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Working Environment Factors that Affect Quality of Work Life among Attendants in Petrol Stations in Kitale Town in Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research sought to establish working environment factors that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants in Kitale town. The objective of the study was to identify working environment aspects that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants. This study was an exploratory survey, carried out in 17 petrol stations that are located in Kitale Town, Kenya. The target population comprised 17 station managers and 170 attendants, out of which a sample of 102 respondents was selected: Seventeen (17) Petrol Station Managers using non – probabilistic purposeful sampling and eighty five (85) attendants using simple random sampling. The study used a questionnaire as an instrument for data collection. Data collected was both quantitative and qualitative, and analysis was basic descriptive in nature. The study revealed that poor safety and health, work pressure or stress, and provision of inadequate working tools are environmental aspects that bring about poor Quality of Working Life experiences at petrol stations. In conclusion, the findings were examined and then the implications discussed. General recommendations were made for the improvement of Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants.

Aloys Nyagechi Kiriago; Henry M. Bwisa

2013-01-01

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Assessing the impact of petrol stations on their immediate surroundings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes a novel methodology for evaluating the extent to which petrol stations affect their surroundings. The method is based on the fact that the ratio of the concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants in the air of the petrol stations and their surroundings (basically determined by vapor emissions from unburned gasoline) differs from the ratio found in urban air, which is mainly influenced by traffic emissions. Bearing this in mind, the spatial limit of influence of petrol stations in any direction would be the first point, moving away from the station, where the ratio becomes equal to the urban background ratio. Application of the methodology involves multipoint measuring campaigns of the air at the studied petrol station and built-up area in general and processing the data with software capable of providing isoconcentration contours. The procedure should help local authorities in terms of land management, so that a "belt" can be established around petrol stations where housing or vulnerable populations and activities such as those in schools, hospitals and community centers should be restricted.

Morales Terrés IM; Miñarro MD; Ferradas EG; Caracena AB; Rico JB

2010-12-01

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The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally established conditions, which depend on the situation at their petrol station. It is estimated that 4.000 petrol stations will submit an application. These conditions take into account European legislation concerning support measures and competition law. The legislator took learning experiences in the Netherlands and Denmark as a basis. These countries have launched similar funds in the past. BOFAS however goes further in its financial support

2002-12-13

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The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally established conditions, which depend on the situation at their petrol station. It is estimated that 4.000 petrol stations will submit an application. These conditions take into account European legislation concerning support measures and competition law. The legislator took learning experiences in the Netherlands and Denmark as a basis. These countries have launched similar funds in the past. BOFAS however goes further in its financial support.

Naeyer, F. de; Van Dyck, E. [OVAM, Mechelen (Belgium); Janssens, J.P.; Duliere, A. [BIM, Brussel (Belgium); Fondaire, D. [DGRNE, Liege (Belgium); Bodart, O. [Governement Wallon, Namur (Belgium)

2005-07-01

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Replacement of the pumps at the CERN petrol stations  

CERN Multimedia

The CERN petrol stations will be closed on the following dates to allow the pumps to be replaced: Prévessin petrol station: 26 and 27 November Meyrin petrol station: 28, 29 and 30 November The current fuel cards in the vehicles will have expired by the time the new pumps begin operation. All those in possession of a CERN vehicle are therefore requested to collect a transponder badge from the light vehicle maintenance office (130/R-013), which is open from 8.00 a.m. to midday and from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Badges will be issued on presentation of the keys of the vehicle in question. TS-IC-LO Section Tel. 77039 - 72228

2007-01-01

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Replacement of the pumps at the CERN petrol stations  

CERN Multimedia

The CERN petrol stations will be closed on the following dates to allow the pumps to be replaced: Prévessin petrol station: 26 and 27 November Meyrin petrol station: 28, 29 and 30 November The current fuel cards in the vehicles will have expired by the time the new pumps begin operation. All those in possession of a CERN vehicle are therefore requested to collect a transponder badge from the light- vehicle maintenance office (130/R-013), which is open from 8.00 a.m. to midday and from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Badges will be issued on presentation of the keys of the vehicle in question. TS-IC-LO Section – Tel. 77039 - 72228

2007-01-01

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Environmental Exposure to Xylenes in Drivers and Petrol Station Workers by Urinary Methylhippuric Acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The aims of this study were evaluation of exposed to xylenes in low concentration and compare urinary level of methyl hippuric acid in taxi drivers and petrol stations workers in West of Iran. Methods: This observation study was carried out on samples of the exposed men to xylenes in two occupational groups in Hamadan City (west of Iran) from March 2003 to March 2004. Subjects included 45 taxi drivers and 25 petrol station workers. The study group was selected from 54 workers at petrol stations and 300 drivers by simple random sampling. Xylenes was analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID). The urinary methyl hippuric acid (MHA) was analyzed with High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) equipped with an ultraviolet (UV) detector.Results: Total xylene exposure was 1.05±0.55 ppm (mean±SD) with a range of 0.20-2.55 ppm that was about 4 times more than taxi drivers' exposure. The poor correlation coefficient was seen between xylenes concentration and urinary MHA for drivers (r2= 0.09 to 0.42) but significant associations were noted between urinary MHA and xylene in the breathing zone of petrol station workers (r2= 0.69 to 0.77; PConclusion: High xylenes levels are emitted in petrol stations at Iran. Urinary MHA level has a poor correlation with exposure to xylenes in drivers but has good correlation in petrol station workers.

AR Bahrami; A Jonidi-Jafari; H Mahjub

2011-01-01

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Biomarkers of exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl tert-butyl ether in petrol station workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This cross-sectional study was aimed at reconstructing the exposure to gasoline in 102 petrol station attendants by environmental and biological monitoring of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and biomonitoring of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Airborne BTEX were higher for manual refuelers than self-service assistants and were highly correlated with each other. Significant relationships were found between airborne BTX and the corresponding urinary solvents (U-BTX) and beween airborne B and urinary MTBE (U-MTBE). Smokers eliminated higher values of U-B, trans,trans-muconic (t,t-MA) and S-phenylmercapturic (S-PMA) acids but not U-MTBE. All these biomarkers were, however, significantly raised during the shift, independently from smoking. Linear regression confirmed that occupational exposure was a main predictor of U-MTBE, U-B and S-PMA values, both the latter confounded by smoking habits. The study supports the usefulness of biomonitoring even at low exposure levels.

De Palma G; Poli D; Manini P; Andreoli R; Mozzoni P; Apostoli P; Mutti A

2012-06-01

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Biomarkers of exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl tert-butyl ether in petrol station workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-sectional study was aimed at reconstructing the exposure to gasoline in 102 petrol station attendants by environmental and biological monitoring of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and biomonitoring of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Airborne BTEX were higher for manual refuelers than self-service assistants and were highly correlated with each other. Significant relationships were found between airborne BTX and the corresponding urinary solvents (U-BTX) and beween airborne B and urinary MTBE (U-MTBE). Smokers eliminated higher values of U-B, trans,trans-muconic (t,t-MA) and S-phenylmercapturic (S-PMA) acids but not U-MTBE. All these biomarkers were, however, significantly raised during the shift, independently from smoking. Linear regression confirmed that occupational exposure was a main predictor of U-MTBE, U-B and S-PMA values, both the latter confounded by smoking habits. The study supports the usefulness of biomonitoring even at low exposure levels. PMID:22458326

De Palma, Giuseppe; Poli, Diana; Manini, Paola; Andreoli, Roberta; Mozzoni, Paola; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

2012-03-29

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State of subsoil in a former petrol station: physicochemical characterization and hydrocarbon contamination evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Former petrol stations are, possibly, potential hydrocarbon contaminated soil areas due to leakage in Underground Storage Tanks and fuel dispensing activities. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in gasoline, like benzene and semi-volatile organics in diesel, are carcinogenic and very toxic substances which can involve a serious risk for ecosystem and human health. Based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography 2D results from a previous work, there have been selected three potentially contaminated goal areas in a former petrol station located in SE Spain in order to obtain soil samples by drilling and to assess the gasoline and diesel contamination. A special sampling design was carried out and soil samples for VOCs were preserved at field with a KCl solution to minimize volatilization losses. It had been chosen Headspace-GC-MS as the better technique to quantify individual VOCs and GC-FID to get a Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) assessment after a solid/fluid pressurized extraction. The physicochemical characterization of the subsoil was performed to know how humidity, clay content or pH data could be related to the presence of hydrocarbons in the soil samples. Results show that VOCs concentrations in subsoil samples of the petrol station are around ppb levels. TPH ranged between 17 mg/kg soil and 93 mg/kg soil (ppm levels) what involves diesel and gasoline leaks due to these detected residual concentrations in the subsoil. The maximum value was found at 6 m deep in an intermediate zone between Underground Storage Tanks positions (located at 4 m deep). Therefore, these results confirm that organic compounds transference with strong vertical component has taken place. It has been observed that humidity minimum values in the subsoil are related to TPH maximum values that could be explained because of the vapour phase and the retention of hydrocarbon in soil increases when humidity goes down. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in the subsoil tend to be pH-dependent and clay content dependent: maximum of adsorption taken place at minimum pH what encourage protonation and minimum clay content in the subsoil make organic compounds infiltration downstream easier. It could be noticed the importance of physicochemical subsoil characterization and contamination assessment in the subsoil of petrol stations in order to avoid the hydrocarbons pollution of the groundwater. Then plan the best remediation technique according to this characterization taking into account the residual hydrocarbon concentration in the subsoil and the associated risk for human and ecosystems.

María Rosales, Rosa; Martinez-Pagán, Pedro; Faz, Ángel; Bech, Jaume

2013-04-01

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Hazards Forecasting and Weights Determination during Operation and Maintenance of Petrol Fuel Station  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Petrol Fuel Stations (PFS) is the most commonly available hazardous facility within urban and rural areas. Hazardous materials such as petrol, diesel, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and kerosene oil normally sell and stores at PFS. PFS can be considered as small refinery within the city. A 3.5 year study conducted and 3216 non-compliances were recorded from PFS located in various cities of Pakistan. The operating company was ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certified. The recorded non-compliances during study period were categorized into 8 potential factors. These were Housekeeping (HK), Transportation Hazard (TH), Slips, Trips and Falls (STF), Carelessness (C), Fire Risks (FR), Electrical Fault (EF), Miscellaneous Cases (MC) and Medical Treatment Cases (MTC). Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used and categorized 8 factors were prioritized. The same data was further classified based upon to cause fatality, accident, incident and near miss cases. A total numbers of 14, 426, 975 and 1804, fatality, accident, incident and near miss cases were recorded. With application of Exponential Smoothing method the fatalities, accident, incident and near miss cases for the years 2011, 2012 and 2013 were forecasted. The results of AHP and forecasted hazards will be presented and discussed in this study. It is hope that the both approaches will assist health and safety professionals for future hazards predictions and hazards weights determinations. Health and safety practitioners can take remedial and preventative measures by using past data with utilization of proposed techniques.

M.M. Ahmed; S.R.M. Kutty; Mohd Faris Khamidi; I. Othman P.D.D. Dominic; Olisa Emmanuel

2013-01-01

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Genotoxicity in filling station attendants exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Biomonitoring of exposure in workplaces has gained importance in evaluation of human health hazards. Since occupational exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons may have deleterious effects, genotoxicity risk among 200 fuel filling station attendants (FFSAs) and 200 matched controls was investigated. METHODS: The probable genetic damage was determined by comet assay and micronucleus test in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of study subjects. Air and blood sample analysis was done to estimate the benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) concentrations using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effect of exposure on antioxidant enzymes was also studied by determining the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and rate of lipid peroxidation measured as concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) formed. RESULTS: The results of the present study suggest that there was a statistically significant increase in mean comet tail length (25.09 versus 10.27 ?m) and frequency of micronuclei in PBL (11.83 versus 5.83 per thousand; P < 0.05) of FFSAs as compared to controls. BTX concentrations were found to be significantly higher in ambient air of petrol pumps and FFSAs showed elevated levels of these compounds in their breathing zone in comparison to controls (P < 0.05). Blood BTX levels were found to be significantly enhanced in FFSAs. SOD and GPx were significantly decreased with an increased rate of CAT and MDA in FFSAs as compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that exposure to BTX has the potential to cause genetic changes in the exposed subjects. The data highlight the need to maintain safety measures and intervention to minimize exposure.

Rekhadevi PV; Rahman MF; Mahboob M; Grover P

2010-11-01

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Auditory brainstem response in gas station attendants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Ototoxicity of organic solvents can affect the hearing system up to the cochlea level and the central structures of hearing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neurophysiological integrity of the hearing system in subjects exposed to fuels using ABR. METHOD: Prospective study. We evaluated attendants from three gas stations in Santa Maria/RS. The sample had 21 subjects, who were evaluated by auditory brainstem response. RESULTS: We found an alteration in the absolute latencies of Waves I and III and in all the interpeak latencies, in the right ear. In the left ear there was a change in the absolute latencies of all Waves, and in all the interpeak intervals. A change in the interaural difference of Wave V was found in 19% of the individuals. In the group exposed for more than five years, there were subjects with a statistically significant changes: in the I-V interpeak of the right ear; in the absolute latency of Wave I and in the III-V interpeak of the left year. CONCLUSION: Exposure to fuels can cause alterations in the central hearing system.

Quevedo Lda S; Tochetto T; Siqueira MA; Machado MS

2012-12-01

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Petrol war in Nijmegen, Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since April 2000 a petrol war rages in Nijmegen and surroundings (Netherlands) whereby considerable discounts are given to the national retail prices. The cause of the war is a new unmanned petrol station of the enterprise Tango. In this article the development and the consequences of the discount at petrol stations in Nijmegen and surroundings are analyzed 3 refs.

2000-07-28

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Evaluation of benzene exposure in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics by urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA) determination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Occupational exposure to benzene in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics was studied by examining the benzene content in both the air breathed and in the urinary metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA). Thirty petrol pump attendants and thirty mechanics (as exposed workers) and thirty adult male office workers (as non exposed workers) were involved in the study. Measures were taken at the begin and at the end of the working shifts. The benzene concentrations in the breathing air samples varied from 2 to 88 ?g m-3, lower than the EU acceptable limit for occupational environment. The average urinary t,t-MA in the petrol pump attendants at the begin and at the end of the working shifts ranged between 133 ± 69 and 255 ± 174 ?g g-1 creatinine and in the mechanics between 204 ± 139 and 300 ± 211 ?g g-1 creatinine, respectively.In all the participants the mean levels of urinary t,t-MA at the end of the working shifts were significantly higher than those at the beginning. In the exposed workers mean levels of urinary t,t-MA were significantly higher than in those of the non-exposed workers. The influence of the smoking was demonstrated by the urinary t,t-MA levels in smoking non-exposed subjects.

Teresa Cirillo; Antonio Arnese; Giuseppe Spagnoli; Renata Amodio Cocchieri; Umberto Del Prete

2004-01-01

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Determination of emissions at a petrol station with the VACONOVENT-System; Emissionsmessungen an einer Tankstelle mit dem VACONOVENT-System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The VACONOVENT {sup trademark} system, a novel system for emission reduction at petrol stations, has been tested at a selected petrol station in Luxembourg in order to compare it with commonly used vapor return technologies. The determination of the total amount of emissions generated by car refueling with gasoline has been performed by three institutions skilled in environmental measurement techniques. Three different operating conditions were investigated. The vapor return rates employed were: 0, 100 and 150%. All three measuring campaigns clearly showed differences in emissions when the operational vapor return system was compared to the shut down. The influence of increased vapor return rates up to 150% on the total emissions of the petrol station could not be clearly verified because of the influence of various boundary conditions. (orig.)

Ohlrogge, K.; Wind, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie; Schaefer, K.; Hoffmann, H.; Dormuth, I. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Jahn, C.; Emeis, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (DE). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung - Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IMK-IFU); Szalata, P. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Sueddeutschland (TUeV), Muenchen (Germany); Froehling, J.C.; Marinkas, W.; Schroeder, H. [Aral AG, Bochum (Germany). Hauptabteilung Forschung

2004-02-01

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Genotoxicity and oxidative stress in gasoline station attendants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated genotoxic effects of exposure to low levels of benzene, a class I human carcinogen, among gasoline station attendants (GSA). Oxidative stress and the protective effects of antioxidants on DNA damage were also analyzed. Although exposures were below ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) limits, the GSA group presented higher DNA damage indices and micronucleus frequencies, increased oxidative protein damage, and decreased antioxidant capacity relative to the control group. Duration of benzene exposure was correlated with DNA and protein damage. The biomarkers evaluated in this work may provide early signals of damage in subjects occupationally exposed to benzene.

Moro AM; Charão MF; Brucker N; Durgante J; Baierle M; Bubols G; Goethel G; Fracasso R; Nascimento S; Bulcão R; Gauer B; Barth A; Bochi G; Moresco R; Gioda A; Salvador M; Farsky S; Garcia SC

2013-06-01

18

Genotoxicity and oxidative stress in gasoline station attendants.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated genotoxic effects of exposure to low levels of benzene, a class I human carcinogen, among gasoline station attendants (GSA). Oxidative stress and the protective effects of antioxidants on DNA damage were also analyzed. Although exposures were below ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) limits, the GSA group presented higher DNA damage indices and micronucleus frequencies, increased oxidative protein damage, and decreased antioxidant capacity relative to the control group. Duration of benzene exposure was correlated with DNA and protein damage. The biomarkers evaluated in this work may provide early signals of damage in subjects occupationally exposed to benzene. PMID:23628435

Moro, Angela M; Charão, Mariele F; Brucker, Natália; Durgante, Juliano; Baierle, Marília; Bubols, Guilherme; Goethel, Gabriela; Fracasso, Rafael; Nascimento, Sabrina; Bulcão, Rachel; Gauer, Bruna; Barth, Anelise; Bochi, Guilherme; Moresco, Rafael; Gioda, Adriana; Salvador, Mirian; Farsky, Sandra; Garcia, Solange C

2013-04-27

19

[Environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to monoaromatic hydrocarbons and to methyl tert-butyl ether in a group of petrol station workers].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the study was to evaluate biomarkers of exposure to gasoline in petrol station workers by a combined approach of environmental and biological monitoring. The personal exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and the urinary levels of BTEX, methyl tert-butyl ether (U-MTBE), trans,trans-muconic (t,t-MA) and S-phenylmercapturic acids (S-PMA) and cotinine were determined by mass spectrometry coupled chromatographic techniques. U-MTBE levels were strictly influenced by occupational exposure to gasoline, whereas both U-B and S-PMA levels depended from smoking habits and occupational exposure.

