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Sample records for petrol station attendants

  1. Working Environment Factors that Affect Quality of Work Life among Attendants in Petrol Stations in Kitale Town in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Aloys Nyagechi Kiriago; Henry M. Bwisa

    2013-01-01

    This research sought to establish working environment factors that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants in Kitale town. The objective of the study was to identify working environment aspects that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants. This study was an exploratory survey, carried out in 17 petrol stations that are located in Kitale Town, Kenya. The target population comprised 17 station managers and 170 attendants, out of which a sample of 102 resp...

  2. Some Biochemical and Hematological Parameters among Petrol Station Attendants: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-ElWafa, Hala Samir; Albadry, Ahmed A; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Bazeed, Fagr B

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe selected biochemical and hematological parameters (blood picture, liver enzymes, and kidney functions) in petrol station attendants in Mansoura city. Methods. This is a comparative cross-sectional study. The exposed group included 102 petrol station attendants. They were compared to a matched group of healthy 102 male service and office workers at the Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University. The results of blood picture, liver enzymes, and kidney functions were compared between both groups. Results. Mean Red Blood Cells (RBCs) count, hemoglobin level, and Hematocrit (HCT) level were significantly lower in petrol station attendants than the comparison group. All other blood picture parameters showed nonsignificant difference between both groups. Liver enzymes, renal functions, serum albumin, and total protein showed statistically nonsignificant difference between both groups except for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) which was significantly higher in petrol station attendants. Conclusions. Some laboratory parameters among petrol station attendants showed changes that could be attributed to workplace exposure and should be given attention at preemployment and periodic medical examination. PMID:26634207

  3. Some Biochemical and Hematological Parameters among Petrol Station Attendants: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-ElWafa, Hala Samir; Albadry, Ahmed A.; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Bazeed, Fagr B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe selected biochemical and hematological parameters (blood picture, liver enzymes, and kidney functions) in petrol station attendants in Mansoura city. Methods. This is a comparative cross-sectional study. The exposed group included 102 petrol station attendants. They were compared to a matched group of healthy 102 male service and office workers at the Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University. The results of blood picture, liver enzymes, and kidney functions were compared between both groups. Results. Mean Red Blood Cells (RBCs) count, hemoglobin level, and Hematocrit (HCT) level were significantly lower in petrol station attendants than the comparison group. All other blood picture parameters showed nonsignificant difference between both groups. Liver enzymes, renal functions, serum albumin, and total protein showed statistically nonsignificant difference between both groups except for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) which was significantly higher in petrol station attendants. Conclusions. Some laboratory parameters among petrol station attendants showed changes that could be attributed to workplace exposure and should be given attention at preemployment and periodic medical examination. PMID:26634207

  4. Cytogenetic biomonitoring in petrol station attendants: micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ayla; Cava?, Tolga; Ergene-Gözükara, Serap

    2003-09-01

    To study the effects of occupational exposure to petroleum derivates such as benzene, exfoliated buccal cells from 50 petrol station attendants and 50 age- and sex-matched control subjects were examined for micronucleus (MN) frequency. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis and karyolysis, were also evaluated. Benzene exposure was ascertained by measuring urinary phenol levels. The mean urinary phenol level of station workers was found to be significantly higher than that of control subjects (P < 0.05). Analysis of buccal cells revealed that MN and NA frequencies in petrol station workers were significantly higher than in control subjects (P < 0.01) and also significantly related to smoking habit (P < 0.01). Our findings indicate that the petrol station workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. PMID:12960409

  5. Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Udonwa, N. E.; Uko, E. K.; B. M. Ikpeme; I. A. Ibanga; Okon, B. O.

    2009-01-01

    A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM), Petrol Station Attendants (PSA) and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure t...

  6. Working Environment Factors that Affect Quality of Work Life among Attendants in Petrol Stations in Kitale Town in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloys Nyagechi Kiriago

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research sought to establish working environment factors that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants in Kitale town. The objective of the study was to identify working environment aspects that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants. This study was an exploratory survey, carried out in 17 petrol stations that are located in Kitale Town, Kenya. The target population comprised 17 station managers and 170 attendants, out of which a sample of 102 respondents was selected: Seventeen (17 Petrol Station Managers using non – probabilistic purposeful sampling and eighty five (85 attendants using simple random sampling. The study used a questionnaire as an instrument for data collection. Data collected was both quantitative and qualitative, and analysis was basic descriptive in nature. The study revealed that poor safety and health, work pressure or stress, and provision of inadequate working tools are environmental aspects that bring about poor Quality of Working Life experiences at petrol stations. In conclusion, the findings were examined and then the implications discussed. General recommendations were made for the improvement of Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants.

  7. Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM), Petrol Station Attendants (PSA) and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (Met Hb) and packed cells volume (PCV). Mean Met Hb value was higher in AM (7.3%) and PSA (5.8%) than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%). PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%), than AM (33.3%) and the subjects from the general population (40.8%). Met Hb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and Met Hb as a useful bio marker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour.

  8. Exposure of petrol station attendants and auto mechanics to premium motor sprit fumes in Calabar, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udonwa, N E; Uko, E K; Ikpeme, B M; Ibanga, I A; Okon, B O

    2009-01-01

    A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM), Petrol Station Attendants (PSA) and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (MetHb) and packed cells volume (PCV). Mean MetHb value was higher in AM (7.3%) and PSA (5.8%) than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%). PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%), than AM (33.3%) and the subjects from the general population (40.8%). MetHb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and MetHb as a useful biomarker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour. PMID:19936128

  9. Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Udonwa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM, Petrol Station Attendants (PSA and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (MetHb and packed cells volume (PCV. Mean MetHb value was higher in AM (7.3% and PSA (5.8% than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%. PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%, than AM (33.3% and the subjects from the general population (40.8%. MetHb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and MetHb as a useful biomarker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour.

  10. Meyrin Petrol Station

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  11. Biomonitoring of oral epithelial cells in petrol station attendants: comparison between buccal mucosa and lateral border of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Renato A; Gomes, Guilherme A da Silva; Aguiar, Odair; Ribeiro, Daniel A

    2009-10-01

    Owing to the influence of geno- and cytotoxicity on chemical carcinogenesis, studies have demonstrated that petroleum derivatives are able to induce genetic damage and cellular death with conflicting results so far. The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated oral mucosa cells from gas petrol attendants using two different anatomic buccal sites: cheek mucosa and lateral border of the tongue. A total of 23 gas petrol attendants and 23 health controls (non-exposed individuals) were included in this setting. Individuals had epithelial cells from cheek and lateral border of the tongue mechanically exfoliated, placed in fixative and dropped in clean slides which were checked for the above nuclear phenotypes. The results pointed out significant statistical differences (p<0.05) of micronucleated oral mucosa cells from gas petrol attendants for both oral sites evaluated. In the same way, petroleum derivate exposure was able to increase other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis, being the most pronunciated effects as those found in the lateral border of the tongue. No interaction was observed between smoking and petroleum exposure. In summary, these data indicate that gas petrol attendants comprise a high risk group for DNA damage and cellular death. It seems that the lateral border of the tongue is a more sensitive site to geno- and cytotoxic insult induced by petroleum derivates. PMID:19559482

  12. Biomarkers of lead exposure in petrol station attendants and auto-mechanics in Abeokuta, Nigeria: effect of 2-week ascorbic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onunkwor, B; Dosumu, O; Odukoya, O O; Arowolo, T; Ademuyiwa, O

    2004-07-01

    In order to study the ameliorative effects of ascorbic acid in chronic lead poisoning, petrol station attendants and auto-mechanics in Abeokuta, Nigeria, who have been shown to be occupationally exposed to lead and university students (serving as control), were supplemented daily with 500mg ascorbic acid for 2 weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected from the subjects before and after ascorbic acid regimen and analysed for lead and biochemical effects associated with lead toxicity. The 2-week ascorbic acid supplementation resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in blood lead in the occupationally exposed subjects. The reduction in blood lead amounted to 57% in male petrol station attendants, 50% in female petrol station attendants and 44% in the auto-mechanics. Urinary excretion of lead increased remarkably in the occupationally exposed subjects (P < 0.05). The biochemical effects associated with the toxic effects of lead also responded positively to the ascorbic acid regimen. Plasma and urine aminolevulinic acid (ALA) were reduced significantly (P < 0.05) by as much as 55% and 57% respectively. Plasma calcium also increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the subjects. Decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and hemoglobin observed in the occupationally exposed subjects were reversed by ascorbic acid. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities were not affected. Our findings indicate that ascorbic acid may be useful as an economical and convenient prophylactic agent for lead poisoning. PMID:21782728

  13. Research of volatile organic compounds from petrol filling stations

    OpenAIRE

    Bikbajeva, Žana

    2008-01-01

    The research focuses on the environmental problem of volatile organic compounds in ambient air of petrol filling stations. The literature review of the issues, arising from petrol-related VOCs, with actual and proposed VOC emissions trends in Europe, have been performed. Besides petrol filling station’s typical technology layout, petrol nature and composition, applicable petrol vapour recovery solutions and their efficiency were examinated. The volatile organic compounds’ experimental researc...

  14. Effect of Exposure to Petroleum Fumes on Plasma Antioxidant Defense System in Petrol Attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Odewabi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported toxicological implications of inhalational exposure to petrol fumes in animal models; however, there is little or no documentation on the probable effect of exposure in human subjects. This study investigated the relationship between exposure to petrol fumes and lipid peroxidation and antioxidant levels among petrol station attendants in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria A total of 150 subjects consisting of 100 petrol attendants and 50 control subjects were recruited. Ten mL of blood was collected from ante-cubital vein of subjects for analysis. Results reveal that exposure to petrol fumes is associated with oxidative stress. Significant (p0.05 when compared with control. Also there was a significant decrease in total protein (p0.05 in petrol attendants compared with the control. Our findings imply that exposure to petroleum fumes is a risk factor and is associated with oxidative stress which raises the need for public awareness about the health hazards in order to enable petrol attendants to take necessary precautionary measures.

  15. Immunoglobulin classes and liver function tests in Nigerian petrol attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinosun O

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exposure to petrol has been shown to be a significant health hazard, especially for skeletal, circulatory, immune and reproductive systems. The present study investigates liver functions (alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, total protein and albumin and immune functions (IgG, IgA and IgM in 29 male petrol attendants and compares them with corresponding values in 22 sex- and age-matched controls using spectrophotometry and single radial immuno-diffusion method respectively for determining the functions. All the liver function tests were similar in both petrol attendants and the controls except for significantly lower levels of ALP ( P =0.02. Also, the levels of IgG and IgA were similar in petrol attendants when compared with corresponding levels in controls, while the levels of IgM were significantly raised in petrol attendants when compared with corresponding levels in controls ( P =0.02. This study shows that parameters of liver functions are within normal range in Nigerian petrol attendants.

  16. DNA damage and repair detected by the comet assay in lymphocytes of african petrol attendants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keretetse, G S; Laubscher, P J; Du Plessis, J L; Pretorius, P J; Van Der Westhuizen, F H; Van Deventer, E; Van Dyk, E; Eloff, F C; Van Aarde, M N; Du Plessis, L H

    2008-10-01

    Petrol attendants are exposed to petrol volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which may have genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. The single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) is a method highly sensitive to DNA damage induced by environmental and occupational exposure to carcinogenic and mutagenic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of exposure of petrol attendants to petrol VOCs and also to determine their effect on DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes of African petrol attendants. The exposed group consisted of 20 subjects, randomly selected from three petrol stations. A control group of 20 unexposed subjects was also chosen and matched for age and smoking habits with the exposed group. Sorbent tubes were used to assess personal exposure of petrol attendants. The comet assay was used to investigate the basal DNA damage and repair capacity in isolated lymphocytes of petrol attendants and unexposed subjects. Blood samples were taken from the petrol attendants at the end of their 8-h working shift and also from the unexposed subjects. The petrol attendants were found to be exposed to levels of petrol VOCs lower than the South African occupational exposure limit for constituent chemicals. A significant relationship was found between the volume of petrol sold during the shift and the average concentrations of benzene, toluene and the total VOCs measured. However, relative humidity had a negative correlation with the average concentrations of benzene, toluene, xylene and the total VOCs. Significantly higher basal DNA damage was observed with the exposed group compared to the unexposed group. The period of exposure influenced the level of DNA damage and the calculated repair capacity. Smoking and age had a significant influence on the level of DNA damage. DNA repair capacity was delayed in smokers of both exposed and unexposed group. PMID:18664513

  17. Immunoglobulin classes and liver function tests in Nigerian petrol attendants

    OpenAIRE

    Akinosun O; Arinola O; Salimonu L

    2006-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to petrol has been shown to be a significant health hazard, especially for skeletal, circulatory, immune and reproductive systems. The present study investigates liver functions (alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein and albumin) and immune functions (IgG, IgA and IgM) in 29 male petrol attendants and compares them with corresponding values in 22 sex- and age-matched controls using spectrophot...

  18. Assessing the impact of petrol stations on their immediate surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Terrés, Isabel M; Miñarro, Marta Doval; Ferradas, Enrique González; Caracena, Antonia Baeza; Rico, Jonathan Barberá

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes a novel methodology for evaluating the extent to which petrol stations affect their surroundings. The method is based on the fact that the ratio of the concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants in the air of the petrol stations and their surroundings (basically determined by vapor emissions from unburned gasoline) differs from the ratio found in urban air, which is mainly influenced by traffic emissions. Bearing this in mind, the spatial limit of influence of petrol stations in any direction would be the first point, moving away from the station, where the ratio becomes equal to the urban background ratio. Application of the methodology involves multipoint measuring campaigns of the air at the studied petrol station and built-up area in general and processing the data with software capable of providing isoconcentration contours. The procedure should help local authorities in terms of land management, so that a "belt" can be established around petrol stations where housing or vulnerable populations and activities such as those in schools, hospitals and community centers should be restricted. PMID:20810207

  19. The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally established conditions, which depend on the situation at their petrol station. It is estimated that 4.000 petrol stations will submit an application. These conditions take into account European legislation concerning support measures and competition law. The legislator took learning experiences in the Netherlands and Denmark as a basis. These countries have launched similar funds in the past. BOFAS however goes further in its financial support

  20. The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeyer, F. de; Van Dyck, E. [OVAM, Mechelen (Belgium); Janssens, J.P.; Duliere, A. [BIM, Brussel (Belgium); Fondaire, D. [DGRNE, Liege (Belgium); Bodart, O. [Governement Wallon, Namur (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally established conditions, which depend on the situation at their petrol station. It is estimated that 4.000 petrol stations will submit an application. These conditions take into account European legislation concerning support measures and competition law. The legislator took learning experiences in the Netherlands and Denmark as a basis. These countries have launched similar funds in the past. BOFAS however goes further in its financial support.

  1. Replacement of the pumps at the CERN petrol stations

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The CERN petrol stations will be closed on the following dates to allow the pumps to be replaced: Prévessin petrol station: 26 and 27 November Meyrin petrol station: 28, 29 and 30 November The current fuel cards in the vehicles will have expired by the time the new pumps begin operation. All those in possession of a CERN vehicle are therefore requested to collect a transponder badge from the light- vehicle maintenance office (130/R-013), which is open from 8.00 a.m. to midday and from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Badges will be issued on presentation of the keys of the vehicle in question. TS-IC-LO Section – Tel. 77039 - 72228

  2. Replacement of the pumps at the CERN petrol stations

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The CERN petrol stations will be closed on the following dates to allow the pumps to be replaced: Prévessin petrol station: 26 and 27 November Meyrin petrol station: 28, 29 and 30 November The current fuel cards in the vehicles will have expired by the time the new pumps begin operation. All those in possession of a CERN vehicle are therefore requested to collect a transponder badge from the light vehicle maintenance office (130/R-013), which is open from 8.00 a.m. to midday and from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Badges will be issued on presentation of the keys of the vehicle in question. TS-IC-LO Section Tel. 77039 - 72228

  3. Evaluation and Comparison of Micronuclei from Intraoral Smears of Petrol Pump Attendants and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Uppala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluation of nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of petrol station attendants and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Materials and me thods: Study was carried out on 60 subjects. 20 petrol pump attendants, 20-squamous cell carcinoma patients and 20 healthy subjects. They were asked questions regarding their life style and personal factors (age, duration of working in the petrol pump, alcohol consumption and smoking habits were statistically analyzed. Buccal smears were taken from respective sites and stained with Periodic Acid Schiff. Results: There was a significant number of nuclear abnor - malities seen in oral carcinoma group and then followed by the petrol pump workers. Discussion: Micronuclei are identified with presence of a main nucleus and one or more smaller nuclei (micronuclei in the cells. The micronuclei are usually round or oval in shape and their diameter may range between 1/3 and 1/16, the diameter of the main nucleus. Nuclear abnormalities were classified accord - ing to Tolbert et al (1992. These criteria are intended to classify buccal cells into categor ies that distinguish between ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ based on their aberrant nuclear morphology.

  4. Electrostatic hazards with underground plastic pipes at petrol stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walmsley, H L, E-mail: haroldw@nildram.co.uk [Harold Walmsley Electrostatics Ltd, 31 Fairways, Frodsham, Nr Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    The paper analyses some ignition incidents that have been reported with insulating, (non-conductive) underground plastic pipes in retail petrol stations. The occurrence of the incidents is compared with voltage measurements, observations of the typical spread of streaming currents recorded in gasoline handling and theoretical estimates of the voltages on the pipes. The comparisons suggest that neither incendive sparks from unbonded conductors nor incendive brush discharges from insulating pipe surfaces can be ruled out although both are expected to be rare. The hazards can be prevented by using pipes with earthed conductive or dissipative inner linings.

  5. Electrostatic hazards with underground plastic pipes at petrol stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, H. L.

    2011-06-01

    The paper analyses some ignition incidents that have been reported with insulating, (non-conductive) underground plastic pipes in retail petrol stations. The occurrence of the incidents is compared with voltage measurements, observations of the typical spread of streaming currents recorded in gasoline handling and theoretical estimates of the voltages on the pipes. The comparisons suggest that neither incendive sparks from unbonded conductors nor incendive brush discharges from insulating pipe surfaces can be ruled out although both are expected to be rare. The hazards can be prevented by using pipes with earthed conductive or dissipative inner linings.

  6. Electrostatic hazards with underground plastic pipes at petrol stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyses some ignition incidents that have been reported with insulating, (non-conductive) underground plastic pipes in retail petrol stations. The occurrence of the incidents is compared with voltage measurements, observations of the typical spread of streaming currents recorded in gasoline handling and theoretical estimates of the voltages on the pipes. The comparisons suggest that neither incendive sparks from unbonded conductors nor incendive brush discharges from insulating pipe surfaces can be ruled out although both are expected to be rare. The hazards can be prevented by using pipes with earthed conductive or dissipative inner linings.

  7. Mortality among filling station attendants. Doedelighed blandt tankpassere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandjean, P. (Odense Universitet, Institut for Sygdomsforebyggelse og Helsetjenesteforskning (Denmark)); Andersen, O. (Danmarks Statistik (Denmark))

    1991-01-01

    At the Danish census on 9 November 1970, 4,055 men and 1,195 women aged 20-64 years indicated an employment that was coded as retail sale of oil and petrol; almost all individuals probably worked as petrol station attendants. Record linkage at Danmarks Statistik showed that 529 men had died during the following 17 years. Respiratory cancer (75 deaths) was the only cause of death that showed a significant excess (standardized mortality ration, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-2.00) when compared to all men gainfully employed at the time of the census. An increased mortality due to the group of cardiovascular disease could not be related to any particular subgroup. The mortality in women did not differ from expected rates. These results are in accordance with data from other countries on occupational groups exposed to high concentrations of exhaust fumes. (au).

  8. Assessment of occupational cytogenetic risk, among petrol station workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhya, Sadhanandhan; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Sudha, Sellapa; Mohana Devi, Subramaniam; Varsha, Prakash; Kandasamy, Kanagaraj; Gnana Prakash, Visvanathan; Sasikala, Keshavarao

    2010-08-01

    The focal aim of this study was to assess the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) including chromatid type aberrations (CTA) and chromosomal type aberrations (CSA), micronucleus (MN) and XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln polymorphism in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 27 petrol pump workers and same number of controls to explore the possible cytogenetic risk on occupational exposure to petrol vapors. The exposed subjects and controls were classified into two groups based on their age (group I 40 years) apart from the classification of the exposed subjects based on their exposure duration (> 8 and < 8 years). CTA and MN frequency were significantly higher in petrol pump workers (p < 0.05) with longer work duration. CTA was found to increase with age in the exposed subjects as well as controls, with exposed subjects showing a statistically higher degree. This effect was not observed in MN. A significantly higher frequency of MN was observed in the smoking petrol pump workers than in control smokers (p < 0.05). No association was found between smoking and CA in both subjects. The study on XRCC1 399 Arg/gln polymorphism in petrol pump workers demonstrated very less difference in allele frequency compared to controls. In conclusion, these datas indicate that petrol pump workers under risk group should be monitored for any long-term adverse effects of the exposure. PMID:20652227

  9. Hazards Forecasting and Weights Determination during Operation and Maintenance of Petrol Fuel Station

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M M; S.R.M. Kutty; Mohd Faris Khamidi; I. Othman P.D.D. Dominic; Olisa Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Petrol Fuel Stations (PFS) is the most commonly available hazardous facility within urban and rural areas. Hazardous materials such as petrol, diesel, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and kerosene oil normally sell and stores at PFS. PFS can be considered as small refinery within the city. A 3.5 year study conducted and 3216 non-compliances were recorded from PFS located in various cities of Pakistan. The operating company was ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certified. The recorded non-compliances duri...

  10. Ethanol-containing automotive fuels - a safety concept for petrol stations in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, E.; Frobese, D.H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Due to the promotion of renewable energy sources, the demand for ethanol/automotive fuels has increased, whereby the ethanol is produced from biomass. As these fuels are flammable liquids, explosion protection concepts are needed for their transport, use and storage and for the operation of petrol stations. Safety characteristics are the basis of such concepts. Since the data for ethanol, on the one hand, and for automotive petrol, on the other hand, differ considerably, the relevant data for the ethanol/automotive petrol mixtures have to be determined and the existing explosion protection concepts will possibly have to be limited or modified. For this reason the correlations between the necessary safety characteristics - flashpoint, boiling point, auto-ignition temperature, maximum experimental safe gap, upper explosion point - and the mixing ratio of ethanol and automotive fuel have been investigated. Based on the results of this investigations, those concentration limits are elaborated for which the existing safety concepts remain valid. For mixtures with an ethanol content going beyond such limits, suitable safety measures and requirements regarding explosion-protected equipment are derived. The changes that are necessary with respect to the safety concept of petrol stations when ethanol/automotive petrol mixtures are offered instead of or in addition to pure petrol are explained. (orig.)

  11. Biomarkers of exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl tert-butyl ether in petrol station workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giuseppe; Poli, Diana; Manini, Paola; Andreoli, Roberta; Mozzoni, Paola; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This cross-sectional study was aimed at reconstructing the exposure to gasoline in 102 petrol station attendants by environmental and biological monitoring of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and biomonitoring of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Airborne BTEX were higher for manual refuelers than self-service assistants and were highly correlated with each other. Significant relationships were found between airborne BTX and the corresponding urinary solvents (U-BTX) and beween airborne B and urinary MTBE (U-MTBE). Smokers eliminated higher values of U-B, trans,trans-muconic (t,t-MA) and S-phenylmercapturic (S-PMA) acids but not U-MTBE. All these biomarkers were, however, significantly raised during the shift, independently from smoking. Linear regression confirmed that occupational exposure was a main predictor of U-MTBE, U-B and S-PMA values, both the latter confounded by smoking habits. The study supports the usefulness of biomonitoring even at low exposure levels. PMID:22458326

  12. Environmental Exposure to Xylenes in Drivers and Petrol Station Workers by Urinary Methylhippuric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    AR Bahrami; A Jonidi-Jafari; Mahjub, H

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were evaluation of exposed to xylenes in low concentration and compare urinary level of methyl hippuric acid in taxi drivers and petrol stations workers in West of Iran.

  13. Assessment of BTX concentrations near a petrol station using passive samplers

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Flesca, Norbert; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Cicolella, André

    2001-01-01

    A combined monitoring and dispersion modelling methodology was applied for assessing air quality related to concentration levels of benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) at three different levels of proximity to a petrol selected service Station: (I) next to the fuel pumps, (II) in the surrounding environment, and (III) m the background. A Gaussian dispersion model (CALINE4) was used for assessing the road traffic contribution to the local concentrations under different meteorological conditions...

  14. BTX concentrations near a stage II implemented petrol station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Flesca, Norbert; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Cicolella, André

    2002-01-01

    A combined monitoring and dispersion modelling methodology was applied for assessing air quality at three different levels of proximity to the selected service station: (I) next to the fuel pumps, (II) in the surrounding environment, and (III) in the background. Continuous monitoring and passive sampling were used for achieving high temporal and spatial resolution, respectively. A Gaussian dispersion model (CALINE4) was used for assessing the road traffic contribution to the local concentrations under different meteorological conditions. It was established that Stage 2 vapour recovery reduces BTX concentrations not only near the pumps, but also in their surrounding environment. However, there is evidence that the efficiency of the system is wind speed dependent. The modelling simulation of the worst case wind scenario revealed the significance of local traffic emissions. It was shown that the traffic contribution even from a single road in the vicinity of the station can, under certain conditions, be higher than the contribution of the station itself to the local BTX levels. Finally, after comparison with previous studies, the concentrations measured near the service station (which was situated in a rural environment) appear to be lower than those observed in busy street canyons in city centres. It can be concluded, although Stage 2 recovery system effectively reduces working VOC losses in service stations, that it will only have a limited positive impact on local air quality if the service station is located in a heavily polluted area. PMID:12094529

  15. Environmental protection standards at petrol stations: A comparative study between Finland and selected European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, P.M.

    2005-07-01

    This study compares environment protection standards at Finnish petrol stations with levels in nine other European countries. The countries selected for comparison and the collection of data were: Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom. With the exception of Norway and Russia, all these states are members of the European Union. Together, they provide a representative cross-section of Europe countries on which to base a comparison with Finnish levels of environmental protection. Three of these countries, Norway, Russia and Sweden, also share a common land border with Finland. The main method used in the study was sampling research. Major research materials included risk analysis, an extensive questionnaire with respondent feedback and a practical field investigation of each country. It is hoped that the outcome of this study will be of benefit to stakeholders in this sector of the oil industry such as the regulatory authorities, oil companies, contractors and designers. The methods adopted here confirmed that it is possible to evaluate environment protection levels in Finland and compare them internationally. The results show that in Finland such levels were lower than initially expected. Though Finnish levels were found to be higher than in Norway and Russia and similar to Sweden, they were markedly lower than in Germany and Hungary and lower than in Lithuania, Poland, Spain and United Kingdom. The results indicate a clear need to improve standards of environmental protection at Finnish petrol stations. Discounting Sweden and Norway, the main reason that Finland performs poorly in such international comparisons of environmental protection is its lax legislation. However, it was noted that Finnish oil companies are prompt in adopting new rules and regulations. This strongly suggests that in Finland legislation may be the best way to improve environment protection at petrol stations. The results of this study are expected to provide practical guidelines for the Finnish oil industry. Environment protection at Finnish petrol stations could be improved by legislation requiring the installation of vapour recovery stage 2-systems, 2-wall tanks instead of 1-wall tanks, better pavement materials, periodic inspection processes and the validation of professional qualifications of designers and contractors. This study also shows that there is scope for further research in the field. It is hoped that the research carried out here will provide the impetus for further study in the crucially important area of environment protection at petrol stations. (orig.)

  16. Investigation of gasoline distributions within petrol stations: spatial and seasonal concentrations, sources, mitigation measures, and occupationally exposed symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairat, Theerapong; Homwuttiwong, Sahalaph; Homwutthiwong, Kritsana; Ongwandee, Maneerat

    2015-09-01

    We measured levels of VOCs and determined the distributions of benzene concentrations over the area of two petrol stations in all three seasons. Using the concentrations and sampling positions, we created isoconcentration contour maps. The average concentrations ranged 18-1288 ?g m(-3) for benzene and 12-81 ?g m(-3) for toluene. The contour maps indicate that high-level contours of benzene were found not only at the fuel dispenser areas but also at the storage tank refilling points, open drainage areas where gasoline-polluted wastewater was flowing, and the auto service center located within the station area. An assessment of the benzene to toluene ratio contour plots implicates that airborne benzene and toluene near the fuel dispenser area were attributed to gasoline evaporation although one of the studied stations may be influenced by other VOC sources besides gasoline evaporation. Additionally, during the routine refilling of the underground fuel storage tanks by a tank truck, the ambient levels of benzene and toluene increased tremendously. The implementation of source control by replacing old dispensers with new fuel dispensers that have an efficient cutoff feature and increased delivery speed can reduce spatial benzene concentrations by 77%. Furthermore, a questionnaire survey among 63 service attendants in ten stations revealed that headache was the most reported health complaint with a response rate of 32%, followed by fatigue with 20%. These prominent symptoms could be related to an exposure to high benzene concentrations. PMID:25943517

  17. Childhood leukemia and traffic air pollution in Taiwan: petrol station density as an indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsu-Huei; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between traffic air pollution exposure and development of childhood leukemia (14 yr of age or younger), a matched case-control study was conducted using childhood deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 1996 through 2006. Data on all eligible childhood leukemia deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group consisted of children who died from causes other than neoplasms or diseases that were not associated with respiratory complications. The controls were pair matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. Data on the number of petrol stations in study municipalities were collected from the two major petroleum supply companies, Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) and Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC). The petrol station density (per square kilometer) (PSD) for study municipalities was used as an indicator of a subject's exposure to benzene and other hydrocarbons present in evaporative losses of petrol or to air emissions from motor vehicles. The subjects were divided into tertiles according to PSD in their residential municipality. The results showed that there was a significant exposure-response relationship between PSD and the risk of leukemia development in young children after controlling for possible confounders. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of traffic air pollution exposure in the etiology of childhood leukemia. PMID:19034797

  18. Environmental Exposure to Xylenes in Drivers and Petrol Station Workers by Urinary Methylhippuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Bahrami

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The aims of this study were evaluation of exposed to xylenes in low concentration and compare urinary level of methyl hippuric acid in taxi drivers and petrol stations workers in West of Iran.

    Methods: This observation study was carried out on samples of the exposed men to xylenes in two occupational groups in Hamadan City (west of Iran from March 2003 to March 2004. Subjects included 45 taxi drivers and 25 petrol station workers. The study group was selected from 54 workers at petrol stations and 300 drivers by simple random sampling. Xylenes was analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID. The urinary methyl hippuric acid (MHA was analyzed with High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC equipped with an ultraviolet (UV detector.

    Results: Total xylene exposure was 1.05±0.55 ppm (mean±SD with a range of 0.20-2.55 ppm that was about 4 times more than taxi drivers' exposure. The poor correlation coefficient was seen between xylenes concentration and urinary MHA for drivers (r2= 0.09 to 0.42 but significant associations were noted between urinary MHA and xylene in the breathing zone of petrol station workers (r2= 0.69 to 0.77; P< 0.05.

    Conclusion: High xylenes levels are emitted in petrol stations at Iran. Urinary MHA level has a poor correlation with exposure to xylenes in drivers but has good correlation in petrol station workers.

  19. State of subsoil in a former petrol station: physicochemical characterization and hydrocarbon contamination evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Rosales, Rosa; Martinez-Pagán, Pedro; Faz, Ángel; Bech, Jaume

    2013-04-01

    Former petrol stations are, possibly, potential hydrocarbon contaminated soil areas due to leakage in Underground Storage Tanks and fuel dispensing activities. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in gasoline, like benzene and semi-volatile organics in diesel, are carcinogenic and very toxic substances which can involve a serious risk for ecosystem and human health. Based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography 2D results from a previous work, there have been selected three potentially contaminated goal areas in a former petrol station located in SE Spain in order to obtain soil samples by drilling and to assess the gasoline and diesel contamination. A special sampling design was carried out and soil samples for VOCs were preserved at field with a KCl solution to minimize volatilization losses. It had been chosen Headspace-GC-MS as the better technique to quantify individual VOCs and GC-FID to get a Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) assessment after a solid/fluid pressurized extraction. The physicochemical characterization of the subsoil was performed to know how humidity, clay content or pH data could be related to the presence of hydrocarbons in the soil samples. Results show that VOCs concentrations in subsoil samples of the petrol station are around ppb levels. TPH ranged between 17 mg/kg soil and 93 mg/kg soil (ppm levels) what involves diesel and gasoline leaks due to these detected residual concentrations in the subsoil. The maximum value was found at 6 m deep in an intermediate zone between Underground Storage Tanks positions (located at 4 m deep). Therefore, these results confirm that organic compounds transference with strong vertical component has taken place. It has been observed that humidity minimum values in the subsoil are related to TPH maximum values that could be explained because of the vapour phase and the retention of hydrocarbon in soil increases when humidity goes down. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in the subsoil tend to be pH-dependent and clay content dependent: maximum of adsorption taken place at minimum pH what encourage protonation and minimum clay content in the subsoil make organic compounds infiltration downstream easier. It could be noticed the importance of physicochemical subsoil characterization and contamination assessment in the subsoil of petrol stations in order to avoid the hydrocarbons pollution of the groundwater. Then plan the best remediation technique according to this characterization taking into account the residual hydrocarbon concentration in the subsoil and the associated risk for human and ecosystems.

  20. Lung cancer in filling station attendants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandjean, P.; Andersen, O. (Institute of Community Health, Odense University, (Denmark))

    1991-01-01

    At the Danish census on 9 November 1970, 4,055 men and 1,195 women aged 20-64 years indicated an employment that was coded as retail sale of oil and gasoline; almost all individuals probably worked as filling station attendants. Record linkage at Danmarks Statistik showed that 529 of the men had died during the following 17 years. Respiratory cancer (75 deaths) was the only cause of death that showed a significant excess (standardized mortality ration, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-2.00) when compared to all men gainfully employed at the time of the census. An increased mortality due to cardiovascular disease could not be related to any particular diagnostic subgroup; the mortality in women did not differ from expected rates. These results are in accordance with data from other countries on occupational groups exposed to high levels of exhaust fumes.

  1. Evaluation of benzene exposure in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics by urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA) determination

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Cirillo; Antonio Arnese; Giuseppe Spagnoli; Renata Amodio Cocchieri; Umberto Del Prete

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposure to benzene in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics was studied by examining the benzene content in both the air breathed and in the urinary metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA). Thirty petrol pump attendants and thirty mechanics (as exposed workers) and thirty adult male office workers (as non exposed workers) were involved in the study. Measures were taken at the begin and at the end of the working shifts.

     The benzene concentration...

  2. Numerical investigation of VOC levels in the area of petrol stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouriotis, A; Aleiferis, P G; Charalambides, A G

    2014-02-01

    In the area of petrol stations several Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) leak into the atmosphere due to the evaporation of liquid fuels, especially of gasoline that is predominantly composed of light hydrocarbons. The aim of the present study is to investigate the spatial distribution of various VOCs when leaked into the atmosphere in the area of a petrol station. The study is based on numerical simulations. The effect of wind speed and direction, as well as of air temperature has been studied. Gasoline components of different properties have been studied (e.g. pentane, iso-octane, o-xylene, toluene, benzene), as well as ethanol that is considered a new fuel blend component that can be found in different fractions in new gasoline blends worldwide. The area of flammable cloud near the source of the leak is investigated for various atmospheric conditions taking into account the lower and higher flammable limits of each compound. Lastly, the exposure to gasoline vapour is studied taking into consideration the recommended occupational exposure limits of various organisations. PMID:24246944

  3. Performance criteria of the layout of the filling area of a petrol station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslennikov Valeriy Aleksandrovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing traffic on the roads requires relevant technological planning, construction, reconstruction and re-equipment of the expanding network of filling stations. The basis for developing of these guidelines lies in the evolution of urban planning concepts and methods to determine the effective parameters of gas stations. This article describes various layout solutions of the fueling area of a station taking into account the main technical characteristics and regulatory requirements for the design, construction and operation of the station. Typical projects of one power station may be of various sizes, taking away residential areas under the land station changes depending on the layout and features host of technological equipment. Excessive area occupied by the service area leads to additional costs for construction, taxes, etc. For an overall evaluation of the effectiveness of the station operation, the paper proposed an integrated criterion of efficiency of layout solutions, considering both technical and economic indicators of the object functioning. In order to justify the effective layout fueling positions at the station the authors used a comparative analysis of the fueling areas and gas throughput for different number of zones and the method of placing fuel dispensers. According to the results of calculations the linear relationship was obtained between the number of columns and the size of the filling area of the station. As a critical metric in evaluating the effectiveness of various variants of layout solutions of a petrol station an assessment of its bandwidth we made. According to the results of calculations a single-row method of speaker placement on the station is more efficient than double-row or three-row ones.

  4. Hazards Forecasting and Weights Determination during Operation and Maintenance of Petrol Fuel Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Petrol Fuel Stations (PFS is the most commonly available hazardous facility within urban and rural areas. Hazardous materials such as petrol, diesel, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG and kerosene oil normally sell and stores at PFS. PFS can be considered as small refinery within the city. A 3.5 year study conducted and 3216 non-compliances were recorded from PFS located in various cities of Pakistan. The operating company was ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certified. The recorded non-compliances during study period were categorized into 8 potential factors. These were Housekeeping (HK, Transportation Hazard (TH, Slips, Trips and Falls (STF, Carelessness (C, Fire Risks (FR, Electrical Fault (EF, Miscellaneous Cases (MC and Medical Treatment Cases (MTC. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP was used and categorized 8 factors were prioritized. The same data was further classified based upon to cause fatality, accident, incident and near miss cases. A total numbers of 14, 426, 975 and 1804, fatality, accident, incident and near miss cases were recorded. With application of Exponential Smoothing method the fatalities, accident, incident and near miss cases for the years 2011, 2012 and 2013 were forecasted. The results of AHP and forecasted hazards will be presented and discussed in this study. It is hope that the both approaches will assist health and safety professionals for future hazards predictions and hazards weights determinations. Health and safety practitioners can take remedial and preventative measures by using past data with utilization of proposed techniques.

  5. Contribution to ambient benzene concentrations in the vicinity of petrol stations: Estimation of the associated health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakitsios, Spyros P.; Delis, Vasileios K.; Kassomenos, Pavlos A.; Pilidis, Georgios A.

    This work examines the contribution of petrol stations to the ambient benzene concentrations and attempts to estimate the possible health risks for the people living in the vicinity of such installations. Three monitoring sites (urban, suburban and rural) were used as reference points and the benzene concentrations were recorded at several distances along their perimeter. In order to evaluate the net contribution of the petrol station to the ambient benzene concentrations, the urban background concentration, measured by passive samplers and the contribution of the roads, estimated with both the COPERT and the linear source model CALINE 4, were deduced. Validation and optimization of the modeling system COPERT and CALINE4 was done in advance to ensure the reliability of the results. It seems that petrol stations have a significant contribution to ambient benzene concentrations in their vicinity. Finally, a risk assessment evaluation was attempted in terms of increased cancer risk due to the presence of the petrol stations in an area. The results show remarkable increase of the population risks in the vicinity, ranging from 3% to 21% in comparison to the population in the rest of the town.

  6. Petrol war in Nijmegen, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since April 2000 a petrol war rages in Nijmegen and surroundings (Netherlands) whereby considerable discounts are given to the national retail prices. The cause of the war is a new unmanned petrol station of the enterprise Tango. In this article the development and the consequences of the discount at petrol stations in Nijmegen and surroundings are analyzed 3 refs

  7. Evaluation of benzene exposure in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics by urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cirillo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Occupational exposure to benzene in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics was studied by examining the benzene content in both the air breathed and in the urinary metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA. Thirty petrol pump attendants and thirty mechanics (as exposed workers and thirty adult male office workers (as non exposed workers were involved in the study. Measures were taken at the begin and at the end of the working shifts.

     The benzene concentrations in the breathing air samples varied from 2 to 88 ?g m-3, lower than the EU acceptable limit for occupational environment. The average urinary t,t-MA in the petrol pump attendants at the begin and at the end of the working shifts ranged between 133 ± 69 and 255 ± 174 ?g g-1 creatinine and in the mechanics between 204 ± 139 and 300 ± 211 ?g g-1 creatinine, respectively.

    In all the participants the mean levels of urinary t,t-MA at the end of the working shifts were significantly higher than those at the beginning. In the exposed workers mean levels of urinary t,t-MA were significantly higher than in those of the non-exposed workers. The influence of the smoking was demonstrated by the urinary t,t-MA levels in smoking non-exposed subjects.

  8. Environmental impact assessment of trace metal deposition around the petrol filling stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wide use of petroleum products causes contamination of air, water, soil and plants. The present study was conducted to monitor the trace metal deposition in road side soil around the petrol filling stations along the busy roads of Karachi, Pakistan. Total 21 road side soil samples were collected from selected locations of busy roads. The soil samples were digested using acid digestion method and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used for the elemental analysis. Results of the study showed that concentration of lead was highest in the soil samples ranging from 41.3 to 361 mg/kg, then copper from 23.0 to 101 mg/kg, manganese from 36.2 to 125.0 mg/kg and zinc from 27.5 to 213.0 mg/kg, respectively. The correlation-coefficient (r) was also calculated between the metals in soil samples. The correlation matrix showed that all the pollution is coming from the same source. The gravitational sedimentation and impact on vegetation of coarse fraction is responsible for the high lead contamination of vegetation and soils. Collected data showed that, almost all the pollution being generated by automobile exhaust in urban areas of Karachi. The soil acts as an important sink for pollutants released through different activities. (author)

  9. Traffic air pollution and risk of death from bladder cancer in Taiwan using petrol station density as a pollutant indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chi-Kung; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between air pollution and risk of death from bladder cancer, a matched cancer case-control study was conducted using deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 1997 through 2006. Data for all eligible bladder cancer deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group consisted of individuals who died from causes other than cancer or diseases associated with genitourinary problems. The controls were pair matched to the cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. Data for the number of petrol stations in study municipalities were collected from the two major petroleum supply companies, Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) and Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC). The petrol station density (per square kilometer) (PSD) for study municipalities was used as an indicator of a subject's exposure to benzene and other hydrocarbons present in ambient evaporative losses of petrol or to air emissions from motor vehicles. The subjects were divided into tertiles according to PSD in their residential municipality. The present study showed that individuals who resided in municipalities with high PSD levels were at an increased risk of death from bladder cancer compared to subjects living in municipalities with a low PSD level; however, the differences are not statistically significant. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of vehicular air pollutant emissions in the etiology of bladder cancer development. PMID:19953417

  10. Traffic air pollution and lung cancer in females in Taiwan: petrol station density as an indicator of disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Ching; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between traffic air pollution exposure and development of lung cancer in females, studies were conducted using a matched cancer case-control model into deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 1997 through 2006. Data on all eligible lung cancer deaths in females were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group consisted of women who died from causes other than neoplasms or diseases that were associated with respiratory problems. The controls were pair matched to the cancer cases by year of birth and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. Data on the number of petrol stations in study municipalities were collected from the two major petroleum supply companies, Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) and Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC). The petrol station density (per square kilometer; PSD) for study municipalities was used as an indicator of a subject's exposure to benzene and other hydrocarbons present in ambient evaporative losses of petrol or to air emissions from motor vehicles. The subjects were divided into tertiles according to PSD in their residential municipality. The results showed that there was a significant exposure-response relationship between PSD and risk of lung cancer in females after controlling for possible confounders. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of traffic air pollution exposure in the etiology of lung cancer. PMID:19308850

  11. Comparison of benzene exposure in drivers and petrol stations workers by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid in west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Abdul Rahman; Joneidi Jafari, Ahmad; Ahmadi, Hassan; Mahjub, Hossein

    2007-06-01

    Motor vehicle traffic is the main emission source of benzene. We undertook this study in order to compare benzene exposure and urinary levels of trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in taxi drivers and petrol station workers. Air benzene levels were analyzed with gas chromatography using a Flame Ionization Detector. t,t-MA was extracted from urine and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Significant differences in levels of urinary t,t-MA were found in drivers and petrol station workers when compared to a control group (p<0.05). Correlation coefficients between benzene in air and t,t-MA for petrol station workers and drivers were 0.65 and 0.30, respectively. The concentration of benzene in the breathing zone of petrol station workers was 2-3 times higher than drivers, and also 3 times greater than a threshold level (0.5 ppm) recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). The lowest benzene concentration at which urinary t,t-MA increased to a measurable level was approximately 0.17 ppm. In conclusion our results suggested that high benzene levels are emitted in petrol stations in west Iran. t,t-MA analysis was able to separate those exposed from the non-exposed benzene group when benzene in the breathing zone of subjects was greater than 0.17 ppm. PMID:17634688

  12. Determination of emissions at a petrol station with the VACONOVENT-System; Emissionsmessungen an einer Tankstelle mit dem VACONOVENT-System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlrogge, K.; Wind, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie; Schaefer, K.; Hoffmann, H.; Dormuth, I. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Jahn, C.; Emeis, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (DE). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung - Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IMK-IFU); Szalata, P. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Sueddeutschland (TUeV), Muenchen (Germany); Froehling, J.C.; Marinkas, W.; Schroeder, H. [Aral AG, Bochum (Germany). Hauptabteilung Forschung

    2004-02-01

    The VACONOVENT {sup trademark} system, a novel system for emission reduction at petrol stations, has been tested at a selected petrol station in Luxembourg in order to compare it with commonly used vapor return technologies. The determination of the total amount of emissions generated by car refueling with gasoline has been performed by three institutions skilled in environmental measurement techniques. Three different operating conditions were investigated. The vapor return rates employed were: 0, 100 and 150%. All three measuring campaigns clearly showed differences in emissions when the operational vapor return system was compared to the shut down. The influence of increased vapor return rates up to 150% on the total emissions of the petrol station could not be clearly verified because of the influence of various boundary conditions. (orig.)

  13. Analysis of incidence of childhood cancer in the West Midlands of the United Kingdom in relation to proximity to main roads and petrol stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. M.; Leung, P. L.; Somervaille, L.; Smith, R.; Gilman, E.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether there is an excess of leukaemias in 0-15 year old children among those living in close proximity (within 100 m) of a main road or petrol station. METHODS: Data for 0-15 year old children diagnosed between 1990 and 1994 in the United Kingdom West Midlands were used. Postcode addresses were used to locate the point of residence which was compared with proximity to main roads and petrol stations separately, and to both together. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with solid tumours as a control, and incidence ratios (IRs) with population density as a control. RESULTS: The method based on solid tumours as a control showed ORs of 1.61 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.90 to 2.87) and 1.99 (95% CI 0.73 to 5.43), for those living within 100 m of a main road or petrol station respectively. When population was used as a control, the estimated IRs for leukaemia were 1.16 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.72) and 1.48 (95% CI 0.65 to 2.93) for residence within 100 m of a main road or petrol station respectively, but neither reached significance at the 95% level. Results for residence in close proximity to both a main road and petrol station were inconsistent, but there were few. The influence of socioeconomic factors as represented by the Townsend deprivation index on leukaemia incidence was not significant and the results were not explicable on the basis of impact of social class. CONCLUSIONS: The results are suggestive of a small increase in risk of childhood leukaemia, but not solid tumours, for those living in close proximity to a main road or petrol station. This increase in risk is not, however, significant and a larger study is warranted to establish the true risk and causes of any increase in risk.   PMID:10658564

  14. Analysis of incidence of childhood cancer in the West Midlands of the United Kingdom in relation to proximity to main roads and petrol stations

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, R. M.; Leung, P. L.; Somervaille, L.; Smith, R.; Gilman, E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether there is an excess of leukaemias in 0-15 year old children among those living in close proximity (within 100 m) of a main road or petrol station. METHODS: Data for 0-15 year old children diagnosed between 1990 and 1994 in the United Kingdom West Midlands were used. Postcode addresses were used to locate the point of residence which was compared with proximity to main roads and petrol stations separately, and to both together. Odds ratios (ORs) were cal...

