energetskega pregleda. Pregledana je bila celovita oskrba energije na zaokroženem gospodarskem obmo?ju železarne Ravne z elektri?no energijo, zemeljskim plinom in toplotno energijo za potrebe daljinskega ogrevanja, paro, tehni?nimi plini, vodo in stisnjenim zrakom. Na podlagi tega so podane ana...

Merkac?, Jani

2010-01-01

120

Performace Test and Engine Emission on Acid Oleic Oxygenated as Additives Petrol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of oxygenated oleic acid additives in standard petrol on the engine performance and the exhaust emissions. The 4-stroke 1.5 litre engine was used on the engine test bed coupled to eddy current electric dynamometer which is also connected to CADET V12 control system and exhaust gas analyser IMR2000/2000P. The oxygenated oleic acid additives used for this experiment is fixed at 0.2% by volume due to limited quantity available. Two types of test were carried out first test is with variable speed and no loads and the second test is at constant speed of 1,400 rpm with variable loads. The experimental results showed that the brake power increased by 2%, torque by 2%, brake thermal efficiency by about 7% and specific fuel consumption decreased by about 10%. The exhaust emissions analysed are carbon monoxide, (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2 and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. The result by comparing the oxygenated petrol with the standard petrol indicated that CO gas emission depend on the engine speed which decreased with increasing speed up to 1,600 rpm and increased after that speed on test without load. The CO also decreased by about 28% on the test with loads. The emission of CO2 increased by 2.7% for tests with load and by 8% for tests without loads. The NOx emission decreased by 9% for test without load and about 7% for test with load. This study indicates that engine performance is improved by adding 0.2% oxygenated additives to standard petrol.

Irfan Wahyudi

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

HAM PETROL F?YATLARININ YAPAY S?N?R A?LARI ?LE TAHM?N? = CRUDE OIL PRICE FORECASTING WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Almost every sector in economy is connected with oil directly or indirectly. Consequently, the changes on petrol industry, and thus, on petrol prices create various effects on both country and world economy by means of chaining reactions turning up. For making affective plans for the future about petrol industry which has a considerably unsteady and interactive structure because of its complex dynamics, straight and confidential predictions are needed. So, classical time series analysis metho...

Demi?rkoparan, Ferhan; Tas?tan, Serkan; Kaynar, Og?uz

2010-01-01

122

Study of performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine using rice bran oil ethanol and petrol blends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, influence on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using pure rice bran oil (RBO, and its 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% blends with ethanol (ERBO and petrol (PRBO. The influence on the viscosity of the RBO with the addition of the ethanol and petrol from 200C to 700C has also been studied. The tests conducted from no load to full load of the engine with an increment of 20%of the load. The experimental test results showed that the kinematic viscosity reduced maximum by 28.3% and 31.7% with addition of ethanol and petrol respectively. The maximum brake thermal efficiency of 26.83% with ERBO2.5 and 27% with PRBO7.5 was obtained. Among the ethanol blends the minimum brake specific fuel consumption of 0.312 is observed with ERBO7.5 and among the petrol blends the minimum brake specific fuel consumption of 0.299 is observed with PRBO2.5 at full load of the engine. Lower CO emissions of 0.021 with ERBO2.5 and higher CO emissions of 0.032 observed with ERBO7.5. The CO emissions of petrol blends observed between the values of ethanol blends. The unburnt hydrocarbons increased with load in both the ethanol and petrol blends. The lower NOx emissions of 920 with ERBO2.5 and higher NOx emissions of 1045 measured with PRBO7.5. The CO2 increased to 3.72 with PRBO7.5 and reduced to 2.45 with ERBO7.5. The unused O2 increased 17.2%with ethanol blends and reduced to 13.1% with petrol blends. The smoke reduced with both the blends and lower value of 34.0% observed with PRBO7.5.

G. Venkata Subbaiah

2010-06-01

123

Performace Test and Engine Emission on Acid Oleic Oxygenated as Additives Petrol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of oxygenated oleic acid additives in standard petrol on the engine performance and the exhaust emissions. The 4-stroke 1.5 litre engine was used on the engine test bed coupled to eddy current electric dynamometer which is also connected to CADET V12 control system and exhaust gas analyser IMR2000/2000P. The oxygenated oleic acid additives used for this experiment is fixed at 0.2% by volume due to limited quantity available. Two types...

Irfan Wahyudi; Abdul Amir Hassan Kadhum; Yusoff Ali

2010-01-01

124

The role of regulation, fiscal incentives and changes in tastes in the diffusion of unleaded petrol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyses the diffusion of unleaded petrol in the UK. Changes in the market share of unleaded fuel are the results of changes in the composition of the car stock and changes in the choice of fuel given the car stock. We find the fuel type choices have been mainly driven by changes in tastes and learning as opposed to changes in relative prices induced by fiscal incentives. However car stock composition effects dominate the diffusion process and we find that through this route regulatory changes have made major contributions to changes in the market share of unleaded fuel. (Author)

125

The role of coal, petrol and natural gas in the global ecological energy strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of coal, petrol and natural gas in the global energy balance impose a rigid international control on all harmful emissions (CO2, SO2, NOx etc.) based on extended legislation. The trends for more efficient usage of fuels are discussed from ecological and energetic point of view. The alternative introduction of natural gas in the energy sector is considered. The ways for utilization of CO2 and its recycling are discussed as well as the trends towards development of 'hydrogen' energetics. 15 refs., 2 tbs., 3 figs. (orig.)

126

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PETROL GROUP WITH TWO FOREIGN COMPETITORS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

V diplomski nalogi smo naredili primerjalno analizo uspešnosti in u?inkovitosti poslovanja med slovensko energetsko družbo Petrol, avstrijsko energetsko družbo OMV AG ter angleško-nizozemsko energetsko družbo Royal Dutch Shell plc za obdobje petih let (od leta 2006 do leta 2010). S pomo?jo podatkov v temeljnih ra?unovodskih izkazih in iz njih izpeljanih kazalnikov smo analizirali premoženjsko-finan?ni položaj, poslovno in denarno uspešnost podjetij. Ugotavljamo, da je skoraj ...

Kavas?, Barbara

2012-01-01

127

School attendance 1880-1939  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?The thesis covers two sides of the truancy problem in the period following compulsory school attendance - the truanting children and their parents, and the local authorities charged with enforcing the law. The introduction covers current concerns about truancy and school attendance, which have increased in prominence since the 1980s. Chapter 2 reviews the historiography, which has mainly debated working-class attitudes towards compulsory schooling in the nineteenth century. ...

Sheldon, Nicola; Professor Jane Humphries; Janet Howarth

2008-01-01

128

Study of performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine using rice bran oil ethanol and petrol blends  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, influence on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using pure rice bran oil (RBO), and its 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% blends with ethanol (ERBO) and petrol (PRBO). The influence on the viscosity of the RBO with the addition of the ethanol and petrol from 200C to 700C has also been studied. The tests conducted from no load to full load of the engine with an increment of ...

Venkata Subbaiah, G.; Raja Gopal, K.; Durga Prasad, B.

2010-01-01

129

Station Capacity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimalplatform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station or used in a combined approach giving comprehensive knowledge about the station. Furthermore, the paper shows how the developed methods can be used to analyze initiatives for improving the capacity of a complex station like Copenhagen central station.

Landex, Alex

2011-01-01

130

Using Attendance Worksheets to Improve Student Attendance, Participation, and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

As science instructors we are faced with two main barriers with respect to student learning. The first is motivating our students to attend class and the second is to make them active participants in the learning process once we have gotten them to class. As we head further into the internet age this problem only gets exacerbated as students have replaced newspapers with cell phones which can surf the web, check their emails, and play games. Quizzes can motivated the students to attend class but do not necessarily motivate them to pay attention. Active learning techniques work but we as instructors have been bombarded by the active learning message to the point that we either do it already or refuse to. I present another option which in my classroom has doubled the rate at which students learn my material. By using attendance worksheets instead of end of class quizzes I hold students accountable for not just their attendance but for when they show up and when they leave the class. In addition it makes the students an active participant in the class even without using active learning techniques as they are writing notes and answering the questions you have posed while the class is in progress. Therefore using attendance worksheets is an effective tool to use in order to guide student learning.

Rhoads, Edward

2013-06-01

131

THE CONSEQUENCES OF LEAD PETROL USE ON LEAD CONTENT IN CABBAGE ALONG THE MOTORWAY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Besides the negative ecological consequences, during the production of the motor petrol (alkyl lead as anti–knock compound, as well as the application (combustion in motor engines, there are the ecological consequences manifested by deposition of Pb in the soil beside the motorway. At the same time this is the end of the life cycle of the petrol. However, Pb enters the human consumption chain through the plants that absorb Pb from the soil, and it is also deposited in the human body. The series of analyses of the cabbage head, outer leaves and soil includes left and right sides of the motorway of each of the control points, at the distance of 1m, 2m, 5m, 10m, 100m, and 400m from the motorway, each distance on the left and right side of the motorway. The results are shown in mg Pb/kg of the sample. The quantity of Pb shows decreasing effect when the distance from the motorway, is increased.

M. Matavuly

2006-06-01

132

Emissions from a vehicle fitted to operate on either petrol or compressed natural gas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of emission products from a six-cylinder sedan car under a variety of operating conditions, before and after it has been converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel. The specific focus of the measurements was on emission levels and characteristics of ultra fine particles and the emission levels together with the emissions of gaseous pollutants for a range of operating conditions before and up to 3 months after the vehicle was converted are presented and discussed in the paper. The investigations showed that converting a petrol operating vehicle to CNG has the potential of reducing some of the emissions and thus risks, while it does not appear to have an impact on others. In particular there was no statistically significant change in the emission of particles for the vehicle operating on petrol, before the conversion, compared to the emissions for the vehicle operating on CNG, after the conversion. There was a significant lowering of emissions of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and formaldehyde when the vehicle was operated on CNG, and a reduction of global warming potential was also observed when the vehicle was run on CNG, but the later gain is only at high vehicle speeds/loads, and would thus have to be considered in view of traffic and transport models for the region (in these models vehicle speed is an important parameter). PMID:15081726

Ristovski, Z; Morawska, L; Ayoko, G A; Johnson, G; Gilbert, D; Greenaway, C

2004-05-01

133

An analytic study of applying Miller cycle to reduce NOx emission from petrol engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analytic investigation of applying Miller cycle to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from a petrol engine is carried out. The Miller cycle used in the investigation is a late intake valve closing version. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the cycle is presented. A comparison of the characters of Miller cycle with Otto cycle is presented. From the results of thermodynamic analyses, it can be seen that the application of Miller cycle is able to reduce the compression pressure and temperature in the cylinder at the end of compression stroke. Therefore, it lowers down the combustion temperature and NOx formation in engine cylinder. These results in a lower exhaust temperature and less NOx emissions compared with that of Otto cycle. The analytic results also show that Miller cycle ratio is a main factor to influence the combustion temperature, and then the NOx emissions and the exhaust temperature. The results from the analytic study are used to analyse and to compare with the previous experimental results. An empirical formula from the previous experimental results that showed the relation of NOx emissions with the exhaust temperature at different engine speed is presented. The results from the study showed that the application of Miller cycle may reduce NOx emissions from petrol engine

134

Effectiveness of leaded petrol phase-out in Tianjin, China based on the aerosol lead concentration and isotope abundance ratio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phase-out of leaded petrol has been a measure widely used to reduce atmospheric lead pollution. Since the 1980s, China began to promote unleaded petrol. In order to assess the effectiveness of the measure an isotope fingerprint technique was applied for aerosol samples in the city of Tianjin. After dilute acid leaching, the lead concentration and isotope abundance ratios were determined for 123 samples collected in Tianjin during eight years (1994-2001). The 206Pb / 207Pb ratio was lower in summer, when coal combustion emission was low and vehicle exhaust became more important, indicating that the 206Pb / 207Pb ratio of leaded petrol in Tianjin is lower than that of aerosol samples. The 206Pb / 207Pb ratio gradually increased from 1994 to 2001, a trend that suggests that the contribution from vehicle exhaust was diminishing. Overall, the measurements matched well with national statistical data of leaded and unleaded petrol production. After the nationwide switch to unleaded gasoline, comprehensive control measures are urgently needed to reduce air lead pollution in China, as aerosol lead reduced slightly but remains at a relatively high level

135

Petrol governance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the limits of the earth`s carrying capacity come to show, increasing pressure is brought to bear on private enterprise to behave in more environmentally responsible ways. One of the rare studies, that not only focuses on the enterprise level of analyse but at the industrial chain of production is Integrated Production Chain Management (IPCM), which postulates that the chain needs to be modified in its entirety. IPCM is not just a technical coordination problem but also a organizational problem in which different interests of actors play a role. These interests must be analysed. The present article will not go into the technical bottlenecks but will go into organizational bottlenecks that are the result of conflicts of interests. The choice between different technological options is not seen as a merely `technical` one but rather as a choice between different socio-technical (sub)systems. This choice is made in an interaction process in a network of various actors, each with their own perceptions and their own interests, in situations in which information is far from conclusive. (author)

Taminau, Y.; Vliet, M. van [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Public Management

1995-12-31

136

Comparative performance of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on the biofuel kinematical viscosity, brake mean effective pressure (bmep), brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a diesel engine and its brake thermal efficiency (bte). Addition into RO from 2.5 to 7.5 vol% of ethanol and petrol its viscosity at ambient temperature of 20 C diminishes by 9.2-28.3% and 14.1-31.7%, respectively. Heating up to the temperature of 60 C the viscosity of pure RO, blends ERO2.5-7.5 and PRO2.5-10 further diminishes 4.2, 3.9-3.8 and 3.9-3.6 times. At 1800 min{sup -1} speed, the maximum brake mean effective pressure (bmep) higher up to 1.6% comparing with that of pure RO (0.77 MPa) ensure three agent blends EPRO5-7.5, whereas at rated 2200 min{sup -1} speed, the bmep higher by 5.6% can be obtained when fuelling the engine with blend PRO2.5. Brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) at maximum torque (240.2 g/kWh) and rated power (234.0 g/kWh) is correspondingly lower by 3.4% and 5.5% in comparison with pure RO when biofuel blends EPRO5 and PRO2.5 are used. The biggest brake thermal efficiency at maximum torque (0.40-0.41) and rated power (0.42-0.43) relative to that of RO (0.39) suggest blends PRO2.5 and EPRO5-7.5, respectively. (author)

Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys [Department of Transport and Power Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Student Street 15, P.O. Box LT-53361, Kaunas Academy (Lithuania)

2009-03-15

137

Yearly measurements of blood lead in Swedish children since 1978: an update focusing on the petrol lead free period 1995–2001  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aims: To assess blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) in children not exposed to petrol lead. In a previous paper we reported the results for the period 1978–94 (2441 children measured). A substantial decrease of B-Pb was found, which reflected a beneficial effect of gradual banning of petrol lead. Since 1994, petrol sold in Sweden has not contained lead. Methods: In the south of Sweden, each year from 1995 to 2001, B-Pb was measured in 329 boys and 345 girls, aged ...

Stro?mberg, Ulf; Lundh, Thomas; Schu?tz, A.; Skerfving, Staffan

2003-01-01

138

STATION NAME  

Table of Freshwater Fish Compliance (updated August 2010) STATION NAME IRISH FFD2006 FFD 2006 FFD2006 SAMPLING FFD FFD FFD GRID SANITARY ZINC REASON FOR REGIME 2007 2008 2009 To search for river, lake or canal, press ...

139

monitoring stations  

Draft River Basin Management Plans Draft River Basin Management Plan Monitoring Site Information December 2008 This sheet was created from data current at 22 December 2008. Ballyedmond 1 Monitoring station code: GBNI-...

140

Modeling for Friction of Four Stroke Four Cylinder In-Line Petrol Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A four stroke four cylinder in-line petrol engine is modeled to estimate various performance parameters. The solution is based on tribology and dynamics principle. The detailed parameters relating to engine friction and lubrication are computed numerically for the engine firing order 1-3-4-2. The numerical method is based on finite difference method that solves coupled Reynolds Equation and Energy Equation. Output includes the movie thickness, friction force, friction power loss and temperature rise in the ring liner conjunction in all four cylinders. Transient regime of ring liner lubrication isaddressed while the same changes from hydrodynamic to mixed in an engine cycle. Momentary cessation near the top and bottom dead center that causes boundary interaction is analyzed through asperity contact. The non - Newtonian behavior of lubricant film due to pressure and temperature is addresses using viscosity -pressure- temperature inter relationship.

P.C. Mishra

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Condition monitoring of valve clearance fault on a small four strokes petrol engine using vibration signals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies condition monitoring technique of a small four strokes, single cylinder petrol engine using vibrationsignal analysis based on time domain, crank angle domain, and signal energy. Vibration signals are acquired from the cylinderhead of the engine and used to describe engine processes such as intake/exhaust valve operations, ignition process, andcombustion process. In this study, vibration signals have been applied to monitor various fault conditions in the engine suchas intake and exhaust valve clearance faults. Vibration signals acquired in time domain could be mapped onto crank angledomain using top dead center signal. Time domain techniques were used to analyze vibration signals so that the main eventsrelated to the engine operations could be described easily. Using energy analysis technique, all fault conditions could bealso identified. For future work, signal analysis techniques must be developed and the detected signals should be comparedwith other signals such as pressure signal in order to verify the accuracy of the results.

Songpon Klinchaeam

2010-12-01

142

Petrol contaminated groundwater treatment with air-stripper in Balassagyarmat, Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

an extraction well with 300 mm diameter in a 500 mm borehole. Peristaltic skimmer pump was used inside the extraction well to remove the free phase petrol from the ground water surface.Because of the intense volatility of the pollutant we applied aeration (stripping) technology. The extracted contaminated groundwater was cleaned in air-stripper equipment being able to eliminate efficiently the volatile pollutants from the water. The aeration tower is a compact cylindrical shaped column with 650 mm in diameter. Its height depends on the pollutant's type The extracted contaminated groundwater was conducted to the top of the tower and sprinkled into the air- stripper. A ventilator was connected to the bottom of the stripper, which blew the air with high pressure against the water stream. During the operation 4 544 m3 groundwater was pumped out, cleaned, drained and 110 l of free phase hydrocarbon was skimmed

143

Some investigations in design of low cost variable compression ratio two stroke petrol engine  

CERN Document Server

Historically two stroke engine petrol engines find wide applications in construction of two wheelers worldwide, however due to stringent environmental laws enforced universally; these engines are fading in numbers. In spite of the tight norms, internationally these engines are still used in agriculture, gensets etc. Several designs of variable compression ratio two stroke engines are commercially available for analysis purpose. In this present investigation a novel method of changing the compression ratio is proposed, applied, studied and analyzed. The clearance volume of the engine is altered by introducing a metal plug into the combustion chamber. This modification permitted to have four different values of clearance value keeping in view of the studies required the work is brought out as two sections. The first part deals with the design, modification, engine fabrication and testing at different compression ratios for the study of performance of the engine. The second part deals with the combustion in engi...

Srinivas, A; rao, P Venkateswar; Reddy, M Penchal

2012-01-01

144

The new V6 petrol engines; Die neuen V6-Ottomotoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two completely new V6 petrol engines based on the current V-engine range have been developed for use in the new Audi A6. The new V6 2.4 l 4V MPI engine represents the refinement-oriented basic power unit and the new 3.2l 4V FSI engine with direct injection the top end of the V6 range. (orig.) [German] Fuer den Einsatz im neuen Audi A6 wurden zwei voellig neue V6-Ottomotoren auf Basis der aktuellen V-Motoren-Baureihe entwickelt. Der neue V6-2,4-l-4V-MPI-Motor stellt die komfortorientierte Basismotorisierung dar, der neue 3,2-l-4V-FSI-Motor mit Direkteinspritzung die V6-Spitzenmotorisierung. (orig.)

Eiser, A.; Fitzen, M.; Gessler, J.; Heiduk, T.; Mendle, J.; Pelzer, A. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

2004-03-01

145

Price setting under cost uncertainty and menu costs - the case of the Danish petrol market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper derives the optimal pricing policy for a firm facing menu costs and stochastic production cost. The pricing policy is a boundary pricing policy and numerical comparative static analysis shows how exogenous parameters - the drift and variance of the production cost, the discount factor and the menu costs - affect the boundaries. Analyzing daily data for the Danish petrol price illustrates that a boundary pricing policy indeed has been followed for the period 1988-1992, with occasional shifts in both the desired mark-up and more importantly in the width of the bounds. While the theoretical model can say nothing of the shifts in desired mark-up, changes in the width of the bounds are found to be consistent with the implications of the model. (au)

146

Latent heat storage modules for preheating internal combustion engines: application to a bus petrol engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heat storage (HS) system for pre-heating a bus petrol engine before its ignition was mathematically modelled and experimentally investigated. The development of such devices is an extremely urgent problem especially for regions with a cold climate. HS system working on the effect of absorption and rejection of heat during the solid-liquid phase change of HS material is realised, tested and results of R and D are discussed. Numerical modelling was performed to calculate the HS mass-dimensional parameters. In the experimental part of the paper results of experiments on the pre-heating device to start a carburettor engine and analysis of data received are given. There is a good correlation between the experimental data and the results of numerical modelling of HS system functioning. (author)

Vasiliev, L.L.; Burak, V.S.; Kulakov, A.G.; Mishkinis, D.A.; Bohan, P.V. [Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, Minsk (Belarus)

2000-07-01

147

Cost effectiveness of introducing a new European evaporative emissions test procedure for petrol vehicles  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaporative emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) arise from the vehicle's fuel system due to changes in ambient and vehicle temperatures, and contribute to urban smog. This paper presents an economic analysis of the societal costs and benefits of implementing a revised European evaporative emission test procedure for petrol vehicles under four scenarios for the period 2015-2040. The paper concludes that the most cost-effective option is the implementation of an aggressive purging strategy over 48 h and improved canister durability (scenario 2+). The average net benefit of implementing this scenario is €146,709,441 at a 6% discount rate. Per vehicle benefits range from €6-9 but when fuel savings benefits are added, total benefits range from €13-18. This is compared to average additional cost per vehicle of €9.

Haq, Gary; Martini, Giorgio; Mellios, Giorgos

2014-10-01

148

Filling station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A filling station for the remote filling of radioactive substances into drums, with an outlet opening for these substances, is described. To prevent contamination, a drip pan is installed below the outlet opening; the patent claims pertain to the remote control, cleaning, and replacement of the drip pan. (orig./PW)

149

45 CFR 1305.8 - Attendance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM ELIGIBILITY, RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE IN HEAD START § 1305.8 Attendance. (a) When the monthly...

2010-10-01

150

45 CFR 1305.8 - Attendance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PROGRAM ELIGIBILITY, RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE IN HEAD START...however, the absences result from other factors, including temporary family problems...sensitive to any special family circumstances influencing attendance patterns. All contacts...

2010-10-01

151

World future prospects of natural gas industry and research programs on natural gas led by Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper gives a general overview on future prospects of world natural gas industry till 2020. In a first part, statistical data on energy demand, natural gas resources, natural gas and liquefied natural gas production and transport, supply, trade, costs and prices are offered. In the second part, the paper describes briefly research programs led by Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) in several fields: exploration and underground storage, production and transport, treatment and liquefaction, gas uses. 4 figs., 2 tabs

152

Th effectiveness of soot removal techniques for the recovery of fingerprints on glass fire debris in petrol bomb cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increased use of petrol bombs as an act of vengeance in Malaysia has heightened awareness for the need of research relating physical evidence found at the crime scene to the perpetrator of the crime. A study was therefore carried out to assess the effectiveness of soot removal techniques on glass fire debris without affecting the fingerprints found on the evidence. Soot was removed using three methods which were brushing, 2 % NaOH solution and tape lifting. Depending on the visibility of prints recovered, prints which were visible after soot removal were lifted directly while prints that were not visible were subjected to enhancement. Glass microscope slides were used in laboratory experiment and subjected to control burn for the formation of soot. Soot was later removed following enhancement of the prints over time (within 1 day, within 2 days and after 2 days). While in simulated petrol bomb ground experiment, petrol bombs were hurled in glass bottles and the fragments were collected. Favorable results were obtained in varying degrees using each soot removal methods. In laboratory testing, brushing and 2 % NaOH solution revealed fingerprints that were visible after removal of excess soot and were lifted directly. As for tape lifting technique, some prints were visible and were successfully lifted while those that were not visible were subjected to super glue fuming for effective fingerprint identification. (author)

153

Hydrogen Filling Station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4:

Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

2010-02-24

154

Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within ...

Mackinnon, G.; Mackenzie, A. B.; Cook, G. T.; Pulford, I. D.; Duncan, H. J.; Scott, E. M.

2011-01-01

155

Attendance and Performance: How Important Is It for Students To Attend Class?  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores the correlation between class attendance and performance in a biology course. Shows that class attendance by most students in nonmajor science classes is influenced by whether they receive points for attending class. Indicates the value of stressing to introductory science students the importance of class attendance to their academic…

Moore, Randy

2003-01-01

156

LEG CONQUASATION CAUSED BY PETROL TILLER WITH OPEN LOWER LEG FRACTURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a 71-year old patient admitted to Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Clinic, Clinical Center Niš for the right leg conquasation. The patient was injured accidentally by a petrol tiller. On admission, both thigh and lower leg conquasation was observed with large wound on anteromedial thigh and one on medial side of the lower leg. Soft tissue and bones were covered with dirt and pieces of clothing. The wounds were thoroughly rinsed and dirt was removed followed by detailed debridement. After primary surgical treatment of the wound, open proximal lower leg fracture was stabilized with external skeletal fixation using two nails in the proximal and two nails in the distal fragment. Soft tissue defect was treated by plastic surgeon. The patient was administered anti-tetanus protection, antibiotic treatment and anticoagulant prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. Physical therapy was initiated subsequent to successful healing of the soft tissue wounds. External skeletal fixation was removed after three months for infection around the proximal nails and the treatment was contuinued using functional Sarmiento’s plaster imobilization leading to full recovery of open lower leg fracture.