De Palma G; Poli D; Manini P; Andreoli R; Mozzoni P; Apostoli P; Mutti A

2011-07-01

20

Petrol war in Nijmegen, Netherlands; Benzine-oorlog in Nijmegen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since April 2000 a petrol war rages in Nijmegen and surroundings (Netherlands) whereby considerable discounts are given to the national retail prices. The cause of the war is a new unmanned petrol station of the enterprise Tango. In this article the development and the consequences of the discount at petrol stations in Nijmegen and surroundings are analyzed 3 refs.

De Jong, E.; Kramer, I. [Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2000-07-28

 
 
 
 
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Condição auditiva de frentistas/ Hearing conditions of gas stations attendants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar os limiares auditivos nas frequências convencionais e altas frequências, e ainda a integridade do arco reflexo, em frentistas. MÉTODO: foram avaliados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. Após adequação aos critérios de inclusão, a amostra ficou composta por 24 frentistas expostos a combustíveis, 21 do gênero masculino e três do gênero feminino, com faixa etária entre 20 e 40 anos. Os exames utilizados foram au (more) diometria tonal liminar, audiometria de altas frequências e imitanciometria. O tempo de exposição variou de um a 17 anos. O grupo controle foi composto por 24 sujeitos não expostos a qualquer agente nocivo à audição. RESULTADOS: a média dos limiares da audiometria tonal liminar e da audiometria de altas frequências foi superior no grupo estudo em todas as frequências testadas. Verificou-se diferença de limiar estatisticamente significante nas frequências de 0,5 (p=0,004), 2 (p=0,001) e 3 kHz (p=0,025), e nas frequências de 9 (p=0,007) e 10 kHz (p=0,026). Os limiares das frequências de 12,5 e 14 kHz não diferiram estatisticamente (p>0,05). Em 16, 18 e 20 kHz foi observada maior ausência de respostas no grupo estudo (p>0,05). Também se observou maior ausência de reflexos acústicos (ipsi e contralateral) no grupo estudo, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda, não houve diferença entre os grupos, para a ocorrência do reflexo ipsilateral. A ausência de reflexo contralateral foi maior no grupo estudo em todas as frequências testadas. CONCLUSÃO: frentistas com limiares auditivos normais podem apresentar alterações cocleares e centrais. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the hearing threshold in the conventional frequencies and high frequencies, and the integrity of the acoustic reflex, in subjects exposed to fuels. METHOD: attendants of three gas stations were evaluated in Santa Maria/RS. After the adaptation to the inclusion criteria, the sample was composed of 24 subjects. It was used the Pure Tone Audiometry, high frequency audiometry and acoustic immitance assessment to evaluate the sample. The time of exposition (more) ranged from one to seventeen years. The control group was composed by 24 not exposed subjects. RESULTS: the average of the thresholds of the PTA and of the high frequency audiometry was superior in the study group in all the tested frequencies. A statistically significant difference of thresholds was verified on the frequencies of 0,5 (p=0,004), 2 (p=0,001), 3 kHz (p=0,025), and frequencies of 9 (p=0,007) e 10 kHz (p=0,026). In 16, 18, 20 kHz a greater absence of responses was observed in the study group (p>0, 05). Also it was observed a greater absence of acoustic reflexes (ipsilateral and contralateral) at the study group, on the right ear. On the left ear, there was no difference between the groups, for the occurrence of ipsilateral reflex. The absence of the contralateral reflex was superior in the study group on all frequencies tested. CONCLUSION: individuals exposed to fuels with normal hearing thresholds may have cochlear and central alterations.

Tochetto, Tania Maria; Quevedo, Lenita da Silva; Siqueira, Márcia do Amaral

2012-01-01

22

Condição auditiva de frentistas Hearing conditions of gas stations attendants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os limiares auditivos nas frequências convencionais e altas frequências, e ainda a integridade do arco reflexo, em frentistas. MÉTODO: foram avaliados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. Após adequação aos critérios de inclusão, a amostra ficou composta por 24 frentistas expostos a combustíveis, 21 do gênero masculino e três do gênero feminino, com faixa etária entre 20 e 40 anos. Os exames utilizados foram audiometria tonal liminar, audiometria de altas frequências e imitanciometria. O tempo de exposição variou de um a 17 anos. O grupo controle foi composto por 24 sujeitos não expostos a qualquer agente nocivo à audição. RESULTADOS: a média dos limiares da audiometria tonal liminar e da audiometria de altas frequências foi superior no grupo estudo em todas as frequências testadas. Verificou-se diferença de limiar estatisticamente significante nas frequências de 0,5 (p=0,004), 2 (p=0,001) e 3 kHz (p=0,025), e nas frequências de 9 (p=0,007) e 10 kHz (p=0,026). Os limiares das frequências de 12,5 e 14 kHz não diferiram estatisticamente (p>0,05). Em 16, 18 e 20 kHz foi observada maior ausência de respostas no grupo estudo (p>0,05). Também se observou maior ausência de reflexos acústicos (ipsi e contralateral) no grupo estudo, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda, não houve diferença entre os grupos, para a ocorrência do reflexo ipsilateral. A ausência de reflexo contralateral foi maior no grupo estudo em todas as frequências testadas. CONCLUSÃO: frentistas com limiares auditivos normais podem apresentar alterações cocleares e centrais.PURPOSE: to evaluate the hearing threshold in the conventional frequencies and high frequencies, and the integrity of the acoustic reflex, in subjects exposed to fuels. METHOD: attendants of three gas stations were evaluated in Santa Maria/RS. After the adaptation to the inclusion criteria, the sample was composed of 24 subjects. It was used the Pure Tone Audiometry, high frequency audiometry and acoustic immitance assessment to evaluate the sample. The time of exposition ranged from one to seventeen years. The control group was composed by 24 not exposed subjects. RESULTS: the average of the thresholds of the PTA and of the high frequency audiometry was superior in the study group in all the tested frequencies. A statistically significant difference of thresholds was verified on the frequencies of 0,5 (p=0,004), 2 (p=0,001), 3 kHz (p=0,025), and frequencies of 9 (p=0,007) e 10 kHz (p=0,026). In 16, 18, 20 kHz a greater absence of responses was observed in the study group (p>0, 05). Also it was observed a greater absence of acoustic reflexes (ipsilateral and contralateral) at the study group, on the right ear. On the left ear, there was no difference between the groups, for the occurrence of ipsilateral reflex. The absence of the contralateral reflex was superior in the study group on all frequencies tested. CONCLUSION: individuals exposed to fuels with normal hearing thresholds may have cochlear and central alterations.

Tania Maria Tochetto; Lenita da Silva Quevedo; Márcia do Amaral Siqueira

2012-01-01

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Cortical atrophy detected by computed tomography in gasoline station attendants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution of leaded gasoline in the presence of abnormal calcifications or cortical atrophy seen in computed tomographies (CT) of the head of occupationally exposed professionals working in the centre of Athens is evaluated. One hundred and twenty-two head CTs from gas station employees and traffic-exposed professionals (taxi and bus drivers) were analyzed for evidence of cortical atrophy or abnormal calcifications. Blood lead level (BLL) of these lead occupationally exposed groups was compared with 37 non-exposed subjects. Results: All three occupationally exposed-to-lead groups had similar blood lead levels compared to the non-exposed group and within the currently accepted norms for lead. No abnormal calcifications were found. Cortical atrophy was more frequently seen in the gas station employees group using univariate and multivariate analysis. In the logistic regression model gas station employment had a stronger impact in developing cortical atrophy [odds ratio of 6.43 (1.46-28.3, 95% CI)] than BLL [odds ratio of 1.4 (1.01-2.05, 95% CI)]. These results show that employment in gasoline stations may be associated with detectable cortical atrophy in imaging studies and suggest the contribution of a leaded gasoline to its development.

Varelas, P.N.; Syrigou, A.I.; Kapaki, E.N.; Athanasopoulou, C.; Spanaki, M.V.; Papageorgiou, C.T. [Department of Neurology, Athens University School of Medicine, Aeginition Hospital, Athens (Greece); Kotoulas, G. [Department of Radiology, Athens University School of Medicine, Aretaeion Hospital, Athens (Greece)

1999-10-01

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Cortical atrophy detected by computed tomography in gasoline station attendants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the contribution of leaded gasoline in the presence of abnormal calcifications or cortical atrophy seen in computed tomographies (CT) of the head of occupationally exposed professionals working in the centre of Athens. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-two head CTs from gas station employees and traffic-exposed professionals (taxi and bus drivers) were analyzed for evidence of cortical atrophy or abnormal calcifications. Blood lead level (BLL) of these lead occupationally exposed groups was compared with 37 non-exposed subjects. RESULTS: All three occupationally exposed-to-lead groups had similar blood lead levels compared to the non-exposed group and within the currently accepted norms for lead. No abnormal calcifications were found. Cortical atrophy was more frequently seen in the gas station employees group using univariate and multivariate analysis. In the logistic regression model gas station employment had a stronger impact in developing cortical atrophy [odds ratio of 6.43 (1.46-28.3, 95% CI)] than BLL [odds ratio of 1.4 (1.01-2.05, 95% CI)]. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that employment in gasoline stations may be associated with detectable cortical atrophy in imaging studies and suggest the contribution of a leaded gasoline to its development.

Varelas PN; Syrigou AI; Kotoulas G; Kapaki EN; Athanasopoulou C; Spanaki MV; Papageorgiou CT

1999-10-01

25

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether antibodies among gasoline service station attendants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Occupational exposure to petroleum products (gasoline) and elevated blood levels of MTBE have been demonstrated among gasoline station attendants. While MTBE and its metabolites have been considered environmentally inert, immunologically these materials could be reactive. This study was conducted to assess the immunological reactivity of humans to MTBE. Blood samples from 24 gasoline station attendants and 12 healthy controls were examined for levels of IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE against MTBE by ELISA. In the gasoline-exposed group 7 out of 24 exhibited optical densities or antibody levels of 3-15-fold (OD 0.6-2.68) of the levels detected in controls (OD < 0.2). The detected antibodies both against MTBE-BSA or MTBE-HSA were of IgG and IgM but not IgA or IgE isotypes. These antibodies at much lower levels (OD of 0.45) were detected in only 1 of the 12 healthy control groups. The specificity of these antibodies was evidenced by absorption of MTBE antibodies in different sera using the same haptenic group bound to a different carrier. These results indicate that immune reactions to MTBE do occur through hapten carrier reactions which, in some individuals, end with specific IgG and IgM production.

Vojdani A; Namatalla G; Brautbar N

1997-12-01

26

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether antibodies among gasoline service station attendants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occupational exposure to petroleum products (gasoline) and elevated blood levels of MTBE have been demonstrated among gasoline station attendants. While MTBE and its metabolites have been considered environmentally inert, immunologically these materials could be reactive. This study was conducted to assess the immunological reactivity of humans to MTBE. Blood samples from 24 gasoline station attendants and 12 healthy controls were examined for levels of IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE against MTBE by ELISA. In the gasoline-exposed group 7 out of 24 exhibited optical densities or antibody levels of 3-15-fold (OD 0.6-2.68) of the levels detected in controls (OD < 0.2). The detected antibodies both against MTBE-BSA or MTBE-HSA were of IgG and IgM but not IgA or IgE isotypes. These antibodies at much lower levels (OD of 0.45) were detected in only 1 of the 12 healthy control groups. The specificity of these antibodies was evidenced by absorption of MTBE antibodies in different sera using the same haptenic group bound to a different carrier. These results indicate that immune reactions to MTBE do occur through hapten carrier reactions which, in some individuals, end with specific IgG and IgM production. PMID:9472332

Vojdani, A; Namatalla, G; Brautbar, N

1997-12-26

27

Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments). In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks) were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant) and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system). To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production) and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris).O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ). Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de um tanque de armazenamento de óleo diesel subterrâneo em um posto de combustíveis. Experimentos em escala laboratorial (respirômetros de Bartha) foram utilizados para avaliar a biodegradação do óleo diesel. Estímulo da biodegradação foi realizado utilizando-se as técnicas de bioestímulo (adição de soluções de nitrogênio e fósforo ou surfactante Tween 80) e de bioaumento (consórcio bacteriano isolado de um sistema de landfarming). Para investigar as interações entre os fatores otimizadores, e encontrar a melhor combinação entre esses agentes, o estudo foi baseado em um delineamento experimental fatorial completo. A eficiência de biodegradação foi simultaneamente medida com dois métodos: respirométrico (produção de CO2 microbiano) e cromatografia gasosa. Testes de toxicidade aguda com Daphnia similis foram aplicados para examinar a eficiência dos processos em termos de geração de produtos menos tóxicos. Resultados mostraram que todas as estratégias de biorremediação aceleraram a biorremediação natural do solo contaminado e os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando os tratamentos tinham adição de nutrientes. Dados respirométricos indicaram uma máxima mineralização de hidrocarbonetos de 19,8%, obtida com a combinação dos três agentes, com uma remoção de hidrocarbonetos totais de petróleo (TPH) de 45,5% em 55 dias de tratamento. No final dos experimentos, duas espécies predominantes de bactéria foram isoladas e identificadas como Staphylococcus hominis e Kocuria palustris.

Adriano Pinto Mariano; Ana Paula de Arruda Geraldes Kataoka; Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis; Daniel Marcos Bonotto

2007-01-01

28

Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station/ Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ). Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de um tanque de armazenamento de óleo diesel subterrâneo em um posto de combustíveis. Experimentos em escala laboratorial (respirômetros de Bartha) foram utilizados para aval (more) iar a biodegradação do óleo diesel. Estímulo da biodegradação foi realizado utilizando-se as técnicas de bioestímulo (adição de soluções de nitrogênio e fósforo ou surfactante Tween 80) e de bioaumento (consórcio bacteriano isolado de um sistema de landfarming). Para investigar as interações entre os fatores otimizadores, e encontrar a melhor combinação entre esses agentes, o estudo foi baseado em um delineamento experimental fatorial completo. A eficiência de biodegradação foi simultaneamente medida com dois métodos: respirométrico (produção de CO2 microbiano) e cromatografia gasosa. Testes de toxicidade aguda com Daphnia similis foram aplicados para examinar a eficiência dos processos em termos de geração de produtos menos tóxicos. Resultados mostraram que todas as estratégias de biorremediação aceleraram a biorremediação natural do solo contaminado e os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando os tratamentos tinham adição de nutrientes. Dados respirométricos indicaram uma máxima mineralização de hidrocarbonetos de 19,8%, obtida com a combinação dos três agentes, com uma remoção de hidrocarbonetos totais de petróleo (TPH) de 45,5% em 55 dias de tratamento. No final dos experimentos, duas espécies predominantes de bactéria foram isoladas e identificadas como Staphylococcus hominis e Kocuria palustris. Abstract in english The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments). In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks) were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement (more) of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant) and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system). To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production) and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris).

Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Kataoka, Ana Paula de Arruda Geraldes; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

2007-06-01

29

Genetic effects of petroleum fuels. Cytogenetic monitoring of gasoline station attendants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possible relationship between occupational exposure to petroleum fuels and cytogenetic damages in peripheral lymphocytes was investigated. Twenty-three male, non-smoking workers from the area of Rome were enrolled in the study, together with age-paired controls with no occupational exposure to fuels. Peripheral lymphocyte cultures were set up for the analysis of structural chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN) in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes. Frequencies of CAs, SCEs and MN were compared between exposed and control groups, and evaluated in relation to blood lead level for the whole group under study, and to yearly averaged exposure to benzene for filling station attendants only. Both CAs and SCEs were slightly increased in station attendants: 1.97 versus 1.46 aberrations per 100 cells, and 4.73{+-}0.15 versus 4.48{+-}0.11 SCEs/cell in exposed and control individuals, respectively. The difference between cumulative CA rates in the exposed and control populations was of borderline statistical significance (p=0.066). However, when the exposed population was dichotomized for benzene exposure, a significant (p=0.018) correlation of CAs with benzene exposure was found. The analysis of SCE data highlighted a significant increase of cells with more than 6 exchanges (HFCs), corresponding to the 75 percentile of the overall distribution, in filling station attendants (relative risk (RR)=1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.5) in comparison with controls. In the pooled population, the frequency of HFCs showed a statistically significant upward trend at increasing blood lead levels ({chi}{sup 2} for trend=27.8, p<0.0001). A complex relationship between SCEs and benzene exposure was observed, with an increased frequency of HFCs in the medium exposure intensity class (RR=1.5, 95% CI=1.2-1.7), and no difference for exposure to higher benzene levels (RR=1.0, 95% CI=0.9-1.2), compared to reference subjects. (Abstract Truncated)

Carere, A.; Crebelli, R.; Iavarone, I.; Lagorio, S.; Leopardi, P.; Marcon, F.; Zijno, A. [Laboratory of Comparative Toxicology and Ecotoxicology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Antoccia, A.; Tanzarella, C. [Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Degrassi, F.; Fiore, M. [Centro di Genetica Evoluzionistica CNR, Rome (Italy); Isacchi, G. [Centro Trasfusionale Universitario, Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Palitti, F. [Dipartimento di Agrobiologia e Agrochimica, Universita della Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy)

1995-11-01

30

Cochlear condition and olivocochlear system of gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Organic solvents have been increasingly studied due to its ototoxic action. Objective: Evaluate the conditions of outer hair cells and olivocochlear system in individuals exposed to organic solvents. Method: This is a prospective study. 78 gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents had been evaluated from three gas stations from Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul (RS). After applying the inclusion criteria, the sample was constituted by 24 individuals. The procedures used on the evaluation were audiological anamnesis, Transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAES) and research for the suppressive effect of TEOAES. A group control (GC) compounded by 23 individuals was compared to individuals exposed and non-exposed individuals. The data collection has been done in the room of Speech Therapy of Workers Health Reference Center of Santa Maria. Results: The TEOAES presence was major in the left ear in both groups; the average relation of TEOAES signal/noise in both ears was greater in GE; the TEOAES suppressive effect in the right ear was higher in the individual of GE (62,5%) and in the left ear was superior in GC (86,96%), with statistically significant difference. The median sign/noise ratio of TEOAES, according to the frequency range, it was higher in GC in three frequencies ranges in the right ear and one in the left ear. Conclusion: It was not found signs of alteration on the outer hair cells neither on the olivocochlear medial system in the individuals exposed to organic solvents.