  15. Evaluation of genotoxicity in petrol station workers in South India using micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappa, Sudha; Sadhanandhan, Bindhya; Francis, Athena; Vasudevan, Sabari Guru

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the micronucleus (MN) frequency was assessed as a measure of genotoxicity in exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa extracted from 110 petrol pump workers and 100 controls. For each individual, 3,000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed. The individuals used in the study were grouped based on their smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, and tobacco chewing habits. There was a significantly higher frequency of micronucleated cells in the exposed workers to petrol than in the unexposed control population. Smoking and drinking (alcohol) habits, age and length of occupation represent significant factors in terms of increasing the MN frequency measured in the exposed population. This study demonstrates that, using MN assay, it is possible to assess the cytogenetic damage in exposed individuals and that the significant increase in the induction of the MN in the exposed population suggests that the studied individuals may be at a higher risk of developing cancer and therefore monitored for any long term adverse effects of the exposure. PMID:20616461

  16. Oil fuel delivery optimization for multi product and multi depot: the case of petrol station replenishment problem (PSRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjandari, Isti; Rachman, Amar; Dianawati, Fauzia; Wibowo, R. Pramono

    2011-10-01

    With the Oil and Gas Law No. 22 of 2001, national and foreign private enterprises can invest in all sectors of Oil and Gas in Indonesia. In anticipation of this free competition, Pertamina, as a state-owned enterprises, which previously had monopolized the oil and gas business activities in Indonesia, should be able to improve services as well as the efficiency in order to compete in the free market, especially in terms of cost efficiency of fuel distribution to gas station (SPBU). To optimize the distribution activity, it is necessary to design a scheduling system and its fuel delivery routes daily to every SPBU. The determination of routes and scheduling delivery of fuel to the SPBU can be modeled as a Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PSRP) with the multi-depot, multi-product, time windows and split deliveries, which in this study will be completed by the Tabu Search algorithm (TS). This study was conducted in the area of Bandung, the capital of West Java province, which is a big city and the neighboring city of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. By using the fuel delivery data for one day, the results showed a decrease of 16.38% of the distance of the route compared to the current conditions, which impacted on the reduction of distribution costs and decrease the number of total trips by 5.22% and 3.83%.

  17. Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Pinto Mariano; Ana Paula Arruda Geraldes Kataoka; Dejanira Franceschi de Angelis; Daniel Marcos Bonotto

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments). In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks) were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was...

  18. Methodology for the detection of contamination by hydrocarbons and further soil sampling for volatile and semi-volatile organic enrichment in former petrol stations, SE Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda, Rosa María Rosales; Martinez Pagán, Pedro; Cano, Angel Faz

    2012-01-01

    The optimal detection and quantification of contamination plumes in soil and groundwater by petroleum organic compounds, gasoline and diesel, is critical for the reclamation of hydrocarbons contaminated soil at petrol stations. Through this study it has been achieved a sampling stage optimization in these scenarios by means of the location of potential contamination areas before sampling with the application of the 2D electrical resistivity tomography method, a geophysical non destructive tec...

  19. Traffic air pollution and risk of death from gastric cancer in Taiwan: petrol station density as an indicator of air pollutant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chen, Pei-Shih; Liao, Yen-Hsiung; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between air pollution and risk of death attributed to gastric cancer, a matched cancer case-control study was conducted using deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 2004 through 2008. Data for all eligible gastric cancer deaths were obtained and compared to a control group consisting of individuals who died from causes other than neoplasms and diseases that were associated with gastrointestinal (GIT) disorders. The controls were pair-matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was randomly selected from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data for the number of petrol stations in study municipalities were collected from two major petroleum supply companies. The petrol station density (per square kilometer) (PSD) for study municipalities was used as an indicator of a subject's exposure to benzene and other hydrocarbons present in ambient evaporative losses of petrol or to air emissions from motor vehicles. The exposed individuals were subdivided into three categories (?25th percentile; 25th-75th percentile; >75th percentile) according to PSD in the residential municipality. Results showed that individuals who resided in municipalities with the highest PSD were at an increased risk of death attributed to gastric cancer compared to those subjects living in municipalities with the lowest PSD. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of traffic air pollution exposure in the etiology of gastric cancer. PMID:21797773

  20. The Petrol Station and the Internet Cafe: Rural Technospaces for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laegran, Anne Sofie

    2002-01-01

    A study in two Norwegian villages focused on the local gas station and the Internet cafe as "technospaces" for rural youth cultures--spaces at the intersection of technology and human interaction. The car and the Internet were given different symbolic and utility values in various youth subcultures. Local contexts influenced technology usage…

  1. Geo-enviromental monitoring system of the oil storages on petrol stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In large cities, fuel consumption is growing rapidly, and therefore the number of filling stations. And they are a source of anthropogenic impact on the environment and represent current scientific and practical task, because recently no research was conducted into the optimization of monitoring systems in the construction of gas station storage tanks, and no activity on replacing the obsolete design with new storage tanks. In this regard, much attention should be paid to the creation of geo-environmental systems integrated assessment of the environment, as well as modeling and forecasting various negative situations. In the modern world, the creation of such systems is possible with the help of modern computer tools such as geographic information systems.

  2. Petrol war in Nijmegen, Netherlands; Benzine-oorlog in Nijmegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, E.; Kramer, I. [Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2000-07-28

    Since April 2000 a petrol war rages in Nijmegen and surroundings (Netherlands) whereby considerable discounts are given to the national retail prices. The cause of the war is a new unmanned petrol station of the enterprise Tango. In this article the development and the consequences of the discount at petrol stations in Nijmegen and surroundings are analyzed 3 refs.

  3. [Environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to monoaromatic hydrocarbons and to methyl tert-butyl ether in a group of petrol station workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, G; Poli, D; Manini, P; Andreoli, R; Mozzoni, P; Apostoli, P; Mutti, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate biomarkers of exposure to gasoline in petrol station workers by a combined approach of environmental and biological monitoring. The personal exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and the urinary levels of BTEX, methyl tert-butyl ether (U-MTBE), trans,trans-muconic (t,t-MA) and S-phenylmercapturic acids (S-PMA) and cotinine were determined by mass spectrometry coupled chromatographic techniques. U-MTBE levels were strictly influenced by occupational exposure to gasoline, whereas both U-B and S-PMA levels depended from smoking habits and occupational exposure. PMID:23393799

  4. Condição auditiva de frentistas / Hearing conditions of gas stations attendants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tania Maria, Tochetto; Lenita da Silva, Quevedo; Márcia do Amaral, Siqueira.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os limiares auditivos nas frequências convencionais e altas frequências, e ainda a integridade do arco reflexo, em frentistas. MÉTODO: foram avaliados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. Após adequação aos critérios de inclusão, a amostra ficou compos [...] ta por 24 frentistas expostos a combustíveis, 21 do gênero masculino e três do gênero feminino, com faixa etária entre 20 e 40 anos. Os exames utilizados foram audiometria tonal liminar, audiometria de altas frequências e imitanciometria. O tempo de exposição variou de um a 17 anos. O grupo controle foi composto por 24 sujeitos não expostos a qualquer agente nocivo à audição. RESULTADOS: a média dos limiares da audiometria tonal liminar e da audiometria de altas frequências foi superior no grupo estudo em todas as frequências testadas. Verificou-se diferença de limiar estatisticamente significante nas frequências de 0,5 (p=0,004), 2 (p=0,001) e 3 kHz (p=0,025), e nas frequências de 9 (p=0,007) e 10 kHz (p=0,026). Os limiares das frequências de 12,5 e 14 kHz não diferiram estatisticamente (p>0,05). Em 16, 18 e 20 kHz foi observada maior ausência de respostas no grupo estudo (p>0,05). Também se observou maior ausência de reflexos acústicos (ipsi e contralateral) no grupo estudo, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda, não houve diferença entre os grupos, para a ocorrência do reflexo ipsilateral. A ausência de reflexo contralateral foi maior no grupo estudo em todas as frequências testadas. CONCLUSÃO: frentistas com limiares auditivos normais podem apresentar alterações cocleares e centrais. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the hearing threshold in the conventional frequencies and high frequencies, and the integrity of the acoustic reflex, in subjects exposed to fuels. METHOD: attendants of three gas stations were evaluated in Santa Maria/RS. After the adaptation to the inclusion criteria, the samp [...] le was composed of 24 subjects. It was used the Pure Tone Audiometry, high frequency audiometry and acoustic immitance assessment to evaluate the sample. The time of exposition ranged from one to seventeen years. The control group was composed by 24 not exposed subjects. RESULTS: the average of the thresholds of the PTA and of the high frequency audiometry was superior in the study group in all the tested frequencies. A statistically significant difference of thresholds was verified on the frequencies of 0,5 (p=0,004), 2 (p=0,001), 3 kHz (p=0,025), and frequencies of 9 (p=0,007) e 10 kHz (p=0,026). In 16, 18, 20 kHz a greater absence of responses was observed in the study group (p>0, 05). Also it was observed a greater absence of acoustic reflexes (ipsilateral and contralateral) at the study group, on the right ear. On the left ear, there was no difference between the groups, for the occurrence of ipsilateral reflex. The absence of the contralateral reflex was superior in the study group on all frequencies tested. CONCLUSION: individuals exposed to fuels with normal hearing thresholds may have cochlear and central alterations.

  5. Methodology for the detection of contamination by hydrocarbons and further soil sampling for volatile and semi-volatile organic enrichment in former petrol stations, SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Rosales Aranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal detection and quantification of contamination plumes in soil and groundwater by petroleum organic compounds, gasoline and diesel, is critical for the reclamation of hydrocarbons contaminated soil at petrol stations. Through this study it has been achieved a sampling stage optimization in these scenarios by means of the location of potential contamination areas before sampling with the application of the 2D electrical resistivity tomography method, a geophysical non destructive technique based on resistivity measurements in soils. After the detection of hydrocarbons contaminated areas, boreholes with continuous coring were performed in a petrol station located in Murcia Region (Spain. The drillholes reached depths down to 10 m and soil samples were taken from each meter of the drilling. The optimization in the soil samples handling and storage, for both volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds determinations, was achieved by designing a soil sampler to minimize volatilization losses and in order to avoid the manual contact with the environmental samples during the sampling. The preservation of soil samples was performed according to Europe regulations and US Environmental Protection Agency recommendations into two kinds of glass vials. Moreover, it has been taken into account the determination techniques to quantify the hydrocarbon pollution based on Gas Chromatography with different detectors and headspace technique to reach a liquid-gas equilibrium for volatile analyses.

  6. An investigation of environmental impact of aerial metal deposition around the petrol filling stations and applying remedial measures to reduce the elevated level of lead metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *H. Tahir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide use of petroleum products causes contamination of air, water, soil and plants. The present study was related to monitor the aerial deposition of metals on soil and ryegrass around the fuel stations along central road of Karachi city, Pakistan. Samples of soil and ryegrass were collected from the selected locations of central road. Concentrations of selected trace metals were estimated through atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Multivariate analysis is also applied to authenticate the concentration difference between affected and control samples. Statistical analyses of metals in soil and ryegrass samples were reported in terms of average concentration of trace metals, standard deviation, median and mean values. The correlation coefficient (r was also calculated between metals in soil vs. soil and ryegrass vs. ryegrass samples. By applying adsorption technique the beds of adsorbents like activated charcoal, cement, silica gel and calcium carbonate were placed at the petrol filling stations for the period of one month and monitor the deposited metal content.

  7. Traveling Salesman Approach for Solving Petrol Distribution Using Simulated Annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhaimy Ismail; Wan R.W. Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an attempt to solve a logistic company's problem of delivering petrol to petrol station in the state of Johor. This delivery system is formulated as a travelling salesman problem (TSP). TSP involves finding an optimal route for visiting stations and returning to point of origin, where the inter-station distance is symmetric and known. This real world application is a deceptive simple combinatorial problem and our approach is to develop solutions based on the idea of loc...

  8. Occupational Exposure of Diesel Station Workers to BTEX Compounds at a Bus Depot

    OpenAIRE

    Moolla, Raeesa; Curtis, Christopher J.; Knight, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Diesel fuel is known to emit pollutants that have a negative impact on environmental and human health. In developing countries like South Africa, attendants are employed to pump fuel for customers at service stations. Attendants refuel vehicles with various octane unleaded fuel, lead-replacement petrol and diesel fuel, on a daily basis. Attendants are at risk to adverse health effects associated with the inhalation of volatile organic compounds released from these fuels. The pollutants releas...

  9. An investigation into the presence of petrol on the clothing and shoes of members of the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Sally; Morgan-Smith, Rian; Mitchell, Susan; McBriar, Todd

    2008-02-25

    First, the clothing and shoes from 29 participants who had recently filled their vehicles with petrol were analysed for any traces of petrol. No traces of petrol were found on any of these items. Secondly, the clothing and shoes from 17 participants who had recently used a petrol-powered lawn mower were also analysed for petrol. Petrol was detected on two pairs of shoes from different participants. Components of petrol were detected on a set of clothing from a third participant, however, there were insufficient components present in this sample to confirm the presence of petrol. No traces of petrol were found on the items from the remaining 14 participants. Thirdly, the clothing from a forecourt attendant, a mechanic and a professional lawn mower were analysed at the end of a number of shifts. Petrol was detected on the upper and lower clothing from the forecourt attendant at the end of one shift. No petrol residues were found on the forecourt attendant after a second shift, or on the mechanic's clothing after two separate shifts or on the professional lawn mower's clothing after three separate shifts. These results can be used to assist the forensic analyst in assessing the chance of finding traces of petrol on clothing and shoes after the wearer has performed common activities that involve petrol. PMID:17560059

  10. Pulmonary functions in petrol pump workers: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Mayank; Khaliq, Farah; Singhal, Siddarth; Tandon, O P

    2007-01-01

    Occupational exposures to petrol/diesel vapors have been shown to affect functioning of different systems of the body. The present study was planned to assess the pulmonary functions in petrol pump workers (filling attendants) who are continuously exposed to petrol/diesel vapors during duty hours. Thirty healthy non-smoker males working in petrol pump for more than one year formed the study group, while thirty healthy non-smoker males from hospital staff served as control group. The pulmonary functions were assessed using computerized spirometer. The FVC and FEV1 were decreased in the study group while their ratio did not differ much. Both the inspiratory and expiratory flow rates were also decreased in the study group. These findings point towards adverse effects of petrol/diesel fumes mainly on lower airways with restrictive pattern of disease. PMID:18341220

  11. Cochlear condition and olivocochlear system of gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tochetto, Tania Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic solvents have been increasingly studied due to its ototoxic action. Objective: Evaluate the conditions of outer hair cells and olivocochlear system in individuals exposed to organic solvents. Method: This is a prospective study. 78 gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents had been evaluated from three gas stations from Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. After applying the inclusion criteria, the sample was constituted by 24 individuals. The procedures used on the evaluation were audiological anamnesis, Transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAES and research for the suppressive effect of TEOAES. A group control (GC compounded by 23 individuals was compared to individuals exposed and non-exposed individuals. The data collection has been done in the room of Speech Therapy of Workers Health Reference Center of Santa Maria. Results: The TEOAES presence was major in the left ear in both groups; the average relation of TEOAES signal/noise in both ears was greater in GE; the TEOAES suppressive effect in the right ear was higher in the individual of GE (62,5% and in the left ear was superior in GC (86,96%, with statistically significant difference. The median sign/noise ratio of TEOAES, according to the frequency range, it was higher in GC in three frequencies ranges in the right ear and one in the left ear. Conclusion: It was not found signs of alteration on the outer hair cells neither on the olivocochlear medial system in the individuals exposed to organic solvents.

  12. Molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress and role of dietary factors in gasoline station attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Chiara; Ozcagli, Eren; Gangemi, Silvia; Schembri, Federico; Giambò, Federica; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to benzene promotes oxidative stress through the production of ROS, which can damage biological structures with the formation of new metabolites which can be used as markers of oxidant/antioxidant imbalance. This study aims to assess modifications in circulating levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) in a group of gasoline station attendants exposed to low-dose benzene and to evaluate the influence of antioxidant food intake on these biomarkers of oxidative stress. The diet adopted by the population examined consisted of compounds belonging to the classes of terpenoids, stilbenes and flavonoids, notably resveratrol, lycopene and apigenin. Ninety one gasoline station attendants occupationally exposed to benzene and 63 unexposed male office workers were recruited for this study. Urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) concentration, determined to assess individual exposure level, resulted significantly higher in exposed workers. In subjects exposed to benzene, we observed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in ROMs and AOPP levels, which were also negatively correlated with fruit and vegetables consumption. By contrast, AGE did not show a significant increase and consequently any relation with antioxidant food intake. Only ROMs, representing a global biomarker of oxidative status, resulted correlated to t,t-MA levels (p < 0.01), probably due to low-dose exposure. Increase of ROS induced by reactive benzene metabolites may promote specific biochemical pathways with a major production of AOPP, which seem to represent a more sensitive biochemical marker of oxidative stress in workers exposed to benzene compared to AGE. Furthermore, this is the first study demonstrating ROMs increment in subject exposed to benzene. These biomarkers may be useful for screening purposes in gasoline station workers and other subjects exposed to low-dose benzene. Moreover, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables demonstrated an inverse association with the levels of oxidative stress markers, suggesting a protective role of antioxidant food intake in workers exposed to oxidant agents. PMID:26827788

  13. Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments. In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system. To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ. Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de um tanque de armazenamento de óleo diesel subterrâneo em um posto de combustíveis. Experimentos em escala laboratorial (respirômetros de Bartha foram utilizados para avaliar a biodegradação do óleo diesel. Estímulo da biodegradação foi realizado utilizando-se as técnicas de bioestímulo (adição de soluções de nitrogênio e fósforo ou surfactante Tween 80 e de bioaumento (consórcio bacteriano isolado de um sistema de landfarming. Para investigar as interações entre os fatores otimizadores, e encontrar a melhor combinação entre esses agentes, o estudo foi baseado em um delineamento experimental fatorial completo. A eficiência de biodegradação foi simultaneamente medida com dois métodos: respirométrico (produção de CO2 microbiano e cromatografia gasosa. Testes de toxicidade aguda com Daphnia similis foram aplicados para examinar a eficiência dos processos em termos de geração de produtos menos tóxicos. Resultados mostraram que todas as estratégias de biorremediação aceleraram a biorremediação natural do solo contaminado e os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando os tratamentos tinham adição de nutrientes. Dados respirométricos indicaram uma máxima mineralização de hidrocarbonetos de 19,8%, obtida com a combinação dos três agentes, com uma remoção de hidrocarbonetos totais de petróleo (TPH de 45,5% em 55 dias de tratamento. No final dos experimentos, duas espécies predominantes de bactéria foram isoladas e identificadas como Staphylococcus hominis e Kocuria palustris.

  14. Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station / Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Pinto, Mariano; Ana Paula de Arruda Geraldes, Kataoka; Dejanira de Franceschi de, Angelis; Daniel Marcos, Bonotto.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ). Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de um tanque [...] de armazenamento de óleo diesel subterrâneo em um posto de combustíveis. Experimentos em escala laboratorial (respirômetros de Bartha) foram utilizados para avaliar a biodegradação do óleo diesel. Estímulo da biodegradação foi realizado utilizando-se as técnicas de bioestímulo (adição de soluções de nitrogênio e fósforo ou surfactante Tween 80) e de bioaumento (consórcio bacteriano isolado de um sistema de landfarming). Para investigar as interações entre os fatores otimizadores, e encontrar a melhor combinação entre esses agentes, o estudo foi baseado em um delineamento experimental fatorial completo. A eficiência de biodegradação foi simultaneamente medida com dois métodos: respirométrico (produção de CO2 microbiano) e cromatografia gasosa. Testes de toxicidade aguda com Daphnia similis foram aplicados para examinar a eficiência dos processos em termos de geração de produtos menos tóxicos. Resultados mostraram que todas as estratégias de biorremediação aceleraram a biorremediação natural do solo contaminado e os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando os tratamentos tinham adição de nutrientes. Dados respirométricos indicaram uma máxima mineralização de hidrocarbonetos de 19,8%, obtida com a combinação dos três agentes, com uma remoção de hidrocarbonetos totais de petróleo (TPH) de 45,5% em 55 dias de tratamento. No final dos experimentos, duas espécies predominantes de bactéria foram isoladas e identificadas como Staphylococcus hominis e Kocuria palustris. Abstract in english The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments). In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel [...] oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks) were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant) and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system). To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production) and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris).

  15. Petrol Pipe Line Telemonitoring Design

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelrasoul Jabar Alzubaidi

    2015-01-01

    Petrol pipe lines are subjected to different types of malfunction. The malfunction can happen due to technical faults or it may be due to a gangsters attack on the petrol pipes in order to hinder the petrol pumping operations.. The damage of the petrol pipes causes a loss of a large amount of petrol from the pipe lines. Petrol pipe damage also causes fires and pollution to the environments . Such operations causes a lot of loss in economy to the country concerned where the sabotag...

  16. Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em frentistas / Auditory brainstem response in gas station attendants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lenita da Silva, Quevedo; Tania, Tochetto; Marcia Amaral, Siqueira; Márcia Salgado, Machado.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A ototoxidade dos solventes orgânicos pode atingir o sistema auditivo a nível coclear e retrococlear. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a integridade neurofisiológica do sistema auditivo até tronco cerebral por meio do PEATE. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo. Estudados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de S [...] anta Maria/RS. A amostra ficou composta por 21 sujeitos, que foram avaliados por meio de potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico. RESULTADOS: Alteração nas latências absolutas das ondas I e III e em todas as latências interpicos, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda houve alteração na latência absoluta de todas as ondas, e em todos os intervalos interpicos. Alteração na diferença interaural da onda V foi verificada em 19% dos sujeitos. No grupo exposto há mais de cinco anos, foram estatisticamente significantes o número de sujeitos com alteração: no intervalo interpico I-V da orelha direita; na latência absoluta da onda I e no intervalo interpico III-V da orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: A exposição a combustíveis pode causar alterações no sistema auditivo central. Abstract in english Ototoxicity of organic solvents can affect the hearing system up to the cochlea level and the central structures of hearing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neurophysiological integrity of the hearing system in subjects exposed to fuels using ABR. METHOD: Prospective study. We evaluated attendants from t [...] hree gas stations in Santa Maria/RS. The sample had 21 subjects, who were evaluated by auditory brainstem response. RESULTS: We found an alteration in the absolute latencies of Waves I and III and in all the interpeak latencies, in the right ear. In the left ear there was a change in the absolute latencies of all Waves, and in all the interpeak intervals. A change in the interaural difference of Wave V was found in 19% of the individuals. In the group exposed for more than five years, there were subjects with a statistically significant changes: in the I-V interpeak of the right ear; in the absolute latency of Wave I and in the III-V interpeak of the left year. CONCLUSION: Exposure to fuels can cause alterations in the central hearing system.

  17. Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em frentistas Auditory brainstem response in gas station attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenita da Silva Quevedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A ototoxidade dos solventes orgânicos pode atingir o sistema auditivo a nível coclear e retrococlear. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a integridade neurofisiológica do sistema auditivo até tronco cerebral por meio do PEATE. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo. Estudados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. A amostra ficou composta por 21 sujeitos, que foram avaliados por meio de potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico. RESULTADOS: Alteração nas latências absolutas das ondas I e III e em todas as latências interpicos, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda houve alteração na latência absoluta de todas as ondas, e em todos os intervalos interpicos. Alteração na diferença interaural da onda V foi verificada em 19% dos sujeitos. No grupo exposto há mais de cinco anos, foram estatisticamente significantes o número de sujeitos com alteração: no intervalo interpico I-V da orelha direita; na latência absoluta da onda I e no intervalo interpico III-V da orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: A exposição a combustíveis pode causar alterações no sistema auditivo central.Ototoxicity of organic solvents can affect the hearing system up to the cochlea level and the central structures of hearing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neurophysiological integrity of the hearing system in subjects exposed to fuels using ABR. METHOD: Prospective study. We evaluated attendants from three gas stations in Santa Maria/RS. The sample had 21 subjects, who were evaluated by auditory brainstem response. RESULTS: We found an alteration in the absolute latencies of Waves I and III and in all the interpeak latencies, in the right ear. In the left ear there was a change in the absolute latencies of all Waves, and in all the interpeak intervals. A change in the interaural difference of Wave V was found in 19% of the individuals. In the group exposed for more than five years, there were subjects with a statistically significant changes: in the I-V interpeak of the right ear; in the absolute latency of Wave I and in the III-V interpeak of the left year. CONCLUSION: Exposure to fuels can cause alterations in the central hearing system.

  18. Petrol Pipe Line Telemonitoring Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrasoul Jabar Alzubaidi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Petrol pipe lines are subjected to different types of malfunction. The malfunction can happen due to technical faults or it may be due to a gangsters attack on the petrol pipes in order to hinder the petrol pumping operations.. The damage of the petrol pipes causes a loss of a large amount of petrol from the pipe lines. Petrol pipe damage also causes fires and pollution to the environments . Such operations causes a lot of loss in economy to the country concerned where the sabotage took place. This paper sheds the light on this challenging issue to steady and propose an intelligent electronic circuit design solutions to this problem. An electronic circuit design based on using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA is proposed as a processor to control the petrol pipe lines. A real time monitoring cameras are installed to fulfill this task .The system design is programmable (i.e intelligent and hence the electronic actions established in the design can be modified easily..A personnel computer is used to capture the images from the cameras installed on the petrol pipe line. If any damage or attack is noticed a commands can be initiated to the electronic and electrical devices to stop the pumping operation and to close the petrol pipe line immediately. Many electrically controlled pipe closing valves are to be installed along the pipe line. These electronic closing valves are remotely controlled by the embedded system based on the (FPGA.

  19. WLAN Hot Spot services for the automotive and oil industries :a business analysis Or : "Refuel the car with petrol and information, both ways at the gas station"

    OpenAIRE

    Pau, L-F.; M.H.P. OREMUS

    2003-01-01

    While you refuel for gas ,why not refuel for information or download vehicle data ? This paper analyzes in extensive detail the user segmentation by vehicle usage , service offering , and full business models from WLAN hot spot services delivered to vehicles (private, professional , public) around gas stations . Are also analyzed the parties which play a role in such service authorization, provisioning and delivery , with all the dependencies modelled by attributed digraphs . Sevice planning ...

  20. An investigation of environmental impact of aerial metal deposition around the petrol filling stations and applying remedial measures to reduce the elevated level of lead metal

    OpenAIRE

    H. Tahir; Q . Jahanzeb; Sultan, M.

    2011-01-01

    The wide use of petroleum products causes contamination of air, water, soil and plants. The present study was related to monitor the aerial deposition of metals on soil and ryegrass around the fuel stations along central road of Karachi city, Pakistan. Samples of soil and ryegrass were collected from the selected locations of central road. Concentrations of selected trace metals were estimated through atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Multivariate analysis is also applied to authenticate t...

  1. Monitoring of gas station attendants exposure to benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) using three-color chromosome painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure of BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) may lead to progressive degeneration of bone marrow, aplastic anemia and/or leukemia. In Brazil there is no self-service fuel in gas stations and attendants fill the fuel themselves. Due to this they are chronically exposed to high concentration of BTX. Occupational exposure to benzene has been associated with increased chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using whole chromosome painting (wcp) probes allows the rapid detection of chromosomal aberration. In the present study three-color wcp probes for chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 were used for monitoring 60 gas station attendants. Results Blood tests were done and interviews were conducted for each worker. For searching for possible associations between the clinical characteristics and the frequency of chromosomal aberrations the workers were divided into two groups (≤ 10 chromosomal abnormalities per 1,000 metaphases and > 10 chromosomal abnormalities per 1,000 metaphases).The studied workers had a low median age (36 year), albeit long period of BTX exposure (median was 16 years). Low prevalence of smoking and moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages were found in this population. The cytogenetic analysis showed 16.6% (10/60) of workers with a high frequency of chromosomal abnormalities (>10 chromosomal abnormalities per 1,000 metaphases). Translocations were the most frequently observed chromosome aberration. The statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences in skin color (p = 0.002) and a weak significant differences in gender (p = 0.052) distribution between the two groups. Conclusion 16.6% of the studied population showed elevated frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities, which is highly likely to be correlated with their exposure to BTX during their work. Therefore, further studies are needed for better characterize the work associated damage of the genome in gas station workers. It is necessary to better understand the risks that these workers are exposed, so that we can be effective in preventing diseases and maintaining the health of these workers and possibly the offspring. PMID:24576355

  2. Benzene emission from the actual car fleet in relation to petrol composition in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmgren, F.; Hansen, A.B.; Berkowicz, R.; Skov, H. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The present study covers an investigation of the trends in air pollution levels of benzene in Danish cities and their relationship with the benzene content in petrol. Petrol samples from the two refineries in Denmark as well as sold petrol from some representative Danish petrol stations were analysed. The benzene content in Danish petrol was reduced from 3.5% for 95 octane prior to 1995 to approx. 2% in 1995 and further to 1% in 1998. Air quality measurements of aromatic VOC are available from two Danish cities; Copenhagen since 1994 and Odense since 1997. Measurements of benzene, CO and NO{sub x} from these two locations were analysed using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) and trends in the actual emissions of these pollutants were determined. It is shown that the decrease in both the concentration levels and in the emissions was significantly larger for benzene than for CO and NO{sub x}. The decreasing trends of NO{sub x} and CO could be explained by the increasing fraction of petrol-fuelled vehicles with three way catalysts (TWC). The much steeper decreasing trend for benzene can most likely be attributed to a combination of the effect of the increasing share of the TWC vehicles and a simultaneous reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol. The reduction of benzene concentrations and emissions is observed despite that the total amount of aromatics in petrol has increased slightly in the same period. (Author)

  3. Benzene emission from the actual car fleet in relation to petrol composition in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Finn; Hansen, Asger B.; Berkowicz, Ruwim; Skov, Henrik

    The present study covers an investigation of the trends in air pollution levels of benzene in Danish cities and their relationship with the benzene content in petrol. Petrol samples from the two refineries in Denmark as well as sold petrol from some representative Danish petrol stations were analysed. The benzene content in Danish petrol was reduced from 3.5% for 95 octane prior to 1995 to approx. 2% in 1995 and further to 1 % in 1998. Air quality measurements of aromatic VOC are available from two Danish cities; Copenhagen since 1994 and Odense since 1997. Measurements of benzene, CO and NO x from these two locations were analysed using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) and trends in the actual emissions of these pollutants were determined. It is shown that the decrease in both the concentration levels and in the emissions was significantly larger for benzene than for CO and NO x. The decreasing trends of NO x and CO could be explained by the increasing fraction of petrol-fuelled vehicles with three way catalysts (TWC). The much steeper decreasing trend for benzene can most likely be attributed to a combination of the effect of the increasing share of the TWC vehicles and a simultaneous reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol. The reduction of benzene concentrations and emissions is observed despite that the total amount of aromatics in petrol has increased slightly in the same period.

  4. Benzene emission from the actual car fleet in relation to petrol composition in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study covers an investigation of the trends in air pollution levels of benzene in Danish cities and their relationship with the benzene content in petrol. Petrol samples from the two refineries in Denmark as well as sold petrol from some representative Danish petrol stations were analysed. The benzene content in Danish petrol was reduced from 3.5% for 95 octane prior to 1995 to approx. 2% in 1995 and further to 1% in 1998. Air quality measurements of aromatic VOC are available from two Danish cities; Copenhagen since 1994 and Odense since 1997. Measurements of benzene, CO and NOx from these two locations were analysed using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) and trends in the actual emissions of these pollutants were determined. It is shown that the decrease in both the concentration levels and in the emissions was significantly larger for benzene than for CO and NOx. The decreasing trends of NOx and CO could be explained by the increasing fraction of petrol-fuelled vehicles with three way catalysts (TWC). The much steeper decreasing trend for benzene can most likely be attributed to a combination of the effect of the increasing share of the TWC vehicles and a simultaneous reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol. The reduction of benzene concentrations and emissions is observed despite that the total amount of aromatics in petrol has increased slightly in the same period. (Author)

  5. Determinación y estandarización de plomo en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio del Estado Mérida / Blood lead determination and standardization in petrol station workers in the State of Merida

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Molina; María Luisa, Di Bernardo; Carlos, Rondón; María Ysabel, García; Pablo, Carrero; José Rafael, Luna; José Gregorio, Salazar; Alexis, Morales; Yajaira, Hernández; Jesús, Peña.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se ha determinado el contenido de plomo (Pb) en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio de la ciudad de Mérida (Venezuela) y en un grupo de personas no expuestas ocupacionalmente. Las muestras de sangre provenientes de sujetos de ambos sexos n=21 (controles) y n=65 (personal ex [...] puesto) fueron procesadas por absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica (ETAAS). Las concentraciones obtenidas de 15,27±9,62 y 83,74±28,95 µg/L para los grupos denominados como control y expuesto respectivamente, muestran diferencias altamente significativas que evidencian una exposición directa al Pb, por cuanto los valores del grupo expuesto ocupacional son más de 5 veces superiores a los del grupo control. Los resultados obtenidos también muestran que valores iguales o superiores a 54,79 µg/L son indicadores de exposición directa al Pb, permitiendo establecer valores de tolerancia entre los intervalos de 24,89 y 112,69 µg/L. Estos valores de referencia se encuentran por debajo de lo descripto por Burguera y cols. (1997), lo cual podría atribuirse al reemplazo gradual de la gasolina con plomo, en los últimos años, que ha llevado a una disminución de un 27% en los niveles de plomo en sangre, en comparación con un estudio similar realizado en esta misma ciudad en el año 1997. Abstract in english In this work the lead (Pb) content in blood was determined in petrol station workers in the city of Merida-Venezuela and in a group of people not occupationally exposed. The blood samples coming from subjects of both sexes n=21 controls and n=65 exposed workers were processed by atomic absorption wi [...] th electrothermal atomization (ETAAS). The 15.27±9.62 and 83.74±28.95 µg/L concentrations obtained for the group referred to as control and exposed respectively show highly significant differences that evidence a direct exposure to Pb, since the values of the occupationally exposed group are more than 5 times higher than those of the control group. The results obtained also show that values equal to or higher than 54.79 µg/L are indicative of direct exposure to Pb, making it possible to establish tolerance values between the 24.89 and 112.69 µg/L intervals. These reference values are below what was reported by Burguera et al (1997) which could be attributed to the gradual substitution of gasoline for lead that has originated a 27% decrease in lead levels in blood, if compared with a similar study carried out in the same city in 1997.

  6. Determinación y estandarización de plomo en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio del Estado Mérida Blood lead determination and standardization in petrol station workers in the State of Merida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Molina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se ha determinado el contenido de plomo (Pb en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio de la ciudad de Mérida (Venezuela y en un grupo de personas no expuestas ocupacionalmente. Las muestras de sangre provenientes de sujetos de ambos sexos n=21 (controles y n=65 (personal expuesto fueron procesadas por absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica (ETAAS. Las concentraciones obtenidas de 15,27±9,62 y 83,74±28,95 µg/L para los grupos denominados como control y expuesto respectivamente, muestran diferencias altamente significativas que evidencian una exposición directa al Pb, por cuanto los valores del grupo expuesto ocupacional son más de 5 veces superiores a los del grupo control. Los resultados obtenidos también muestran que valores iguales o superiores a 54,79 µg/L son indicadores de exposición directa al Pb, permitiendo establecer valores de tolerancia entre los intervalos de 24,89 y 112,69 µg/L. Estos valores de referencia se encuentran por debajo de lo descripto por Burguera y cols. (1997, lo cual podría atribuirse al reemplazo gradual de la gasolina con plomo, en los últimos años, que ha llevado a una disminución de un 27% en los niveles de plomo en sangre, en comparación con un estudio similar realizado en esta misma ciudad en el año 1997.In this work the lead (Pb content in blood was determined in petrol station workers in the city of Merida-Venezuela and in a group of people not occupationally exposed. The blood samples coming from subjects of both sexes n=21 controls and n=65 exposed workers were processed by atomic absorption with electrothermal atomization (ETAAS. The 15.27±9.62 and 83.74±28.95 µg/L concentrations obtained for the group referred to as control and exposed respectively show highly significant differences that evidence a direct exposure to Pb, since the values of the occupationally exposed group are more than 5 times higher than those of the control group. The results obtained also show that values equal to or higher than 54.79 µg/L are indicative of direct exposure to Pb, making it possible to establish tolerance values between the 24.89 and 112.69 µg/L intervals. These reference values are below what was reported by Burguera et al (1997 which could be attributed to the gradual substitution of gasoline for lead that has originated a 27% decrease in lead levels in blood, if compared with a similar study carried out in the same city in 1997.

  7. The complicated transition to competition in the petrol industry in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spanish petrol market has been deeply restructured. However, the results of two decades of liberalization are mixed. A more active policy of fostering and defending competition has been missing. Reform efforts in the sector and economic analyses of the markets have overwhelming been focussed on the upstream activities of manufacturing and wholesaling. By contrast, other activities of the sector are the ones that are constraining competition. Vertical relations between petrol major companies and petrol stations have a very significant impact on the process to achieve effective competition. And access to distribution essential facilities such as pipes is a necessary condition to open up the market to new operators. In Spain, transition to competition in the petrol industry has not taken enough care on restructuring vertical relations and access to essential facilities. (Author)

  8. The Health Impacts of Ethanol Blend Petrol

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary Wood; David Williams; Stephen White; Anne Tibbett; Jennifer Powell; Michael Patterson; James McGregor; Peter Nancarrow; Imants Liepa; Sunhee Lee; Sarah Lawson; Steven Lavrencic; Melita Keywood; David Jacyna; Ian Galbally

    2011-01-01

    A measurement program designed to evaluate health impacts or benefits of using ethanol blend petrol examined exhaust and evaporative emissions from 21 vehicles representative of the current Australian light duty petrol (gasoline) vehicle fleet using a composite urban emissions drive cycle. The fuels used were unleaded petrol (ULP), ULP blended with either 5% ethanol (E5) or 10% ethanol (E10). The resulting data were combined with inventory data for Sydney to determine the expected fleet emiss...

  9. Traveling Salesman Approach for Solving Petrol Distribution Using Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhaimy Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an attempt to solve a logistic company's problem of delivering petrol to petrol station in the state of Johor. This delivery system is formulated as a travelling salesman problem (TSP. TSP involves finding an optimal route for visiting stations and returning to point of origin, where the inter-station distance is symmetric and known. This real world application is a deceptive simple combinatorial problem and our approach is to develop solutions based on the idea of local search and meta-heuristics. As a standard problem, we have chosen a solution is a deceptively simple combinatorial problem and we defined it simply as the time spends or distance travelled by salesman visiting n cities (or nodes cyclically. In one tour the vehicle visits each station just once and finishes up where he started. As standard problems, we have chosen TSP with different stations visited once. This research presents the development of solution engine based on local search method known as Greedy Method and with the result generated as the initial solution, Simulated Annealing (SA and Tabu Search (TS further used to improve the search and provide the best solution. A user friendly optimization program developed using Microsoft C++ to solve the TSP and provides solutions to future TSP which may be classified into daily or advanced management and engineering problems.

  10. The Results of Testing Zeolite Filters to Improve Petrol Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of carried out investigations the possibility of improving petrol quality using acid-modified species of natural zeolite-clinoptilolite is propozed. Low octane and high-octane petrol brands have been used for the experiments. Chromatografic analysis has shown that treated petrols contain less amount of n-parafins than initial petrols. (author)

  11. Effects of changes in petrol taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to estimate and discuss some of the policy-relevant effects of petrol tax changes. Our approach is to seek to separate the extent to which each of the following variables is affected by changes in the price of petrol: (i) car ownership (ii) car use (iii) petrol consumption per km. The estimates show that the sum of (i) and (ii) results in a price-elasticity with respect to 'car traffic' equal to -0.2 in the short run, and -0.3 in the long run. Because of possibilities to increase the fuel efficiency of cars, the price-elasticity of 'petrol demand' is substantially greater: -0.3 in the short run and of the order of -0.7 in the long run. One conclusion is: A petrol price rise is considerably more effective as a measure for energy and environmental policy than for transport policy. The effect of petrol tax changes to the total tax revenue is also discussed. At last, the regional welfare distribution effects are treated in the form of estimation of regional differences to the reduction in the consumers' surplus from a petrol price increase. 19 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs

  12. TOXICITY OF PETROL OIL ON SPIRULINA PLATENSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rajni Karoriya

    2013-01-01

    In 1947, UN declared Spirulina as “the best food for tomorrow”. It is very rich in protein content. In the present study we have determined the effect of petrol oil on Spirulina platensis growth rate. It is exposed to different concentration of petrol oil to see the effect of petrol on the protein, carbohydrate and growth rate of Spirulina platensis. It involved 2,5,10 and 20 ml of petro oil in the media after which the survival and the growth of the S. platensis were evaluated. Although the ...

  13. The Potential Of Poland's Bio-Petrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossi Mann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration to promote the bio-petrol industry is an attempt to provide a solution for some of the problems the European Union countries share, such as the decreasing importance of peripheral areas, the need to diversify energy sources and the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. Once Poland joined the EU in 2004, it became committed to adopting the organisation’s decisions regarding the bio-petrol industry and to keep up with EU production objectives. An analysis of the factors that influence the bio-petrol industry indicates that Poland has great potential in the field and the ability to become an important player on the market.

  14. An attitude study on the environmental effects of rationing petrol in Tehran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanafizadeh, Payam; Navardi, Zeinab; Bamdad Soofi, Jahanyar [Department of Industrial Management, Allameh Tabataba' i University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the environmental effects of implementing petrol rationing and the issuance of fuel smartcards in central Tehran. The results and their application are significant from the perspective of preserving fuel sources and protecting the environment, both of which being among the goals of sustainable development. Through the analysis of soft data (owners of automobile and light pickup trucks attitude), 3 general hypotheses were assessed and the result was compared to hard data (the traffic situation information, petrol consumption and air pollution). The soft data was gathered using a comprehensive questionnaire which randomly distributed among 2000 automobile and pickup truck drivers in the central Tehran area who were at petrol stations to refuel their vehicles. The gathered data was then analyzed at two levels: descriptive and inferential. The results of this research reveal that according to the soft data, the smartcard project has resulted in a decline in traffic and petrol consumption and a rise in air pollution; furthermore, the positive cultural effects of this project have been comparatively prominent. The actual figures show that the project has led to lower traffic load and air pollution but petrol consumption remains the same as before. (author)

  15. An attitude study on the environmental effects of rationing petrol in Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to assess the environmental effects of implementing petrol rationing and the issuance of fuel smartcards in central Tehran. The results and their application are significant from the perspective of preserving fuel sources and protecting the environment, both of which being among the goals of sustainable development. Through the analysis of soft data (owners of automobile and light pickup trucks attitude), 3 general hypotheses were assessed and the result was compared to hard data (the traffic situation information, petrol consumption and air pollution). The soft data was gathered using a comprehensive questionnaire which randomly distributed among 2000 automobile and pickup truck drivers in the central Tehran area who were at petrol stations to refuel their vehicles. The gathered data was then analyzed at two levels: descriptive and inferential. The results of this research reveal that according to the soft data, the smartcard project has resulted in a decline in traffic and petrol consumption and a rise in air pollution; furthermore, the positive cultural effects of this project have been comparatively prominent. The actual figures show that the project has led to lower traffic load and air pollution but petrol consumption remains the same as before.

  16. An attitude study on the environmental effects of rationing petrol in Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to assess the environmental effects of implementing petrol rationing and the issuance of fuel smartcards in central Tehran. The results and their application are significant from the perspective of preserving fuel sources and protecting the environment, both of which being among the goals of sustainable development. Through the analysis of soft data (owners of automobile and light pickup trucks attitude), 3 general hypotheses were assessed and the result was compared to hard data (the traffic situation information, petrol consumption and air pollution). The soft data was gathered using a comprehensive questionnaire which randomly distributed among 2000 automobile and pickup truck drivers in the central Tehran area who were at petrol stations to refuel their vehicles. The gathered data was then analyzed at two levels: descriptive and inferential. The results of this research reveal that according to the soft data, the smartcard project has resulted in a decline in traffic and petrol consumption and a rise in air pollution; furthermore, the positive cultural effects of this project have been comparatively prominent. The actual figures show that the project has led to lower traffic load and air pollution but petrol consumption remains the same as before. (author)

  17. Deliberate soft tissue injection of petrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiper, Jonathan D; Grant, Ian; Kay, Simon P

    2011-04-01

    We present a case report of self-inflicted injection of petrol into the antecubital fossa and buttocks. The presentation and subsequent management of these difficult and rare injuries is discussed. PMID:21220220

  18. TESTING TECHNIQUE OF MOTOR PETROL PHYSICAL STABILITY ESTIMATION AND FORECASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Boychenko

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  The technique of petrol physical stability assessment and forecasting was tested. The results of study aimed at investigation of modern motor petrols evaporability are presented in the article. The refractive index is shown to be useful tool in making prognosis about evaporation losses of motor petrol. The validation of this technique was conducted and recommendations are given on its application.

  19. Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market - end 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market (as at 31.12.94) are tabulated, with brand names and company names, areas of operation, and total numbers of retail petrol outlets displaying brand names, self-service sites, company-owned sites and outlets retailing Derv given. Statistics resulting from a retail marketing survey (1995) are listed and cover UK petrol sites from 1985-1994; motorway brands; a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets; UK outlets retailing derv; average UK prices for petrol and derv per litre; percentage of petrol sites per company (1994); number of company petrol sites as a percentage of total; number of outlets at hypermarkets/supermarkets; and vapour recovery sites. (UK)

  20. Electroencephalographic studies on petrol intoxication: comparison between nonleaded and leaded white petrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuo

    1973-01-01

    Saito, K. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 352-358. Electroencephalographic studies on petrol intoxication: comparison between nonleaded and leaded white petrol. The effect of nonleaded and leaded petrol on the brains of rats was studied electroencephalographically. Bipolar electrodes were implanted on the brain surface between the frontal and occipital lobes of the left hemisphere. The rats were divided into two groups and were given by intraperitoneal injection 1 ml of either nonleaded white petrol (WP) or leaded petrol (LP) containing 1 000 ppm of tetraethyl lead per 100 g body weight. The electrocorticogram was observed for 10 days and the lead content of the brain, liver, and kidney was estimated. The rats injected with leaded petrol showed excessive tension and excitement by the sixth or seventh day, and their body weight had diminished significantly by 10 days. One to three days after both LP and WP injection, the ?, ?, and ? waves decreased significantly but the electrocorticogram from six or seven days after LP injection showed marked ? and ? waves. The lead content in organs of the LP group was far greater than in those of the WP group and a correlation between the electrocorticogram and lead content was recognized. Images PMID:4753718

  1. Investigating Competition in the Retail Petrol Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.

    1984-01-01

    A questionnaire that college economics students can use to investigate the degree and nature of competition in the retail market for petrol is provided. A simple computer program is included to help in the analysis of the questionnaire. (Author/RM)

  2. Safety characteristics of ethanol / automotive petrol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, E.; Frobese, D.H. [Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Mitu, M.

    2006-12-15

    For exemplary mixtures of ethanol/automotive petrol mixtures which were prepared by mixing respective amounts of volumes (uncertainty of measurement 0.1 vol% absolute), the following safety characteristic data were determined: - auto ignition temperature (AIT) - lower explosion limit (LEL) - upper explosion limit (UEL) - flash point (FP) - maximum experimental safe gap (MESG) - upper explosion point (UEP) as well as - vapour pressure. (orig.)

  3. The complicated transition to competition in the petrol industry in Spain; La dificil conduccion de la competencia por el sector de las gasolinas en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdiguero, J.; Borrel, J. R.