Ivan Golubovi?

2014-03-01

157

Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds--0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h(-1). Emission factors and their relative values between the two fuel types together with a statistical significance for any difference were estimated for each parameter. In general, LPG was found to be a 'cleaner' fuel, although in most cases, the differences were not statistically significant owing to the large variations between emissions from different vehicles. The particle number emission factors ranged from 10(11) to 10(13) km(-1) and was over 70% less with LPG compared to ULP. Corresponding differences in particle mass emission factor between the two fuels were small and ranged from the order of 10 microg km(-1) at 40 to about 1000 microg km(-1) at 100 km h(-1). The count median particle diameter (CMD) ranged from 20 to 35 nm and was larger with LPG than with ULP in all modes except the idle mode. Carbon dioxide emission factors ranged from about 300 to 400 g km(-1) at 40 km h(-1), falling with increasing speed to about 200 g km(-1) at 100 km h(-1). At all speeds, the values were 10% to 18% greater with ULP than with LPG. PMID:15919531

Ristovski, Z D; Jayaratne, E R; Morawska, L; Ayoko, G A; Lim, M

2005-06-01

158

Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds-0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h-1. Emission factors and their relative values between the two fuel types together with a statistical significance for any difference were estimated for each parameter. In general, LPG was found to be a 'cleaner' fuel, although in most cases, the differences were not statistically significant owing to the large variations between emissions from different vehicles. The particle number emission factors ranged from 1011 to 1013 km-1 and was over 70% less with LPG compared to ULP. Corresponding differences in particle mass emission factor between the two fuels were small and ranged from the order of 10 ?g km-1 at 40 to about 1000 ?g km-1 at 100 km h-1. The count median particle diameter (CMD) ranged from 20 to 35 nm and was larger with LPG than with ULP in all modes except the idle mode. Carbon dioxide emission factors ranged from about 300 to 400 g km-1 at 40 km h-1, falling with increasing speed to about 200 g km-1 at 100 km h-1. At all speeds, the values were 10% to 18% greater with ULP than with LPG

159

Performance Characteristics of Oxy Hydrogen Gas on Two Stroke Petrol Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to conserve petroleum fuels for future and to eliminate the above limitations there is a need of alternative and innovative fuel. Amongst many alternative fuels available oxy hydrogen gas and producer gas are under study in this research work. Electrolysis of water can give us hydrogen in form of Brown’s gas (HHO gas or oxy-hydrogen gas, which can be used as an alternative fuel for any internal combustion engine. Various methods for the generation of oxy-hydrogen gas are discussed in the coming paragraphs. An agricultural waste like rice husk, wood dust, and dried coconut leaves etc can also be used as an alternative fuels. An attempt has been made in this work to use alternative fuel in two stroke petrol engine. Our fore most aim in selecting this project is to use nonconventional fuel against conventional fuel which is becoming scarce and costly now days. The combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel with air produces mainly carbon dioxide (CO2 and Water (H2O. However, internal combustion engines are not perfectly efficient, so some of the fuel is not burned, which results in the presence of hydrocarbons (HC other organic compounds, carbon monoxide (CO and forming mainly nitric oxide (NO.

G.Ajay Kumar

2013-12-01

160

Specifying Complex Systems in Object-Z: A Case Study of Petrol Supply Systems  

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Full Text Available As modern complex systems become increasingly large, sophisticated, feature-rich and data-intensive, people have recognized the importance of precisely and unambiguously specifying them with formal methods for a number of years. This paper advocates the use of Object-Z, a formal specification language, in the description of complex systems. Object-Z is an extension to the Z language to facilitate specification in an object-oriented style. The notation Object-Z builds on Z's strengths in modeling complex data and algorithms, and on its new class structuring's strengths in succinctly specifying the various relationships and communication between objects in a large system. In detail, first we describe informally the syntax and semantics of Object-Z, highlighting those features that facilitate decomposing a large system into a collection of interacting objects and thus separating concerns. Then, we demonstrate the use of Object-Z by presenting a case study of a petrol supply system, illustrating how the system runs by communicating the constituent objects. Finally, we discuss several issues we encountered in this exercise, which may serve as feedback to the development of Object-Z.

Yangping Li

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Green fuels, growth engines after petroleum; Les carburants verts, moteurs de la croissance apres le petrole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution of the new fuels to a greener environment is important and immediate. Thanks to clean novel technologies and to commercial plant projects in development, companies like Enerkem contribute to satisfy increasing global demand for clean energy. They stimulate local economies by creating jobs in an industry that offers real growth potential. Green fuels will gradually allow us to let go of non sustainable energy sources like oil to adopt a way of life based on sustainable development. They will also allow a shift towards a green economy. [French] La contribution des nouveaux carburants a un environnement plus vert est importante et immediate. Grace a des technologies propres novatrices et a des projets d'sines commerciales en developpement, des entreprises comme Enerkem contribuent a satisfaire a la demande mondiale croissante en energie propre. Elles stimulent les economies locales par la creation d'emplois dans une industrie qui offre un veritable potentiel de croissance. Les carburants verts permettront graduellement de nous affranchir des sources d'energie non renouvelables comme le petrole pour adopter un mode de vie base sur le developpement durable. Ils permettront aussi un virage vers une economie verte.

Mili, Dino

2010-09-15

162

Attendance and attainment – a comparative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through data collected over a single module first year single semester at UCE the link between attendance at teaching sessions and success in assessment is positively correlated. Attendance over time during the semester is also linked to results and final success. Indicators and action points identified have been identified that give early warning of attendance problems so that early action can be taken. Possible changes in teaching methods that could be considered in the future are discussed.

John Colby

2005-05-01

163

On board emission and fuel consumption measurement campaign on petrol-driven passenger cars  

Science.gov (United States)

Realistic emission and fuel consumption rates of petrol-driven cars were determined by on-the-road experiments in 1995. A validated, in-house developed, on-board measuring system was used. Six three-way catalyst (TWC) cars and one carburetted non-catalyst car were measured. The effects of road type, driving behaviour and cold start on CO, HC and NO x emissions and fuel consumption were analysed. In real traffic situations, emissions for TWC cars were found to be at least 70% lower than for the non-catalyst car. For TWC cars, emissions decreased across the board from city to rural and motorway traffic. Without a catalyst, motorway traffic resulted in the highest NO x emissions. Compared to normal driving, aggressive driving gave emissions which were up to four times higher. Except for NO x, calm driving resulted in lower emissions still. Comparable fuel consumption rates were obtained from normal and calm driving. Those from aggressive driving were higher, by as much as 40% in city traffic. Cold starts resulted in significantly higher CO and HC emission values than hot starts. These differences were less pronounced for NO x. Emissions from TWC cars were higher than generally expected, compared to the European emission limit values (91/441/EEC) and the emission factors used in Flanders and the Netherlands (Klein,1993) for the national emission inventories. Low-emitting cars during the emission test on a chassis dynamometer, as prescribed by the 91/441/EEC directive, did not necessarily give low emissions in real traffic situations.

De Vlieger, I.

164

Designing a heat pipe to improve the exhaust emissions from petrol engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The national engineering Laboratory and the Shell research laboratory have co-operated in applying the heat pipe to the problem of exhaust emission from petrol engine. It is known that the carbon monoxide CO, un-burnt hydrocarbons (HxCy) and oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) content of the exhaust will vary with air to fuel ratio as shown in figure (1), in a conventional car engine the maximum efficiency is achieved at 15:1 and maximum power is obtained at 12:1. It's known that as the air fuel ratio increases, the CO content decreases and HxCy, NOx go through a minimum and maximum respectively. A considerable important in both CO and NOx content could be chivied by selecting a very weak mixture, but this not possible in a standard engine carburetor system due to the ignition difficulty, because the fuel is not fully vaporized, and because the fuel is not distributed equally between the cylinders and the vapor content is not as high as it should be due to the pressure of liquid fuel. This problem could be solved by designing a heat pipe that can transferring a certain quantities of heat from the exhaust to the induction manifold at the carburetor outlet as shown in figure (2). Under this condition a mixture as lean as 22:1 will ignite with out difficulty. In this paper, a complete design of heat pipe is carried out, taking into account the necessary criteria to decide various geometrical parameters. The design has been carried out using basic formulas in thermodynamics, heat transfer and physics. The result of this design have been checked for various practical limits. (author)

165

Is there an asymmetry in the response of diesel and petrol prices to crude oil price changes? Evidence from New Zealand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines how pre-tax petrol and diesel prices in New Zealand respond to changes in crude oil prices using an asymmetric error correction model. Our results show that oil companies adjust diesel prices upwards faster than they adjust them downwards, and the difference is statistically significant. However we find no statistical evidence for an asymmetry in the adjustment of petrol prices even though the magnitude of estimated coefficients suggests a faster response to rising prices. As diesel pricing is not as competitive as petrol pricing, calls for further government actions and monitoring of the oil market may be justified. Our findings also have important implications for the conduct of monetary policy as the pass-through of crude oil price changes can affect cost-push inflation. (author)

166

Is there an asymmetry in the response of diesel and petrol prices to crude oil price changes? Evidence from New Zealand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines how pre-tax petrol and diesel prices in New Zealand respond to changes in crude oil prices using an asymmetric error correction model. Our results show that oil companies adjust diesel prices upwards faster than they adjust them downwards, and the difference is statistically significant. However we find no statistical evidence for an asymmetry in the adjustment of petrol prices even though the magnitude of estimated coefficients suggests a faster response to rising prices. As diesel pricing is not as competitive as petrol pricing, calls for further government actions and monitoring of the oil market may be justified. Our findings also have important implications for the conduct of monetary policy as the pass-through of crude oil price changes can affect cost-push inflation. (author)

Liu, Ming-Hua [Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau (Macau); Margaritis, Dimitris; Tourani-Rad, Alireza [Faculty of Business, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand)

2010-07-15

167

An influence of the petrol pump for the atmospheric electric field distribution in the surroundings of the vehicles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the potential and electric field distribution in the surroundings of the cargo vehicles is approximately numerically determined, when they are exposed to the Atmospheric Electric Field (AEF, having uniform intensity and vertical polarization. The cases of the cargo vehicles either isolated or near by petrol pumps are observed. Several results of total induced charge and electrical moment of the vehicle including maps of equipotential and equienergetic curves are presented. The Equivalent Electrode Method (EEM is used to solve this problem.

Milovanovi? Alenka

2004-01-01

168

Comparative Effects of Petrol and Diesel on Enzyme Activity in Tympanotonus fuscatus after Sublethal Exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pollution of the aquatic environment by petroleum and its products is common the world over. This study is aimed at examining sublethal effects of petrol and diesel on enzymes in Tympanotonus fuscatus namely: Aspartate Transaminase (AST) (E.C. 2.6.1.1), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) (E.C. 2.6.2.2) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) (E.C. 3.1.3.1) activity after exposure. The periwinkles were exposed to 10.40, 15.60, 21.00, 26.00 ml L-1 and a control. The organs were removed o...

Edori, E. S.; Festus, C.; Edori, O. S.

2014-01-01

169

Eski Sovyet Ülkelerinde Cari Hesap Dengesi Belirleyicileri ve Petrol Zenginli?inin Neden Oldu?u Farkl?l?klar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bu çal??mada eski Sovyetler Birli?i ülkelerinde cari hesap dengesinin temel belirleyicilerinin ara?t?r?lmas? amaçlanm??t?r.Bu amaçla, birlik üyesi on ülkenin, petrol-do?algaz zenginli?i bak?m?ndan farkl? alt gruplar?n?n 1995-2010 dönemine ait y?ll?k verileri ve panel sabit etkiler yöntemi kullan?lm??t?r. Tahmin sonuçlar?, tüm ülke gruplar?nda yat?r?m art???n?n, finansal geli?menin ve genç nüfus oran? art???n?n cari hesap dengesini negatif ...

Ag?ayev, Seymur

2013-01-01

170

Ultra-fast selective sensing of ethanol and petrol using microwave-range metamaterial complementary split-ring resonators  

Science.gov (United States)

An extremely compact metamaterial microstrip sensor based on complementary split-ring-resonators (CSRRs) has been fabricated for chemical sensing. This device exhibits a resonance with high rejection at 4.5 GHz, which demonstrates concomitant variations when exposed to liquids of various permittivity values. The resonance frequency of CSRR is sensitive to the change in nearby dielectric material. The sensing of petrol shows a shift in frequency with a sharp dip in transmission, while, with ethanol, the frequency shift is accompanied with increase in the power of the signal. The ultra-fast reversibility and repeatability offers good headway towards hybrid fuel sensing applications.

Rawat, Vaishali; Dhobale, Sandip; Kale, S. N.

2014-10-01

171

Advanced introduction of cleaner petrol and diesel in the Netherlands. An analysis of the emission potential and cost effectiveness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2005 the European Union is to introduce tighter environmental standards for road vehicle fuels. The emissions of new passenger vehicles, delivery vans and heavy good vehicles will then have to satisfy even more stringent criteria, as will petrol and diesel fuel composition, the sulphur content of which must then be down from respectively 150 and 350 parts per million to 50 ppm. In the case of petrol, the maximum permitted aromatics content is also to be reduced, from 42% to 35%. There are two motives for introducing tighter environmental criteria for vehicle fuels. In the first place it will have the direct effect of immediately reducing the noxious emissions of all road vehicles running on these fuels, because of improvements to the combustion process. In addition, there will also be a significant indirect effect. Availability of low-sulphur fuels opens the door for several new vehicle technologies. In the case of petrol vehicles it permits introduction of direct-injection (DI) lean-burn engines with catalytic NOx absorption. In diesel vehicles new types of catalytic systems can be introduced, including 'particle traps' to reduce PM10 emissions. These technologies require low-sulphur fuels to be effective. An environmental downside of these cleaner fuels is that refinery production is more energy-intensive. EU member states are free to support implementation of these 'cleaner' fuels at an earlier date if they so desire. The objective of the present study is to proe objective of the present study is to provide background data for a possible decision on accelerated introduction of these fuels in the Netherlands. The aim of this study is to investigate the environmental effects and economic costs of accelerated introduction in the Netherlands of 'cleaner' fuels satisfying the EU's '2005 standards'. Two possible dates have been considered for earlier implementation: November 2001 and June 2003. November 2001 has been taken because this is when Germany will be introducing a tax incentive for low-sulphur petrol and diesel fuels. June 2003 lies exactly halfway between this date and January 2005. It has been assumed that the 'cleaner' fuels will immediately capture 100% of the market. Diesel and petrol have been examined separately, given the fact that little synergy will be created through simultaneous introduction of the two 'clean' fuels. The direct environmental effects of these fuels on the existing vehicle fleet have been calculated using a model for the European Auto-Oil programme updated by the TNO Road Vehicles Research Unit to account for the most recent developments. The indirect environmental effects have been estimated using literature data and TNO expertise. The cost estimates are based on information provided by the oil industry and from the literature, augmented where necessary by our own calculations. Give the substantial uncertainties surrounding much of this data, in relevant cases we have made both pessimistic and optimistic estimates. By assigning a monetary value to the environmental effects these can be compared with costs, enabling the cost-effectiveness of accelerated introduction to be calculated. 37 refs

172

FACE RECOGNITION BASED ATTENDANCE MARKING SYSTEM?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Automatic face recognition (AFR technologies have seen dramatic improvements in performance over the past years, and such systems are now widely used for security and commercial applications. An automated system for human face recognition in a real time background for a college to mark the attendance of their employees. So Smart Attendance using Real Time Face Recognition is a real world solution which comes with day to day activities of handling employees. The task is very difficult as the real time background subtraction in an image is still a challenge (6. To detect real time human face are used and a simple fast Principal Component Analysis has used to recognize the faces detected with a high accuracy rate. The matched face is used to mark attendance of the employee.Our system maintains the attendance records of employees automatically. Manual entering of attendance in logbooks becomes a difficult task and it also wastes the time. So we designed an efficient module that comprises of face recognition to manage the attendance records of employees. Our module enrols the staff’s face (3. This enrolling is a onetime process and their face will be stored in the database. During enrolling of face we require a system since it is a onetime process. You can have your own roll number as your employee id which will be unique for each employee. The presence of each employee will be updated in a database. The results showed improved performance over manual attendance management system. Attendance is marked after employee identification. This product gives much more solutions with accurate results in user interactive manner rather than existing attendance and leave management systems.

K.Senthamil Selvi

2014-02-01

173

Radio Frequency Identification Based Wireless Attendance System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, there have been rise in the number of applications based on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID systems and have been successfully applied to different areas as diverse as transportation, health-care, agriculture, and hospitality industry to name a few. RFID technology facilitates automatic wireless identification using electronic passive and active tags with suitable readers. In this paper, an attempt is made to solve recurrent lecture attendance monitoring problem in developing countries using RFID technology. The application of RFID to student attendance monitoring as developed and deployed in this study is capable of eliminating time wasted during manual collection of attendance and an opportunity for the educational administrators to capture face-to-face classroom statistics for allocation of appropriate attendance scores and for further managerial decisions.

Mistry Tapasvee

2014-03-01

174

Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within 10 m of a motorway and 3 m of a minor road. Overall, the dominant source of Pb was historical emissions from nearby industrial areas. There was no discernible change in concentration or isotopic composition of Pb in surface soil or vegetation over the decade since the ban on the sale of leaded petrol. There was an order of magnitude decrease in Pb concentrations in road dust over the study period, but petrol Pb persisted at up to 43% of the total Pb concentration in 2010. Similar concentrations and spatial distributions of petrol Pb and non petrol Pb in vegetation in both 2001 and 2010, with enhanced concentrations near roads, suggested that redistribution of previously deposited material has operated continuously over that period, maintaining a transfer pathway of Pb into the biosphere. The results for vegetation and soil transects near minor roads provided evidence of a non petrol Pb source associated with roads/traffic, but surface soil samples from the vicinity of a motorway failed to show evidence of such a source. - Highlights: ? A 10 year study of Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in farmland. ? Soil and vegetation showed no systematic decrease in Pb concentrations over 10 years. ? Road dust Pb concentrations fell from 117 mg kg-1 in 2001 to 14.2 mg kg-1 in 2010. ? Enhancement of petrol Pb only within 10m of a motorway and 3m of a minor road.

175

On exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled passenger cars at low ambient temperatures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study at hand deals with regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled cars at low ambient temperatures with present-day or near-future exhaust after treatment systems. The subject has been investigated at VTT over a decade and this report compiles data from various sub-studies carried out between the years 1993 - 1997. Each one of them viewed different aspects of the phenomenon, like determining the low-temperature response of today`s new cars employing three-way catalytic converters or assessing the long-term durability and the influence of vehicle mileage upon the low-temperature emissions performance. Within these studies, together more than 120 cars of model years from 1990 to 1997 have been tested. Most of them were normal, in-service vehicles with total mileages differing between only a few thousand kilometres for new cars up to 80,000 km or even more for the in-use vehicles. Both the US FTP75 and the European test cycle have been employed, and the ambient temperatures ranged from the baseline (+22 deg C) down to +- O deg C, -7 deg C and in some cases even to -20 deg C. The studies attested that new cars having today`s advanced emissions control systems produced fairly low levels of emissions when tested in conditions designated in the regulations that are the basis of the current new-vehicle certification. However, this performance was not necessarily attained at ambient temperatures that were below the normative range. Fairly widespread response was recorded, and cars having almost equal emissions output at baseline could produce largely deviating outcomes in low-temperature conditions. On average, CO and HC emissions increased by a factor of five to 10, depending on the ambient temperature and vehicle type. However, emissions of NO{sub x} were largely unaffected. Apart from these regulated emissions, many unregulated species were also determined, either by using traditional sampling and chromatography methods or on-line, employing the latest FTIR technology. Overall, the levels of these emissions were also mostly elevated at subnormal temperatures. Total vehicle mileage seemed not to affect cold-start emissions (CO and HC) at low temperatures. Nor did the overall durability of the emission control system appear to be worse in cold-climate conditions typical for Finland. The deterioration of the emissions performance in the tested vehicles either closely followed the average trend defined by the normal, assigned deterioration factors or was even lesser. The conclusions of this report underline the necessity of a separate low-temperature test in order to really effectively curb real-world emissions. Standards at normal temperature are no more effective alone, but need to be accompanied with additional requirements for good performance also in conditions closer to the everyday use, which comprises many cold-starts even in low ambient temperature conditions. (orig.) 75 refs.

Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

1998-11-01

176

16 CFR 1013.4 - Public attendance at Commission meetings.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Public attendance at Commission meetings. 1013.4 Section 1013.4 Commercial...THE SUNSHINE ACT, RULES FOR COMMISSION MEETINGS § 1013.4 Public attendance at Commission meetings. (a) Attendance by the public....

2010-01-01

177

Viewpoints of the attendings and medical students about the Students' evaluation of the attendings, Mazandaran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AbstractBackground and purpose: Evaluation is one of the most important bases of promoting the quality of education. It is very important to know the attendings’ and students’ viewpoints as evaluated and evaluator groups. So in this study the viewpoint of the attendings and students of School of Medicine of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (MUMS) about the students evaluation of the attendings, were studied.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-cross sectional study, all fac...

Mahmoudi, M.; Vahidshahi, K.; Ranjbar, M.

2007-01-01

178

Unique haplotypes in ant-attended aphids and widespread haplotypes in non-attended aphids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aphid species within the genus Tuberculatus Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) exhibit a variety of interactions with ants, ranging from close associations to non-attendance. A previous study indicated that despite wing possession, ant-attended Tuberculatus species exhibited low dispersal rates compared with non-attended species. This study examined if presence or absence of mutualistic interactions and habitat continuity of host plants affected intraspecific genetic diversity and genetic diffe...

Yao, Izumi; Kanbe, Takashi

2012-01-01

179

Study of exhaust emissions of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on diesel engine emission characteristics and smoke opacity of the exhausts. The biggest NOx emissions, 1954 and 2078 ppm, at 2000 min-1 speed generate blends PRO10 (9.72%) and EPRO5 (11.13%) against, 1731 and 1411 ppm, produced from ERO5 (12%) and ERO10 (13.2% oxygen) blends. The carbon monoxide, CO, emissions emitted from a fully loaded engine fuelled with three agent blends EPRO5-7.5 at maximum torque and rated speed are higher by 39.5-18.8% and 27.5-16.1% and smoke opacity lower by 3.3-9.0% and 24.1-17.6% comparing with RO case. When operating at rated 2200 min-1 mode, the carbon dioxide, CO2, emissions are lower, 6.9-6.3 vol%, from blends EPRO5-7.5 relative to that from RO, 7.8 vol%, accompanied by a slightly higher emission of unburned hydrocarbons HC, 16 ppm, and residual oxygen contents O2, 10.4-12.0 vol%, in the exhausts

180

Intermittent attendance at breast cancer screening  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. To determine why women skip rounds and factors influencing return of previous non attenders (PNAs to breast screening. Design and methods. Retrospective, quantitative, structured questionnaire posted to 2500 women. First PNAs did not attend their first screening appointment in 2007/2008 but then attended in 2010; First Controls first attended in 2010 without missed previous appointments. Women who attended screening in 2006 or earlier then skipped a round but returned in 2010 were Subsequent PNAs; Subsequent Controls attended all appointments.Results. More First Controls than First PNAs had family history of cancer (72.7% vs 63.2%; P=0.003; breast cancer (31.3% vs 24.8%; P=0.04. More PNAs lived rurally; more First PNAs had 3rd level education (33.2% vs 23.6%; P=0.002 and fewer had private insurance than First Controls (57.7% vs 64.8%; P=0.04. Excellent/good health was reported in First PNAs and First Controls (82.9% vs 83.2%, but fewer Subsequent PNAs than Subsequent Controls (72.7% vs 84.9%; P=0.000. Common considerations at time of missed appointment were had mammogram elsewhere (33% First PNA and postponed to next round (16% First PNA, 18.8% Subsequent PNA. Considerations when returning to screening were similar for First PNAs and Subsequent PNAs: I am older (35.4%, 29.6%, I made sure I remembered (29%, 23.6%, could reschedule (17.6%, 20.6%, illness of more concern (16.5%, 19%. More First PNAs stated my family/friends advised (22.3% vs 15.2% or my GP (12.6% vs 4.6% advised me to attend, heard good things about BreastCheck (28.8% vs 13.6%.Conclusions. Intermittent attenders do not fit socio-demographic patterns of non-attenders; GP recommendation and word of mouth were important in women’s return to screening. Fear and anxiety seem to act as a screening facilitator rather than an inhibitor.