Quevedo, Lenita da Silva; Tochetto, Tania Maria; Siqueira, Márcia do Amaral

2012-01-01

31

Genetic effects of petroleum fuels: cytogenetic monitoring of gasoline station attendants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Workers in the petroleum distribution trades experience relatively high-level exposures to fuel vapours whose consequences have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the possible relationship between occupational exposure to petroleum fuels and cytogenetic damages in peripheral lymphocytes was investigated. Twenty-three male, non-smoking workers from the area of Rome were enrolled in the study, together with age-paired controls with no occupational exposure to fuels. Peripheral lymphocyte cultures were set up for the analysis of structural chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN) in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes. Frequencies of CAs, SCEs and MN were compared between exposed and control groups, and evaluated in relation to blood lead level (as an indicator of engine exhausts exposure) for the whole group under study, and to yearly averaged exposure to benzene (8-h time weighted averages, as determined by repeated personal sampling) for fillingstation attendants only. Both CAs and SCEs were slightly increased in station attendants: 1.97 versus 1.46 aberrations per 100 cells, and 4.73 +/- 0.15 versus 4.48 +/- 0.11 SCEs/cell in exposed and control individuals, respectively. The difference between cumulative CA rates in the exposed and control populations was of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.066). However, when the exposed population was dichotomized for benzene exposure, a significant (p = 0.018) correlation of CAs with benzene exposure was found. The analysis of SCE data highlighted a significant increase of cells with more than 6 exchanges (HFCs), corresponding to the 75 degrees percentile of the overall distribution, in fillingstation attendants (relative risk (RR) = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.5) in comparison with controls. In the pooled population, the frequency of HFCs showed a statistically significant upward trend at increasing blood lead levels (chi 2 for trend = 27.8, p < 0.0001). A complex relationship between SCEs and benzene exposure was observed, with an increased frequency of HFCs in the medium exposure intensity class (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7), and no difference for exposure to higher benzene levels (RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.9-1.2), compared to reference subjects. Finally, the analysis of MN in both phytohemagglutinin- and pokeweed-stimulated cell cultures did not show significant excess of MN in binucleated lymphocytes of exposed workers with respect to the age-paired controls.

Carere A; Antoccia A; Crebelli R; Degrassi F; Fiore M; Iavarone I; Isacchi G; Lagorio S; Leopardi P; Marcon F

1995-11-01

32

Genetic effects of petroleum fuels: cytogenetic monitoring of gasoline station attendants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Workers in the petroleum distribution trades experience relatively high-level exposures to fuel vapours whose consequences have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the possible relationship between occupational exposure to petroleum fuels and cytogenetic damages in peripheral lymphocytes was investigated. Twenty-three male, non-smoking workers from the area of Rome were enrolled in the study, together with age-paired controls with no occupational exposure to fuels. Peripheral lymphocyte cultures were set up for the analysis of structural chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN) in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes. Frequencies of CAs, SCEs and MN were compared between exposed and control groups, and evaluated in relation to blood lead level (as an indicator of engine exhausts exposure) for the whole group under study, and to yearly averaged exposure to benzene (8-h time weighted averages, as determined by repeated personal sampling) for fillingstation attendants only. Both CAs and SCEs were slightly increased in station attendants: 1.97 versus 1.46 aberrations per 100 cells, and 4.73 +/- 0.15 versus 4.48 +/- 0.11 SCEs/cell in exposed and control individuals, respectively. The difference between cumulative CA rates in the exposed and control populations was of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.066). However, when the exposed population was dichotomized for benzene exposure, a significant (p = 0.018) correlation of CAs with benzene exposure was found. The analysis of SCE data highlighted a significant increase of cells with more than 6 exchanges (HFCs), corresponding to the 75 degrees percentile of the overall distribution, in fillingstation attendants (relative risk (RR) = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.5) in comparison with controls. In the pooled population, the frequency of HFCs showed a statistically significant upward trend at increasing blood lead levels (chi 2 for trend = 27.8, p < 0.0001). A complex relationship between SCEs and benzene exposure was observed, with an increased frequency of HFCs in the medium exposure intensity class (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7), and no difference for exposure to higher benzene levels (RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.9-1.2), compared to reference subjects. Finally, the analysis of MN in both phytohemagglutinin- and pokeweed-stimulated cell cultures did not show significant excess of MN in binucleated lymphocytes of exposed workers with respect to the age-paired controls. PMID:7500987

Carere, A; Antoccia, A; Crebelli, R; Degrassi, F; Fiore, M; Iavarone, I; Isacchi, G; Lagorio, S; Leopardi, P; Marcon, F

1995-11-01

33

URINE LEAD LEVELS IN SERVICE STATION ATTENDANTS EXPOSED TO TETRAETHYL LEAD  

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Full Text Available Introduction: It has been pointed out that the hazard associated with the exposure to tetraethyl lead is Quite different from exposure to inorganic lead compounds, and that the measurment of urinary lead is the best indicator of tetraethy lead absorption and hence its environmental control. Methods: Urine total lead concentrations in service station attendants in Isfahan city after extraction were determined by graphite furnace atonic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: Average total urine lead concentration was (69.75±14.52 mg/l) (range 43 - 105 mg/l). Discussion: All workers has urine total lead levels below the Biological threshold limit value of 150 mg/l. In addition total lead excretions did not correlate with exposure duration and age and also with individual customs such as personal hygiene and smoking habit. In general, on the basis of the present study results and current data it seems that urine total lead is not a sensitive and specific indicator for exposure to tetraethyl lead.

S.G. MIRSATTARI

2001-01-01

34

Evaluation of sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberration frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes of gasoline station attendants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Petroleum derivatives constitute a complex mixture of chemicals which contain well-known genotoxicants, such as benzene. Thus, chronic occupational exposure to such derivatives may be considered to possess genotoxic risk. In the present study, frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE); aberrant cells, including numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations; and chromosome aberrations were investigated in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 30 exposed workers (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers) and 30 controls (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers). The exposed subjects were employed at 12 different petrol pumping stations in the city of Mersin, Turkey. Urinary phenol levels of exposed workers were found to be significantly higher than those of control subjects. Benzene exposure and cigarette smoking decrease the replication index and mitotic index. There is an interaction between benzene exposure and cigarette smoking for replication index and mitotic index. There is no interaction between cigarette smoking and benzene exposure for chromosomal aberrations. The results indicate that there are significant differences in SCE values in the exposed workers compared to the control individuals (P 0.05). SCE frequency is higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. PMID:15482847

Celi K, Ayla; Akba?, Etem

2005-01-01

35

Evaluation of sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberration frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes of gasoline station attendants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Petroleum derivatives constitute a complex mixture of chemicals which contain well-known genotoxicants, such as benzene. Thus, chronic occupational exposure to such derivatives may be considered to possess genotoxic risk. In the present study, frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE); aberrant cells, including numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations; and chromosome aberrations were investigated in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 30 exposed workers (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers) and 30 controls (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers). The exposed subjects were employed at 12 different petrol pumping stations in the city of Mersin, Turkey. Urinary phenol levels of exposed workers were found to be significantly higher than those of control subjects. Benzene exposure and cigarette smoking decrease the replication index and mitotic index. There is an interaction between benzene exposure and cigarette smoking for replication index and mitotic index. There is no interaction between cigarette smoking and benzene exposure for chromosomal aberrations. The results indicate that there are significant differences in SCE values in the exposed workers compared to the control individuals (P < 0.01), but there is no difference between smokers and nonsmokers for SCE frequency (P > 0.05). SCE frequency is higher in smokers than in nonsmokers.

Celi K A; Akba? E

2005-01-01

36

Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em frentistas/ Auditory brainstem response in gas station attendants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A ototoxidade dos solventes orgânicos pode atingir o sistema auditivo a nível coclear e retrococlear. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a integridade neurofisiológica do sistema auditivo até tronco cerebral por meio do PEATE. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo. Estudados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. A amostra ficou composta por 21 sujeitos, que foram avaliados por meio de potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico. RESULTADOS: Alteração nas (more) latências absolutas das ondas I e III e em todas as latências interpicos, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda houve alteração na latência absoluta de todas as ondas, e em todos os intervalos interpicos. Alteração na diferença interaural da onda V foi verificada em 19% dos sujeitos. No grupo exposto há mais de cinco anos, foram estatisticamente significantes o número de sujeitos com alteração: no intervalo interpico I-V da orelha direita; na latência absoluta da onda I e no intervalo interpico III-V da orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: A exposição a combustíveis pode causar alterações no sistema auditivo central. Abstract in english Ototoxicity of organic solvents can affect the hearing system up to the cochlea level and the central structures of hearing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neurophysiological integrity of the hearing system in subjects exposed to fuels using ABR. METHOD: Prospective study. We evaluated attendants from three gas stations in Santa Maria/RS. The sample had 21 subjects, who were evaluated by auditory brainstem response. RESULTS: We found an alteration in the absolute latencies of (more) Waves I and III and in all the interpeak latencies, in the right ear. In the left ear there was a change in the absolute latencies of all Waves, and in all the interpeak intervals. A change in the interaural difference of Wave V was found in 19% of the individuals. In the group exposed for more than five years, there were subjects with a statistically significant changes: in the I-V interpeak of the right ear; in the absolute latency of Wave I and in the III-V interpeak of the left year. CONCLUSION: Exposure to fuels can cause alterations in the central hearing system.

Quevedo, Lenita da Silva; Tochetto, Tania; Siqueira, Marcia Amaral; Machado, Márcia Salgado

2012-12-01

37

Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em frentistas Auditory brainstem response in gas station attendants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A ototoxidade dos solventes orgânicos pode atingir o sistema auditivo a nível coclear e retrococlear. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a integridade neurofisiológica do sistema auditivo até tronco cerebral por meio do PEATE. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo. Estudados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. A amostra ficou composta por 21 sujeitos, que foram avaliados por meio de potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico. RESULTADOS: Alteração nas latências absolutas das ondas I e III e em todas as latências interpicos, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda houve alteração na latência absoluta de todas as ondas, e em todos os intervalos interpicos. Alteração na diferença interaural da onda V foi verificada em 19% dos sujeitos. No grupo exposto há mais de cinco anos, foram estatisticamente significantes o número de sujeitos com alteração: no intervalo interpico I-V da orelha direita; na latência absoluta da onda I e no intervalo interpico III-V da orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: A exposição a combustíveis pode causar alterações no sistema auditivo central.Ototoxicity of organic solvents can affect the hearing system up to the cochlea level and the central structures of hearing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neurophysiological integrity of the hearing system in subjects exposed to fuels using ABR. METHOD: Prospective study. We evaluated attendants from three gas stations in Santa Maria/RS. The sample had 21 subjects, who were evaluated by auditory brainstem response. RESULTS: We found an alteration in the absolute latencies of Waves I and III and in all the interpeak latencies, in the right ear. In the left ear there was a change in the absolute latencies of all Waves, and in all the interpeak intervals. A change in the interaural difference of Wave V was found in 19% of the individuals. In the group exposed for more than five years, there were subjects with a statistically significant changes: in the I-V interpeak of the right ear; in the absolute latency of Wave I and in the III-V interpeak of the left year. CONCLUSION: Exposure to fuels can cause alterations in the central hearing system.

Lenita da Silva Quevedo; Tania Tochetto; Marcia Amaral Siqueira; Márcia Salgado Machado

2012-01-01

38

Petrol injection engines. Benzineinspritzmotoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exact fuel dosage is a vital factor of influence for the operational behaviour of an automobile. Exactly dosed fuel feed directly before the inlet valves and the supply of all cylinders are important factors for the injection. The book contains: a survey of markets and opinions, a historical survey of the development of petrol injection (from mechanics to electronics); the basic physics of Otto-engine and Otto-fuel; richly illustrated structural functional and performance-related data on a variety of modern fuel injection systems as for example: direct fuel injection and suction pipe injection (Bosch); suction pipe injection (Kugelfischer); mechanical injection (Lucas), first electronically controlled injection (D-Jetronic); L-Jetronic (air-flow measurement); K-Jetronic (mechanical control); petrol injection (Pierburg; mechanical drive-less); ECI-central injection (Mitsubishi), Mono-Jetronic (Bosch); central injection.

Schweizer, W.

1983-01-01

39

Determinación y estandarización de plomo en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio del Estado Mérida Blood lead determination and standardization in petrol station workers in the State of Merida  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se ha determinado el contenido de plomo (Pb) en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio de la ciudad de Mérida (Venezuela) y en un grupo de personas no expuestas ocupacionalmente. Las muestras de sangre provenientes de sujetos de ambos sexos n=21 (controles) y n=65 (personal expuesto) fueron procesadas por absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica (ETAAS). Las concentraciones obtenidas de 15,27±9,62 y 83,74±28,95 µg/L para los grupos denominados como control y expuesto respectivamente, muestran diferencias altamente significativas que evidencian una exposición directa al Pb, por cuanto los valores del grupo expuesto ocupacional son más de 5 veces superiores a los del grupo control. Los resultados obtenidos también muestran que valores iguales o superiores a 54,79 µg/L son indicadores de exposición directa al Pb, permitiendo establecer valores de tolerancia entre los intervalos de 24,89 y 112,69 µg/L. Estos valores de referencia se encuentran por debajo de lo descripto por Burguera y cols. (1997), lo cual podría atribuirse al reemplazo gradual de la gasolina con plomo, en los últimos años, que ha llevado a una disminución de un 27% en los niveles de plomo en sangre, en comparación con un estudio similar realizado en esta misma ciudad en el año 1997.In this work the lead (Pb) content in blood was determined in petrol station workers in the city of Merida-Venezuela and in a group of people not occupationally exposed. The blood samples coming from subjects of both sexes n=21 controls and n=65 exposed workers were processed by atomic absorption with electrothermal atomization (ETAAS). The 15.27±9.62 and 83.74±28.95 µg/L concentrations obtained for the group referred to as control and exposed respectively show highly significant differences that evidence a direct exposure to Pb, since the values of the occupationally exposed group are more than 5 times higher than those of the control group. The results obtained also show that values equal to or higher than 54.79 µg/L are indicative of direct exposure to Pb, making it possible to establish tolerance values between the 24.89 and 112.69 µg/L intervals. These reference values are below what was reported by Burguera et al (1997) which could be attributed to the gradual substitution of gasoline for lead that has originated a 27% decrease in lead levels in blood, if compared with a similar study carried out in the same city in 1997.

Laura Molina; María Luisa Di Bernardo; Carlos Rondón; María Ysabel García; Pablo Carrero; José Rafael Luna; José Gregorio Salazar; Alexis Morales; Yajaira Hernández; Jesús Peña

2007-01-01

40

Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) frequencies in lymphocytes of gasoline station attendants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 22 men with low average exposure (229 micrograms/m3 = 0.72 ppm) to benzene and 19 control men were investigated for Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) frequency. The majority of the men (21 exposed, 19 controls) were also investigated using the micronucleus assay (MN). The exposed subjects were employed at 10 different gas stations in or near the city (Bari/South Italy). SCE frequencies were significantly related with age and smoking habits, on the contrary no relation was observed between SCE and length of employment (SCE = 7.41 + 0.03.age (*) + 0.0001.length of employment (n.s.) + 0.03.cigarette consumption (*); F = 4.87; p < 0.01; (*) significant; (n.s.) non-significant). MN frequencies were significantly increased in relation with length of employment; but no relation was observed when age and smoking habits were taken into consideration (regression model: MN = 18.03 + 0.006.age (n.s.) + 0.32.length of employment (*) - 0.1.cigarette consumption (n.s.); F = 4.138; p < 0.05).