    2007-07-01

    The Spanish petrol market has been deeply restructured. However, the results of two decades of liberalization are mixed. A more active policy of fostering and defending competition has been missing. Reform efforts in the sector and economic analyses of the markets have overwhelming been focussed on the upstream activities of manufacturing and wholesaling. By contrast, other activities of the sector are the ones that are constraining competition. Vertical relations between petrol major companies and petrol stations have a very significant impact on the process to achieve effective competition. And access to distribution essential facilities such as pipes is a necessary condition to open up the market to new operators. In Spain, transition to competition in the petrol industry has not taken enough care on restructuring vertical relations and access to essential facilities. (Author)

  4. The transfer and persistence of petrol on car carpets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh-Steer, K; Du Pasquier, E; Roux, C; Lennard, C

    2005-01-01

    The significance of the presence of petrol in motor vehicle fires has often been challenged due to the possibility of a natural occurrence of petrol residues inside the vehicle. Transfer and persistence studies were undertaken to investigate the potential transfer and persistence of petrol onto vehicle carpets through the 'normal' usage of motor vehicles. The results of the transfer study indicate that petrol may be transferred from the external environment in sufficient quantities via the shoes of drivers or passengers to be detected after a 24 h period, but not after 1 week. Low levels of petrol were detectable after 24 h on all carpet mats where the initial volume was 500 microL or more. The level of evaporation of the petrol detected increased with corresponding increases in the time period between transfer and analysis. The results of the persistence study indicate that small volumes of petrol (less than 100 microL) are unlikely to be detected on carpet after a 24 h period, and volumes of less than 1000 microL are unlikely to be detected on acoustic padding after this time period. Larger volumes may be detected after this period, but will generally not be detectable on either carpet or acoustic padding after 4 weeks. In each case, the petrol that is detected exhibits a chromatographic profile of greater than 60% evaporated petrol. These results demonstrate the significance of finding a large volume of fresh or slightly evaporated petrol on car carpet. PMID:15541594

  5. FUEL STATIONS BRAND POSITIONING PROCESS: AN APPLICATION WITH MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING ANALYSIS IN ISPARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didar BÜYÜKER İŞLER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil industry, one of the most prominent figures of energy market of Turkey, is also considered among driving powers behind the country’s economy. The competition among petrol stations in oil industry is quite profound both in local and global dimensions. It is of vital importance for petrol stations to set their strategies of brand positioning so that they can ensure consumer loyalty and brand continuity and attract new consumers. This study aims at identifying consumer perception regarding petrol stations through multidimensional scaling analysis in order to determine how petrol stations position their brands. To that end, the consumers were asked to evaluate the similarities and differences among five most known petrol station brands in Turkey with regards to some dimensions in consequence of the data acquired from the literature research. Thus, stations with great resemblance and those with no relevance were determined as a result of the study. Multidimensional scaling analysis allows petrol stations to conduct their own self-assessments in consideration of their positions in the market. It was found that for nearly all criteria consumers perceive Petrol Ofisi and Opet as brands which they never give preference to one another while other stations (Total, BP and Shell might be given preference to one another. However, Shell was perceived distinctively with only regards to its image/style and credit card offers.

  6. Petrol consumption and redistributive effects of its taxation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Asensio Ruiz de Alda, Francisco Javier

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate a petrol consumption function for Spain and to evaluate the redistributive effects of petrol taxation. We use micro data from the Spanish Household Budget Survey of 1990/91 and model petrol consumption taking into account the effect that income changes may have on car ownership levels, as well as the differences that exist between expenditure and consumption. Our results show the importance that household structure, place of residence and income have...

  7. Petrol with isotopically differentiated lead added

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment is proposed aimed at determining the role of motor traffic in the pollution of the environment by lead, in particular of air, soil, vegetation, food and the human body. The technique of determining the isotopic composition of lead, used in the right way, should enable the whole problem to be solved. It is intended to add lead with a constant isotopic composition different from that of normally occuring lead, whether natural in origin or otherwise, to petrol in at least two regions of Italy. Analyses of lead samples taken from the principal mines have shown that Australian lead (Broken Hill Mine) has quite a different isotopic composition. This lead will therefore be used to prepare the antiknock additives for petrol sold in the regions in question. Adequate sampling should make it possible to determine the contribution to pollution of lead from motor vehicle exhausts. The regions chosen for the experiment are Piedmont (city and province of Turin) and Sardinia (city and province of Cagliari) - the first because of its high traffic density and level of industrialization, the second because of its remoteness and the lead content of the soil, which may affect food. Both regions present favourable conditions for supplying petrol of the intended type. The experiment is intended to last three years; the petrol with Australian lead will be marketed for a period of 18 months. The first results of analyses of the isotopic composition of lead contained in atmospheric dust in the city of Turin and of lead from a number of blood samples are reported in the paper

  8. PETROL-INHALATION DEPENDENCE : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Pahwa, Madhu; Baweja, Aneesh; Gupta, Vinesh; Jiloha, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    Ms M. a 13 years old class III student presented with one year history of petrol fumes inhalation dependence and six months history of kerosene inhalation dependence. She liked the smell of fumes getting pleasant feeling of well-being and increased confidence. She though fulfilled all the criteria of inherent dependence differed from typical cases described in published reports. Like male preponderance and group activity, the prominent features of inhalation dependence were absent in our case.

  9. PETROL-INHALATION DEPENDENCE : A CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Madhu; Baweja, Aneesh; Gupta, Vinesh; Jiloha, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    Ms M. a 13 years old class III student presented with one year history of petrol fumes inhalation dependence and six months history of kerosene inhalation dependence. She liked the smell of fumes getting pleasant feeling of well-being and increased confidence. She though fulfilled all the criteria of inherent dependence differed from typical cases described in published reports. Like male preponderance and group activity, the prominent features of inhalation dependence were absent in our case. PMID:21494453

  10. The Health Impacts of Ethanol Blend Petrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Wood

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A measurement program designed to evaluate health impacts or benefits of using ethanol blend petrol examined exhaust and evaporative emissions from 21 vehicles representative of the current Australian light duty petrol (gasoline vehicle fleet using a composite urban emissions drive cycle. The fuels used were unleaded petrol (ULP, ULP blended with either 5% ethanol (E5 or 10% ethanol (E10. The resulting data were combined with inventory data for Sydney to determine the expected fleet emissions for different uptakes of ethanol blended fuel. Fleet ethanol compatibility was estimated to be 60% for 2006, and for the air quality modelling it was assumed that in 2011 over 95% of the fleet would be ethanol compatible. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from ULP, E5 and E10 emissions was studied under controlled conditions by the use of a smog chamber. This was combined with meteorological data from Sydney for February 2004 and the emission data (both measured and inventory data to model pollutant concentrations in Sydney’s airshed for 2006 and 2011. These concentrations were combined with the population distribution to evaluate population exposure to the pollutant. There is a health benefit to the Sydney population arising from a move from ULP to ethanol blends in spark-ignition vehicles. Potential health cost savings for Urban Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth are estimated to be A$39 million (in 2007 dollars for a 50% uptake (by ethanol compatible vehicles of E10 in 2006 and $42 million per annum for a 100% take up of E10 in 2011. Over 97% of the estimated health savings are due to reduced emissions of PM2.5 and consequent reduced impacts on mortality and morbidity (e.g., asthma, cardiovascular disease. Despite more petrol-driven vehicles predicted for 2011, the quantified health impact differential between ULP and ethanol fuelled vehicles drops from 2006 to 2011. This is because modern petrol vehicles, with lower emissions than their older counterparts, will make up a higher proportion of the fleet in the future. Hence the beneficial effects of reductions in particulate matter become less significant as the fleet as a whole produces lower emissions.

  11. Neurological and cognitive recovery following abstinence from petrol sniffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, Sheree; Maruff, Paul; Burns, Chris B; Currie, Jon; Currie, Bart J

    2005-05-01

    Anecdotal observations suggest that neurological impairments associated with petrol (gasoline) sniffing resolve with abstinence, although these effects have not been proven empirically. Severe exposure to leaded petrol may induce a lead encephalopathy that extends beyond any acute intoxication and requires emergency hospital treatment. Previously, in chronic petrol sniffers, we showed neurological, saccadic, and cognitive abnormalities that were more severe in petrol sniffers with a history of hospitalization for lead encephalopathy, and that correlated with blood lead levels and the length of time of sniffing petrol. Ex-petrol sniffers showed a qualitatively similar but quantitatively less severe pattern of impairment. Petrol sniffing was stopped completely in one of the study communities by modifying social, occupational, and recreational opportunities. After 2 years, we obtained biochemical and neurobehavioral (neurological, saccade, and cognitive) data from all available participants of the earlier study including 10 nonsniffers and 29 chronic petrol sniffers, with six of these individuals previously receiving hospital treatment for lead encephalopathy. Here, we report that blood lead was reduced and that neurobehavioral impairments improved, and in many cases normalized completely. The most severe petrol-related neurobehavioral impairment was observed among individuals who had longer histories of abuse and higher blood lead levels, and among petrol sniffers with a history of lead encephalopathy. Those with the greatest extent of neurobehavioral impairment showed the greatest degree of improvement with abstinence, but were less likely to recover completely. This is the first direct evidence that neurological and cognitive impairment from chronic petrol sniffing ameliorates with abstinence and may recover completely. PMID:15714227

  12. Fiber optical sensor for the determination of adulteration in petrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, L. M.; Srivastava, Atul K.; Shukla, Rajesh K.; Srivastava, Anchal

    1999-07-01

    The newly designed prism based fiber optical refractometer sensor has been used to determine adulteration in petrol. A procedure for identification of the adulterant and determination of its concentration in a sample of petrol has been reported. Substances like kerosene, diesel, a mixture of these two or of aviation gasoline and kerosene have been used as adulterants.

  13. Saccade dysfunction associated with chronic petrol sniffing and lead encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Cairney, S; Maruff, P; Burns, C.; Currie, J.; Currie, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In chronic petrol sniffers, recent exposure to high levels of leaded petrol may give rise to a lead encephalopathy characterised by tremor, chorea, ataxia, hyperreflexia, convulsive seizures, and death. Neurological abnormalities associated with lead encephalopathy involve the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and brain stem.

  14. Petrol sniffing in Aboriginal communities: a review of interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Sarah J; d'Abbs, Peter H N

    2002-03-01

    Petrol sniffing (and other forms of inhalant misuse) occur within some Aboriginal communities across Australia. However, there is little documented information about the nature and combination of interventions that are most effective in addressing it. This article reviews published and unpublished literature relevant to petrol sniffing in Australian Aboriginal communities. A range of strategies which have been trialled previously are discussed under the categories of primary, secondary and tertiary intervention. We have adopted Zinberg's schema of 'drug', 'set' and 'setting' in theorizing the mix of interventions most likely to reduce petrol sniffing. We argue that interventions should address as many as possible of these factors. Further, while no strategy is likely to succeed without strong support from local community members, governments also have an important role in addressing petrol sniffing. Consistent funding for strategies directly addressing petrol sniffing and co-ordinated government responses to the broader needs of Aboriginal young people and their communities are critical. PMID:12189006

  15. Quantification of ethanol in petrol-ethanol blends: use of Reichardt's E(T)(30) dye in introducing a petrol batch independent calibration procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Keshav; Mishra, Ashok Kumar

    2012-10-15

    Petroleum fuels are generally non-polar. The presence of ethanol in the petrol-ethanol fuel blends increases the polarity of the fuel blend. It was observed that absorption spectral shift of the Reichardt's E(T)(30) dye is sensitive to the petrol-ethanol blend polarity. It was also found that E(T)(30) dye has a characteristic ?(max) of absorption in petrol-ethanol blends irrespective of the petrol batch with which blends were prepared. In the present work, a sensitive analytical method for the petrol batch independent quantification of ethanol content in petrol-ethanol blends has been developed. PMID:23141358

  16. Idiosyncrasies in Australian petrol price behaviour: evidence of seasonalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been argued that there are certain idiosyncrasies in Australian petrol price behaviour. To the extent that these idiosyncrasies result in large magnitude differences in petrol prices, they may be exploited by consumers to significantly reduce their household expenditure on the product. Similarly, such seasonalities may influence retailers in their purchase and storage decision. The objective of this paper is to test for seasonalities in the Australian retail petrol market. The approach adopted is similar to that for determining calendar anomalies as documented in the financial and commodity markets literature. We find that a monthly seasonal effect is pronounced with petrol prices lower in the months of February-May and highest in July and August. A day-of-the-week effect is also apparent and is manifest in all petrol prices for capital cities (Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney) across various years. However, the half-month effect, as is common in stock returns, is not observed. Moreover, contrary to popular belief that petrol prices are higher surrounding holidays, no evidence of the holiday effect is found. In Brisbane and Melbourne, petrol prices also have some relationship to the mood of consumers, as proxied using weather conditions. This is not observed in Adelaide and Sydney. (Author)

  17. Occupational Exposure of Diesel Station Workers to BTEX Compounds at a Bus Depot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeesa Moolla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diesel fuel is known to emit pollutants that have a negative impact on environmental and human health. In developing countries like South Africa, attendants are employed to pump fuel for customers at service stations. Attendants refuel vehicles with various octane unleaded fuel, lead-replacement petrol and diesel fuel, on a daily basis. Attendants are at risk to adverse health effects associated with the inhalation of volatile organic compounds released from these fuels. The pollutants released include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX, which are significant due to their high level of toxicity. In this study, a risk assessment of BTEX was conducted at a diesel service station for public buses. Using Radiello passive samplers, it was found that benzene concentrations were above recommended international standards. Due to poor ventilation and high exposure duration, the average benzene concentration over the sampling campaign exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency’s chronic inhalation exposure reference concentration. Lifetime cancer risk estimation showed that on average there is a 3.78 × 10?4 cancer risk, corresponding to an average chronic daily intake of 1.38 × 10?3 mg/kg/day of benzene exposure. Additionally, there were incidences where individuals were at potential hazard risk of benzene and toluene that may pose non-carcinogenic effects to employees.

  18. Occupational exposure of diesel station workers to BTEX compounds at a bus depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Raeesa; Curtis, Christopher J; Knight, Jasper

    2015-04-01

    Diesel fuel is known to emit pollutants that have a negative impact on environmental and human health. In developing countries like South Africa, attendants are employed to pump fuel for customers at service stations. Attendants refuel vehicles with various octane unleaded fuel, lead-replacement petrol and diesel fuel, on a daily basis. Attendants are at risk to adverse health effects associated with the inhalation of volatile organic compounds released from these fuels. The pollutants released include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX), which are significant due to their high level of toxicity. In this study, a risk assessment of BTEX was conducted at a diesel service station for public buses. Using Radiello passive samplers, it was found that benzene concentrations were above recommended international standards. Due to poor ventilation and high exposure duration, the average benzene concentration over the sampling campaign exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's chronic inhalation exposure reference concentration. Lifetime cancer risk estimation showed that on average there is a 3.78 × 10-4 cancer risk, corresponding to an average chronic daily intake of 1.38 × 10-3 mg/kg/day of benzene exposure. Additionally, there were incidences where individuals were at potential hazard risk of benzene and toluene that may pose non-carcinogenic effects to employees. PMID:25872020

  19. The supply of petrol: a report on the supply in the United Kingdom of petrol by wholesale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report by the UK Monopolies and Mergers Commission on the supply of petrol examines the extent of vertical control within the industry and concludes that it is a competitive market. Topics covered include petrol prices, profits, petrol exchange agreements, wholesaler agreements with retailers, wholesalers' ownership of retail sites and control over prices and barriers to the entry to the market. In addition to concluding that none of the facts found operate against the public interest, some recommendations regarding the future are made. (UK)

  20. RESULTS OF PILOT RESEARCHES OF PETROL OIL FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko P. M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article we show the results of pilot studies of petrol and oil fractions, their main physical and chemical properties, density and DNP, a liquid phase, two-phase area, critical area and boundary curves

  1. PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS IN PETROL PUMP WORKERS IN CHITTOOR DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Bhide

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The main aim of the study was to assess the PFT in petrol pump workers who were exposed to petrol and diesel. In addition the effect of the duration of the service at the petrol pumps was also studied and these changes were compared with those of age matched healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprises of 60 petrol pump workers who were categorized into two groups depending on duration of exposure. Thirty healthy ages, non smoker males served as controls. Each subjects age, smoking habits, the duration of exposure and health conditions were recorded. Their PFT were studied at their work place by using computerized spirometer.2010 model parameters of PFT are FVC, TV, FEC, FEV/FC, FEF 25-75%, FEF 75-85%, PEF and MVV. RESULT: Results showed statistically significant decrease in the values of TV, FVC, FEV, FEF 25-75%, FEF 75- 85%, FEV/FC, PEF and MVV in petrol pump workers who have worked for more than 5 years when compared to control group. The result shows statistically decreased in value of TV, FVC, FEV1, FEF 25-75% and MVV in petrol pump workers who have worked for below 5 years when compared to control group. CONCLUSION: Petrol pump workers are continuously exposed to fuel vapours and automobile exhaust. The average duration of daily exposure is about 8 hrs/day. These pollutants affect even other organs in the body. In order to prevent lung damage in petrol pump workers awareness programmes should be conducted and also pre employment check up and periodic medical checkups which include pulmonary function tests should be conducted to detect any lung function impairment at the earliest.

  2. Succimer therapy for congenital lead poisoning from maternal petrol sniffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Suzanna T; Bolisetty, Srinivas; Wheaton, Gavin R

    2006-01-16

    An infant, born at 35 weeks' gestation to a woman who sniffed petrol, had a cord blood lead level eight times the accepted limit. Treatment with oral dimercaptosuccinic acid promptly reduced his blood lead levels. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal petrol sniffing. We suggest that at-risk pregnancies should be identified, cord blood lead levels tested, and chelation therapy and developmental follow-up offered to affected infants. PMID:16411875

  3. The mysterious practice of petrol sniffing in isolated indigenous groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, Sheree; Dingwall, Kylie

    2010-09-01

    The practice of petrol sniffing is a unique and poorly understood phenomenon that is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and social devastation in affected remote Indigenous communities. For these groups and for the wider community, much mystery has surrounded the practice and its effects. Here we introduce the epidemiology of petrol sniffing among Indigenous groups internationally, review its impact on the brain, behaviour and social functions and summarise related interventions. PMID:20854322

  4. Effects of Gasoline Inhalation on Menstrual Characteristics and the Hormonal Profile of Female Petrol Pump Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher E. Ekpenyong; Koofreh Davies; Nyebuk Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of young women are employed as gasoline station attendants in most developing countries despite the lack of empirical data on the adverse reproductive health effect of this solvent. This study therefore sought to assess the effects of gasoline inhalation on the serum sex hormone profile and menstrual characteristics of female gasoline station attendants in Nigeria, given the global increase in the rate of infertility and the existing evidence on the reproductive toxicity ...

  5. NF EN 228. - Automotive fuels. - Unleaded petrol. - Requirements and test methods; NF EN 228. - Carburants pour automobiles. - Essence sans plomb. - Exigences et methodes d'essai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    This standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered unleaded petrol. It is applicable to unleaded petrol for use in petrol engine vehicles designed to run on unleaded petrol.

  6. Health Risk Assessment of Ambient Air Concentrations of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene (BTX in Service Station Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Edokpolo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive evaluation of the adverse health effects of human exposures to BTX from service station emissions was carried out using BTX exposure data from the scientific literature. The data was grouped into different scenarios based on activity, location and occupation and plotted as Cumulative Probability Distributions (CPD plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ at 50% (CEXP50 and 95% (CEXP95 exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 > 1 were obtained with benzene in the scenario for service station attendants and mechanics repairing petrol dispensing pumps indicating a possible health risk. The risk was minimized for service stations using vapour recovery systems which greatly reduced the benzene exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 were obtained for all other scenarios with benzene suggesting minimal risk for most of the exposed population. However, HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 was also found with toluene and xylene for all scenarios, suggesting minimal health risk. The lifetime excess Cancer Risk (CR and Overall Risk Probability for cancer on exposure to benzene was calculated for all Scenarios and this was higher amongst service station attendants than any other scenario.

  7. Study of cluster formation in petrol pitch by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural and magnetic properties of the iron containing clusters in petrol pitchs (JCCP), produced by mixing of petrol pitch's matrix with iron carbonyl complex, was studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. (orig.)

  8. Study of cluster formation in petrol pitch by Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arents, R. A.; Maksimov, Yu. V.; Suzdalev, I. P.; Trusov, V. V.; Djakonov, A. Yu.; Semenov, I. P.; Americ, Yu. B.

    1990-07-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of the iron containing clusters in petrol pitchs (JCCP), produced by mixing of petrol pitch's matrix with iron carbonyl complex, was studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements.

  9. Correlation between petrol lead additive consumption and atmospheric lead concentrations in Perth, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, B. H.; Cameron, I.; Martin, D. J.

    The impact of unleaded petrol (ULP), and the variation in lead (Pb) content of leaded petrol (LP), on air quality in Perth, Western Australia, has been assessed using correlations between atmospheric Pb concentrations and petrol Pb consumption figures for the period 1982-1987 during which ULP was introduced in 1985. The study underlines the importance of taking into account the variability in the Pb content of LP when predicting atmospheric lead concentrations from petrol consumption data.

  10. Emissions of VOCs at urban petrol retail distribution centres in India (Delhi and Mumbai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali; Joseph, A E; More, Ajit; Patil, Sunil

    2005-10-01

    Air pollution has assumed gigantic proportion killing almost half a million Asians every year. Urban pollution mainly comprises of emissions from buses, trucks, motorcycle other forms of motorized transport and its supporting activities. As Asia's cities continue to expand the number of vehicles have risen resulting in greater pollution. Fugitive emissions from retail distribution center in urban area constitute a major source. Petrol vapours escape during refueling adding pollutants like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene to ambient air. This paper discusses a study on fugitive emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) at some refueling station in two metropolitan cities of India, i.e., Mumbai and Delhi. Concentration of VOCs in ambient air at petrol retail distribution center is estimated by using TO-17 method. Concentration of benzene in ambient air in Delhi clearly shows the effect of intervention in use of petroleum and diesel fuel and shift to CNG. Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model is used to estimate source contributions. At Delhi besides diesel combustion engines, refueling emissions are also major sources. At Mumbai evaporative emissions are found to contribute maximum to Total VOC (TVOC) concentration in ambient air. PMID:16240200

  11. Multipronged evaluation of genotoxicity in Indian petrol-pump workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Alok K; Bajpayee, Mahima; Parmar, Devendra; Kumar, Rakesh; Rastogi, Subodh K; Mathur, Neeraj; Thorning, Paul; de Matas, Marcel; Shao, Qun; Anderson, Diana; Dhawan, Alok

    2008-12-01

    Petrol (gasoline) contains a number of toxicants. This study used human biomonitoring to evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to benzene in petrol fumes in 100 Indian petrol-pump workers (PPWs) and an equal number of controls. The study was corroborated with in silico assessments of the Comet assay results from the human biomonitoring study. An in vitro study in human lymphocytes was also conducted to understand the genotoxicity of benzene and its metabolites. In a subset of the population studied, higher blood benzene levels were detected in the PPWs (n = 39; P benzene > catechol > 1,2,4,-benzenetriol > muconic acid. This study demonstrates that, using sensitive techniques, it is possible to detect human health risks at an early stage when intervention is possible. possible. PMID:18800353

  12. Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

  13. Modelling how much extra motorists pay on the road? A cross-sectional study of profit margins of unleaded petrol in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross profitability margin (difference between retail and wholesale prices) for unleaded petrol exhibits substantial variations across 108 cities, towns and regional centres in Australia. This paper examines if such variations (averaged during 2007–2012) can be explained by (a) transport costs proxied by the distance between retailers and wholesalers; (b) the size of the retail market; (c) market competition proxied by the number of cars in the vicinity of the retailers; (d) dummy variables capturing other qualitative attributes associated with the retailers’ locations. Three cross-sectional regressions are estimated but only one successfully passes all diagnostic tests. By identifying a number of locations exhibiting excessive profit margins, the results of this paper enhance the efficiency and transparency of petrol pricing in the retail market. It is found that the extent of excessive profiteering in Western Australia (WA) and South Australia (SA) were lower than other Australian states and territories. This important finding can be explained by a strong presence of independent petrol stations in SA and the successful price-monitoring performance of FuelWatch in WA. - Highlights: • We examine the profit margin for petrol across 108 retail locations in Australia. • No evidence of excessive profiteering was found in 76 out of 108 retail locations. • There are 13 locations in which the likelihood of abnormal margins is quite high. • Regulatory bodies have limited resources so they should target these locations

  14. Karadeniz’de Petrol Alanlar?n?n Gemi Trafi?ine Olan Etkisi ve Petrol Kirlili?i Riskleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersan Ba?ar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Karadeniz gemi trafi?inin yo?un oldu?u ve 6 k?y?da? ülkenin ihracat ve ithalat?nda kulland??? bir denizdir. Bu su alan? deniz ticareti ile birlikte deniz canl? kaynaklar?ndan yo?un olarak yararlan?lan ekonomik ve ekolojik de?eri yüksek olan bir yerdir. Son y?llarda Karadeniz’in ula??m ve canl? kaynaklar? yan? s?ra yer alt? kaynaklar? da önem te?kil etmi?tir. Özellikle petrol arama çal??malar?na önem verilmi?tir. Petrol arama alanlar? gemi trafi?inin yo?un oldu?u Karadeniz’in kuzey güney geçi? alanlar?nda bulunmas? platform ve gemi kaza risklerini art?rmaktad?r. Ayn? zamanda platformlardan kaynaklanabilecek bir kaza sonras?nda da??lacak olan petrol çevresel aç?dan önemli riskler ve sorunlar do?uraca?? gerçektir. Yap?lan çal??mada, Karadeniz’deki petrol arama alanlar?ndaki gemi trafik rotalar? belirlenmi? ve bu rotalar? üzerindeki riskli alanlar ortaya koyulmu?tur. Daha sonra bu bölgelerde olu?abilecek bir platform gemi kazas? akabinde olu?acak petrol da??l?m? alan? ve bütçesi simülasyon yolu ile tespit edilmi?tir. Gemi trafi?i aç?s?ndan ba?ta Sinop ve Ere?li aç?klar?, riskli alanlar olu?turdu?u anla??lm??t?r. Petrol kirlili?i aç?s?ndan ise en önemli risk alanlar? Batum cayrosu etkisinde kalan güney do?u Karadeniz k?y?lar? ile Kefken k?y?lar? olarak tespit edilmi?tir.

  15. Ham petrol fiyatlar?n?n ANFIS ile tahmini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O?uz KAYNAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ekonomik kalk?nman?n temel a??rl?kl? girdisini olu?turan ve halen dünyadaki en önemli enerji kayna?? olma özelli?ini koruyan petrol, do?rudan ya da dolayl? olarak tüm sektörleri etkilemektedir. Bu nedenle petrol piyasas?nda ve dolay?s?yla fiyat?nda ortaya ç?kan de?i?iklikler, olu?turduklar? zincirleme reaksiyonlar arac?l??? ile hem ülke, hem de dünya ekonomisi üzerinde çe?itli etkiler yaratmaktad?r. Karma??k dinamiklerinden dolay?, oldukça de?i?ken ve etkile?imli bir yap?ya sahip petrol piyasas?nda gelece?e yönelik etkili planlar yapmak için do?ru ve güvenilir tahminlere gereksinim vard?r. Bu çal??mada orta ve uzun vadeli petrol fiyatlar?n? tahmin etmek amac?yla bulan?k ç?kar?m sistemleriyle yapay sinir a?lar?n?n birle?iminden olu?an ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System kullan?lm??t?r.

  16. Safety characteristics of ethanol / automotive petrol mixtures - additional information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, E.; Frobese, D.H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Mitu, M.

    2007-09-15

    Triggered by new developments in the composition of ethanol/petrol fuels (ethanol content >85 vol%) additional measurements of the maximum experimental safe gap (MESG) have been carried out. The aim of the work was to identify the ethanol concentration in the liquid mixture for which the MESG (determined at a vapour/gas mixture temperature of 50 C) becomes 0.9 mm and lower. The vapour phase composition used for these determinations was the equilibrium composition over the liquid fuel mixtures at 50 C. The liquid mixtures were prepared from respective amounts of volumes of petrol and ethanol (uncertainty of volume measurement 0.1 vol% absolute). The automotive petrol fuels used for this purpose were of unleaded petrol super grade summer quality (Eurosuper ROZ 95) which are commercially available and had a Reid vapour pressure between 580 mbar and 595 mbar (EN 228: climate zone A). For conservative conditions, summer quality was chosen because of its lower vapour pressure compared to winter quality. (orig.)

  17. A novel possible strategy for the management of petrol sniffing addiction in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mosallai, Sharif

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1950s there have been many reports on petrol addiction, mostly describing the practice of petrol sniffing and its acute and chronic physical and psychological effects. To the authors' knowledge, none have described the use of opiates to manage and control this addiction. We report the case of an 18-year-old boy who self-managed his petrol addiction. He had been inhalant sniffing since the age of 5 and petrol sniffing since the age of 15, and had undergone different treatments in unsuccessful efforts to break his addiction. However, he has now stopped sniffing petrol after taking tramadol 100 mg/day and methadone 10 mg/day. This case report suggests that tramadol and methadone can be used for the management of petrol addiction. PMID:22798434

  18. Relation between lead in air and in petrol in two urban areas of Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattenden, N. J.; Branson, J. R.

    The recent reduction in the lead content of petrol in the United Kingdom, following government legislation, has been used to investigate the relationship between lead in petrol and in outside air in urban environments. In parts of London and Manchester, the airborne lead concentration closely followed the petrol lead concentration, within a time resolution of about 1 month. These results indicate that, in these areas, the petrol lead content has a fairly direct and prompt effect on the urban air lead concentration, i.e. any environmental lead reservoirs in the pathway from petrol to air (and hence to man by inhalation) are not significant on this timescale. A small component of the airborne lead, apparently independent of the petrol lead, was also observed.

  19. Dermal lesions after post mortem petrol-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bux, R; Stengel, P D; Schnabel, A

    2006-11-10

    The effect of post mortem contact of the skin with petrol was investigated in 18 corpses with exposure times between 10 min and 24 h. The earliest onset of skin changes was observed within 2 h of exposure. They consisted of swelling and wrinkling with detachment of the upper layers of the skin (positive Nikolski's sign). Histologically the lesions appeared as non-vital acantholyses located in the prickle-cell layer with formation of intra-epidermal bullae. An influence of age and sex could be excluded, the earlier onset of lesions at 22 degrees C than at 4 degrees C was not statistically significant. These findings prove that post mortem petrol exposure may lead to dermal lesions. PMID:16376503

  20. Petrol with octane number 91 and 98 will disappear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Next or may be already this year Petrol with octane number 91 and 98 will disappear from the market of the Slovak Republic. A final deadline has not been set yet. According to an explanation provided by deputy general manager for refinery and marketing of Slovnaft, a.s., Bratislava, Bela Kelemen the reason for this decision is lack of interest drivers show for this type of fuel. The consumption of diesel, on the other hand, is growing rapidly. According to representatives of Slovnaft the balance between offer and demand is tense in case of diesel, petroleum and the most used petrol with octane number 95. In their opinion this is caused mainly by the cold weather

  1. Implementation of Turbocharger in Petrol Engines and its Thermal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Swapnil Bhurat, Amit Yadav , Atreya pathak

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we have discussed about turbocharging of four stroke petrol engine, difference between turbocharging of diesel and gasoline engine and possibilities to reduce losses in Exhaust system are highlighted. However, it omits to discuss two stroke engines due to their different gas exchange processes. Designing of different components involved in turbocharging is done and thermal analysis of turbocharger’s connector pipehas been done along with different kind of stress analysis.

  2. Sharp increase in petrol prices and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current increase in energy prices may be seen as good news for climate change by creating a reduction in energy consumption and therefore emissions of CO2. This study uses the GEMINI-E3 model to analyse the impact of a sharp increase in petrol prices on the world economy and on climate change. The effects of the increase are compared with those of policies for reducing greenhouse gases. (authors)

  3. REGIONAL ASPECTS OF BOURGAS-ALEXANDROUPOLIS PETROL PIPELINE

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin KALINKOV

    2010-01-01

    The following scientific research discusses issues, connected to the construction of the Bourgas-Alexandroupolis petrol pipeline, from the point of view of the energy policy of the European Union (EU). The established relations between the EU and Russia lead to a demand for alternative opportunities for the construction of such infrastructure. The Bourgas-Alexandroupolis pipeline is the only infrastructural facility in this region that passes only through the territory of countries that are a...

  4. Implementation of Turbocharger in Petrol Engines and its Thermal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Bhurat, Amit Yadav , Atreya pathak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have discussed about turbocharging of four stroke petrol engine, difference between turbocharging of diesel and gasoline engine and possibilities to reduce losses in Exhaust system are highlighted. However, it omits to discuss two stroke engines due to their different gas exchange processes. Designing of different components involved in turbocharging is done and thermal analysis of turbocharger’s connector pipehas been done along with different kind of stress analysis.

  5. Condição coclear e do sistema olivococlear medial de frentistas de postos de gasolina expostos a solventes orgânicos / Cochlear condition and olivocochlear system of gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lenita da Silva, Quevedo; Tania Maria, Tochetto; Márcia do Amaral, Siqueira.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Solventes orgânicos são cada vez mais estudados em função de sua ação ototóxica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a condição das células ciliadas externas e o sistema olivococlear medial de sujeitos expostos a solventes orgânicos. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo. Foram avaliados 78 frentistas [...] de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (RS) expostos a solventes orgânicos. Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, a amostra ficou constituída por 24 sujeitos. Os procedimentos utilizados na avaliação foram anamnese audiológica, Emissões Otoacústicas Transientes (EOAT) e pesquisa do efeito supressor das EOAT. Um grupo controle (GC) composto por 23 sujeitos, foi utilizado para comparar sujeitos expostos e não-expostos. A coleta de dados foi realizada na sala de Fonoaudiologia do Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador de Santa Maria. RESULTADOS: A presença de EOAT foi maior na orelha esquerda em ambos os grupos; a média da relação sinal/ruído das EOAT de ambas as orelhas foi maior no GE; o efeito supressor das EOAT na orelha direita foi maior nos sujeitos do GE (62,5%) e na orelha esquerda foi superior no GC (86,96%), com diferença estatisticamente significante. A mediana da relação sinal/ruído das EOAT, segundo a faixa de frequência, foi maior no GC em três faixas de frequência na orelha direita e em uma na orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: Não foram encontrados sinais de alteração nas células ciliadas externas nem no sistema olivococlear medial nos sujeitos expostos a solventes orgânicos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Organic solvents have been increasingly studied due to its ototoxic action. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the conditions of outer hair cells and olivocochlear system in individuals exposed to organic solvents. METHOD: This is a prospective study. 78 gas station attendants exposed to organic solv [...] ents had been evaluated from three gas stations from Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul (RS). After applying the inclusion criteria, the sample was constituted by 24 individuals. The procedures used on the evaluation were audiological anamnesis, Transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAES) and research for the suppressive effect of TEOAES. A group control (GC) compounded by 23 individuals was compared to individuals exposed and non-exposed individuals. The data collection has been done in the room of Speech Therapy of Workers Health Reference Center of Santa Maria. RESULTS: The TEOAES presence was major in the left ear in both groups; the average relation of TEOAES signal/noise in both ears was greater in GE; the TEOAES suppressive effect in the right ear was higher in the individual of GE (62,5%) and in the left ear was superior in GC (86,96%), with statistically significant difference. The median sign/noise ratio of TEOAES, according to the frequency range, it was higher in GC in three frequencies ranges in the right ear and one in the left ear. CONCLUSION: It was not found signs of alteration on the outer hair cells neither on the olivocochlear medial system in the individuals exposed to organic solvents.

  6. Optical sensor for the determination of adulteration in petrol: design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor, Kamal; Sinha, R. K.; Varshney, Anshu D.; Kumar, Vinit

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we report design and development of optical sensor for the determination of adulteration in petrol using optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR). OTDR is generally used to find out fault in optical fibers but we effectively use this technique for the determination of the percentage of adulteration in petrol. This OTDR method enables detection of adulteration in petrol very accurately. The OTDR measurement method reported in this paper is easy to carry out and also a cost effective tool for the determination of adulteration in petrol.

  7. In one step from sugar to petrol; In een stap van suiker naar benzine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gool, J.

    2008-07-01

    The American company Virent Energy has the technology to convert watery currents of plant sugars into petrol and petrol blending components in a 1-step process. A major advantage of this bio-petrol is that it can be fully blended with petrol from fossil fuels. Shell has recently expanded its cooperation with Virent to upscale the process. [mk]. [Dutch] Het Amerikaanse bedrijf Virent Energy Systems kan waterige stromen van plantensuikers in een 1-stapsproces omzetten in benzine en benzinemengcomponenten. Groot voordeel van deze biobenzine is dat ze volledig kan worden bijgemengd bij benzine uit fossiele brandstoffen. Shell heeft onlangs de samenwerking met Virent verlengd om het proces op te schalen.

  8. Ten-year Brisbane experience in petrol burns: a preventable health burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, J; Cheng, E S; Pegg, S P

    2006-08-01

    Petrol is one of the most widely used and freely available fuels in use in developed countries today. This study examines the clinical details and demographics of adults with petrol burns over a 10-year period with a view to identifying any trends. The majority of petrol burns were due to human error and thus theoretically preventable. This study determined that the young male (aged 16-25) is most at risk, mainly through the misuse of petrol. The best method of prevention of these burns might be education targeting this group of population. This study provides a basis upon which effective intervention programmes can be designed. PMID:16725263

  9. Compare the combustion of CNG engine with that of petrol engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di, M.Y.; Yao, Y. [Hebei Normal Univ., Shijiazhuang (China); Yao, W.Y [Beijing Univ., Beijing (China). Physics College

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted in which the combustion of a compressed natural gas (CNG) engine was compared with that of a petrol engine. Studies have shown that vehicles of natural gas (VNG) emit fewer exhaust gases. Recently, many petrol engine vehicles have been modified to CNG/petrol bi-fuel engines or mono-fuel CNG engines. Research indicates that in order to achieve low emission, petrol engine should not be changed to VNGs. Modified petrol engines cannot advance the compression ratio, intake system and igniting system. The combustion in a CNG engine and petrol engine is a premixed turbulent combustion. The flame burning velocity, combustion delay period and the heating value of charge are different. Therefore, burning CNG in a petrol engine or CNG/petrol bi-fuel engine has no advantage. The study showed that instead, it would be more economical to design natural gas engines to perform with more power and fewer emissions. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. A novel possible strategy for the management of petrol sniffing addiction in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    GHANIZADEH, Ahmad; Mosallai, Sharif

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1950s there have been many reports on petrol addiction, mostly describing the practice of petrol sniffing and its acute and chronic physical and psychological effects. To the authors’ knowledge, none have described the use of opiates to manage and control this addiction.

  11. Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in unleaded petrol and diesel exhaust emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vinay Kumar; Prasad, Sahdeo; Patel, Devendra K; Khan, Altaf Husain; Tripathi, Madhu; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2010-09-01

    Inhalation of emissions from petrol and diesel exhaust particulates is associated with potentially severe biological effects. In the present study, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified from smokes released by the automobile exhaust from petrol and diesel. Intensive sampling of unleaded petrol and diesel exhaust were done by using 800-cm(3) motor car and 3,455-cm(3) vehicle, respectively. The particulate phase of exhaust was collected on Whatman filter paper. Particulate matters were extracted from filter paper by using Soxhlet. PAHs were identified from particulate matter by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography using C(18) column. A total of 14 PAHs were identified in petrol and 13 in case of diesel sample after comparing to standard samples for PAH estimation. These inhalable PAHs released from diesel and petrol exhaust are known to possess mutagenic and carcinogenic activity, which may present a potential risk for the health of inhabitants. PMID:19629732

  12. Heterotopic ossification of the elbows in a major petrol burn

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, Shahriar Raj

    2012-01-01

    A case of a young man who developed heterotopic ossification (HO) in his elbows following an accident where he sustained petrol burns to over 60% of his body. His injuries necessitated intubation, escharotomies and a protracted intensive care unit stay that was complicated by septicaemia. Several weeks after the injury, he was diagnosed with HO in his right elbow, followed by the left elbow a week later. He was commenced on an non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, a long-term course of a bisp...

  13. Petrol and Crude Oil Prices: Asymmetric Price Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Wlazlowski, Szymon

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between crude oil prices, the dollar-pound exchange rate and petrol prices in the UK over the period 1982-2001. Quantitative methods were used to examine the existence of the long-run equilibrium and test for the presence of asymmetric patterns in the short-run responses to upstream price changes. Also the degree of asymmetry in the adjustment towards long-run equilibrium was analysed. Results confirm that short-run response is greater for increases in ups...

  14. Petrol and gas: an opportunity for the Arab countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 17 February 2006 the Institute of the Arab World (IMA) and the Franco-Arab Chamber of Commerce (CCFA) jointly organised a symposium on ''Petrol and Gas, an Opportunity for the Arab countries?''. The preparatory work had been initiated by M. Yves Guena, President of IMA and M. Serge Boidevaix, President of CCFA, with Dr Saleh Al Tayar, the Secretary-General of CCFA. An audience of more than one hundred, made up of experts, professional management, senior company directors and journalists participated. (author)

  15. Petrol and gas: an opportunity for the Arab countries?; Petrole et gaz: une chance pour les pays arabes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Al Tayar; Sarkis, N.; Appert, O.; Boisseau, Ph.; Perrin, F.; Dauger, J.M.; Pochettino, N.; Chevalier, J.M.; Benkhadra, A.; Thevenot, N

    2006-04-15

    On 17 February 2006 the Institute of the Arab World (IMA) and the Franco-Arab Chamber of Commerce (CCFA) jointly organised a symposium on ''Petrol and Gas, an Opportunity for the Arab countries?''. The preparatory work had been initiated by M. Yves Guena, President of IMA and M. Serge Boidevaix, President of CCFA, with Dr Saleh Al Tayar, the Secretary-General of CCFA. An audience of more than one hundred, made up of experts, professional management, senior company directors and journalists participated. (author)

  16. REGIONAL ASPECTS OF BOURGAS-ALEXANDROUPOLIS PETROL PIPELINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin KALINKOV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following scientific research discusses issues, connected to the construction of the Bourgas-Alexandroupolis petrol pipeline, from the point of view of the energy policy of the European Union (EU. The established relations between the EU and Russia lead to a demand for alternative opportunities for the construction of such infrastructure. The Bourgas-Alexandroupolis pipeline is the only infrastructural facility in this region that passes only through the territory of countries that are all members of the EU (Bulgaria and Greece. This is a circumstance that definitely makes petrol deliveries more secure. On the other hand the accomplishment of the project needs many regional ecological problems to have been solved beforehand. That’s why the research’s author suggests that such major investment projects of international significance are to be approved in advance by the countries from the Black sea area. Such a preliminary decision would be a guarantee for preserving the sustainable development of the Black sea.

  17. Ignition study of a petrol/CNG single cylinder engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N.; Saleem, Z.; Mirza, A. A.

    2005-11-01

    Benefits of laser ignition over the electrical ignition system for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engines have fuelled automobile industry and led to an extensive research on basic characteristics to switch over to the emerging technologies. This study was undertaken to determine the electrical and physical characteristics of the electric spark ignition of single cylinder petrol/CNG engine to determine minimum ignition requirements and timeline of ignition events to use in subsequent laser ignition study. This communication briefly reviews the ongoing research activities and reports the results of this experimental study. The premixed petrol and CNG mixtures were tested for variation of current and voltage characteristics of the spark with speed of engine. The current magnitude of discharge circuit was found to vary linearly over a wide range of speed but the stroke to stroke fire time was found to vary nonlinearly. The DC voltage profiles were observed to fluctuate randomly during ignition process and staying constant in rest of the combustion cycle. Fire to fire peaks of current amplitudes fluctuated up to 10% of the peak values at constant speed but increased almost linearly with increase in speed. Technical barriers of laser ignition related to threshold minimum ignition energy, inter-pulse durations and firing sequence are discussed. Present findings provide a basic initiative and background information for designing suitable timeline algorithms for laser ignited leaner direct injected CNG engines.

  18. Lead decline in the Indian environment resulting from the petrol-lead phase-out programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Amit Kumar [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226 007 (India); Singh, Munendra [Department of Geology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226 007 (India)

    2006-09-15

    Recently, the lead content of various environmental components has decreased in response to replacement of leaded petrol by unleaded petrol. In India, 15 research studies are here assessed with respect to lead concentrations in various environmental components during the leaded petrol phase (before 1996), the transitional phase (1996-2000) and the unleaded petrol phase (2000 onwards). The Ganga River Water exhibited a decrease in lead concentration from 18.0 {mu}g/l in 1988 to 3.1 {mu}g/l in 2001. In Lucknow urban centre, mean lead concentrations in the urban air decreased from 1.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in 1994 to 0.2 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in 2002. Lead concentrations in Dalbergia sissoo tree leaves also decreased from 18.7 {mu}g/g dry wt. in 1994 to 8.3 {mu}g/g dry wt. in 2004. Mean blood-lead levels of children from Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Amritsar and Lucknow urban centres have fallen from 18.1 {mu}g/dl in the leaded petrol phase to 12.1 {mu}g/dl in the unleaded petrol phase. The petrol-lead phase-out effort in India has reduced lead concentrations in the various environmental components after 2000. It will help to reduce the exposure of millions of people to environmental lead. (author)

  19. Lead decline in the Indian environment resulting from the petrol-lead phase-out programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, Munendra

    2006-09-15

    Recently, the lead content of various environmental components has decreased in response to replacement of leaded petrol by unleaded petrol. In India, 15 research studies are here assessed with respect to lead concentrations in various environmental components during the leaded petrol phase (before 1996), the transitional phase (1996-2000) and the unleaded petrol phase (2000 onwards). The Ganga River Water exhibited a decrease in lead concentration from 18.0 microg/l in 1988 to 3.1 microg/l in 2001. In Lucknow urban centre, mean lead concentrations in the urban air decreased from 1.6 microg/m(3) in 1994 to 0.2 microg/m(3) in 2002. Lead concentrations in Dalbergia sissoo tree leaves also decreased from 18.7 microg/g dry wt. in 1994 to 8.3 microg/g dry wt. in 2004. Mean blood-lead levels of children from Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Amritsar and Lucknow urban centres have fallen from 18.1 microg/dl in the leaded petrol phase to 12.1 microg/dl in the unleaded petrol phase. The petrol-lead phase-out effort in India has reduced lead concentrations in the various environmental components after 2000. It will help to reduce the exposure of millions of people to environmental lead. PMID:16764909

  20. Modelling the Price of Unleaded Petrol in Australia’s Capital Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Valadkhani

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run and short-run determinants of unleaded petrol price in Australia’s capitalcities using monthly data to find out whether prices respond asymmetrically to external shocks. Based on thecointegration test results and the estimated asymmetric short-run dynamic models, it is found that: (1) in thelong-run petrol prices are mainly determined by Tapis crude oil and Singapore petrol prices; (2) there issome evidence of asymmetric price adjustments in the short-run sinc...

  1. Data Mining System For Quality Prediction Of Petrol Using Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Omowumi O. Adeyemo; Adenike O Osofisan; Ebunoluwa P. Fashina; Kayode Otubu

    2012-01-01

    The increasing cry of the masses over poor quality of petroleum products most especially petrol has poised researchers and refinery engineers to devise a way of telling the class of quality of products expected from a sample crude oil without having to refine it. To this end, a system that can predict the quality and class of petrol expected from a sample crude oil is desired. Getting such accurate predictions for the class and hence the quality of petrol however can be tasking for humans. Th...

  2. Personal Care Attendant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinal Cord Injury Personal Care Attendant InfoSheet 6 Level - All Audiences I NTRODUCTION Between 40 and 45 percent of individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) need personal assistance with some daily activities [1]. It is ...

  3. Heat storage for a bus petrol internal-combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.; Burak, Victor S.; Kulakov, Andry G.; Mishkinis, Donatas A.; Bohan, Pavel V.

    The heat storage (HS) system for pre-heating a bus petrol internal combustion engine to starting was mathematically modelled and experimentally investigated. The development of such devices is an extremely urgent problem especially for regions with a cold climate. We discuss how HS works on the effect of absorption and rejection of heat energy at a solid-liquid phase change of a HS substance. In the first part of the paper a numerical method to calculate the HS mass-dimensional parameters and their characteristics are described. In the experimental part of the paper results are given of experiments on the pre-heating device aiding to start a carburettor engine under operational conditions and analysis of data received. Practical confirmation of the theoretical development of HS devices for a bus engine for starting by pre-heating is given.

  4. Heterotopic ossification of the elbows in a major petrol burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Shahriar Raj

    2012-01-01

    A case of a young man who developed heterotopic ossification (HO) in his elbows following an accident where he sustained petrol burns to over 60% of his body. His injuries necessitated intubation, escharotomies and a protracted intensive care unit stay that was complicated by septicaemia. Several weeks after the injury, he was diagnosed with HO in his right elbow, followed by the left elbow a week later. He was commenced on an non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, a long-term course of a bisphosphonate and regular physiotherapy. He is now waiting for the HO bone to mature before having definitive excision of his lesions in 12-18 months time. PMID:22927269

  5. Phenol oxidation of petrol refinery wastewater catalyzed by Laccase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid-state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries) have been evaluated in both systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 u/ml) was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 u/ml) was achieved in a submerged system, containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The Laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of Laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant

  6. A distinguishing method of different petrol by fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dachao; Zhu, Rui; Wu, Peng; Pang, Kai; Wu, Jianwei; Zeng, Zhoumo; Xu, Kexin

    2013-03-01

    To realize the online, rapid distinguishing of different petrol in transportation pipelines, a method based on fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance (FO-SPR) sensor is proposed. The calculation and simulation of FO-SPR end-reflection structure were carried out through fiber theoretical model and SPR principle. The impact of different parameters on sensor performance was analyzed. According to the optimized structure parameters, the FO-SPR sensor was manufactured. A wavelength modulation optical measurement system with FO-SPR sensor was established. Sample petrol of 90#, 93# and 97# and their mixture were measured. Different types of petrol were distinguished through the changes of the resonance wavelength. The experiment results showed that the measurement method could distinguish different petrol and had a good degree of distinction and repeatability. It lays the foundation for the identification of mixed product oil in transportation pipelines.