Patricia Fitzpatrick

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

GPS AND GPRS BASED AUTOMATED ATTENDANCE SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to develop an accurate, fast and very efficient automatic attendance system using GPS and GPRS technique. In this paper we have designed and implemented a new type of attendance system which overcomes the present RFID as well as FINGERPRINT technology. We propose a system in which fingerprint and location verification of the person(s is done .The system that automates the whole process of taking attendance, Manually which is a laborious and troublesome work and waste a lot of time, with its managing and maintaining the records for a period of time is also a burdensome task. The experimental result shows that our proposed system is highly efficient in verification of user finger print andtheir location.

B.V.Santhosh Krishna,

2010-12-01

182

Methods to reduce outpatient non-attendance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-attendance reduces clinic and provider productivity and efficiency, compromises access and increases cost of health care. This systematic review of the English language literature (November 1999-November 2009) compares telephone, mail, text/short message service, electronic mail and open-access scheduling to determine which is best at reducing outpatient non-attendance and providing net financial benefit. Telephone, mail and text/short message service interventions all improved attendance modestly but at varying costs. Text messaging was the most cost-effective of the 3, but its applicability may be limited. Few data are available regarding electronic mail reminders, whereas open-access scheduling is an area of active research. PMID:22475731

Stubbs, Nancy D; Geraci, Stephen A; Stephenson, Priscilla L; Jones, Dianne B; Sanders, Suzanne

2012-09-01

183

A review of attendance and non-attendance studies at sporting events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite its rapid growth, in the last few years the GreekProfessional Basketball League has been concerned with the significant decrease in the general interest surrounding the game of basketball, which has resulted in a fewer number offans attending the league’s games. The Basketball Spectator Non-Attendance Scale is an instrument that facilitates the identification of factors associated with non-attendanceat professional basketball games in Greece. The scale was successfully tested for validity and reliability with a convenience sample of 270 students at the University of Athens. The design of the instrument, its practical applications and results from our initial findings are reported and explained. The paper also provides a review of attendance and non-attendance studies at sporting events, which are discussed in the context of current theoretical perspectives. Tentative recommendations are made for reaching this rather sizablenon-attendance market.

JOHN DOUVIS

2007-12-01

184

Modification of school attendance for an elementary population.  

Science.gov (United States)

The staff and students of a school composed of Grades 1 through 3 participated in a program to increase school attendance. Children earned the opportunity to attend part or all of a monthly party by their attendance. Immediate feedback occurred each morning by placing stars on a classroom chart for each child present. The school's attendance during the program was compared both with attendance during preceding years and with attendance at other schools. The experimental school's attendance improved dramatically to become the best of all elementary schools in the system. PMID:16795547

Barber, R M; Kagey, J R

1977-01-01

185

Does Attendance Enhance Political Science Grades?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article tests a relationship between class attendance and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Georgia, University of Vermont, and University of Central Arkansas between the Fall 2000 and Spring 2006 semesters. The study employs ordinary least square estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis.…

Tiruneh, Gizachew

2007-01-01

186

38 CFR 3.667 - School attendance.  

Science.gov (United States)

(1) Pension or compensation may be paid from a child's 18th birthday based upon school attendance if the child was at that time pursing a course of instruction at an approved educational institution and a claim for such benefits is filed within 1 year from the child's 18th...

2010-07-01

187

Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

2004-01-01

188

Attendance and Truancy Programs. Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the 2000 census, high school dropouts had a 52% employment rate, compared to 71% for high school graduates and 83% for college graduates. According to NCSE, the national dropout rate is 30% of which 80% had been chronically absent from school ("School attendance tracking: Challenges and effective practices"), which puts the high…

Walker, Karen

2007-01-01

189

ATTENDING: Critiquing a Physician's Management Plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ATTENDING system is designed to critique a physician's preoperative plan for anesthetic management. In undertaking to critique a physician's plan, ATTENDING differs from other medical decision making systems, which in effect attempt to tell a physician what to do. ATTENDING's approach may prove more acceptable clinically, and may avoid certain social, medical, and medicolegal drawbacks. To cri-tique a physician's plan, ATTENDING must confront three basic problems. 1) It must be able to explore flexibly all possible approaches for a patient's management. The formalism of an ``augmented decision network'' allows this. 2) It must be able to assess the relative risks and benefits of alternative approaches intelligently. A heuristic approach to risk analysis is outlined, based on three basic principles which are de-scribed in detail. 3) It must produce a potentially complex analysis which critiques the plan in focused, readable prose. This is facilitated by PROSENET, an approach which allows clean separation between the organization of the content of an analysis and its expression in English prose. PMID:21869130

Miller, P L

1983-05-01

190

Examining Factors Affecting Classroom Attendance and Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Abstract: This study examined the relationship between four class attitudinal variables and how it affects class attendance and performance. A questionnaire was administered to 134 undergraduate students at medium sized college in Taiwan. The data included questions about the participant’s rating of the level of difficulty of the course (Difficulty, the topics covered in the course (Topics, their motivation towards attending the course (Motivation, and whether or not the participants felt that the course is practical and useful to their future (Practicality. The results of the Pearson correlation coefficients showed that 4 out of the 15 correlations were statistically significant. The negative correlation found between motivation and topics; and practicality and topics suggest the attitude that when choosing courses, students tend to choose courses that they think would easy to pass. The finding that none of the variables were significantly correlated to course attendance and course performance suggests that the strongest predictor of success of a course is based on the student’s level of attendance. This lead to the discussion in the conclusion about pedagogical implications for what teachers can do in their classrooms.

Peter Tze-Ming Chou

2012-02-01

191

Hidden Transcripts of Flight Attendant Resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzes (using flight attendants) hidden transcripts--interactions, stories, myths, and rituals in which employees participate beyond direct observation--to provide an avenue to identify resistance and change in the organizing process. Challenges the outdated ideal of transmissional meaning, questions organizational power by including the…

Murphy, Alexandra G.

1998-01-01

192

The International Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Users can access news articles, background information and links about the International Space Station. Materials presented here include crew biographies, expedition press kits, accounts of science experiments, and imagery taken from the station. Other features include a clock/counter that logs the station's and the crew's time in orbit and information for ground-based observers who wish to view the station as it passes overhead at night.

193

World Hydrogen Fueling Stations  

Science.gov (United States)

This document provides information on hydrogen fueling stations in the United States and other countries including Canada, Australia, Germany and Japan. Individual fueling stations are profiled, including the fuel type provided, when it was opened, how the hydrogen is produced and other details. Small photographs of each station are also included. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2012-09-06

194

An in vitro Assessment on the Efficacy of Clay-Based Formulated Cells of Pseudomonas Isolate UTAR EPA2 for Petrol Degradation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Application of free-cell forms is usually impractical to achieve satisfactory bioremediative effect because the microbes are encumbered by the biotic and abiotic stresses from the environment. Approach: In this study, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium (Pseudomonas isolate UTAR EPA2 was formulated with various combinations of formulative materials, comprising of clay-based carrier materials such as Bentonite (B and Kaolin (K, enrichment materials such as Non-fat skimmed milk (N and Sucrose (S and a UV-protectant agent Para-aminobenzoic acid (P. Formulated cells were treated to sunlight exposure for 6 h to mimic the conditions in the environment prior to testing for their efficacy in degrading petrol, a mixed hydrocarbon substrate. Results: Cells in all formulations including free-cell suspension were able to degrade petrol with a relatively high degradation efficacy of more than 66% even after exposure to sunlight. Degradation efficacy was slightly higher for kaolin-based formulated cells compared to bentonite-based formulations, especially after exposure to sunlight, although their percentages of degradation were not statistically different. Nevertheless, kaolin-based formulations have very low viable cell count especially in formulations with P (KP, KNP, KSP, KNSP. This suggested that aside from viable cells, the physical properties of the clays could have also contributed to the degradation of petrol. Conclusion: For storage purposes and applications in the field, we suggest that the bacterium is formulated with bentonite-based formulations especially using Bentonite (B clay singly, as relatively high percentage of petrol degradation and viable cell count was achieved with this formulation.

A. S.Y. Ting

2010-01-01

195

F87. My home - my car - my petrol station; F87. Mein Haus - mein Auto - meine Tanksstelle. Das Effizienzhaus Plus mit Elektromobilitaet in Berlin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the presence of Federal Chancellor Dr. Angela Merkel, the efficient house Plus was inaugurated in December 2011 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany). This building is a temporary dwelling with a floor space of approximately 130 square meters. This building generates all the necessary energy for the operation and comfort by itself. The generated energy also is sufficient for the annual energy demand of two electric cars and an electric bicycle. The building also serves as a showcase to inform the general public.

Michaely, Petra [Werner Sobek Stuttgart GmbH und Co.KG, Stuttgart (Germany); Schroth, Juergen; Schuster, Heide; Thuemmler, Thomas [WSGreen Technologies GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Sobek, Werner [Werner Sobek Stuttgart GmbH und Co.KG, Stuttgart (Germany); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Leichtbau Entwerfen und Konstruieren

2012-07-01

196

First subsea seismic station  

Science.gov (United States)

The first self-contained seismic station was installed recently in the ocean floor at a depth of 5.5 km, about 1,600 km southwest of Tahiti, close to the Tonga Trench. The region is thought to be the earth's most active seismic zone. The station will help scientists to determine if the subseafloor is a suitable place for recording seismic events by comparing noise levels with those of land-based stations and to determine whether marine seismic stations are possible to maintain. Eventually, marine stations could be used to help scientists predict earthquakes.

197

Space Station overview  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an overview of the Space Station, including program guidelines, international involvement, current baseline configuration, and utilization for science and application missions. Space Station configuration and capabilities, plus methods of utilizing the Space Station for scientific and engineering investigations, are described. The Space Station is being designed as a multipurpose facility to support a number of functions, such as a laboratory in space, a transportation node, an assembly facility, a staging base, etc. The description includes the baseline configuration, location of the pressurized modules, servicing and assembly facilities, and the work package structure for Space Station management. The Space Station will accommodate a wide variety of user requirements in laboratory modules and as attached payloads. To show the utility of the Space Station, a variety of science and application missions currently being studied for NASA at the Marshall Space Flight Center are discussed.

De Sanctis, Carmine E.; Priest, C. C.; Wood, W. V.

1987-01-01

198

Transition to Skilled Birth Attendance: Is There a Future Role for Trained Traditional Birth Attendants?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A brief history of training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs), summary of evidence for effectiveness of TBA training, and consideration of the future role of trained TBAs in an environment that emphasizes transition to skilled birth attendance are provided. Evidence of the effectiveness of TBA training, based on 60 studies and standard meta-analytic procedures, includes moderate-to-large improvements in behaviours of TBAs relating to selected intrapartum and postnatal care practices, sma...

Sibley, Lynn M.; Sipe, Theresa Ann

2006-01-01

199

A Students Attendance System Using QR Code  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Smartphones are becoming more preferred companions to users than desktops or notebooks. Knowing that smartphones are most popular with users at the age around 26, using smartphones to speed up the process of taking attendance by university instructors would save lecturing time and hence enhance the educational process. This paper proposes a system that is based on a QR code, which is being displayed for students during or at the beginning of each lecture. The students will need to scan the code in order to confirm their attendance. The paper explains the high level implementation details of the proposed system. It also discusses how the system verifies student identity to eliminate false registrations.

Fadi Masalha

2014-01-01

200

Oil and gas in Spain. Success of Repsol privatization; Petrole et gaz en Espagne. Succes de la privatisation de Repsol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The last part of the Repsol privatization program started at the end of April 1997 and encountered a huge success with small savers for whom the demand was 44 times greater than the offer. The Spanish government will gain about 180 billions of Pesetas in this operation. Repsol has announced an ambitious program of investments for power production, natural gas and expansion in Latin America for the period 1997-2001. Repsol has planned to invest 400 billions of Pesetas in this region in 5 years, with about the half in Argentina where Repsol is already involved in the Astra and Pluspetrol companies. Repsol has gained 67% of the control of Mexpetrol Argentina which will allow to increase its oil production of 11%. A cooperation agreement was signed in the beginning of 1997 between Repsol, Gas Natural and the Iberdrola power production company for common projects of power production in Spain and in Latin America. Finally, Repsol has improved its position in the petrol distribution market thanks to an aggressive price policy. Its market share jumped from 54 to 56%. Short note. (J.S.)

Anon.

1997-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Utilization of Microphone Sensors and an Active Filter for the Detection and Identification of Detonation (Knock in a Petrol Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research proposes a new method for detecting detonation (knock, that is to say the use of microphone sensors and active filters are combined with the identification of the vibration pattern of the engine sound.This is because,in terms of increasingthe fuel efficiency and power of a petrol combustion engine, the problem of detonation is a very serious issue. For this reason, the accurate, rapid and real time detection and identification of detonation also still needs to be developed. Microphone sensorsare inexpensive anddo not need to be mounted on the engine itself, meaning they are not exposed to heat, although the signal processing needs to be conducted carefully. The engine sound is recorded through a microphone and a Sallen-Key active filter is used to filter the detonation signal. Then the signal is processed to obtain the results of the regression of its function envelope. Identification is carried out using the method of calculating of the Euclidean distance of the function envelope regression from the reference signal. This is to make a determination of whether there is a detonation or not. This method is conducted with the help of Matlab. The findingsare that this method is able to detect and identify detonation signals.

Agus Sujono

2014-08-01

202

Capacity at Railway Stations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end stations and overtaking stations, the dwell/layover time is recommended to be reduced to the minimum required time as it results in the lowest possible capacity consumption. For dead end stations it is furthermore recommended that the trains can use all possible tracks and not only those tracks they originally was assigned. For complex stations with shunting movement, the results of UIC 406 capacity analyses are imprecise due to different possible routes and no exact knowledge of shunting movements. For these stations it is instead recommended that they are analysed with a supplement to compensate for the inaccuracies.

Landex, Alex Technical University of Denmark,

2011-01-01

203

Space station power system  

Science.gov (United States)

The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

Baraona, Cosmo R.

1987-01-01

204

45 CFR 2102.4 - Public attendance and participation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Public attendance and participation. 2102.4 Section 2102.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Commission Meetings § 2102.4 Public attendance and participation....

2010-10-01

205

A Linear Programming Model for Assigning Students to Attendance Centers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A linear programing model and procedures for optimal assignment of students to attendance centers are presented. An example of the use of linear programing for the assignment of students to attendance centers in a particular school district is given. (CK)

Ontjes, Robert L.

206

29 CFR 2203.3 - Public attendance at Commission meetings.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Public attendance at Commission meetings. 2203.3 Section 2203...Public attendance at Commission meetings. (a) Policy. Commissioners...dispose of official Commission business in a meeting unless it is conducted in...

2010-07-01

207

International Space Station: Update  

Science.gov (United States)

In November 1998, Zarya was launched into space, ushering in the era of the International Space Station (featured in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). This month, the docking of the Zvezda Service Module marks the beginning of yet another phase -- in which Zvezda will serve as living quarters to the first ever resident crew (Expedition One), scheduled to arrive at the International Space Station in early November. This site from NASA provides updated information on the International Space Station, including recent news, planned missions, and a virtual tour of the (yet-to-be-completed) station.

208

Is Attending Lectures Still Relevant in Engineering Education?  

Science.gov (United States)

A case study was conducted on a group of undergraduate chemical engineering students to assess the relevance of attending lectures from a student perspective and to understand why these students attend and do not attend lectures with a view to developing approaches to teaching, which are of greater interest and benefit to student learning. The…

Fitzpatrick, J.; Cronin, K.; Byrne, E.

2011-01-01

209

Defining frequent attendance in general practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GPs or researchers sometimes need to identify frequent attenders (FAs in order to screen them for unidentified problems and to test specific interventions. We wanted to assess different methods for selecting FAs to identify the most feasible and effective one for use in a general (group practice. Methods In the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, data were collected on 375 899 persons registered with 104 practices. Frequent attendance is defined as the top 3% and 10% of enlisted patients in each one-year age-sex group measured during the study year. We used these two selections as our reference standard. We also selected the top 3% and 10% FAs (90 and 97 percentile based on four selection methods of diminishing preciseness. We compared the test characteristics of these four methods. Results Of all enlisted patients, 24 % did not consult the practice during the study year. The mean number of contacts in the top 10% FAs increased in men from 5.8 (age 15–24 years to 17.5 (age 64–75 years and in women from 9.7 to 19.8. In the top 3% of FAs, contacts increased in men from 9.2 to 24.5 and in women from 14 to 27.8. The selection of FAs becomes more precise when smaller age classes are used. All selection methods show acceptable results (kappa 0.849 – 0.942 except the three group method. Conclusion To correctly identify frequent attenders in general practice, we recommend dividing patients into at least three age groups per sex.

Bindels Patrick JE

2008-04-01

210

Spontaneous neural fluctuations predict decisions to attend.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ongoing variability in neural signaling is an intrinsic property of the brain. Often this variability is considered to be noise and ignored. However, an alternative view is that this variability is fundamental to perception and cognition and may be particularly important in decision-making. Here, we show that a momentary measure of occipital alpha-band power (8-13 Hz) predicts choices about where human participants will focus spatial attention on a trial-by-trial basis. This finding provides evidence for a mechanistic account of decision-making by demonstrating that ongoing neural activity biases voluntary decisions about where to attend within a given moment. PMID:24738766

Bengson, Jesse J; Kelley, Todd A; Zhang, Xiaoke; Wang, Jane-Ling; Mangun, George R

2014-11-01

211

Multitudes attend the Night of Science  

CERN Multimedia

The Night of Science, which took place in the Parc de la Perle du Lac in Geneva last weekend, was a great success, with 30 000 visitors attending according to the organisers. Many curious people flocked to the stands and animations until late on Saturday night and all afternoon on Sunday. The CERN stand (photo) received a great amount of interest from participants. Both kids and adults discovered the activities of the Laboratory and the data-processing revolution initiated by CERN, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Hats off to the CERN collaborators in the Communication Group and IT Department who made this event a success.

2006-01-01

212

Unique haplotypes in ant-attended aphids and widespread haplotypes in non-attended aphids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aphid species within the genus Tuberculatus Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) exhibit a variety of interactions with ants, ranging from close associations to non-attendance. A previous study indicated that despite wing possession, ant-attended Tuberculatus species exhibited low dispersal rates compared with non-attended species. This study examined if presence or absence of mutualistic interactions and habitat continuity of host plants affected intraspecific genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences. Sympatric ant-attended Tuberculatus quercicola (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and non-attended Tuberculatus paiki Hille Ris Lambers (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were collected from the daimyo oak Quercus dentata Thunberg (Fagales: Fagaceae) in Japan and examined for haplotype variability. Seventeen haplotypes were identified in 568 T. quercicola individuals representing 23 populations and seven haplotypes in 425 T. paiki representing 19 populations. Haplotype diversity, which indicates the mean number of differences between all pairs of haplotypes in the sample, and nucleotide diversity were higher in T. quercicola than T. paiki. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed higher genetic differentiation among populations within groups of T. quercicola (39.8%) than T. paiki (22.6%). The effects of attendant ant species on genetic differentiation in T. quercicola were not distinguishable from geographic factors. Despite low dispersal rates, host plant habitat continuity might facilitate widespread dispersal of a T. quercicola haplotype in Hokkaido. These results suggested that following T. quercicola colonization, gene flow among populations was limited, resulting in genetic drift within populations. However, frequent T. paiki dispersal is clearly evident by low genetic differentiation among populations within groups, resulting in lower haplotype diversity. PMID:23139889

Yao, Izumi; Kanbe, Takashi

2012-09-01

213

Usefulness of Space Station observations to monitor the hydrological cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

The Space Station is a major project being undertaken in the United States that will provide major advances in the development and implementation of observations from space. In particular, the Space Station Manned Base (SSMB) and the attendant attached payload capability offers an opportunity for testing new observing concepts and observing hydrological phenomena in the low latitudes. Ample power, thermal, data, serviceability and other support services are being designed in Phase 1 of the SSMB. It is concluded that the hydrological community should study the SSMB and utilize the opportunity to advance the utility of space observations for studies of the hydrological cycle.

Salomonson, V.

1989-01-01

214

"Inventive" Learning Stations  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

Jarrett, Olga

2010-01-01

215

Sol Station: Sol  

Science.gov (United States)

This site from Sol Station contains much information on the Sun, its history, and its future. Special emphasis is placed on how the Sun produces an environment on Earth that is suitable for life. The site is illustrated with many images, charts, and several videos. Also provided are links to Sol Station sites on the planets and nearby stars.

2006-11-25

216

Nuclear power stations licensing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed

217

Android docking station  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L’objectif du projet est de concevoir un système embarqué communicant en USB, utilisé comme docking station. Cette station est compatible avec la majeure partie des téléphones Android et peut être utilisée pour différentes applications, comme une centrale météo, un lecteur audio amplifié, un réveil, etc.

Me?trailler, Christopher; Mudry, Pierre-andre?

2012-01-01

218

Faculty and student perceptions of post-exam attendance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This project investigated differences between faculty and student perceptions of student attendance in courses for the class period after an exam, including factors thought to influence student attendance. Participants from a single university completed a mixed-methods on-line questionnaire. Quantitative analyses revealed significant differences between faculty and student perceptions on all but one project variable. Qualitative analyses reinforced those findings and suggested that faculty misunderstand what factors actually influence student attendance. Taken together, the results suggest a substantial disconnect between faculty and student perceptions of the importance of class attendance and highlight areas for faculty to influence student attendance.

Trent W. Maurer

2009-12-01

219

Minor injury attendance times to the ED.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The Health Service Executive (HSE) highlights the need for effective patient throughput and management, whilst providing appropriate staffing and therapeutic interventions. It acknowledges that patient need is integral to the development of a nurse led service and advocates planning staffing levels to reflect arrival times of patients. An observational study of all patients who presented to the emergency department in July 2005 and February 2006 was undertaken (n=7768). The study identified 1577 patients suitable for treatment by the Advanced Nurse Practitioner (ANP) in these two months, which represents 20% of all patient attendances to the ED in this time period. A data collection tool was devised collectively by the ANPs to identify appropriate patients. The findings of the study revealed that 73% of patients suitable for the ANP service presented between the hours of 0800 and 2000, of which 54% attended between 0800 and 1600 h. Sunday emerged as the busiest day in July 2005 whereas Monday was found to be the busiest day in February 2006. Friday was found to be consistently busy for both months.

Conlon, Ciaran

2009-07-01

220

Comparison of Urinary o-Cresol and Hippuric Acid in Drivers, Gasoline Station Workers and Painters Exposed to Toluene in West of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of exposed to toluene and compare levels of hippuric acid and o-Cresol in taxi drivers, petrol station workers, car painters with a control group in West of Iran. The urinary o-creasol and toluene in air were analyzed by a gas chromatography and hippuric acid was extracted from urine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The significant differences in the levels of urinary o-Cresol were found in painters and petrol station workers compared to the control group (p<0.005. There was no significant correlation between toluene in air and biomarkers for taxi drivers. The lowest toluene concentration at which urinary hippuric acid increased to a measurable level was approximately 25 to 35 ppm and for o-Cresol was 2 ppm. In conclusion our results was showed that o-Cresol and hippuric acid could separate the exposed to toluene from the non-exposed when toluene in breathing zone of subjects was greater than 3 and 35 ppm, respectively. Hippuric acid and o-Cresol are not suitable biomarkers for occupations such as drivers that exposure to toluene in low concentration.

Abdulrahman Bahrami

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Space station operations management  

Science.gov (United States)

Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

Cannon, Kathleen V.

1989-01-01

222

Viewpoints of the attendings and medical students about the Students' evaluation of the attendings, Mazandaran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Evaluation is one of the most important bases of promoting the quality of education. It is very important to know the attendings’ and students’ viewpoints as evaluated and evaluator groups. So in this study the viewpoint of the attendings and students of School of Medicine of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (MUMS about the students evaluation of the attendings, were studied.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-cross sectional study, all faculty members (FM and students of the school of Medicine were included in the study by census sampling.Data collection was done using a questionnaire including demographic questions and educational variables, the FM and students viewpoint about manner of evaluation (time, the way of distributing the forms and the explanation, the student's features in evaluation (awareness, truthfulness and puposes and the instrument of evaluation (questionnaires and items. Results: 345 individuals (95 FM and 250 students took part in this study. The manner of evaluation (time, distribution and explanations to most of FMs' and students’ opinion was appropriate. About student's awareness and truthfulness in filling in the questionnaires; a considerable percentage of FMs (20-40% had a negative opinion and over half of them had a negative attitude about the whole process of evaluation. About the items of theoretical, practical and clinical questionnaires, while the students laid stress on aspect such as: being a teacher and concepts transferring, on attendings opinion these aspects were less important. Conclusion: To most FMs and students opinion, the manner of evaluation is appropriate but a considerable negative attitude exists among attendings about students’ awareness and truthfulness in filling in the questionnaire. The priorities of evaluation are different in these two groups’ point if view.