Bukvic N; Bavaro P; Elia G; Cassano F; Fanelli M; Guanti G

1998-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) frequencies in lymphocytes of gasoline station attendants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 22 men with low average exposure (229 micrograms/m3 = 0.72 ppm) to benzene and 19 control men were investigated for Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) frequency. The majority of the men (21 exposed, 19 controls) were also investigated using the micronucleus assay (MN). The exposed subjects were employed at 10 different gas stations in or near the city (Bari/South Italy). SCE frequencies were significantly related with age and smoking habits, on the contrary no relation was observed between SCE and length of employment (SCE = 7.41 + 0.03.age (*) + 0.0001.length of employment (n.s.) + 0.03.cigarette consumption (*); F = 4.87; p < 0.01; (*) significant; (n.s.) non-significant). MN frequencies were significantly increased in relation with length of employment; but no relation was observed when age and smoking habits were taken into consideration (regression model: MN = 18.03 + 0.006.age (n.s.) + 0.32.length of employment (*) - 0.1.cigarette consumption (n.s.); F = 4.138; p < 0.05). PMID:9711259

Bukvic, N; Bavaro, P; Elia, G; Cassano, F; Fanelli, M; Guanti, G

1998-07-01

42

Monitoring genotoxicity among gasoline station attendants and traffic enforcers in the City of Manila using the micronucleus assay with exfoliated epithelial cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Some types of occupations involve high levels of exposure to potentially genotoxic gaseous and particulate substances from internal combustion engines used in motor vehicles. These occupational exposures may contribute to the development of many illnesses, usually through chromosomal change mechanisms that include strand breakage, deletions, sister chromatid exchange and non-disjunction. To determine the effect of occupational exposure in gasoline station attendants and traffic enforcers, the micronucleus test was used. Exfoliated oral mucosa cells from 18 gasoline station attendants, 18 traffic enforcers and 18 control subjects in the City of Manila were examined for micronucleated cell (MNC) frequency. Analysis of buccal cells showed that MNC frequencies in exposed individuals were significantly greater than in control subjects (p < or = 0.05). However, between gasoline station attendants and traffic enforcers, MNC frequencies of the two exposed groups exhibited no significant difference. No relation was also found between MNC frequency and any of the factors such as age, smoking habits, alcohol habits and working period. This was further confirmed in the multiple regression analysis which showed that only occupational exposure was a good predictor of MNC frequency. The results of this study suggest that gasoline station attendants and traffic enforcers, compared to the control individuals, are at a greater risk of chromosomal damage. For the assessment of chromosomal damage, the study, development, and standardization of tests are recommended for public institutions concerned with matters regarding environmental quality and community health.

Hallare AV; Gervasio MK; Gervasio PL; Acacio-Claro PJ

2009-09-01

43

Monitoring genotoxicity among gasoline station attendants and traffic enforcers in the City of Manila using the micronucleus assay with exfoliated epithelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some types of occupations involve high levels of exposure to potentially genotoxic gaseous and particulate substances from internal combustion engines used in motor vehicles. These occupational exposures may contribute to the development of many illnesses, usually through chromosomal change mechanisms that include strand breakage, deletions, sister chromatid exchange and non-disjunction. To determine the effect of occupational exposure in gasoline station attendants and traffic enforcers, the micronucleus test was used. Exfoliated oral mucosa cells from 18 gasoline station attendants, 18 traffic enforcers and 18 control subjects in the City of Manila were examined for micronucleated cell (MNC) frequency. Analysis of buccal cells showed that MNC frequencies in exposed individuals were significantly greater than in control subjects (p gasoline station attendants and traffic enforcers, MNC frequencies of the two exposed groups exhibited no significant difference. No relation was also found between MNC frequency and any of the factors such as age, smoking habits, alcohol habits and working period. This was further confirmed in the multiple regression analysis which showed that only occupational exposure was a good predictor of MNC frequency. The results of this study suggest that gasoline station attendants and traffic enforcers, compared to the control individuals, are at a greater risk of chromosomal damage. For the assessment of chromosomal damage, the study, development, and standardization of tests are recommended for public institutions concerned with matters regarding environmental quality and community health. PMID:18712612

Hallare, A V; Gervasio, M K R; Gervasio, P L G; Acacio-Claro, P J B

2008-08-20

44

Genetic effects of petroleum fuels: II. Analysis of chromosome loss and hyperploidy in peripheral lymphocytes of gasoline station attendants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular cytogenetic methods were applied to investigate the effect of the occupational exposure to low concentrations of benzene and petroleum fuels on genomic stability. Twelve male gasoline station attendants (average benzene exposure of 0.32 mg/m3 as 8h TWA) and 12 age- and smoking-matched unexposed controls were selected for the study. The incidence of hyperploidy and polyploidy in peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated through in situ hybridization of interphase cells, harvested 24 hr after stimulation, with centromeric probes of chromosomes 7, 11, 18, and X. For half of the subjects, metaphases harvested 24 hr later were analyzed. The incidence of chromosome loss in vitro was determined in cytokinesis-blocked cells, harvested at 66 hr, through the hybridization of micronuclei with a pancentromeric probe. Ten thousand chromosomes (more than 200 metaphases equivalent) and 2,000 binucleated cells/person were scored for hyperploidy and micronucleus analysis, respectively. The results obtained did not show any exposure-related excess of hyperploidy or micronucleus formation. Conversely, the age of the subjects was significantly correlated with several markers of genomic instability, such as the incidence of chromosome X and chromosome 18 hyperploidy, total hyperploidy and polyploidy, and close to statistical significance with chromosome loss. Smoking habits did not appear to contribute significantly to the effects measured. The parallel analysis of hyperploidy and polyploidy in interphase nuclei in 24-hr cultures and in metaphase cells harvested 24 hr later showed basically similar incidences of aneuploid cells, indicating that no significant selection against hyperploid and polyploid types occurred during the first cell cycle in vitro. PMID:9776175

Carere, A; Antoccia, A; Cimini, D; Crebelli, R; Degrassi, F; Leopardi, P; Marcon, F; Sgura, A; Tanzarella, C; Zijno, A

1998-01-01

45

Genetic effects of petroleum fuels: II. Analysis of chromosome loss and hyperploidy in peripheral lymphocytes of gasoline station attendants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Molecular cytogenetic methods were applied to investigate the effect of the occupational exposure to low concentrations of benzene and petroleum fuels on genomic stability. Twelve male gasoline station attendants (average benzene exposure of 0.32 mg/m3 as 8h TWA) and 12 age- and smoking-matched unexposed controls were selected for the study. The incidence of hyperploidy and polyploidy in peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated through in situ hybridization of interphase cells, harvested 24 hr after stimulation, with centromeric probes of chromosomes 7, 11, 18, and X. For half of the subjects, metaphases harvested 24 hr later were analyzed. The incidence of chromosome loss in vitro was determined in cytokinesis-blocked cells, harvested at 66 hr, through the hybridization of micronuclei with a pancentromeric probe. Ten thousand chromosomes (more than 200 metaphases equivalent) and 2,000 binucleated cells/person were scored for hyperploidy and micronucleus analysis, respectively. The results obtained did not show any exposure-related excess of hyperploidy or micronucleus formation. Conversely, the age of the subjects was significantly correlated with several markers of genomic instability, such as the incidence of chromosome X and chromosome 18 hyperploidy, total hyperploidy and polyploidy, and close to statistical significance with chromosome loss. Smoking habits did not appear to contribute significantly to the effects measured. The parallel analysis of hyperploidy and polyploidy in interphase nuclei in 24-hr cultures and in metaphase cells harvested 24 hr later showed basically similar incidences of aneuploid cells, indicating that no significant selection against hyperploid and polyploid types occurred during the first cell cycle in vitro.

Carere A; Antoccia A; Cimini D; Crebelli R; Degrassi F; Leopardi P; Marcon F; Sgura A; Tanzarella C; Zijno A

1998-01-01

46

Traveling Salesman Approach for Solving Petrol Distribution Using Simulated Annealing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research presents an attempt to solve a logistic company's problem of delivering petrol to petrol station in the state of Johor. This delivery system is formulated as a travelling salesman problem (TSP). TSP involves finding an optimal route for visiting stations and returning to point of origin, where the inter-station distance is symmetric and known. This real world application is a deceptive simple combinatorial problem and our approach is to develop solutions based on the idea of local search and meta-heuristics. As a standard problem, we have chosen a solution is a deceptively simple combinatorial problem and we defined it simply as the time spends or distance travelled by salesman visiting n cities (or nodes) cyclically. In one tour the vehicle visits each station just once and finishes up where he started. As standard problems, we have chosen TSP with different stations visited once. This research presents the development of solution engine based on local search method known as Greedy Method and with the result generated as the initial solution, Simulated Annealing (SA) and Tabu Search (TS) further used to improve the search and provide the best solution. A user friendly optimization program developed using Microsoft C++ to solve the TSP and provides solutions to future TSP which may be classified into daily or advanced management and engineering problems.

Zuhaimy Ismail; Wan R.W. Ibrahim

2008-01-01

47

Petrol supplies and consumer expectations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A formal model of the consumer's behavior given uncertain supplies of petrol is developed. The theory derived implies that consumers will attempt to purchase larger quantities than they would under certainty; although they expect to purchase less. It is shown that a service surcharge will reduce the optimal amount that the consumer attempts to purchase under uncertainty, and from this it is concluded that such a fee would save gasoline supplies. Special consideration is given to the role of the consumer's expectations and their revision in this model. 17 references, 1 figure.

Martin, R.E.

1983-01-01

48

Effects of changes in petrol taxation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to estimate and discuss some of the policy-relevant effects of petrol tax changes. Our approach is to seek to separate the extent to which each of the following variables is affected by changes in the price of petrol: (i) car ownership (ii) car use (iii) petrol consumption per km. The estimates show that the sum of (i) and (ii) results in a price-elasticity with respect to 'car traffic' equal to -0.2 in the short run, and -0.3 in the long run. Because of possibilities to increase the fuel efficiency of cars, the price-elasticity of 'petrol demand' is substantially greater: -0.3 in the short run and of the order of -0.7 in the long run. One conclusion is: A petrol price rise is considerably more effective as a measure for energy and environmental policy than for transport policy. The effect of petrol tax changes to the total tax revenue is also discussed. At last, the regional welfare distribution effects are treated in the form of estimation of regional differences to the reduction in the consumers' surplus from a petrol price increase. 19 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs.

1994-01-01

49

Deliberate soft tissue injection of petrol.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case report of self-inflicted injection of petrol into the antecubital fossa and buttocks. The presentation and subsequent management of these difficult and rare injuries is discussed. PMID:21220220

Wiper, Jonathan D; Grant, Ian; Kay, Simon P

2011-01-09

50

Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market - end 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market (as at 31.12.94) are tabulated, with brand names and company names, areas of operation, and total numbers of retail petrol outlets displaying brand names, self-service sites, company-owned sites and outlets retailing Derv given. Statistics resulting from a retail marketing survey (1995) are listed and cover UK petrol sites from 1985-1994; motorway brands; a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets; UK outlets retailing derv; average UK prices for petrol and derv per litre; percentage of petrol sites per company (1994); number of company petrol sites as a percentage of total; number of outlets at hypermarkets/supermarkets; and vapour recovery sites. (UK).

1995-01-01

51

Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market - end 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market (as at 31.12.94) are tabulated, with brand names and company names, areas of operation, and total numbers of retail petrol outlets displaying brand names, self-service sites, company-owned sites and outlets retailing Derv given. Statistics resulting from a retail marketing survey (1995) are listed and cover UK petrol sites from 1985-1994; motorway brands; a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets; UK outlets retailing derv; average UK prices for petrol and derv per litre; percentage of petrol sites per company (1994); number of company petrol sites as a percentage of total; number of outlets at hypermarkets/supermarkets; and vapour recovery sites. (UK)

Anon.

1995-03-01

52

The complicated transition to competition in the petrol industry in Spain; La dificil conduccion de la competencia por el sector de las gasolinas en Espana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Spanish petrol market has been deeply restructured. However, the results of two decades of liberalization are mixed. A more active policy of fostering and defending competition has been missing. Reform efforts in the sector and economic analyses of the markets have overwhelming been focussed on the upstream activities of manufacturing and wholesaling. By contrast, other activities of the sector are the ones that are constraining competition. Vertical relations between petrol major companies and petrol stations have a very significant impact on the process to achieve effective competition. And access to distribution essential facilities such as pipes is a necessary condition to open up the market to new operators. In Spain, transition to competition in the petrol industry has not taken enough care on restructuring vertical relations and access to essential facilities. (Author)

Perdiguero, J.; Borrel, J. R.

2007-07-01

53

A simple HPLC method to determine urinary phenylmercapturic acid and its application to gasoline station attendants to biomonitor occupational exposure to benzene at less than 1 ppm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to establish a hand-saving method to measure phenylmercapturic acid (PMA) and to examine urinary PMA as a marker of occupational exposure to benzene at levels less than 1 ppm. A simple HPLC method was developed to analyse PMA by monitoring absorption at 195 nm of the ef? uent from an ODS-3 column with acetonitrile-methanol-perchloric acid-water as a mobile phase. The detection limit of the method was 0.2 ?g l(-1) with sufficient reproducibility. The method was applied to end-of-shift urine samples from 70 gasoline station attendants exposed to up to 107 ppb benzene, and 20 non-exposed controls of both sexes. Time-weighted average (TWA) exposure to benzene was measured by diffusive sampling. A regression analysis was applied to examine the quantitative relationship between the intensity of exposure to benzene and PMA in the end-of-shift urine samples. Multiple regression analysis showed no effects of age, sex, smoking and co-exposure to toluene and xylenes on urinary PMA. There was a linear relationship between TWA benzene exposure and urinary PMA (r = 0.60-0.67, P < 0.01). Background PMA in urine of the non-exposed controls was low and scattering of PMA around the regression line was narrow so that those with 20 ppb benzene exposure can be separated from the non-exposed by urinalysis for PMA. Thus, urinary PMA is sensitive enough for biological exposure monitoring of those exposed to less than 1 ppm benzene.

Inoue O; Kanno E; Yusa T; Kakizaki M; Watanabe T; Higashikawa K; Ikeda M

2001-01-01

54

A simple HPLC method to determine urinary phenylmercapturic acid and its application to gasoline station attendants to biomonitor occupational exposure to benzene at less than 1 ppm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to establish a hand-saving method to measure phenylmercapturic acid (PMA) and to examine urinary PMA as a marker of occupational exposure to benzene at levels less than 1 ppm. A simple HPLC method was developed to analyse PMA by monitoring absorption at 195 nm of the ef? uent from an ODS-3 column with acetonitrile-methanol-perchloric acid-water as a mobile phase. The detection limit of the method was 0.2 ?g l(-1) with sufficient reproducibility. The method was applied to end-of-shift urine samples from 70 gasoline station attendants exposed to up to 107 ppb benzene, and 20 non-exposed controls of both sexes. Time-weighted average (TWA) exposure to benzene was measured by diffusive sampling. A regression analysis was applied to examine the quantitative relationship between the intensity of exposure to benzene and PMA in the end-of-shift urine samples. Multiple regression analysis showed no effects of age, sex, smoking and co-exposure to toluene and xylenes on urinary PMA. There was a linear relationship between TWA benzene exposure and urinary PMA (r = 0.60-0.67, P < 0.01). Background PMA in urine of the non-exposed controls was low and scattering of PMA around the regression line was narrow so that those with 20 ppb benzene exposure can be separated from the non-exposed by urinalysis for PMA. Thus, urinary PMA is sensitive enough for biological exposure monitoring of those exposed to less than 1 ppm benzene. PMID:23886275

Inoue, O; Kanno, E; Yusa, T; Kakizaki, M; Watanabe, T; Higashikawa, K; Ikeda, M

2001-01-01

55

The Health Impacts of Ethanol Blend Petrol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A measurement program designed to evaluate health impacts or benefits of using ethanol blend petrol examined exhaust and evaporative emissions from 21 vehicles representative of the current Australian light duty petrol (gasoline) vehicle fleet using a composite urban emissions drive cycle. The fuels used were unleaded petrol (ULP), ULP blended with either 5% ethanol (E5) or 10% ethanol (E10). The resulting data were combined with inventory data for Sydney to determine the expected fleet emissions for different uptakes of ethanol blended fuel. Fleet ethanol compatibility was estimated to be 60% for 2006, and for the air quality modelling it was assumed that in 2011 over 95% of the fleet would be ethanol compatible. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from ULP, E5 and E10 emissions was studied under controlled conditions by the use of a smog chamber. This was combined with meteorological data from Sydney for February 2004 and the emission data (both measured and inventory data) to model pollutant concentrations in Sydney’s airshed for 2006 and 2011. These concentrations were combined with the population distribution to evaluate population exposure to the pollutant. There is a health benefit to the Sydney population arising from a move from ULP to ethanol blends in spark-ignition vehicles. Potential health cost savings for Urban Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth) are estimated to be A$39 million (in 2007 dollars) for a 50% uptake (by ethanol compatible vehicles) of E10 in 2006 and $42 million per annum for a 100% take up of E10 in 2011. Over 97% of the estimated health savings are due to reduced emissions of PM2.5 and consequent reduced impacts on mortality and morbidity (e.g., asthma, cardiovascular disease). Despite more petrol-driven vehicles predicted for 2011, the quantified health impact differential between ULP and ethanol fuelled vehicles drops from 2006 to 2011. This is because modern petrol vehicles, with lower emissions than their older counterparts, will make up a higher proportion of the fleet in the future. Hence the beneficial effects of reductions in particulate matter become less significant as the fleet as a whole produces lower emissions.

Tom Beer; John Carras; David Worth; Nick Coplin; Peter K. Campbell; Bin Jalaludin; Dennys Angove; Merched Azzi; Steve Brown; Ian Campbell; Martin Cope; Owen Farrell; Ian Galbally; Stephen Haiser; Brendan Halliburton; Robert Hynes; David Jacyna; Melita Keywood; Steven Lavrencic; Sarah Lawson; Sunhee Lee; Imants Liepa; James McGregor; Peter Nancarrow; Michael Patterson; Jennifer Powell; Anne Tibbett; Jason Ward; Stephen White; David Williams; Rosemary Wood

2011-01-01

56

Synthesis gas from petrol coke and petroleum residues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Residues rich in sulphur and heavy metals like vanadium, nickel and iron are expected to increase from the conversion processes. The bottoms from the vacuum destillation and hydrotreaters have, as a result of their sulphur and heavy metal concentration, only a limited application in catalytic processing. The alternative thermal processing route leads to increased production of petrol coke enriched in these constituents. One more source of vanadium is the catalyst wear in the hydrotreating of low grade crude. The shift from heavy oil to petrol coke for producing synthetic gas seems to be an interesting proposition. This paper discusses the technology of processing petrol coke to synthetic gas and sketches the development potential.