  7. CUSTOMERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS PETROL PUMPS IN KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramalexmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Retail of Petrol is one of the largest segmentsof retail trade in India. The Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs are present in every nook and corner of the country through its retailers of Indian Oil Corporation, Bharat Petroleum Corporation and Hindustan Petroleum Corporation. Government permitted private and foreign companies to undertake retail marketing of petrol, diesel and Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF in the country. So, there is severe competition to sell the petroleum products. In order to satisfy the customers and to increase the revenue of the oil companies, Indiarecognizes the potential in converting the petrol pumps into a retail chain. They feel that the non-fuel revenue from retailing activity is a blessing. This paper focuses on the level of expectation and perception of respondents towards petrol retail outlets in Kanyakumari District.It also offers suitable suggestions for the improvement of the retail outlets.

  8. Combining synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy with multivariate methods for the analysis of petrol-kerosene mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, O; Mishra, Ashok K

    2007-04-15

    Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) is a rapid, sensitive and nondestructive method suitable for the analysis of multifluorophoric mixtures. The present study demonstrates the use of SFS and multivariate methods for the analysis of petroleum products which is a complex mixture of multiple fluorophores. Two multivariate techniques principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square regression (PLSR) have been successfully applied for the classification of petrol-kerosene mixtures. Calibration models were constructed using 35 samples and their validation was carried out with varying composition of petrol and kerosene in the calibration range. The results showed that the method could be used for the estimation of kerosene in kerosene-mixed petrol. The model was found to be sensitive, detecting even 1% contamination of kerosene in petrol. PMID:19071579

  9. Modelling the Price of Unleaded Petrol in Australia’s Capital Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Valadkhani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the long-run and short-run determinants of unleaded petrol price in Australia’s capitalcities using monthly data to find out whether prices respond asymmetrically to external shocks. Based on thecointegration test results and the estimated asymmetric short-run dynamic models, it is found that: (1 in thelong-run petrol prices are mainly determined by Tapis crude oil and Singapore petrol prices; (2 there issome evidence of asymmetric price adjustments in the short-run since petrol price increases have been mostlypassed on to the consumer faster than price decreases in four capital cities. More specifically, this paperprovides convincing evidence in support of asymmetric price adjustments and the “rockets-and-feathershypothesis” in Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney. One can thus argue that there are a significantdegree of market inefficiency and/or collusion, requiring a closer government price monitoring and scrutiny.

  10. A study on spirometry in petrol pump workers of Ahmedabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi B Solanki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung reactions to exposure to dust, gases, and fumes at work places have been studied in different populations. The emission level of pollutants that emit particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in size (PM 10 has been found very high in Ahmedabad. Hence, petrol pump workers in Ahmedabad are likely to get exposed to a high level of air pollution along with petrol and diesel vapors. Both of these factors can affect the respiratory health of petrol pump workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at 53 different petrol pumps of Ahmedabad. A total of 227 petrol pump workers underwent pulmonary function testing. Their spirometry parameters were compared with 227 age-matched, healthy controls. Results: A significant reduction (P < 0.001 was found in the spirometry parameters, such as, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV 1, forced expiratory flow (FEF 25-75, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR in petrol pump workers, as compared to the controls. The mean values of FEV 1 /FVC (% were significantly increased (P < 0.001. A decline in FVC was not significantly different among the workers according to the duration of exposure. As the duration of exposure increased, there was a progressive decline in FEV 1 /FVC (% and FEF 25-75 . Conclusion: The study concludes that the deleterious effects of air pollution and petrol/diesel vapor inhalation on the lung function of petrol pump workers results in a restrictive type of lung function abnormality. The pattern of respiratory impairment changes to a mixed type as the duration of exposure increases.

  11. Impact of Organic Solvents and Environmental Pollutants on the Physiological Function in Petrol Filling Workers

    OpenAIRE

    V. Devender Reddy; M. Anthony David; Nusrat Aziz; B.Santhosh Kumar; Khaja Mohinuddin Salar, B. M.; Nazia Uzma

    2008-01-01

    Long term exposure to solvents and air pollutants can lead to deleterious effects on respiratory, haematological and thyroid functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic exposure to solvents like benzene and pollutants like carbon monoxide in petrol filling workers had adverse effect on blood parameters, thyroid and respiratory functions. The study group consisted of 42 healthy, non-smoker petrol filling workers, aged 20-50 years with work (exposure) duration from 2-1...

  12. Analysis of a petrol plume over England: 18-19 January 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, F.; Murray, V S; Robins, A. G.; Derwent, R. G.; Ryall, D. B.; Williams, M.L.; Elliott, A J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: About 7000 tonnes of unleaded petrol were discharged into the English Channel after a tanker collision off Ostend on Saturday 18 January 1997. The petrol evaporated and the vapour plume was carried across the central part of England to Wales, resulting in reports of unidentified odours, and irritation of the eyes, skin, and upper respiratory tract. This work uses this incident to show how marine and atmospheric dispersion modelling together with routine air quality monitorin...

  13. Effectiveness and effects of attempts to regulate the UK petrol industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the impact that investigation and regulation of the UK petrol industry has had on the profitability of the companies. Using a gross margin for petrol, we estimate a series of variable parameter autoregressive processes. The results demonstrate that the 1979 Monopolies and Mergers Commission investigation into the industry, caused a long-term decline in profit margins in the industry, despite the fact that no recommendations or undertakings were made. This cannot, however, be said for subsequent investigations. 27 refs

  14. Attempted ignition of petrol vapour by lit cigarettes and lit cannabis resin joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Rebecca S; Thomas, Jonathan D; Dodds, Rebecca A

    2011-06-01

    A recent murder enquiry prompted experimentation to confirm and visually demonstrate that lit cigarettes are not a viable source of ignition of petrol vapour. In addition, tests comprising the attempted ignition of petrol vapour using hot and smouldering cannabis resin were also undertaken. A series of experiments was also designed to recreate circumstances specific to the crime under investigation by undertaking cigarette/joint ignition tests involving a mannequin clothed in a cotton garment onto which petrol was applied. The ultimate aim of the experiments was to produce a visual aid for use during court proceedings. Thirty nine (39) ignition attempts that involved exposing lit commercial cigarettes, hand-rolled cigarettes and cannabis resin joints to petrol vapour were undertaken; ignition was not achieved in any of the scenarios. In addition, a single attempt to ignite petrol vapour emanating from a pool of liquid fuel was effected with a smouldering piece of cannabis resin; no ignition occurred. In all cases the petrol was clearly present within the limits of flammability since ignition was subsequently effected using a naked flame. PMID:21605828

  15. Research of combustion in older generation spark-ignition engines in the condition of use leaded and unleaded petrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatovi? Željko M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the potential problems in the exploitation of the older generation of spark-ignition engines with higher octane number of petrol (unleaded petrol BMB 95 than required (leaded petrol MB 86. Within the experimental tests on two different engines (STEYR-PUCH model 712 and GAZ 41 by applying piezoelectric pressure sensors integrated with the engine spark plugs, acceleration sensors (accelerometers and special electronic block connected with distributor, show that the cumulative first and second theoretical phase of combustion when petrol of higher octane number (BMB 95 is used lasts slightly longer than when the low-octane petrol MB 86 is used. For new petrol (BMB 95 higher optimal angles of pre-ignition have been determined by which better performances of the engine are achieved without a danger of the combustion with detonation (also called knocking.

  16. The ignitability of petrol vapours and potential for vapour phase explosion by use of TASER® law enforcement electronic control device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, C; Andrews, S P

    2014-12-01

    An experimental study was made of the potential of the TASER-X26™ law enforcement electronic control device to ignite petrol vapours if used by an officer to incapacitate a person soaked in petrol, or within a flammable atmosphere containing petrol vapour. Bench scale tests have shown that a wooden mannequin with pig skin covering the chest was a suitable representation of a human target. Full scale tests using the mannequin have shown that the arc from a TASER-X26™ is capable of igniting petrol/air vapours on a petrol-soaked person. Further tests in a 1/5 scale and a full scale compartment have shown that if a TASER is used within a compartment, a petrol vapour explosion (deflagration) may be achieved. It is evident from this research that if used in a flammable vapour rich environment, the device could prove fatal not only to the target but the TASER® operator as well. PMID:25498927

  17. E-Attendant List

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    The attendant work has become important nowadays, not only in schools, but also in companies. The original attendant work is based on paper work. That seems inefficient and waste of lots of resources in real life. To solve the problems in this phase, this project had been started. The whole system is based on the website. It makes the system work in any operating system. The request of using the system is the internet connection. The tasks of this project included the design of the fram...

  18. Research of combustion in older generation spark-ignition engines in the condition of use leaded and unleaded petrol

    OpenAIRE

    Bulatovi? Željko M.; Raki? Slavko N.; Kneževi? Dragan M.; Tomi? Miroljub V.; Bojer Ljubiša M.; Radi? Dragoslav B.; Jerkin Goran L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential problems in the exploitation of the older generation of spark-ignition engines with higher octane number of petrol (unleaded petrol BMB 95) than required (leaded petrol MB 86). Within the experimental tests on two different engines (STEYR-PUCH model 712 and GAZ 41) by applying piezoelectric pressure sensors integrated with the engine spark plugs, acceleration sensors (accelerometers) and special electronic block connected w...

  19. DEVELOP students attend conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Last month, Madeline Brozen and Jason Jones of the DEVELOP Program at John C. Stennis Space Center joined members from the program's national office at Langley Research Center to attend the Southern Growth Policies Board annual conference in Biloxi. Pictured are (l to r): Karen Allsbrook, Jonathan Gleason, Gov. Haley Barbour, Madeline Brozen, Lindsay Rogers and Tracey Silcox.

  20. Emission factors for heavy metals from diesel and petrol used in European vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulles, Tinus; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Appelman, Wilfred; Verheul, Marc

    2012-12-01

    Heavy metals constitute an important group of persistent toxic pollutants occurring in ambient air and other media. One of the suspected sources of these metals in the atmosphere is combustion of transport fuels in road vehicles. However, estimates of the emissions of these metals from road vehicles as reported in national emission inventories show a very high variability in emission factors used. This paper provides high quality data on concentrations of heavy metals in fuels and derives default emission factors from these. The paper discusses these values against the emission estimates presently reported by the Parties to the LRTAP Convention. The measured concentrations of heavy metals in petrol and diesel fuel show a high variability between different samples taken at gas stations throughout Europe. Metal concentrations in road transport fuels vary over two orders of magnitude, but all remain in the ppb region (a few tenths of a ppb to a few hundred ppb for all metals). The frequency distributions of the measurements could be approximated by lognormal distributions. The emission factors, including 95 percent confidence intervals were derived from a statistical analysis of the survey data. We could not detect a significant difference between samples from different countries. The fuel based emission factors as derived in this study are complemented with those related to unintentional lubricant oil combustion. This allowed an estimation of total exhaust heavy metal emissions for UNECE Europe, indicating that As, Hg and Se exhaust emissions were dominated by fuel combustion while Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn exhaust emissions were dominated by lubricant oil combustion. The proposed emission factors were generally lower than previously published emission factors. National emissions of heavy metals from vehicle exhaust, estimated in this study are in many cases considerably lower than those reported by the countries for this source.

  1. LCAs of petrol and diesel - A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Mattias; Ahlgren, Serina

    2013-09-01

    Many life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have investigated the environmental impact of using biofuel in transportation compared with fossil fuels. Since these studies often use standard values for the fossil fuel reference scenario, there is a need for a thorough review of published data on fossil fuel use in transportation. This study reviewed the available literature regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy balances in petrol and diesel use and examined possible causes for the differences reported in the literature. This included differences connected to the LCA methodology itself, but also those resulting from technical and economic effects. Thirteen studies were reviewed in order to establish the level of GHG emissions and energy use in the well-to-tank perspective and, where possible, in the entire well-to-wheel perspective. The studies used different input data, allocation methods and system boundaries, but the results fell within a narrow range, since the energy content of the fuels on a tank-to-wheel basis differed only slightly, while the use phase represents most GHG emissions and energy usage in fuel life cycles. All studies reviewed reported GHG emissions values that exceeded the reference value of 83.8 g CO{sub 2}-eq/MJ fuel suggested in the EU Renewable Energy Directive.

  2. Coal petrol and SNG - alternatives for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If in the decades to come no alternatives are found for the conventional fuels, i.e. petrol and diesel oil, in vehicle propulsion and if the non-energetic use of mineral oil is maintained on a large scale for economic reasons although there is a technical possibility of substitution by synthesizing substances other than those derived from mineral oil, the domains of traffic and non-energetic uses will largely remain oil-dependent. Model calculations have shown however that this demand could theoretically be satisfied by the upgrading of coal, which would require substantial additional expenditure. But even if all possible energy measures are taken and on the assumption of rising oil imports, the development of nuclear power is indicated, as coal cannot act as a substitute for nuclear power and a source of fuel at the same time. The necessary volume of capital expenditure is, however, justified only if this is done with the consistent aim of reducing the dependence of oil imports. Development of even part of the coal liquefaction potential would have a favourable and lasting effect in terms of energy policy on the dependence of oil imports all over the world. (Auth.)

  3. Induction of microsomal drug metabolism in man and in the rat by exposure to petroleum.

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, A W; Frewin, D. B.; Priestly, B G

    1981-01-01

    To determine the effect of petroleum exposure on the activity of hepatic mixed function oxidase enzymes, salivary elimination kinetics of antipyrine were determined in 19 petrol station attendants and compared with 19 controls. Antipyrine half life in petrol station attendants was shorter than in controls. Microsomal preparations (10 000 x g supernatants) were prepared from six male Porton rats exposed to petrol vapour (5 ppm at an air flow rate of 41/min for eight hours a day for three weeks...

  4. A Temporal Association between Accumulated Petrol (Gasoline Lead Emissions and Motor Neuron Disease in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. S. Laidlaw

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The age standardised death rate from motor neuron disease (MND has increased from 1.29 to 2.74 per 100,000, an increase of 112.4% between 1959 and 2013. It is clear that genetics could not have played a causal role in the increased rate of MND deaths over such a short time span. We postulate that environmental factors are responsible for this rate increase. We focus on lead additives in Australian petrol as a possible contributing environmental factor. Methods: The associations between historical petrol lead emissions and MND death trends in Australia between 1962 and 2013 were examined using linear regressions. Results: Regression results indicate best fit correlations between a 20 year lag of petrol lead emissions and age-standardised female death rate (R2 = 0.86, p = 4.88 × 10?23, male age standardised death rate (R2 = 0.86, p = 9.4 × 10?23 and percent all cause death attributed to MND (R2 = 0.98, p = 2.6 × 10?44. Conclusion: Legacy petrol lead emissions are associated with increased MND death trends in Australia. Further examination of the 20 year lag between exposure to petrol lead and the onset of MND is warranted.

  5. Quantification of atmospheric lead emissions from 70 years of leaded petrol consumption in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Louise Jane

    2015-06-01

    Lead is a persistent pollutant and the subject of many environmental studies, yet, in Australia, the extent of atmospheric lead emissions from the use of leaded petrol is unquantified. This paper details the first comprehensive account of leaded petrol sales and its lead concentrations over the 70 years of use in Australia. The resulting atmospheric lead emissions are calculated to provide the most complete understanding of the volume of lead released to the Australian continent from the consumption of leaded petrol. Atmospheric emissions of lead to the entire Australian continent from leaded petrol are calculated to total 240,510 tonnes over seven decades of use, peaking at 7869 tonnes in 1974. Total emissions for individual states and territories range from 1745 to 67,893 tonnes, with New South Wales responsible for the largest emissions. The effect of regulations on allowable concentrations of tetraethyl-lead additives are observed in the reduction of lead emissions in New South Wales and Victoria. The consequences to human health and the environment of leaded petrol consumption in Australia's populous cities are examined against historical air quality data and blood lead levels.

  6. The new BMW turbocharged six-cylinder petrol engine; Der neue aufgeladene Reihensechszylinder-Ottomotor von BMW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welter, A.; Bruener, T.; Unger, H.; Hoyer, U.; Brendel, U. [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    After more than 20 years, BMW has again launched a new turbocharged petrol engine. The previous disadvantages of turbo technology, i.e. high fuel consumption and delayed response characteristics have now been avoided by combining second generation petrol direct injection (high-precision injection) with two compact turbochargers. (orig.)

  7. Does class attendance still matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Nyamapfene

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the impact of class attendance on academic performance in a second year Electronics Engineering course module with online notes and no mandatory class attendance policy. The study shows that class attendance is highly correlated to academic performance, despite the availability of online class notes. In addition, there is significant correlation between class attendance and non-class contact with the lecturer and between student performance in the first year of ...

  8. Lab Attendance and Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk Adair; Swinton, Omari H.

    2012-01-01

    The benefits from attendance of lectures have been established in the literature. This paper focuses on attendance not of the lecture, but of smaller labs. These labs are 50 minutes one-day-a-week sessions to emphasis material covered during lecture. Using a 200-student Principles of Economics class that covers microeconomics with six different labs, we investigate the effect of lab attendance on exam performance by taking into account individual characteristics. We find that lab attendance b...

  9. Severe petrol contamination in the aquifer of the Llobregat river delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 16-09-91 an attack on an oil pipeline led to some 70 tons of petrol spilling out and catching fire. About 20 tons filtered down into the aquifer of the river Llobregat delta. On 08-12-91 the presence of petrol was detected in a well used for supplying water about 1 km downstream. A system was set up for monitoring and extracting the polluted ground water. The volume affected had now reached 3.5 hm''3. The decontamination costs came to 245 million pesetas in comparison to only 10 millions pesetas for the petrol spill. The cost of extracting the water was 70 pta/m''3. Finally the importance of regional planning and the need to prevent such accidents is pointed out. The means necessary to deal with them should be available. (Author)

  10. Stopping petrol sniffing in remote Aboriginal Australia: key elements of the Mt Theo Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Karissa; Brown, Jean Napanangka

    2006-05-01

    Petrol sniffing is a major form of substance misuse in Aboriginal communities across Australia. This practice has detrimental effects on the health and wellbeing of individual sniffers, their families, communities and wider society. There are few examples of programmes that have successfully stopped petrol sniffing. This paper looks at the Mt Theo Program, regularly cited as 'the success story' in petrol sniffing interventions. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate key elements that have contributed towards Mt Theo Program's rare achievement: (1) initially, a multi-faceted approach including an outstation and youth programme, (2) community-initiated, operated, owned basis of the organisation, which incorporates (3) strong partnership between Indigenous and non-Indigenous team members and (4) an ability to operate beyond crisis intervention. PMID:16753640

  11. Comparative Effects of Petrol and Diesel on Enzyme Activity in Tympanotonus fuscatus after Sublethal Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Edori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of the aquatic environment by petroleum and its products is common the world over. This study is aimed at examining sublethal effects of petrol and diesel on enzymes in Tympanotonus fuscatus namely: Aspartate Transaminase (AST (E.C. 2.6.1.1, Alanine Transaminase (ALT (E.C. 2.6.2.2 and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP (E.C. 3.1.3.1 activity after exposure. The periwinkles were exposed to 10.40, 15.60, 21.00, 26.00 ml L-1 and a control. The organs were removed on the sixth day and were prepared for enzymatic analysis. Enzyme activities were compared to the control value and between the toxicants. The effects of the toxicants on AST activity in the muscle and viscera were significantly different (p>0.05 from the control value (137.50±15.10 IU L-1. AST activity were raised more in petrol concentrations than the diesel concentrations in the muscle. The reverse was the case in the viscera at 15.60 ml L-1 (227.50±24.75 IU L-1. ALT activity in the muscle were not significant (p>0.05 between the toxicant media. In the viscera, significant differences (p>0.05 were observed in some of the concentrations with petrol showing higher activity. ALP activity in the muscle were not significant (p>0.05 in both media, but were more elicited in the diesel concentrations. In the viscera, the activities of ALP were more pronounced in the petrol concentrations and were significant (p>0.05 at the higher diesel concentrations. The exposure of Tympanotonus fuscatus to petrol and diesel concentrations caused changes in the enzymatic activities in the organism with those of petrol more pronounced than those of the diesel.

  12. Comparative effects of petrol and diesel on enzyme activity in Tympanotonus fuscatus after sublethal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edori, O S; Festus, C; Edori, E S

    2014-04-01

    Pollution of the aquatic environment by petroleum and its products is common the world over. This study is aimed at examining sublethal effects of petrol and diesel on enzymes in Tympanotonus fuscatus namely: Aspartate Transaminase (AST) (E.C. 2.6.1.1), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) (E.C. 2.6.2.2) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) (E.C. 3.1.3.1) activity after exposure. The periwinkles were exposed to 10.40, 15.60, 21.00, 26.00 ml L(-1) and a control. The organs were removed on the sixth day and were prepared for enzymatic analysis. Enzyme activities were compared to the control value and between the toxicants. The effects of the toxicants on AST activity in the muscle and viscera were significantly different (p > 0.05) from the control value (137.50 ± 15.10 IU L(-1)). AST activity were raised more in petrol concentrations than the diesel concentrations in the muscle. The reverse was the case in the viscera at 15.60 ml L(-1) (227.50 ± 24.75 IU L(-1)). ALT activity in the muscle were not significant (p > 0.05) between the toxicant media. In the viscera, significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in some of the concentrations with petrol showing higher activity. ALP activity in the muscle were not significant (p > 0.05) in both media, but were more elicited in the diesel concentrations. In the viscera, the activities of ALP were more pronounced in the petrol concentrations and were significant (p > 0.05) at the higher diesel concentrations. The exposure of Tympanotonus fuscatus to petrol and diesel concentrations caused changes in the enzymatic activities in the organism with those of petrol more pronounced than those of the diesel. PMID:25911844

  13. THE CONSEQUENCES OF LEAD PETROL USE ON LEAD CONTENT IN CABBAGE ALONG THE MOTORWAY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Matavuly; Zh. Kevreshan; Dy. Yovanovicy

    2006-01-01

    Besides the negative ecological consequences, during the production of the motor petrol (alkyl lead as anti–knock compound), as well as the application (combustion in motor engines), there are the ecological consequences manifested by deposition of Pb in the soil beside the motorway. At the same time this is the end of the life cycle of the petrol. However, Pb enters the human consumption chain through the plants that absorb Pb from the soil, and it is also deposited in the human body. The se...

  14. PHENOL OXIDATION OF PETROL REFINERY WASTEWATER CATALYZED BY LACCASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Carolina Vargas

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries have been evaluated in both systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml was achieved in a submerged system containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant.La lacasa se ha obtenido a través de dos sistemas de producción diferentes, el primero usando Pleurotus ostreatus en fermentación en estado sólido, el segundo usando Trametes versicolor en cultivo sumergido. Se han evaluado diferentes sustratos (derivados de la levadura, harina e industrias de la bebida en ambos sistemas. La mayor cantidad de la lacasa producida con Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml se obtuvo en un medio de salvado de trigo. El máximo nivel de concentración de la enzima usando Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml se logró en un sistema sumergido con 10% vinaza, 4,5% salvado de trigo y 0,2% de melaza por litro. El filtrado del cultivo extraído del Pleurotus ostreatus se usó para remover el fenol de las aguas residuales. El tratamiento enzimático es eficaz para un amplio rango de pH y de temperatura. El tratamiento con la lacasa se ha utilizado para desfenolizar el agua residual de las refinerías de la industria del petróleo. La ventaja de la desfenolización lacasa es que esta enzima usa el oxígeno molecular como un oxidante.

  15. PHENOL OXIDATION OF PETROL REFINERY WASTEWATER CATALYZED BY LACCASE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María-Carolina, Vargas; Nubia E, Ramírez.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La lacasa se ha obtenido a través de dos sistemas de producción diferentes, el primero usando Pleurotus ostreatus en fermentación en estado sólido, el segundo usando Trametes versicolor en cultivo sumergido. Se han evaluado diferentes sustratos (derivados de la levadura, harina e industrias de la be [...] bida) en ambos sistemas. La mayor cantidad de la lacasa producida con Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml) se obtuvo en un medio de salvado de trigo. El máximo nivel de concentración de la enzima usando Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml) se logró en un sistema sumergido con 10% vinaza, 4,5% salvado de trigo y 0,2% de melaza por litro. El filtrado del cultivo extraído del Pleurotus ostreatus se usó para remover el fenol de las aguas residuales. El tratamiento enzimático es eficaz para un amplio rango de pH y de temperatura. El tratamiento con la lacasa se ha utilizado para desfenolizar el agua residual de las refinerías de la industria del petróleo. La ventaja de la desfenolización lacasa es que esta enzima usa el oxígeno molecular como un oxidante. Abstract in english Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries) have been evaluated in both [...] systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml) was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml) was achieved in a submerged system containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant.

  16. On-road remote sensing of petrol vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. L.; Ning, Z.; Leung, C. W.; Cheung, C. S.; Hung, W. T.; Dong, G.

    In the present study, the real world on-road petrol vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitric oxide (NO) were investigated at nine sites in Hong Kong. A regression analysis approach based on the measured petrol vehicle emission data was also used to estimate the on-road petrol vehicle emission factors of CO, HC and NO with respect to the effects of instantaneous vehicle speed and acceleration/deceleration profiles for local urban driving patterns. The results show that the petrol vehicle model years, engine sizes and driving patterns have a strong correlation on their emission factors. A comparison of average petrol vehicle emission factors in different engine sizes and European vehicle emission standards was also presented. The deviation of the average emission factors of aggregate petrol vehicle reflects on the variability of local road condition, vehicle traffic fleet and volume, driving pattern, fuel composition and ambient condition etc. Finally, a unique database of the correlation of petrol vehicle emission factors on different model years and engine sizes for urban driving patterns in Hong Kong was established.

  17. Septic arthritis of both knees following intra-articular injection of petrol

    OpenAIRE

    Janbakhsh, Alireza; Mansouri, Feizollah; Vaziri, Siavash; Sayad, Babak; Afsharian, Mandana; Ghaffari, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    A 70 years old man was referred to our center with bilateral knee arthritis following intra-articular petrol injection. Because of previous antibiotics use gram stain and culture were negative. Septic arthritis was diagnosed and antibiotics and drainage were started. After 2 years he improved eventually and was able to walk. But, some movement limitation remained.

  18. Aç?kdeniz Petrol Platformlar? ?çin Bulan?k Tabanl? Risk Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagihan TÜRKO?LU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Günümüzde okyanus dibinde petrol arama çal??malar? artarak devam etmektedir. Deniz dibinde sondaj yapmak, petrol ç?karmak ve/veya üretilen petrolü depolamak amac?yla sabit veya yüzer yap?lar (platformlar in?a edilmektedir. Petrol rezervinin bulundu?u yerin çevre ko?ullar?na ba?l? olarak kullan?lan farkl? tipte aç?k deniz platformlar? (SPAR, TLP, FPSO vb. vard?r. Bu çal??mada, aç?k deniz petrol platformlar? risk analizi için bulan?k tabanl? bir yakla??m önerilmi?tir. Ba?lang?çta gezici sondaj üniteleri, gezici üretim üniteleri ve tek gövdeli yap?lar?n maruz kald??? kazalar kapsaml? bir ?ekilde incelenmi?tir. Deniz endüstrisinde risk ve emniyet analizi konusunda s?kl?kla kullan?lan yöntemler incelenerek, vaka çal??mas? olarak bir FPSO sistemi ele al?nm?? ve bu sistemin önemli bir bile?eni olan döner kule için risk analizi yap?lm??t?r. Aç?k deniz yap?lar? için hata oranlar?/ olu?ma olas?l?klar? gibi belirleyici parametrelerin kesin de?erlerini elde etmenin güç oldu?u risk ve emniyet analizinde bulan?k tabanl? bir yakla??m uygun olacakt?r.

  19. Pipes, Petrol, Paint and Pewter: The Rise and Fall of Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Lead is a good example of a metal that was used for many things over centuries--in water pipes, paints, on roofs, and in leaded petrol, for example--but was superseded as scientists discovered "new" metals, and because its toxicity became a problem. It was originally an important element in pewter utensils, alloyed with tin; it made the tin easier…

  20. Septic arthritis of both knees following intra-articular injection of petrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbakhsh, Alireza; Mansouri, Feizollah; Vaziri, Siavash; Sayad, Babak; Afsharian, Mandana; Ghaffari, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    A 70 years old man was referred to our center with bilateral knee arthritis following intra-articular petrol injection. Because of previous antibiotics use gram stain and culture were negative. Septic arthritis was diagnosed and antibiotics and drainage were started. After 2 years he improved eventually and was able to walk. But, some movement limitation remained. PMID:24879072

  1. Lead content of petrol and diesel and its assessment in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Pravin P; Khwaja, Haider A; Khan, Adil R; Naqvi, Ronaq R; Malik, Abdul; Khan, Khalid; Hussain, Ghazanfar

    2002-03-01

    Pakistan is one of the few countries in Asia that continues to use only leaded-petrol as vehicular fuel. The concentration of Pb in its petrol reported in 1991 was the highest (1.5-2.0 g Pb L(-1)) of all produced by the various Asian countries and far exceeded the WHO's guideline of 0.15 g Pb L(-1). We have undertaken a study to trace and quantify this toxic element in the environs of Karachi. Pakistan's major metropolis, having more than 30% of the nation's total number of vehicles. In this article we report the Pb contents of petrol and diesel currently manufactured and marketed in the city. Samples of 'Regular' petrol collected in 1999 was found to contain 0.363 g Pb L(-1) (range: 0.335-0.390 g Pb L(-1)), a factor of 5 lower than that marketed prior to 1991. Its concentration in diesel fuel was much lower (0.017 g Pb L(-1)). Based on the available statistical data on the type and volume of vehicular traffic, we assessed that the current lead emission from vehicular traffic into the atmosphere is 391 metric tons a year, which is a factor of 2.7 lower than that estimated for 1989. PMID:11944798

  2. Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG. It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationship for an isentropic compression process. This computation of compression ratio is based on an inlet air temperature of 30oC (representative of tropical ambient condition and pre-combustion temperature of 540oC (corresponding to the auto-ignition temperature of CNG. Using this value of compression ratio, a dimensional modification Quantity =1.803mm was obtained using simple geometric relationships. This value of 1.803mm is needed to increase the length of the connecting rod, the compression height of the piston or reducing the sealing plate’s thickness. After the modification process, a CNG engine of air standard efficiency 62.7% (this represents a 4.67% increase over the petrol engine, capable of a maximum power of 83.6kW at 6500rpm, was obtained.

  3. Septic arthritis of both knees following intra-articulari njection of petrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Janbakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A 70 years old man was referred to our center with bilateral knee arthritis following intra-articular petrol injection. Because of previous antibiotics use gram stain and culture were negative. Septic arthritis was diagnosed and antibiotics and drainage were started. After 2 years he improved eventually and was able to walk. But, some movement limitation remained.

  4. Experimental analysis on a spark ignition petrol engine fuelled with LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as alternative fuel to petrol is common practise in spark ignition engines. While the main driving force to the use of LPG still remains the low cost for the end user, its favourable pollutant emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, will in the middle term probably increase interest in LPG as an IC engine fuel. In addition, there are both theoretical and technical reasons to consider LPG as an attractive fuel also in terms of engine performance. Despite the continuously increasing stock production of dual-fuel (petrol–LPG) passenger car models, doubts still exist about both real engine performance in LPG operation and the reliability of the dual-fuel feeding system. This paper deals with the theoretical advantages of using LPG as fuel for SI engines. Brake performance tests of a passenger car engine fed with petrol and LPG are analysed and compared. The stock engine has been equipped with a “third-generation” standard kit for dual-fuel operation. The performance reductions in LPG operation are discussed in both steady state and transient condition. The results of some modifications to the set-up of both the petrol and LPG metering devices, designed for a better justification of the measured performance, are also presented. -- Highlights: ► Experimental research on the actual performances of an SI engine fed with petrol and gaseous LPG. ► Theoretical advantages and drawbacks of fuelling SI ICE’s with LPG. ► Brake performance analysis shows a noticeable gap between LPG and petrol operation. ► Local measurements confirm that the thermodynamic operation of the evaporator-pressure reducer device is crucial for the engine performance. ► The performance of the up-to-date kit for petrol–LPG dual-fuel operation is greatly affected by the settings of the mechanical components of the LPG evaporator device.

  5. Feasibility of alternatives to driving on diesel and petrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vliet, O.P.R.

    2010-08-30

    Globally, our road transport sector is powered almost exclusively by internal combustion engines (ICE) and more than 90% of these engines are powered by fuels derived from crude oil. Both the current cost and projected future costs of crude oil have risen sharply in the last years. Doubts whether security of imported crude oil supplies remains, and prices are expected to remain volatile but higher than in the past. Road transport is also a major source of greenhouse gases (GHG) and air pollutants such as NOx, PM10 and volatile organic compounds. In the European Union (EU), it is responsible for 18% of GHG emissions. Changing the cars, fuels and related infrastructure we use today is a complicated and expensive transition. To reduce dependence on crude oil in transport, the use of electricity and hydrogen in cars has been advocated. However, hydrogen and battery powered cars were found to be uncompetitive by a large margin: even if the cost of fuel cells would come down to 120 euro/kW or the cost of batteries to 150 euro/kWh, advanced hybrid cars are found to have a lower cost of driving. Due to increased efficiency, series of hybrid cars can reduce emissions of CO2 by 34-47% compared to regular diesel and petrol cars. Plug-in hybrid cars and fully battery powered cars can further reduce GHG emissions, depending on the source of electricity used. Based on the generation capacity projected for the Netherlands in 2015, electricity for electric vehicle (EV) charging would be generated using natural gas, and this would mean a reduction of GHG emissions of 51-78% compared to current cars and fuels. If off-peak charging is successfully introduced, electric driving need not strain infrastructure even in case of a 100% switch to electric vehicles. Reduction of oil dependence and, possibly, GHG emissions can also be achieved by using alternative fuels. Synthetic fuel may be competitive with oil-based diesel, and for gas-to-liquids (GTL), coal-to-liquids (CTL) and biomass-to-liquids (BTL) oil price should be above 33, 60 and 75 USD/bbl, respectively. However, CTL is found to increase our transport-related GHG emissions per km driven by 25-110%. Diesel from synthetic crude oil (SCO) increases GHG emissions by 13-60% and GTL chains without CCS by 10%. GTL with CCS is found to reduce GHG emissions by around 5% compared to fossil diesel. The net emissions from BTL can be an order of magnitude smaller and can even be made negative by application of CCS. When necessary GHG reductions in road transportation and electricity generation are considered together, lowest overall costs are achieved by using hybrid cars and both biomass and CCS to maximum potential, and by using the least-cost CO2 emissions reduction options in road transportation, even if that reduces biomass and CO2 storage capacity available for electricity generation. However, significant uncertainties remain in the cost of alternative fuels, as well as fuel cells and batteries. EU regulation on car emissions will presumably force a shift to hybrid vehicles by 2020 unless fuel cells or batteries become very cheap very soon, with additional GHG emissions reductions achieved through use of biofuels if sufficient supply of sustainable biomass feedstock can be secured. However, non-cost barriers, such as lack of familiarity and impact on car performance, to public adoption of alternative fuels remain. Simulations of the co-evolution of motorist demand and production capacity indicate that multiple barriers to adoption of alternative fuels reinforce each other. All else being equal, sustainable biofuels and hybrid cars may be adopted by motorists on grounds of GHG emissions reductions and economic arguments. Furthermore, these alternatives can also be implemented without dramatic changes in vehicle fleets and energy infrastructure.

  6. Managing salinity in water associated with petrol industry production

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Guerrero Fajardo; Sandra Escobar C; Diego Ramírez N

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a conceptual design for handling an oilfield’s industrial wastewater; its oblective was to use type-1 fractioned crystallisation within a feasible environmental and technical framework for obtaining the highest percentage of salt.La Gloria, La Gloria Norte and Morichal (all belonging to the Casanare department association) stations were used for planning and analysing this handling alternative as they produce high salt-containing industrial effluent.This alternative was...

  7. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze swi...

  8. Analysis of a petrol plume over England: 18-19 January 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, F.; Murray, V. S.; Robins, A. G.; Derwent, R. G.; Ryall, D. B.; Williams, M. L.; Elliott, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: About 7000 tonnes of unleaded petrol were discharged into the English Channel after a tanker collision off Ostend on Saturday 18 January 1997. The petrol evaporated and the vapour plume was carried across the central part of England to Wales, resulting in reports of unidentified odours, and irritation of the eyes, skin, and upper respiratory tract. This work uses this incident to show how marine and atmospheric dispersion modelling together with routine air quality monitoring can assist in identifying hazards to the population at risk from chemical incidents. METHODS: Public health surveillance and results from environmental sampling were compared with the behaviour of the plume as predicted by computer modelling. RESULTS: The predicted plume path and dispersion were shown to correlate well with the results from surveillance and environmental analysis. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for public health professionals to interact with medical toxicologists, atmospheric and marine scientists and engineers, and other environmental experts in managing events of this nature.   PMID:10658542

  9. Amounts, cleaning, measurement and limits of exhaust gas emissions from petrol cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.-O.; Kytoe, M.; Koponen, P.; Leppaemaeki, E.

    1985-06-15

    The present level of exhaust gas emissions, available means for their reduction, current measuring techniques, the comparability of measuring results and trends of development in the field of regulations and technology in Europe are reviewed. Catalytic cleaning is today the most effective method of purification. A so-called three-way catalyst, where both oxidation and reduction reaction take place represents the latest technology. This catalyst with auxiliary equipment is relatively expensive and increases fuel consumption by 10-15%. The use of leadfree petrol makes the use of catalytic exhaust gas purification possible and reduces the amount of nitric compounds in the exhaust gases. According to these present knowledge the leadfree petrol will be brought into use in the EEC countries in 1989.

  10. Temperature dependence density and kinematic viscosity of petrol, bioethanol and their blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the flow behaviour conventional petrol, bioethanol and their blends, especially E15 and E85. The temperature dependence density and kinematic viscosity of samples have been measured and modelled. The rotary rheometer has been used to the measuring temperature dependence kinematic viscosity of fuel and blends. The digital densitometer with the fuel scale has been used to the measuring temperature dependence density of fuel and blends. The range of temperature measurement has been stated from the -10 to 40 degree C. The mathematic models (polynomial and exponential function) have been created according to the general formulae. The coefficients of determination R/sup 2/ have achieved high values 0.99 for temperature dependence density and from 0.89 to 0.97 for temperature dependence kinematic viscosity. The created mathematical models could be used to the predict flow behaviour of petrol, bioethanol and their blends. (author)

  11. HAM PETROL F?YATLARININ YAPAY S?N?R A?LARI ?LE TAHM?N? = CRUDE OIL PRICE FORECASTING WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Ferhan DEM?RKOPARAN; TA?TAN, Serkan; Kaynar, O?uz

    2010-01-01

    Almost every sector in economy is connected with oil directly or indirectly. Consequently, the changes on petrol industry, and thus, on petrol prices create various effects on both country and world economy by means of chaining reactions turning up. For making affective plans for the future about petrol industry which has a considerably unsteady and interactive structure because of its complex dynamics, straight and confidential predictions are needed. So, classical time series analysis metho...

  12. Evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-fuelled motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.; Duffy, B. L.; Nelson, P. F.

    This study reports the identification and quantification of 1,3-butadiene in petrol and in the evaporative emissions from Australian light-duty passenger vehicles. The mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in each of the different grades of any brand of Australian petrol was found to be relatively constant for a given marketing area. However, the mass fractions vary significantly between the different brands (or refineries) from 0.004±0.001% to 0.047±0.008%. The measurements of the evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from in-service motor vehicles were performed using standard Australian Design Rule 37/00 (ADR 37/00) Sealed Housing Evaporative Determination (SHED) tests. For post-1985 catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with unleaded petrol, average evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene were 9.4 (0.7-22) and 5.0 (0.1-23) mg per test for diurnal and hot soak SHED tests, respectively. The corresponding average evaporative emissions for the older, pre-1986 non-catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with leaded petrol were 26.5 (11.7-45.4) and 9.2 (4.3-13.1) mg per test, respectively, about double the observed emissions from newer vehicles. For the complete vehicle set (all ages), the average mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in the total hydrocarbon (sum of C 1-C 10 hydrocarbons) emission was 0.21±0.14% from the diurnal phase and was 0.11±0.06% from the hot-soak phase. Evaporative emissions were estimated to contribute about 4% (ranging from 1-15%) of the total (exhaust and evaporative) emissions of 1,3-butadiene from Australian motor vehicles.

  13. The petrol engines of the new VW Golf; Die Ottomotoren des neuen VW Golf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szengel, R.; Middendorf, H.; Wiedmann, M.; Wietholt, B.; Laumann, A.; Voeltz, S.; Striebels, B.; Damminger, L. [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany). Aggregateentwicklung

    2003-10-01

    With the Golf V, Volkswagen is continuing its innovative drive unit strategy. The highlights are the across-the-board deployment of FSI technology in the petrol engines. This achieves the typical Volkswagen synthesis of driving pleasure and economy all at once. (orig.) [German] Mit dem Golf V setzt Volkswagen seine innovative Motorenstrategie fort. Als Highlight ist der flaechendeckende Einsatz der FSI-Technik bei den Ottomotoren hervorzuheben. Damit werden in der fuer Volkswagen typischen Synthese Fahrspass und gleichzeitig Sparsamkeit realisiert. (orig.)

  14. Design of a POX reformer basing on liquid fuels (diesel, petrol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, L.; Mengel, C.; Koehne, H. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Energie- und Stofftransport; Lucka, K. [Oel-Waerme-Inst. (OWI), Aachen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The growing interest in the environmental and efficiency characteristics of fuel cells pushes the development to bring this new technology to the market. Various fuel cell technologies are presently under development, the most evident difference being their operating temperature and the reformer technology. Currently, the most highly developed and commercially available processes for hydrogen synthesis use natural gas. Similar processes using diesel or petrol are not yet state of the art. (orig.)

  15. The chances for green petrol. Alternative for MTBE is ethylene tertiary butylether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find a useful and environment-friendly fuel is difficult. Lead and benzene already were replaced by methyl tertiary butylether (MTBE), but this fuel additive too appears to be hazardous for man and the environment. When MTBE will be banned the chances for so-called green petrol (made from biomass) are rising. A brief overview of the developments in the field of fuel additives so far is given

  16. Lead in petrol and levels of lead in blood: scientific evidence and social policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Elwood, P C; Gallacher, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Two aspects of the recent controversy about the health consequences of lead in petrol are considered. Firstly, the evidence is shown to be deficient, largely because the basic epidemiological principles of representative sampling, realistic measurement, and control of confounding variables were not followed so that valid conclusions cannot be drawn from most of the published studies. Secondly, the role of science appeared to be comprised by confusion between science per se and social policy. ...

  17. Sono-electroanalysis: Application to the detection of lead in petrol

    OpenAIRE

    Blythe, AN; Akkermans, RP; Compton, RG

    2000-01-01

    The quantitative detection of lead in petrol is shown to be possible by anodic stripping voltammetry in aqueous media under conditions of insonation-induced emulsification. An immersion horn probe is introduced into a thermostatted conventional three-electrode cell opposite a mercury plated platinum disk working electrode. Under ultrasonic emulsification of the sample, lead is preconcentrated as an amalgam on the Hg/Pt electrode surface via reduction at -1.0 V (vs. SCE). The large mass transp...

  18. Multicommodity formulations for the prize collecting vehicle routing problem in the petrol industry

    OpenAIRE

    Duhamel, Christophe; Andréa C. Santos; Aloise, Dario J.

    2009-01-01

    The Mobile Oil Recovery (MOR) unit is a truck designed to pump marginal oil wells in a petrol field. The MOR optimization Problem (MORP) consists in optimizing both the oil extraction and the travel costs. In this article, we describe several formulations for the MORP using a single vehicle and we propose two formulations to the case where several vehicles are used. We strengthen the proposed formulations by taking advantage of the MORP characteristics, by improving the number of subtour elim...

  19. Effect of petrol and spent oil on the growth of Guinea Corn (Sorghum bicolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronke Justina Komolafe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of petrol and spent lubricating oil on the major growth traits (such as root length, stem length, leaf area, and biomass, and the changes in epidermal layer of leaf and its mitotic index in Guinea Corn (Sorghum bicolor L. exposed to 0% (control, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% concentrations of petrol and spent lubricating oil. Each concentration was mixed with 3 kg of soil in a plastic pot and each treatment was carried out in three replicates. Forty days after planting, the leaf areas of guinea corn plant were 95.83 cm2, 89.67 cm2, 89.47 cm2, and 77.80 cm2 in control, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% respectively of petrol pollutant. The means of stem length were 32.50±0.5 cm, 22.60±0.65 cm, 21.27±0.75 cm, 20.83±0.28 cm and 20.33±0.28 cm in control, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% respectively. Both leaf area and stem length of treated seedlings reduced with increased concentration of the pollutants. Additionally, reduction in the dry weight of the seedlings increased with increasing concentration of both petrol and spent oil. The micrograph of the internal anatomy of the upper epidermal layers of the leaf revealed broken and scattered epidermal cells and smaller sizes of the stomata, and were increased with the increasing concentration of the treatment. Statistical analysis of the treatment shows that there was a significant reduction (P<0.05 in the stem length and leaf area of the seedlings. This study revealed that petroleum pollutant adversely affected germination, growth and development of guinea corn but petroleum products like spent oil can provide nutrition necessary for growth and yield of plant at low concentration.

  20. Did the elimination of lead from petrol reduce crime in the USA in the 1990s?

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Hall

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the evidence for the hypothesis that a decline in all types of crime since the early 1990s in the USA was a consequence of removing lead from petrol between 1975 and 1985. It describes ecological and econometric studies that have generally but not always found correlations between lead exposures in childhood and some types of crime 20 years later; a small number of epidemiological studies that have found a dose-response relationship between lead exposure in childhood and...

  1. Substantial decrease of blood lead in Swedish children, 1978-94, associated with petrol lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, U; Schütz, A; Skerfving, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the potential impact of environmental exposure to petrol lead, residential area, age, sex, and lead exposing hobby, on blood lead concentrations (BPb) in children. METHODS--In the south of Sweden, yearly from 1978-94, BPb was measured in 1230 boys and 1211 girls, aged between 3 and 19 (median 10; quartiles 9 and 12) years. RESULTS--For the samples of 1978, the geometric mean (GM) was 67 (range 30-250) micrograms/l in boys and 53 (18-161) micrograms/l in girls, whereas the corresponding GMs for 1994 were 27 (12-122) and 23 (12-97) micrograms/l. The sex difference was present only in children over eight. Moreover, residential area affected BPb; in particular, children living near a smelter area had raised BPbs. There was a clear ecological relation between BPb (adjusted GM) and annual lead quantity in petrol sold in Sweden, which was estimated to be 1637 tonnes in 1976 and 133 tonnes in 1993 (P < 0.001, ecological linear regression analysis, where a two year lag of petrol lead was applied). In the 171 boys and 165 girls who were sampled twice with an interval of one to four years, the decreases in BPb were estimated to be 6% (95% confidence interval 4%-8%) and 10% (8%-13%)/year, respectively. CONCLUSIONS--The present report points out the considerable beneficial effect of the gradual banning of petrol lead on the lead exposure affecting the population and differential sex specific BPb patterns due to a pronounced age effect in girls, which may be caused by older girls' lower food intake per kg of body weight, lower lung ventilation, cleaner life style, and loss of blood lead through menstrual bleedings. PMID:8535497

  2. Some investigations in design of low cost variable compression ratio two stroke petrol engine

    OpenAIRE

    A.Srinivas; Venkatasubbaiah, G.; rao, P. Venkateswar; Reddy, M. Penchal

    2012-01-01

    Historically two stroke engine petrol engines find wide applications in construction of two wheelers worldwide, however due to stringent environmental laws enforced universally; these engines are fading in numbers. In spite of the tight norms, internationally these engines are still used in agriculture, gensets etc. Several designs of variable compression ratio two stroke engines are commercially available for analysis purpose. In this present investigation a novel method of...