M. Mahmoudi

2007-01-01

223

Persistent frequent attenders in primary care: costs, reasons for attendance, organisation of care and potential for cognitive behavioural therapeutic intervention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The top 3% of frequent attendance in primary care is associated with 15% of all appointments in primary care, a fivefold increase in hospital expenditure, and more mental disorder and functional somatic symptoms compared to normal attendance. Although often temporary if these rates of attendance last more than two years, they may become persistent (persistent frequent or regular attendance. However, there is no long-term study of the economic impact or clinical characteristics of regular attendance in primary care. Cognitive behaviour formulation and treatment (CBT for regular attendance as a motivated behaviour may offer an understanding of the development, maintenance and treatment of regular attendance in the context of their health problems, cognitive processes and social context. Methods/design A case control design will compare the clinical characteristics, patterns of health care use and economic costs over the last 10?years of 100 regular attenders (?30 appointments with general practitioner [GP] over 2?years with 100 normal attenders (6–22 appointments with GP over 2?years, from purposefully selected primary care practices with differing organisation of care and patient demographics. Qualitative interviews with regular attending patients and practice staff will explore patient barriers, drivers and experiences of consultation, and organisation of care by practices with its challenges. Cognitive behaviour formulation analysed thematically will explore the development, maintenance and therapeutic opportunities for management in regular attenders. The feasibility, acceptability and utility of CBT for regular attendance will be examined. Discussion The health care costs, clinical needs, patient motivation for consultation and organisation of care for persistent frequent or regular attendance in primary care will be explored to develop training and policies for service providers. CBT for regular attendance will be piloted with a view to developing this approach as part of a multifaceted intervention.

Morriss Richard

2012-07-01

224

Nursing research: building roads to attend  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to show the construction of the knowledge of Nursing, through the research, interrelating it with the social context and attendance to the health. Methodology: as sources of obtaining the data we had used articles of newspapers, books, as well as critical works presented in the Course of Academic Master's degree of ,ad Universities Federal de Pelotas. Texts were analyzed that focused the historical and social context of Nursing in the period from 1981 to 2000. Results: thematic nucleus emerged as "Research in nursing: articulation between theory and practice in the social context" and "Weaving bonds between the assistential nursing and the teaching". Conclusions: in the reflections accomplished in readings, discussions in classroom we evidenced that the construction process and invigoration of Nursing, as profession and science, happened through the research. The knowledge had been built with other sciences, but the construction of the scientific "know” still is a challenge for Nursing in the current society.

Samanta Bastos Maagh, Juliana Graciela Vestena Zillmer, Lenice de Castro Muniz de Quadros, Sabrina Gomes Ferreira, Caroline de Leon Linck, Eda Schwartz, Sonia Maria Könzgen Meincke, Celmira Lange

2009-07-01

225

On leadership: attending, questioning, and quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health care is just now feeling the effects of many years of neglect of serious attention to quality outcomes. We have many tools available now to change our thinking and to provide techniques to attain excellence in quality, such as Six Sigma and principals from Toyota. However, these techniques will only get us to a minimal level of quality. We need to change our questions, think the impossible, and break out of our old modes of thinking about quality. Zero defects are possible. We only have to take that quantum leap and think in new ways. We are posed on the edge of a quantum leap into new ways of thinking about quality. We will hear much more about nurse-sensitive indicators in the future. Nurse leaders should change their questions now to attend to new models that will get us closer to the ultimate ossible thinking" goal of zero defects in nurse-sensitive indicators of quality.$ PMID:17674605

Kerfoot, Karlene

2007-06-01

226

Space Station Workstation Technology Workshop Report  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the results of a workshop conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to identify current and anticipated trends in human-computer interface technology that may influence the design or operation of a space station workstation. The workshop was attended by approximately 40 persons from government and academia who were selected for their expertise in some aspect of human-machine interaction research. The focus of the workshop was a 1 1/2 brainstorming/forecasting session in which the attendees were assigned to interdisciplinary working groups and instructed to develop predictions for each of the following technology areas: (1) user interface, (2) resource management, (3) control language, (4) data base systems, (5) automatic software development, (6) communications, (7) training, and (8) simulation. This report is significant in that it provides a unique perspective on workstation design for the space station. This perspective, which is characterized by a major emphasis on user requirements, should be most valuable to Phase B contractors involved in design development of the space station workstation. One of the more compelling results of the workshop is the recognition that no major technological breakthroughs are required to implement the current workstation concept. What is required is the creative application of existing knowledge and technology.

Moe, K. L.; Emerson, C. M.; Eike, D. R.; Malone, T. B.

1985-01-01

227

Tab Interconnect Work Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Second work station along solar-array assembly line automatically attaches two interconnect tabs to each silicon solar cell. Machine feeds, forms, and cuts tabs from reel of pretinned metal ribbon, transfers tabs into position, and solders them to cell.

Garwood, G.

1982-01-01

228

Waste Transfer Stations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable.

Christensen, Thomas HØjlund

2011-01-01

229

Electrostatic pickup station  

CERN Multimedia

Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

1982-01-01

230

"Central Station" Londonis  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

2000-01-01

231

Waste Transfer Stations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, hous...

Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2010-01-01

232

Space Station galley design  

Science.gov (United States)

An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

1986-01-01

233

Effects of ultrafine petrol exhaust particles on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress generation, DNA damage and inflammation in human A549 lung cells and murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution has persistently been the major cause of respiratory-related illness and death. Environmental pollutants such as diesel and petrol exhaust particles (PEPs) are the major contributors to urban air pollution. The aim of the present study was to characterize and investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammation induced by PEPs. Cultured type II epithelium cells (human A549 lung cells) and alveolar macrophages (murine RAW 264.7 cells) were exposed to control, vehicle control and to different concentrations of PEPs for up to 24h. Each treatment was evaluated by cell viability, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammatory parameters. Overall in vitro studies demonstrated that both cell lines showed similar patterns in response to the above studies induced by petrol exhaust nanoparticles (PENPs). Vehicle control showed no changes compared with the control. In both cell lines, significant changes at the dose of 20 and 50?g/mL (A549 cell lines) and 10and 20?g/mL (macrophages) for PENPs were found. The reactive oxygen species production in both cell lines shot up in minutes, reached the maximum within an hour and came down after 4h. Hence, exposure to PENPs resulted in dose-dependent toxicity in cultured A549 cells and RAW 264.7 cells and was closely correlated to increased oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammation. PMID:25173103

Durga, Mohan; Nathiya, Soundararajan; Rajasekar, Abbu; Devasena, Thiyagarajan

2014-09-01

234

How to reduce the petroleum dependency of Quebec? A ground breaking collective approach; Comment reduire la dependance quebecoise au petrole? Une demarche collective inedite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quebec population and socio economic agents are little or not summoned to in the definition of a vision relating to the dependency of Quebec to petroleum. The presented approach expects to include them as determining actors in the research for solutions to this collective issue, exploring aspects linked both to the energy consumption and production. The question to which the consultation is looking for answers is: How can Quebec reduce its petroleum consumption and increase its energy independence while promoting the harmonious economic and social development of its territory?. [French] La population et les agents socioeconomiques du Quebec sont peu ou pas interpelles dans la definition d'une vision entourant la dependance du Quebec au petrole. La demarche presentee prevoit les inclure comme acteurs determinants vers la recherche de solutions a cet enjeu collectif, explorant les aspects lies tant a la consommation qu'a la production energetique. La question a laquelle la consultation lancee cherchera des reponses est : Comment le Quebec peut-il diminuer sa consommation de petrole et accroitre son independance energetique tout en favorisant le developpement economique et social harmonieux de son territoire?.

Bourke, Philippe; Caron-Malenfant, Julie

2010-09-15

235

The verb “to attend” and its different meanings =O verbo “to attend” e seus diferentes significados  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo é um estudo do verbo “to attend”, um dos 2. 500 verbos mais frequentes em Inglês, conforme o Macmillan English Dictionary. Nós investigamos as frequências, os significados e colocações do verbo com ou sem a preposição “to”. O objetivo deste estudo é enfatizar a diferença de uso e frequência entre o verbo com ou sem a preposição, considerando seu uso na fala e escrita. Esta é uma pesquisa baseada nos pressupostos da linguística de corpus, através do Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA, que traz amostras naturais do idioma em análise. Neste estudo, nós concluímos que nem todas as definições do verbo “to attend”, que constam no dicionário, são usadas com frequência em Inglês.

Marques, Giuliana

2012-01-01

236

DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM FOR CAPTURING TIME AND ATTENDANCE REGISTRATIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The following work presents information system for handling time attendance using NFC – Near-Field Communication. The first stage describes NFC technology, its details, benefits and predictions for the future use. The second stage describes the concept of time attendance and current available solutions. The main part of the work describes a solution of information system for handling time attendance using NFC technology. It presents benefits of the solution, its obstacles and re...

Klopc?ic?, Marko

2008-01-01

237

Attending to the reasons for attribute non-attendance in Choice Experiments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper focuses on behavioural reasons underlying stated attribute non-attendance in choice experiments. In order to identify and incorporate procedures for dealing with heterogeneous attribute processing strategies, we ask respondents follow-up questions regarding their reasons for ignoring attributes. Based on these statements, we conclude that the standard way of assigning a zero impact of ignored attributes on the likelihood is inappropriate. We find that some respondents act in accordance with the passive bounded rationality assumption since they ignore an attribute simply because it does not affect their utility. Excluding these genuine zero preferences, as the standard approach essentially does, might bias results. Other respondents claim to have ignored attributes to simplify choices. However, we find that these respondents have actually not completely ignored attributes. We argue along the rationally adaptive behavioural model that valid preference information may indeed be elicited in these cases, and we illustrate how recoding of non-attendance statements conditional on stated reasons may be a more appropriate solution than the current standard way of taking stated non-attendance into account.

Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; MØrkbak, Morten Raun

2013-01-01

238

ILRS Station Reporting  

Science.gov (United States)

Network stations provided system configuration documentation upon joining the ILRS. This information, found in the various site and system log files available on the ILRS website, is essential to the ILRS analysis centers, combination centers, and general user community. Therefore, it is imperative that the station personnel inform the ILRS community in a timely fashion when changes to the system occur. This poster provides some information about the various documentation that must be maintained. The ILRS network consists of over fifty global sites actively ranging to over sixty satellites as well as five lunar reflectors. Information about these stations are available on the ILRS website (http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/network/stations/index.html). The ILRS Analysis Centers must have current information about the stations and their system configuration in order to use their data in generation of derived products. However, not all information available on the ILRS website is as up-to-date as necessary for correct analysis of their data.

Noll, Carey E.; Pearlman, Michael Reisman; Torrence, Mark H.

2013-01-01

239

Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides a general outline of the main features of Ontario's CANDU stations and describes the similarities and differences between individual stations. Using Pickering B and Bruce B as reference stations, the major safety-related aspects of the five existing stations are illustrated. A brief comparison of the CANDU system with the US alight-water reactor system is given

240

Hydrogen vehicle fueling station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

Station Master Indication Unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To give reliable visual information to the Station Master about the gate status (OPEN /CLOSE of corresponding LC Gates. Closure and opening of the LC gate is identified using digital input. The digital input is connected to the Gate logger. Gate logger transmits this data to Communication unit at station through modem communication. Communication unit process the data and controls the tele control relays, based on the status of Gate. LED based SM indication unit is located on the top of the SM panel. Based on the Gate Status, Red led will be on for Gate Open and Green led for Gate Close.

A. Lakshmi Brahmani

2014-04-01

242

Solar power station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar power station with semiconductor solar cells for generating electric power is described, wherein the semiconductor solar cells are provided on a member such as a balloon or a kite which carries the solar cells into the air. The function of the balloon or kite can also be fulfilled by a glider or airship. The solar power station can be operated by allowing the system to ascend at sunrise and descend at sunset or when the wind is going to be too strong in order to avoid any demage.

Wenzel, J.

1982-11-30

243

Fuel for CAGR stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of the fuel stringer consisting of 8 elements and other components is described. The heat transfer performance of the 36 pin element was extensively studied in laboratory tests. Identical pins of stainless steel clad hollow UO2 pellets were irradiated in the prototype Windscale AGR in 9 pin elements: the programme included studies of the effect of rating changes. Extensive post-irradiation examination was made of a wide variety of properties. The behaviour of the complete fuel assembly for the commercial stations under handling and flow conditions has been studied in large gas loops. The early fuel history at Hinkley Point 'B' and Hunterston 'B' stations is summarised. (author)

244

Effects of Recording Attendance on Grades in Introductory Psychology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a study which recorded attendance of 57 introductory psychology students by requiring them to sign-in at each class meeting. States that students who signed in attended more classes and scored higher grades on weekly multiple-choice quizzes, even on material from the textbook not included in lectures. (CMK)

Shimoff, Eliot; Catania, A. Charles

2001-01-01

245

Elementary School Nurse Interventions: Attendance and Health Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Regular school attendance is a necessary part of the learning process; student absenteeism has a direct association with poor academic performance. School nurses can influence student attendance. This study describes the impact of school nurse interventions on student absenteeism and student health. A retrospective review of 240 randomly selected…

Weismuller, Penny C.; Grasska, Merry A.; Alexander, Marilyn; White, Catherine G.; Kramer, Pat

2007-01-01

246

How Internal Medicine Residents Resolve Conflicts with Attending Physicians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty-three residents in internal medicine answered questionnaires about resolving conflicts with attending physicians concerning patient care. Conflicts were most likely to be resolved by negotiation but the nature of the procedure, medical school attended, and future career plans affect the means of resolving the dilemma chosen by the resident.…

Farber, Neil J.; And Others

1990-01-01

247

Residents' Ethical Disagreements with Attending Physicians: An Unrecognized Problem.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a survey of 36 residents and 41 medical faculty at the West Virginia University School of Medicine, residents recounted 127 ethical disagreements between attending physicians and housestaff in the previous year; attending physicians reported 19. Students' most troubling disagreements were over treatments they considered futile. Only 11 had…

Shreves, Jennifer Giaquinto; Moss, Alvin H.

1996-01-01

248

Economic Literacy and the Intention To Attend College.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined effects of high-school-level economic literacy on intention to attend college and found that students' perception of the helpfulness of economics in thinking about further education positively affect college attendance intentions. Other factors include ethnic background, academic ability, high school performance, parents'…

Sedaie, Behrooz

1998-01-01

249

Cyclical Economic Conditions and School Attendance in Costa Rica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the importance of declining economic conditions in school attendance decision making for households with teenagers aged 12-17 in Costa Rica, using a reduced-form model. The 1981-83 economic recession coincided with a large attendance drop. Household labor market characteristics and student characteristics also significantly determine…

Funkhouser, Edward

1999-01-01

250

Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.

Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.

Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern/Insular Italy. Similar geographical distributions can be noted in the attendance rates (60.5% in the North of Italy, 56% in the Central area and 38.3% in the South of Italy. Cervical cancer screening: From the data obtained by the 2006 survey, 93.5% of theoretical extension was registered in the Centre of Italy, 65% in the North and 65.5% or in the South of Italy. 38.5% of invited women underwent a Pap-test. A decreasing trend in participation can be observed from Northern (45.6% to Central (35.7%, and to Southern (28.7% Italy. Colorectal cancer screening: In 2006, theoretical extension of colorectal cancer screening in Italy was 44%, with significant differences in geographical distribution (66.1% in the North of Italy 48.5% in the Centre and about 10% in the South of our country. About 907,000 people had a faecal occult blood test in 2006 (adjusted compliance of 44.6%. Data from the survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” showed that organised screening activity can reduce social inequalities of access to cancer screening, increasing screening utilization particularly in less educated people.

Conclusions: Organised cancer screening programmes have been extended in recent years, improving the equity in the access to early diagnosis for the people invited. However, social and geographical inequalities still remain.

Grazia Grazzini

2008-06-01

251

47 CFR 90.425 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...another radio station or stations. (4) It is any...radiopositioning or radar station authorized in a service...vehicle monitoring or location. (6) It is a paging station authorized in accordance...and the associated base station...

2010-10-01

252

47 CFR 73.787 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Stations § 73.787 Station identification. (a) A licensee of...station shall make station identification announcement (call letters...the hour. (b) Station identification, program announcements...international significance (language particularly) which...

2010-10-01

253

Designing a Weather Station  

Science.gov (United States)

The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

Roman, Harry T.

2012-01-01

254

Electrostatic pickup station  

CERN Multimedia

Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

1979-01-01

255

Station-keeping guidance  

Science.gov (United States)

The station-keeping guidance system is described, which is designed to automatically keep one orbiting vehicle within a prescribed zone fixed with respect to another orbiting vehicle. The active vehicle, i.e. the one performing the station-keeping maneuvers, is referred to as the shuttle. The other passive orbiting vehicle is denoted as the workshop. The passive vehicle is assumed to be in a low-eccentricity near-earth orbit. The primary navigation sensor considered is a gimballed tracking radar located on board the shuttle. It provides data on relative range and range rate between the two vehicles. Also measured are the shaft and trunnion axes gimbal angles. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) is provided on board the orbiter. The IMU is used at all times to provide an attitude reference for the vehicle. The IMU accelerometers are used periodically to monitor the velocity-correction burns applied to the shuttle during the station-keeping mode. The guidance system is capable of station-keeping the shuttle in any arbitrary position with respect to the workshop by periodically applying velocity-correction pulses to the shuttle.

Gustafson, D. E.; Kriegsman, B. A.

1972-01-01

256

Space Station Final Configuration  

Science.gov (United States)

An artist's conception of what the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) will look like when it is fully built and deployed. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

1994-01-01

257

47 CFR 73.6018 - Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations. 73...Broadcast Stations § 73.6018 Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect the DTV...

2010-10-01

258

Central Station Design Options  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping. The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high penetration of wind power is present, is considered as special case. The distribution grid in Denmark is built using larger secondary distribution transformers (e.g. 630 kVA) which in general allows higher flexibility for the installation of Central Stations, compared to Bornholm’s distribution grid. With the 3-phase AC quick charging options of 11, 22 kW and 43 kW, (IEC 62196, EN60038, EN 61851) both the Danish and Bornholm environments offer a good chance for EV integration [1]. Dealing with Fast Charging, the study determined that 300kW Fast Charging, which corresponds to 10 minutes charging for a 50 kWh battery-EV is not feasible in Bornholm at the 0.4 kV level, due to predominantly small size secondary distribution transformers, in the range of 100 - 200 kVA. This is possible at the 10kV level (MV level), if the Fast Charging station is equipped with its own dedicated transformer. With DC charging, rated at 50 kW, fast charging would be easier in both Denmark and Bornholm scenarios. For each scenario and charging power level, the possible number of EVs is estimated and finally architectural design options are proposed. Technical assessment is performed for evaluating the benefits of different charging concepts as Fast Charging and Battery Swapping as well as different loading options as DC loading versus AC loading, single phase (230V) versus three phase (400V) loading. A study on possible siting for Central Stations is performed for the Danish main land, where the average distance covered by EVs is used as input data. A finding of the study is that a reasonable number of fast charging and swapping stations are about 15, assuming that all EVs have a range of 100-120 Km. Furthermore the Bornholm case is not very relevant for fast charging or battery swapping stations, due to the relatively small dimensions of the island. Several architectures of Central Station are assessed based on different hardware components onfiguration: in particular we could have a Central Station with dedicated transformer sized ad-hoc for the DC charging equipment. On the other hand, it is possible to have a Central Station connected to an existing distribution transformer; in this case the transformer load management becomes crucial. Furthermore we could have the options of AC versus DC power distribution in a Central Station. In case of DC distribution, we could have multiple fast chargers, implemented as DC/DC converters, operating in parallel and serving different vehicles. Local active harmonics compensation is ecommended as a valid option for mitigating the effect on the grid due to fast charging equipment, in compliance to IEC/TS 61000-3-12. Among power quality issues in distribution grids with EVs, voltage drops and transformer overloading are identified in this work as most critical situations [1]. The mitigation of voltage drops within a Central Station requires the local analysis of the site and eventually the installation of energy storage systems for mitigating the drop during transients or parallel charging, in compliance to EN 50160. Transformer overloading can be prevented, providing real-time access to the local power flow data. The assumption of 50% transformer average loading is used as a single reference point in the current report. For future investigations on transformer overloading, more reference points might be necessary to represent various transformer loading levels. The subject of safety in Central Station is also addr

2011-01-01

259

Factors Associated with Attendance and Non-Attendance of Support Groups among HIV Positive Adults Attending an Antiretroviral Community Clinic at Ekurhuleni District, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health care facilities providing antiretroviral treatment (ART to HIV positive people have seen a decline in the uptake and use of HIV support groups. A cross sectional survey was conducted to 1 determine the characteristics of HIV positive people who have and who have not attended support groups; 2 determine factors associated with attendance of support groups; and 3 investigate perceived barriers to participate in support groups among HIV positive adults attending an ART clinic in Gauteng, South Africa. The total samples included 248 HIV positive adults and the highest proportion were females (n = 156, 62.9%. The mean age of the participants was 34.2 years, (range 18 to 56 years. Almost two thirds (n = 144, 58.1% had never attended support groups. Participants who attended support groups were more likely to be older than non-attenders (OR = 1.04, CI: 1.01 - 1.07, more likely to be taking ART medication (OR = 1.64, CI: 1.00 - 2.65 and more likely to have known of their HIV diagnosis for a longer time (OR = 2.20, CI: 1.42 - 3.40. Employed participants were less likely to attend support groups than unemployed participants (OR = 0.47, CI: 0.27 - 0.80. Concerns for privacy and confidentiality in support groups, and fear of stigma and discrimination were the key barriers to participate in support groups. Participants also perceived support groups as a service for people who could not cope with their HIV diagnosis. Health care providers who plan to start support groups should take into consideration issues of support group size, confidentiality, and timing for support group meetings. It is imperative that education on the benefits of HIV support groups forms a primary component of routine counselling for PLWHI.

Sphiwe Madiba

2013-05-01

260

Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust in major cities in Greece in relation to the use of lead in petrol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Until recently, the most important source of environmental lead pollution in cities was thought to come from the combustion of leaded petrol. A simple way to monitor the extent of this phenomenon, used in a number of studies in the past, has been to measure lead levels in street dust. Nowadays, it would be expected that lead concentrations in urban dust would have decreased from earlier values, following the progressive reduction of lead in petrol over the past few years, and this hypothesis has recently been confirmed in Manchester, UK. The object of the present work is to determine levels of lead pollution in cities in Greece on 1997 and, if possible, to discover whether similar reductions in lead concentrations have occurred there also. Surveys have been conducted in Thessaloniki, Athens and Piraeus. Samples of roadside dust were collected from streets (categorised by traffic density), national gardens and school playgrounds, and lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid. Lead concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and lead isotope ratios measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Thessaloniki showed that mean lead concentrations in all categories of location are similar to present levels in Manchester. Further, lead concentrations in dust in the busiest streets in Thessaloniki have fallen by about 55% since a previous study 17 years ago. In Athens and Piraeus, the lead levelsgo. In Athens and Piraeus, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between the various types of street. In particular, it was observed that lead levels in school playgrounds in these two cities were much higher than in similar locations in Thessaloniki and Manchester, with a possible hazard to children. Isotope ratio measurements showed that Thessaloniki's lead is isotopically distinct from that found in Athens and Piraeus, which presumably reflects differences in sources of supply

 
 
 
 
261

Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust in major cities in Greece in relation to the use of lead in petrol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Until recently, the most important source of environmental lead pollution in cities was thought to come from the combustion of leaded petrol. A simple way to monitor the extent of this phenomenon, used in a number of studies in the past, has been to measure lead levels in street dust. Nowadays, it would be expected that lead concentrations in urban dust would have decreased from earlier values, following the progressive reduction of lead in petrol over the past few years, and this hypothesis has recently been confirmed in Manchester, UK. The object of the present work is to determine levels of lead pollution in cities in Greece on 1997 and, if possible, to discover whether similar reductions in lead concentrations have occurred there also. Surveys have been conducted in Thessaloniki, Athens and Piraeus. Samples of roadside dust were collected from streets (categorised by traffic density), national gardens and school playgrounds, and lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid. Lead concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and lead isotope ratios measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Thessaloniki showed that mean lead concentrations in all categories of location are similar to present levels in Manchester. Further, lead concentrations in dust in the busiest streets in Thessaloniki have fallen by about 55% since a previous study 17 years ago. In Athens and Piraeus, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between the various types of street. In particular, it was observed that lead levels in school playgrounds in these two cities were much higher than in similar locations in Thessaloniki and Manchester, with a possible hazard to children. Isotope ratio measurements showed that Thessaloniki's lead is isotopically distinct from that found in Athens and Piraeus, which presumably reflects differences in sources of supply. PMID:16687163

Anagnostopoulou, Maria A; Day, J Philip

2006-08-31

262

Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust in major cities in Greece in relation to the use of lead in petrol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Until recently, the most important source of environmental lead pollution in cities was thought to come from the combustion of leaded petrol. A simple way to monitor the extent of this phenomenon, used in a number of studies in the past, has been to measure lead levels in street dust. Nowadays, it would be expected that lead concentrations in urban dust would have decreased from earlier values, following the progressive reduction of lead in petrol over the past few years, and this hypothesis has recently been confirmed in Manchester, UK. The object of the present work is to determine levels of lead pollution in cities in Greece on 1997 and, if possible, to discover whether similar reductions in lead concentrations have occurred there also. Surveys have been conducted in Thessaloniki, Athens and Piraeus. Samples of roadside dust were collected from streets (categorised by traffic density), national gardens and school playgrounds, and lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid. Lead concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and lead isotope ratios measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Thessaloniki showed that mean lead concentrations in all categories of location are similar to present levels in Manchester. Further, lead concentrations in dust in the busiest streets in Thessaloniki have fallen by about 55% since a previous study 17 years ago. In Athens and Piraeus, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between the various types of street. In particular, it was observed that lead levels in school playgrounds in these two cities were much higher than in similar locations in Thessaloniki and Manchester, with a possible hazard to children. Isotope ratio measurements showed that Thessaloniki's lead is isotopically distinct from that found in Athens and Piraeus, which presumably reflects differences in sources of supply. (author)

Anagnostopoulou, Maria A.; Day, J. Philip [Department of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, England (United Kingdom)

2006-08-31

263

Medical student attendance at non-compulsory lectures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The General Medical Council in the UK recommends that undergraduate medical students be exposed to a variety of learning opportunities and increasingly take responsibility for their own learning. This study presents quantitative and qualitative data relating to attendance at non-compulsory plenary lectures in order to understand factors affecting the value placed by students on this component of the first 2 years of a contemporary medical curriculum. Attendance data were available for 87% first year and 78% second year plenary lectures. There was no difference in attendance at lectures that were delivered telematically to a remote site when compared with those where the speaker was present. There were markedly more students attending lectures at the beginning of the first academic year, with numbers decreasing as the year progressed. More first year students attended lectures on biomedical science and clinically focussed topics than on human science and public health whereas second year student attendance was similar across topics. Reasons given for non-attendance at plenary sessions fell into "student-related" factors (e.g. dislike of lecture-based learning) and "teaching-related" factors (e.g. perceived variable quality of lectures). This study confirms that some students value lectures highly as a method to supplement other learning opportunities, whereas others find they learn better by other means. PMID:17041787

Mattick, Karen; Crocker, Graham; Bligh, John

2007-05-01

264

Dream Anatomy Learning Station  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site contains the educational materials for Dream Anatomy, a new exhibit at the National Library of Medicine. Viewable online, the exhibit offers a somewhat macabre but undeniably fascinating survey of changes in anatomical representation over the last five centuries. Recently added to the main Dream Anatomy Web site, Learning Station provides lesson plans and activities intended for 6-12 graders. The material can be used exhibit or its online version. The lesson plans titled Beginnings of Anatomical Illustrations (grades 6-12) and Anatomical Metaphors (grades 7-8) have especially strong life sciences applications. Other online activities offer "fun ways for high school and older students to explore the content of Dream Anatomy." Altogether, Dream Anatomy Learning Station offers students a unique look at the intersection of art, science, and the imagination.