Gribat, A.G.

1985-06-01

57

Lean combustion systems in petrol driven cars. [Lean Burn  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petrol-driven automobile motors which are built on the Lean Burn principles use less petrol, but produce more air pollutants than other motors. After a general resume of the global situation regarding poisonous emission from cars, and a technical description of a Lean Burn motor, methods of attempting to reduce pollutant emission by making technical alterations to the Lean Burn motors are described. (AB).

Schramm, J.

1987-01-01

58

Lead in petrol: the mistake of the XXth century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The health aspects of the use of lead in petrol were evaluated in the 1920s in the United States of America and, in spite of warnings from certain lead-toxicity experts, lead addition to petrol became standard international practice. Available data now show that lead in petrol at the scale of use in the 1970s produced significant environmental lead contamination and increased average blood-lead levels in the general population. National sample surveys of blood-lead levels in the United States carried out annually from 1976 show a decreasing trend closely correlated with the use of lead in petrol. Recent longitudinal epidemiological studies have concluded that the exposure levels associated with lead in petrol can cause a reduced average mental ability in children. These studies accounted for the potential confounding from socioeconomic and other factors. The practical conclusion from the studies reviewed is that there should be as little human lead exposure as possible, because there may be no threshold for the effects occurring and many thousand children have already been affected in the United States and other countries. The environmental health calamity caused by lead in petrol could have been avoided if the initial warnings had been heeded and better preliminary research of the health issues had been carried out. Nevertheless, incontrovertible proof of causality should not be required before regulations are made to protect public health.

Shy CM

1990-01-01

59

Methanol blends - an alternative fuel for the spark ignition petrol engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author considers alternatives to petrol fuels in the light of the present oil problem including synthetic petrol from coal, methanol and shale oils, methanol from coal and ethanol from biomass, and alcohol-petrol blends. Attention is focussed on the use of petrol-methanol blends as a fuel for spark ignition engines; and the properties of methanol which make it suitable for this, and the problems of such a fuel, are considered. (12 refs.)

Letcher, T.M.

1983-01-01

60

In one step from sugar to petrol; In een stap van suiker naar benzine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The American company Virent Energy has the technology to convert watery currents of plant sugars into petrol and petrol blending components in a 1-step process. A major advantage of this bio-petrol is that it can be fully blended with petrol from fossil fuels. Shell has recently expanded its cooperation with Virent to upscale the process. [mk]. [Dutch] Het Amerikaanse bedrijf Virent Energy Systems kan waterige stromen van plantensuikers in een 1-stapsproces omzetten in benzine en benzinemengcomponenten. Groot voordeel van deze biobenzine is dat ze volledig kan worden bijgemengd bij benzine uit fossiele brandstoffen. Shell heeft onlangs de samenwerking met Virent verlengd om het proces op te schalen.

Van Gool, J.

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

Condição coclear e do sistema olivococlear medial de frentistas de postos de gasolina expostos a solventes orgânicos/ Cochlear condition and olivocochlear system of gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Solventes orgânicos são cada vez mais estudados em função de sua ação ototóxica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a condição das células ciliadas externas e o sistema olivococlear medial de sujeitos expostos a solventes orgânicos. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo. Foram avaliados 78 frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (RS) expostos a solventes orgânicos. Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, a (more) amostra ficou constituída por 24 sujeitos. Os procedimentos utilizados na avaliação foram anamnese audiológica, Emissões Otoacústicas Transientes (EOAT) e pesquisa do efeito supressor das EOAT. Um grupo controle (GC) composto por 23 sujeitos, foi utilizado para comparar sujeitos expostos e não-expostos. A coleta de dados foi realizada na sala de Fonoaudiologia do Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador de Santa Maria. RESULTADOS: A presença de EOAT foi maior na orelha esquerda em ambos os grupos; a média da relação sinal/ruído das EOAT de ambas as orelhas foi maior no GE; o efeito supressor das EOAT na orelha direita foi maior nos sujeitos do GE (62,5%) e na orelha esquerda foi superior no GC (86,96%), com diferença estatisticamente significante. A mediana da relação sinal/ruído das EOAT, segundo a faixa de frequência, foi maior no GC em três faixas de frequência na orelha direita e em uma na orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: Não foram encontrados sinais de alteração nas células ciliadas externas nem no sistema olivococlear medial nos sujeitos expostos a solventes orgânicos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Organic solvents have been increasingly studied due to its ototoxic action. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the conditions of outer hair cells and olivocochlear system in individuals exposed to organic solvents. METHOD: This is a prospective study. 78 gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents had been evaluated from three gas stations from Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul (RS). After applying the inclusion criteria, the sample was constituted by 24 individua (more) ls. The procedures used on the evaluation were audiological anamnesis, Transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAES) and research for the suppressive effect of TEOAES. A group control (GC) compounded by 23 individuals was compared to individuals exposed and non-exposed individuals. The data collection has been done in the room of Speech Therapy of Workers Health Reference Center of Santa Maria. RESULTS: The TEOAES presence was major in the left ear in both groups; the average relation of TEOAES signal/noise in both ears was greater in GE; the TEOAES suppressive effect in the right ear was higher in the individual of GE (62,5%) and in the left ear was superior in GC (86,96%), with statistically significant difference. The median sign/noise ratio of TEOAES, according to the frequency range, it was higher in GC in three frequencies ranges in the right ear and one in the left ear. CONCLUSION: It was not found signs of alteration on the outer hair cells neither on the olivocochlear medial system in the individuals exposed to organic solvents.

Quevedo, Lenita da Silva; Tochetto, Tania Maria; Siqueira, Márcia do Amaral

2012-03-01

62

Psychology of Flight Attendant’s Profession  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The profession of a flight attendant appeared in aviation in the 1920s. Professionalcommunity of flight attendants is constantly growing with the growth ofcomplexity of aviation technology, professional standards of passenger serviceand safety. The psychological scientific research was carried out by a psychologistwho worked as a flight attendant. The study revealed the psychological content,demands, peculiarities in cabin crews’ labor. A job description was accomplished.Temporal and spatial characteristics, the main contradictions, unfavorable psychogenicand stress factors in labor were examined and described. Psychological profilesof a cabin attendant and of an air passenger were drawn up.

Tatyana V. Filipieva

2012-01-01

63

Data Mining System For Quality Prediction Of Petrol Using Artificial Neural Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing cry of the masses over poor quality of petroleum products most especially petrol has poised researchers and refinery engineers to devise a way of telling the class of quality of products expected from a sample crude oil without having to refine it. To this end, a system that can predict the quality and class of petrol expected from a sample crude oil is desired. Getting such accurate predictions for the class and hence the quality of petrol however can be tasking for humans. This work presents a data mining system, which implemented a multi-layer neural network trained with the back propagation training algorithm. The focus, however, was on petrol because of its significance and wide usage. The outcome generated by the system shows that multilayer perception back propagation neural network could successfully classify and predict the quality of petrol.

Omowumi O. Adeyemo; Adenike O. Osofisan; Ebunoluwa P. Fashina; Kayode Otubu

2012-01-01

64

Petrol and gas: an opportunity for the Arab countries?; Petrole et gaz: une chance pour les pays arabes?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On 17 February 2006 the Institute of the Arab World (IMA) and the Franco-Arab Chamber of Commerce (CCFA) jointly organised a symposium on ''Petrol and Gas, an Opportunity for the Arab countries?''. The preparatory work had been initiated by M. Yves Guena, President of IMA and M. Serge Boidevaix, President of CCFA, with Dr Saleh Al Tayar, the Secretary-General of CCFA. An audience of more than one hundred, made up of experts, professional management, senior company directors and journalists participated. (author)

Saleh, Al Tayar; Sarkis, N.; Appert, O.; Boisseau, Ph.; Perrin, F.; Dauger, J.M.; Pochettino, N.; Chevalier, J.M.; Benkhadra, A.; Thevenot, N

2006-04-15

65

Phenol oxidation of petrol refinery wastewater catalyzed by Laccase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid-state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries) have been evaluated in both systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 u/ml) was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 u/ml) was achieved in a submerged system, containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The Laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of Laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant.

2002-01-01

66

Backfitting kit for petrol engines. Nachruestsatz fuer Otto-Motoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A backfitting kit according to the invention is used to backfit a controlled catalyst having a lambda sensor (7) on injection petrol engines. An injection device (3) is used to control the air/fuel mixture, depending on the operating state. This is connected with measurement sensors for the operating state of the engine, eg: a temperature sensor situated on the engine (1). According to the invention, the backfitting kit includes an additional computer (8), which is connected to the lambda sensor (7), on the one hand, and also to a connecting pipe between a measurement sensor, eg: the temperature sensor (11) and the injection control (3). The measurement signal is now changed, based on the measured data coming from the lambda sensor (7), so that the injection control carries out a correction of the air/fuel ratio in the sense so that a lambda value of about 1 corresponding to an air/fuel ratio of 14.6 : 1 is established.

Gutmann, K.

1991-05-08

67

The new BMW turbocharged six-cylinder petrol engine; Der neue aufgeladene Reihensechszylinder-Ottomotor von BMW  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After more than 20 years, BMW has again launched a new turbocharged petrol engine. The previous disadvantages of turbo technology, i.e. high fuel consumption and delayed response characteristics have now been avoided by combining second generation petrol direct injection (high-precision injection) with two compact turbochargers. (orig.)

Welter, A.; Bruener, T.; Unger, H.; Hoyer, U.; Brendel, U. [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany)

2007-02-15

68

Ignition system performance and requirements for dual fuel CNG/petrol operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report deals with the ignition system and spark plug requirements and performance for dual fuel CNG/petrol operation in automobile engines. In the investigation the relationships between the requirements of the ignition system and spark plugs and engine variables such as load, speed, fuel-air ratio etc., were studied. Tests were carried out on two typical 4 cylinder engines to measure voltage requirements and spark plug temperatures over a range of operating conditions. Conclusions are drawn as to the differences in operational requirements of ignition system components with CNG and petrol and some recommendations are given with regard to spark plug specification.

Jones, K.; Stephenson, J.; Jones, K.

1983-07-01

69

Effects of Gasoline Inhalation on Menstrual Characteristics and the Hormonal Profile of Female Petrol Pump Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing numbers of young women are employed as gasoline station attendants in most developing countries despite the lack of empirical data on the adverse reproductive health effect of this solvent. This study therefore sought to assess the effects of gasoline inhalation on the serum sex hormone profile and menstrual characteristics of female gasoline station attendants in Nigeria, given the global increase in the rate of infertility and the existing evidence on the reproductive toxicity of gasoline constituents. A site-by-site cross-sectional study of 117 female gasoline pump attendants and 118 age-matched controls was carried out between September 2011 and November 2012. The following 3 instruments were used for data collection: a semi-structured questionnaire, a female sex hormone profile assay and exposure status measures. The prevalence of menstrual disorders among the exposed and unexposed women was 37.2% and 28.5% respectively. Exposure to gasoline was significantly associated with disorders in both menstrual cycle length and quantity of flow. Specifically, exposed women had a greater than threefold increased risk of a menstrual disorder, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.25 for abnormal cycle length and OR of 4.16 for abnormal quantity of flow. In addition, longer duration of exposure (>1 year) was significantly associated with higher likelihood of menstrual disorders. There were also persistent low serum levels of estradiol, and fluctuating levels of other reproductive hormones. Gasoline inhalation may interfere with ovarian functions leading to disordered menstrual characteristics and female sex hormone profiles, as well as future reproductive impairment.

Christopher E. Ekpenyong; Koofreh Davies; Nyebuk Daniel

2013-01-01

70

PHENOL OXIDATION OF PETROL REFINERY WASTEWATER CATALYZED BY LACCASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries) have been evaluated in both systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml) was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml) was achieved in a submerged system containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant.La lacasa se ha obtenido a través de dos sistemas de producción diferentes, el primero usando Pleurotus ostreatus en fermentación en estado sólido, el segundo usando Trametes versicolor en cultivo sumergido. Se han evaluado diferentes sustratos (derivados de la levadura, harina e industrias de la bebida) en ambos sistemas. La mayor cantidad de la lacasa producida con Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml) se obtuvo en un medio de salvado de trigo. El máximo nivel de concentración de la enzima usando Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml) se logró en un sistema sumergido con 10% vinaza, 4,5% salvado de trigo y 0,2% de melaza por litro. El filtrado del cultivo extraído del Pleurotus ostreatus se usó para remover el fenol de las aguas residuales. El tratamiento enzimático es eficaz para un amplio rango de pH y de temperatura. El tratamiento con la lacasa se ha utilizado para desfenolizar el agua residual de las refinerías de la industria del petróleo. La ventaja de la desfenolización lacasa es que esta enzima usa el oxígeno molecular como un oxidante.

María-Carolina Vargas; Nubia E Ramírez

2002-01-01

71

Pipes, Petrol, Paint and Pewter: The Rise and Fall of Lead  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead is a good example of a metal that was used for many things over centuries--in water pipes, paints, on roofs, and in leaded petrol, for example--but was superseded as scientists discovered "new" metals, and because its toxicity became a problem. It was originally an important element in pewter utensils, alloyed with tin; it made the tin easier…

Peacock, Alan

2010-01-01

72

Substantial decrease of blood lead in Swedish children, 1978-94, associated with petrol lead.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES--To study the potential impact of environmental exposure to petrol lead, residential area, age, sex, and lead exposing hobby, on blood lead concentrations (BPb) in children. METHODS--In the south of Sweden, yearly from 1978-94, BPb was measured in 1230 boys and 1211 girls, aged between 3 ...

Strömberg, U; Schütz, A; Skerfving, S

73

En attendant Lhc  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discussion in the En attendant Lhc session has been focused on a review of the status of the different Lhc detectors, with special emphasis on the commissioning work taking place at CERN, on the preparation for the analysis of the early Lhc data, and on recent phenomenological developments useful to extract physics information from them.

2008-01-01

74

Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants  

Science.gov (United States)

... Z INDEX | OOH SITE MAP | EN ESPAÑOL Healthcare > Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants FONT SIZE: PRINTER-FRIENDLY ... contacting these additional resources. What They Do -> What Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants Do About this section ...

75

The petrol engines of the new VW Golf; Die Ottomotoren des neuen VW Golf  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the Golf V, Volkswagen is continuing its innovative drive unit strategy. The highlights are the across-the-board deployment of FSI technology in the petrol engines. This achieves the typical Volkswagen synthesis of driving pleasure and economy all at once. (orig.) [German] Mit dem Golf V setzt Volkswagen seine innovative Motorenstrategie fort. Als Highlight ist der flaechendeckende Einsatz der FSI-Technik bei den Ottomotoren hervorzuheben. Damit werden in der fuer Volkswagen typischen Synthese Fahrspass und gleichzeitig Sparsamkeit realisiert. (orig.)

Szengel, R.; Middendorf, H.; Wiedmann, M.; Wietholt, B.; Laumann, A.; Voeltz, S.; Striebels, B.; Damminger, L. [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany). Aggregateentwicklung

2003-10-01

76

Sharp increase in petrol prices and climate change; Choc petrolier et changement climatique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current increase in energy prices may be seen as good news for climate change by creating a reduction in energy consumption and therefore emissions of CO{sub 2}. This study uses the GEMINI-E3 model to analyse the impact of a sharp increase in petrol prices on the world economy and on climate change. The effects of the increase are compared with those of policies for reducing greenhouse gases. (authors)

Vielle, M. [Toulouse Univ., CEA-LERNA, 31 (France); Viguier, L. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, REME-EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2006-01-15

77

Blood lead levels among school children after phasing-out of leaded petrol in Delhi, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The use of leaded petrol was prohibited in the Delhi city by the end of 1998. To determine the impact of use of unleaded petrol, this cross-sectional study was conducted to determine blood lead levels in primary school children. METHODS: Blood lead levels were estimated in 300 school children aged 6 to 10 y. The data regarding clinical features and putative risk factors for high blood lead levels was also collected. RESULTS: Of the 300 children, 36 (12 %) had high blood lead levels. Of the 36 children, 32 had blood lead levels between 10 and 19 ?g/dl, 4 had 20-44 ?g/dl and none had levels >45 ?g/dl. Factors such as exposure to peeling paint, recent renovation of housing and near-distance of house to main road were significantly associated with high blood lead levels. CONCLUSIONS: There is significant prevalence of high blood lead levels in school children in Delhi, even after with prohibition of use of leaded petrol.

Kalra V; Sahu JK; Bedi P; Pandey RM

2013-08-01

78

Station Capacity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimalplatform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station or used in a combined approach giving comprehensive knowledge about the station. Furthermore, the paper shows how the developed methods can be used to analyze initiatives for improving the capacity of a complex station like Copenhagen central station.

Landex, Alex

2011-01-01

79

Study of performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine using rice bran oil ethanol and petrol blends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, influence on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using pure rice bran oil (RBO), and its 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% blends with ethanol (ERBO) and petrol (PRBO). The influence on the viscosity of the RBO with the addition of the ethanol and petrol from 200C to 700C has also been studied. The tests conducted from no load to full load of the engine with an increment of 20%of the load. The experimental test results showed that the kinematic viscosity reduced maximum by 28.3% and 31.7% with addition of ethanol and petrol respectively. The maximum brake thermal efficiency of 26.83% with ERBO2.5 and 27% with PRBO7.5 was obtained. Among the ethanol blends the minimum brake specific fuel consumption of 0.312 is observed with ERBO7.5 and among the petrol blends the minimum brake specific fuel consumption of 0.299 is observed with PRBO2.5 at full load of the engine. Lower CO emissions of 0.021 with ERBO2.5 and higher CO emissions of 0.032 observed with ERBO7.5. The CO emissions of petrol blends observed between the values of ethanol blends. The unburnt hydrocarbons increased with load in both the ethanol and petrol blends. The lower NOx emissions of 920 with ERBO2.5 and higher NOx emissions of 1045 measured with PRBO7.5. The CO2 increased to 3.72 with PRBO7.5 and reduced to 2.45 with ERBO7.5. The unused O2 increased 17.2%with ethanol blends and reduced to 13.1% with petrol blends. The smoke reduced with both the blends and lower value of 34.0% observed with PRBO7.5.