  3. Sharp increase in petrol prices and climate change; Choc petrolier et changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vielle, M. [Toulouse Univ., CEA-LERNA, 31 (France); Viguier, L. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, REME-EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2006-01-15

    The current increase in energy prices may be seen as good news for climate change by creating a reduction in energy consumption and therefore emissions of CO{sub 2}. This study uses the GEMINI-E3 model to analyse the impact of a sharp increase in petrol prices on the world economy and on climate change. The effects of the increase are compared with those of policies for reducing greenhouse gases. (authors)

  4. Performace Test and Engine Emission on Acid Oleic Oxygenated as Additives Petrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Wahyudi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of oxygenated oleic acid additives in standard petrol on the engine performance and the exhaust emissions. The 4-stroke 1.5 litre engine was used on the engine test bed coupled to eddy current electric dynamometer which is also connected to CADET V12 control system and exhaust gas analyser IMR2000/2000P. The oxygenated oleic acid additives used for this experiment is fixed at 0.2% by volume due to limited quantity available. Two types of test were carried out first test is with variable speed and no loads and the second test is at constant speed of 1,400 rpm with variable loads. The experimental results showed that the brake power increased by 2%, torque by 2%, brake thermal efficiency by about 7% and specific fuel consumption decreased by about 10%. The exhaust emissions analysed are carbon monoxide, (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2 and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. The result by comparing the oxygenated petrol with the standard petrol indicated that CO gas emission depend on the engine speed which decreased with increasing speed up to 1,600 rpm and increased after that speed on test without load. The CO also decreased by about 28% on the test with loads. The emission of CO2 increased by 2.7% for tests with load and by 8% for tests without loads. The NOx emission decreased by 9% for test without load and about 7% for test with load. This study indicates that engine performance is improved by adding 0.2% oxygenated additives to standard petrol.

  5. Electronic, Time, Attendance, and Scheduling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The eTAS program is implementing a solution to electronically create employee schedules, transmit the data to the time keeping system, automate time and attendance,...

  6. School attendance 1880-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Nicola; Professor Jane Humphries; Janet Howarth

    2008-01-01

    The thesis covers two sides of the truancy problem in the period following compulsory school attendance - the truanting children and their parents, and the local authorities charged with enforcing the law. The introduction covers current concerns about truancy and school attendance, which have increased in prominence since the 1980s. Chapter 2 reviews the historiography, which has mainly debated working-class attitudes towards compulsory schooling in the nineteenth century. Th...

  7. Religious Attendance as Reproductive Support

    OpenAIRE

    Weeden, Jason; Cohen, Adam B.; KENRICK, DOUGLAS T.

    2008-01-01

    We argue that a central function of religious attendance in the contemporary U.S. is to support a high-fertility, monogamous mating strategy. Although religious attendance is correlated with many demographic, personality, moral, and behavioral variables, we propose that sexual and family variables are at the core of many of these relationships. Numerous researchers have assumed that religious socialization causes people to feel moral reactions and engage in behaviors promoted by religious gro...

  8. Using Attendance Worksheets to Improve Student Attendance, Participation, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Edward

    2013-06-01

    As science instructors we are faced with two main barriers with respect to student learning. The first is motivating our students to attend class and the second is to make them active participants in the learning process once we have gotten them to class. As we head further into the internet age this problem only gets exacerbated as students have replaced newspapers with cell phones which can surf the web, check their emails, and play games. Quizzes can motivated the students to attend class but do not necessarily motivate them to pay attention. Active learning techniques work but we as instructors have been bombarded by the active learning message to the point that we either do it already or refuse to. I present another option which in my classroom has doubled the rate at which students learn my material. By using attendance worksheets instead of end of class quizzes I hold students accountable for not just their attendance but for when they show up and when they leave the class. In addition it makes the students an active participant in the class even without using active learning techniques as they are writing notes and answering the questions you have posed while the class is in progress. Therefore using attendance worksheets is an effective tool to use in order to guide student learning.

  9. Study of performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine using rice bran oil ethanol and petrol blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Venkata Subbaiah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, influence on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using pure rice bran oil (RBO, and its 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% blends with ethanol (ERBO and petrol (PRBO. The influence on the viscosity of the RBO with the addition of the ethanol and petrol from 200C to 700C has also been studied. The tests conducted from no load to full load of the engine with an increment of 20%of the load. The experimental test results showed that the kinematic viscosity reduced maximum by 28.3% and 31.7% with addition of ethanol and petrol respectively. The maximum brake thermal efficiency of 26.83% with ERBO2.5 and 27% with PRBO7.5 was obtained. Among the ethanol blends the minimum brake specific fuel consumption of 0.312 is observed with ERBO7.5 and among the petrol blends the minimum brake specific fuel consumption of 0.299 is observed with PRBO2.5 at full load of the engine. Lower CO emissions of 0.021 with ERBO2.5 and higher CO emissions of 0.032 observed with ERBO7.5. The CO emissions of petrol blends observed between the values of ethanol blends. The unburnt hydrocarbons increased with load in both the ethanol and petrol blends. The lower NOx emissions of 920 with ERBO2.5 and higher NOx emissions of 1045 measured with PRBO7.5. The CO2 increased to 3.72 with PRBO7.5 and reduced to 2.45 with ERBO7.5. The unused O2 increased 17.2%with ethanol blends and reduced to 13.1% with petrol blends. The smoke reduced with both the blends and lower value of 34.0% observed with PRBO7.5.

  10. Managing salinity in water associated with petrol industry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Guerrero Fajardo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a conceptual design for handling an oilfield’s industrial wastewater; its oblective was to use type-1 fractioned crystallisation within a feasible environmental and technical framework for obtaining the highest percentage of salt.La Gloria, La Gloria Norte and Morichal (all belonging to the Casanare department association stations were used for planning and analysing this handling alternative as they produce high salt-containing industrial effluent.This alternative was focused on treating 30% of the total volume of the associated water so produced. This volume is expected to be 1239 m3/d in 2000 in the oilfields being studied here. The process allows 92% retrieval from present NaCl (0.918 Ton/h, having 97% purity. Evaporation and aeration systems should be set prior to the crystallisation stage as a means of guaranteeing final product quality and making good use of the field’s facilities.

  11. Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  12. Reclamation of petrol oil contaminated soil by rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains for growing Withania somnifera a medicinal shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Das, Amar Jyoti; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2015-02-01

    Soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, cannot be used for agricultural intents due to their toxic effect to the plants. Surfactants producing by plant growth promotory rhizobacteria (PGPR) can effectively rig the problem of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and growth promotion on such contaminated soils. In the present study three Pseudomonas strains isolated from contaminated soil identified by 16S rRNA analysis were ascertained for PGPR as well as biosurfactants property. Biosurfactants produced by the strains were further characterized and essayed for rhamnolipids. Inoculation of the strains in petrol hydrocarbon contaminated soil and its interaction with Withania somnifera in presence of petrol oil hydrocarbons depict that the strains helped in growth promotion of Withania somnifera in petrol oil contaminated soil while rhamnolipids helped in lowering the toxicity of petrol oil. The study was found to be beneficial as the growth and antioxidant activity of Withania sominfera was enhanced. Hence the present study signifies that rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains could be a better measure for reclamation of petrol contaminated sites for growing medicinal plants. PMID:25480735

  13. Student Satisfaction with Attending Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Thomas A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 252 dental students in three schools measured student satisfaction with (1) the patient care system in the dental school clinic; and (2) the responsibilities of the attending faculty, who manage 10-student teams. Results indicated general satisfaction but point to some problems in individual situations. (MSE)

  14. Emission of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-driven motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.

    This study reports the measurement of 1,3-butadiene emissions from 30 petrol-driven vehicles from the Australian car fleet using the Australian Design Rule 37/00 vehicle test procedure. Six of the cars tested were not equipped with catalytic converters and used leaded petrol as fuel. The remaining 24 cars were fitted with catalytic converters and used unleaded petrol. 1,3-Butadiene in exhaust samples was found to degrade rapidly in SUMMA treated stainless steel canisters and the degradation followed first-order kinetics. The rate coefficient of the decay can be represented by a linear dependence on the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust ( r2 = 0.79, n = 43), and the gas-phase reaction of NO 2 and 1,3-butadiene may have a major role in this loss. The 1,3-butadiene concentrations used to estimate vehicle emissions were corrected for this loss using the decay rate constant either observed from replicate analyses or from the NO x concentrations in the samples. The measurements showed that 1,3-butadiene was emitted at a rate of 20.7 ± 9.2 mg km -1 from 6 non-catalyst vehicles. There was considerable scatter in the observations from catalyst equipped vehicles and we infer that this was due to the malfunction of the emission control devices on some vehicles. The 19 vehicles that appeared to have functioning catalyst emission control devices had an average emission rate of 2.1 ± 1.5 mg km -1. These emission rates are consistent with atmospheric observations and are much higher than those reported previously. We calculate that more than 90% of the 1,3-butadiene in engine exhaust comes from the common alkane and aromatic constituents of the fuel. A comparison of emissions in the different phases of the drive cycle indicates that current emission controls remove more than 90% of the 1,3-butadiene from the initial exhaust mixture.

  15. Petrol sniffing interventions among Australian indigenous communities through product substitution: from skunk juice to opal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Abbs, Peter; MacLean, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation of petrol (gasoline) fumes has been prevalent in some Australian Indigenous communities since World War II, and has led to a continuing quest for an effective method of preventing the practice either by modifying the substance or by substituting nonharmful alternatives. This article traces the results of this search, beginning with the addition of ethyl mercaptan, then describing the substitution of aviation fuel for conventional vehicle fuel, and concluding with the staged introduction of Opal--a vehicle fuel containing low levels of aromatic hydrocarbons--throughout many communities from 2005. The article assesses the benefits and limitations of supply reduction methods. PMID:21609153

  16. The role of coal, petrol and natural gas in the global ecological energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of coal, petrol and natural gas in the global energy balance impose a rigid international control on all harmful emissions (CO2, SO2, NOx etc.) based on extended legislation. The trends for more efficient usage of fuels are discussed from ecological and energetic point of view. The alternative introduction of natural gas in the energy sector is considered. The ways for utilization of CO2 and its recycling are discussed as well as the trends towards development of 'hydrogen' energetics. 15 refs., 2 tbs., 3 figs. (orig.)

  17. Lead in petrol and levels of lead in blood: scientific evidence and social policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, P C; Gallacher, J E

    1984-01-01

    Two aspects of the recent controversy about the health consequences of lead in petrol are considered. Firstly, the evidence is shown to be deficient, largely because the basic epidemiological principles of representative sampling, realistic measurement, and control of confounding variables were not followed so that valid conclusions cannot be drawn from most of the published studies. Secondly, the role of science appeared to be comprised by confusion between science per se and social policy. Relations between the two are explored, and it is concluded that confusing them reduces the contribution that science can make to effective social policy. PMID:6210336

  18. Effect of petrol fuel contamination on the growth of mature Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L., trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymura, Tomasz H; Szymura, Magdalena; Wolski, Karol

    2010-07-01

    The radial increment and crown status of mature Scots pine trees growing in polluted and unpolluted sites were compared. In 1996, as a result of some malfunction, unleaded petrol penetrated into the soil next to a plantation. Detailed geological and hydrological studies revealed the route of the spread of contamination and extent of the pollution. The trees growing in polluted sites revealed strong depletion of radial growth starting immediately after pollution. Such depletion lasted 2-3 years before the ring widths stabilised at a low level. After a few years the radial increment increased, and now do not differ from the increment of trees in the unpolluted sites. PMID:20524108

  19. The role of regulation, fiscal incentives and changes in tastes in the diffusion of unleaded petrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoneman, P. [Warwick Univ., Warwick Business School, Coventry (United Kingdom); Battisti, G. [Coventry Univ., School of Mathematical and Information Sciences, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper analyses the diffusion of unleaded petrol in the UK. Changes in the market share of unleaded fuel are the results of changes in the composition of the car stock and changes in the choice of fuel given the car stock. We find the fuel type choices have been mainly driven by changes in tastes and learning as opposed to changes in relative prices induced by fiscal incentives. However car stock composition effects dominate the diffusion process and we find that through this route regulatory changes have made major contributions to changes in the market share of unleaded fuel. (Author)

  20. Substantial decrease of blood lead in Swedish children, 1978-94, associated with petrol lead.

    OpenAIRE

    Strömberg, U; Schütz, A; Skerfving, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the potential impact of environmental exposure to petrol lead, residential area, age, sex, and lead exposing hobby, on blood lead concentrations (BPb) in children. METHODS--In the south of Sweden, yearly from 1978-94, BPb was measured in 1230 boys and 1211 girls, aged between 3 and 19 (median 10; quartiles 9 and 12) years. RESULTS--For the samples of 1978, the geometric mean (GM) was 67 (range 30-250) micrograms/l in boys and 53 (18-161) micrograms/l in girls, whereas the...

  1. The revised petrol drive trains for the MINI; Die ueberarbeiteten Otto-Antriebe des MINI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollig, M.; Breitfeld, C.; Kessler, F.; Schopp, J.; Mueller, P.; Kiesgen, G. [BMW AG (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    BMW and PSA have developed a new series of small petrol engines with lead management from BMW. This article firstly gives an overview of the technical data of the new engine family for the MINI. After illustrating the design changes of the new 1,4l engine compared to the 1,6l engines, the functional results of the complete family are summarized and compared to competitors. A particular chapter is dedicated to the new manual and automatic transmissions. Intelligent overall energy management of the vehicle leading to improved efficiency is described and finally the achieved vehicle performance and fuel consumption are presented. (orig.)

  2. The role of regulation, fiscal incentives and changes in tastes in the diffusion of unleaded petrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the diffusion of unleaded petrol in the UK. Changes in the market share of unleaded fuel are the results of changes in the composition of the car stock and changes in the choice of fuel given the car stock. We find the fuel type choices have been mainly driven by changes in tastes and learning as opposed to changes in relative prices induced by fiscal incentives. However car stock composition effects dominate the diffusion process and we find that through this route regulatory changes have made major contributions to changes in the market share of unleaded fuel. (Author)

  3. Study of performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine using rice bran oil ethanol and petrol blends

    OpenAIRE

    G. Venkata Subbaiah; K. Raja Gopal; B. Durga Prasad

    2010-01-01

    In this study, influence on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using pure rice bran oil (RBO), and its 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% blends with ethanol (ERBO) and petrol (PRBO). The influence on the viscosity of the RBO with the addition of the ethanol and petrol from 200C to 700C has also been studied. The tests conducted from no load to full load of the engine with an increment of ...

  4. An analytic study of applying Miller cycle to reduce NOx emission from petrol engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytic investigation of applying Miller cycle to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from a petrol engine is carried out. The Miller cycle used in the investigation is a late intake valve closing version. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the cycle is presented. A comparison of the characters of Miller cycle with Otto cycle is presented. From the results of thermodynamic analyses, it can be seen that the application of Miller cycle is able to reduce the compression pressure and temperature in the cylinder at the end of compression stroke. Therefore, it lowers down the combustion temperature and NOx formation in engine cylinder. These results in a lower exhaust temperature and less NOx emissions compared with that of Otto cycle. The analytic results also show that Miller cycle ratio is a main factor to influence the combustion temperature, and then the NOx emissions and the exhaust temperature. The results from the analytic study are used to analyse and to compare with the previous experimental results. An empirical formula from the previous experimental results that showed the relation of NOx emissions with the exhaust temperature at different engine speed is presented. The results from the study showed that the application of Miller cycle may reduce NOx emissions from petrol engine

  5. Model testing the two-phase scavenging system in a two-stroke petrol engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cudina, M. [University of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-11-01

    Due to an inadequate scavenging process two-stroke petrol engines suffer from substantial fuel-specific consumption, as well as from considerable emissions of toxic components in exhaust gases. This paper describes the model testing and evaluation of a new scavenging system in a small two-stroke petrol engine with internal working mixture preparation. The scavenging process is performed by two different gas media in two successive phases and is more sophisticated and effective than the conventional single-phase (Schnuerle) principle. Using the similarity principle and dimensional analysis, a new mathematical model was developed for evaluation of the effectiveness of the scavenging systems. This makes it possible to establish relationships between the most important parameters of the model engine and of the real engine, which are independent of the dimensional parameters. The effectiveness of the scavenging systems was defined by means of qualitative scavenging efficiency. A special testing device for the model engine has been developed and a liquid working media (instead of gaseous) is used. A qualitative as well as a quantitative evaluation of the predicted values and a simulation of the working medium exchange process at different working conditions is possible. A visual observation of the slowed-down scavenging process in a transparent model cylinder was also made. The mathematical model can be applied to any scavenging system of two-stroke engines or to similar periodic events in the process technique. (author)

  6. THE CONSEQUENCES OF LEAD PETROL USE ON LEAD CONTENT IN CABBAGE ALONG THE MOTORWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matavuly

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides the negative ecological consequences, during the production of the motor petrol (alkyl lead as anti–knock compound, as well as the application (combustion in motor engines, there are the ecological consequences manifested by deposition of Pb in the soil beside the motorway. At the same time this is the end of the life cycle of the petrol. However, Pb enters the human consumption chain through the plants that absorb Pb from the soil, and it is also deposited in the human body. The series of analyses of the cabbage head, outer leaves and soil includes left and right sides of the motorway of each of the control points, at the distance of 1m, 2m, 5m, 10m, 100m, and 400m from the motorway, each distance on the left and right side of the motorway. The results are shown in mg Pb/kg of the sample. The quantity of Pb shows decreasing effect when the distance from the motorway, is increased.

  7. Emissions from a vehicle fitted to operate on either petrol or compressed natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristovski, Z.; Morawska, L.; Ayoko, G.A.; Johnson, G. [International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, G.P.O. 2434, Brisbane, Qld 4001 (Australia); Gilbert, D.; Greenaway, C. [Built Environment Research Unit, Queensland Department of Public Works, G.P.O. Box 2457, Brisbane, Qld 4001 (Australia)

    2004-05-05

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of emission products from a six-cylinder sedan car under a variety of operating conditions, before and after it has been converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel. The specific focus of the measurements was on emission levels and characteristics of ultra fine particles and the emission levels together with the emissions of gaseous pollutants for a range of operating conditions before and up to 3 months after the vehicle was converted are presented and discussed in the paper. The investigations showed that converting a petrol operating vehicle to CNG has the potential of reducing some of the emissions and thus risks, while it does not appear to have an impact on others. In particular there was no statistically significant change in the emission of particles for the vehicle operating on petrol, before the conversion, compared to the emissions for the vehicle operating on CNG, after the conversion. There was a significant lowering of emissions of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and formaldehyde when the vehicle was operated on CNG, and a reduction of global warming potential was also observed when the vehicle was run on CNG, but the later gain is only at high vehicle speeds/loads, and would thus have to be considered in view of traffic and transport models for the region (in these models vehicle speed is an important parameter)

  8. Electronic Student Attendance Recording System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. AkramAbedelKarim Ahmad AbdelQader

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth technology is offering a very robust way to transfer data in faster rates within a short range wireless communication local network. Wireless and radio communication technologies are giving organizations and users many benefits such as portability and flexibility, increased productivity, and lower the installation costs.  Register the attendance and absence for students in the classroom of all educational institutions is one of the most intensive daily operations. In this paper, we are interesting to use the free wireless communication via Bluetooth technology that is available in most mobile phones and computer systems to build a computerized wireless clients-server network system. The client side will be a mobile phone that used to fill the list of attendance and absence for students in a classroom of educational institutions in an easy and fast way.  Server side will contain the centralized database and monitoring attendance system for the distributing clients connected to the system. The idea of this system is developed and implemented on real educational institution. The recorded results show that the system saves a costs and efforts and helps the educational institution to get a more effective system than the old one.

  9. Electronic Student Attendance Recording System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. AkramAbedelKarim Ahmad AbdelQader

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth technology is offering a very robust way to transfer data in faster rates within a short range wireless communication local network. Wireless and radio communication technologies are giving organizations and users many benefits such as portability and flexibility, increased productivity, and lower the installation costs.  Register the attendance and absence for students in the classroom of all educational institutions is one of the most intensive daily operations. In this paper, we are interesting to use the free wireless communication via Bluetooth technology that is available in most mobile phones and computer systems to build a computerized wireless clients-server network system. The client side will be a mobile phone that used to fill the list of attendance and absence for students in a classroom of educational institutions in an easy and fast way.  Server side will contain the centralized database and monitoring attendance system for the distributing clients connected to the system. The idea of this system is developed and implemented on real educational institution. The recorded results show that the system saves a costs and efforts and helps the educational institution to get a more effective system than the old one.

  10. 14 CFR 125.269 - Flight attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Flight attendants. 125.269 Section 125.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...AIRCRAFT Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 125.269 Flight attendants. (a) Each certificate...

  11. 25 CFR 31.4 - Compulsory attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... attendance. Compulsory school attendance of Indian children is provided for by law. (60 Stat. 962; 25 U.S.C. 231) Cross Reference: For penalties for the failure of Indians to send children to school and...

  12. Effectiveness of leaded petrol phase-out in Tianjin, China based on the aerosol lead concentration and isotope abundance ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wan [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu Xiande [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)]. E-mail: liuxdlxd@hotmail.com; Zhao Liwei [Tianjin Environmental Monitoring Center, Tianjin, 300190 (China); Guo, Dongfa [Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tian Xiaodan [University of Antwerp, UA, B-2610 Wilrijk-Antwerpen (Belgium); Adams, Freddy [University of Antwerp, UA, B-2610 Wilrijk-Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The phase-out of leaded petrol has been a measure widely used to reduce atmospheric lead pollution. Since the 1980s, China began to promote unleaded petrol. In order to assess the effectiveness of the measure an isotope fingerprint technique was applied for aerosol samples in the city of Tianjin. After dilute acid leaching, the lead concentration and isotope abundance ratios were determined for 123 samples collected in Tianjin during eight years (1994-2001). The {sup 206}Pb / {sup 207}Pb ratio was lower in summer, when coal combustion emission was low and vehicle exhaust became more important, indicating that the {sup 206}Pb / {sup 207}Pb ratio of leaded petrol in Tianjin is lower than that of aerosol samples. The {sup 206}Pb / {sup 207}Pb ratio gradually increased from 1994 to 2001, a trend that suggests that the contribution from vehicle exhaust was diminishing. Overall, the measurements matched well with national statistical data of leaded and unleaded petrol production. After the nationwide switch to unleaded gasoline, comprehensive control measures are urgently needed to reduce air lead pollution in China, as aerosol lead reduced slightly but remains at a relatively high level.

  13. Effectiveness of leaded petrol phase-out in Tianjin, China based on the aerosol lead concentration and isotope abundance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase-out of leaded petrol has been a measure widely used to reduce atmospheric lead pollution. Since the 1980s, China began to promote unleaded petrol. In order to assess the effectiveness of the measure an isotope fingerprint technique was applied for aerosol samples in the city of Tianjin. After dilute acid leaching, the lead concentration and isotope abundance ratios were determined for 123 samples collected in Tianjin during eight years (1994-2001). The 206Pb / 207Pb ratio was lower in summer, when coal combustion emission was low and vehicle exhaust became more important, indicating that the 206Pb / 207Pb ratio of leaded petrol in Tianjin is lower than that of aerosol samples. The 206Pb / 207Pb ratio gradually increased from 1994 to 2001, a trend that suggests that the contribution from vehicle exhaust was diminishing. Overall, the measurements matched well with national statistical data of leaded and unleaded petrol production. After the nationwide switch to unleaded gasoline, comprehensive control measures are urgently needed to reduce air lead pollution in China, as aerosol lead reduced slightly but remains at a relatively high level

  14. Neck injury patterns resulting from the use of petrol and electric chainsaws in suicides. Report on two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreschi, Carlo; Da Broi, Ugo; Cividino, Sirio; Gubiani, Rino; Pergher, Gianfranco

    2014-07-01

    Suicides due to neck injuries caused by chainsaws are uncommon events. The cutting elements of petrol and electric chainsaws produce different features in lethal neck injuries. The accurate evaluation of the death scene, of the power and mechanical characteristics of the chainsaw and of wound morphology are all essential in distinguishing a case of suicide. PMID:24931855

  15. Effectiveness of leaded petrol phase-out in Tianjin, China based on the aerosol lead concentration and isotope abundance ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan; Liu, Xiande; Zhao, Liwei; Guo, Dongfa; Tian, Xiaodan; Adams, Freddy

    2006-07-01

    The phase-out of leaded petrol has been a measure widely used to reduce atmospheric lead pollution. Since the 1980s, China began to promote unleaded petrol. In order to assess the effectiveness of the measure an isotope fingerprint technique was applied for aerosol samples in the city of Tianjin. After dilute acid leaching, the lead concentration and isotope abundance ratios were determined for 123 samples collected in Tianjin during eight years (1994-2001). The 206Pb/207Pb ratio was lower in summer, when coal combustion emission was low and vehicle exhaust became more important, indicating that the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of leaded petrol in Tianjin is lower than that of aerosol samples. The 206Pb/207Pb ratio gradually increased from 1994 to 2001, a trend that suggests that the contribution from vehicle exhaust was diminishing. Overall, the measurements matched well with national statistical data of leaded and unleaded petrol production. After the nationwide switch to unleaded gasoline, comprehensive control measures are urgently needed to reduce air lead pollution in China, as aerosol lead reduced slightly but remains at a relatively high level. PMID:16165188

  16. Effectiveness of leaded petrol phase-out in Tianjin, China based on the aerosol lead concentration and isotope abundance ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wan; Liu, Xiande [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhao, Liwei [Tianjin Environmental Monitoring Center, Tianjin, 300190 (China); Guo, Dongfa [Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tian, Xiaodan; Adams, Freddy [University of Antwerp, UA, B-2610 Wilrijk-Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The phase-out of leaded petrol has been a measure widely used to reduce atmospheric lead pollution. Since the 1980s, China began to promote unleaded petrol. In order to assess the effectiveness of the measure an isotope fingerprint technique was applied for aerosol samples in the city of Tianjin. After dilute acid leaching, the lead concentration and isotope abundance ratios were determined for 123 samples collected in Tianjin during eight years (1994-2001). The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio was lower in summer, when coal combustion emission was low and vehicle exhaust became more important, indicating that the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio of leaded petrol in Tianjin is lower than that of aerosol samples. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio gradually increased from 1994 to 2001, a trend that suggests that the contribution from vehicle exhaust was diminishing. Overall, the measurements matched well with national statistical data of leaded and unleaded petrol production. After the nationwide switch to unleaded gasoline, comprehensive control measures are urgently needed to reduce air lead pollution in China, as aerosol lead reduced slightly but remains at a relatively high level. (author)

  17. Quantification of ethanol in ethanol-petrol and biodiesel in biodiesel-diesel blends using fluorescence spectroscopy and multivariate methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Keshav; Mishra, Ashok K

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol blended petrol and biodiesel blended diesel are being introduced in many countries to meet the increasing demand of hydrocarbon fuels. However, technological limitations of current vehicle engine do not allow ethanol and biodiesel percentages in the blended fuel to be increased beyond a certain level. As a result quantification of ethanol in blended petrol and biodiesel in blended diesel becomes an important issue. In this work, calibration models for the quantification of ethanol in the ethanol-petrol and biodiesel in the biodiesel-diesel blends of a particular batch were made using the combination of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) with principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS) and excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) with N-way Partial least square (N-PLS) and unfolded-PLS. The PCR, PLS, N-PLS and unfolded-PLS calibration models were evaluated through measures like root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and square of the correlation coefficient (R(2)). The prediction abilities of the models were tested using a testing set of ethanol-petrol and biodiesel-diesel blends of known ethanol and biodiesel concentrations, error in the predictions made by the models were found to be less than 2%. The obtained calibration models are highly robust and capable of estimating low as well as high concentrations of ethanol and biodiesel. PMID:21909636

  18. Effect of sample geometry on synchronous fluorimetric analysis of petrol, diesel, kerosene and their mixtures at higher concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, D.; Mishra, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    A comparison of synchronous fluorescence scan (SFS) spectra of petrol, diesel and their mixtures with kerosene in front surface, 45{sup o} and 90{sup o} angle sample geometry as obtainable from a commercial fluorimeter reveals that 90{sup o} angle geometry provides certain distinct characteristics to SFS spectra. The presence of extensive inner filter effects and resonance energy transfer in petroleum products are the major causes of the distinctive characteristics of these spectra. These characteristics enable the development of calibration plots for mixture samples (petrol-kerosene and diesel-kerosene) based on the shift in {gamma}{sub SFS{sup max}} and SFS intensity. This novel method shows promise in detecting and estimating the contamination of petrol and diesel by kerosene. Calibration graphs obtained from SFS intensity measurement are found to be efficacious in the whole range 0-90% v/v of kerosene, and give a good linearity in the adulteration range generally found in the field (0-50% v/v) for petrol and diesel. The method is simple, rapid and superior both in terms on sensitivity (0.1% v/v) and accuracy to other analytical methods used for petroleum product analysis. (Author)

  19. Analysis of Petrol and Diesel Vapour and Vehicle Engine Exhaust Gases Using Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Cheng, P.; Špan?l, Patrik

    2002-01-01

    Ro?. 16, - (2002), s. 1124-1134. ISSN 0951-4198 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/00/0632; GA ?R GA203/02/0737 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : SIFT-MS * petrol * vehicle exhaust gas Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.372, year: 2002

  20. Yearly measurements of blood lead in Swedish children since 1978: an update focusing on the petrol lead free period 1995–2001

    OpenAIRE

    Strömberg, Ulf; Lundh, Thomas; Schütz, A; Skerfving, Staffan

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aims: To assess blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) in children not exposed to petrol lead. In a previous paper we reported the results for the period 1978–94 (2441 children measured). A substantial decrease of B-Pb was found, which reflected a beneficial effect of gradual banning of petrol lead. Since 1994, petrol sold in Sweden has not contained lead. Methods: In the south of Sweden, each year from 1995 to 2001, B-Pb was measured in 329 boys and 345 girls, aged 7–11 years...

  1. Impact of Organic Solvents and Environmental Pollutants on the Physiological Function in Petrol Filling Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Devender Reddy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Long term exposure to solvents and air pollutants can lead to deleterious effects on respiratory, haematological and thyroid functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic exposure to solvents like benzene and pollutants like carbon monoxide in petrol filling workers had adverse effect on blood parameters, thyroid and respiratory functions. The study group consisted of 42 healthy, non-smoker petrol filling workers, aged 20-50 years with work (exposure duration from 2-15 years while 36 healthy subjects of the same age group served as controls. Physical examination and measurement of pulmonary functions by portable electronic spirometer were performed. Complete blood pictures (CBP were determined by normal haematology lab procedure and hormones by Chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA light absorption techniques. There was a significant decrease in the lung volumes and capacities; the restrictive pattern was more prevalent in the workers when compared with the control groups. But in the workers exposed for long period (more than 10 years the restrictive pattern was changed to mixed pattern. A significant increase in haemoglobin (Hb (>16 mg % and red blood cells (RBC (5.4 million cells/mm3 were observed in workers with longer period of exposure when compared with the control subjects (14.483 mg% and 4.83 million cells/mm3 for Hb and RBC respectively. White blood cell count except eosinophils and platelets were significantly lower in workers compared to controls. Marked increase in the tetra iodothyroinine (T4, free thyroxine (T4F level and significant decrease in thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH, and tri-iodothyronine (T3 were observed between long term exposed and non – exposed groups. Till now researchers focused only on the effect of solvents in workers professionally exposed to solvents without considering the effect of concomittant air pollution. The result obtained from present study indicates that there is a significant toxic effect of solvents and air pollutants on workers exposed for longer duration. Improved detection and prevention technologies are needed to answer environmentally related health questions for petrol filling workers.

  2. Comparative performance of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys [Department of Transport and Power Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Student Street 15, P.O. Box LT-53361, Kaunas Academy (Lithuania)

    2009-03-15

    This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on the biofuel kinematical viscosity, brake mean effective pressure (bmep), brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a diesel engine and its brake thermal efficiency (bte). Addition into RO from 2.5 to 7.5 vol% of ethanol and petrol its viscosity at ambient temperature of 20 C diminishes by 9.2-28.3% and 14.1-31.7%, respectively. Heating up to the temperature of 60 C the viscosity of pure RO, blends ERO2.5-7.5 and PRO2.5-10 further diminishes 4.2, 3.9-3.8 and 3.9-3.6 times. At 1800 min{sup -1} speed, the maximum brake mean effective pressure (bmep) higher up to 1.6% comparing with that of pure RO (0.77 MPa) ensure three agent blends EPRO5-7.5, whereas at rated 2200 min{sup -1} speed, the bmep higher by 5.6% can be obtained when fuelling the engine with blend PRO2.5. Brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) at maximum torque (240.2 g/kWh) and rated power (234.0 g/kWh) is correspondingly lower by 3.4% and 5.5% in comparison with pure RO when biofuel blends EPRO5 and PRO2.5 are used. The biggest brake thermal efficiency at maximum torque (0.40-0.41) and rated power (0.42-0.43) relative to that of RO (0.39) suggest blends PRO2.5 and EPRO5-7.5, respectively. (author)

  3. Impact of organic solvents and environmental pollutants on the physiological function in petrol filling workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzma, Nazia; Salar, B M Khaja Mohinuddin; Kumar, B Santhosh; Aziz, Nusrat; David, M Anthony; Reddy, V Devender

    2008-09-01

    Long term exposure to solvents and air pollutants can lead to deleterious effects on respiratory, haematological and thyroid functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic exposure to solvents like benzene and pollutants like carbon monoxide in petrol filling workers had adverse effect on blood parameters, thyroid and respiratory functions. The study group consisted of 42 healthy, non-smoker petrol filling workers, aged 20-50 years with work (exposure) duration from 2-15 years while 36 healthy subjects of the same age group served as controls. Physical examination and measurement of pulmonary functions by portable electronic spirometer were performed. Complete blood pictures (CBP) were determined by normal haematology lab procedure and hormones by Chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) light absorption techniques. There was a significant decrease in the lung volumes and capacities; the restrictive pattern was more prevalent in the workers when compared with the control groups. But in the workers exposed for long period (more than 10 years) the restrictive pattern was changed to mixed pattern. A significant increase in haemoglobin (Hb) (>16 mg %) and red blood cells (RBC) (5.4 million cells/mm3) were observed in workers with longer period of exposure when compared with the control subjects (14.483 mg% and 4.83 million cells/mm3 for Hb and RBC respectively). White blood cell count except eosinophils and platelets were significantly lower in workers compared to controls. Marked increase in the tetra iodothyroinine (T4), free thyroxine (T4F) level and significant decrease in thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH), and tri-iodothyronine (T3) were observed between long term exposed and non-exposed groups. Till now researchers focused only on the effect of solvents in workers professionally exposed to solvents without considering the effect of concomittant air pollution. The result obtained from present study indicates that there is a significant toxic effect of solvents and air pollutants on workers exposed for longer duration. Improved detection and prevention technologies are needed to answer environmentally related health questions for petrol filling workers. PMID:19139531

  4. Comparative performance of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on the biofuel kinematical viscosity, brake mean effective pressure (bmep), brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a diesel engine and its brake thermal efficiency (bte). Addition into RO from 2.5 to 7.5 vol% of ethanol and petrol its viscosity at ambient temperature of 20 deg. C diminishes by 9.2-28.3% and 14.1-31.7%, respectively. Heating up to the temperature of 60 deg. C the viscosity of pure RO, blends ERO2.5-7.5 and PRO2.5-10 further diminishes 4.2, 3.9-3.8 and 3.9-3.6 times. At 1800 min-1 speed, the maximum brake mean effective pressure (bmep) higher up to 1.6% comparing with that of pure RO (0.77 MPa) ensure three agent blends EPRO5-7.5, whereas at rated 2200 min-1 speed, the bmep higher by 5.6% can be obtained when fuelling the engine with blend PRO2.5. Brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) at maximum torque (240.2 g/kWh) and rated power (234.0 g/kWh) is correspondingly lower by 3.4% and 5.5% in comparison with pure RO when biofuel blends EPRO5 and PRO2.5 are used. The biggest brake thermal efficiency at maximum torque (0.40-0.41) and rated power (0.42-0.43) relative to that of RO (0.39) suggest blends PRO2.5 and EPRO5-7.5, respectively

  5. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4: Perform research on the Proton Exchange membrane

  6. Petrol governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taminau, Y.; Vliet, M. van [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Public Management

    1995-12-31

    As the limits of the earth`s carrying capacity come to show, increasing pressure is brought to bear on private enterprise to behave in more environmentally responsible ways. One of the rare studies, that not only focuses on the enterprise level of analyse but at the industrial chain of production is Integrated Production Chain Management (IPCM), which postulates that the chain needs to be modified in its entirety. IPCM is not just a technical coordination problem but also a organizational problem in which different interests of actors play a role. These interests must be analysed. The present article will not go into the technical bottlenecks but will go into organizational bottlenecks that are the result of conflicts of interests. The choice between different technological options is not seen as a merely `technical` one but rather as a choice between different socio-technical (sub)systems. This choice is made in an interaction process in a network of various actors, each with their own perceptions and their own interests, in situations in which information is far from conclusive. (author)

  7. Some investigations in design of low cost variable compression ratio two stroke petrol engine

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivas, A; rao, P Venkateswar; Reddy, M Penchal

    2012-01-01

    Historically two stroke engine petrol engines find wide applications in construction of two wheelers worldwide, however due to stringent environmental laws enforced universally; these engines are fading in numbers. In spite of the tight norms, internationally these engines are still used in agriculture, gensets etc. Several designs of variable compression ratio two stroke engines are commercially available for analysis purpose. In this present investigation a novel method of changing the compression ratio is proposed, applied, studied and analyzed. The clearance volume of the engine is altered by introducing a metal plug into the combustion chamber. This modification permitted to have four different values of clearance value keeping in view of the studies required the work is brought out as two sections. The first part deals with the design, modification, engine fabrication and testing at different compression ratios for the study of performance of the engine. The second part deals with the combustion in engi...

  8. Latent heat storage modules for preheating internal combustion engines: application to a bus petrol engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L.L.; Burak, V.S.; Kulakov, A.G.; Mishkinis, D.A.; Bohan, P.V. [Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, Minsk (Belarus)

    2000-07-01

    The heat storage (HS) system for pre-heating a bus petrol engine before its ignition was mathematically modelled and experimentally investigated. The development of such devices is an extremely urgent problem especially for regions with a cold climate. HS system working on the effect of absorption and rejection of heat during the solid-liquid phase change of HS material is realised, tested and results of R and D are discussed. Numerical modelling was performed to calculate the HS mass-dimensional parameters. In the experimental part of the paper results of experiments on the pre-heating device to start a carburettor engine and analysis of data received are given. There is a good correlation between the experimental data and the results of numerical modelling of HS system functioning. (author)

  9. Condition monitoring of valve clearance fault on a small four strokes petrol engine using vibration signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songpon Klinchaeam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies condition monitoring technique of a small four strokes, single cylinder petrol engine using vibrationsignal analysis based on time domain, crank angle domain, and signal energy. Vibration signals are acquired from the cylinderhead of the engine and used to describe engine processes such as intake/exhaust valve operations, ignition process, andcombustion process. In this study, vibration signals have been applied to monitor various fault conditions in the engine suchas intake and exhaust valve clearance faults. Vibration signals acquired in time domain could be mapped onto crank angledomain using top dead center signal. Time domain techniques were used to analyze vibration signals so that the main eventsrelated to the engine operations could be described easily. Using energy analysis technique, all fault conditions could bealso identified. For future work, signal analysis techniques must be developed and the detected signals should be comparedwith other signals such as pressure signal in order to verify the accuracy of the results.

  10. The new V6 petrol engines; Die neuen V6-Ottomotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiser, A.; Fitzen, M.; Gessler, J.; Heiduk, T.; Mendle, J.; Pelzer, A. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    Two completely new V6 petrol engines based on the current V-engine range have been developed for use in the new Audi A6. The new V6 2.4 l 4V MPI engine represents the refinement-oriented basic power unit and the new 3.2l 4V FSI engine with direct injection the top end of the V6 range. (orig.) [German] Fuer den Einsatz im neuen Audi A6 wurden zwei voellig neue V6-Ottomotoren auf Basis der aktuellen V-Motoren-Baureihe entwickelt. Der neue V6-2,4-l-4V-MPI-Motor stellt die komfortorientierte Basismotorisierung dar, der neue 3,2-l-4V-FSI-Motor mit Direkteinspritzung die V6-Spitzenmotorisierung. (orig.)

  11. Cost effectiveness of introducing a new European evaporative emissions test procedure for petrol vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Gary; Martini, Giorgio; Mellios, Giorgos

    2014-10-01

    Evaporative emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) arise from the vehicle's fuel system due to changes in ambient and vehicle temperatures, and contribute to urban smog. This paper presents an economic analysis of the societal costs and benefits of implementing a revised European evaporative emission test procedure for petrol vehicles under four scenarios for the period 2015-2040. The paper concludes that the most cost-effective option is the implementation of an aggressive purging strategy over 48 h and improved canister durability (scenario 2+). The average net benefit of implementing this scenario is €146,709,441 at a 6% discount rate. Per vehicle benefits range from €6-9 but when fuel savings benefits are added, total benefits range from €13-18. This is compared to average additional cost per vehicle of €9.

  12. Performance and Emission Studies of a SI Engine using Distilled Plastic Pyrolysis Oil-Petrol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Kareddula Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an experimental investigation is carried out to evaluate the use of plastic oil derived from waste plastic which used in a Spark Ignition engine. Experiments are conducted, the measured performance and emissions of plastic oil blends at different proportions are compared with the baseline operation of the SI engine running with gasoline fuel. Engine performance and exhaust gas emissions such as carbon monoxide, total unburned hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen are measured. From the experiments it is observed that 50% Distilled Plastic Pyrolysis Oil (50%DPPO exhibits the substantial enhancement in brake power, brake thermal efficiency and reduction in brake specific fuel consumption running at full load conditions among different blends and pure petrol. There is also noticed decrement of carbon dioxide and unburned hydrocarbons emissions at the same blend. The experimental result shows that plastic oil shall conveniently be used as a substitute to gasoline in the existing SI engines without any modifications.

  13. Device for improving the formation of the mixture in petrol engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barka, L.; Berta, G.; Kolta, P.; Koncz, I.

    1981-03-26

    The invention concerns a device for improving the formation of the mixture in petrol engines, where a pressure reducing device, mainly a Venturi pipe is built into the suction pipe. The purpose of the invention is to have an additional narrowing part after the Venturi pipe of the carburettor, which has a curved generatrix. The smallest diameter of the narrowing part should be about 90% of the suction pipe diameter, the length of the narrowing part 50% or better still 15-25% of the suction pipe diameter. The efficiency of atomisation can be improved by the use of the proposed device, and combustion can be made more complete, which is connected with an improvement of formation of the mixture. All this can produce fuel saving of 5-8% in such engines.

  14. Price setting under cost uncertainty and menu costs - the case of the Danish petrol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper derives the optimal pricing policy for a firm facing menu costs and stochastic production cost. The pricing policy is a boundary pricing policy and numerical comparative static analysis shows how exogenous parameters - the drift and variance of the production cost, the discount factor and the menu costs - affect the boundaries. Analyzing daily data for the Danish petrol price illustrates that a boundary pricing policy indeed has been followed for the period 1988-1992, with occasional shifts in both the desired mark-up and more importantly in the width of the bounds. While the theoretical model can say nothing of the shifts in desired mark-up, changes in the width of the bounds are found to be consistent with the implications of the model. (au)

  15. Modeling for Friction of Four Stroke Four Cylinder In-Line Petrol Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Mishra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A four stroke four cylinder in-line petrol engine is modeled to estimate various performance parameters. The solution is based on tribology and dynamics principle. The detailed parameters relating to engine friction and lubrication are computed numerically for the engine firing order 1-3-4-2. The numerical method is based on finite difference method that solves coupled Reynolds Equation and Energy Equation. Output includes the movie thickness, friction force, friction power loss and temperature rise in the ring liner conjunction in all four cylinders. Transient regime of ring liner lubrication isaddressed while the same changes from hydrodynamic to mixed in an engine cycle. Momentary cessation near the top and bottom dead center that causes boundary interaction is analyzed through asperity contact. The non - Newtonian behavior of lubricant film due to pressure and temperature is addresses using viscosity -pressure- temperature inter relationship.

  16. Comparison of sugar beet derived ETBE and MTBE from natural gas in blends with petrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walwijk, M. [Innas, Breda (Netherlands)

    1996-04-01

    The energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emissions and costs of the production and use of ETBE (ethyl tertiary butyl ether) and MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) as a petrol component are discussed. Both the current situation and an estimation for the year 2006 are described, for the Dutch situation. Sugar beets available at an ethanol production plant are the starting point for ETBE production in the underlying study. Natural gas is the feed stock under consideration for MTBE production. The production of sugar beets absorbs CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. Ethanol from beet conversion and methanol from natural gas conversion can be converted into ETBE and MTBE. On a volumetric basis, 18% less methanol, compared to ethanol, is required to produce equal amounts of ETBE and MTBE. Energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions for the route from alcohol (via conversion to ether) to vehicle use can be considered to be similar for ETBE and MTBE. Consequently, the difference in CO{sub 2} emissions between the well to wheel chains of ETBE and MTBE is equal to the difference in production of the respective alcohols. Because CO{sub 2} is produced when ETBE and MTBE are combusted in the vehicle engine, the total well to wheel chain for both ethers results in net CO{sub 2} emissions. Capital and operating costs for large scale methanol production are considerably smaller than for ethanol production. The production of sugar beets is not included in the ethanol production costs. The costs of distribution and use of ETBE and MTBE containing petrols are similar. 3 figs., 15 tabs., 7 appendices, 21 refs.

  17. Ham Petrol Fiyat Art??lar?n?n Enflasyonist Etkisi: Seçilmi? OECD Ülkeleri ?çin Yap?sal K?r?lmal? Dinamik Panel Veri Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MERCAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bu çal??mada; petrol ithalatç?s? olan OECD üyesi seçilmi? 15 ülke için, 1960-2011 döneminde ham petrol ithal fiyatlar?n?n enflasyon üzerindeki etkileri incelenmi?tir. Analizde, herhangi bir ülkede meydana gelen bir makroekonomik ?okun di?er ülkeleri de etkileyece?i varsay?m?n? yani yatay kesit ba??ml?l???n? dikkate alan panel birim kök ve e?bütünle?me testleri uygulanm??, seriler aras?nda e?bütünle?me ili?kisinin varl??? tespit edilmi?tir. Uzun Dönem E?bütünle?me Katsay?lar? Tahmin sonuçlar?na göre ham petrol ithal fiyat art??lar? ve ekonomik büyümenin enflasyonu artt?rd???, ekonomik büyümenin enflasyonist etkisinin, ham petrol ithal fiyatlar?n?n etkisinden daha fazla oldu?u bulgusuna ula??lm??t?r.

  18. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  19. Prices at the filling station and far journeys; Pompprijzen en verre reizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van ' t Wel, R.

    2011-03-15

    Car drivers in Western Europe are paying the highest fuel prices at the filling station. The Netherlands is in the leading group when it comes to the prices of petrol and diesel. This is the outcome of a study conducted by the German research organization GTZ among 174 countries. [Dutch] Automobilisten in Westeuropa betalen aan de pomp de hoogste prijzen voor brandstof. Nederland bevindt zich voor wat betreft de prijs voor diesel en benzine in de kopgroep. Dat blijkt uit een studie van de Duitse onderzoeksorganisatie GTZ onder 174 landen.