265

Battery charging stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

Bergey, M.

1997-12-01

266

The duty health physicist program at Byron Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Duty Health Physicist Program at Byron Station was established to deal with routine health physics tasks and provide an interface between frontline and upper radiation-chemistry management. The program consists of a weekly rotation of selected members of the health physics staff into the duty health physicist position to handle the assigned duty tasks. The tasks include, but are not limited to, daily isotopic and air sample review, effluent release package review, maximum permissible concentration calculations, dose approvals, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable action review of pending jobs, and general availability to answer questions and address problems in health-physics-related areas of plant operation. The daily attendance of the duty health physicist at the radiation-chemistry and station plan-of-the-day meetings has increased the overall presence and visibility of the health physics program to upper station management and other station departments. Since its inception in July of 1985, the Duty Health Physics Program has been a major contributor to the observed 50% reduction in reportable personnel errors in the radiation-chemistry department (based on personnel-error-related deviation reports and license event reports generated on the radiation-chemistry department at Byron Station). Although difficulty to quantify, other important benefits of this program are also discussed in this paper

267

Advances in power station construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is about the construction of modern power stations by the Central Electricity Generating Board in England and Wales from the mid-1970s to 1986. The first chapter is devoted to the considerations, evaluations and factors leading up to the decision as to when, where and what type of power station to build. This includes siting and developments in turbines, electrical power systems and primary auxiliary systems. Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5 are devoted to Littlebrook-D oil-fired station, Drax coal-fired station, Dinorwig pumped storage station and Heysham-2 advanced gas-cooled reactor nuclear station. The last of these is abstracted separately. Chapter 6 describes the intended design of Sizewell B pressurized water reactor nuclear station and is abstracted separately. Chapter 7 explains the organisation, procedures and practices relating to the management of power station projects. (U.K.)

268

Shippingport station communications program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author discusses how the communications program for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station has a long history. It can be traced as far back as 1953, when the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) awarded a contract to Westinghouse Electric to design the nuclear portion of a power plant for electric utility use. During May of the next year, President Eisenhower initiated groundbreaking ceremonies for the construction of the commercial atomic power plant at Shippingport, Pennsylvania

269

The nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The processes taking place in a nuclear power plant and the dangers arising from a nuclear power station are described. The means and methods of controlling, monitoring, and protecting the plant and things that can go wrong are presented. There is also a short discourse on the research carried out in the USA and Germany, aimed at assessing the risks of utilising nuclear energy by means of the incident tree analysis and probability calculations. (DG)

270

Microscope Imaging Station  

Science.gov (United States)

The Exploratorium in San Francisco continue to break new and intriguing ground with their latest online project, the Microscope Imaging Station. The actual physical Station resides at their museum, and was opened in 2004. Developed to complement this interactive exhibit, this online manifestation of the Station allows visitors to peer into the cells of living organisms such as sea urchins and zebrafish. The sea urchin feature is a real treat, as it is accompanied by a well-written essay on how this spiky creature may help unlock the secrets of genes, reproduction, and cancer. If that wasn't enough, the essay (as with other features on the site) includes a short video clip. The "Gallery" is definitely worth a stop as well. Here, visitors will find a wide range of high-resolution images and movies created with research-grade microscopes. Watching cells move, the fertilization process and the world of mitosis is a rather nice way to spend a few minutes, and visitors will probably want to pass the site along to friends and family.

271

Space station advanced automation  

Science.gov (United States)

In the development of a safe, productive and maintainable space station, Automation and Robotics (A and R) has been identified as an enabling technology which will allow efficient operation at a reasonable cost. The Space Station Freedom's (SSF) systems are very complex, and interdependent. The usage of Advanced Automation (AA) will help restructure, and integrate system status so that station and ground personnel can operate more efficiently. To use AA technology for the augmentation of system management functions requires a development model which consists of well defined phases of: evaluation, development, integration, and maintenance. The evaluation phase will consider system management functions against traditional solutions, implementation techniques and requirements; the end result of this phase should be a well developed concept along with a feasibility analysis. In the development phase the AA system will be developed in accordance with a traditional Life Cycle Model (LCM) modified for Knowledge Based System (KBS) applications. A way by which both knowledge bases and reasoning techniques can be reused to control costs is explained. During the integration phase the KBS software must be integrated with conventional software, and verified and validated. The Verification and Validation (V and V) techniques applicable to these KBS are based on the ideas of consistency, minimal competency, and graph theory. The maintenance phase will be aided by having well designed and documented KBS software.

Woods, Donald

1990-01-01

272

Attendance and Performance: Correlations and Motives in Lecture-Based Modules  

Science.gov (United States)

Does attending lectures improve student performance? Using novel attendance data, we examine statistically the relationships between attendance and performance for first-year and third-year students. The relationship is moderately positive: very high attendance is significantly associated with an improvement in performance over very low attenders

Clark, Gordon; Gill, Nick; Walker, Marion; Whittle, Rebecca

2011-01-01

273

77 FR 30053 - Repair Stations  

Science.gov (United States)

...necessary to reinforce the need for repair stations to provide assurance...are not adversely affected. Repair stations would be required...conditions that may promote corrosion or other deteriorating conditions...The FAA understands that repair stations may share the...

2012-05-21

274

16 CFR 1012.4 - Public attendance at agency meetings.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Public attendance at agency meetings. 1012.4 Section 1012.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL MEETINGS POLICY-MEETINGS BETWEEN AGENCY PERSONNEL AND OUTSIDE PARTIES...

2010-01-01

275

Demographics of enuresis patients attending a referral centre  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To study and compare the demography of enuretic children 7-16 years old attending a tertiary referral centre for childhood urinary incontinence, with that of normal children and what is generally known about enuretics from population-based studies.

Rawashdeh, Yazan F; Hvistendahl, Gitte M

2002-01-01

276

Microsoft Word - attendance list 24 nov09edited  

...Wilson LBAP - Antrim Robert Scott Abercorn Estates Rose Muir NIEA and Lagan Valley Group Mark Edgar LBAP Dungannon Mike Scantlebury QUB NI Squirrel Forum attendance list 24 November 2009 Apologies...

277

47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...provided that station identification is transmitted at... (c) Station identification must be transmitted...using the English language or by telegraphy...alternatively, station identification may be...

2010-10-01

278

Systematization of Angra-1 operation attendance - Maintenance and periodic testings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A maintenance analysis, their types and their functions for the safety of nuclear power plants is done. Programs and present trends in the reactor maintenance, as well as the maintenance program and periodic tests of Angra I, are analysed. The necessities of safety analysis and a systematization for maintenance attendance are discussed and the periodic testing as well as the attendance of international experience. (M.C.K.)

279

Emergency hormonal contraception usage in genitourinary medicine clinic attenders.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the indications for usage of emergency hormonal contraception amongst a population of London genitourinary medicine clinic attenders. METHODS: In a prospective study, 150 consecutive women receiving emergency hormonal contraception (EHC) were enrolled. The attending doctor completed a questionnaire of patient details and prescribed EHC with prophylactic prochlorperazine. Follow-up was arranged three weeks later, at which time outcomes and side-effects of therapy were reco...

Evans, J. K.; Holmes, A.; Browning, M.; Forster, G. E.

1996-01-01

280

REAL TIME FACE RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR TIME AND ATTENDANCE APPLICATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available — In this paper, we have proposed an automated Face Recognition System for Time and Attendance application. The model is developed with the help of real time OpenCV library The proposed system comprised of using the Viola Jones algorithm for detecting the human faces and then the detected face is resized to the required size, this resized face is further processed by using linear stretch contrast enhancement and finally it is recognized using a simple PCA / LDA. Once recognition is done, automatically attendance will be updated in an Excel Sheet along with his name, date and time. An html file is automatically updated by our system so that a remote authenticated user can access the attendance file .Our system is integrated to an Automatic Attendance Management System, with the help of which some post attendance works like stipend amount calculation, viewing attendance report for the required date, calculating the number of hours a person is present in the class, searching for a required person in the classroom etc. Spoofing which is a major threat for our system can be avoided using Eye Blink Detector algorithm. Our system can automatically update the Database for the newly enrolled persons. The proposed system can execute the instructions given orally to it (eliminating the need of a mouse interface and can speak back to us.

APARNA BEHARA, M.V. RAGHUNADH

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

34 CFR 694.6 - Who may provide GEAR UP services to students attending private schools?  

Science.gov (United States)

...GEAR UP services to students attending private schools? 694.6 Section...GEAR UP services to students attending private schools? (a) GEAR UP services to students attending private schools must be...

2010-07-01

282

76 FR 40452 - Agency Information Collection (Report of Treatment by Attending Physician) Activity Under OMB Review  

Science.gov (United States)

...Collection (Report of Treatment by Attending Physician) Activity Under OMB Review...Title: Report of Treatment by Attending Physician, VA Form 29-551a. OMB...to collect information from attending physician to determine a...

2011-07-08

283

76 FR 24572 - Proposed Information Collection (Report of Treatment by Attending Physician) Activity: Comment...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Collection (Report of Treatment by Attending Physician) Activity: Comment Request...Title: Report of Treatment by Attending Physician, VA Form 29-551a. OMB...to collect information from attending physician to determine a...

2011-05-02

284

Southeast Regional Experiment Station  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

1994-08-01

285

Nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear power station is disclosed having a reactor buried in rock and machine groups formed with the use of turbines, compressors, generators or other apparatus, inclusive gas conduits; the individual machine groups and the gas conduits are arranged in rooms hollowed out in the rock for receiving and supporting these; to each group there leads at least one tunnel hollowed out in the rock; a safety chamber for a machine group concerned is situated adjacent the group and is secludable relatively to the atmosphere

286

Neka power station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the end of August 1975, the Iran awarded the order for the construction of the 1760-MW Neka power station which is being built by a consortium led by BBC. BBC are responsible for the overall planning as well as the design and supply of the electrical and process control equipment. Also supplied by BBC are the four turbosets as well as the heating, air conditioning and ventilating equipment. Commissioning of the first 440-MW unit is scheduled for the beginning of 1979.

Petzel, H.K.

1977-01-01

287

Submerged AUV Charging Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder causes the AUV to rise, and emptying of the bladder allows the AUV to descend. This type of direct buoyancy control is much more energy efficient than using electrical pumps in that the inefficiencies of converting thermal energy to electrical energy to mechanical energy is avoided. AUV charging stations have been developed that use electricity produced by waves on floating buoys and that use electricity from solar photovoltaics on floating buoys. This is the first device that has absolutely no floating or visible parts, and is thus impervious to storms, inadvertent ocean vessel collisions, or enemy sabotage.

Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

2014-01-01

288

PlayStation purpura.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 16-year-old boy presented with a number of asymptomatic pigmented macules on the volar aspect of his index fingers. Dermoscopy of each macule revealed a parallel ridge pattern of homogenous reddish-brown pigment. We propose that these lesions were induced by repetitive trauma from a Sony PlayStation 3 (Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) vibration feedback controller. The lesions completely resolved following abstinence from gaming over a number of weeks. Although the parallel ridge pattern is typically the hallmark for early acral lentiginous melanoma, it may be observed in a limited number of benign entities, including subcorneal haematoma. PMID:20695869

Robertson, Susan J; Leonard, Jane; Chamberlain, Alex J

2010-08-01

289

Quillayute air reference station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A large number of radioactive and non-radioactive airborne constituents are being measured continually at the BNWL coastal air-reference station located in northwestern Washington State. Important correlations have been observed between many of these materials and also with atmospheric parameters. The apparent relationships between changing concentrations and meteorological parameters are being tested using more thorough techniques of investigation, including back trajectory computer analyses. Data are included on radionuclides, aerosol particle size and stable elements in daily air samples. (U.S.)

290

47 CFR 74.582 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...identification. (a) Each aural broadcast STL or intercity relay station, when transmitting...station with which it is licensed as an STL or intercity relay station. (3...c) Where more than one aural broadcast STL or intercity relay station is...

2010-10-01

291

Nuclear hydrogen power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Short information about investigations on hydrogen energetics being carried out in the USSR as well as a review of the world literature on this subject are given. Combined cycles of thermochemical and electrochemical reactions applied for hydrogen and oxigen production from water are shown to be of interest, as a number of reactions in a cycle may be reduced to two, and the temperature of processes may be decreased to the temperature range specific to modern reactors. Construction features of nuclear-hydrogen power stations producing hydrogen through the use of thermo-electro-chemical cycles are considered. It is shown that at this stage it is possible to reduce time and expenses needed for realization of hydrogen production on a wide scale as compared to other reaction cycles requiring high temperatures and consequently, construction of high-temperature reactors. The conditions of energy and water transport at great distances by using hydrogen lines and the possibilities of development of desert and arid lands by using this mode of operation are considered. Possible ecological effect of hydrogen energetics development on the environment is pointed out, in particular, when power complexes are concentrated on a limited area. It is shown that it is reasonable to locate nuclear-hydrogen stations on shores

292

Cabin attendants’ exposure to vibration and shocks during landing  

Science.gov (United States)

The Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) has noted that cabin attendants have reported an increase in health problems associated with landing. The European Union reports cover health problems related to neck, shoulder, and lower-back injuries. Moreover, analysis of these reports shows that the problems are often associated with specific airplanes that have a longer tail behind the rear wheels and appear more often in attendants who sit in the back of planes rather then the front. Against this background, this study measures and describes the vibration during landing in specific airplanes to evaluate the health risk for the cabin attendants. Measurements were conducted on regular flights with passengers in the type of airplane, Boeing 737-800, which was related to the highest per cent of reported health problems. All measurements were performed the same day during three landings in one airplane with the same pilots and cabin attendants. The measurements were carried out simultaneously on the cabin crew seats in the back and front of the passenger cabin. Under the cabin crew's seat cushions, a triaxiell seat-accelerometer was placed to measure the vibration in three axes. The signals from the accelerometers were amplified by charge amplifiers and stored on tape. The stored data were analysed with a computer-based analyse system. For the cabin attendants, the dominant direction for the vibration load during landing is the up-and-down direction although some vibration also occurs in the other horizontal directions. The exposure to vibration is higher on the rear crew seat compared to the front seat. For instance, both the vibration dose value (VDV) and the frequency-weighted acceleration in the dominant direction are more then 50% higher on the rear seat. The frequency-weighted acceleration and the VDV measured at the crew seats are below the exposure limits as described by the European vibration directive. The evaluation of the cabin attendants' exposure to multiple shocks during landing shows that the potential of an adverse health effect for the cabin attendants is low in the front of the airplane and increases to moderate in the rear. Although this is a limited study, it could be conclude that there could be a risk for cabin attendants due to the exposure of multiple shocks. Therefore, efforts should be spent to minimize their risk by developing a better seat cushion and back support to lessen the effects of shocks. In addition, attendants should be informed about the most suitable posture to take during landing.

Burström, Lage; Lindberg, Lennart; Lindgren, Torsten

2006-12-01

293

How Attendance Affects the General Success of the Student  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyse the students’ attendance at the Faculty of Business and Economics. The study is divided into two parts: the first part analyses why some students are not motivated to attend lectures and practical hours while the second part analyses the impact of students’ attendance (motivation, bonus in lectures and practical hours and their final success. This paper provides results of a survey completed at the beginning of the summer semester and results of the final success in three courses for the academic year 2010/11 (Business Mathematics, Statistics and Managerial Economics with first, second and third-year students at the Faculty of Business and Economics, at South East European University in Tetovo. This paper uses logical regression to give an overview of the impact of students’ attendance (motivation, bonus at lectures and practical hours in their final success. Results show that, besides other daily engagements during studies, students have other excuses for absence from lectures and practical hours such as conditions, management and methods of teaching in the Faculty. Final results of three subjects which are considered as more practical show that attendance of students have a big influence in students’ final success. The software MedCalc was used for the elaboration of data.

Sadri Alija

2013-01-01

294

Discharges from nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

295

EGNOS based virtual reference stations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose the use of the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) data - real time on line data provided by SISNeT - to develop Virtual Reference Stations and, thus, increase the quality of the Position, Velocity an Time (PVT) solution of receivers unable to interface directly with EGNOS. A Virtual Reference Station (VRS) is a concept where the existence of a differential reference station located near a mobile rover is simulated by software in order to increase the accuracy...

Soares, Manuel Gonc?alves; Malheiro, Benedita

2008-01-01

296

The space station power system  

Science.gov (United States)

The major requirements and guidelines that affect the NASA Space Station configuration and the power system are explained. The evolution of the Space Station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the preliminary design phase is described. Early station concepts, both fanciful and feasible, are described and linked to the present concept. The Phase B trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are detailed. Solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems are summarized.

Baraona, Cosmo R.

1986-01-01

297

Local control stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted

298

Local control stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted.

Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wachtel, J.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Research

1993-05-01

299

UMass Cranberry Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Cranberries are a rather unique crop, as they are only found in North America, and in rather select locations. One such place is southeastern Massachusetts, which happens to be one of the leading cranberry producing regions in the United States. The University of Massachusetts operates the Cranberry Station in order "to maintain and enhance the economic viability of the Massachusetts cranberry industry through research, extension, and to serve the public welfare." Here on their site, visitors can read their online newsletter, check out their fact sheets, and learn about their research projects. In the "Publications" area, visitors can peruse their latest best management practices documents and also the Cranberry Chart Book, which documents the latest innovations for keeping cranberries healthy and flourishing. Moving on, the "News & Events" section includes materials on their ongoing training programs and special events and talks.

300

Solar concentrator electric station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents two different approaches in the field of design of a small-scale Solar Power Station (SPS) for individual users. Produced output electric power can make up to 1 kW for one module. The given SPS will be made with an automatic Sun tracking system, quickly deployable and can be made as a mobile variant. The SPS structure is based on an offset type parabolic-cylindrical mirror concentrator and with a new thermo converter in its focal zone. The first converter is based on thermo-mechanical engine/actuator, the structure of which will be made with the use of special materials having Shape Memory Effect (SME). And the second type is based on thermoelectric converter. (orig.)

Geruni, S. [Radiophysics Research Inst., Yerevan (Armenia)

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Boeing: International Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Boeing, the prime contractor for the International Space Station (ISS), has developed this website to provide information on the technology of the program. The ISS will be more than four times as large as the Russian Mir when completed, and is "the largest, most complex international scientific project in history and our largest adventure into space to date." Boeing is responsible for the design, development, construction and integration of the ISS and assisting NASA in operating the orbital outpost. They provide an overview of the status of the project and describes the current configuration, components, structure, and systems with more detailed information on some sections. Visitors can follow links to also read more about the scientific research conducted by the expedition crew.

302

Impact of Learners on Emergency Medicine Attending Physician Productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Several prior studies have examined the impact of learners (medical students or residents on overall emergency department (ED flow as well as the impact of resident training level on the number of patients seen by residents per hour. No study to date has specifically examined the impact of learners on emergency medicine (EM attending physician productivity, with regards to patients per hour (PPH. We sought to evaluate whether learners increase, decrease, or have no effect on the productivity of EM attending physicians in a teaching program with one student or resident per attending.Methods: This was a retrospective database review of an urban, academic tertiary care center with 3 separate teams on the acute care side of the ED. Each team was staffed with one attending physician paired with either one resident, one medical student or with no learners. All shifts from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2010 were reviewed using an electronic database. We predefined a shift as “Resident” if > 5 patients were seen by a resident, “Medical Student” if any patients were seen by a medical student, and “No Learners” if no patients were seen by a medical student or resident. Shifts were removed from analysis if more than one learner saw patients during the shift. We further stratified resident shifts by EM training level or off-service rotator. For each type of shift, the total number of patients seen by the attending physician was then divided by 8 hours (shift duration to arrive at number of patients per hour. Results: We analyzed a total of 7,360 shifts with 2,778 removed due to multiple learners on a team. For the 2,199 shifts with attending physicians with no learners, the average number of PPH was 1.87(95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86,1.89. For the 514 medical student shifts, the average PPH was 1.87(95% CI 1.84,1.90, p = 0.99 compared with attending with no learner. For the 1,935 resident shifts, the average PPH was 1.99(95% CI 1.97,2.00. Compared with attending physician with no learner, attending physicians with a resident saw more PPH (1.99 vs 1.87, p< 0.005. There was no statistically significant difference found between EM1: 1.98PPH, EM2: 1.99PPH, EM3: 1.99PPH, and off-service rotators: 1.99PPH. Conclusion: EM attending physicians paired with a resident in a one-on-one teaching model saw statistically significantly more patients per hour (0.12 more patients per hour than EM attending physicians alone. EM attending physicians paired with a medical student saw the same number of patients per hour compared with working alone. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(1:41–44.

Rahul Bhat

2014-02-01

303

On the Predictability of Talk Attendance at Academic Conferences  

CERN Document Server

This paper focuses on the prediction of real-world talk attendances at academic conferences with respect to different influence factors. We study the predictability of talk attendances using real-world tracked face-to-face contacts. Furthermore, we investigate and discuss the predictive power of user interests extracted from the users' previous publications. We apply Hybrid Rooted PageRank, a state-of-the-art unsupervised machine learning method that combines information from different sources. Using this method, we analyze and discuss the predictive power of contact and interest networks separately and in combination. We find that contact and similarity networks achieve comparable results, and that combinations of different networks can only to a limited extend help to improve the prediction quality. For our experiments, we analyze the predictability of talk attendance at the ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia 2011 collected using the conference management system Conferator.

Scholz, Christoph; Atzmueller, Martin; Stumme, Gerd

2014-01-01

304

Welcome back? Frequent attenders to a pediatric primary care center.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines frequent attenders of a pediatric primary care clinic at a large urban children's hospital--who they are and their reasons for frequent attendance to the clinic. The literature suggests that some visits by frequent attenders may not be medically necessary, and these additional appointments may impair others' access to medical care within the same system. The key to eliminating excessive primary care visits is to determine if it is a problem in the primary care practice (quantify the problem), explore the reasons for the visits (from the patients' perspective), and then provide educational interventions that address the various causes for the extra visits and encourage the use of available resources, either ancillary services in the practice itself or resources and agencies available in the community (e.g. social service, legal aid). PMID:21828169

Klein, Melissa; Vaughn, Lisa M; Baker, Raymond C; Taylor, Trisha

2011-09-01

305

Student and Teacher Attendance: The Role of Shared Goods in Reducing Absenteeism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A theoretical model is advanced that demonstrates that, if teacher and student attendance generate a shared good, then teacher and student attendance will be mutually reinforcing. Using data from the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan, empirical evidence supporting that proposition is advanced. Controlling for the endogeneity of teacher and student attendance, the most powerful factor raising teacher attendance is the attendance of the children in the school, and the most important factor influencing child attendance is the presence of the teacher. The results suggest that one important avenue to be explored in developing policies to reduce teacher absenteeism is to focus on raising the attendance of children.

Banerjee, Ritwik; King, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

306

It Doesn’t Hurt to Ask: Assessing Default Effects in a Brazilian Gas Station  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When an option is set as the default and as a result people are more likely to choose it, we call it a default effect. In this research we investigated whether drivers were more likely to choose a more expensive type of fuel if it was set as the default option by a mere suggestion from the gas station attendant. In the first study, we collected data showing that drivers did not believe they could be affected by default options. The second study, however, refuted these findings: we conducted a field experiment in which a trivial question asked by the gas station attendant, whose effect was the creation of a default option, led drivers to purchase a product they would not otherwise have considered. We thus provide evidence that default effects might be even more pervasive in real situations with real consumers than what one would expect from controlled laboratory experiments.