G. Venkata Subbaiah; K. Raja Gopal; B. Durga Prasad

2010-01-01

80

Attendance Policies, Student Attendance, and Instructor Verbal Aggressiveness  

Science.gov (United States)

|The authors utilized an experimental design across six sections of a managerial communications course (N = 173) to test the impact of instructor verbal aggressiveness and class attendance policies on student class attendance. The experimental group received a policy based on the principle of social proof (R. B. Cialdini, 2001), which indicated…

Snyder, Jason; Forbus, Robert; Cistulli, Mark

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Washing station  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A washing station and method of sterilising washing stations is disclosed. It is important that washing stations and the water delivered to washing stations are both maintained sterile to prevent the washing stations from becoming central points of infection. A washing station 10, such as a sink or washbasin comprises a cover 40 which can be moved between first and second positions, and used in conjunction with steriliser 50 to sterilise a clean water delivery means 20, such as a tap and a waste water disposal means 30, such as the plug hole of the sink. The steriliser may be a UV light source, a distributor of a chemical sterilising compound or a means for delivering steam. Water delivered from the clean water delivery means may be heated in first and second boilers (110, 120, Fig. 3) with a heat exchanger (130, Fig. 3) used to cool water to a delivery temperature. Also claimed is a towel disposal bin comprising a internal and external temperature sensors, a level sensor to detect the height of the contents of the bin, and an alarm system to generate a warning based on the output of the sensors.

DOUGLAS JOHN HATTON; PRITCHARD VICTOR JOHN

82

The role of regulation, fiscal incentives and changes in tastes in the diffusion of unleaded petrol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyses the diffusion of unleaded petrol in the UK. Changes in the market share of unleaded fuel are the results of changes in the composition of the car stock and changes in the choice of fuel given the car stock. We find the fuel type choices have been mainly driven by changes in tastes and learning as opposed to changes in relative prices induced by fiscal incentives. However car stock composition effects dominate the diffusion process and we find that through this route regulatory changes have made major contributions to changes in the market share of unleaded fuel. (Author)

Stoneman, P. [Warwick Univ., Warwick Business School, Coventry (United Kingdom); Battisti, G. [Coventry Univ., School of Mathematical and Information Sciences, Coventry (United Kingdom)

2000-07-01

83

Prius- the world's first petrol/electric hybrid passenger vehicle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Toyota's Prius is said to be the world's first ever mass-produced hybrid petrol engine/electric motor car. Although the article emphasis the advantages in terms of reduced exhaust emissions and fuel consumption, the performance and safety features are also extolled. The hybrid system includes a power splitting device in the specially-developed transmission system and a computer regulates the input from each of the two power sources at any given time. The six basic operating modes covering starting to stopping are described. The Prius won the 1997-8 Japan Car of the Year Award.

NONE

1998-09-01

84

An analytic study of applying Miller cycle to reduce NOx emission from petrol engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analytic investigation of applying Miller cycle to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from a petrol engine is carried out. The Miller cycle used in the investigation is a late intake valve closing version. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the cycle is presented. A comparison of the characters of Miller cycle with Otto cycle is presented. From the results of thermodynamic analyses, it can be seen that the application of Miller cycle is able to reduce the compression pressure and temperature in the cylinder at the end of compression stroke. Therefore, it lowers down the combustion temperature and NOx formation in engine cylinder. These results in a lower exhaust temperature and less NOx emissions compared with that of Otto cycle. The analytic results also show that Miller cycle ratio is a main factor to influence the combustion temperature, and then the NOx emissions and the exhaust temperature. The results from the analytic study are used to analyse and to compare with the previous experimental results. An empirical formula from the previous experimental results that showed the relation of NOx emissions with the exhaust temperature at different engine speed is presented. The results from the study showed that the application of Miller cycle may reduce NOx emissions from petrol engine

2007-01-01

85

Emissions from a vehicle fitted to operate on either petrol or compressed natural gas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of emission products from a six-cylinder sedan car under a variety of operating conditions, before and after it has been converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel. The specific focus of the measurements was on emission levels and characteristics of ultra fine particles and the emission levels together with the emissions of gaseous pollutants for a range of operating conditions before and up to 3 months after the vehicle was converted are presented and discussed in the paper. The investigations showed that converting a petrol operating vehicle to CNG has the potential of reducing some of the emissions and thus risks, while it does not appear to have an impact on others. In particular there was no statistically significant change in the emission of particles for the vehicle operating on petrol, before the conversion, compared to the emissions for the vehicle operating on CNG, after the conversion. There was a significant lowering of emissions of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and formaldehyde when the vehicle was operated on CNG, and a reduction of global warming potential was also observed when the vehicle was run on CNG, but the later gain is only at high vehicle speeds/loads, and would thus have to be considered in view of traffic and transport models for the region (in these models vehicle speed is an important parameter). PMID:15081726

Ristovski, Z; Morawska, L; Ayoko, G A; Johnson, G; Gilbert, D; Greenaway, C

2004-05-01

86

Emissions from a vehicle fitted to operate on either petrol or compressed natural gas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of emission products from a six-cylinder sedan car under a variety of operating conditions, before and after it has been converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel. The specific focus of the measurements was on emission levels and characteristics of ultra fine particles and the emission levels together with the emissions of gaseous pollutants for a range of operating conditions before and up to 3 months after the vehicle was converted are presented and discussed in the paper. The investigations showed that converting a petrol operating vehicle to CNG has the potential of reducing some of the emissions and thus risks, while it does not appear to have an impact on others. In particular there was no statistically significant change in the emission of particles for the vehicle operating on petrol, before the conversion, compared to the emissions for the vehicle operating on CNG, after the conversion. There was a significant lowering of emissions of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and formaldehyde when the vehicle was operated on CNG, and a reduction of global warming potential was also observed when the vehicle was run on CNG, but the later gain is only at high vehicle speeds/loads, and would thus have to be considered in view of traffic and transport models for the region (in these models vehicle speed is an important parameter).

Ristovski Z; Morawska L; Ayoko GA; Johnson G; Gilbert D; Greenaway C

2004-05-01

87

Using Attendance Worksheets to Improve Student Attendance, Participation, and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

As science instructors we are faced with two main barriers with respect to student learning. The first is motivating our students to attend class and the second is to make them active participants in the learning process once we have gotten them to class. As we head further into the internet age this problem only gets exacerbated as students have replaced newspapers with cell phones which can surf the web, check their emails, and play games. Quizzes can motivated the students to attend class but do not necessarily motivate them to pay attention. Active learning techniques work but we as instructors have been bombarded by the active learning message to the point that we either do it already or refuse to. I present another option which in my classroom has doubled the rate at which students learn my material. By using attendance worksheets instead of end of class quizzes I hold students accountable for not just their attendance but for when they show up and when they leave the class. In addition it makes the students an active participant in the class even without using active learning techniques as they are writing notes and answering the questions you have posed while the class is in progress. Therefore using attendance worksheets is an effective tool to use in order to guide student learning.

Rhoads, Edward

2013-06-01

88

Cleaning of the contents of silt traps and petrol separators. Reinigung von Schlammfang und Benzinabscheider-Inhalten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contents of petrol separators and silt traps, for instance in car garages, represent polluted waste water and are liable to cause serious environmental harm. The paper describes a concept for de-oiling oil-containing waste water by a combined gravitational and coalescence process. (orig.).

Tross, B. (RWO Abwassertechnik, Bremen (Germany))

1992-09-01

89

Induction of microsomal drug metabolism in man and in the rat by exposure to petroleum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the effect of petroleum exposure on the activity of hepatic mixed function oxidase enzymes, salivary elimination kinetics of antipyrine were determined in 19 petrol station attendants and compared with 19 controls. Antipyrine half life in petrol station attendants was shorter than in controls. Microsomal preparations were prepared from six male Porton rats exposed to petrol vapour and six control rats maintained under the same conditions without exposure to petrol vapour. The rates of oxidative metabolism of antipyrine, aminopyrine, ethylmorphine, aniline, and benzo(a)pyrene were all increased by more than 45% in the petrol-exposed rats. The results indicate that petrol vapour is a moderately potent inducer of mixed function oxidase activity in rats, and that occupational exposure to petroleum may result in enhanced microsomal drug metabolism.

Harman, A.W.; Frewin, D.B.; Priestly, B.G.

1981-02-01

90

Impact of Organic Solvents and Environmental Pollutants on the Physiological Function in Petrol Filling Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long term exposure to solvents and air pollutants can lead to deleterious effects on respiratory, haematological and thyroid functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic exposure to solvents like benzene and pollutants like carbon monoxide in petrol filling workers had adverse effect on blood parameters, thyroid and respiratory functions. The study group consisted of 42 healthy, non-smoker petrol filling workers, aged 20-50 years with work (exposure) duration from 2-15 years while 36 healthy subjects of the same age group served as controls. Physical examination and measurement of pulmonary functions by portable electronic spirometer were performed. Complete blood pictures (CBP) were determined by normal haematology lab procedure and hormones by Chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) light absorption techniques. There was a significant decrease in the lung volumes and capacities; the restrictive pattern was more prevalent in the workers when compared with the control groups. But in the workers exposed for long period (more than 10 years) the restrictive pattern was changed to mixed pattern. A significant increase in haemoglobin (Hb) (>16 mg %) and red blood cells (RBC) (5.4 million cells/mm3) were observed in workers with longer period of exposure when compared with the control subjects (14.483 mg% and 4.83 million cells/mm3 for Hb and RBC respectively). White blood cell count except eosinophils and platelets were significantly lower in workers compared to controls. Marked increase in the tetra iodothyroinine (T4), free thyroxine (T4F) level and significant decrease in thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH), and tri-iodothyronine (T3) were observed between long term exposed and non – exposed groups. Till now researchers focused only on the effect of solvents in workers professionally exposed to solvents without considering the effect of concomittant air pollution. The result obtained from present study indicates that there is a significant toxic effect of solvents and air pollutants on workers exposed for longer duration. Improved detection and prevention technologies are needed to answer environmentally related health questions for petrol filling workers.

Nazia Uzma; B. M. Khaja Mohinuddin Salar; B. Santhosh Kumar; Nusrat Aziz; M. Anthony David; V. Devender Reddy

2008-01-01

91

Hydrogen Filling Station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4:

Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

2010-02-24

92

Price setting under cost uncertainty and menu costs - the case of the Danish petrol market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper derives the optimal pricing policy for a firm facing menu costs and stochastic production cost. The pricing policy is a boundary pricing policy and numerical comparative static analysis shows how exogenous parameters - the drift and variance of the production cost, the discount factor and the menu costs - affect the boundaries. Analyzing daily data for the Danish petrol price illustrates that a boundary pricing policy indeed has been followed for the period 1988-1992, with occasional shifts in both the desired mark-up and more importantly in the width of the bounds. While the theoretical model can say nothing of the shifts in desired mark-up, changes in the width of the bounds are found to be consistent with the implications of the model. (au).

1994-01-01

93

Pricing behaviour in the UK wholesale market for petrol, 1970-1980: a structure-conduct analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An informal structure-conduct approach to the theory of oligopoly pricing is used to predict and explain pricing behavior in the United Kingdom petrol market during the 1970-1980 period. While this industry has a number of atypical features, such as the joint production of petroleum products and the high degree of vertical integration, the main finding is that the structural features of the industry and the market that were thought to influence pricing behavior go a substantial way in explaining the pricing behavior observed in the wholesaling of petrol. Low-market and high-brand-price elasticity of demand, a past history of cooperative arrangements between suppliers, high seller concentration, and the similar costs and technology of the majors combined to produce close parallels in price schedules in the early years. The fall in seller concentration broke down the price parallelism at the end of the period. 20 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

Grant, R.M.

1982-03-01

94

To feed on both regular grade petrol and bio-ethanol; Rouler a l'essence et au bioethanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flex fuel (E85) is a bio-fuel made up of ethanol and at least 15% of regular grade petrol (in order to enable the vehicle to start from cold). The French government has set a task force named Flex Fuel 2010 whose aim is to develop the use of flex fuel. A proportion of 7.5% of bio-fuels incorporated in car fuels is targeted for 2010. The next step will be to reach 10% in 2015 which is twice as much as imposed by the European Union. The Flex fuel allows a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions by 70%. At the beginning of next decade, a significant part of the car population will have to be able to feed indiscriminately on regular petrol or on bio-fuels as it is already the case in Brazil and in Sweden. (A.C.)

Pijaudier-Cabot, F.

2006-06-15

95

Analysis of petrol and diesel vapour and vehicle engine exhaust gases using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have used selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) to analyse the vapours emitted by petrol and diesel fuels and the exhaust gases from petrol (spark ignition) and diesel (compression ignition) engine vehicles fitted with catalytic converters. Only those components of these media that have significant vapour pressures at ambient temperatures were analysed and thus particulates were obviously not detected. These media have been analysed using the full scope of SIFT-MS, i.e., with the three available precursor ions H3O+, NO+ and O2+. The combination of the H3O+ and NO+ analyses is seen to be essential to distinguish between different product ions at the same mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) especially in identifying aldehydes in the exhaust gases. The O2+ precursor ions are used to detect and quantify the large amount of nitric oxide present in the exhaust gases from both engine types. The petrol and diesel vapours consist almost exclusively of aliphatic alkanes, alkenes and alkynes (and dienes) and aromatic hydrocarbons. Some of these compounds appear in the exhaust gases together with several aldehydes, viz. formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, pentanal, pentenal (acrolein), butenal, and also methanol and ethanol. Acetone, nitric oxide and ammonia are also present, acetone and nitric oxide being much more abundant in the diesel exhaust gas than in the petrol exhaust gas. These data were obtained from samples collected into pre-evacuated stainless steel vessels. Trapping of the volatile compounds from the gas samples is not required and analysis was completed a few minutes later. All the above compounds are detected simultaneously, which demonstrates the value of SIFT-MS in this area of research.

Smith D; Cheng P; Spanel P

2002-01-01

96

World future prospects of natural gas industry and research programs on natural gas led by Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper gives a general overview on future prospects of world natural gas industry till 2020. In a first part, statistical data on energy demand, natural gas resources, natural gas and liquefied natural gas production and transport, supply, trade, costs and prices are offered. In the second part, the paper describes briefly research programs led by Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) in several fields: exploration and underground storage, production and transport, treatment and liquefaction, gas uses. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

97

Some aspects on use of kerosene and petrol blends in spark-ignition engine using surge technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The object of the study reported in this paper was to investigate the possibility of using the blend of kerosene with petrol in a gasoline engines, without much losses in performance. The authors carried out experiments on a four-stroke cycle Briggs and Stratton S. I. Engine using five blends of kerosene with petrol at a compression ratios 5.3 and 7.47 to 1 with and without surge chambers, at a constant engine speed of 1500 rev/min with the following conclusions: 1. At part-load and the lower compression ratio the brake thermal efficiency is improved with percentage increase of kerosene but at the higher compression ratio it is improved only upto 50% kerosene blend with petrol. 2. The knock-free maximum bhp is reduced with (a) the percentage increase of kerosene, (b) the increase of compression ratio. 3. Use of a surge chamber increase the knock-free maximum bhp, and reduces the brake thermal efficiency.

Ghosh, B.B.

1980-12-01

98

Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds-0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h-1. Emission factors and their relative values between the two fuel types together with a statistical significance for any difference were estimated for each parameter. In general, LPG was found to be a 'cleaner' fuel, although in most cases, the differences were not statistically significant owing to the large variations between emissions from different vehicles. The particle number emission factors ranged from 1011 to 1013 km-1 and was over 70% less with LPG compared to ULP. Corresponding differences in particle mass emission factor between the two fuels were small and ranged from the order of 10 ?g km-1 at 40 to about 1000 ?g km-1 at 100 km h-1. The count median particle diameter (CMD) ranged from 20 to 35 nm and was larger with LPG than with ULP in all modes except the idle mode. Carbon dioxide emission factors ranged from about 300 to 400 g km-1 at 40 km h-1, falling with increasing speed to about 200 g km-1 at 100 km h-1. At all speeds, the values were 10% to 18% greater with ULP than with LPG.

2005-06-01

99

On-board emission measurements on petrol-driven cars and diesel city buses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emissions of petrol cars and diesel city buses determined using an on-board measuring system. Six Three-way catalysts (TWC) cars and one carburetted non-catalyst car were measured. In real traffic situations, TWC cars emitted more than expected from laboratory measurements. Aggressive driving in urban and rural traffic increased CO, HC and NO{sub x} emissions by a factor of between 1.2 and 3 compared with normal driving. Cars yielding low emissions during the European type approval are not automatically low-emitting cars in real traffic. One `Euro-0`, two Euro-1 and Euro-2 buses were measured on regular city lines. The CO, HC and NO{sub x} emission ranges were, respectively, 2-9, 1-3 and 16-23 g/km. The lowest CO emissions were for the Euro-2 buses. The HC emissions were lowest for the Euro-1 buses and highest for the `Euro-0` bus. The NO{sub x} levels were high and about equal for all buses. When comparing the emissions of the `Euro-0` bus with the 1990 emission factors of The Netherlands, the agreement was fairly good for CO and NO{sub x} emissions, but the HC emissions were only half of the emission factor. (author) 4 figs., 2 tabs., refs.