  20. Serpentes da Bacia petrolífera de Urucu, município de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil Snakes of the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Um inventário estruturado de serpentes foi realizado na Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura (BOGPM, localizada na Bacia Petrolífera de Urucu, Município de Coari, Amazonas, nos anos de 2003, 2004 e 2007. Nas quatro expedições realizadas (51 dias de coleta foram registradas 47 espécies de serpentes, pertencentes a sete famílias e 33 gêneros. Foram utilizados quatro métodos complementares de amostragem de serpentes: armadilha de interceptação e queda, encontros ocasionais, procura limitada por tempo a pé e procura limitada por tempo de carro. Das 47 espécies coletadas, Liophis reginae (n= 14, Philodryas viridissima (n= 9, Philodryas boulengeri (n= 7 e Oxybelis fulgidus (n= 7 foram as mais abundantes em toda região. O maior número de espécies e espécimes foi registrado pela procura limitada por tempo de carro (52,8%. Estudos anteriores indicam que as localidades ao sul do Rio Amazonas (como região Leste do Pará, Usina Hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, e de Samuel, Estado de Rondônia apresentam maior riqueza quando comparadas às regiões ao norte do Amazonas (como Município de Manaus, Reserva do INPA-WWF e Usina Hidrelétrica de Balbina, Estado do Amazonas. Desta forma, é possível inferir que o levantamento das serpentes da região de Urucu ainda não esteja completo, sendo necessário um maior esforço de coleta para que novos registros sejam adicionados para a área.A structured snake inventory was carried out at the Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura (BOGPM, located at the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, during 2003, 2004 and 2007. Throughout four sampling expeditions (51 collection days, seven species of snakes, belonging to seven families and 33 genera, were recorded. Four complementary sampling methods were used: pitfall traps with drift fence, occasional encounters, time-limited search on foot and time-limited search by car. Of the 47 collected species Liophis reginae (n= 14, Philodryas viridissima (n= 9, Philodryas boulengeri (n= 7 and Oxybelis fulgidus (n= 7 were the most abundant in the region. The highest number of species and specimens was obtained by the time-limited search by car (n=52.8%. Previous studies indicate that localities south of the Amazonas river (such as the eastern region of Pará and Tucuruí, state of Para, and Samuel Hydroelectric Plants, state of Rondônia present a greater richness when compared to those north of the Amazonas river (such as the mucipality of Manaus, INPA-WWF Reserve and Balbina Hydroelectric Plant, state of Amazonas.Thus, it is possible to infer that the snake inventory in Urucu region is not yet complete, requiring more sampling efforts so that new records can be obtained for the area.

  1. Role of compost, bentonite and calcium oxide in restricting the effect of soil contamination with petrol and diesel oil on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowski, Miros?aw; Ziólkowska, Agnieszka

    2009-02-01

    The studies have been initiated to find a way to use compost, bentonite and calcium oxide in order to reduce the effect of contaminated soil with a small amount of petrol or diesel oil on the yield and nitrogen content in crop plants--spring rape and oats cultivated as the main and aftercrop. Petrol and diesel oil had a toxic effect on the growth of the plants and modified nitrogen content, with the intensity of the effect depending upon their type and dose and on the type of applied substance reducing the effect of oil derivatives. Spring rape (main crop), was more sensitive, and oats (aftercrop) was less so. Petroleum-derived substances reduced the yield of spring rape by a maximum of 73% for petrol and by as much as 99% for diesel oil. Nitrogen content was higher for spring rape than for oats and larger for petrol than for diesel oil. Adding bentonite, calcium oxide or compost to the soil contaminated with oil derivatives usually reduced the negative effect of petrol and diesel oil on plant growth and reduced the protein nitrogen content and increased the total nitrogen content in plants. Bentonite proved to be the most effective, with calcium oxide and compost slightly less so. The most positive results were obtained for spring rape as the main crop. An addition of compost, bentonite and calcium oxide to soil had a stronger modifying effect on nitrogen content in plants on soils contaminated by diesel oil than petrol. PMID:19081125

  2. Reduced risk of acute poisoning in Australian cattle from used motor oils after introduction of lead-free petrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burren, B G; Reichmann, K G; McKenzie, R A

    2010-06-01

    Lead (Pb) poisoning of cattle has been relatively common in Australia and sump oil has been identified as an important cause of Pb toxicity for cattle because they seem to have a tendency to drink it. Lead-free petrol has been available in Australia since 1975, so the aim of this study was to assess the current risk to cattle from drinking used automotive oils. Sump or gear box oil was collected from 56 vehicles being serviced. The low levels of Pb found suggest that the removal of leaded petrol from the Australian market as a public health measure has benefited cattle by eliminating the risk of acute poisoning from used engine oil. PMID:20553575

  3. To feed on both regular grade petrol and bio-ethanol; Rouler a l'essence et au bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pijaudier-Cabot, F.

    2006-06-15

    Flex fuel (E85) is a bio-fuel made up of ethanol and at least 15% of regular grade petrol (in order to enable the vehicle to start from cold). The French government has set a task force named Flex Fuel 2010 whose aim is to develop the use of flex fuel. A proportion of 7.5% of bio-fuels incorporated in car fuels is targeted for 2010. The next step will be to reach 10% in 2015 which is twice as much as imposed by the European Union. The Flex fuel allows a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions by 70%. At the beginning of next decade, a significant part of the car population will have to be able to feed indiscriminately on regular petrol or on bio-fuels as it is already the case in Brazil and in Sweden. (A.C.)

  4. Lobbying na Regulação Contábil: Evidências do Setor Petrolífero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilanei Morais dos Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar os fatores determinantes à submissão de cartas comentários, como estratégia de lobbying no contexto da regulação contábil, à audiência pública do Discussion Paper Extractive Activities do International Accounting Standards Board IASB.Os resultados mostram o tamanho como fator determinante, em todas as modelagens utilizadas, indicando que grandes empresas petrolíferas possuem maior probabilidade para realizar lobbying. Essa propensão é verificada para posicionamentos essencialmente desfavoráveis às propostas apresentadas pelo IASB, o que implica em considerar que a revisão/substituição do International Financial Reporting Standard -IFRS6 será um processo complexo e sujeito a pressões por parte das empresas petrolíferas para manter o status quo.

  5. Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Mackinnon, G; Mackenzie, A. B.; Cook, G. T.; Pulford, I.D.; Duncan, H.J.; Scott, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within ...

  6. The Effects of Exposure to Petrol Vapours on Growth, Haematological Parameters and Oxidative Markers in Sprague-Dawley Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    ABUBAKAR, Murtala Bello; ABDULLAH, Wan Zaidah; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; ANG, Boon Suen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Petrol is known to be hazardous to human health and is associated with various health effects, such as haematotoxicity and oxidative stress. Although Malaysia has adopted the European fuel quality standards in recent years in order to reduce petroleum pollutants and to improve air quality, gasoline with research octane number 95 (RON95), believed to contain benzene and other toxic substances, is still widely used all over the country. This study assessed the effect of RON95 gasoli...

  7. Utilization of Microphone Sensors and an Active Filter for the Detection and Identification of Detonation (Knock) in a Petrol Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Sujono

    2014-01-01

    This research proposes a new method for detecting detonation (knock), that is to say the use of microphone sensors and active filters are combined with the identification of the vibration pattern of the engine sound.This is because,in terms of increasingthe fuel efficiency and power of a petrol combustion engine, the problem of detonation is a very serious issue. For this reason, the accurate, rapid and real time detection and identification of detonation also still needs to be developed. Mic...

  8. An influence of the petrol pump for the atmospheric electric field distribution in the surroundings of the vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanovi? Alenka

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the potential and electric field distribution in the surroundings of the cargo vehicles is approximately numerically determined, when they are exposed to the Atmospheric Electric Field (AEF), having uniform intensity and vertical polarization. The cases of the cargo vehicles either isolated or near by petrol pumps are observed. Several results of total induced charge and electrical moment of the vehicle including maps of equipotential and equienergetic curves are presented. The ...

  9. World future prospects of natural gas industry and research programs on natural gas led by Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a general overview on future prospects of world natural gas industry till 2020. In a first part, statistical data on energy demand, natural gas resources, natural gas and liquefied natural gas production and transport, supply, trade, costs and prices are offered. In the second part, the paper describes briefly research programs led by Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) in several fields: exploration and underground storage, production and transport, treatment and liquefaction, gas uses. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Th effectiveness of soot removal techniques for the recovery of fingerprints on glass fire debris in petrol bomb cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased use of petrol bombs as an act of vengeance in Malaysia has heightened awareness for the need of research relating physical evidence found at the crime scene to the perpetrator of the crime. A study was therefore carried out to assess the effectiveness of soot removal techniques on glass fire debris without affecting the fingerprints found on the evidence. Soot was removed using three methods which were brushing, 2 % NaOH solution and tape lifting. Depending on the visibility of prints recovered, prints which were visible after soot removal were lifted directly while prints that were not visible were subjected to enhancement. Glass microscope slides were used in laboratory experiment and subjected to control burn for the formation of soot. Soot was later removed following enhancement of the prints over time (within 1 day, within 2 days and after 2 days). While in simulated petrol bomb ground experiment, petrol bombs were hurled in glass bottles and the fragments were collected. Favorable results were obtained in varying degrees using each soot removal methods. In laboratory testing, brushing and 2 % NaOH solution revealed fingerprints that were visible after removal of excess soot and were lifted directly. As for tape lifting technique, some prints were visible and were successfully lifted while those that were not visible were subjected to super glue fuming for effective fingerprint identification. (author)

  11. Does Mandatory Attendance Improve Student Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marburger, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous empirical literature indicates that student performance is inversely correlated with absenteeism. The author investigates the impact of enforcing an attendance policy on absenteeism and student performance. The evidence suggests that an enforced mandatory attendance policy significantly reduces absenteeism and improves exam performance.

  12. A Study on Attendance and Academic Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Kristian J.; Bignoux, Stephane

    , we examine the link between attendance and exam results. Unlike prior research on this topic, our findings show that attendance is not the best determinant of student performance. We find instead that the best determinant of student performance for third year bachelor students is their over...

  13. Petrol contaminated groundwater treatment with air-stripper in Balassagyarmat, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater is a common environmental problem in Hungary. Leakage of underground storage tanks, pipe break or illegal tapping as well as lorry accidents can be mentioned as main reasons. MEGATERRA Ltd. elaborated, adopted and tested several groundwater clean-up methods. These methods are based on detailed survey and investigation, sampling and analysis, delineation of contaminated groundwater, risk assessment, establishment of monitoring wells, pumping tests and remediation action plan. One of these methods was implemented by MEGATERRA Ltd. in Balassagyarmat, Hungary. Contamination source was a 10 m3 vol. simple wall underground fuel-storage tank, which had been emptied. When the remediation started in April 1998, the petrol had already been accumulated on the ground water table forming a 5-7 m wide and 10-15 m long plume being expanded to SSE-NNW direction. The area of the dissolved hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater-body was 1 000 m2 and its concentration reached up to 30-40 mg/l TPH. The free-phase hydrocarbon layer was 10 cm thick. For the remediation of contaminated groundwater MEGATERRA Ltd. applied pump and treat method, namely groundwater pumping using extraction well, skimming of free-phase hydrocarbon, stripping of the contaminated ground water in air-stripper tower and draining of the treated groundwater into a drainage ditch. In the centre of the plume we established an extraction well with 300 mm diameter in a 500 mm borehole. Peristaltic skimmer pump was used inside the extraction well to remove the free phase petrol from the ground water surface.Because of the intense volatility of the pollutant we applied aeration (stripping) technology. The extracted contaminated groundwater was cleaned in air-stripper equipment being able to eliminate efficiently the volatile pollutants from the water. The aeration tower is a compact cylindrical shaped column with 650 mm in diameter. Its height depends on the pollutant's type The extracted contaminated groundwater was conducted to the top of the tower and sprinkled into the air- stripper. A ventilator was connected to the bottom of the stripper, which blew the air with high pressure against the water stream. During the operation 4 544 m3 groundwater was pumped out, cleaned, drained and 110 l of free phase hydrocarbon was skimmed

  14. Petrol contaminated groundwater treatment with air-stripper in Balassagyarmat, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Peter; Bernath, Balazs [MEGATERRA Environmental Engineering Office Ltd., 15 Herman Otto Street, Budapest 1022 (Hungary)

    2005-07-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater is a common environmental problem in Hungary. Leakage of underground storage tanks, pipe break or illegal tapping as well as lorry accidents can be mentioned as main reasons. MEGATERRA Ltd. elaborated, adopted and tested several groundwater clean-up methods. These methods are based on detailed survey and investigation, sampling and analysis, delineation of contaminated groundwater, risk assessment, establishment of monitoring wells, pumping tests and remediation action plan. One of these methods was implemented by MEGATERRA Ltd. in Balassagyarmat, Hungary. Contamination source was a 10 m{sup 3} vol. simple wall underground fuel-storage tank, which had been emptied. When the remediation started in April 1998, the petrol had already been accumulated on the ground water table forming a 5-7 m wide and 10-15 m long plume being expanded to SSE-NNW direction. The area of the dissolved hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater-body was 1 000 m{sup 2} and its concentration reached up to 30-40 mg/l TPH. The free-phase hydrocarbon layer was 10 cm thick. For the remediation of contaminated groundwater MEGATERRA Ltd. applied pump and treat method, namely groundwater pumping using extraction well, skimming of free-phase hydrocarbon, stripping of the contaminated ground water in air-stripper tower and draining of the treated groundwater into a drainage ditch. In the centre of the plume we established an extraction well with 300 mm diameter in a 500 mm borehole. Peristaltic skimmer pump was used inside the extraction well to remove the free phase petrol from the ground water surface.Because of the intense volatility of the pollutant we applied aeration (stripping) technology. The extracted contaminated groundwater was cleaned in air-stripper equipment being able to eliminate efficiently the volatile pollutants from the water. The aeration tower is a compact cylindrical shaped column with 650 mm in diameter. Its height depends on the pollutant's type The extracted contaminated groundwater was conducted to the top of the tower and sprinkled into the air- stripper. A ventilator was connected to the bottom of the stripper, which blew the air with high pressure against the water stream. During the operation 4 544 m{sup 3} groundwater was pumped out, cleaned, drained and 110 l of free phase hydrocarbon was skimmed.

  15. A Study on Attendance and Academic Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Kristian J.; Bignoux, Stephane

    In this study we attempt to answer Romer’s (1993) question: “Should attendance be mandatory?” Contrary to many existing studies, we conclude that in the case of business and management programs the answer is ‘no’. In a study of over 900 undergraduate strategy students, spanning four academic years, we examine the link between attendance and exam results. Unlike prior research on this topic, our findings show that attendance is not the best determinant of student performance. We find instead that the best determinant of student performance for third year bachelor students is their over-all degree classification, which we see as a proxy for academic ability. We suggest that attendance may simply be a reflection of student conscientiousness, engagement and motivation. We also challenge the assumptions about gender differences found in prior research on student attendance and student performance. We do not find such differences to be consistently significant in our study.

  16. Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds-0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h-1. Emission factors and their relative values between the two fuel types together with a statistical significance for any difference were estimated for each parameter. In general, LPG was found to be a 'cleaner' fuel, although in most cases, the differences were not statistically significant owing to the large variations between emissions from different vehicles. The particle number emission factors ranged from 1011 to 1013 km-1 and was over 70% less with LPG compared to ULP. Corresponding differences in particle mass emission factor between the two fuels were small and ranged from the order of 10 ?g km-1 at 40 to about 1000 ?g km-1 at 100 km h-1. The count median particle diameter (CMD) ranged from 20 to 35 nm and was larger with LPG than with ULP in all modes except the idle mode. Carbon dioxide emission factors ranged from about 300 to 400 g km-1 at 40 km h-1, falling with increasing speed to about 200 g km-1 at 100 km h-1. At all speeds, the values were 10% to 18% greater with ULP than with LPG

  17. Environmental Analysis of Petrol, Diesel and Electric Passenger Cars in a Belgian Urban Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Hooftman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The combustion of fossil fuels in the transport sector leads to an aggravation of the air quality along city roads and highways. Urban air quality is a serious problem nowadays as the number of vehicles increases on a yearly basis. With stricter Euro emission regulations, vehicle manufacturers are not meeting the imposed limits and are also disregarding the non-exhaust emissions. This paper highlights the relevance of non-exhaust emissions of passenger vehicles, both conventional (diesel and petrol or electric vehicles (EV, on air quality levels in an urban environment in Belgium. An environmental life cycle assessment was carried out based on a real-world emission model for passenger cars and fuel refinery data. A cut-off was applied to the models to highlight what emissions, both from the refinery to the exhaust and electricity production for EV, do actually occur within Belgium’s borders. Results show that not much progress has been made from Euro 4 to 6 for conventional vehicles. Electric vehicles pose the best alternative solution as a more environmentally friendly means of transportation. The analysis results target policy makers with the intention that regulations and policies would be developed in the future and target the characterization of non-exhaust emissions from vehicles. These results indicate that EVs offer a valid solution for addressing the urban air quality issue and that non-exhaust emissions should be addressed in future regulatory steps as they dominate the impact spectrum.

  18. Specifying Complex Systems in Object-Z: A Case Study of Petrol Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangping Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As modern complex systems become increasingly large, sophisticated, feature-rich and data-intensive, people have recognized the importance of precisely and unambiguously specifying them with formal methods for a number of years. This paper advocates the use of Object-Z, a formal specification language, in the description of complex systems. Object-Z is an extension to the Z language to facilitate specification in an object-oriented style. The notation Object-Z builds on Z's strengths in modeling complex data and algorithms, and on its new class structuring's strengths in succinctly specifying the various relationships and communication between objects in a large system. In detail, first we describe informally the syntax and semantics of Object-Z, highlighting those features that facilitate decomposing a large system into a collection of interacting objects and thus separating concerns. Then, we demonstrate the use of Object-Z by presenting a case study of a petrol supply system, illustrating how the system runs by communicating the constituent objects. Finally, we discuss several issues we encountered in this exercise, which may serve as feedback to the development of Object-Z.

  19. Current status of actual fuel-consumptions of petrol-fuelled passenger vehicles in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudoh, Yuki; Kondo, Yoshinori; Matsuhashi, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Shinji; Moriguchi, Yuichi [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-11-01

    An actual fuel-consumption (FC) database with hierarchic structure was established based upon voluntary reported fuel-consumption log data collected through an internet-connected mobile-phone system. The current status of the actual FC in Japan has been investigated by the database and CO{sub 2} emissions from petrol-fuelled passenger vehicles (PVs) were estimated. It was confirmed that there lies a statistically-significant difference between actual FC and Japanese 10.15 mode FC and that the actual FCs differ by geographical and social aspects. In addition, the estimated actual FC-based CO{sub 2} emissions were consistent with the present CO{sub 2} emissions. Since a large amount of CO{sub 2} emissions mitigation in the transportation sector is expected by improving the FC of motorcars, the following items are required to significantly reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions in the motorcar sector: (1) comprehensive measures to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions regarding actual FC, (2) R and D of motorcars with high actual FC and (3) endorsement and execution of environmentally-friendly driving to improve actual FC. [Author].

  20. Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristovski, Z D; Jayaratne, E R; Morawska, L; Ayoko, G A; Lim, M

    2005-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds--0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h(-1). Emission factors and their relative values between the two fuel types together with a statistical significance for any difference were estimated for each parameter. In general, LPG was found to be a 'cleaner' fuel, although in most cases, the differences were not statistically significant owing to the large variations between emissions from different vehicles. The particle number emission factors ranged from 10(11) to 10(13) km(-1) and was over 70% less with LPG compared to ULP. Corresponding differences in particle mass emission factor between the two fuels were small and ranged from the order of 10 microg km(-1) at 40 to about 1000 microg km(-1) at 100 km h(-1). The count median particle diameter (CMD) ranged from 20 to 35 nm and was larger with LPG than with ULP in all modes except the idle mode. Carbon dioxide emission factors ranged from about 300 to 400 g km(-1) at 40 km h(-1), falling with increasing speed to about 200 g km(-1) at 100 km h(-1). At all speeds, the values were 10% to 18% greater with ULP than with LPG. PMID:15919531

  1. A case of acute gasoline intoxication at the scene of washing a petrol tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamiya, Masataka; Niitsu, Hisae; Saigusa, Kiyoshi; Kanetake, Jun; Aoki, Yasuhiro

    2003-09-01

    We encountered a case of acute gasoline intoxication at the scene of washing the inner wall of a petrol tank. The decedent was a 50-year-old male, who was the supervisor. Two young workers wearing mask respirators began to wash the inner wall of the gasoline tank under poor ventilation. About 1 h later, because one of the workers lost consciousness, the supervisor entered the tank, without a mask respirator, to rescue the worker. However, the supervisor immediately fainted, and died 26 h after the accident. In the autopsy, blisters were observed on the skin of the face, neck, anterior chest, upper extremities, and back. The heart contained hemolyzed blood. Histologically, hemorrhagic pulmonary edema, pneumonia, and proximal tubular necrosis were found. In the toxicological analyzes, toluene, xylene, and trimethylbenzene were detected in the blood, brain, and gastric contents. Toluene concentrations in the blood and brain were 0.3 mug/ml and 3.7 mug/g, respectively. Since pathological findings were consistent with the reported findings concerning gasoline intoxication, and constituents of gasoline were in the body, death was attributed to acute gasoline intoxication. It was considered that sufficient ventilation and proper use of a mask respirator were essential for this kind of work. PMID:14568777

  2. Aç?k Deniz Petrol Platformu Modellemesinde Yapay Sinir A?lar? Yakla??m?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan MENTE?

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çal??mada, Karadeniz’in derin sular?nda petrol üretimi yap?lacak bir bölgede hizmet verecek çok noktal? tanker-?amand?ra ba?lama sisteminin modellemesi, Yapay Sinir A?lar? (ANN yakla??m? kullan?larak yap?lacakt?r. Ba?lang?çta, ele al?nan platform modeli, OrcaFlex program?na tan?t?lacakt?r. Daha sonra, bölgede etkin çevre ko?ullar? (rüzgar, dalga, ak?nt? vb. dikkate al?narak OrcaFlex program?nda bir set simülasyon çal??mas? gerçekle?tirilecektir. Elde edilen ç?kt?lar, ANN modeli için ba?lang?ç girdi de?erleri olacakt?r. ANN modeli kullan?larak, çok farkl? çevre ?artlar?nda olas? gerilme, yer de?i?tirme miktarlar?, ba?lama ?ekli, ba?lama yeri vb. tahmini mümkün olacakt?r. Bu modelin farkl? platform ?ekilleri için kullan?lmas?, de?i?ik operasyon ?artlar? için en güvenilir platform modelinin tespitinde önemli bir rol oynayacakt?r.

  3. LEG CONQUASATION CAUSED BY PETROL TILLER WITH OPEN LOWER LEG FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Golubovi?

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a 71-year old patient admitted to Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Clinic, Clinical Center Niš for the right leg conquasation. The patient was injured accidentally by a petrol tiller. On admission, both thigh and lower leg conquasation was observed with large wound on anteromedial thigh and one on medial side of the lower leg. Soft tissue and bones were covered with dirt and pieces of clothing. The wounds were thoroughly rinsed and dirt was removed followed by detailed debridement. After primary surgical treatment of the wound, open proximal lower leg fracture was stabilized with external skeletal fixation using two nails in the proximal and two nails in the distal fragment. Soft tissue defect was treated by plastic surgeon. The patient was administered anti-tetanus protection, antibiotic treatment and anticoagulant prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. Physical therapy was initiated subsequent to successful healing of the soft tissue wounds. External skeletal fixation was removed after three months for infection around the proximal nails and the treatment was contuinued using functional Sarmiento’s plaster imobilization leading to full recovery of open lower leg fracture.

  4. Did the elimination of lead from petrol reduce crime in the USA in the 1990s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the evidence for the hypothesis that a decline in all types of crime since the early 1990s in the USA was a consequence of removing lead from petrol between 1975 and 1985. It describes ecological and econometric studies that have generally but not always found correlations between lead exposures in childhood and some types of crime 20 years later; a small number of epidemiological studies that have found a dose-response relationship between lead exposure in childhood and self-reported and officially recorded criminal offences in young adulthood; and evidence for the biological plausibility of a causal relationship. Lead exposure in childhood may have played a small role in rising and falling crime rates in the USA but it is unlikely to account for the very high percentage of the decline suggested by the ecological studies. The major anomaly in the evidence is that the associations reported in ecological studies are much stronger (explaining 56-90% of the variation in crime rates) than the weaker relationships found in the cohort studies (that typically explain less than 1% of the variance in offending).  Suggestions are made for research that will better assess the contribution that reduced lead exposure has made to declining crime rates in the USA. PMID:24555074

  5. TOPSIS Multi-Criteria Decision Modeling Approach for Biolubricant Selection for Two-Stroke Petrol Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Dehghani Soufi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust pollutants from two-stroke petrol engines are a problem for the environment. Biolubricants are a new generation of renewable and eco-friendly vegetable-based lubricants, which have attracted a lot of attention in recent years. In this paper, the applicability of the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method to support the process of building the scoring system for selecting an appropriate two-stroke lubricant has been analyzed. For this purpose, biolubricants (TMP-triesters based on castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil were produced and then utilized in a 200 cc two-stroke gasoline engine to investigate their effects on its performance and exhaust emissions. The results obtained from the use of the entropy technique in the TOPSIS algorithm showed that palm oil-based lubricant took up the greatest distance from the Negative Ideal Solution (NIS and was selected as the most optimal lubricant for these types of engines.

  6. Performance Characteristics of Oxy Hydrogen Gas on Two Stroke Petrol Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Ajay Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to conserve petroleum fuels for future and to eliminate the above limitations there is a need of alternative and innovative fuel. Amongst many alternative fuels available oxy hydrogen gas and producer gas are under study in this research work. Electrolysis of water can give us hydrogen in form of Brown’s gas (HHO gas or oxy-hydrogen gas, which can be used as an alternative fuel for any internal combustion engine. Various methods for the generation of oxy-hydrogen gas are discussed in the coming paragraphs. An agricultural waste like rice husk, wood dust, and dried coconut leaves etc can also be used as an alternative fuels. An attempt has been made in this work to use alternative fuel in two stroke petrol engine. Our fore most aim in selecting this project is to use nonconventional fuel against conventional fuel which is becoming scarce and costly now days. The combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel with air produces mainly carbon dioxide (CO2 and Water (H2O. However, internal combustion engines are not perfectly efficient, so some of the fuel is not burned, which results in the presence of hydrocarbons (HC other organic compounds, carbon monoxide (CO and forming mainly nitric oxide (NO.

  7. Emissions from Petrol Engine Fueled Gasoline–Ethanol–Methanol (GEM Ternary mixture as Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavelu Saravana Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demands of petroleum fuels due to the rapid development automotive society coupled with the environmental pollution issues have inspired the efforts on exploring alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Bioethanol obtained from biomass and bioenergy crops has been proclaimed as one of the feasible alternative to gasoline. In this study, the effect of gasoline–ethanol–methanol (GEM ternary blend on the emission characteristics of petrol engine was studied. Three different fuel blends, namely, E0 (gasoline, G75E21M4 (75% gasoline, 21% hydrous ethanol and 4% methanol and E25 (25% anhydrous ethanol and 75% gasoline were tested in a 1.3-l K3-VE spark-ignition engine. The results indicate that, when G75E21M4 fuel blend was used, a significant drop in CO, CO2, NOx and HC emissions by about 42%, 15%, 7% and 5.2% compared to E0, respectively. Moreover, the emission results for G75E21M4 are marginally lower than E25 whereas; HC emission was slightly higher than E25.

  8. Green fuels, growth engines after petroleum; Les carburants verts, moteurs de la croissance apres le petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mili, Dino

    2010-09-15

    The contribution of the new fuels to a greener environment is important and immediate. Thanks to clean novel technologies and to commercial plant projects in development, companies like Enerkem contribute to satisfy increasing global demand for clean energy. They stimulate local economies by creating jobs in an industry that offers real growth potential. Green fuels will gradually allow us to let go of non sustainable energy sources like oil to adopt a way of life based on sustainable development. They will also allow a shift towards a green economy. [French] La contribution des nouveaux carburants a un environnement plus vert est importante et immediate. Grace a des technologies propres novatrices et a des projets d'sines commerciales en developpement, des entreprises comme Enerkem contribuent a satisfaire a la demande mondiale croissante en energie propre. Elles stimulent les economies locales par la creation d'emplois dans une industrie qui offre un veritable potentiel de croissance. Les carburants verts permettront graduellement de nous affranchir des sources d'energie non renouvelables comme le petrole pour adopter un mode de vie base sur le developpement durable. Ils permettront aussi un virage vers une economie verte.

  9. Radio Frequency Identification Based Wireless Attendance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistry Tapasvee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been rise in the number of applications based on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID systems and have been successfully applied to different areas as diverse as transportation, health-care, agriculture, and hospitality industry to name a few. RFID technology facilitates automatic wireless identification using electronic passive and active tags with suitable readers. In this paper, an attempt is made to solve recurrent lecture attendance monitoring problem in developing countries using RFID technology. The application of RFID to student attendance monitoring as developed and deployed in this study is capable of eliminating time wasted during manual collection of attendance and an opportunity for the educational administrators to capture face-to-face classroom statistics for allocation of appropriate attendance scores and for further managerial decisions.

  10. FACE RECOGNITION BASED ATTENDANCE MARKING SYSTEM?

    OpenAIRE

    K.Senthamil Selvi; P.Chitrakala; A.Antony Jenitha?

    2014-01-01

    Automatic face recognition (AFR) technologies have seen dramatic improvements in performance over the past years, and such systems are now widely used for security and commercial applications. An automated system for human face recognition in a real time background for a college to mark the attendance of their employees. So Smart Attendance using Real Time Face Recognition is a real world solution which comes with day to day activities of handling employees. The task is very di...

  11. Consumer decision-making on festival attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Noman, Md. Abu

    2012-01-01

    It has been challenging for the festival organizers to sell their festival tickets due to overcrowded festival market. To increase the ticket sale it is becoming more important to know the consumers and their decision making on festival attendance. There are many factors that influence people to make decision over festival attendance and the main purpose of this study was to identify those factors. The research was conducted for GigsWiz.com Ltd. to help the company gather information about fe...

  12. Reducing non-attendance at outpatient clinics.

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, C A; Palmer, J H; Saxby, P J; Devaraj, V S

    1999-01-01

    Outpatient non-attendance is a common source of inefficiency in a health service, wasting time and resources and potentially lengthening waiting lists. A prospective audit of plastic surgery outpatient clinics was conducted during the six months from January to June 1997, to determine the clinical and demographic profile of non-attenders. Of 6095 appointments 16% were not kept. Using the demographic information, we changed our follow-up guidelines to reflect risk factors for multiple non-atte...

  13. Severe petrol contamination in the aquifer of the Llobregat river delta. Grave contaminacion por gasolina en el acuifero del delta del rio Llobregat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gonzalez, E.

    1993-07-01

    On 16-09-91 an attack on an oil pipeline led to some 70 tons of petrol spilling out and catching fire. About 20 tons filtered down into the aquifer of the river Llobregat delta. On 08-12-91 the presence of petrol was detected in a well used for supplying water about 1 km downstream. A system was set up for monitoring and extracting the polluted ground water. The volume affected had now reached 3.5 hm''3. The decontamination costs came to 245 million pesetas in comparison to only 10 millions pesetas for the petrol spill. The cost of extracting the water was 70 pta/m''3. Finally the importance of regional planning and the need to prevent such accidents is pointed out. The means necessary to deal with them should be available. (Author)

  14. Rapid NO 2 formation in diluted petrol-fuelled engine exhaust—A source of NO 2 in winter smog episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji Ping; Harrison, Roy M.

    Substantially enhanced rates of oxidation of nitric oxide have been found in petrol engine exhaust diluted with air in the dark. The main product of oxidation is nitrogen dioxide, but up to 20% of the oxidised NO can be in the form of other NO y species. Similarly enhanced NO oxidation rates are also found in the presence of petrol vapour. The kinetics of NO oxidation are close to zero order in NO, the rate being appreciably faster than the known thermal reaction 2NO + O 2 ? 2NO 2. Attempts to isolate the chemical species responsible for this rate enhancement from petrol vapour and engine exhaust have led to identification of 1-methyl-1,3-cyclopentadiene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene. A mechanism has been developed in which addition of NO 2 to a conjugated diene causes initiation of a free-radical chain oxidation. A simple numerical model incorporating this process is capable of explaining the observed rate enhancements.

  15. Is there an asymmetry in the response of diesel and petrol prices to crude oil price changes? Evidence from New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines how pre-tax petrol and diesel prices in New Zealand respond to changes in crude oil prices using an asymmetric error correction model. Our results show that oil companies adjust diesel prices upwards faster than they adjust them downwards, and the difference is statistically significant. However we find no statistical evidence for an asymmetry in the adjustment of petrol prices even though the magnitude of estimated coefficients suggests a faster response to rising prices. As diesel pricing is not as competitive as petrol pricing, calls for further government actions and monitoring of the oil market may be justified. Our findings also have important implications for the conduct of monetary policy as the pass-through of crude oil price changes can affect cost-push inflation. (author)

  16. Is there an asymmetry in the response of diesel and petrol prices to crude oil price changes? Evidence from New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming-Hua [Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau (Macau); Margaritis, Dimitris; Tourani-Rad, Alireza [Faculty of Business, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-07-15

    This paper examines how pre-tax petrol and diesel prices in New Zealand respond to changes in crude oil prices using an asymmetric error correction model. Our results show that oil companies adjust diesel prices upwards faster than they adjust them downwards, and the difference is statistically significant. However we find no statistical evidence for an asymmetry in the adjustment of petrol prices even though the magnitude of estimated coefficients suggests a faster response to rising prices. As diesel pricing is not as competitive as petrol pricing, calls for further government actions and monitoring of the oil market may be justified. Our findings also have important implications for the conduct of monetary policy as the pass-through of crude oil price changes can affect cost-push inflation. (author)

  17. Evaluation of exposure to benzene vapour during the loading of petrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Sherwood, R. J. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 65-69. Evaluation of exposure to benzene vapour during loading of petrol. The exposure of three workers to benzene vapour has been determined by personal air sampling, and has been related to their intake (assessed by sampling exhaled breath), and to their metabolism of benzene (evaluated from the concentration of phenol in urine.) The results obtained agree in general with those already published in the literature and with a preliminary experimental exposure undertaken as part of the development of techniques. The two loaders who handled the loading arms were exposed to mean concentrations of 1·6 and 2·5 p.p.m. over the 5-hour period of loading. The probability of their exposure to concentrations greater than 25 p.p.m. was about 0·1 and 1%. The weigher working between the tracks was exposed to a mean concentration of 20 p.p.m. over the same period and had a total exposure of 114 p.p.m.-hour. Samples of exhaled breath taken at the end of work showed 0·14 and 0·18 p.p.m. benzene for the loaders and 0·84 p.p.m. for the weigher. The following morning the latter showed 0·19 p.p.m. Urine samples taken from the loaders at the end of work contained 12 and 25 mg/l total phenol and for the weigher 83 mg/l. The following morning the phenol was not above natural levels in the loaders' urine, and was 38 mg/l in a sample from the weigher. It is suggested that any or all of the methods developed for this study could be used in conjunction with appropriate clinical studies to provide a more quantitative basis for determining the hazard of occupational exposure to benzene. Images PMID:5060247

  18. Origin and patterns of distribution of trace elements in street dust: Unleaded petrol and urban lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Eduardo de; Llamas, Juan F.; Chacón, Enrique; Berg, Torunn; Larssen, Steinar; Røyset, Oddvar; Vadset, Marit

    The elemental composition, patterns of distribution and possible sources of street dust are not common to all urban environments, but vary according to the peculiarities of each city. The common features and dissimilarities in the origin and nature of street dust were investigated through a series of studies in two widely different cities, Madrid (Spain) and Oslo (Norway), between 1990 and 1994. The most comprehensive sampling campaign was carried out in the Norwegian capital during the summer of 1994. An area of 14 km 2, covering most of downtown Oslo and some residential districts to the north of the city, was divided into 1 km2 mapping units, and 16 sampling increments of approximately 150 g were collected from streets and roads in each of them. The fraction below 100 ?m was acid-digested and analysed by ICP-MS. Statistical analyses of the results suggest that chemical elements in street dust can be classified into three groups: "urban" elements (Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Mg, Pb, Sb, Ti, Zn), "natural" elements (Al, Ga, La, Mn, Na, Sr, Th, Y) and elements of a mixed origin or which have undergone geochemical changes from their original sources (Ca, Cs, Fe, Mo, Ni, Rb, Sr, U). Soil resuspension and/or mobilisation appears to be the most important source of "natural" elements, while "urban" elements originate primarily from traffic and from the weathering and corrosion of building materials. The data for Pb seem to prove that the gradual shift from leaded to unleaded petrol as fuel for automobiles has resulted in an almost proportional reduction in the concentration of Pb in dust particles under 100 ?m. This fact and the spatial distribution of Pb in the city strongly suggest that lead sources other than traffic (i.e. lead accumulated in urban soil over the years) may contribute as much lead, if not more, to urban street dust.

  19. Production of synthetic petrol from bioalcohol. Final report; Erzeugung von synthetischem Benzin aus Bioalkohol. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The first part of this report deals with the conversion of alcohol into petrol on zeolite catalysts. These studies were aimed at reducing the undesirable formation of high-molecular hydrocarbon compounds (coke) on the catalyst surface, which significantly impairs catalyst performance. Using {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O isotope exchanged H-ZSM zeolites it was possible to describe the interaction between catalytically active centres and inhibiting hydrocarbon deposits in greater detail. The reactivating effect of hydrogen and alkanes on deactivated, monofunctional zeolites is attributed to the absence of a chemical bond between the coke and the Bronsted centre. The second part of the report addresses aspects of using bioethanol as a fuel. Here the ZSM-5 zeolite was studied in terms of its use not only as a catalyst but also for the adsorption of alcohol from aqueous media. The binding agent was found to have a significant influence on the selectivity of alcohol sorption. [German] Im ersten Teil des Berichtes wird auf die Umwandlung von Alkohol in Benzin an Zeolith-Katalysatoren eingegangen. Schwerpunkt der Untersuchungen ist eine Reduzierung der unerwuenschten Bildung von hochmolekularen Kohlenwasserstoffverbindungen (Koks) auf der Katalysatoroberflaeche, welche die Aktivitaet der Katalysatoren wesentlich beeintraechtigt. Mit dem Einsatz von {sup 17}O- und {sup 18}O-isotopausgestauschten H-ZSM-5 Zeolithen konnte die Wechselwirkung zwischen den katalytisch aktiven Zentren und den desaktivierenden Kohlenwasserstoffablagerungen genauer beschrieben werden. Als Erklaerung fuer die reaktivierende Wirkung von Wasserstoff und Alkanen an desaktivierten, monofunktionellen Zeolithen wird das Fehlen einer chemischen Bindung vom Koks zu den Bronsted-Zentren angesehen. Im zweiten Teil werden Aspekte der Verwendung von Bioethanol als Kraftstoff angesprochen. So wurde neben der Verwendung des Zeoliths ZSM-5 als Katalysator auch dessen Verwendung zur Adsorption von Alkohol aus waessrigen Medien untersucht. Dabei wurde ein wesentlicher Einfluss des Bindemittels auf die Selektivitaet der Alkoholsorption festgestellt. (orig.)

  20. On board emission and fuel consumption measurement campaign on petrol-driven passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vlieger, I.

    Realistic emission and fuel consumption rates of petrol-driven cars were determined by on-the-road experiments in 1995. A validated, in-house developed, on-board measuring system was used. Six three-way catalyst (TWC) cars and one carburetted non-catalyst car were measured. The effects of road type, driving behaviour and cold start on CO, HC and NO x emissions and fuel consumption were analysed. In real traffic situations, emissions for TWC cars were found to be at least 70% lower than for the non-catalyst car. For TWC cars, emissions decreased across the board from city to rural and motorway traffic. Without a catalyst, motorway traffic resulted in the highest NO x emissions. Compared to normal driving, aggressive driving gave emissions which were up to four times higher. Except for NO x, calm driving resulted in lower emissions still. Comparable fuel consumption rates were obtained from normal and calm driving. Those from aggressive driving were higher, by as much as 40% in city traffic. Cold starts resulted in significantly higher CO and HC emission values than hot starts. These differences were less pronounced for NO x. Emissions from TWC cars were higher than generally expected, compared to the European emission limit values (91/441/EEC) and the emission factors used in Flanders and the Netherlands (Klein,1993) for the national emission inventories. Low-emitting cars during the emission test on a chassis dynamometer, as prescribed by the 91/441/EEC directive, did not necessarily give low emissions in real traffic situations.

  1. Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristovski, Z.D.; Jayaratne, E.R.; Morawska, L.; Ayoko, G.A.; Lim, M. [International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2005-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds-0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h{sup -1}. Emission factors and their relative values between the two fuel types together with a statistical significance for any difference were estimated for each parameter. In general, LPG was found to be a 'cleaner' fuel, although in most cases, the differences were not statistically significant owing to the large variations between emissions from different vehicles. The particle number emission factors ranged from 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 13} km{sup -1} and was over 70% less with LPG compared to ULP. Corresponding differences in particle mass emission factor between the two fuels were small and ranged from the order of 10 {mu}g km{sup -1} at 40 to about 1000 {mu}g km{sup -1} at 100 km h{sup -1}. The count median particle diameter (CMD) ranged from 20 to 35 nm and was larger with LPG than with ULP in all modes except the idle mode. Carbon dioxide emission factors ranged from about 300 to 400 g km{sup -1} at 40 km h{sup -1}, falling with increasing speed to about 200 g km{sup -1} at 100 km h{sup -1}. At all speeds, the values were 10% to 18% greater with ULP than with LPG.

  2. Designing a heat pipe to improve the exhaust emissions from petrol engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national engineering Laboratory and the Shell research laboratory have co-operated in applying the heat pipe to the problem of exhaust emission from petrol engine. It is known that the carbon monoxide CO, un-burnt hydrocarbons (HxCy) and oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) content of the exhaust will vary with air to fuel ratio as shown in figure (1), in a conventional car engine the maximum efficiency is achieved at 15:1 and maximum power is obtained at 12:1. It's known that as the air fuel ratio increases, the CO content decreases and HxCy, NOx go through a minimum and maximum respectively. A considerable important in both CO and NOx content could be chivied by selecting a very weak mixture, but this not possible in a standard engine carburetor system due to the ignition difficulty, because the fuel is not fully vaporized, and because the fuel is not distributed equally between the cylinders and the vapor content is not as high as it should be due to the pressure of liquid fuel. This problem could be solved by designing a heat pipe that can transferring a certain quantities of heat from the exhaust to the induction manifold at the carburetor outlet as shown in figure (2). Under this condition a mixture as lean as 22:1 will ignite with out difficulty. In this paper, a complete design of heat pipe is carried out, taking into account the necessary criteria to decide various geometrical parameters. The design has been carried out using basic formulas in thermodynamics, heat transfer and physics. The result of this design have been checked for various practical limits. (author)

  3. Comparative Effects of Petrol and Diesel on Enzyme Activity in Tympanotonus fuscatus after Sublethal Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    E.S. Edori; C. Festus; O.S. Edori

    2014-01-01

    Pollution of the aquatic environment by petroleum and its products is common the world over. This study is aimed at examining sublethal effects of petrol and diesel on enzymes in Tympanotonus fuscatus namely: Aspartate Transaminase (AST) (E.C. 2.6.1.1), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) (E.C. 2.6.2.2) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) (E.C. 3.1.3.1) activity after exposure. The periwinkles were exposed to 10.40, 15.60, 21.00, 26.00 ml L-1 and a control. The organs were removed on the sixth day an...

  4. Ultra-fast selective sensing of ethanol and petrol using microwave-range metamaterial complementary split-ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Vaishali; Dhobale, Sandip; Kale, S. N.

    2014-10-01

    An extremely compact metamaterial microstrip sensor based on complementary split-ring-resonators (CSRRs) has been fabricated for chemical sensing. This device exhibits a resonance with high rejection at 4.5 GHz, which demonstrates concomitant variations when exposed to liquids of various permittivity values. The resonance frequency of CSRR is sensitive to the change in nearby dielectric material. The sensing of petrol shows a shift in frequency with a sharp dip in transmission, while, with ethanol, the frequency shift is accompanied with increase in the power of the signal. The ultra-fast reversibility and repeatability offers good headway towards hybrid fuel sensing applications.

  5. An influence of the petrol pump for the atmospheric electric field distribution in the surroundings of the vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanovi? Alenka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the potential and electric field distribution in the surroundings of the cargo vehicles is approximately numerically determined, when they are exposed to the Atmospheric Electric Field (AEF, having uniform intensity and vertical polarization. The cases of the cargo vehicles either isolated or near by petrol pumps are observed. Several results of total induced charge and electrical moment of the vehicle including maps of equipotential and equienergetic curves are presented. The Equivalent Electrode Method (EEM is used to solve this problem.

  6. Eski Sovyet Ülkelerinde Cari Hesap Dengesi Belirleyicileri ve Petrol Zenginli?inin Neden Oldu?u Farkl?l?klar

    OpenAIRE

    A?ayev, Seymur

    2013-01-01

    Bu çal??mada eski Sovyetler Birli?i ülkelerinde cari hesap dengesinin temel belirleyicilerinin ara?t?r?lmas? amaçlanm??t?r.Bu amaçla, birlik üyesi on ülkenin, petrol-do?algaz zenginli?i bak?m?ndan farkl? alt gruplar?n?n 1995-2010 dönemine ait y?ll?k verileri ve panel sabit etkiler yöntemi kullan?lm??t?r. Tahmin sonuçlar?, tüm ülke gruplar?nda yat?r?m art???n?n, finansal geli?menin ve genç nüfus oran? art???n?n cari hesap dengesini negatif yönde etkiledi?ine ili?kin bulgular sunmaktad?r. B...

  7. Mechanical Harvesting of Citrus Fruits for Fresh Market with a Trunk Shaker and a Hand-Held Petrol Shaker

    OpenAIRE

    Torregrosa Mira, Antonio; Ortiz Sánchez, María Coral; Martin, B; Moreno, R; Molto, E.; Chueca, P.

    2012-01-01

    Harvesting is one of the more expensive tasks in a Spanish citrus crop because it is done manually. Spanish researchers are investigating the possibilities of mechanical harvesting of citrus cultivated under Spanish conditions. This paper compares two different strategies for mechanical harvesting: the use of a trunk shaker and the use of a hand-held petrol shaker. Tests were performed in lemon, orange and mandarin groves. Tree spacing was 6-7 m between rows and 2.5-4.5 m in the row. Trees we...

  8. Epidemiology of frequent attenders: a 3-year historic cohort study comparing attendance, morbidity and prescriptions of one-year and persistent frequent attenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Riet Gerben

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners spend a disproportionate amount of time on frequent attenders. So far, trials on the effect of interventions on frequent attenders have shown negative results. However, these trials were conducted in short-term frequent attenders. It would be more reasonable to target intervention at persistent frequent attenders. Typical characteristics of persistent frequent attenders, as opposed to 1-year frequent attenders and non-frequent attenders, may generate hypotheses regarding modifiable factors on which new randomized trials may be designed. Methods We used the data of all 28,860 adult patients from 5 primary healthcare centers. Frequent attenders were patients whose attendance rate ranked in the (age and sex adjusted top 10 percent during 1 year (1-year frequent attenders or 3 years (persistent frequent attenders. All other patients on the register over the 3-year period were referred to as non-frequent attenders. The lists of medical problems coded by the GP using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC were used to assess morbidity. First, we determined which proportion of 1-year frequent attenders was still a frequent attender during the next two consecutive years and calculated the GPs' workload for these patients. Second, we compared morbidity and number of prescriptions for non-frequent attenders, 1-year frequent attenders and persistent frequent attenders. Results Of all 1-year frequent attenders, 15.4% became a persistent frequent attender equal to 1.6% of all patients. The 1-year frequent attenders (3,045; 10.6% were responsible for 39% of the face-to-face consultations; the 470 patients who would become persistent frequent attenders (1.6% were responsible for 8% of all consultations in 2003. Persistent frequent attenders presented more social problems, more psychiatric problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms, but also more chronic somatic diseases (especially diabetes. They received more prescriptions for psychotropic medication. Conclusion One out of every seven 1-year-frequent attenders (15.4% becomes a persistent frequent attender. Compared with non-frequent attenders, and 1-year frequent attenders, persistent frequent attenders consume more health care and are diagnosed not only with more somatic diseases but especially more social problems, psychiatric problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms.

  9. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and research groups. Therefore, INTERACT has produced a catalogue of research stations including descriptions of the physical setting, facilities and services offered at the stations. It is our hope that this catalogue will help researchers identify research stations that suit their specific needs....... The 2015 catalogue includes descriptions of 73 research stations included in the network at the time of printing....