Maurício Mittelman

2014-05-01

307

Balloon launching station, Mildura, Victoria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Mildura Balloon Launching Station was established in 1960 by the Department of Supply (now the Department of Manufacturing Industry) on behalf of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) to determine the content of radioactive material in the upper atmosphere over Australia. The Station location and layout, staffing, balloon launching equipment, launching, tracking and recovery are described. (R.L.)

308

Islands for nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

309

RF-Station control crate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives a description of the electronic control-system for the RF-station of AmPS. The electronics form the connection between the computer-system and the hardware of the RF-station. Only the elements of the systems which are not described in the other NIKHEF-reports are here discussed in detail. (author). 7 figs

310

Space Stations: Bones of Contention  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners make models representing bones on Earth and bones that have been in space. They discover what happens to bones without proper exercise and nutrition. This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners explore how space affects the human body and why.

Byerly, Diane; Institute, Lunar A.

2006-01-01

311

Sighting the International Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

Teets, Donald

2008-01-01

312

Shippingport station communications program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project, the central idea of the communications program that was developed for use was purposely designed to be as uncomplicated as possible. The central theme, that was developed and communicated, is that all nuclear plants will someday need to be retired and also decommissioned. The Shippingport Plant, originally constructed as a demonstration nuclear power plant, was now being decommissioned as a demonstration to the world-wide nuclear industry that this evolution can be done in a safe and cost-effective manner. Furthermore, the technology currently exists to complete this process. The new phase of the communications program was initiated even before the responsibility for the plant was transferred from Duquesne Light to GE. With such a change forthcoming, it was necessary to inform local officials of these plans, and the reasons for them. Equally important was the need to inform a variety of agencies and offices in the three-state area of the changes, and the continuing need to involve them in the Site Emergency Plan. This document was also revised in recognition of changing site conditions, as well as the changes in responsibility. 1 ref

313

Controversial power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When information on plans to build a power station in Trebisov first appeared reactions differed. A 40-billion investment in a town with more than 20% unemployment seemed attractive. But some people did not like the idea of having a power plant located in the town. Around one year after the investment was officially announced TREND returned to Trebisov. In the meantime the investor has managed to overcome one of the biggest obstacles on its way to building a new power plant. The ministry responsible gave the environmental study a positive rating. But objectors are still not sure that everything is fine. They claim that the study misinterprets data and that the ministry did not show expertise when evaluating it. 'Is it possible that a coal power plant located in a town would have twice as many positive effects on peoples' health than negative ones? Why don't we build them everywhere?'asked the chairman of the civic society, Trebisov nahlas, Gejza Gore. The developer of the project, Ceskoslovenska energeticka spolocnost (CES), Kosice is fighting back and claims that their counterpart lacks professional arguments. In the meantime it is preparing for area management proceedings. Trebisov is also involved in the discussion and claims that the town planning scheme does not include such a project. The Ministry of Construction has a different opinion. In the opinion of the Ministry the town planning scheme allows a 885-megawatt power plant to be built only a few hundred meters away from housing estates. (author)

314

Space station impact experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four processes serve to illustrate potential areas of study and their implications for general problems in planetary science. First, accretional processes reflect the success of collisional aggregation over collisional destruction during the early history of the solar system. Second, both catastrophic and less severe effects of impacts on planetary bodies survivng from the time of the early solar system may be expressed by asteroid/planetary spin rates, spin orientations, asteroid size distributions, and perhaps the origin of the Moon. Third, the surfaces of planetary bodies directly record the effects of impacts in the form of craters; these records have wide-ranging implications. Fourth, regoliths evolution of asteroidal surfaces is a consequence of cumulative impacts, but the absence of a significant gravity term may profoundly affect the retention of shocked fractions and agglutinate build-up, thereby biasing the correct interpretations of spectral reflectance data. An impact facility on the Space Station would provide the controlled conditions necessary to explore such processes either through direct simulation of conditions or indirect simulation of certain parameters

315

Swedish encapsulation station review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

316

ATTEND: Toward a Mindfulness-Based Bereavement Care Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Few, if any, mindfulness-based bereavement care models exist. The ATTEND (attunement, trust, touch, egalitarianism, nuance, and death education) model is an interdisciplinary paradigm for providers, including physicians, social workers, therapists, nursing staff, and others. Using a case example to enhance the breadth and depth of understanding,…

Cacciatore, Joanne; Flint, Melissa

2012-01-01

317

Family Background, Financial Constraints and Higher Education Attendance in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data from the 2004 China College Student Survey, conducted by the author, this paper finds that long-term factors such as scholastic ability and parental education are significantly correlated with higher education attendance. By contrast, short-term financial constraints are also significantly associated with higher education access, but to…

Li, Wenli

2007-01-01

318

Attendance and Student Performance in Undergraduate Chemistry Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous studies suggest that attendance may be one of the key factors which influence student performance. Although there have been many studies in introductory science courses, there have been virtually no studies which analyze and compare students' performance from different types of institutions as well as different level of classes. Our study…

Lyubartseva, Ganna; Mallik, Uma Prasad

2012-01-01

319

Attitudes, Beliefs, and Attendance in a Hybrid Course  

Science.gov (United States)

Since online learning technology, such as streaming video, was introduced to the college distance-learning environment, there has been a need to study the attitudes of college students toward the use of this modality in hybrid courses. Understanding students' attitudes toward using online materials and the impact on class attendance is not only…

Yudko, Errol; Hirokawa, Randy; Chi, Robert

2008-01-01

320

Family income, school attendance, and academic achievement in elementary school.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and academic achievement among a diverse sample of children from kindergarten to 4th grade (N = 35,419) using both random and within-child fixed-effects models. Generally, results suggest that the receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and duration of receipt have small but positive associations with school absences and tardies. Poor attendance patterns predict poorer grades, with absences more associated with grades than tardies. Given the small associations between receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and school attendance, and between the duration of receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and children's grades, results do not provide strong evidence that absences and tardies meaningfully attenuate relations between the duration of low family income and student achievement; poorer attendance and persistent low income independently predict poorer grades. Implications for policy and future research are discussed. PMID:23914750

Morrissey, Taryn W; Hutchison, Lindsey; Winsler, Adam

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
321

A Theory of Attending and Reinforcement in Conditional Discriminations  

Science.gov (United States)

A model of conditional discrimination performance (Davison & Nevin, 1999) is combined with the notion that unmeasured attending to the sample and comparison stimuli, in the steady state and during disruption, depends on reinforcement in the same way as predicted for overt free-operant responding by behavioral momentum theory (Nevin & Grace, 2000).…

Nevin, John A.; Davison, Michael; Shahan, Timothy A.

2005-01-01

322

Student-perceived benefit from otolaryngology theatre attendance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The value of theatre attendance by undergraduates is uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the perceived benefits of attending operating theatre sessions during undergraduate otolaryngology attachments. The study comprised a questionnaire survey carried out in a university medical school. Fourth-year medical students were asked to complete a questionnaire at the end of their two-week attachment in otolaryngology. Completed questionnaires were returned by 152 students. The three most common student expectations were to see and learn common ENT operations, to see the anatomy involved and to learn about the disease being operated upon. Sixty per cent of students reported that their expectations had been met. On a Likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree), the importance of theatre attendance as part of the curriculum was rated to be 4.7 (95 per cent confidence interval (CI) = 3.7 to 4.2) and the satisfaction of educational needs in operating theatre teaching was rated to be 3.9 (95 per cent CI = 3.7 to 4.2). Students perceived attending otolaryngology theatre sessions to be beneficial. This information is important in the planning of the otolaryngology undergraduate curriculum. PMID:15949084

Lee, M S W; Montague, M-L; Hussain, S S M

2005-04-01

323

The Importance of Price in College Attendance: A Pennsylvania Conundrum  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the predominant characteristics of higher education in Pennsylvania is the high cost of attendance across the Commonwealth. The average tuition charged by a Pennsylvania community college--the benchmark measure used by "The National Report Card on Higher Education"--in 2004 was $2,514, making Pennsylvania the 14th most expensive state in…

Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 2006

2006-01-01

324

Attending Community College, Parenting Satisfaction, and Academic Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

This research was a quantitative study designed to evaluate parenting satisfaction, academic performance, and students' perceptions of pursuing higher education in students attending community college. One purpose of this research was to determine if pursuing higher education at the community college level impacted the parenting satisfaction of…

Gilfert, Christy M.

2010-01-01

325

Movie Ratings and Their Effect on Movie Attendance.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to examine how the motion picture Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating system (G-PG-R-X) affects movie attendance. The study also tested the validity of two behavioral theories: (1) reactance theory, which predicts that when a behavioral freedom is restricted or eliminated an individual is motivated to restore…

Austin, Bruce A.

326

Progress of Pupils Attending Resourced Provision for Specific Learning Difficulties  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of the improvement in attainments of 109 students attending specialist-resourced provision for specific learning difficulties (SpLD) attached to mainstream secondary schools was conducted as they progressed through Key Stages 3 and 4. Steady progress was made in terms of reading accuracy, reading comprehension, spelling ability and…

Warhurst, Amy; Norgate, Roger

2012-01-01

327

Laki?j? organini? jungini? tyrimas nuo benzino degalini?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research focuses on the environmental problem of volatile organic compounds in ambient air of petrol filling stations. The literature review of the issues, arising from petrol-related VOCs, with actual and proposed VOC emissions trends in Europe, have been performed. Besides petrol filling station’s typical technology layout, petrol nature and composition, applicable petrol vapour recovery solutions and their efficiency were examinated. The volatile organic compounds’ experimental res...

Bikbajeva, Z?ana

2008-01-01

328

47 CFR 73.6018 - Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection...BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6018 Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations. Digital Class A TV...

2010-10-01

329

47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection...BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6016 Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV...

2010-10-01

330

Space Station Freedom science utilization  

Science.gov (United States)

The status of mission planning and project planning for scientific experiments that will utilize the Space Station Freedom are described in viewgraph format. The following topics are addressed: microgravity science and pressurized volume payloads; Office of Space Science Applications (OSSA) payload facilities including Advanced Protein Crystal Growth Facility (APCGF), Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF), life science facilities, Biomedical Monitoring and Countermeasures Program (BMAC), Centrifuge Facility (CF), and Small Rapid Response Payloads (SRR); goals and strategies of microgravity science and life science; examples of investigation area of microgravity science and life science; announcements of opportunity and NASA research announcements; science planning structures of USA; and issues of space station utilization.

Reeves, Edmond M.

1992-01-01

331

Shutdown of nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience from shutdown operations at the plants at Niederaichbach, Gundremmingen, Unit A and at the Kahl experimental nuclear power station demonstrate that, in the framework of shutting down German nuclear power stations, by far most of the work required has already been mastered. The total dismantling of Niederaichbach nuclear power station has been successfully completed. Whenever, in about 10 to 15 years, the first large capacity reactors have to be shut down, sufficient experience will be available and it will be possible to manage this work safely. (orig.)

332

78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket Nos. 12-376, FCC 12-161] Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal...collection associated with the Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order...adopted licensing and service rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA)...

2013-11-12

333

47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...sign as shown for that station for that period of time on the common data base coordinated, maintained...event call sign data base coordinators. Additionally, the station must transmit its assigned...designating the station location must be included...

2010-10-01

334

75 FR 22674 - Moynihan Station Development Project  

Science.gov (United States)

...passenger use, and the non-Station commercial development of the...proposals for improvements to the Penn Station facilities and site, including most recently the...Farley Building and renovating Penn Station itself. Those elements have...

2010-04-29

335

47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...location and accessibility of the station's public file. The notice must state that the station's public file is available...consumers can view it at the station's main studio and on its Web site. At least one of the...

2010-10-01

336

47 CFR 73.787 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Station identification. 73.787 Section 73.787 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...SERVICES International Broadcast Stations § 73.787 Station identification. (a) A licensee...

2010-10-01

337

47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.  

Science.gov (United States)

...satellites. Where a space station requests the assignment...location, such that the station keeping volumes of the respective...plans for the space station at end of life, including...post-mission disposal maneuvers. For...

2010-10-01

338

Moira Station US.indd  

MOIRA TRÀIN STATION Tha Coontie Antrìm Canaul, Railwye an Gate Theday we lippen sairlie tae tha gate wabwark, flauchtit wi lift an say wyes, bot 150 yeir syne tha gates wus stieve, huilie, an an ill roád tae hurl unco...

339

The International Space Station (ISS)  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web Site provides users with a comprehensive look at the International Space Station. Included in this broad overview are links to everything from basic facts and figures to information about individual missions including downloadable press kits.

Company, The B.

2003-10-10

340

Internationalization of the Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

Lottmann, R. V.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Space Stations: Beans in Space  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners perform 20 arm curls with cans that simulate the weight of beans on Earth versus the weights of the same number of beans on the Moon and in space. Learners explore what happens to muscles in space that do not have to fight the force of gravity. This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners explore how space affects the human body and why.

Byerly, Diane; Institute, Lunar A.

2006-01-01

342

ANSS Backbone Station Quality Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we assess the ambient noise levels of the broadband seismic stations within the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) backbone network. The backbone consists of stations operated by the USGS as well as several regional network stations operated by universities. We also assess the improved detection capability of the network due to the installation of 13 additional backbone stations and the upgrade of 26 existing stations funded by the Earthscope initiative. This assessment makes use of probability density functions (PDF) of power spectral densities (PSD) (after McNamara and Buland, 2004) computed by a continuous noise monitoring system developed by the USGS- ANSS and the Incorporated Research Institutions in Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). We compute the median and mode of the PDF distribution and rank the stations relative to the Peterson Low noise model (LNM) (Peterson, 1993) for 11 different period bands. The power of the method lies in the fact that there is no need to screen the data for system transients, earthquakes or general data artifacts since they map into a background probability level. Previous studies have shown that most regional stations, instrumented with short period or extended short period instruments, have a higher noise level in all period bands while stations in the US network have lower noise levels at short periods (0.0625-8.0 seconds), high frequencies (8.0- 0.125Hz). The overall network is evaluated with respect to accomplishing the design goals set for the USArray/ANSS backbone project which were intended to increase broadband performance for the national monitoring network.

Leeds, A.; McNamara, D.; Benz, H.; Gee, L.

2006-12-01

343

An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999 was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05.

Zuhal Gizir Ergen

2012-04-01

344

Pup growth and maternal attendance patterns in Subantarctic fur seals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Samples of pups from the expanding populations of Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis at Marion and Gough islands were weighed at specific ages between birth and weaning in the period 1993-2000. Growth was estimated and compared between years, sexes, sites of different density, and populations. Pups of comparable age were consistently heavier at Marion Island than at Gough Island, probably reflecting relative prey resource abundance. No changes in pup growth rates were apparent over the study period, nor was there any evidence that growth was affected by ENSO events. Measures of pup growth at Marion Island were complemented by measures of maternal attendance behaviour during three summer and winter seasons. More years of data are required to determine patterns between attendance, growth, resource conditions and population abundance trends.

P.A. Pistorius

2011-10-01

345

Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?  

Science.gov (United States)

This video, 'Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?', has been produced as a classroom tool geared toward middle school children. There are three segments to this video. Segment One is a message to teachers presented by Dr. Jeannine Duane, New Jersey, 'Teacher in Space'. Segment Two is a brief Social Studies section and features a series of Presidential Announcements by President John F. Kennedy (May 1961), President Ronald Reagan (July 1982), and President George Bush (July 1989). These historical announcements are speeches concerning the present and future objectives of the United States' space programs. In the last segment, Charlie Walker, former Space Shuttle astronaut, teaches a group of middle school children, through models, computer animation, and actual footage, what Space Station Freedom is, who is involved in its construction, how it is to be built, what each of the modules on the station is for, and how long and in what sequence this construction will occur. There is a brief animation segment where, through the use of cartoons, the children fly up to Space Station Freedom as astronauts, perform several experiments and are given a tour of the station, and fly back to Earth. Space Station Freedom will take four years to build and will have three lab modules, one from ESA and another from Japan, and one habitation module for the astronauts to live in.

Vonehrenfried, Dutch

346

Advances in power station construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is about power stations - specifically about the construction of modern power stations by the Central Electricity Generating Board in England and Wales over the past decade. It describes the work of the CEGB's Generation Development and Construction Division, perhaps better known throughout the world as simply 'Barnwood' where it has its Headquarters in Gloucester, UK. Barnwood was formed in the early 1970s to concentrate the CEGB's then dispersed engineering construction resources to cope with the smaller number but greatly increased size and complexity of modern power station projects. Perhaps uniquely over the ten years since its formation Barnwood has managed the construction of all types of station; coal-fired, oil-fired, nuclear, pumped storage and hydro. This book tells the story of these various projects and gives detailed descriptions of the respective stations. However, it is not intended as a comprehensive description of power station technology. Rather it is intended to convey the scale of such projects and the many decisions and compromises which have to be made in the course of managing their construction

347

Daycare attendance and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relationship between daycare/preschool (‘daycare’) attendance and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was evaluated in the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study. Incident cases (age 1–14 years) were rapidly ascertained during 1995–1999. Population-based controls were randomly selected from the California birth registry, individually matched on date of birth, gender, race, Hispanicity, and residence, resulting in a total of 140 case–controls pairs. Fewer cases (n=92...

Ma, X.; Buffler, P. A.; Selvin, S.; Matthay, K. K.; Wiencke, J. K.; Wiemels, J. L.; Reynolds, P.

2002-01-01

348

Genital human papillomavirus infection among patients attending an STD clinic.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES--To determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in patients, male and female, attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). DESIGN--A randomly selected group of patients representative of the population studied and first-time visitors to the STD clinic, were asked to participate in the study. Samples from the skin and mucous membranes of the lower genital region were taken for cytological analysis by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for...

Strand, A.; Rylander, E.; Evander, M.; Wadell, G.

1993-01-01

349

Obstetric complications: does training traditional birth attendants make a difference?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effect that a training intervention for traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Guatemala had on the detection of obstetric complications, the referral of patients with complications to the formal health care system, and, ultimately, those patients' utilization of essential obstetric care services. Methods. Using a quasi-experimental design, a surveillance system of births was implemented to collect population-based information from 3 518 women between 1990 and 1993. All women were interviewed postpartum by physicians. There were three key independent variables in our study: 1 geographical area (intervention community and non-intervention community, 2 time in relation to the training intervention (before or after, and 3 presence or absence of a TBA at the time of the complication. The key dependent variables for women interviewed were 1 development of an obstetric complication, 2 detection of the problem by the TBA, 3 referral to a health facility, 4 compliance with referral, and 5 use of services. Results. The incidence of postpartum complications decreased after the intervention, controlling for intervention community. On the other hand, after the intervention TBAs were less likely to recognize most maternal complications, and referral rates did not increase significantly. The likelihood of using health care services increased six-fold among women who were not attended by TBAs, and no increase was observed among those who were attended by TBAs. Conclusion. Training TBAs may have had a positive effect on the rate, detection, and referral of postpartum complications. However, the evidence is less convincing for overall increases in the detection of complications, in referral to the formal health care system, and in the utilization of essential obstetric services among women attended by TBAs.

Bailey Patricia E.

2002-01-01

350

Neural responses to complex auditory rhythms: the role of attending  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the role of attention in pulse and meter perception using complex rhythms. We used a selective attention paradigm in which participants attended to either a complex auditory rhythm or a visually presented word list. Performance on a reproduction task was used to gauge whether participants were attending to the appropriate stimulus. We hypothesized that attention to complex rhythms – which contain no energy at the pulse frequency – would lead to activations in motor areas involved in pulse perception. Moreover, because multiple repetitions of a complex rhythm are needed to perceive a pulse, activations in pulse related areas would be seen only after sufficient time had elapsed for pulse perception to develop. Selective attention was also expected to modulate activity in sensory areas specific to the modality. We found that selective attention to rhythms led to increased BOLD responses in basal ganglia, and basal ganglia activity was observed only after the rhythms had cycled enough times for a stable pulse percept to develop. These observations suggest that attention is needed to recruit motor activations associated with the perception of pulse in complex rhythms. Moreover, attention to the auditory stimulus enhanced activity in an attentional sensory network including primary auditory, insula, anterior cingulate, and prefrontal cortex, and suppressed activity in sensory areas associated with attending to the visual stimulus.

HeatherLChapin

2010-12-01

351

Advanced calibration tools - an essential contribution to the development process of the innovative new BMW V8 petrol engine; Moderne Applikationsmethoden - ein unverzichtbarer Baustein bei der Entwicklung des innovativen neuen BMW V8 Ottomotors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new BMW V8-engine is a milestone in the development of modern petrol engines. The combination of 2{sup nd} generation spray-guided direct injection system with piezo-injectors in central position, Twin Turbo charging system and the innovative positioning of turbo-chargers and catalysts between the cylinder banks is a unique and path breaking combination. This advanced engine concept requires adequate sophisticated calibration methods. To secure an efficient development process advanced tools are mandatory. This article explains the use of different methods and tools which had been used in the different stages of the development process. (orig.)

Bock, Christian; Klueting, Manfred; Rabenstein, Friedrich [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)

2008-07-01

352

Towards sustainable regions: the spatial distribution of electric vehicles’ recharging stations from a socio-economic perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The last decades have witnessed a growing interest in electric vehicles (EV) as an integral part of the vision for sustainable regions. The main reasons include the acknowledgment of the necessity of auto-mobility, the technological advancements of electric vehicles, and the interest in petrol-free, low-emission vehicles due to the rising oil prices and global warming. Adequate on-road EV recharging infrastructure is essential in the transformation of EV into a practical transport option and the wide-scale market penetration of EV. Nevertheless, the efficient spatial distribution of EV recharging is rarely explored. current study focuses on assessing the demand driven need for on-road EV recharging stations, and finding their efficient spatial distribution, while accounting for economic, social, environmental and land-use considerations. The analysis, conducted for Demark, consists of four steps. Firstly, the demand for on-road recharging of EV’s based on the national travel demand patterns is evaluated, while considering the existence of a city-wide slow recharging network. Secondly, the Edison model for the optimal deployment of EV recharging stations is applied. The model evaluates the need for recharging at the vehicle level, and seeks the optimal deployment of recharging stations on the basis of the distribution of the potential recharging points and the inventory of candidate sites. Thirdly, the EV market share is evaluated as a function of the number of EV recharging stations by employing a discrete choice model, estimated on the basis of a stated preference survey. Last, the feasibility of the optimal EV spatial distribution of the EV charging stations is analyzed, based on the Danish official socio-economic framework (TERESA). Results show: (i) the number of required recharging stations for satisfying the travel demand, (ii) the optimal deployment of recharging stations, (iii) the change in travel patterns due to detours for EV recharging, (iv) the feasibility of the proposed infrastructure while considering economic costs and benefits for operators and users, impact on government budget as well as environmental externalities, namely pollutant emissions, carbon footprint, and noise exposure. The results demonstrate the applicability and feasibility of the proposed method for planning an EV recharging network in sustainable regions.

Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

2015-01-01

353

The Miksova water power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This leaflet describes the Miksova water power station. The Miksova water power station is part of the second derived cascade of hydro power stations on the river Vah. It was built at the end of a huge development in Slovak hydro-energy in the late 1950's and the beginning of the 1960's. It is the second water power station on this derived cascade, which is situated downstream the Hricov reservoir and water power station. At the power station, three turbine sets with vertical Kaplan turbines are installed with a total power output of 3 x 31.2 = 93.6 MW. With this power output the Miksova water power station (Miksova I) was the biggest water power station in the Slovak Republic until the construction of Pumping water power station Liptovska Mara. And it is still the biggest channel water power station on the Vah so far. It was put into operation during the period 1963 to 1965. There are three turbine sets with Kaplan turbines from CKD Blansko, with a synchronous hydro-alternator installed in the power station. Their installed capacity is 93.6 MW in total and the projected annual production of electrical energy is 207 GWh. The turbines are fi ve-bladed (on the Hricov and Povazska Bystrica water power stations they are four-bladed) and the impeller wheel has a diameter of 4800 mm. They are designed for extension of the head from 24.1 to 22.21 m and each of them has an absorption capacity of 134 m3.s-1 nd a nominal operating speed of 2.08 m3.s-1, runaway speed 4.9 m3.s-1. Each synchronous hydro-alternator has a maximum power output of 31.2 MW, a nominal voltage of 10.5 kV and power factor cos ? of 0.8. Power from the power station is led out through 110 kV switchgear. The water power station operates under automatic turbine mode of operation with remote indication and control from the Dispatch Centre at Vodne elektrarne, in Trencin. From start of operation until the end of 2003 all three turbine sets operated for a total of 450,500 running hours and the Miksova water power station produced total of about 7,161,342 MWh of electricity in its 40 years of activity. According to its functionality, the Miksova pumped storage station (Miksova II) the upper reservoir of which was built from 1963 to 1966 on the Benovsky stream, was an interesting hydro-energy construction. The lower reservoir was formed by the enlarged discharge channel of the Miksova water power station. This power station was a pilot project, at which pumping reversible turbines and other mechanical-technical equipment for hydro power stations were tested, especially for the future construction of PVE Ruzin and Liptovska Mara. A turbine set with a diagonal reversible turbine and an installed capacity of 2.6 MW, which had an operational capacity of 11.2 m3.s-1 in a turbine mode of operation and using a head of 22 to 28 m, was installed in the machine room. It pumped 8.8 m3.s-1 of water with a power input of 3.1 MW in a pumping mode of operation. During the period of its operation from 1971 to 1984, pumping hydro power station Miksova II produced a total of 13,042 MWh of electricity in total, but by testing reversible turbines and the simulation of some special hydraulic phenomena, this power station lost its importance as low-efficiency source, stopped working and its technological equipment was demounted. Experiences from its construction and from its few years of operation were later used during the construction of our pumping hydro power stations. Prolonging its operating period should help with the installation of a bigger basin on the inflow, from which a greater amount of water could be used for the generation of electrical power in turbine mode of operation

354

22 CFR 102.11 - Arranging for the payment of expenses attendant upon an accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

...payment of expenses attendant upon an accident. 102.11 Section 102.11...AVIATION United States Aircraft Accidents Abroad § 102.11 Arranging...payment of expenses attendant upon an accident. (a) The Department...