Lebaers, G.; Vlieger, I. de [VITO, Programme Line Alternative Motor Fuels, Mol (Belgium)

1997-06-01

100

Green fuels, growth engines after petroleum; Les carburants verts, moteurs de la croissance apres le petrole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution of the new fuels to a greener environment is important and immediate. Thanks to clean novel technologies and to commercial plant projects in development, companies like Enerkem contribute to satisfy increasing global demand for clean energy. They stimulate local economies by creating jobs in an industry that offers real growth potential. Green fuels will gradually allow us to let go of non sustainable energy sources like oil to adopt a way of life based on sustainable development. They will also allow a shift towards a green economy. [French] La contribution des nouveaux carburants a un environnement plus vert est importante et immediate. Grace a des technologies propres novatrices et a des projets d'sines commerciales en developpement, des entreprises comme Enerkem contribuent a satisfaire a la demande mondiale croissante en energie propre. Elles stimulent les economies locales par la creation d'emplois dans une industrie qui offre un veritable potentiel de croissance. Les carburants verts permettront graduellement de nous affranchir des sources d'energie non renouvelables comme le petrole pour adopter un mode de vie base sur le developpement durable. Ils permettront aussi un virage vers une economie verte.

Mili, Dino

2010-09-15

 
 
 
 
101

Increasing attendance at sport training sessions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A lottery incentive system was shown to be effective in increasing attendance at athletic training sessions. 20 players on one team were awarded a playing card for each training session attended, with a cash prize being presented at the end of the week to the player accumulating the best poker hand. Attendance was shown to increase during intervention and decrease when it was withdrawn.

Scott D; Goldwater BC

1998-10-01

102

Effect of weather on football attendances  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the premise that weather should have an effect on spectator attendance at sports events in outdoor settings (a topic which has received surprisingly little formalized study), the author examined the record of home attendances for three football teams in Scotland. In general, it was found that the greater the rainfall on the day of the match the lower the attendance. Dividing spectators into different groups, it was further found that an additional hour of sunshine was associated 162 more adults attending Aberdeen matches, while high temperatures appeared to increase juvenile attendance (by 57 for ever 1 deg. C. rise in temperature). Weather disruption of football games is attended by a number of costs, both direct and indirect. Quantifying the impact of weather can shed substantial light on the problem of scheduling for the season. For example, since certain periods are, on average, wetter than others, rescheduling to drier periods might encourage greater attendance.

Cairns, J.A.

1984-01-01

103

On board emission and fuel consumption measurement campaign on petrol-driven passenger cars  

Science.gov (United States)

Realistic emission and fuel consumption rates of petrol-driven cars were determined by on-the-road experiments in 1995. A validated, in-house developed, on-board measuring system was used. Six three-way catalyst (TWC) cars and one carburetted non-catalyst car were measured. The effects of road type, driving behaviour and cold start on CO, HC and NO x emissions and fuel consumption were analysed. In real traffic situations, emissions for TWC cars were found to be at least 70% lower than for the non-catalyst car. For TWC cars, emissions decreased across the board from city to rural and motorway traffic. Without a catalyst, motorway traffic resulted in the highest NO x emissions. Compared to normal driving, aggressive driving gave emissions which were up to four times higher. Except for NO x, calm driving resulted in lower emissions still. Comparable fuel consumption rates were obtained from normal and calm driving. Those from aggressive driving were higher, by as much as 40% in city traffic. Cold starts resulted in significantly higher CO and HC emission values than hot starts. These differences were less pronounced for NO x. Emissions from TWC cars were higher than generally expected, compared to the European emission limit values (91/441/EEC) and the emission factors used in Flanders and the Netherlands (Klein,1993) for the national emission inventories. Low-emitting cars during the emission test on a chassis dynamometer, as prescribed by the 91/441/EEC directive, did not necessarily give low emissions in real traffic situations.

De Vlieger, I.

104

Is there an asymmetry in the response of diesel and petrol prices to crude oil price changes? Evidence from New Zealand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines how pre-tax petrol and diesel prices in New Zealand respond to changes in crude oil prices using an asymmetric error correction model. Our results show that oil companies adjust diesel prices upwards faster than they adjust them downwards, and the difference is statistically significant. However we find no statistical evidence for an asymmetry in the adjustment of petrol prices even though the magnitude of estimated coefficients suggests a faster response to rising prices. As diesel pricing is not as competitive as petrol pricing, calls for further government actions and monitoring of the oil market may be justified. Our findings also have important implications for the conduct of monetary policy as the pass-through of crude oil price changes can affect cost-push inflation. (author)

2010-01-01

105

Is there an asymmetry in the response of diesel and petrol prices to crude oil price changes? Evidence from New Zealand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines how pre-tax petrol and diesel prices in New Zealand respond to changes in crude oil prices using an asymmetric error correction model. Our results show that oil companies adjust diesel prices upwards faster than they adjust them downwards, and the difference is statistically significant. However we find no statistical evidence for an asymmetry in the adjustment of petrol prices even though the magnitude of estimated coefficients suggests a faster response to rising prices. As diesel pricing is not as competitive as petrol pricing, calls for further government actions and monitoring of the oil market may be justified. Our findings also have important implications for the conduct of monetary policy as the pass-through of crude oil price changes can affect cost-push inflation. (author)

Liu, Ming-Hua [Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau (Macau); Margaritis, Dimitris; Tourani-Rad, Alireza [Faculty of Business, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand)

2010-07-15

106

Increasing attendance at sport training sessions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A lottery incentive system was shown to be effective in increasing attendance at athletic training sessions. 20 players on one team were awarded a playing card for each training session attended, with a cash prize being presented at the end of the week to the player accumulating the best poker hand. Attendance was shown to increase during intervention and decrease when it was withdrawn. PMID:9842595

Scott, D; Goldwater, B C

1998-10-01

107

Attendance and attainment – a comparative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through data collected over a single module first year single semester at UCE the link between attendance at teaching sessions and success in assessment is positively correlated. Attendance over time during the semester is also linked to results and final success. Indicators and action points identified have been identified that give early warning of attendance problems so that early action can be taken. Possible changes in teaching methods that could be considered in the future are discussed.

John Colby

2005-01-01

108

Attendance and Attainment: a five year study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Published in the 2004 annual ICS conference proceedings is a paper by John Corby of the University of Central England regarding attendance and attainment. In this paper he describes the data collection and analysis of the attendance and attainment statistics for a single module within Level 1. This paper seeks to validate his findings by repeating the analysis at Durham University, but in this case across all modules within Level 2 using data collected on attendance and attainment over a five year period. The results show a strong correlation between attendance and attainment significant to the 0.05 level.

E. Burd; B. Hodgson

2006-01-01

109

Attendance Control System based on RFID technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Kazakhstan, checking students' attendance is one of the important issues for universities, because many universities evaluate students attendance and while giving the final grade, professors consider their total number of appearances on classes during the whole semester. This brings to the idea ...

Nurbek Saparkhojayev; Selim Guvercin

110

Why outpatients fail to attend their scheduled appointments: a prospective comparison of differences between attenders and non-attenders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Outpatient departments lie at a critical interface between primary care and acute services. Increasing pressure to ensure efficient and effective health care delivery has resulted in outpatient departments investigating ways to minimise the number of patients failing to attend their scheduled clinic appointments. Failure to attend (FTA) is an expensive and persistent problem worldwide with rates of between 5-39% reported in the literature. Similar FTA rates have also been detected in the Australian context. This study was undertaken to further investigate the reasons for FTA by conducting a prospective comparison of 100 patients who attended their outpatient appointment with 100 patients who did not attend. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the major reason for non-attendance was the patients' opinion about the difficulty in getting to the hospital. Previous non-attendance was found to be the strongest predictor of future FTA behaviour. A number of operational and system recommendations are made that based on the results, which may assist management to develop interventions to improve attendance rates.

Collins J; Santamaria N; Clayton L

2003-01-01

111

Irradiated fuel inspection station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Permanently installed fuel inspection stations have been developed for incorporation into the Combustion Engineering System 80 nuclear steam supply systems. The design, description, and usefulness of these stations are presented

1979-11-16

112

The International Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Users can access news articles, background information and links about the International Space Station. Materials presented here include crew biographies, expedition press kits, accounts of science experiments, and imagery taken from the station. Other features include a clock/counter that logs the station's and the crew's time in orbit and information for ground-based observers who wish to view the station as it passes overhead at night.

113

An observational study of attending rounds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors conducted an observational study of attending rounds to determine the current status of this form of clinical teaching in a university-based internal medicine department. Using two forms of measurement, questionnaires and timed observations, we found that 63% of attending physician time was spent in the conference room, 26% in hallways, and only 11% at the bedside. Significant differences were found between estimated and actual times, particularly in discussing previously admitted patients, patient interactions, data reviews, topic presentations, and the category of "other" activities. These results provide a framework for appraising attending rounds and identifying areas that may be improved with a teaching workshop intervention.

Miller M; Johnson B; Greene HL; Baier M; Nowlin S

1992-11-01

114

Outcomes after vacuum-assisted deliveries. Births attended by community family practitioners.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess success rates, modes of delivery following failure, complications of mothers and newborns, and effect of extractor station and parity on vacuum-assisted deliveries attended by family physicians. DESIGN: Retrospective audit. SETTING: Community hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five family physicians providing maternity care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Complications, parity, and extractor station of 153 vacuum-assisted deliveries from April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2003. RESULTS: Family physicians attempted 153 vacuum deliveries (82 at low station, 71 at outlet station) and had a 94.1% success rate. Of nine failed vacuum deliveries (eight at low station and one at outlet station), four were subsequently delivered by forceps and five by cesarean section. Except for one case of subdural hematoma, complications were few. Nulliparity was associated with six of the nine failed vacuum deliveries. CONCLUSION: Family physicians were usually successful with vacuum-assisted deliveries. Complications were infrequent and rapidly resolved, but one failure, which was followed by a failed forceps delivery and eventual cesarean section, resulted in a serious complication. Low station and nulliparity were associated with failure of vacuum-assisted deliveries.

Yarrow C; Benoit G; Klein MC

2004-01-01

115

Improving attendance in weight-control programs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This field study evaluated the use of a food dairy as a screening device for admission to a behaviorally oriented weight-reduction program for its effectiveness in improving attendance. All study participants were required (1) to attend an orientation meeting where the program was described and questions were solicited and (2) to pay a $25, nonrefundable fee. During the orientation experimental-group attendees were told that a 2-week food dairy was a requirement for admission to the series. It was expected the experimental requirement would decrease the number of less motivated enrollees, thereby reducing early termination and improving attendance. Keeping the record was in itself expected to modify eating behavior. This would have the effect of adding 2 weeks to the program and, therefore, weight loss at the end of the program was expected to be greater. In general, the hypotheses were confirmed. A smaller proportion of those who had the food-dairy requirement enrolled. a significantly larger proportion of experimental-group women enrollees attended at least three-quarters of the sessions. The attendance records of control-group and experimental-group men were not significantly different. Mean weight loss at the end of the program was greater for those enrolled under the experimental condition. Achievement of a weight loss of at least 8 pounds was found to be positively related to attendance.

Mullen PD; Culjat D

1980-01-01

116

Capacity at Railway Stations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end stations and overtaking stations, the dwell/layover time is recommended to be reduced to the minimum required time as it results in the lowest possible capacity consumption. For dead end stations it is furthermore recommended that the trains can use all possible tracks and not only those tracks they originally was assigned. For complex stations with shunting movement, the results of UIC 406 capacity analyses are imprecise due to different possible routes and no exact knowledge of shunting movements. For these stations it is instead recommended that they are analysed with a supplement to compensate for the inaccuracies.

Landex, Alex Technical University of Denmark,

2011-01-01

117

Determinants of Nutrition Appointment Attendance among Male Veterans Attending Veterans Health Administration Clinics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To identify determinants of nutrition appointment attendance among male veterans attending outpatient Veterans Health Administration clinics. METHODS: Sequential use of qualitative and quantitative methods. Individual, semi-structured interviews and a mail survey were used to identify factors associated with outpatient nutrition appointment attendance. RESULTS: Qualitative analysis of 17 interviews revealed 6 themes reflecting rationales for missed appointments: travel difficulty, forgetting the appointment, competing demands, scheduling difficulty, knowledge not new or useful, and lack of provider support. Analysis of 349 returned surveys indicated past attendance history, health status, and participation in the referral and scheduling process correlated to appointment attendance (P < .05). Regression analysis substantiated the importance of social support (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Veterans Health Administration patients should participate in the referral and scheduling process. Social support, perceived health status, and past attendance history are important considerations for patient and provider to address.

Bell CF; Bryant C

2013-06-01

118

Domestic-scale (heat and) power stations?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Domestic consumers could cut their annual energy bills by UK pounds 150 or 200 and their emissions of carbon dioxide by a quarter - by replacing their central heating boilers with tiny, indeed micro, CHP systems which would then also generate part of their electricity needs. Around 13 million homes could incorporate their own (heat and) power stations in this way within a couple of decades, delivering a very significant proportion of national carbon dioxide reduction targets in the process. Indeed, the widespread adoption of gas-fired, domestic CHP is more likely to fill Britain's 'energy gap', ie replace the output from ageing nuclear power stations, than renewables, according to some attending a conference organised by the CHP Association and the Society of British Gas Industries in London in the summer. (Author)

Hodgson, Steve

2001-10-01

119

Electric power generating stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A compilation of data regarding electric power generating stations was presented. Data displayed provided a detailed listing of electric power generating stations by province, operated by electric utilities and industrial establishments throughout Canada. The survey was limited to those Canadian utilities and companies that have at least one plant with a total generating capacity of over 500 kW. The listing of power stations included conventional thermal, hydro, steam, internal combustion, combustion turbine, nuclear, and some wind and tidal power generators.

NONE

1995-12-31

120

International Space Station: Update  

Science.gov (United States)

In November 1998, Zarya was launched into space, ushering in the era of the International Space Station (featured in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). This month, the docking of the Zvezda Service Module marks the beginning of yet another phase -- in which Zvezda will serve as living quarters to the first ever resident crew (Expedition One), scheduled to arrive at the International Space Station in early November. This site from NASA provides updated information on the International Space Station, including recent news, planned missions, and a virtual tour of the (yet-to-be-completed) station.

 
 
 
 
121

Intermittent attendance at breast cancer screening  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: To determine why women skip rounds and factors influencing return of previous non attenders (PNAs) to breast screening. Design and methods: Retrospective, quantitative, structured questionnaire posted to 2,500 women. First PNAs did not attend their first screening appointment in 2007/2008 but then attended in 2010; First Controls first attended in 2010 without missed previous appointments. Women who attended screening in 2006 or earlier then skipped a round but returned in 2010 were Subsequent PNAs; Subsequent Controls attended all appointments. Results: More First Controls than First PNAs had family history of cancer (72.7%v63.2%; p=0.003); breast cancer (31.3%v24.8%; p=0.04). More PNAs lived rurally; more First PNAs had 3rd level education (33.2%v23.6%; p=0.002) and fewer had private insurance than First Controls (57.7%v64.8%; p=0.04). Excellent/good health was reported in First PNAs and First Controls (82.9%v83.2%), but fewer Subsequent PNAs than Subsequent Controls (72.7%v84.9%; p=0.000). Common considerations at time of missed appointment were ‘had mammogram elsewhere’ (33% First PNA) and ‘postponed to next round’ (16% First PNA, 18.8% Subsequent PNA). Considerations when returning to screening were similar for First PNAs and Subsequent PNAs ‘I am older’ (35.4%,29.6%), ‘I made sure I remembered’ (29%,23.6%), ‘could reschedule’ (17.6%,20.6%), ‘illness of more concern’ (16.5%,19%). More First PNAs stated ‘my family/friends advised’ (22.3%v15.2%) or ‘my GP (12.6%v4.6%) advised me to attend’, ‘heard good things about BreastCheck’ (28.8%v13.6%). Conclusions: Intermittent attenders do not fit socio-demographic patterns of non-attenders; GP recommendation and word of mouth were important in women’s return to screening. Fear and anxiety seem to act as a screening facilitator rather than an inhibitor.

Padraic Fleming; Sinead O'Neill; Miriam Owens; Therese Mooney; Patricia Fitzpatrick

2013-01-01

122

F87. My home - my car - my petrol station; F87. Mein Haus - mein Auto - meine Tanksstelle. Das Effizienzhaus Plus mit Elektromobilitaet in Berlin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the presence of Federal Chancellor Dr. Angela Merkel, the efficient house Plus was inaugurated in December 2011 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany). This building is a temporary dwelling with a floor space of approximately 130 square meters. This building generates all the necessary energy for the operation and comfort by itself. The generated energy also is sufficient for the annual energy demand of two electric cars and an electric bicycle. The building also serves as a showcase to inform the general public.

Michaely, Petra [Werner Sobek Stuttgart GmbH und Co.KG, Stuttgart (Germany); Schroth, Juergen; Schuster, Heide; Thuemmler, Thomas [WSGreen Technologies GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Sobek, Werner [Werner Sobek Stuttgart GmbH und Co.KG, Stuttgart (Germany); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Leichtbau Entwerfen und Konstruieren

2012-07-01

123

Nuclear power stations licensing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed.

1978-01-01

124

Base stations; Basestasjoner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mobile phone has become common, and society's need for communication is largely based on the use of mobile phones. It is then necessary to set up base stations, making the best possible coverage in Norway. With the development of cellular, some expressed concern about exposure from base stations. (AG)

2009-07-01

125

Power station service  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The power station service provided by BBC comprises mainly overhaul of the turobset; it may also cover overhaul of the complete power station, repairs, spare parts supply and training of personnel. The overhaul intervals are usually 25,000 and 4,000 weighted operating hours for steam and gas turbines, respectively. BBC makes a distinction between general and intermediate overhauls which alternate.

Renke, R.