  10. Intermittent attendance at breast cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padraic Fleming

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determine why women skip rounds and factors influencing return of previous non attenders (PNAs to breast screening. Design and methods. Retrospective, quantitative, structured questionnaire posted to 2500 women. First PNAs did not attend their first screening appointment in 2007/2008 but then attended in 2010; First Controls first attended in 2010 without missed previous appointments. Women who attended screening in 2006 or earlier then skipped a round but returned in 2010 were Subsequent PNAs; Subsequent Controls attended all appointments.Results. More First Controls than First PNAs had family history of cancer (72.7% vs 63.2%; P=0.003; breast cancer (31.3% vs 24.8%; P=0.04. More PNAs lived rurally; more First PNAs had 3rd level education (33.2% vs 23.6%; P=0.002 and fewer had private insurance than First Controls (57.7% vs 64.8%; P=0.04. Excellent/good health was reported in First PNAs and First Controls (82.9% vs 83.2%, but fewer Subsequent PNAs than Subsequent Controls (72.7% vs 84.9%; P=0.000. Common considerations at time of missed appointment were had mammogram elsewhere (33% First PNA and postponed to next round (16% First PNA, 18.8% Subsequent PNA. Considerations when returning to screening were similar for First PNAs and Subsequent PNAs: I am older (35.4%, 29.6%, I made sure I remembered (29%, 23.6%, could reschedule (17.6%, 20.6%, illness of more concern (16.5%, 19%. More First PNAs stated my family/friends advised (22.3% vs 15.2% or my GP (12.6% vs 4.6% advised me to attend, heard good things about BreastCheck (28.8% vs 13.6%.Conclusions. Intermittent attenders do not fit socio-demographic patterns of non-attenders; GP recommendation and word of mouth were important in women’s return to screening. Fear and anxiety seem to act as a screening facilitator rather than an inhibitor.

  11. Father attendance in nurse home visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, John R; Olds, David L

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the rates and predictors of father attendance at nurse home visits in replication sites of the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP). Early childhood programs can facilitate father involvement in the lives of their children, but program improvements require an understanding of factors that predict father involvement. The sample consisted of 29,109 low-income, first-time mothers who received services from 694 nurses from 80 sites. We conducted mixed-model multiple regression analyses to identify population, implementation, site, and nurse influences on father attendance. Predictors of father attendance included a count of maternal visits (B = 0.12, SE = 0.01, F = 3101.77), frequent contact between parents (B = 0.61, SE = 0.02, F = 708.02), cohabitation (B = 1.41, SE = 0.07, F = 631.51), White maternal race (B = 0.77, SE = 0.06, F = 190.12), and marriage (B = 0.42, SE = 0.08, F = 30.08). Random effects for sites and nurses predicted father-visit participation (2.7 & 6.7% of the variance, respectively), even after controlling for population sociodemographic characteristics. These findings suggest that factors operating at the levels of sites and nurses influence father attendance at home visits, even after controlling for differences in populations served. Further inquiry about these influences on father visit attendance is likely to inform program-improvement efforts. PMID:25521707

  12. Religious Affiliation, Religious Service Attendance, and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Smith, Tom W; Kang, Jeong-han

    2015-12-01

    Very few studies have examined the effects of both religious affiliation and religiosity on mortality at the same time, and studies employing multiple dimensions of religiosity other than religious attendance are rare. Using the newly created General Social Survey-National Death Index data, our report contributes to the religion and mortality literature by examining religious affiliation and religiosity at the same time. Compared to Mainline Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and other religious groups have lower risk of death, but Black Protestants, Evangelical Protestants, and even those with no religious affiliation are not different from Mainline Protestants. While our study is consistent with previous findings that religious attendance leads to a reduction in mortality, we did not find other religious measures, such as strength of religious affiliation, frequency of praying, belief in an afterlife, and belief in God to be associated with mortality. We also find interaction effects between religious affiliation and attendance. The lowest mortality of Jews and other religious groups is more apparent for those with lower religious attendance. Thus, our result may emphasize the need for other research to focus on the effects of religious group and religious attendance on mortality at the same time. PMID:24939004

  13. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to...

  14. An analytic study of applying Miller cycle to reduce NO{sub x} emission from petrol engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yaodong [School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom) and Mechanical Engineering College, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China)]. E-mail: y.d.wang@ncl.ac.uk; Lin Lin [Nanning College for Vocational Technology, Nanning, Guangxi 530003 (China); Roskilly, Anthony P. [School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Zeng Shengchuo [Mechanical Engineering College, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Huang, Jincheng [Mechanical Engineering College, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); He Yunxin [Mechanical Engineering College, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Huang Xiaodong [Mechanical Engineering College, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Huang Huilan [Mechanical Engineering College, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Wei Haiyan [Mechanical Engineering College, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Li Shangping [Guangxi University of Technology, Liuzhou 545006 (China); Yang Jing [Mechanical Engineering College, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2007-08-15

    An analytic investigation of applying Miller cycle to reduce nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from a petrol engine is carried out. The Miller cycle used in the investigation is a late intake valve closing version. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the cycle is presented. A comparison of the characters of Miller cycle with Otto cycle is presented. From the results of thermodynamic analyses, it can be seen that the application of Miller cycle is able to reduce the compression pressure and temperature in the cylinder at the end of compression stroke. Therefore, it lowers down the combustion temperature and NO{sub x} formation in engine cylinder. These results in a lower exhaust temperature and less NO{sub x} emissions compared with that of Otto cycle. The analytic results also show that Miller cycle ratio is a main factor to influence the combustion temperature, and then the NO{sub x} emissions and the exhaust temperature. The results from the analytic study are used to analyse and to compare with the previous experimental results. An empirical formula from the previous experimental results that showed the relation of NO{sub x} emissions with the exhaust temperature at different engine speed is presented. The results from the study showed that the application of Miller cycle may reduce NO{sub x} emissions from petrol engine.

  15. GPS AND GPRS BASED AUTOMATED ATTENDANCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V.Santhosh Krishna,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to develop an accurate, fast and very efficient automatic attendance system using GPS and GPRS technique. In this paper we have designed and implemented a new type of attendance system which overcomes the present RFID as well as FINGERPRINT technology. We propose a system in which fingerprint and location verification of the person(s is done .The system that automates the whole process of taking attendance, Manually which is a laborious and troublesome work and waste a lot of time, with its managing and maintaining the records for a period of time is also a burdensome task. The experimental result shows that our proposed system is highly efficient in verification of user finger print andtheir location.

  16. Advanced introduction of cleaner petrol and diesel in the Netherlands. An analysis of the emission potential and cost effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005 the European Union is to introduce tighter environmental standards for road vehicle fuels. The emissions of new passenger vehicles, delivery vans and heavy good vehicles will then have to satisfy even more stringent criteria, as will petrol and diesel fuel composition, the sulphur content of which must then be down from respectively 150 and 350 parts per million to 50 ppm. In the case of petrol, the maximum permitted aromatics content is also to be reduced, from 42% to 35%. There are two motives for introducing tighter environmental criteria for vehicle fuels. In the first place it will have the direct effect of immediately reducing the noxious emissions of all road vehicles running on these fuels, because of improvements to the combustion process. In addition, there will also be a significant indirect effect. Availability of low-sulphur fuels opens the door for several new vehicle technologies. In the case of petrol vehicles it permits introduction of direct-injection (DI) lean-burn engines with catalytic NOx absorption. In diesel vehicles new types of catalytic systems can be introduced, including 'particle traps' to reduce PM10 emissions. These technologies require low-sulphur fuels to be effective. An environmental downside of these cleaner fuels is that refinery production is more energy-intensive. EU member states are free to support implementation of these 'cleaner' fuels at an earlier date if they so desire. The objective of the present study is to provide background data for a possible decision on accelerated introduction of these fuels in the Netherlands. The aim of this study is to investigate the environmental effects and economic costs of accelerated introduction in the Netherlands of 'cleaner' fuels satisfying the EU's '2005 standards'. Two possible dates have been considered for earlier implementation: November 2001 and June 2003. November 2001 has been taken because this is when Germany will be introducing a tax incentive for low-sulphur petrol and diesel fuels. June 2003 lies exactly halfway between this date and January 2005. It has been assumed that the 'cleaner' fuels will immediately capture 100% of the market. Diesel and petrol have been examined separately, given the fact that little synergy will be created through simultaneous introduction of the two 'clean' fuels. The direct environmental effects of these fuels on the existing vehicle fleet have been calculated using a model for the European Auto-Oil programme updated by the TNO Road Vehicles Research Unit to account for the most recent developments. The indirect environmental effects have been estimated using literature data and TNO expertise. The cost estimates are based on information provided by the oil industry and from the literature, augmented where necessary by our own calculations. Give the substantial uncertainties surrounding much of this data, in relevant cases we have made both pessimistic and optimistic estimates. By assigning a monetary value to the environmental effects these can be compared with costs, enabling the cost-effectiveness of accelerated introduction to be calculated. 37 refs

  17. Car fuels: next generation engines: towards a convergence between petrol and diesel; Carburants: moteurs du futur: vers une convergence entre essence et diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-02-01

    Two new technologies concerning car engines: the combustion through self controlled inflammation (CAI) for petrol engines and the homogeneous combustion (HCCI) for diesel engines, will dramatically reduce the impact of transport on the environment. Both technologies are characterized by a quick combustion and a high yield at low temperature which permits a huge reduction of NO{sub x} emissions. CAI and HCCI technologies, that are expected to be broadly used in Europe by 2010, could question the replacement of petrol or diesel fuels by alternative fuels like hydrogen or natural gas. The evolution of car engines implies the development of new car fuels that fit better CAI and HCCI technologies. It seems that CAI petrol engines and HCCI diesel engines will come together in terms of physical characteristics (combustion ratio...) or in terms of pollution (emission of NO{sub x}), so this similarity could imply the same process for car fuels: diesel and petrol could converge to a unique car fuel. (A.C.)

  18. Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, G., E-mail: Gillian.MacKinnon@glasgow.ac.uk [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, East Kilbride, G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); MacKenzie, A.B., E-mail: Angus.MacKenzie@glasgow.ac.uk [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, East Kilbride, G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Cook, G.T., E-mail: Gordon.Cook@glasgow.ac.uk [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, East Kilbride, G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Pulford, I.D., E-mail: Ian.Pulford@glasgow.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Duncan, H.J., E-mail: Harry.Duncan@glasgow.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Scott, E.M., E-mail: Marian.Scott@glasgow.ac.uk [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-01

    Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within 10 m of a motorway and 3 m of a minor road. Overall, the dominant source of Pb was historical emissions from nearby industrial areas. There was no discernible change in concentration or isotopic composition of Pb in surface soil or vegetation over the decade since the ban on the sale of leaded petrol. There was an order of magnitude decrease in Pb concentrations in road dust over the study period, but petrol Pb persisted at up to 43% of the total Pb concentration in 2010. Similar concentrations and spatial distributions of petrol Pb and non petrol Pb in vegetation in both 2001 and 2010, with enhanced concentrations near roads, suggested that redistribution of previously deposited material has operated continuously over that period, maintaining a transfer pathway of Pb into the biosphere. The results for vegetation and soil transects near minor roads provided evidence of a non petrol Pb source associated with roads/traffic, but surface soil samples from the vicinity of a motorway failed to show evidence of such a source. - Highlights: {yields} A 10 year study of Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in farmland. {yields} Soil and vegetation showed no systematic decrease in Pb concentrations over 10 years. {yields} Road dust Pb concentrations fell from 117 mg kg{sup -1} in 2001 to 14.2 mg kg{sup -1} in 2010. {yields} Enhancement of petrol Pb only within 10m of a motorway and 3m of a minor road.

  19. Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within 10 m of a motorway and 3 m of a minor road. Overall, the dominant source of Pb was historical emissions from nearby industrial areas. There was no discernible change in concentration or isotopic composition of Pb in surface soil or vegetation over the decade since the ban on the sale of leaded petrol. There was an order of magnitude decrease in Pb concentrations in road dust over the study period, but petrol Pb persisted at up to 43% of the total Pb concentration in 2010. Similar concentrations and spatial distributions of petrol Pb and non petrol Pb in vegetation in both 2001 and 2010, with enhanced concentrations near roads, suggested that redistribution of previously deposited material has operated continuously over that period, maintaining a transfer pathway of Pb into the biosphere. The results for vegetation and soil transects near minor roads provided evidence of a non petrol Pb source associated with roads/traffic, but surface soil samples from the vicinity of a motorway failed to show evidence of such a source. - Highlights: ? A 10 year study of Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in farmland. ? Soil and vegetation showed no systematic decrease in Pb concentrations over 10 years. ? Road dust Pb concentrations fell from 117 mg kg-1 in 2001 to 14.2 mg kg-1 in 2010. ? Enhancement of petrol Pb only within 10m of a motorway and 3m of a minor road.

  20. International Determinants of Private School Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David; Plucker, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The current study uses Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 data to investigate international determinants of private school attendance. In particular, we seek to understand whether student achievement and home background factors such as socioeconomic status (SES) or motivational and goal-oriented factors are more predictive…

  1. Assessing Reasons for School Non-Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havik, Trude; Bru, Edvin; Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess reasons for school non-attendance including somatic symptoms, subjective health complaints, truancy, and school refusal and to investigate the relationship of these with gender, grade, and self-reported special educational needs. The study is based on a self-reported questionnaire distributed to students…

  2. Attendance and Truancy Programs. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    According to the 2000 census, high school dropouts had a 52% employment rate, compared to 71% for high school graduates and 83% for college graduates. According to NCSE, the national dropout rate is 30% of which 80% had been chronically absent from school ("School attendance tracking: Challenges and effective practices"), which puts the high…

  3. Assessing Reasons for School Non-Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havik, Trude; Bru, Edvin; Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess reasons for school non-attendance including somatic symptoms, subjective health complaints, truancy, and school refusal and to investigate the relationship of these with gender, grade, and self-reported special educational needs. The study is based on a self-reported questionnaire distributed to students…

  4. Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

  5. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations in the Climate Reference Network. Documents should be compared with those in the CRN Photo Information library and either...

  6. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also includes some alpine stations located outside the Arctic. The INTERACT research stations provide an ideal platform for circumarctic research and monitoring. Activities span from small short term research projects to larger long term monitoring programmes. The stations are thus visited by many researchers and research groups. Therefore, INTERACT has produced a catalogue of research stations including descriptions of the physical setting, facilities and services offered at the stations. It is our hope that this catalogue will help researchers identify research stations that suit their specific needs. The 2015 catalogue includes descriptions of 73 research stations included in the network at the time of printing.

  7. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  8. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  9. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  10. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  11. On exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled passenger cars at low ambient temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1998-11-01

    The study at hand deals with regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled cars at low ambient temperatures with present-day or near-future exhaust after treatment systems. The subject has been investigated at VTT over a decade and this report compiles data from various sub-studies carried out between the years 1993 - 1997. Each one of them viewed different aspects of the phenomenon, like determining the low-temperature response of today`s new cars employing three-way catalytic converters or assessing the long-term durability and the influence of vehicle mileage upon the low-temperature emissions performance. Within these studies, together more than 120 cars of model years from 1990 to 1997 have been tested. Most of them were normal, in-service vehicles with total mileages differing between only a few thousand kilometres for new cars up to 80,000 km or even more for the in-use vehicles. Both the US FTP75 and the European test cycle have been employed, and the ambient temperatures ranged from the baseline (+22 deg C) down to +- O deg C, -7 deg C and in some cases even to -20 deg C. The studies attested that new cars having today`s advanced emissions control systems produced fairly low levels of emissions when tested in conditions designated in the regulations that are the basis of the current new-vehicle certification. However, this performance was not necessarily attained at ambient temperatures that were below the normative range. Fairly widespread response was recorded, and cars having almost equal emissions output at baseline could produce largely deviating outcomes in low-temperature conditions. On average, CO and HC emissions increased by a factor of five to 10, depending on the ambient temperature and vehicle type. However, emissions of NO{sub x} were largely unaffected. Apart from these regulated emissions, many unregulated species were also determined, either by using traditional sampling and chromatography methods or on-line, employing the latest FTIR technology. Overall, the levels of these emissions were also mostly elevated at subnormal temperatures. Total vehicle mileage seemed not to affect cold-start emissions (CO and HC) at low temperatures. Nor did the overall durability of the emission control system appear to be worse in cold-climate conditions typical for Finland. The deterioration of the emissions performance in the tested vehicles either closely followed the average trend defined by the normal, assigned deterioration factors or was even lesser. The conclusions of this report underline the necessity of a separate low-temperature test in order to really effectively curb real-world emissions. Standards at normal temperature are no more effective alone, but need to be accompanied with additional requirements for good performance also in conditions closer to the everyday use, which comprises many cold-starts even in low ambient temperature conditions. (orig.) 75 refs.

  12. Neuroradiology viewing station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shyhliang A.; Lufkin, Robert B.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Huang, H. K.; Hanafee, William; Jabour, Bradly; Bentsen, John R.; Duckwiler, Gary R.; Dion, Jacques E.

    1990-07-01

    A distributed CT/MR digital viewing station for the neuroradiology section has been developed and is being evaluated in our department. The major components of the station consist of a SUN host computer, a PIXAR II image processor, and four 1K x 1K progressive video monitors. The software modules operating in the station include an image acquisition process, a local database process, and an user image display and processing process. Functions provided by the station are described. Preliminary results obtained from clinical evaluation are reported. Future plans to refine the station are presented.

  13. Evaluation of the environmental impact of modern passenger cars on petrol, diesel, automotive LPG and CNG. Summary of the report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriksen, P.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Rijkeboer, R.C.; Bremmers, D.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Winkel, R.G.

    2003-12-24

    The project reported here concerns an investigation into the environmental performance of modem passenger cars on four different fuels: petrol, diesel, automotive LPG and CNG. The objectives of the project were twofold: To make a valid and useful comparison between modern vehicles fuelled by these four fuels, as a possible basis for governmental policy making; To establish characteristic up-to-date emission factors for modern passenger cars, fuelled by these four fuels, that can be used in a variety of inventories, calculations and forecasts by various (semi-)governmental agencies. As such the project can be seen as an update of a similar project reported in 1993. The project had both a Europe-wide and a Dutch national dimension. A basic test programme was carried out by four European test houses. This test programme is named as the European Emission Test Programme (EETP)

  14. Fuel filter for future Diesel and petrol engines with direct injection; Kraftstofffilter fuer zukuenftige Diesel- und Ottomotoren mit Direkteinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyinger, J.; Durst, M.; Klein, G.M. [Filterwerk Mann und Hummel GmbH, Ludwigsburg (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    The significant advances in modern diesel and petrol direct injection systems have radically changed the requirements of fuel filtration. As well as ensuring extremely fine particle filtration, water-free fuels and, in some cases, filters with vehicle lifetime must now be supplied. In order to meet these challenges, Mann+Hummel has developed a completely new generation of filter media as well as filter systems that are equipped with additional features such as heating or cooling, as well as sensors for pressure and water and fluid control unit. (orig.) [German] Die signifikanten Fortschritte moderner Diesel- und Benzindirekteinspritzsysteme haben auch die Randbedingungen fuer die Kraftstofffiltration neu definiert. Neben einer Feinstpartikelabscheidung werden wasserfreie Kraftstoffe und zum Teil Bestaendigkeiten der Filter auf die Fahrzeuglebensdauer gefordert. Mann+Hummel hat fuer diese gestiegenen Anforderungen an die Kraftstofffiltration sowohl eine vollstaendig neue Filtermediengeneration als auch komplette Filtersysteme entwickelt, die mit zusaetzlichen Funktionen wie Heizung und Kuehlung, Sensorik fuer Differenzdruck und Wassergehalt sowie Fluidregeleinrichtung ausgestattet sind. (orig.)

  15. High-performance petrol engine for formula student racing cars; Hochleistungs-Ottomotor fuer den Formel-Student-Wettbewerb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaberscik, G.; Lembacher, C.; Ostermann, J.; Rainer, A.; Trzesniowski, M. [FH Joanneum Gesellschaft mbH, Graz (Austria)

    2005-03-01

    In most cases, the different racing formulas stipulate a very narrow scope for measures permitted on internal combustion engines. Especially in cases in which the maximum air flow rate is limited by throttles, it is essential to analyse the requirements to be met by the powertrain and vehicle very precisely and even to choose the optimum basic engine. This process, as well as the modification of a series production petrol engine into a high-performance throttled engine, was carried out at the Department of Vehicle Technology at the FH Joanneum Gesellschaft mbH. The 652 cm{sup 3} single-cylinder engine was subsequently used in a Formula Student racing car. (orig.)

  16. The application of product architecture in determining the concept of mini hydrogen cell for petrol powered internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Nadzirah, T. S.; Juffrizal, K.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Product architecture is a method to translate the physical element of the functional requirement within the product system and describe the connection between these physical elements. Physical element will be interpreted through parts, component or subassemblies. Method of product architecture is an effective way in determined the conceptual design because it is not only considered the way of the product to be designed but it also focused on how the product will be made, used and even maintaining the product. This paper presents the methodology of the design and development of mini hydrogen cell for petrol powered internal combustion engine through the product architecture method. This method is applied based on the four stages of the product concept development process which is product element, product cluster, product geometry and the morphological chart. From this method, the best option of the concept is selected.

  17. Space Station overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Carmine E.; Priest, C. C.; Wood, W. V.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Space Station, including program guidelines, international involvement, current baseline configuration, and utilization for science and application missions. Space Station configuration and capabilities, plus methods of utilizing the Space Station for scientific and engineering investigations, are described. The Space Station is being designed as a multipurpose facility to support a number of functions, such as a laboratory in space, a transportation node, an assembly facility, a staging base, etc. The description includes the baseline configuration, location of the pressurized modules, servicing and assembly facilities, and the work package structure for Space Station management. The Space Station will accommodate a wide variety of user requirements in laboratory modules and as attached payloads. To show the utility of the Space Station, a variety of science and application missions currently being studied for NASA at the Marshall Space Flight Center are discussed.

  18. Study of exhaust emissions of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on diesel engine emission characteristics and smoke opacity of the exhausts. The biggest NOx emissions, 1954 and 2078 ppm, at 2000 min-1 speed generate blends PRO10 (9.72%) and EPRO5 (11.13%) against, 1731 and 1411 ppm, produced from ERO5 (12%) and ERO10 (13.2% oxygen) blends. The carbon monoxide, CO, emissions emitted from a fully loaded engine fuelled with three agent blends EPRO5-7.5 at maximum torque and rated speed are higher by 39.5-18.8% and 27.5-16.1% and smoke opacity lower by 3.3-9.0% and 24.1-17.6% comparing with RO case. When operating at rated 2200 min-1 mode, the carbon dioxide, CO2, emissions are lower, 6.9-6.3 vol%, from blends EPRO5-7.5 relative to that from RO, 7.8 vol%, accompanied by a slightly higher emission of unburned hydrocarbons HC, 16 ppm, and residual oxygen contents O2, 10.4-12.0 vol%, in the exhausts

  19. Study of exhaust emissions of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys [Department of Transport and Power Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Student Street 15, P.O. Box LT-53361, Kaunas Academy (Lithuania)

    2009-03-15

    This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on diesel engine emission characteristics and smoke opacity of the exhausts. The biggest NO{sub x} emissions, 1954 and 2078 ppm, at 2000 min{sup -1} speed generate blends PRO10 (9.72%) and EPRO5 (11.13%) against, 1731 and 1411 ppm, produced from ERO5 (12%) and ERO10 (13.2% oxygen) blends. The carbon monoxide, CO, emissions emitted from a fully loaded engine fuelled with three agent blends EPRO5-7.5 at maximum torque and rated speed are higher by 39.5-18.8% and 27.5-16.1% and smoke opacity lower by 3.3-9.0% and 24.1-17.6% comparing with RO case. When operating at rated 2200 min{sup -1} mode, the carbon dioxide, CO{sub 2}, emissions are lower, 6.9-6.3 vol%, from blends EPRO5-7.5 relative to that from RO, 7.8 vol%, accompanied by a slightly higher emission of unburned hydrocarbons HC, 16 ppm, and residual oxygen contents O{sub 2}, 10.4-12.0 vol%, in the exhausts. (author)

  20. Urethritis in women attending an STD clinic.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, J E; Thompson, S.E.; Zaidi, A.; Wong, K. H.

    1981-01-01

    Of an unselected group of 159 women attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic 20% (32) had symptoms of urethritis. A positive correlation existed between the finding of more than 10 polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) per high-power field in the Gram-stained urethral smear and the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Conversely, these organisms were rarely isolated if no PMNL were present. Fewer cultures gave positive results for th...

  1. Household Income and Preschool Attendance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xin; Xu, Di; Han, Wen-Jui

    2015-01-01

    This article draws upon the literature showing the benefits of high-quality preschools on child well-being to explore the role of household income on preschool attendance for a cohort of 3-to 6-year-olds in China using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1991-2006. Analyses are conducted separately for rural (N = 1,791) and urban…

  2. A Students Attendance System Using QR Code

    OpenAIRE

    Fadi Masalha; Nael Hirzallah

    2014-01-01

    Smartphones are becoming more preferred companions to users than desktops or notebooks. Knowing that smartphones are most popular with users at the age around 26, using smartphones to speed up the process of taking attendance by university instructors would save lecturing time and hence enhance the educational process. This paper proposes a system that is based on a QR code, which is being displayed for students during or at the beginning of each lecture. The students will need to scan the co...

  3. Time Slot Management in Attended Home Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Savelsbergh, M.W.P.; Fleischmann, M (Moritz); Agatz, N.A.H.; Campbell, A.

    2011-01-01

    Many e-tailers providing attended home delivery, especially e-grocers, offer narrow delivery time slots to ensure satisfactory customer service. The choice of delivery time slots has to balance marketing and operational considerations, which results in a complex planning problem. We study the problem of selecting the set of time slots to offer in each of the zip codes in a service region. The selection needs to facilitate cost-effective delivery routes, but also needs to ensure an acceptable ...

  4. Lycaenid Caterpillar Secretions Manipulate Attendant Ant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Masaru K; Pierce, Naomi E; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2015-08-31

    Mutualistic interactions typically involve the exchange of different commodities between species. Nutritious secretions are produced by a number of insects and plants in exchange for services such as defense. These rewards are valuable metabolically and can be used to reinforce the behavior of symbiotic partners that can learn and remember them effectively. We show here novel effects of insect exocrine secretions produced by caterpillars in modulating the behavior of attendant ants in the food-for-defense interaction between lycaenid butterflies and ants. Reward secretions from the dorsal nectary organ (DNO) of Narathura japonica caterpillars function to reduce the locomotory activities of their attendant ants, Pristomyrmex punctatus workers. Moreover, workers that feed from caterpillar secretions are significantly more likely to show aggressive responses to eversion of the tentacle organs of the caterpillars. Analysis of the neurogenic amines in the brains of workers that consumed caterpillar secretions showed a significant decrease in levels of dopamine compared with controls. Experimental treatments in which reserpine, a known inhibitor of dopamine in Drosophila, was fed to workers similarly reduced their locomotory activity. We conclude that DNO secretions of lycaenid caterpillars can manipulate attendant ant behavior by altering dopaminergic regulation and increasing partner fidelity. Unless manipulated ants also receive a net nutritional benefit from DNO secretions, this suggests that similar reward-for-defense interactions that have been traditionally considered to be mutualisms may in fact be parasitic in nature. PMID:26234210

  5. Non-Coop Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  6. Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, G; MacKenzie, A B; Cook, G T; Pulford, I D; Duncan, H J; Scott, E M

    2011-11-01

    Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within 10 m of a motorway and 3 m of a minor road. Overall, the dominant source of Pb was historical emissions from nearby industrial areas. There was no discernible change in concentration or isotopic composition of Pb in surface soil or vegetation over the decade since the ban on the sale of leaded petrol. There was an order of magnitude decrease in Pb concentrations in road dust over the study period, but petrol Pb persisted at up to 43% of the total Pb concentration in 2010. Similar concentrations and spatial distributions of petrol Pb and non petrol Pb in vegetation in both 2001 and 2010, with enhanced concentrations near roads, suggested that redistribution of previously deposited material has operated continuously over that period, maintaining a transfer pathway of Pb into the biosphere. The results for vegetation and soil transects near minor roads provided evidence of a non petrol Pb source associated with roads/traffic, but surface soil samples from the vicinity of a motorway failed to show evidence of such a source. PMID:21907389

  7. The development of rhythmic attending in auditory sequences: attunement, referent period, focal attending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, C; Jones, M R; Baruch, C

    2000-12-15

    This paper is divided into three sections. The first section is theoretical; it extends Dynamic Attending Theory (Jones, M. R. Psychological Review 83 (1976) 323; Jones, M. R. Perception and Psychophysics 41(6) (1987) 631; Jones, M. R. Psychomusicology 9(2) (1990) 193; Jones, M. R., & Boltz, M. Psychological Review 96(3) (1989) 459) to developmental questions concerning tempo and time hierarchies. Generally Dynamic Attending Theory proposes that, when listening to a complex auditory sequence, listeners spontaneously focus on events occurring at an intermediate rate (the referent level), and they then may shift attention to events occurring over longer or shorter time spans, that is at lower (faster) or higher (slower) hierarchical levels (focal attending). The second section of the paper is experimental. It examines maturational changes of three dynamic attending activities involving referent period and level, attunement, and focal attending. Tasks involve both motor tapping (including spontaneous motor tempo and synchronization with simple sequences and music) and tempo discrimination. We compare performances by 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old children and adults, with or without musical training. Results indicate three changes with increased age and musical training: (1) a slowing of the mean spontaneous tapping rate (a reflection of the referent period) and mean synchronization rate (a reflection of the referent level), (2) enhanced ability to synchronize tapping and discriminate tempo (improved attunement), and (3) an enlarged range of tapping rates towards slower rates and higher hierarchical levels (improved focal attending). A final section considers results in light of the theory proposed here. It is suggested that growth trends can be expressed in terms of listeners' engagement of slower attending oscillators with age and experience, accompanied by the passage from the initial use of a single oscillator towards the coupling of multiple oscillators. PMID:11018511

  8. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex Technical University of Denmark,

    2011-01-01

    Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end stations and overtaking stations, the dwell/layover time is recommended to be reduced to the minimum required time as it results in the lowest possible capacity consumption. For dead end stations it is furthermore recommended that the trains can use all possible tracks and not only those tracks they originally was assigned. For complex stations with shunting movement, the results of UIC 406 capacity analyses are imprecise due to different possible routes and no exact knowledge of shunting movements. For these stations it is instead recommended that they are analysed with a supplement to compensate for the inaccuracies.

  9. Repeat Station Activities

    OpenAIRE

    De Santis, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Barraclough, D. R.; Geomagnetism Research Group, British Geological Survey, Murchison House, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3LA, Gt. Britain

    2011-01-01

    A repeat station is a site whose position is AQ1 accurately known and where accurate measurements of the geomagnetic field vector are made at regular intervals in order to provide information about the secular variation of the geomagnetic field. In this chapter we begin by giving a brief history of the development of repeat station networks. We then describe the instruments used to make measurements at a repeat station. These include fixing the position of the stati...

  10. Class Attendance and Exam Performance: A Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennjou; Lin, Tsui-Fang

    2008-01-01

    The determination of college students' academic performance is an important issue in higher education. Whether students' attendance at lectures affects students' exam performance has received considerable attention. The authors conduct a randomized experiment to study the average attendance effect for students who choose to attend lectures, which…

  11. 25 CFR 37.131 - Who may attend an ORBS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who may attend an ORBS? 37.131 Section 37.131 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GEOGRAPHIC BOUNDARIES Off-Reservation Boarding Schools § 37.131 Who may attend an ORBS? Any student is eligible to attend an ORBS....

  12. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  13. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  14. Telescoping space station modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    A design concept is described wherein telescoping space station modules would be utilized to nearly double the useful volume onboard a station. Methods for utilizing the concept to obtain enchanced protection from space debris and radiation are described. The amenability of the concept to variation in station configuration, assembly, and disassembly is discussed. A modification of the concept which could provide flexibility in the manner in which the Shuttle Orbiter is docked with the station and enhance collision avoidance during such maneuvers is described.

  15. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    . The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a...... detected, e.g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as...

  16. Motives for attending the Cultivaria Arts Festival

    OpenAIRE

    Saayman, Melville

    2011-01-01

    Festivals are becoming a key feature on the tourism calendar of many towns and cities. Cultivaria is one of South Africa’s newest arts festivals and is held at Paarl annually. The festival is one combining the arts, wine and food. The purpose of this research is to determine the reasons (motives) for visitors attending the festival. This information is needed so that a marketing plan can be developed, as well as to be able to ensure that visitors’ needs are fulfilled. In order to do this, the...

  17. Multitudes attend the Night of Science

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Night of Science, which took place in the Parc de la Perle du Lac in Geneva last weekend, was a great success, with 30 000 visitors attending according to the organisers. Many curious people flocked to the stands and animations until late on Saturday night and all afternoon on Sunday. The CERN stand (photo) received a great amount of interest from participants. Both kids and adults discovered the activities of the Laboratory and the data-processing revolution initiated by CERN, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Hats off to the CERN collaborators in the Communication Group and IT Department who made this event a success.

  18. Factors Associated with Attendance and Non-Attendance of Support Groups among HIV Positive Adults Attending an Antiretroviral Community Clinic at Ekurhuleni District, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sphiwe Madiba; Olga Kekana

    2013-01-01

    Health care facilities providing antiretroviral treatment (ART) to HIV positive people have seen a decline in the uptake and use of HIV support groups. A cross sectional survey was conducted to 1) determine the characteristics of HIV positive people who have and who have not attended support groups; 2) determine factors associated with attendance of support groups; and 3) investigate perceived barriers to participate in support groups among HIV positive adults attending an ART clinic in Gaut...

  19. An in vitro Assessment on the Efficacy of Clay-Based Formulated Cells of Pseudomonas Isolate UTAR EPA2 for Petrol Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S.Y. Ting

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Application of free-cell forms is usually impractical to achieve satisfactory bioremediative effect because the microbes are encumbered by the biotic and abiotic stresses from the environment. Approach: In this study, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium (Pseudomonas isolate UTAR EPA2 was formulated with various combinations of formulative materials, comprising of clay-based carrier materials such as Bentonite (B and Kaolin (K, enrichment materials such as Non-fat skimmed milk (N and Sucrose (S and a UV-protectant agent Para-aminobenzoic acid (P. Formulated cells were treated to sunlight exposure for 6 h to mimic the conditions in the environment prior to testing for their efficacy in degrading petrol, a mixed hydrocarbon substrate. Results: Cells in all formulations including free-cell suspension were able to degrade petrol with a relatively high degradation efficacy of more than 66% even after exposure to sunlight. Degradation efficacy was slightly higher for kaolin-based formulated cells compared to bentonite-based formulations, especially after exposure to sunlight, although their percentages of degradation were not statistically different. Nevertheless, kaolin-based formulations have very low viable cell count especially in formulations with P (KP, KNP, KSP, KNSP. This suggested that aside from viable cells, the physical properties of the clays could have also contributed to the degradation of petrol. Conclusion: For storage purposes and applications in the field, we suggest that the bacterium is formulated with bentonite-based formulations especially using Bentonite (B clay singly, as relatively high percentage of petrol degradation and viable cell count was achieved with this formulation.

  20. Food Service and Nutrition for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L. (editor)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the Workshop on Food Service and Nutrition for the Space Station, held in Houston, Texas, on April 10 and 11, 1984 was given. The workshop was attended by experts in food technology from industry, government, and academia. Following a general definition of unique space flight requirements, oral presentations were made on state of the art food technology with the objective of using this technology to support the space flight requirements. Numerous areas are identified which in the opinion of the conferees, would have space flight application. But additional effort, evaluation, or testing to include Shuttle inflight testing will be required for the technology to be applied to the Space Station.

  1. F87. My home - my car - my petrol station; F87. Mein Haus - mein Auto - meine Tanksstelle. Das Effizienzhaus Plus mit Elektromobilitaet in Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaely, Petra [Werner Sobek Stuttgart GmbH und Co.KG, Stuttgart (Germany); Schroth, Juergen; Schuster, Heide; Thuemmler, Thomas [WSGreen Technologies GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Sobek, Werner [Werner Sobek Stuttgart GmbH und Co.KG, Stuttgart (Germany); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Leichtbau Entwerfen und Konstruieren

    2012-07-01

    In the presence of Federal Chancellor Dr. Angela Merkel, the efficient house Plus was inaugurated in December 2011 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany). This building is a temporary dwelling with a floor space of approximately 130 square meters. This building generates all the necessary energy for the operation and comfort by itself. The generated energy also is sufficient for the annual energy demand of two electric cars and an electric bicycle. The building also serves as a showcase to inform the general public.

  2. Minor injury attendance times to the ED.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Ciaran

    2009-07-01

    The Health Service Executive (HSE) highlights the need for effective patient throughput and management, whilst providing appropriate staffing and therapeutic interventions. It acknowledges that patient need is integral to the development of a nurse led service and advocates planning staffing levels to reflect arrival times of patients. An observational study of all patients who presented to the emergency department in July 2005 and February 2006 was undertaken (n=7768). The study identified 1577 patients suitable for treatment by the Advanced Nurse Practitioner (ANP) in these two months, which represents 20% of all patient attendances to the ED in this time period. A data collection tool was devised collectively by the ANPs to identify appropriate patients. The findings of the study revealed that 73% of patients suitable for the ANP service presented between the hours of 0800 and 2000, of which 54% attended between 0800 and 1600 h. Sunday emerged as the busiest day in July 2005 whereas Monday was found to be the busiest day in February 2006. Friday was found to be consistently busy for both months.

  3. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  4. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  5. Nuclear power stations licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed

  6. Students Attendance Management System Based On RFID And Fingerprint Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moth Moth Myint Thein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Today students class attendance is become more important part for any organizationsinstitutions. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure hence inefficient. This paper presents the manual students attendance management into computerized system for convenience or data reliability. So the system is developed by the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom for managing the students attendance using RFID and fingerprint reader. The system is designed to implement an attendance management system based on RFID and fingerprint reader which students need to use their student identification card ID and their finger ID to success the attendance where only authentic student can be recorded the attendance during the class. In this system passive RFID tag and reader pairs are used to register the student ID cards individually and fingerprint reader is used for attendance. This system takes attendance electronically with the help of the RFID and finger print device and the records of the attendance are stored in a database. Students roll call percentages and their details are easily seenvia Graphical User Interface GUI. This system will have the required databases for students attendance teachers subjects and students details. This application is implemented by Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server as IDE. C language is used to implement this system.

  7. Why people complain after attending emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongale, Santosh; Young, Iain

    2013-10-01

    Complaints are a vital component of clinical governance in healthcare systems. In a patient-focused NHS, it is important that healthcare professionals and organisations listen to, and act on, complaints from people who think they have been let down by the services they have received. This article reports on the results of a study of what prompts patients to complain after attending an emergency department (ED). As the results show, the complaint rate was 0.04 per cent. Among reasons why patients complained, non-clinical issues (63 per cent), such as poor communication and staff attitudes, and long waiting times, outnumber clinical issues (37 per cent). The study also highlights the need for greater direct supervision of junior staff, although this could be challenging given the current workforce pressures facing UK EDs. PMID:24106861

  8. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background as...

  9. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children's development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children's background as......Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...

  10. Space station propulsion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, A. M.; Briley, G. L.; Evans, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the initial operational capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion system (SSPS) to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. These objectives were met by analytical studies and by furnishing a propulsion test bed to the Marshall Space Flight Center for testing.

  11. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  12. Madrid space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, R. J.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Madrid space station, operated under bilateral agreements between the governments of the United States and Spain, is described in both Spanish and English. The space station utilizes two tracking and data acquisition networks: the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) operated under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The station, which is staffed by Spanish employees, comprises four facilities: Robledo 1, Cebreros, and Fresnedillas-Navalagamella, all with 26-meter-diameter antennas, and Robledo 2, with a 64-meter antenna.

  13. Electric, hybrid, fuel cell and alternative fuel vehicles/ Powertrain technology - developments in petrol/diesel engines and transmissions. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This volume of conference papers examines the emergence of the hydrogen alternative, heavy vehicle fuel economy, the changing face of software in the vehicle, and a North American view of globalisation, restructuring, and e-commerce in the Plenary session. Topics discussed in the following 19 sessions cover global trends (a keynote speech and 3 papers); engines (3 papers); natural gas vehicles (3 papers); fuel cells (5 papers in two sessions); vehicles (6 papers in two sessions); machines (7 papers in two sessions); batteries (a presentation and 3 papers); and hybrids (5 papers and a keynote speech). Powertrain technology and developments in petrol/diesel engines and transmissions are reviewed and details are given of transmission design (7 papers in two sessions); improving engine design (4 papers); optimisation of engine and drive line with 3 papers on frictional analysis and 3 papers on reducing noise and vibration; compression ignition engines with 5 papers on combustion pollution and 3 papers on fuels influence; and spark ignition engines (3 papers).

  14. Determinants of childhood lead exposure in the postleaded petrol era: The Tooth Fairy cohort from Newcastle upon Tyne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Susan; Manmee, Charuwan; Dirks, Wendy; Shepherd, Thomas; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja

    2015-07-01

    Lead is an environmental contaminant causing irreversible health effects in children. We used dentine lead levels as a measure of early-life lead exposure and explored determinants of lead exposure in children living in Newcastle upon Tyne, a historically industrialised UK city, in a cohort born since legislation was introduced to remove lead from petrol, paint and water pipes. The "Tooth Fairy study" cohort comprised 69 children aged 5-8 years. We collected upper deciduous incisors from children and questionnaire data from their parents in 2005. We measured lead levels in pre- and postnatal enamel and dentine using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and assessed associations between dentine lead levels and residential, dietary, lifestyle and socio-economic characteristics. Dentine lead levels were low (mean 0.26??g/g, range 0.06-0.77); however, we observed considerable variability in dentine lead levels within and between children suggestive of differing exposure levels and/or exposure sources across this population. Variables earlier documented to be associated with childhood lead levels were not found to be significant determinants of dentine lead levels in this study. Exposure pathways should continue to be investigated to enable targeted interventions and prevention of lead-induced health impacts in vulnerable populations. PMID:25407346

  15. Characterization of on-road CO, HC and NO emissions for petrol vehicle fleet in China city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Zhang, Qing-yu; Shi, Yao; Wang, Da-hui; Ding, Shu-ying; Yan, Sha-sha

    2006-07-01

    Vehicle emissions are a major source of air pollution in urban areas. The impact on urban air quality could be reduced if the trends of vehicle emissions are well understood. In the present study, the real-world emissions of vehicles were measured using a remote sensing system at five sites in Hangzhou, China from February 2004 to August 2005. More than 48000 valid gasoline powered vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were measured. The results show that petrol vehicle fleet in Hangzhou has considerably high CO emissions, with the average emission concentration of 2.71%+/-0.02%, while HC and NO emissions are relatively lower, with the average emission concentration of (153.72+/-1.16)x10(-6) and (233.53+/-1.80)x10(-6), respectively. Quintile analysis of both average emission concentration and total amount emissions by model year suggests that in-use emission differences between well maintained and badly maintained vehicles are larger than the age-dependent deterioration of emissions. In addition, relatively new high polluting vehicles are the greatest contributors to fleet emissions with, for example, 46.55% of carbon monoxide fleet emissions being produced by the top quintile high emitting vehicles from model years 2000-2004. Therefore, fleet emissions could be significantly reduced if new highly polluting vehicles were subject to effective emissions testing followed by appropriate remedial action. PMID:16773726

  16. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be made jointly for both stations for periods of such simultaneous operations. (3) Satellite... satellite station, the originating station may make identification announcements for the satellite station... requirements for official station identification applicable to TV stations will apply to Subscription...

  17. Television Broadcast Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — The FCC TV Query should be used to generate lists and/or retrieve information about television broadcast stations. It provides an official listing of all TV Channels.

  18. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  19. Realtime USGS Streamflow Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Approximately 5,000 of the 6,900 U.S. Geological Survey sampling stations are equipped with telemetry to transmit data on streamflow, temperature, and other...

  20. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  1. USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Regional Climate Reference Network (USRCRN) installations in 2009. Installations documented are for USRCRN pilot project stations in...

  2. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  3. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was located on the Ohio River in Shippingport Borough (Beaver County), Pennsylvania, USA. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) constructed the plant in the mid-1950s on a seven and half acre parcel of land leased from Duquesne Light Company (DLC). The purposes were to demonstrate and to develop Pressurized Water Recovery technology and to generate electricity. DLC operated the Shippingport plant under supervision of (the successor to AEC) the Department of Energy (DOE)-Naval Reactors (NR) until operations were terminated on October 1, 1982. NR concluded end-of-life testing and defueling in 1984 and transferred the Station's responsibility to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL), Surplus Facility Management Program Office (SFMPO5) on September 5, 1984. SFMPO subsequently established the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and selected General Electric (GE) as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This report is intended to provide an overview of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

  4. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  5. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  6. GNSS station displacement analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritonova, Diana; Balodis, Janis; Janpaule, Inese; Normand, Madara

    2013-04-01

    Time series of GNSS station results of both the EUPOS®-Riga and LatPos networks have been developed at the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation (University of Latvia). The reference stations from EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) in surroundings of Latvia have been used and Bernese GPS Software, Version 5.0, in both static and kinematic modes was applied. The standard data sets were taken from IGS data base. The results of time series have been analysed and distinctive behaviour of daily and subdaily movements of EUPOS®-Riga and LatPos stations was identified. The reasons of dependence of GNSS station coordinate distribution on possible external factors such as seismic activity of some areas of Latvia and periodic processes were given.

  7. ASOS Station Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The images contained in this library are of stations in the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) network. These images were taken between 1998-2001 for the...

  8. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  9. Mesocarnivore Photo Stations [ds26

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This database was established to record furbearer and raptor presence through photographs taken at camera stations. The general study area where camera stations...

  10. How Attendance Affects the General Success of the Student

    OpenAIRE

    Sadri Alija

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyse the students’ attendance at the Faculty of Business and Economics. The study is divided into two parts: the first part analyses why some students are not motivated to attend lectures and practical hours while the second part analyses the impact of students’ attendance (motivation, bonus) in lectures and practical hours and their final success. This paper provides results of a survey completed at the beginning of the summer semester and results of the fin...

  11. Attending to the reasons for attribute non-attendance in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Jensen, Carsten Lynge

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on behavioural reasons underlying stated attribute non-attendance. In order to identify and incorporate procedures for dealing with heterogeneous attribute processing strategies, we ask respondents follow-up questions regarding their reasons for ignoring attributes. Based on these statements, we conclude that the standard way of assigning a zero impact of ignored attributes on the likelihood is inappropriate. We find that some respondents act in accordance with the passive bou...

  12. Attending to the reasons for attribute non-attendance in Choice Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; MØrkbak, Morten Raun

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on behavioural reasons underlying stated attribute non-attendance in choice experiments. In order to identify and incorporate procedures for dealing with heterogeneous attribute processing strategies, we ask respondents follow-up questions regarding their reasons for ignoring attributes. Based on these statements, we conclude that the standard way of assigning a zero impact of ignored attributes on the likelihood is inappropriate. We find that some respondents act in accordance with the passive bounded rationality assumption since they ignore an attribute simply because it does not affect their utility. Excluding these genuine zero preferences, as the standard approach essentially does, might bias results. Other respondents claim to have ignored attributes to simplify choices. However, we find that these respondents have actually not completely ignored attributes. We argue along the rationally adaptive behavioural model that valid preference information may indeed be elicited in these cases, and we illustrate how recoding of non-attendance statements conditional on stated reasons may be a more appropriate solution than the current standard way of taking stated non-attendance into account.

  13. Attending to the reasons for attribute non-attendance in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; MØrkbak, Morten Raun

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on behavioural reasons underlying stated attribute non-attendance in choice experiments. In order to identify and incorporate procedures for dealing with heterogeneous attribute processing strategies, we ask respondents follow-up questions regarding their reasons for ignoring attributes. Based on these statements, we conclude that the standard way of assigning a zero impact of ignored attributes on the likelihood is inappropriate. We find that some respondents act in accordance with the passive bounded rationality assumption since they ignore an attribute simply because it does not affect their utility. Excluding these genuine zero preferences, as the standard approach essentially does, might bias results. Other respondents claim to have ignored attributes to simplify choices. However, we find that these respondents have actually not completely ignored attributes. We argue along the rationally adaptive behavioural model that valid preference information may indeed be elicited in these cases, and we illustrate howrecoding of non-attendance statements conditional on stated reasons may be a more appropriate solution than the current standard way of taking stated non-attendance into account.

  14. Profile of Clients Attending a Methadone Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    JACOB, Sabrina Anne; MOHAMMED, Fauziah; HASSALI, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Client characteristics provide useful information for designing programs that target individuals with risk factors for substance use and for determining client retention. Therefore, this study examined the profiles of clients attending a methadone clinic. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of clients of a methadone clinic was conducted through a survey to obtain a profile of methadone clients. Results: Of the 51 patients who responded (response rate: 66.2%), the mean (SD) age at which they started substance use was 19.8 (5.1) years. Friends were cited as the most regular source of drugs (82.4%), and heroin was the most commonly used drug (98%). Daily substance use was reported by 72.5% of the respondents; 23.5% admitted to having stolen money to purchase drugs; 92.2% tried quitting substance use on their own and 98% stated that the main reason for registering at the clinic was that they wanted to stop their drug dependence. Approximately 60% of clients were receiving methadone doses of less than 60 mg/day. Conclusion: Heroin is still the most popular drug of abuse and most clients still receive methadone doses below the recommended level, despite evidence of poor patient retention rates associated with these low doses. PMID:25892951

  15. UMTS Network Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed over the 30 radiometric stations. As a the result, currently it exist a stable, flexible, safe and economic infrastructure of radiometric stations and telecommunications that allows, on the one hand, to have data in real time from all 30 remote weather stations, and on the other hand allows to communicate with them in order to reprogram them and to carry out maintenance works.