2010-04-01

355

46 CFR 62.50-20 - Additional requirements for minimally attended machinery plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Additional requirements for minimally attended...50-20 Additional requirements for minimally attended...equipment monitoring requirements of this part if...pumps is required to be independent of the main machinery...vessel must have a planned maintenance...

2010-10-01

356

25 CFR 141.24 - Attendance at semi-annual meetings.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attendance at semi-annual meetings. 141.24 Section... FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO...RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.24 Attendance at semi-annual meetings. Upon the...

2010-04-01

357

77 FR 11532 - Notice of Attendance at ISO New England and NEPOOL Meetings  

Science.gov (United States)

...Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Attendance at ISO New England and NEPOOL Meetings The Federal Energy...Commission and Commission staff may attend upcoming ISO New England Inc. (ISO-NE) and New England Power Pool (NEPOOL)...

2012-02-27

358

9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary...

2010-01-01

359

Shippingport station decommissioning project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS), the first commercial-sized nuclear power plant in the United States to undergo complete dismantlement. SAPS is located near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on approximately seven acres of land owned by Duquesne Light Company (DLC), and leased to the US Department of Energy. The Station consists of a 275' by 60' Fuel Handling Building containing the Reactor Containment Chamber, the Service Building, the Turbine Building, the Radioactive Waste Processing Building, the Administration Building, and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops; most of the containment structures are located below grade. Shippingport Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September 1984. At that time, responsibility for the plant was transferred from DOE Office of Assistant Secretary for Naval Reactors (NE-60) to DOE Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action (NE-20) and then to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL). Also at that time, responsibility for the operation/decommissioning of the station systems passed from DLC to General Electric Company (GE). A caretaker and site preparation period lasted from September, 1984 to September, 1985, at which time decommissioning activities started. The decommissioning period is scheduled as September, 1985 through April, 1990. Project total estimated cost is $98.3 million

360

Shippingport Station decommissioning project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station located on the Ohio River, 30 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Shippingport Station is the first commercial size nuclear power plant to undergo decommissioning in the United Staes. The plant is located on approximately 7 acres of land owned by the Duquesne Light Company (DLC) and leased to the U.S. Government. DLC operates two nuclear power plants, Beaver Valley 1 and 2, located immediately adjacent to the site and the Bruce Mansfield coal-fired power plant is also within the immediate area. The Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September, 1984. The Shippingport Station consists of a 275' x 60' fuel handling building containing the reactor containment chamber, the service building, the turbine building, the radioactive waste processing building, the administration building and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops and most of the containment structures are located below grade. Structures owned by the U.S. Government including the fuel handling building, service building, contaminated equipment room, the boiler chambers, the radioactive waste processing building and the decontamination and laydown buildings will be dismantled and removed to 3 feet below grade. The area will then be filled with clean soil and graded. The turbine building, testing and training be turbine building, testing and training building and the administration building are owned by DLC and will remain

 
 
 
 
361

The self-reported health of U.S. flight attendants compared to the general population  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Few studies have examined the broad health effects of occupational exposures in flight attendants apart from disease-specific morbidity and mortality studies. We describe the health status of flight attendants and compare it to the U.S. population. In addition, we explore whether the prevalence of major health conditions in flight attendants is associated with length of exposure to the aircraft environment using job tenure as a proxy. Methods: We surveyed flight attendants from tw...

Mcneely, Eileen; Gale, Sara; Tager, Ira; Kincl, Laurel; Bradley, Julie; Coull, Brent; Hecker, Steve

2014-01-01

362

Detection of Rogue Base Station Using MATLAB  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of detectingrogue base station in WiMAX/802.16 networks. A roguebase station is an attacker station that duplicates a legitimatebase station. The rogue base station puzzles a set ofsubscribers who try to get service which they believe to be alegitimate base station. It may lead to disturbance in service.The strategy of attack depends on the type of network. Ourapproach is based on the inconsistencies in sensitivity andreceived signal strength (RSS reports received by mobilestations can be seen if a rogue Base Station (BS is present ina network. These reports can be assessed by the legitimatebase stations, for instance, when a mobile station undertakesa handover towards another BS. A new algorithm fordetecting a rogue base station is described in this paper.

Sukhwinder Singh

2011-11-01

363

Motivating Attendance in a First-Year Mathematics Course Using "House Cash"  

Science.gov (United States)

Poor class attendance is detrimental to student success. This is especially true in entry-level college mathematics courses, where habitual non-attendance can have lasting effects that greatly limit a student's options for continued academic success. The purpose of this study was to design an attendance incentive and to evaluate its impact on…

Ellermeyer, S. F.; Leeds, E. M.; Banker, T. G.

2011-01-01

364

Does Sex (Female versus Male) Influence the Impact of Class Attendance on Examination Performance?  

Science.gov (United States)

The "conventional wisdom" is that grades are related to class attendance, i.e., students who attend classes more frequently obtain better grades and class attendance dramatically contributes to enhanced learning. However, the influence of sex (female vs. male) on this relationship is understudied. Furthermore, there have been several studies…

Cortright, Ronald N.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cox, Julie H.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

2011-01-01

365

75 FR 34140 - Establishment of the Personal Care Attendants Workforce Advisory Panel  

Science.gov (United States)

...to the services provided by personal care attendant workers. The...and advise the Department on personal care attendant workforce policy...practices that help reduce high personal care attendant workforce vacancy...Americans Act and the Workforce Investment System; community...

2010-06-16

366

Serpentes da Bacia petrolífera de Urucu, município de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil Snakes of the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Um inventário estruturado de serpentes foi realizado na Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura (BOGPM, localizada na Bacia Petrolífera de Urucu, Município de Coari, Amazonas, nos anos de 2003, 2004 e 2007. Nas quatro expedições realizadas (51 dias de coleta foram registradas 47 espécies de serpentes, pertencentes a sete famílias e 33 gêneros. Foram utilizados quatro métodos complementares de amostragem de serpentes: armadilha de interceptação e queda, encontros ocasionais, procura limitada por tempo a pé e procura limitada por tempo de carro. Das 47 espécies coletadas, Liophis reginae (n= 14, Philodryas viridissima (n= 9, Philodryas boulengeri (n= 7 e Oxybelis fulgidus (n= 7 foram as mais abundantes em toda região. O maior número de espécies e espécimes foi registrado pela procura limitada por tempo de carro (52,8%. Estudos anteriores indicam que as localidades ao sul do Rio Amazonas (como região Leste do Pará, Usina Hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, e de Samuel, Estado de Rondônia apresentam maior riqueza quando comparadas às regiões ao norte do Amazonas (como Município de Manaus, Reserva do INPA-WWF e Usina Hidrelétrica de Balbina, Estado do Amazonas. Desta forma, é possível inferir que o levantamento das serpentes da região de Urucu ainda não esteja completo, sendo necessário um maior esforço de coleta para que novos registros sejam adicionados para a área.A structured snake inventory was carried out at the Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura (BOGPM, located at the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, during 2003, 2004 and 2007. Throughout four sampling expeditions (51 collection days, seven species of snakes, belonging to seven families and 33 genera, were recorded. Four complementary sampling methods were used: pitfall traps with drift fence, occasional encounters, time-limited search on foot and time-limited search by car. Of the 47 collected species Liophis reginae (n= 14, Philodryas viridissima (n= 9, Philodryas boulengeri (n= 7 and Oxybelis fulgidus (n= 7 were the most abundant in the region. The highest number of species and specimens was obtained by the time-limited search by car (n=52.8%. Previous studies indicate that localities south of the Amazonas river (such as the eastern region of Pará and Tucuruí, state of Para, and Samuel Hydroelectric Plants, state of Rondônia present a greater richness when compared to those north of the Amazonas river (such as the mucipality of Manaus, INPA-WWF Reserve and Balbina Hydroelectric Plant, state of Amazonas.Thus, it is possible to infer that the snake inventory in Urucu region is not yet complete, requiring more sampling efforts so that new records can be obtained for the area.

Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente

2010-01-01

367

Analyses of power station economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of construction, fuel and other running costs of electricity production based on conventional coal/oil-fired plants and on atomic power stations. These types of stations are selected: a 600 MW coal/oil-fired plant, a 900 MW atomic power plant of LWR type, and a 635 MW atomic power plant of CANDU type. The comparison serves to elucidate the immediate effects on social economics that the choice between conventional and atomic power production must be presumed to have for investments, fuel consumption, running costs and consumer prices for electricity, as well as for currency costs and employment during the construction and operation of power plants. (B.P.)

368

Chromosome abnormalities in pupils attending ESN/M schools.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One hundred and sixty six children attending educationally subnormal/mild (ESN/M) schools were karyotyped as part of a project investigating the aetiology of mild mental retardation. Nine had significant chromosome abnormalities. Five of six children identified during the survey had no dysmorphic features--47,XXY (two), 48,XXYY, 46,XX 15q-, and 46,XX,t(X;19). One dysmorphic boy had a balanced translocation--46,XY,t(3;15). Three were already known--47,XX+21 (two) and 46,XY, 14q+. We suggest th...

Lamont, M. A.; Dennis, N. R.; Seabright, M.

1986-01-01

369

Self-efficacy, attendance, and weight loss in obesity treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-efficacy is an important predictor of treatment outcomes for a variety of addictive behaviors. However, little research is available regarding its predictive value in obesity treatment. We assessed the predictive validity of the 20-item version of the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL) in a consecutive sample of 109 obese adults seeking outpatient treatment at a university-based weight-management center. Although the WEL demonstrated a stable factor structure and sound psychometric properties, it failed to correlate with either program attendance or weight loss. We concluded that self-efficacy judgments (as measured by the WEL) are not predictive of short-term obesity treatment outcomes. PMID:9290865

Fontaine, K R; Cheskin, L J

1997-01-01

370

Sexual behaviour in women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 1025 women attending a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic, sexual experience had started at an increasingly early age during the past 30 years, from a mode of 19 in the early 1950s to 16 in the early 1980s. Up to the age of 40, sexually active older women had as many recent sexual partners as younger women. Oral intercourse (fellatio) was practised by 714 (70%) women, and 378 (37%) experienced ejaculation in the mouth. Anal intercourse was practised by 200 (20%) women and 90 (9%) experien...

Evans, B. A.; Bond, R. A.; Macrae, K. D.

1988-01-01

371

Public outreach: Multitudes attend the Night of Science  

CERN Multimedia

The Night of Science, which took place in the parc de la Perle du Lac in Geneva last weekend, was a great success, with 30000 visitors attending according to the organisers. Many curious people flocked to the stands and animations until late on Saturday night and all afternoon on Sunday. The CERN stand (photo) received a great amount of interest from participants. Both kids and adults discovered the activities of the Laboratory and the data-processing revolution initiated by CERN, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Hats off to the CERN collaborators in the Communication Group and IT Department who made this event a success.

2006-01-01

372

47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. 73.6016 Section 73.6016...Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6016 Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations....

2010-10-01

373

Factors associated with non-attendance, opportunistic attendance and reminded attendance to cervical screening in an organized screening program: a cross-sectional study of 12,058 Norwegian women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer incidence and mortality may be reduced by organized screening. Participant compliance with the attendance recommendations of the screening program is necessary to achieve this. Knowledge about the predictors of compliance is needed in order to enhance screening attendance. Methods The Norwegian Co-ordinated Cervical Cancer Screening Program (NCCSP registers all cervix cytology diagnoses in Norway and individually reminds women who have no registered smear for the past three years to make an appointment for screening. In the present study, a questionnaire on lifestyle and health was administered to a random sample of Norwegian women. The response rate was 68%. To address the predictors of screening attendance for the 12,058 women aged 25-45 who were eligible for this study, individual questionnaire data was linked to the cytology registry of the NCCSP. We distinguished between non-attendees, opportunistic attendees and reminded attendees to screening for a period of four years. Predictors of non-attendance versus attendance and reminded versus opportunistic attendance were established by multivariate logistic regression. Results Women who attended screening were more likely than non-attendees to report that they were aware of the recommended screening interval, a history of sexually transmitted infections and a history of hormonal contraceptive and condom use. Attendance was also positively associated with being married/cohabiting, being a non-smoker and giving birth. Women who attended after being reminded were more likely than opportunistic attendees to be aware of cervical cancer and the recommended screening interval, but less likely to report a history of sexually transmitted infections and hormonal contraceptive use. Moreover, the likelihood of reminded attendance increased with age. Educational level did not significantly affect the women's attendance status in the fully adjusted models. Conclusions The likelihood of attendance in an organized screening program was higher among women who were aware of cervical screening, which suggests a potential for a higher attendance rate through improving the public knowledge of screening. Further, the lower awareness among opportunistic than reminded attendees suggests that physicians may inform their patients better when smears are taken at the physician's initiative.

Eriksen Tormod

2011-04-01

374

Reproductive tract infections among women attending gynaecology outpatient department  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Women often suffer silently with reproductive tract infections (RTIs and sexually active young women are particularly susceptible to sexually transmitted Infections (STIs. The study aimed to know the prevalence of reproductive tract infections among married women attending Gynecological Outpatients Department of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH, Kathmandu, Nepal.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hospital based crosssectional design was used to investigate RTIs among women attending outpatients department of Gynae and Obstetrics, TUTH from July to November, 2006. A total of 208 samples from 104 women were examined microscopically and culture using standard microbial technique to investigate etiological agents of RTIs. Study samples were selected and examined on the basis of either having discharge or complaints of lower abdominal pain.RESULTS: A total of 208 samples collected from 104 patients were examined and 26% samples were positive for different causative agents of RTIs. Thirty percent of women reported having symptoms related to RTIs and was common in young married women. Nineteen percent had STIs. Thirteen percent had trichomonasis and 7% had gonorrhoea identified in Gram stained smears and cultures. Many women had endogenous RTIs. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 15% and vaginal candidiasis in 25% of women.CONCLUSIONS: Young married women have a high prevalence of RTIs. Education and outreach programs are needed to reduce embarrassment and lack of knowledge related to RTIs. The low socio?economic status of women appears to have influence on high rate of infections.

Bohara MS

2012-09-01

375

Sources of dietary calcium in patients attending an osteoporosis clinic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gemma HornSurgical Department, Perth Royal Infirmary, Perth, ScotlandIntroduction: Osteoporosis is a common disease that affects both women and men but is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Reviews suggest that dietary-derived calcium is vital in maintaining adequate calcium balance. Sources of dietary calcium intake among adult patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were reviewed.Method: Two hundred and ninety-one patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were given an eleven-item food questionnaire to complete. The results were compared to the recommended daily allowance of 700 mg.Results: The overall mean intake was 657 mg/day with little difference between age or gender. The best foods for supplying calcium were cheese and milky drinks.Conclusion: This study has confirmed that suboptimal calcium intakes remain common. Dairy sources of calcium remain important. More awareness is needed to convey the importance of dietary calcium and bone health to avoid the development of osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoporosis, clinic, food questionnaire, calcium, dietary intake, bone health

Horn G

2012-09-01

376

Duration of day-care attendance and acute respiratory infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Day-care attendance accounts for an increased frequency of acute respiratory infections (ARI, in numbers of both episodes and hospitalizations. In addition to day-care exposure, risk factors include age, siblings, and crowding. The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible association between duration of day-care exposure and ARI. A cross-sectional study was carried out to compared ARI rates for children exposed to day care and children cared for at home. Children with at least one parent working in a hospital were sampled from the hospital-run day-care center and those cared for at home. An acute respiratory infection was defined as the presence of two or more signs or symptoms in the previous two weeks. Children exposed to the day-care center for 12 to 50 hours a week had a three to five times greater risk of developing ARI than those staying at home. This risk was assessed independently, taking socioeconomic status, age, and number of siblings into account. Risk of respiratory illness and day-care attendance has been described elsewhere, but this study presents original findings related to duration of exposure. With a view towards reducing risk of ARI, improvements should be made in institutional day-care centers in Brazil, where family day care is still not available.

Fuchs Sandra Costa

1996-01-01

377

Public health recommendations for athletes attending sporting events.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public health planning in advance of the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games included an assessment of potential public health risks for athletes attending the Games and mitigation activities to reduce those risks, including provision of vaccination recommendations to athletes. Physicians providing care to athletes who will attend large sporting events at home or abroad should consider their need for routine and additional vaccinations well in advance of the event to permit completion of vaccination schedules, ensure development of immunity, and avoid adverse vaccine reactions in the final stages of athlete training. Specific vaccinations recommended will vary depending on the location of the event and time of year it is scheduled. Other simple prevention measures for athletes include hand washing recommendations, avoiding high-risk foods, practicing safe sex, and taking simple precautions to reduce the risk of injuries. No major public health problems occurred during the 2010 Winter Games, but a measles outbreak began in Vancouver coincident in time with the Games; no known cases occurred among participating athletes. PMID:21200174

Daly, Patricia; Gustafson, Réka

2011-01-01

378

Radiation exposure anticipated for medical personnel attending contaminated patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extent of personnel contaminations with radioactive substances in laboratory and operation accidents and the corresponding radiation exposure of doctors and their medical staff is often quite controversial even with experts. In the opinion of many, a radiation accident with radioactive substances may be hazardons to the health of doctors and their medical staff by external irradiation, contamination and incorporation. It is the purpose of this lecture to estimate the extent of possible personal contamination by means of realistic assumptions and maximum credible accidents, and to judge on the radiation exposure of doctors and their medical staff while attending such patients. Accidents that might occur in nuclear power plants, fuel reprocessing plants, waste treatment, fuel element production, in particular with plutonium, handling of radiactive substances in laboratories especially in nuclear medicine, and transport of radioactive substances are analyzed. The courses of accidents listed slow that the radiation exposure of doctors and their medical staff in the attendance of radiation accident patients is negligible even at short distance from the patient. There is no radiation hazard. (orig.)

379

Remote input/output station  

CERN Multimedia

A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

1972-01-01

380

Space Station power system issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Issues governing the selection of power systems for long-term manned Space Stations intended solely for earth orbital missions are covered briefly, drawing on trade study results from both in-house and contracted studies that have been conducted over nearly two decades. An involvement, from the Program Development Office at MSFC, with current Space Station concepts began in late 1982 with the NASA-wide Systems Definition Working Group and continued throughout 1984 in support of various planning activities. The premise for this discussion is that, within the confines of the current Space Station concept, there is good reason to consider photovoltaic power systems to be a venerable technology option for both the initial 75 kW and 300 kW (or much greater) growth stations. The issue of large physical size required by photovoltaic power systems is presented considering mass, atmospheric drag, launch packaging and power transmission voltage as being possible practicality limitations. The validity of searching for a cross-over point necessitating the introduction of solar thermal or nuclear power system options as enabling technologies is considered with reference to programs ranging from the 4.8 kW Skylab to the 9.5 gW Space Power Satellite.

Giudici, R. J.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Computer networking at SLR stations  

Science.gov (United States)

There are several existing communication methods to deliver data from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station to the SLR data center and back: telephonmodem, telex, and computer networks. The SLR scientific community has been exploiting mainly INTERNET, BITNET/EARN, and SPAN. The total of 56 countries are connected to INTERNET and the number of nodes is exponentially growing. The computer networks mentioned above and others are connected through E-mail protocol. The scientific progress of SLR requires the increase of communication speed and the amount of the transmitted data. The TOPEX/POSEIDON test campaign required to deliver Quick Look data (1.7 kB/pass) from a SLR site to SLR data center within 8 hours and full rate data (up to 500 kB/pass) within 24 hours. We developed networking for the remote SLR station in Helwan, Egypt. The reliable scheme for data delivery consists of: compression of MERIT2 format (up to 89 percent), encoding to ASCII Me (files); and e-mail sending from SLR station--e-mail receiving, decoding, and decompression at the center. We do propose to use the ZIP method for compression/decompression and the UUCODE method for ASCII encoding/decoding. This method will be useful for stations connected via telephonemodems or commercial networks. The electronics delivery could solve the problem of the too late receiving of the FR data by SLR data center.

Novotny, Antonin

1993-01-01

382

Space Station launch site processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Planning which is underway at NASA-Kennedy toward launch site processing of Space Station elements is described. The goal is to develop cost-effective processing for each of the Program elements. Launch site receiving is discussed as well as post delivery verification, prelaunch assembly, prelaunch testing, experiment integration, and testing and servicing.

Oertel, John G.; Elbon, John W., III

1988-01-01

383

Computer networking at SLR stations  

Science.gov (United States)

There are several existing communication methods to deliver data from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station to the SLR data center and back: telephonmodem, telex, and computer networks. The SLR scientific community has been exploiting mainly INTERNET, BITNET/EARN, and SPAN. The total of 56 countries are connected to INTERNET and the number of nodes is exponentially growing. The computer networks mentioned above and others are connected through E-mail protocol. The scientific progress of SLR requires the increase of communication speed and the amount of the transmitted data. The TOPEX/POSEIDON test campaign required to deliver Quick Look data (1.7 kB/pass) from a SLR site to SLR data center within 8 hours and full rate data (up to 500 kB/pass) within 24 hours. We developed networking for the remote SLR station in Helwan, Egypt. The reliable scheme for data delivery consists of: compression of MERIT2 format (up to 89 percent), encoding to ASCII Me (files); and e-mail sending from SLR station--e-mail receiving, decoding, and decompression at the center. We do propose to use the ZIP method for compression/decompression and the UUCODE method for ASCII encoding/decoding. This method will be useful for stations connected via telephonemodems or commercial networks. The electronics delivery could solve the problem of the too late receiving of the FR data by SLR data center.

Novotny, Antonin

1993-06-01

384

Space Station power system issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Issues governing the selection of power systems for long-term manned Space Stations intended solely for earth orbital missions are covered briefly, drawing on trade study results from both in-house and contracted studies that have been conducted over nearly two decades. An involvement, from the Program Development Office at MSFC, with current Space Station concepts began in late 1982 with the NASA-wide Systems Definition Working Group and continued throughout 1984 in support of various planning activities. The premise for this discussion is that, within the confines of the current Space Station concept, there is good reason to consider photovoltaic power systems to be a venerable technology option for both the initial 75 kW and 300 kW (or much greater) growth stations. The issue of large physical size required by photovoltaic power systems is presented considering mass, atmospheric drag, launch packaging and power transmission voltage as being possible practicality limitations. The validity of searching for a cross-over point necessitating the introduction of solar thermal or nuclear power system options as enabling technologies is considered with reference to programs ranging from the 4.8 kW Skylab to the 9.5 gW Space Power Satellite

385

Space Station Planetology Experiments (SSPEX)  

Science.gov (United States)

A meeting of 50 planetary scientists considered the uses of the Space Station to support experiments in their various disciplines. Abstracts (28) present concepts for impact and aeolian processes, particle formation and interaction, and other planetary science experiments. Summaries of the rationale, hardware concepts, accomodations, and recommendations are included.

Greeley, R. (editor); Williams, R. J. (editor)

1986-01-01

386

Space Station Planetology Experiments (SSPEX)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A meeting of 50 planetary scientists considered the uses of the Space Station to support experiments in their various disciplines. Abstracts (28) present concepts for impact and aeolian processes, particle formation and interaction, and other planetary science experiments. Summaries of the rationale, hardware concepts, accomodations, and recommendations are included

387

Space Station Planetology Experiments (SSPEX)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A meeting of 50 planetary scientists considered the uses of the Space Station to support experiments in their various disciplines. Abstracts (28) present concepts for impact and aeolian processes, particle formation and interaction, and other planetary science experiments. Summaries of the rationale, hardware concepts, accomodations, and recommendations are included.

Greeley, R.; Williams, R.J.

1986-05-01

388

Religious attendance after elevated depressive symptoms: is selection bias at work?  