  16. Diesel or petrol engine - which concept offers more potential for the future?; Diesel- oder Ottomotor - Welcher bietet mehr Potential fuer die Zukunft?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiger, W.; Scholz, I. [Volkswagen AG (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The petrol engine and the diesel engine represent two combustion processes whose advantages lie is different areas. Whereas the petrol engine wins on higher specific power output and simpler exhaust gas aftertreatment, the latest generation of diesel engine scores mainly through better efficiency and higher torque. A common feature of both drive types is that they must comply with a single exhaust emission directive. The EU4 exhaust emission directive that has been in force in the EU since 1985 stipulates that, compared with the levels permitted in 1993, particulate emissions must be reduced by 91%, the total for HC and NOx emissions by 95% and CO emissions by 98%. The EU5 exhaust emission directive, which is still at the discussion stage, will however stipulate further drastic reductions in emissions. Besides the target values themselves, the decisive factors are the measuring cycles prescribed to collect the statutory limit values. Whereas the present NEDC and FTP- 75 cycles only determine exhaust emissions based on the middle range of the engine map, the US06 cycle plans to extend the relevant map range. In addition to directives that limit the exhaust gas constituents of CO, HC, NOx and particle emissions, the European automotive industry has agreed voluntarily to lower CO2 emissions by 25% compared with 1995 by the year 2008. Although ACEA fleet consumption is still below the trend line, the dynamic figure for the period 1998 to 2002 was not sustainable. As a result, it is now the task of engine research and development engineers to come up with new ideas and solutions to meet the voluntary obligation below the marginal conditions of statutory emission control legislation. Both the petrol and diesel engines are affected here. (orig.)

  17. Comparative analysis of environmental impact of S2P (Sunshine to Petrol) system for transportation fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • We study solar fuels derived from CO2 and water using the S2P framework. • S2P fuels have lower environmental impact than conventional fuels. • We evaluate the economic, environmental, and social benefits of the S2P framework. - Abstract: A previous study on Sunshine to Petrol (S2P), a technology framework to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels from CO2 and water using a concentrated solar energy source, focused on process development as well as economic evaluation. The study herein presents results from a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach to a comparative analysis of the environmental impacts of S2P-derived and petroleum-derived gasoline. Results reveal that S2P gasoline shows lower impact scores than the conventional gasoline for all evaluated impact categories. Based on the LCA results, we then analyze the environmental benefits including greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and external cost savings. We find that if S2P gasoline could be successfully introduced to satisfy the gasoline demand of a sample city, Victorville in east California, 3.6 Mt CO2-eq of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (77% of the total regional emissions) would be mitigated based on the current fleet of vehicles. The lighter impact also corresponds to 4.2 M$ annual cost savings from avoided environment damage. More generally, for each million vehicles running on S2P gasoline there would be nearly $30 M in savings and 335 M gallons of gasoline displaced, which in turn results in nearly 25.8 Mt of CO2-eq avoided

  18. Patient attendance at a UK dental hospital emergency clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayee, S; Kutty, S; Akintola, D

    2015-11-27

    A questionnaire survey was performed within a dental emergency clinic at a London teaching hospital to determine patients' reasons for attendance and satisfaction with their care. Questionnaires were distributed to all patients registering for the dental emergency clinic over a four week period. A total of 1,058 questionnaires were returned, with an average satisfaction score of 9.3/10. The majority of patients (58%) reported symptomatic dental attendance. Common reasons for irregular attendance were lack of perceived 'need' for care and concerns about cost of care. Patients with irregular attendance were significantly more likely to report their past dental care had been affected by cost than regular attenders. Fifty-one percent of all respondents had tried to make an appointment with a dentist prior to attending the emergency clinic, and 21% of patients with a GDP reporting difficulty accessing urgent care at their practice. Forty-nine percent of patients attending the emergency clinic were referred to oral surgery clinics. Overall, this survey revealed high levels of satisfaction with care in this dental emergency clinic. Patients' reasons for attendance at the clinic can be considered in terms of 'push' and 'pull' factors, deterring them from primary dental care and drawing them into secondary/tertiary care environments. PMID:26611303

  19. 50 CFR 91.3 - Public attendance at contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public attendance at contest. 91.3 Section... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.3 Public attendance at contest. All phases of the voting process will be open for viewing by...

  20. Elementary School Nurse Interventions: Attendance and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismuller, Penny C.; Grasska, Merry A.; Alexander, Marilyn; White, Catherine G.; Kramer, Pat

    2007-01-01

    Regular school attendance is a necessary part of the learning process; student absenteeism has a direct association with poor academic performance. School nurses can influence student attendance. This study describes the impact of school nurse interventions on student absenteeism and student health. A retrospective review of 240 randomly selected…

  1. Class Attendance and Performance in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Elchanan; Johnson, Eric

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 347 students, enrolled in principles of economics classes during the period 1997-2001, is used to examine the relation between class attendance and student performance on examinations. Among the questions examined are: Is attendance related to performance, with and without controls for other factors? Do only substantial levels of…

  2. Return flow of experience from operating and maintenance work in the Biblis nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The return flow of experience is discussed on the basis of the KTA1401 regulations. An exchange of information is produced by attendance at external and internal committees. Details of the operating and organisation manual of the Biblis nuclear power station are presented. The return flow of experience from maintenance orders and plant damage statistics are other topic covered in this article. figs

  3. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up...... system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  4. Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Grazzini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.

    Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.

    Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern/Insular Italy. Similar geographical distributions can be noted in the attendance rates (60.5% in the North of Italy, 56% in the Central area and 38.3% in the South of Italy. Cervical cancer screening: From the data obtained by the 2006 survey, 93.5% of theoretical extension was registered in the Centre of Italy, 65% in the North and 65.5% or in the South of Italy. 38.5% of invited women underwent a Pap-test. A decreasing trend in participation can be observed from Northern (45.6% to Central (35.7%, and to Southern (28.7% Italy. Colorectal cancer screening: In 2006, theoretical extension of colorectal cancer screening in Italy was 44%, with significant differences in geographical distribution (66.1% in the North of Italy 48.5% in the Centre and about 10% in the South of our country. About 907,000 people had a faecal occult blood test in 2006 (adjusted compliance of 44.6%. Data from the survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” showed that organised screening activity can reduce social inequalities of access to cancer screening, increasing screening utilization particularly in less educated people.

    Conclusions: Organised cancer screening programmes have been extended in recent years, improving the equity in the access to early diagnosis for the people invited. However, social and geographical inequalities still remain.

  5. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  6. Design of Lightweight e Attendance Prototype Using Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E-Attendance is a system that has been extensively used to record attendance in most of the official ceremony of Nuclear Malaysia. Currently, a computer is used as the client to record the input from the proximity card. However, further study on Raspberry Pi, the single board computer that use system on a chip (SoC) in the current market, discover that it is capable of delivering a simple light task of the e-attendance. With a compact memory and in linux environment, a prototype for lightweight e-attendance is being developed. This prototype of Raspberry Pi is believe to have potential in computer based system of Nuclear Technology such as access control, monitoring system and even robotic assistance. This paper will discuss the design of the prototype that resemble e-attendance to improve the robustness of the system. (author)

  7. Reinforcement of visual attending in classrooms for deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, H B; Holland, A L

    1970-01-01

    The efficacy of immediate tangible reinforcement in increasing appropriate visual attending for entire classes of deaf children was examined. The subjects were three classes (seven children each) in a residential school for the deaf. Boxes were installed on each child's desk, with lights that were flashed immediately contingent upon 10 sec of visual attending. Light flashes were backed up by M & M's, cereal bits, or tokens. In two of the classes, extinction sessions were also scheduled. For all classes, the reinforcement procedure increased visual attending by 50% or more, maintaining it at rates above 82%. Withdrawal of tangibles decreased attending back to baseline levels. The results support analysis of attending as operant behavior and demonstrate the applicability of reinforcement procedures in modifying these behaviors for young deaf children in a classroom setting. PMID:16795251

  8. Social environment and frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2005-01-01

    of 1423 (73.7%) frequent attenders and 1103 (74.9%) infrequent attenders responded. Male frequent attendance was associated, with statistical significance, with living alone and being without work or on a disability pension. Among women, lack of professional education or being without work tended to...... inequalities in health or whether social factors in themselves determine the use of general practice. AIM: To examine if social factors are associated with frequent attendance in general practice after adjusting for physical and psychological health variables. DESIGN OF STUDY: Population-based cross...... during the period November 1997-October 1998. A questionnaire about physical, psychological and social factors was sent to the patients. The associations between social factors and frequent attendance were adjusted for physical and psychological health and tendency towards somatisation. RESULTS: A total...

  9. Ban on degassing of petrol is a cost-effective measure. Prevention of emission from cargo vapors in inland shipping; Verbod op ontgassen benzine is kosteneffectieve maatregel. Voorkomen van emissies van ladingdampen in de binnenvaart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevenstern, M.; De Bruyn, S. [CE, Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    Cargo vapors and other volatile organic matter are emitted from inland shipping of petrol and were, until recently, a forgotten source of emission in the Netherlands. The Dutch government plans to implement a ban on the emission of such petrol vapors, January 1, 2006. The implementation can be met in a cost effective way. [Dutch] Ladingdampen en andere vluchtige organische stoffen (VOS), ontstaan bij binnenvaarttransporten van benzine, waren tot voor kort een vergeten bron van emissie in Nederland. De overheid heeft een verbod op het vrij emitteren van deze benzinedampen aangekondigd. Aan dit verbod kan op kosteneffectieve wijze worden voldaan.

  10. Improving School Attendance: Can Participation in Outdoor Learning Influence Attendance for Young People with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The link between good attendance in school and academic performance has been acknowledged for some time now. However, improving school attendance for young people with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) or pupils at risk of exclusion can be a challenging task for educational leaders. This paper begins with a discussion of…

  11. Space Station Final Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    An artist's conception of what the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) will look like when it is fully built and deployed. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  12. Biblis nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short constructive description of the components of the Biblis nuclear power station is given here. In addition to the heat flow diagram, the coolant cycle and the turbine control system, some details of construction and reactor safety are presented. (TK/AK)

  13. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  14. Canary Wharf Tube Station

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Gabriella

    2005-01-01

    Elegantly designed glass canopy "bubbles", cover the entrances of the underground tube station. Designed by Foster&Partners and built in 1999, this model [1:100] was built by Gabriella Dias, 3rd year B.Sc. (Arch) student, University of Pretoria, 2005.

  15. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping. The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high penetration of wind power is present, is considered as special case. The distribution grid in Denmark is built using larger secondary distribution transformers (e.g. 630 kVA) which in general allows higher flexibility for the installation of Central Stations, compared to Bornholm’s distribution grid. With the 3-phase AC quick charging options of 11, 22 kW and 43 kW, (IEC 62196, EN60038, EN 61851) both the Danish and Bornholm environments offer a good chance for EV integration [1]. Dealing with Fast Charging, the study determined that 300kW Fast Charging, which corresponds to 10 minutes charging for a 50 kWh battery-EV is not feasible in Bornholm at the 0.4 kV level, due to predominantly small size secondary distribution transformers, in the range of 100 - 200 kVA. This is possible at the 10kV level (MV level), if the Fast Charging station is equipped with its own dedicated transformer. With DC charging, rated at 50 kW, fast charging would be easier in both Denmark and Bornholm scenarios. For each scenario and charging power level, the possible number of EVs is estimated and finally architectural design options are proposed. Technical assessment is performed for evaluating the benefits of different charging concepts as Fast Charging and Battery Swapping as well as different loading options as DC loading versus AC loading, single phase (230V) versus three phase (400V) loading. A study on possible siting for Central Stations is performed for the Danish main land, where the average distance covered by EVs is used as input data. A finding of the study is that a reasonable number of fast charging and swapping stations are about 15, assuming that all EVs have a range of 100-120 Km. Furthermore the Bornholm case is not very relevant for fast charging or battery swapping stations, due to the relatively small dimensions of the island. Several architectures of Central Station are assessed based on different hardware components onfiguration: in particular we could have a Central Station with dedicated transformer sized ad-hoc for the DC charging equipment. On the other hand, it is possible to have a Central Station connected to an existing distribution transformer; in this case the transformer load management becomes crucial. Furthermore we could have the options of AC versus DC power distribution in a Central Station. In case of DC distribution, we could have multiple fast chargers, implemented as DC/DC converters, operating in parallel and serving different vehicles. Local active harmonics compensation is ecommended as a valid option for mitigating the effect on the grid due to fast charging equipment, in compliance to IEC/TS 61000-3-12. Among power quality issues in distribution grids with EVs, voltage drops and transformer overloading are identified in this work as most critical situations [1]. The mitigation of voltage drops within a Central Station requires the local analysis of the site and eventually the installation of energy storage systems for mitigating the drop during transients or parallel charging, in compliance to EN 50160. Transformer overloading can be prevented, providing real-time access to the local power flow data. The assumption of 50% transformer average loading is used as a single reference point in the current report. For future investigations on transformer overloading, more reference points might be necessary to represent various transformer loading levels. The subject of safety in Central Station is also addr

  17. Mobile environmental radiation monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mobile environmental radiation monitoring station has been developed and established for the Israeli Ministry of Environment. The radiation monitoring station is ready for immediate placing in any required location, or can be operated from a vehicle. The station collects data Tom the detector and transfers it via cellular communication network to a Computerized Control Center for data storage, processing, and display . The mobile station is fully controlled from the. Routinely, the mobile station responses to the data request accumulated since the last communication session. In case of fault or alarm condition in the mobile station, a local claim is activated and immediately initiates communication with the via cellular communication network. (authors)

  18. Effects of ultrafine petrol exhaust particles on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress generation, DNA damage and inflammation in human A549 lung cells and murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga, Mohan; Nathiya, Soundararajan; Rajasekar, Abbu; Devasena, Thiyagarajan

    2014-09-01

    Air pollution has persistently been the major cause of respiratory-related illness and death. Environmental pollutants such as diesel and petrol exhaust particles (PEPs) are the major contributors to urban air pollution. The aim of the present study was to characterize and investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammation induced by PEPs. Cultured type II epithelium cells (human A549 lung cells) and alveolar macrophages (murine RAW 264.7 cells) were exposed to control, vehicle control and to different concentrations of PEPs for up to 24h. Each treatment was evaluated by cell viability, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammatory parameters. Overall in vitro studies demonstrated that both cell lines showed similar patterns in response to the above studies induced by petrol exhaust nanoparticles (PENPs). Vehicle control showed no changes compared with the control. In both cell lines, significant changes at the dose of 20 and 50?g/mL (A549 cell lines) and 10and 20?g/mL (macrophages) for PENPs were found. The reactive oxygen species production in both cell lines shot up in minutes, reached the maximum within an hour and came down after 4h. Hence, exposure to PENPs resulted in dose-dependent toxicity in cultured A549 cells and RAW 264.7 cells and was closely correlated to increased oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammation. PMID:25173103

  19. How to reduce the petroleum dependency of Quebec? A ground breaking collective approach; Comment reduire la dependance quebecoise au petrole? Une demarche collective inedite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourke, Philippe; Caron-Malenfant, Julie

    2010-09-15

    Quebec population and socio economic agents are little or not summoned to in the definition of a vision relating to the dependency of Quebec to petroleum. The presented approach expects to include them as determining actors in the research for solutions to this collective issue, exploring aspects linked both to the energy consumption and production. The question to which the consultation is looking for answers is: How can Quebec reduce its petroleum consumption and increase its energy independence while promoting the harmonious economic and social development of its territory?. [French] La population et les agents socioeconomiques du Quebec sont peu ou pas interpelles dans la definition d'une vision entourant la dependance du Quebec au petrole. La demarche presentee prevoit les inclure comme acteurs determinants vers la recherche de solutions a cet enjeu collectif, explorant les aspects lies tant a la consommation qu'a la production energetique. La question a laquelle la consultation lancee cherchera des reponses est : Comment le Quebec peut-il diminuer sa consommation de petrole et accroitre son independance energetique tout en favorisant le developpement economique et social harmonieux de son territoire?.

  20. Psychosocial predictors of first attendance for organised mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; de Koning, H J; Absetz, P; Schreck, M

    1999-01-01

    of breast cancer risk as moderate were also predictive of attendance. Expectation of pain at mammography was predictive of non-attendance. CONCLUSION: Mammography screening organised as a public health service was well accepted. A recent mammogram, high reliance on self control of breast cancer, and...... had a mass mammogram recently, but who regularly visited gynaecologists, attended for Pap smear screening, practised breast self examination, and who did not smoke. Low confidence in their own capabilities in breast cancer prevention, overoptimism about the sensitivity of mammography, and perception...

  1. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  2. A lunar space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Lu; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  3. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  4. Generic Control Station

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Ilmi

    2013-01-01

    Cassidian, a defense and security company, employs a simulation framework called SIRI-US that allows the development of simulation models and applications and provides a runtime environment for them. SIRIUS is intended for developing as well as testing air-crafts. SIRIUS lacks a control system designed to control the simulation models. The pur-pose of this project was to provide this by developing a Generic Control Station that would allow managing and controlling simulation models. Gener...

  5. The nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes taking place in a nuclear power plant and the dangers arising from a nuclear power station are described. The means and methods of controlling, monitoring, and protecting the plant and things that can go wrong are presented. There is also a short discourse on the research carried out in the USA and Germany, aimed at assessing the risks of utilising nuclear energy by means of the incident tree analysis and probability calculations. (DG)

  6. Schools K-12 - MDC_ElementaryAttendanceBoundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County, Public Schools attendance zones for Elementary schools (PK-5) and K-8 Centers (PK-8) schools. K-8 Centers are elementary...

  7. Demographics of enuresis patients attending a referral centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rawashdeh, Yazan F; Hvistendahl, Gitte M; Hansen, Martin N; Djurhuus, Jens C; Kamperis, Konstantinos

    2002-01-01

    To study and compare the demography of enuretic children 7-16 years old attending a tertiary referral centre for childhood urinary incontinence, with that of normal children and what is generally known about enuretics from population-based studies.

  8. Professor Atta invited to attend WSIS as `eminent scientist'

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ministry of Science and Technology Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman has been nominated as an "eminent scientist" to attend the roundtables during "World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)" on December 12 (1 paragraph).

  9. A survey of medical students attending an international ?student conference

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Mamo; Chantal Fenech

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the lifestyle choices of international medical students attending a ?student conference. ?Study Design: Questionnaire-based census study.?Methods: A pre-tested structured questionnaire was given to the 481 delegates attending an ?international medical student conference in 2009 in Macedonia. The respondents were asked ?questions on their demographics, physical activity, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, sexual ?activity and nutritional intake. The results obtained fr...

  10. Factors affecting attendance at population-based mammography screening

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerlund, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to explore factors affecting attendance at outreach mammography screening, and to assess possible associations between socioeconomic factors and breast cancer survival. The relation of non-attendance at mammography screening to sociodemographic factors, indicators of general health behavior, self-rated health, experience of cancer in others, and own cancer or breast problems was studied in a case-control study with 434 ...

  11. Neural Responses to Complex Auditory Rhythms: The Role of Attending

    OpenAIRE

    Chapin, Heather L.; Zanto, Theodore; Jantzen, Kelly J.; Kelso, Scott J. A.; Steinberg, Fred; Large, Edward W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of attention in pulse and meter perception using complex rhythms. We used a selective attention paradigm in which participants attended to either a complex auditory rhythm or a visually presented word list. Performance on a reproduction task was used to gauge whether participants were attending to the appropriate stimulus. We hypothesized that attention to complex rhythms – which contain no energy at the pulse frequency – would lead to activations...

  12. Use of complementary therapies by patients attending musculoskeletal clinics.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandola, A; Young, Y.; McAlister, J.; Axford, J S

    1999-01-01

    Patients with musculoskeletal disorders commonly seek treatment outside orthodox medicine (complementary therapy). In patients attending hospital clinics we investigated the prevalence of such behaviour and the reasons for it. Patients attending rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics who agreed to participate were interviewed on the same day by means of a structured questionnaire in three sections: the first section about demographic characteristics; the second about the nature and duration of ...

  13. Physical activity and motor skills in children attending 43 preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Line Grønholt; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grøntved, Anders; Froberg, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about health characteristics and the physical activity (PA) patterns in children attending preschools. The objective of this study was to describe the gender differences in relation to body mass index (BMI), motor skills (MS) and PA, including PA patterns by the day type and time of day. Additionally, the between-preschool variation in mean PA was estimated using the intraclass correlation. METHODS: We invited 627 children 5-6 years of age attending 43 randomly select...

  14. The Effect of Islamic Secondary School Attendance on Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Asadullah, Niaz

    2014-01-01

    Using unique survey data on rural secondary school children, this paper evaluates the relative quality of Islamic secondary schools (i.e. madrasahs) in Bangladesh. Students attending registered madrasahs fare worse in maths and English than students attending non-madrasah schools. However, failure to account for non-random sorting over-estimates the negative influence of madrasahs on student achievement. Evidence on the magnitude of this bias is presented. Once selection effect is taken into ...

  15. Systematization of Angra-1 operation attendance - Maintenance and periodic testings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A maintenance analysis, their types and their functions for the safety of nuclear power plants is done. Programs and present trends in the reactor maintenance, as well as the maintenance program and periodic tests of Angra I, are analysed. The necessities of safety analysis and a systematization for maintenance attendance are discussed and the periodic testing as well as the attendance of international experience. (M.C.K.)

  16. Email for the coordination of healthcare appointments and attendance reminders.

    OpenAIRE

    Atherton, H; Sawmynaden, P.; Meyer, B.; Car, J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Email is a popular and commonly-used method of communication, but its use in health care is not routine. Where email communication has been utilised in health care, its purposes have included the coordination of healthcare appointments and attendance reminders, but the effects of using email in this way are not known. This review considers the use of email for the coordination of healthcare appointments and reminders for attendance; particularly scheduling, rescheduling and cancel...

  17. Demographics of enuresis patients attending a referral centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rawashdeh, Yazan F; Hvistendahl, Gitte M; Hansen, Martin N; Djurhuus, Jens C; Kamperis, Konstantinos

    2002-01-01

    To study and compare the demography of enuretic children 7-16 years old attending a tertiary referral centre for childhood urinary incontinence, with that of normal children and what is generally known about enuretics from population-based studies.......To study and compare the demography of enuretic children 7-16 years old attending a tertiary referral centre for childhood urinary incontinence, with that of normal children and what is generally known about enuretics from population-based studies....

  18. School attendance and child labor: A model of collective behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This paper theoretically investigates how community approval or disapproval affects school attendance and child labor and how aggregate behavior of the community feeds back towards the formation and persistence of an anti- (or pro-) schooling norm. The proposed community-model continues to take aggregate and idiosyncratic poverty into account as an important driver of low school attendance and child labor. But it provides also an explanation for why equally poor villages or regions can displa...

  19. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  20. Build Your Own Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  1. REAL TIME FACE RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR TIME AND ATTENDANCE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    APARNA BEHARA, M.V. RAGHUNADH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available — In this paper, we have proposed an automated Face Recognition System for Time and Attendance application. The model is developed with the help of real time OpenCV library The proposed system comprised of using the Viola Jones algorithm for detecting the human faces and then the detected face is resized to the required size, this resized face is further processed by using linear stretch contrast enhancement and finally it is recognized using a simple PCA / LDA. Once recognition is done, automatically attendance will be updated in an Excel Sheet along with his name, date and time. An html file is automatically updated by our system so that a remote authenticated user can access the attendance file .Our system is integrated to an Automatic Attendance Management System, with the help of which some post attendance works like stipend amount calculation, viewing attendance report for the required date, calculating the number of hours a person is present in the class, searching for a required person in the classroom etc. Spoofing which is a major threat for our system can be avoided using Eye Blink Detector algorithm. Our system can automatically update the Database for the newly enrolled persons. The proposed system can execute the instructions given orally to it (eliminating the need of a mouse interface and can speak back to us.

  2. Targeting zero non-attendance in healthcare clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka C; Chan, David B

    2012-01-01

    Non-attendance represents a significant cost to many health systems, resulting in inefficiency, wasted resources, poorer service delivery and lengthened waiting queues. Past studies have considered extensively the reasons for non-attendance and have generally concluded that the use of reminder systems is effective. Despite this, there will always be a certain level of non-attendance arising from unforeseeable and unpreventable circumstances, such as illness or accidents, leading to unfilled appointments. This paper reviews current approaches to the non-attendance problem, and presents a high-level approach to fill last minute appointments arising out of unforeseeable non-attendance. However, no single approach will work for all clinics and implementation of these ideas must occur at a local level. These approaches include use of social networks, such as Twitter and Facebook, as a communication tool in order to notify prospective patients when last-minute appointments become available. In addition, teleconsultation using video-conferencing technologies would be suitable for certain last-minute appointments where travel time would otherwise be inhibiting. Developments of new and innovative technologies and the increasing power of social media, means that zero non-attendance is now an achievable target. We hope that this will lead to more evidence-based evaluations from the implementation of these strategies in various settings at a local level. PMID:23138079

  3. Korea Geodetic VLBI Station Sejong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S.; Moon, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, J.; Joo, H. e.; Oh, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Sejong VLBI station has been constructed by the National Geographic Information Institute (NGII) in the Republic of Korea. It took approximately four years from 2008 to the end of 2011. In February 2012, we successfully carried out a fringe-test with the Kashima 11-m antenna of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) in Japan. In March, the Sejong station was accepted as an IVS network station by acceptance of the IVS Directing Board which was held at the 7th IVS General Meeting in Spain. This report summarizes activities of the Sejong station as a new IVS Network Station.

  4. A modelling study of the impact on air quality and health due to the emissions from E85 and petrol fuelled cars in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridell, Erik; Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Moldanova, Jana; Forsberg, Bertil; Sjöberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Alternative fuels are becoming more and more important for road traffic and one fuel that has been used for several years is ethanol (E85). The main discussion points regarding the environmental performance for ethanol as a fuel are related to the production. However, there are also some notable differences in the emissions between E85 and petrol fuelled vehicles. This relates to some extent to the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) but mainly to the composition of the emitted organic compounds. In the present study two fuel scenarios for passenger cars are investigated for the Västra Götaland Region in Sweden; one where the cars with Otto engines run on petrol and one where they run on E85. Two emission scenarios for 2020 are constructed for the whole Europe and coupled dispersion-chemistry modelling is applied to obtain the population exposure to key pollutants. The differences obtained from the modelling show decreased levels of NOx, ozone and benzene with E85 and increased levels of acetaldehyde in the Västra Götaland Region. For the latter the increase may be up to 80%, while NOx and ozone show decreases of up to a few per cent and a few tenths of per cent, respectively. Exposure to the different air pollutants is calculated as population-weighted concentrations. The health risk assessment, using the calculated exposure and published exposure-response functions for the relevant pollutants, shows decreased health risks in the E85 scenario relative the all-petrol scenario, due to the decreased NOx exposure, correlated with both preterm deaths and asthma. However, NOx (and NO2) may partly be indicators of unmeasured causal exhaust components in the epidemiological studies and thus the exposure-response functions for these may not be applicable in the present case where there is a difference in NOx exposure but not a proportional difference in exposure to other exhaust components normally associated with NOx. Smaller effects are expected from the changes in ozone, acetaldehyde, PM2.5 and benzene exposure. The overall difference is about 1.6 preterm deaths per year for the Västra Götaland Region, with lower values for the E85 scenario, when the uncertain differences due to the differences in NOx exposure are not considered.

  5. 76 FR 24572 - Proposed Information Collection (Report of Treatment by Attending Physician) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ...Proposed Information Collection (Report of Treatment by Attending Physician) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...information technology. Title: Report of Treatment by Attending Physician, VA Form...

  6. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder causes the AUV to rise, and emptying of the bladder allows the AUV to descend. This type of direct buoyancy control is much more energy efficient than using electrical pumps in that the inefficiencies of converting thermal energy to electrical energy to mechanical energy is avoided. AUV charging stations have been developed that use electricity produced by waves on floating buoys and that use electricity from solar photovoltaics on floating buoys. This is the first device that has absolutely no floating or visible parts, and is thus impervious to storms, inadvertent ocean vessel collisions, or enemy sabotage.

  7. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves a...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  8. Nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear power station is disclosed having a reactor buried in rock and machine groups formed with the use of turbines, compressors, generators or other apparatus, inclusive gas conduits; the individual machine groups and the gas conduits are arranged in rooms hollowed out in the rock for receiving and supporting these; to each group there leads at least one tunnel hollowed out in the rock; a safety chamber for a machine group concerned is situated adjacent the group and is secludable relatively to the atmosphere

  9. Draper Station Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jang, Jiann-Woei; McCants, Edward; Omohundro, Zachary; Ring, Tom; Templeton, Jeremy; Zoss, Jeremy; Wallace, Jonathan; Ziegler, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Draper Station Analysis Tool (DSAT) is a computer program, built on commercially available software, for simulating and analyzing complex dynamic systems. Heretofore used in designing and verifying guidance, navigation, and control systems of the International Space Station, DSAT has a modular architecture that lends itself to modification for application to spacecraft or terrestrial systems. DSAT consists of user-interface, data-structures, simulation-generation, analysis, plotting, documentation, and help components. DSAT automates the construction of simulations and the process of analysis. DSAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI), plus a Web-enabled interface, similar to the GUI, that enables a remotely located user to gain access to the full capabilities of DSAT via the Internet and Webbrowser software. Data structures are used to define the GUI, the Web-enabled interface, simulations, and analyses. Three data structures define the type of analysis to be performed: closed-loop simulation, frequency response, and/or stability margins. DSAT can be executed on almost any workstation, desktop, or laptop computer. DSAT provides better than an order of magnitude improvement in cost, schedule, and risk assessment for simulation based design and verification of complex dynamic systems.

  10. Nuclear hydrogen power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short information about investigations on hydrogen energetics being carried out in the USSR as well as a review of the world literature on this subject are given. Combined cycles of thermochemical and electrochemical reactions applied for hydrogen and oxigen production from water are shown to be of interest, as a number of reactions in a cycle may be reduced to two, and the temperature of processes may be decreased to the temperature range specific to modern reactors. Construction features of nuclear-hydrogen power stations producing hydrogen through the use of thermo-electro-chemical cycles are considered. It is shown that at this stage it is possible to reduce time and expenses needed for realization of hydrogen production on a wide scale as compared to other reaction cycles requiring high temperatures and consequently, construction of high-temperature reactors. The conditions of energy and water transport at great distances by using hydrogen lines and the possibilities of development of desert and arid lands by using this mode of operation are considered. Possible ecological effect of hydrogen energetics development on the environment is pointed out, in particular, when power complexes are concentrated on a limited area. It is shown that it is reasonable to locate nuclear-hydrogen stations on shores

  11. Web-Server based Student Attendance System using RFIDTechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Mohammed#1 , Jyothi Kameswari U

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Most educational institutions’ administrators are concerned about student irregular attendance. Truancies can affect student overall academic performance. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure, hence inefficient. Therefore, computer based student attendance management system is required to assist the faculty and the lecturer for this time-provide much convenient method to take attendance, but some prerequisites has to be done before start using the program. Although the use of RFID systems in educational institutions is not new, it is intended to show how the use of it came to solve daily problems in our university. The system has been built using the web-based applications such as ASP.NET and IIS server to cater the recording and reporting of the students’ attendances The system can be easily accessed by the lecturers via the web and most importantly, the reports can be generated in real-time processing, thus, providing valuable information about the students’.

  12. Exploring the school attendance of children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Piccin Zanni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The childhood epilepsy is a chronic disease that can have an impact in various spheres of life of the child, including academic performance and school attendance. This study aimed to describe and compare the school attendance of children with epilepsy who attend mainstream and special schools. Participants were 56 children aged between 7 and 14 years who attended regular or special schools located in two Brazilian cities of medium size. To collect the information we used two instruments: Data sheet of identification and characterization of the child and Data sheet to record the attendance school. The results showed that children in special schools had higher rates of absenteeism compared to students in regular schools. Additionally, we observed that these children use more drugs and have implications on health more severe than children in regular schools. Thus, it is the childhood epilepsy as a disease complex that brings substantial effects on various areas of children’s lives by reinforcing the need for studies that might expand the knowledge to and the experiences associated with the education of these children.

  13. How Attendance Affects the General Success of the Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadri Alija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyse the students’ attendance at the Faculty of Business and Economics. The study is divided into two parts: the first part analyses why some students are not motivated to attend lectures and practical hours while the second part analyses the impact of students’ attendance (motivation, bonus in lectures and practical hours and their final success. This paper provides results of a survey completed at the beginning of the summer semester and results of the final success in three courses for the academic year 2010/11 (Business Mathematics, Statistics and Managerial Economics with first, second and third-year students at the Faculty of Business and Economics, at South East European University in Tetovo. This paper uses logical regression to give an overview of the impact of students’ attendance (motivation, bonus at lectures and practical hours in their final success. Results show that, besides other daily engagements during studies, students have other excuses for absence from lectures and practical hours such as conditions, management and methods of teaching in the Faculty. Final results of three subjects which are considered as more practical show that attendance of students have a big influence in students’ final success. The software MedCalc was used for the elaboration of data.

  14. Yearly measurements of blood lead in Swedish children since 1978: an update focusing on the petrol lead free period 1995–2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, U; Lundh, T; Schutz, A; Skerfving, S

    2003-01-01

    Methods: In the south of Sweden, each year from 1995 to 2001, B-Pb was measured in 329 boys and 345 girls, aged 7–11 years. Results: The geometric mean (GM) of B-Pb was 21 (range 6–80) µg/l. There was no consistent change of B-Pb from 1995 to 2001. Children living near a lead smelter had raised B-Pb (GM 24 µg/l, range 11–80). Passive smoking, but not age and sex, influenced B-Pb significantly. Conclusions: B-Pb in Swedish children, no longer exposed to petrol lead, seems to have stabilised at an average level close to 20 µg/l (provided there is no nearby industrial lead emission). PMID:12709524

  15. Diesel oil and petrol can be produced from coal to the same price as from petroleum by means of nano catalyzers; Kull paa tanken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Claude R.

    2002-07-01

    New nano catalyzers make it possible to produce diesel oil and petrol from coal to the same price as from petroleum. This will turn the power balance from OPEC countries to coal producing countries. The American company Hydrocarbon Technologies Inc. (HTI) have developed a catalyzer that will transform coal directly to liquid fuel to a competitive price. When the first commercial plant is completed in 2005, the price of fuel from the plant is expected to correspond to the price of fuel from petroleum to 20 - 22 dollars per barrel. The price of oil is currently about 25 dollars per barrel. In addition to the HTI catalyzers many other nano catalyzers are appearing on the market. There is extensive research on nano catalyzers all over the world. If successful, this new technology may have geopolitical consequences.

  16. Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust in major cities in Greece in relation to the use of lead in petrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulou, Maria A; Day, J Philip

    2006-08-31

    Until recently, the most important source of environmental lead pollution in cities was thought to come from the combustion of leaded petrol. A simple way to monitor the extent of this phenomenon, used in a number of studies in the past, has been to measure lead levels in street dust. Nowadays, it would be expected that lead concentrations in urban dust would have decreased from earlier values, following the progressive reduction of lead in petrol over the past few years, and this hypothesis has recently been confirmed in Manchester, UK. The object of the present work is to determine levels of lead pollution in cities in Greece on 1997 and, if possible, to discover whether similar reductions in lead concentrations have occurred there also. Surveys have been conducted in Thessaloniki, Athens and Piraeus. Samples of roadside dust were collected from streets (categorised by traffic density), national gardens and school playgrounds, and lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid. Lead concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and lead isotope ratios measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Thessaloniki showed that mean lead concentrations in all categories of location are similar to present levels in Manchester. Further, lead concentrations in dust in the busiest streets in Thessaloniki have fallen by about 55% since a previous study 17 years ago. In Athens and Piraeus, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between the various types of street. In particular, it was observed that lead levels in school playgrounds in these two cities were much higher than in similar locations in Thessaloniki and Manchester, with a possible hazard to children. Isotope ratio measurements showed that Thessaloniki's lead is isotopically distinct from that found in Athens and Piraeus, which presumably reflects differences in sources of supply. PMID:16687163

  17. Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust in major cities in Greece in relation to the use of lead in petrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anagnostopoulou, Maria A.; Day, J. Philip [Department of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, England (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-31

    Until recently, the most important source of environmental lead pollution in cities was thought to come from the combustion of leaded petrol. A simple way to monitor the extent of this phenomenon, used in a number of studies in the past, has been to measure lead levels in street dust. Nowadays, it would be expected that lead concentrations in urban dust would have decreased from earlier values, following the progressive reduction of lead in petrol over the past few years, and this hypothesis has recently been confirmed in Manchester, UK. The object of the present work is to determine levels of lead pollution in cities in Greece on 1997 and, if possible, to discover whether similar reductions in lead concentrations have occurred there also. Surveys have been conducted in Thessaloniki, Athens and Piraeus. Samples of roadside dust were collected from streets (categorised by traffic density), national gardens and school playgrounds, and lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid. Lead concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and lead isotope ratios measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Thessaloniki showed that mean lead concentrations in all categories of location are similar to present levels in Manchester. Further, lead concentrations in dust in the busiest streets in Thessaloniki have fallen by about 55% since a previous study 17 years ago. In Athens and Piraeus, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between the various types of street. In particular, it was observed that lead levels in school playgrounds in these two cities were much higher than in similar locations in Thessaloniki and Manchester, with a possible hazard to children. Isotope ratio measurements showed that Thessaloniki's lead is isotopically distinct from that found in Athens and Piraeus, which presumably reflects differences in sources of supply. (author)

  18. Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust in major cities in Greece in relation to the use of lead in petrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, the most important source of environmental lead pollution in cities was thought to come from the combustion of leaded petrol. A simple way to monitor the extent of this phenomenon, used in a number of studies in the past, has been to measure lead levels in street dust. Nowadays, it would be expected that lead concentrations in urban dust would have decreased from earlier values, following the progressive reduction of lead in petrol over the past few years, and this hypothesis has recently been confirmed in Manchester, UK. The object of the present work is to determine levels of lead pollution in cities in Greece on 1997 and, if possible, to discover whether similar reductions in lead concentrations have occurred there also. Surveys have been conducted in Thessaloniki, Athens and Piraeus. Samples of roadside dust were collected from streets (categorised by traffic density), national gardens and school playgrounds, and lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid. Lead concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and lead isotope ratios measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Thessaloniki showed that mean lead concentrations in all categories of location are similar to present levels in Manchester. Further, lead concentrations in dust in the busiest streets in Thessaloniki have fallen by about 55% since a previous study 17 years ago. In Athens and Piraeus, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between the various types of street. In particular, it was observed that lead levels in school playgrounds in these two cities were much higher than in similar locations in Thessaloniki and Manchester, with a possible hazard to children. Isotope ratio measurements showed that Thessaloniki's lead is isotopically distinct from that found in Athens and Piraeus, which presumably reflects differences in sources of supply

  19. Determinants of frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Andersen, John Sahl; Tjønneland, Anne; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies addressing determinants of frequent attendance have mainly focused on socio-demographic, psychosocial and medical factors, and few had data on lifestyle and gender-specific factors. This study aims to describe determinants of general practice frequent attendance in...... Danish adult population, by examining lifestyle, socio-demographic, medical and gender-specific factors. METHOD: For 54,849 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (50-65 year old) we obtained data on visits to general practitioner (GP) from the Danish National Health Service Register...... at cohort baseline (1993-97), when information on medical conditions and lifestyle, socio-demographic and gender-specific factors was collected by questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to identify determinants of frequent attendance, defined as top 10 % GP users at the year of recruitment into...

  20. On the Predictability of Talk Attendance at Academic Conferences

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Christoph; Atzmueller, Martin; Stumme, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the prediction of real-world talk attendances at academic conferences with respect to different influence factors. We study the predictability of talk attendances using real-world tracked face-to-face contacts. Furthermore, we investigate and discuss the predictive power of user interests extracted from the users' previous publications. We apply Hybrid Rooted PageRank, a state-of-the-art unsupervised machine learning method that combines information from different sources. Using this method, we analyze and discuss the predictive power of contact and interest networks separately and in combination. We find that contact and similarity networks achieve comparable results, and that combinations of different networks can only to a limited extend help to improve the prediction quality. For our experiments, we analyze the predictability of talk attendance at the ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia 2011 collected using the conference management system Conferator.

  1. Measuring the effects of stormwater mitigation on beach attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyah, Perla; Pendleton, Linwood; Vaughn, Ryan; Lessem, Neil

    2013-07-15

    Many studies have used valuation techniques to predict the potential effect of environmental improvements on human use of coastal areas, but there is a lack of post hoc empirical evidence that these policies indeed affect the way people use coastal areas. A panel data approach is developed to statistically determine how storm drain diversions affected attendance at 26 beaches in Southern California. This study uses a 10-year time series of data to conduct a statistical analysis of attendance at beaches with and without diversions and before and after the diversions were installed, while controlling for all observable, confounding factors. Results indicate that beach attendance increased at beaches with diversions compared to those that did not have diversions (between 350,000 and 860,000 visits annually at a 95% confidence interval). Establishing this link between mitigation policies and human use patterns can lead to better management of coastal areas. PMID:23711842

  2. Consumer opinion of when to attend for hospital antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, C; Farrow, S

    1988-01-01

    Between May 1985 and June 1986 a case control study of late and early antenatal bookings took place in two South Wales hospitals, one urban and one rural. The study examined respondents' opinions on the importance of early hospital antenatal care and the optimum time for a booking visit. Respondents were asked to state the major influence on their opinions regarding antenatal care. It was found that the majority of both late and early attenders thought that early hospital antenatal care was important, but of these many, particularly late attenders, had no accurate idea of the advisable gestation for first attendance. The most frequently mentioned influence on the respondents' opinions was health service literature provided during antenatal care. Some of these booklets gave no specific advice on when the first hospital visit should take place. PMID:10288141

  3. Discussion on station blackout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety of nuclear power plants could be assured with a 'defense-in-depth' approach with multiple systems. Considering effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake on nuclear power plants according to 'defense-in-depth' approach, power supply would be indispensable in any case. It would be important to consider countermeasures against loss of all ac power (station blackout), loss of all ac power system and loss of all power and others corresponding to probability of occurrence and risk. Even with small amount of power capacity some time would be earned before damage progressed. It would be surely important to reduce risk of nuclear power plant with arranging events and evaluate them from a bird eye viewpoint. (T. Tanaka)

  4. SMART Station Blackout Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima accident represents the latest fear of any nuclear industry whether established or just starting. Although it was a natural disaster, it must be assured that even under such circumstances, radioactive material is contained and release is avoided. Despite the possibility of radioactive release occurring over multiple consequences, such scenarios must be considered. The Fukushima scenario is considered in the SMART (System Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) design with the availability and loss of the Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS). Using the Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety (MARS) code, this paper presents the Fukushima scenario studies along with the calculated grace time as results. The results of SMART Station Black Out (SBO) analysis show grace time of almost two and a half days for the worst-case scenario

  5. Local control stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted

  6. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  7. Child Labour or School Attendance? Evidence from Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia. Since the data come from a household survey with information on all household members, it allows us to take account of unobserved household effects by introducing household specific effects in a logit model. The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away from school.

  8. Child Labour or School Attendance? Evidence from Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    1996-01-01

    effects in a logit model. The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away......In this paper, we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia. Since the data come from a household survey with information on all household members, it allows us to take account of unobserved household effects by introducing household specific...

  9. An Efficient Automatic Attendance System using Fingerprint Verification Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitresh Saraswat,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to develop an accurate, fast and very efficient automatic attendance system using fingerprint verification technique. We propose a system in which fingerprint verification is done by using extraction of minutiae technique and the system that automates the whole process of taking attendance, Manually which is a laborious and troublesome work and waste a lot of time, with its managing and maintaining the records for a period of time is also a burdensome task. For this purpose we use fingerprint verification system using extraction of minutiae techniques. The experimental result shows that our proposed system is highly efficient in verification of user fingerprint .

  10. Health Club Attendance, Expectations and Self-control

    OpenAIRE

    Garin, Jean-Denis; Masse, Alix; Michaud, Pierre-Carl

    2014-01-01

    Using a unique dataset on health club attendance from Quebec, we look at the relationship between actual and expected attendance and how these relate to a reported measure of self-control problems at the time of contract signing. We find that a large majority of contract choices appear inconsistent purely on financial grounds: 47.5% of members would be better off paying the fee for a single visit each time they go to the gym rather than signing a long-term contract. The median total cost of m...

  11. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  12. Kakrapar Atomic Power Station Gujarat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) is the fifth Atomic Power Station in India. It is a twin unit with a generating capacity of 220 MWe each. Reactors are known as Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. The heat is generated by nuclear fission using natural uranium as fuel. Unit-1 is under commercial operation since 06 May 1993 and Unit-2 since 01 September 1995. The safety performance of station is improving continuously. As on 30 September 2010, Station has record of longest reportable accident free period of 2873 days and fire free days of 4515

  13. Studying Absenteeism in Principles of Macroeconomics: Do Attendance Policies Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Sharmistha

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to see if and how attendance policy influences class attendance in undergraduate-level principles of macroeconomics classes. The second objective, which is related to the first, is to examine whether the nature of the attendance policy matters in terms of its impact on class attendance behavior. The results…

  14. Student and Teacher Attendance: The Role of Shared Goods in Reducing Absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; King, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical model is advanced that demonstrates that, if teacher and student attendance generate a shared good, then teacher and student attendance will be mutually reinforcing. Using data from the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan, empirical evidence supporting that proposition is advanced. Controlling for the endogeneity of teacher and student attendance, the most powerful factor raising teacher attendance is the attendance of the children in the school, and the most important factor influencing child attendance is the presence of the teacher. The results suggest that one important avenue to be explored in developing policies to reduce teacher absenteeism is to focus on raising the attendance of children.

  15. A Theory of Attending and Reinforcement in Conditional Discriminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, John A.; Davison, Michael; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2005-01-01

    A model of conditional discrimination performance (Davison & Nevin, 1999) is combined with the notion that unmeasured attending to the sample and comparison stimuli, in the steady state and during disruption, depends on reinforcement in the same way as predicted for overt free-operant responding by behavioral momentum theory (Nevin & Grace, 2000).…

  16. Reducing Attendance Time in LR-EPONs With Differentiated Services

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr

    2015-04-09

    This work presents a novel on-the-fly void filling scheme for Long-Reach EPON called Size Controlled Batch Void Filling (SCBVF). SCBVF aims at reducing the time between consecutive bandwidth grants (attendance time) and hence reducing the average delay for delay-sensitive traffic.

  17. Motivation for and Benefits from Attending the AP Statistics Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobbe, Tim; Hartlaub, Bradley A.; Whitaker, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the Advanced Placement® Statistics reading as a source of professional development for teachers. The study was conducted to capture the motivation for and benefits from attending the collective grading. Research has shown that examining student work during professional development has implications for teaching. The premise of…

  18. Compulsory Attendance Policies: About Age or Intervention? SREB Focus Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, SREB state policy-makers have focused on actions to reduce dropout rates and increase high school graduation rates. Some policy-makers have suggested that raising their state's compulsory attendance age (often called the dropout age) to require students to stay in school until age 17 or 18 is an important step. However,…

  19. Sport related injuries attending the accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R. S.; Taggart, T

    1994-01-01

    Of new patients attending our hospital, 7.1% had injured themselves playing sport. The majority had been playing football and had sustained a soft tissue injury. Many of the patients presented late, i.e. after 24 h or longer. These patients would be best dealt with in a sports clinic, staffed by personnel with an interest in this field.

  20. Attending Community College, Parenting Satisfaction, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfert, Christy M.

    2010-01-01

    This research was a quantitative study designed to evaluate parenting satisfaction, academic performance, and students' perceptions of pursuing higher education in students attending community college. One purpose of this research was to determine if pursuing higher education at the community college level impacted the parenting satisfaction of…