Science.gov (United States)

In an attempt to determine if selection bias could be a reason that religious attendance and depression are related, the predictive value of elevated depressive symptoms for a decrease in future attendance at religious services was examined in a longitudinal panel of 1,673 Dutch adults. Religious attendance was assessed yearly over five years using the single question, “how often do you attend religious gatherings nowadays?” Depressive symptoms were assessed four times within the first year using the Depression subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Logistic regression models of change in attendance were created, stratifying by baseline attendance status. Attenders who developed elevated symptoms were less likely to subsequently decrease their attendance (relative risk ratio: 0.55, 95% CI [0.38–0.79]) relative to baseline as compared to those without elevated symptoms. This inverse association remained significant after controlling for health and demographic covariates, and when using multiply imputed data to account for attrition. Non-attenders were unlikely to start attending after elevated depressive symptoms. This study provides counter evidence against previous findings that church attenders are a self-selected healthier group. PMID:24688885

Baetz, Marilyn; Bowen, Rudy

2014-01-01

389

Effects of training attendance on muscle strength of young men after 11 weeks of resistance training  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available urpose: Training attendance is an important variable for attaining optimal results after a resistance training (RT program, however, the association of attendance with the gains of muscle strength is not well defined. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to verify if attendance would affect muscle strength gains in healthy young males.Methods: Ninety two young males with no previous RT experience volunteered to participate in the study. RT was performed 2 days a week for 11 weeks. One repetition maximum (1RM in the bench press and knee extensors peak torque (PT were measured before and after the training period. After the training period, a two step cluster analysis was used to classify the participants in accordance to training attendance, resulting in three groups, defined as high (92 to 100%, intermediate (80 to 91% and low (60 to 79% training attendance.Results: According to the results, there were no significant correlations between strength gains and training attendance, however, when attendance groups were compared, the low training attendance group showed lower increases in 1RM bench press (8.8% than the other two groups (17.6% and 18.0% for high and intermediate attendance, respectively.Conclusions: Although there is not a direct correlation between training attendance and muscle strength gains, it is suggested that a minimum attendance of 80% is necessary to ensure optimal gains in upper body strength.

Martim Bottaro

2013-06-01

390

Religious attendance after elevated depressive symptoms: is selection bias at work?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an attempt to determine if selection bias could be a reason that religious attendance and depression are related, the predictive value of elevated depressive symptoms for a decrease in future attendance at religious services was examined in a longitudinal panel of 1,673 Dutch adults. Religious attendance was assessed yearly over five years using the single question, “how often do you attend religious gatherings nowadays?” Depressive symptoms were assessed four times within the first year using the Depression subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Logistic regression models of change in attendance were created, stratifying by baseline attendance status. Attenders who developed elevated symptoms were less likely to subsequently decrease their attendance (relative risk ratio: 0.55, 95% CI [0.38–0.79] relative to baseline as compared to those without elevated symptoms. This inverse association remained significant after controlling for health and demographic covariates, and when using multiply imputed data to account for attrition. Non-attenders were unlikely to start attending after elevated depressive symptoms. This study provides counter evidence against previous findings that church attenders are a self-selected healthier group.

Lloyd Balbuena

2014-03-01

391

Hunterston A nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The South of Scotland Electricity Board, (SSEB) has completed a long term safety review (LTSR) of Hunterston A nuclear power station, to justify operation of the station until at least 1994, when it would be 30 years old. The UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate has examined the LTSR and this report presents the findings together with a list of key requirements for further work which would need to be completed if operation of the station were to continue to 1994. The detailed findings and recommendations have already been communicated to the SSEB. However, the SSEB announced on 20 March 1989 that ''the Hunterston A Power Station in Ayrshire is likely to close within the next 12 months''. The effect of this decision on the programme of work required to fulfil the key requirements has been considered and changes have been made which reflect the SSEB's intention to close the station in March 1990. The approach has been first to confirm that the plant is still operating at least to its original safety standard; second, to identify and evaluate the factors that may limit its future life; and third, to assess the LTSR against modern standards and practices and to obtain any plant or operational improvements judged necessary and reasonably practicable. By and large Hunterston A has stood up well to the LTSR examination and its safety record has been good. Reactor operations are allowed to continue. Key requirements for operation to March 1990 have been agreed. Further work March 1990 have been agreed. Further work would be required for consent to be given for operation to 1994. (author)

392

In situ radio-frequency heating for soil remediation at a former service station: case study and general aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ radio-frequency heating (ISRFH) was successfully applied during remediation of a former petrol station. Using a three-electrode array in combination with extraction wells for soil vapor extraction (SVE), pollution consisting mainly of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and mineral oil hydrocarbons (in total about 1100 kg) was eliminated from a chalk soil in the unsaturated zone. Specially designed rod electrodes allowed selective heating of a volume of approximately 480 m{sup 3}, at a defined depth, to a mean temperature of about 50 C. The heating drastically increased the extraction rates. After switching off ISRFH, SVE remained highly efficient for some weeks due to the heat-retaining properties of the soil. Comparison of an optimized regime of ISRFH/SVE with conventional ''cold'' SVE showed a reduction of remediation time by about 80 % while keeping the total energy consumption almost constant. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Huon, G.; Simpson, T.; Maini, G. [Ecologia Environmental Solutions Ltd., Sittingbourne, Kent (United Kingdom); Holzer, F.; Kopinke, F.D.; Roland, U. [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Environmental Engineering, Leipzig (Germany); Will, F. [Total UK, Watford (United Kingdom)

2012-08-15

393

Petroleum price; Prix du petrole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil market is the most volatile of all markets, with the exception of the Nasdaq. It is also the biggest commodity market in the world. Therefore one cannot avoid forecasting oil prices, nor can one expect to avoid the forecasting errors that have been made in the past. In his report, Joel Maurice draws a distinction between the short term and the medium-long term in analysing the outlook for oil prices. (author)

Maurice, J

2001-07-01

394

The station living program Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shortly after the start of a preventive maintenance program upgrade using the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) process, Boston Edison Company identified the need to keep the RCM analysis current over time. After a period of study, it was decided to form a tailored collaboration with EPRI. The original title that was suggested was open-quotes RCM Living Programclose quotes. After discussions between plant staff and the EPRI Project Manager this title was broadened to that of open-quotes Preventative Maintenance Living Programclose quotes. Initially, development of the open-quotes Preventive Maintenance Living Programclose quotes was limited to the PM world, but numerous links to other plant processes and to the NRC Maintenance Rule were not addressed. The project was reformulated to include the affected plant processes and implementation of the NRC mandated Maintenance Rule. The project became the open-quotes Station Living Programclose quotes. This Maintenance Rule/Living Program project is a collaborative effort co-funded by Boston Edison and EPRI, with Quadrex Corporation providing supplemental on-site technical support. This paper describes the open-quotes Station Living Programclose quotes as it is being developed at Boston Edison's Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station

395

Characteristics and prevalence of hardcore smokers attending UK general practitioners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking remains a public health problem and although unsolicited GPs' advice against smoking causes between one and three percent of smokers to stop, a significant proportion of smokers are particularly resistant to the notion of stopping smoking. These resistant smokers have been called "hardcore smokers" and although 16% of smokers in the community are hardcore, little is known about hardcore smokers presenting to primary care physicians. Consequently, this study reports the characteristics and prevalence of hardcore smokers attending UK GPs. Methods A cross-sectional survey using data from two different research projects was conducted. Data for this analysis had been collected from surgery consultation sessions with 73 GPs in Leicestershire, England, (42 GPs from one project. Research assistants distributed pre-consultation questionnaires to 4147 adults attending GPs' surgery sessions. Questionnaires identified regular smokers, the proportion of hardcore smokers and their characteristics. Non-hardcore and hardcore smokers' ages, gender and nicotine addiction levels were compared. Results 1170 regular smokers attended surgery sessions and, 16.1% (95% CI, 14.1 to 18.4 were hardcore smokers. Hardcore smokers had higher levels of nicotine addiction than others (p = 0.000, measured by the Heaviness of Smoking Index and were more likely to be male [50.5% hardcore versus 35.3% non-hardcore, (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.4 to 2.6] but no age differences were observed between groups. Conclusion A significant minority of the smokers who present in general practice are resistant to the notion of smoking cessation and these smokers are more heavily nicotine addicted than others. Although clinical guidelines suggest that GPs should regularly advise all smokers against smoking, it is probable that hardcore smokers do not respond positively to this and help to make up the 97%–99% of smokers who do not quit after being advised to stop smoking by GPs. General practitioners need to find approaches for raising the issue of smoking during consultations in ways that do not reinforce the negative opinions of hardcore smokers concerning smoking cessation.

Coleman Tim

2006-03-01

396

Factors associated with dental attendance among adolescents in Santiago, Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental treatment needs are commonly unmet among adolescents. It is therefore important to clarify the determinants of poor utilization of dental services among adolescents. Methods A total of 9,203 Chilean students aged 12–21 years provided information on dental visits, oral health related behavior, perceived oral health status, and socio-demographic determinants. School headmasters provided information on monthly tuition and annual fees. Based on the answers provided, three outcome variables were generated to reflect whether the respondent had visited the dentist during the past year or not; whether the last dental visit was due to symptoms; and whether the responded had ever been to a dentist. Aged adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the influence of the covariates gender; oral health related behaviors (self-reported tooth brushing frequency & smoking habits; and measures of social position (annual education expenses; paternal income; and achieved parental education on each outcome. Results Analyses showed that students who had not attended a dentist within the past year were more likely to be male (OR = 1.3; to report infrequent tooth brushing (OR = 1.3; to have a father without income (OR = 1.8; a mother with only primary school education (OR = 1.5; and were also more likely to report a poor oral health status (OR = 2.0, just as they were more likely to attend schools with lower tuition and fees (OR = 1.4. Students who consulted a dentist because of symptoms were more likely to have a father without income (OR = 1.4; to attend schools with low economic entry barriers (OR = 1.4; and they were more likely to report a poor oral health status (OR = 2.9. Students who had never visited a dentist were more likely to report infrequent tooth brushing (OR = 1.9 and to have lower socioeconomic positions independently of the indicator used. Conclusion The results demonstrate that socioeconomic and behavioral factors are independently associated with the frequency of and reasons for dental visits in this adolescent population and that self-perceived poor oral health status is strongly associated with infrequent dental visits and symptoms.

Baelum Vibeke

2007-04-01

397

Learning where to Attend with Deep Architectures for Image Tracking  

CERN Document Server

We discuss an attentional model for simultaneous object tracking and recognition that is driven by gaze data. Motivated by theories of perception, the model consists of two interacting pathways: identity and control, intended to mirror the what and where pathways in neuroscience models. The identity pathway models object appearance and performs classification using deep (factored)-Restricted Boltzmann Machines. At each point in time the observations consist of foveated images, with decaying resolution toward the periphery of the gaze. The control pathway models the location, orientation, scale and speed of the attended object. The posterior distribution of these states is estimated with particle filtering. Deeper in the control pathway, we encounter an attentional mechanism that learns to select gazes so as to minimize tracking uncertainty. Unlike in our previous work, we introduce gaze selection strategies which operate in the presence of partial information and on a continuous action space. We show that a s...

Denil, Misha; Larochelle, Hugo; de Freitas, Nando

2011-01-01

398

Motivation for and Benefits from Attending the AP Statistics Reading  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explores the Advanced Placement® Statistics reading as a source of professional development for teachers. The study was conducted to capture the motivation for and benefits from attending the collective grading. Research has shown that examining student work during professional development has implications for teaching. The premise of this study is that Advanced Placement readings are a context for examining the impact of collective grading of student work. The purpose of the study was to examine the motivation of and benefits for AP Statistics reading participants. The results suggest that analysis of student work may be a method to address teachers' preparation to teach statistics at the level expected by recent reform movements in the field of statistics education.

Tim Jacobbe

2013-04-01

399

Ancient Chinese Observations of Physical Phenomena Attending Solar Eclipses  

Science.gov (United States)

The realization that solar activity probably undergoes changes in qualitative character on time scales greater than the 11 or 22 year cycle but short compared to the duration of recorded history gives renewed importance to historical documents describing the state of solar activity. Modern eclipse observation reveal the presence of solar activity through the appearance of coronal structures and prominences. It has been widely remarked that eclipse records prior to the 18th century are uniformly silent on these conspicuous solar eclipse features, raising the possibility, however unlikely, that a change in solar activity has occurred which rendered them only recently noticeable. We present here material from ancient Chinese sources, primarily astrological, that describe phenomena attending solar eclipses that are almost certainly coronal structures and prominences. Thus, these aspects of the present character of solar activity have apparently occurred at other times in history, if not continuously.

Wang, P. K.; Siscoe, G. L.

1980-05-01

400

Why do students miss lectures? A study of lecture attendance amongst students of health science.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the domain of health sciences, attendance by students at lectures is more critical. Lecture attendance is an issue which has been widely neglected. This study aims to determine those factors which affect the lecture attendance. The research data was collected by means of a questionnaire during the second semester of the academic year 2010-2011 from second-year students of the Faculties of Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry and Nursing. Together with demographic data, the questionnaire includes a Likert-type scale aiming to determine the factors influencing attendance at lectures. 663 participated in this study on a voluntary basis from Medical, Dentistry, Pharmacy and Nursing Faculties. Raising attainment levels, being able to take their own lecture notes, learning which aspects of the lecture content were being emphasized, and the opportunity to ask questions were amongst the chief reasons for attending lectures. It appears that the factors preventing students from attending lectures are mainly individual. Amongst the most frequently cited causes of non-attendance, sleeplessness, ill health and the inefficiency of lectures in overcrowded halls are emphasized. In the totals and sub-dimensions of the Lecture Attendance Scale, Medical Faculty students have average scores higher than those of students at other faculties. The vital nature of professional expertise and its applications, health sciences students' attendance at lectures carries greater importance. It is important to strengthen the mentoring system with regard to individual and external factors, which have been implicated as having a substantial influence on lecture attendance by students. PMID:22863210

Bati, A Hilal; Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Orgun, Fatma; Govsa, Figen

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
401

Venous gas embolism in chamber attendants after hyperbaric exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

An initial occupational survey (OS) was initiated to investigate the prevalence of venous gas embolism (VGE) in chamber attendants assisting hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) treatments. Nine female subjects were exposed for three consecutive days to the routine hospital procedure of compressed air exposure to 240 kPa for approximately 115 min with 12 min of terminal oxygen (O2) breathing. VGE was monitored with ultrasound Doppler in 15 min intervals for 2h after the first and third exposure. A follow-up experimental study was completed to investigate whether changed breathing gases and decompression would affect the high incidence of VGE observed in the OS. Ten female subjects were randomly exposed to the routine or revised profile (12 and 24 min of terminal O2 breathing respectively), and a Nitrox profile (breathing gas 40.5% O2 in Nitrogen during 90 min of the isobaric phase). VGE was monitored with transthoracic ultrasound scanner and Doppler. In the OS precordial VGE grade III (Doppler) was observed in five subjects, but median resting precordial VGE was Grade 0 both days and VGE score at all sites were equal Days 1 and 3. In the experimental study, median resting precordial VGE was Grade 0 (Doppler) and Grade 1 (Scanner). VGE Grade III (Doppler) was observed in all series, but VGE scores were not significantly different between the series. We conclude that chamber attendants assisting HBO2 treatment at 240 kPa for approximately 115 min are exposed to a significant decompression stress using the profiles tested in the present study. PMID:15686273

Risberg, J; Englund, M; Aanderud, L; Eftedal, O; Flook, V; Thorsen, E

2004-01-01

402

Space Station tethered elevator system  

Science.gov (United States)

The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

1989-01-01

403

The International Space Station Habitat  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Space Station (ISS) is an engineering project unlike any other. The vehicle is inhabited and operational as it is constructed. The habitability resources available to the crew are the sleep quarters, the galley, the waste and hygiene compartment, and exercise equipment. These items are mainly in the Russian Service Module and their placement is awkward for the crew to use and work around. ISS assembly will continue with the truss build and the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Prior to the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Node 2 will be added. The Node 2 module will provide additional stowage volume and room for more crew sleep quarters. The purpose of the ISS is to perform research and a major area of emphasis is on the effects of long duration space flight on humans, as result of this research the habitability requirements for the International Space Station crews will be determined.

Watson, Patricia Mendoza; Engle, Mike

2003-01-01

404

Space station protective coating development  

Science.gov (United States)

A generic list of Space Station surfaces and candidate material types is provided. Environmental exposures and performance requirements for the different Space Station surfaces are listed. Coating materials and the processing required to produce a viable system, and appropriate environmental simulation test facilities are being developed. Mass loss data from the original version of the atomic oxygen test chamber and the improved facility; additional environmental exposures performed on candidate materials; and materials properties measurements on candidate coatings to determine the effects of the exposures are discussed. Methodologies of production, and coating materials, used to produce the large scale demonstration articles are described. The electronic data base developed for the contract is also described. The test chamber to be used for exposure of materials to atomic oxygen was built.

Pippin, H. G.; Hill, S. G.

1989-01-01

405

Space Station trash removal system  

Science.gov (United States)

A trash removal system for space stations is described. The system is comprised of a disposable trash bag member and an attached, compacted large, lightweight inflatable balloon element. When the trash bag member is filled, the astronaut places the bag member into space through an airlock. Once in the vacuum of space, the balloon element inflates. Due to the large cross-sectional area of the balloon element relative to its mass, the combined balloon element and the trash bag member are slowed by atmospheric drag to a much greater extent than the Space Station's. The balloon element and bag member lose altitude and re-enter the atmosphere, and the elements and contents are destroyed by aerodynamic heating. The novelty of this system is in the unique method of using the vacuum of space and aerodynamic heating to dispose of waste material with a minimum of increase in orbital debris.

Petro, Andrew J. (inventor)

1993-01-01

406

Training of power station staff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE currently operates 51 generating stations with 900 and 1300 MW Pressurized Water Reactors while, only 15 years ago, France possessed only a very small number of such stations. It was therefore vital to set up a major training organization to produce staff capable of starting, controlling and maintaining these facilities with a constant eye to improving quality and safety. Operator and maintenance staff training is based on highly-structured training plans designed to match both the post to be filled and the qualifications possessed by the person who is to fill it. It was essential to set up suitable high-performance training resources to handle this fast growth in staff. These resources are constantly being developed and allow EDF to make steady progress in a large number of areas, varying from the effects of human factors to the procedures to be followed during an accident

407

SOLAR POWER STATIONS FOR REMOTE AGRICULTURAL CONSUMERS ????????? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ???????????????????? ????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The solar power stations for energy supply of remote technological processes making requirements to their design have been designed. Energy estimate of power stations design for remote agricultural consumers has been made

Gazalov V. S.

2013-03-01

408

47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...information: the frequency of the transmitting...described above, the identification may not include the frequency or channel number...program source. A radio station operating...official station identification the name of...

2010-10-01

409

47 CFR 90.647 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Station identification. 90...AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES...LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES...and Use of Frequencies in the 806-824... Station identification. ...progress on this frequency. Identification may...

2010-10-01

410

47 CFR 95.119 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...station identification must be transmitted in: (1) Voice in the English language; or (2) International Morse code telegraphy. (e) A station need not identify its transmissions if it automatically retransmits communications from another...

2010-10-01

411

47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each...automatic device used only for identification, the speed must not exceed...emission in the English language. Use of a phonetic alphabet...aid for correct station identification is encouraged;...

2010-10-01

412

47 CFR 95.119 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...transmission. (b) The station identification is the call sign assigned...after the call sign in the identification. (d) The station identification must be transmitted in: (1) Voice in the English language; or (2)...

2010-10-01

413

Telerobot operator control station requirements  

Science.gov (United States)

The operator control station of a telerobot system has unique functional and human factors requirements. It has to satisfy the needs of a truly interactive and user-friendly complex system, a telerobot system being a hybrid between a teleoperated and an autonomous system. These functional, hardware and software requirements are discussed, with explicit reference to the design objectives and constraints of the JPL/NASA Telerobot Demonstrator System.

Kan, Edwin P.

1988-01-01

414

Optimization of station battery replacement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

415

Microbiology on Space Station Freedom  

Science.gov (United States)

This panel discussion convened in Houston, Texas, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, on November 6 to 8, 1989, to review NASA's plans for microbiology on Space Station Freedom. A panel of distinguished scientists reviewed, validated, and recommended revisions to NASA's proposed acceptability standards for air, water, and internal surfaces on board Freedom. Also reviewed were the proposed microbiology capabilities and monitoring plan, disinfection procedures, waste management, and clinical issues. In the opinion of this advisory panel, ensuring the health of the Freedom's crews requires a strong goal-oriented research effort to determine the potential effects of microorganisms on the crewmembers and on the physical environment of the station. Because there are very few data addressing the fundamental question of how microgravity influences microbial function, the panel recommended establishing a ground-based microbial model of Freedom, with subsequent evaluation using in-flight shuttle data. Sampling techniques and standards will be affected by both technological advances in microgravity-compatible instrumentation, and by changes in the microbial population over the life of the station.

Pierson, Duane L. (editor); Mcginnis, Michael R. (editor); Mishra, S. K. (editor); Wogan, Christine F. (editor)

1991-01-01

416

CNG Fuelling Stations Design Philosophy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I. Overview (a) Compressed Natural Gas - CNG:- Natural Gas, as an alternative fuel for vehicles, is supplied from the Natural Gas Distribution Network to the CNG fuelling stations to be compressed to 250 bars. It is then dispensed, to be stored on board of the vehicle at about 200 bars in a cylinder installed in the rear, under carriage, or on top of the vehicle. When the Natural Gas is required by the engine, it leaves the cylinder traveling through a high pressure pipe to a high pressure regulator, where the pressure is reduced close to atmospheric pressure, through a specially designed mixer, where it is properly mixed with air. The mixture then flows into the engine's combustion chamber, and is ignited to create the power required to drive the vehicle. (b) CNG Fuelling Stations General Description: as Supply and Metering The incoming gas supply and metering installation primarily depend on the pressure and flow demands of the gas compressor. Natural Gas Compressor In general, gas compressors for natural gas filling stations have relatively low flow rates

417

Ergonomic Application on the Work Station Layout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Work station layout in the ideal way has been made. The dimension of the work station is 9.4 m x 7.1 m. The workers to be stationed should feel comfort. This can be done by honoring the dimensions and the sum of the tools that should be stationed and also the free space that should be mention between the tools as state in EPRI, NP-2411. (author)

418

RECONSTRUCTION OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION DOBLAR I  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This diploma work presents reconstruction of hydroelectric power station Doblar I. It contains construction development, electrical equipment and technical characteristic of hydroelectric power station before reconstruction and all electrical equipment and technical characteristic after reconstruction. There is also a short description of hydroelectric power station Doblar II and pumping hydroelectric power station Av?e. With calculation of short circuit using program PSCAD the sizing of al...

Colaric?, Darjan

2010-01-01

419

Instalation of modern tide gauge station  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diploma work describes geodetic activities at the renovation and upgrading the tide gauge station Koper, which were taken in the time of experimental operation of tide gauge station. In the diploma work the procedures of geodetic fixing of new tide gauge station Koper, with different measurement procedures: gravimetry, geometric levelling, GPS observations and terrestrial observations are presented. The goal we want to achieve was to connect the tide gauge station with the terrestrial referen...

Burs?ic?, Branka

2006-01-01

420

Associations between respiratory illnesses and secondhand smoke exposure in flight attendants: A cross-sectional analysis of the Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS is associated with increased risk of respiratory illness, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Prior to smoking bans on airlines in the late 1980s, flight attendants were exposed to a significant amount of SHS. In the present study, we examine associations between flight attendant SHS exposure and development of respiratory illnesses and cardiovascular disease. Methods Between December 2006 and October 2010, three hundred sixty-two flight attendants completed an online questionnaire with information regarding experience as a flight attendant, medical history, smoking history, and SHS exposure. Rates of illnesses in flight attendants were compared with an age and smoking history matched population sample from NHANES 2005-2006. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of reported medical conditions and pre-ban years of exposure. Results Compared with the sample from NHANES 2005-2006, flight attendants had increased prevalence of chronic bronchitis (11.7% vs. 7.2%, p Conclusions Flight attendants experience increased rates of respiratory illnesses compared to a population sample. The frequency of symptoms of nasal congestion, throat or eye irritation is associated with occupational SHS exposure in the pre-smoking ban era.

Redberg Rita F

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
421

47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.  

Science.gov (United States)

...and leaving all fuel line valves open...statement that the space station licensee has assessed...disposal plans for the space station at end of life...the quantity of fuel—if any—that...geostationary-Earth orbit space stations, the...

2010-10-01

422

47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

No station may transmit unidentified communications or signals, or transmit as the station call sign, any call sign not authorized to the station. (b) The call sign must be transmitted with an emission authorized for the transmitting channel in one of the following...

2010-10-01

423

47 CFR 90.735 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band § 90.735 Station identification...authorized in the 220-222 MHz band, station identification...shall be made on the lowest frequency in the base station trunked...frequency being between 800 and 1000 hertz....

2010-10-01

424

CLASSIFICATION AND PERSPECTIVES OF MINI HYDROPOWER STATIONS ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classifications of mini hydropower stations, placement types of power stations, the methods of execution, the development prospects of the Russian Federation have been presented in the article. The basic problems of the technique of using mini hydropower stations have been revealed

Ponomarenko A. S.

2013-05-01

425

Spent fuel canister docking station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The working report for the spent fuel canister docking station presents a design for the operation and structure of the docking equipment located in the fuel handling cell for the spent fuel in the encapsulation plant. The report contains a description of the basic requirements for the docking station equipment and their implementation, the operation of the equipment, maintenance and a cost estimate. In the designing of the equipment all the problems related with the operation have been solved at the level of principle, nevertheless, detailed designing and the selection of final components have not yet been carried out. In case of defects and failures, solutions have been considered for postulated problems, and furthermore, the entire equipment was gone through by the means of systematic risk analysis (PFMEA). During the docking station designing we came across with needs to influence the structure of the actual disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel, too. Proposed changes for the structure of the steel lid fastening screw were included in the report. The report also contains a description of installation with the fuel handling cell structures. The purpose of the docking station for the fuel handling cell is to position and to seal the disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel into a penetration located on the cell floor and to provide suitable means for executing the loading of the disposal canister and the changing of atmosphere. The designed docking <