1980-01-01

126

GPS AND GPRS BASED AUTOMATED ATTENDANCE SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to develop an accurate, fast and very efficient automatic attendance system using GPS and GPRS technique. In this paper we have designed and implemented a new type of attendance system which overcomes the present RFID as well as FINGERPRINT technology. We propose a system in which fingerprint and location verification of the person(s) is done .The system that automates the whole process of taking attendance, Manually which is a laborious and troublesome work and waste a lot of time, with its managing and maintaining the records for a period of time is also a burdensome task. The experimental result shows that our proposed system is highly efficient in verification of user finger print andtheir location.

B.V.Santhosh Krishna,; K.Sakthidasan@Sankaran

2010-01-01

127

An in vitro Assessment on the Efficacy of Clay-Based Formulated Cells of Pseudomonas Isolate UTAR EPA2 for Petrol Degradation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Application of free-cell forms is usually impractical to achieve satisfactory bioremediative effect because the microbes are encumbered by the biotic and abiotic stresses from the environment. Approach: In this study, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium (Pseudomonas isolate UTAR EPA2) was formulated with various combinations of formulative materials, comprising of clay-based carrier materials such as Bentonite (B) and Kaolin (K), enrichment materials such as Non-fat skimmed milk (N) and Sucrose (S) and a UV-protectant agent Para-aminobenzoic acid (P). Formulated cells were treated to sunlight exposure for 6 h to mimic the conditions in the environment prior to testing for their efficacy in degrading petrol, a mixed hydrocarbon substrate. Results: Cells in all formulations including free-cell suspension were able to degrade petrol with a relatively high degradation efficacy of more than 66% even after exposure to sunlight. Degradation efficacy was slightly higher for kaolin-based formulated cells compared to bentonite-based formulations, especially after exposure to sunlight, although their percentages of degradation were not statistically different. Nevertheless, kaolin-based formulations have very low viable cell count especially in formulations with P (KP, KNP, KSP, KNSP). This suggested that aside from viable cells, the physical properties of the clays could have also contributed to the degradation of petrol. Conclusion: For storage purposes and applications in the field, we suggest that the bacterium is formulated with bentonite-based formulations especially using Bentonite (B) clay singly, as relatively high percentage of petrol degradation and viable cell count was achieved with this formulation.

A. S.Y. Ting; M. T. Fang; C. S. Tee

2010-01-01

128

Fisherman's aid station  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A compact, portable, multi-purpose fishing aid station providing running water and used for cutting bait, cleaning fish and equipment, washing hands, and the like. The station includes a rigid frame having four sides with openings, and a bottom composed of two perforated sections and one solid surface area in the center. The aid station is equipped with an attached filleting knife and scale brush, and a drainage system. The system of larger openings on the four sides and smaller openings on the bottom allows the removal of fish waste, which also acts as chum, and ensures a clean, waste-free workspace. The station includes a pump that includes tube having a submerged hose for drawing water from a source and output it by means of a bendable spout-like tube. The station can be used separately or easily mounted to the side of a boat by its adjustable clamping system.The clamping system includes an inner base, an outer base, and two support arms. The station attaches to most boats by simply sliding it onto the support arms, and then adjusting the outer clamp until the station is securely fastened.

SOREY BOBBY

129

Why Poor Kids Quit Attending School.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poor kids quit attending school because they need money for personal or family needs, they cant' compete with their peers financially, their parents don't value education, and/or the curriculum is not geared toward their needs. Work study funds, school-parent communication, curriculum revision and extracurricular participation could reduce their…

Wagner, Hilmar

1984-01-01

130

Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

2004-01-01

131

Medical specialist attendance in nursing homes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The care in nursing homes was examined based on scientific studies. The analysis focuses on dementia and type II diabetes. There is evidence for deficits in the supply of medical specialist attendance to nursing home residents with these diseases in Germany. Compared with corresponding guidelines the medical care for nursing home residents may be too low or inadequate.

Balzer K; Butz S; Bentzel J; Boulkhemair D; Lühmann D

2013-01-01

132

Medical specialist attendance in nursing homes  

Science.gov (United States)

The care in nursing homes was examined based on scientific studies. The analysis focuses on dementia and type II diabetes. There is evidence for deficits in the supply of medical specialist attendance to nursing home residents with these diseases in Germany. Compared with corresponding guidelines the medical care for nursing home residents may be too low or inadequate.

Balzer, Katrin; Butz, Stefanie; Bentzel, Jenny; Boulkhemair, Dalila; Luhmann, Dagmar

2013-01-01

133

Examining Factors Affecting Classroom Attendance and Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: This study examined the relationship between four class attitudinal variables and how it affects class attendance and performance. A questionnaire was administered to 134 undergraduate students at medium sized college in Taiwan. The data included questions about the participant’s rating of the level of difficulty of the course (Difficulty), the topics covered in the course (Topics), their motivation towards attending the course (Motivation), and whether or not the participants felt that the course is practical and useful to their future (Practicality). The results of the Pearson correlation coefficients showed that 4 out of the 15 correlations were statistically significant. The negative correlation found between motivation and topics; and practicality and topics suggest the attitude that when choosing courses, students tend to choose courses that they think would easy to pass. The finding that none of the variables were significantly correlated to course attendance and course performance suggests that the strongest predictor of success of a course is based on the student’s level of attendance. This lead to the discussion in the conclusion about pedagogical implications for what teachers can do in their classrooms.

Peter Tze-Ming Chou; Ya-Hui Kuo

2012-01-01

134

International Determinants of Private School Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study uses Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 data to investigate international determinants of private school attendance. In particular, we seek to understand whether student achievement and home background factors such as socioeconomic status (SES) or motivational and goal-oriented factors are more predictive…

Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David; Plucker, Jonathan

2012-01-01

135

Time Slot Management in Attended Home Delivery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many e-tailers providing attended home delivery, especially e-grocers, offer narrow delivery time slots to ensure satisfactory customer service. The choice of delivery time slots has to balance marketing and operational considerations, which results in a complex planning problem. We study the proble...

Savelsbergh, M.W.P.; Fleischmann, M.; Agatz, N.A.H.; Campbell, A.

136

Traditional birth attendants in the Gambia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In developing countries traditional birth attendants help at 60-70% of births, despite rapidly expanding "Western-style" health services. Recognising the potential of this established service, the World Health Organisation has been involved in a programme of training and supervision of traditional b...

Daly, C; Pollard, AJ

137

School Climate, Academic Performance, Attendance, and Dropout.  

Science.gov (United States)

Correlates of the teacher scales from the Effective School Battery (ESB) were examined in the Charleston County School District (CCSD) in South Carolina. Focus was on determining the relations between the ESB teacher scales and student academic achievement, progress through the grades, attendance, and dropout. This study was conducted as part of a…

Gottfredson, Gary D.; Gottfredson, Denise C.

138

Electric, hybrid, fuel cell and alternative fuel vehicles/ Powertrain technology - developments in petrol/diesel engines and transmissions. Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume of conference papers examines the emergence of the hydrogen alternative, heavy vehicle fuel economy, the changing face of software in the vehicle, and a North American view of globalisation, restructuring, and e-commerce in the Plenary session. Topics discussed in the following 19 sessions cover global trends (a keynote speech and 3 papers); engines (3 papers); natural gas vehicles (3 papers); fuel cells (5 papers in two sessions); vehicles (6 papers in two sessions); machines (7 papers in two sessions); batteries (a presentation and 3 papers); and hybrids (5 papers and a keynote speech). Powertrain technology and developments in petrol/diesel engines and transmissions are reviewed and details are given of transmission design (7 papers in two sessions); improving engine design (4 papers); optimisation of engine and drive line with 3 papers on frictional analysis and 3 papers on reducing noise and vibration; compression ignition engines with 5 papers on combustion pollution and 3 papers on fuels influence; and spark ignition engines (3 papers).

NONE

2000-07-01

139

Waste Transfer Stations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable.

Christensen, Thomas HØjlund

2011-01-01

140

LAERTIS, a multidisciplinary station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] LAERTIS, designed to collect environmental data from the deep-sea, is operated since 1999 and has been deployed several time at 4000 m depth at the NESTOR site. Power and data were transferred through a 30-km electro-optical cable to the Shore Station. In this report, we describe briefly the LAERTIS instrumentation and present typical data that were collected successfully during those deployment demonstrating the importance of a deep-sea station permanently connected to shore

2006-11-15

 
 
 
 
141

Small transportable earth station  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes design and performance of C band (6/4 GHz) and K band (30/20 GHz) small transportable earth station for domestic satellite communication. These stations consist of three units, an antenna and two containers. Transmitter and receiver equipments are mounted in one container. Terminal equipment and power generator are mounted in the other container, thus enabling transportation by truck or helicopter. System performances are confirmed by experiments using Japanese Medium Capacity Communication Satellite for Experimental Purposes.

Egami, S.; Nara, T.; Kaitsuka, T.; Okamoto, T.

1980-08-01

142

Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether and benzene among service station attendants and operators.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Concerns for atmospheric pollution from auto exhaust have led to the blending of "oxygenates" with motor fuels. The most common oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently required within several metropolitan areas (Denver and Phoenix) in the range of 12% of the motor fuel. Amendments to ...

Hartle, R

143

Comparison of Urinary o-Cresol and Hippuric Acid in Drivers, Gasoline Station Workers and Painters Exposed to Toluene in West of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of exposed to toluene and compare levels of hippuric acid and o-Cresol in taxi drivers, petrol station workers, car painters with a control group in West of Iran. The urinary o-creasol and toluene in air were analyzed by a gas chromatography and hippuric acid was extracted from urine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The significant differences in the levels of urinary o-Cresol were found in painters and petrol station workers compared to the control group (p<0.005). There was no significant correlation between toluene in air and biomarkers for taxi drivers. The lowest toluene concentration at which urinary hippuric acid increased to a measurable level was approximately 25 to 35 ppm and for o-Cresol was 2 ppm. In conclusion our results was showed that o-Cresol and hippuric acid could separate the exposed to toluene from the non-exposed when toluene in breathing zone of subjects was greater than 3 and 35 ppm, respectively. Hippuric acid and o-Cresol are not suitable biomarkers for occupations such as drivers that exposure to toluene in low concentration.

Abdulrahman Bahrami; Ahmad Jonidi-Jafari; Behzad Folladi; Hossien Mahjub; Qolamhosien Sadri; Majid Motamed Zadeh

2005-01-01

144

Embedded Based Automated Student Attendance Governing System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In all aspects of our life, we encounter eventrecording applications very often. Recording of any entity be itsound, pictures, events etc. is very useful as it enables us tomanipulate data to our requirements. One can exploit the fullpotential of the recorded information for specific user definedpurposes. Keeping in mind the significance of event recorders intoday’s world, we arrived at a common decision ofmaking embedded based instrument.The major problem faced by organizations is time consumptionin taking attendance. This project totally eliminates the paperwork in maintaining the attendance of each student in schools,colleges or universities. This instrument is easily scalable up to150 students in 8 different subjects. Our goal is to have electronicfiles containing details about each student and their attendancestatus. This paper will try to organize the current attendancerecord system that will be much quicker and save time ofinstructors.

Sahana S Bhandari,

2013-01-01

145

[Attendance of screening by young Gypsy women].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the study, the authors surveyed young Gipsy women's attendance of screening, as compared to non-Gipsy women of similar age groups. The survey was based on a national representative sample consisting of 1599 persons selected from women belonging to the age group between 18 and 24 years: out of them 4.3%, that is, 69 persons identified themselves as Gipsies. Manifold difference was observed between the Gipsy and non-Gipsy respondents, with respect to their attendance of screening tests (dental, gynaecological, pulmonary screening, etc.): in all cases the Gipsy women had the more unfavourable indices and, the problem of pulmonary screening seems to be the most alarming one, since Gipsies are an ethnic group living under extremely bad social conditions, with an increased risk of being exposed to infections of tuberculosis.

Gyukits G; Urmös A; Csoboth C; Purebl G

2002-09-01

146

Attending points in time and space.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Both spatial and temporal attention improves auditory processing and these effects seem to originate at perceptual processing stages. It is not yet known if space and time are used in parallel or sequentially for stimulus selection. To directly compare when temporal and spatial attention affect stimulus processing in the auditory modality, short and long empty intervals (600 and 1,200 ms) were presented. Each interval started with a centrally presented tone (S1) and ended with a second tone (S2) presented either on the left or on the right side. Participants had to attend one point in time (offset of the short or long interval) and one position (left or right side) and had to respond to infrequent, deviant offset markers presented at the attended time point and at the attended position. The N1 of concurrently recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to the frequent standard stimuli was enhanced by both temporal and spatial attention. The temporal and the spatial N1 attention effect had a similar scalp topography, suggesting common neural generators. By contrast, later effects of temporal and spatial attention, consisting of a posterior positivity and an anterior negativity, markedly differed.

Lange K; Krämer UM; Röder B

2006-08-01

147

Attending points in time and space.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both spatial and temporal attention improves auditory processing and these effects seem to originate at perceptual processing stages. It is not yet known if space and time are used in parallel or sequentially for stimulus selection. To directly compare when temporal and spatial attention affect stimulus processing in the auditory modality, short and long empty intervals (600 and 1,200 ms) were presented. Each interval started with a centrally presented tone (S1) and ended with a second tone (S2) presented either on the left or on the right side. Participants had to attend one point in time (offset of the short or long interval) and one position (left or right side) and had to respond to infrequent, deviant offset markers presented at the attended time point and at the attended position. The N1 of concurrently recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to the frequent standard stimuli was enhanced by both temporal and spatial attention. The temporal and the spatial N1 attention effect had a similar scalp topography, suggesting common neural generators. By contrast, later effects of temporal and spatial attention, consisting of a posterior positivity and an anterior negativity, markedly differed. PMID:16506009

Lange, Kathrin; Krämer, Ulrike M; Röder, Brigitte

2006-02-28

148

Device for supplying fuel in the form of a water/petrol mixture to a four-stroke internal combustion engine. Vorrichtung zur Zufuehrung von Kraftstoff in Form eines Gemisches aus Wasser und Benzin zu einer Viertaktbrennkraftmaschine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The device has a water container, which is connected to the small air nozzle of the carburetor by a float case, a water pipe, or water nozzle and an atomiser. Two petrol containers are provided, the first of which contains petrol having a low octane number and the second petrol with an octane number suitable for the engine. These are connected in parallel with the engine fuel pump by a two-way solenoid valve. An additional water nozzle is fitted to the small air nozzle, which is connected via a second water pipe to an economiser acceleration pump. This is inserted in a float case in the floor of the water container. The walls of this vessel are double walls. The space between them has the engine coolant flowing through it, which is supplied via a jacket in the two water pipes. The ends of the water pipes are connected at the side of the carburetor with the water nozzles by a solenoid valve. The solenoid valve is controlled together with the two-way solenoid valves by a heat sensor. There is a solenoid valve to interrupt the fuel supply when the engine is switched off on the tickover system of the engine. The water container has a level gauge. Using this system, the toxicity of the exhaust gases can be reduced, petrol with a lower octane number can be used and one can use a petrol/water mixture even at ambient temperatures below the freezing point of water.

Stefanov, Z.L.; Petkov, Z.I.

1984-02-02

149

Solar power station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar power station with semiconductor solar cells for generating electric power is described, wherein the semiconductor solar cells are provided on a member such as a balloon or a kite which carries the solar cells into the air. The function of the balloon or kite can also be fulfilled by a glider or airship. The solar power station can be operated by allowing the system to ascend at sunrise and descend at sunset or when the wind is going to be too strong in order to avoid any demage.

Wenzel, J.

1982-11-30

150

The organized Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Space Station organization designers should consider the onboard stowage system to be an integral part of the environment structured for productive working conditions. In order to achieve this, it is essential to use an efficient inventory control system able to track approximately 50,000 items over a 90-day period, while maintaining peak crew performance. It is noted that a state-of-the-art bar-code inventory management system cannot satisfy all Space Station requirements, such as the location of a critical missing item.

Lew, Leong W.

151

How do attendings perceive housestaff autonomy? Attending experience, hospitalists, and trends over time.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Graduated supervision is necessary for residents to progress to independence, but it is unclear what factors influence attendings' perception of housestaff autonomy. OBJECTIVE: To determine if attending characteristics and secular trends are associated with variation in attendings' perception of housestaff autonomy. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis of monthly survey data collected from 2001 to 2008. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Attending hospitalists and nonhospitalists on teaching internal medicine services at an academic tertiary care center. MEASUREMENTS: Attendings' perception of intern decision making and resident autonomy. RESULTS: Response rate was 70% (514/738). Compared with early-career attendings, experienced attendings perceived more intern involvement in decision making (odds ratio [OR]: 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-3.97, P=0.013). Hospitalists perceived less intern involvement in decision making (OR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.58, P=0.004) and resident autonomy (OR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.11-0.66, P=0.004) compared with nonhospitalists. A significant interaction existed between hospitalists and experience; experienced hospitalists perceived more intern decision making (OR: 7.36, 95% CI: 1.86-29.1, P=0.004) and resident autonomy (OR: 5.85, 95% CI: 1.75-19.6, P=0.004) compared with early-career hospitalists. With respect to secular trends, spring season of the academic year was associated with greater perception of intern decision making compared with other seasons (OR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.18-3.19, P=0.009). The 2003 resident duty-hours restrictions were associated with decreased perception of intern decision making (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.29-0.87, P=0.014) and resident autonomy (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.28-0.86, P=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Perception of housestaff autonomy varies with attending characteristics and time trends. Hospitalists perceive autonomy and clinical decision making differently, depending on their attending experience.

Martin SK; Farnan JM; Mayo A; Vekhter B; Meltzer DO; Arora VM

2013-06-01

152

Psychosocial predictors of first attendance for organised mammography screening  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Udgivelsesdato: 1999-null , OBJECTIVE: To study psychosocial predictors of attendance at an organised breast cancer screening programme. SETTING: Finnish screening programme based on personal first round invitations in 1992-94, and with 90% attendance rate. METHODS: Attenders (n = 946) belonged to a 10...

Aro, A R; de Koning, H J; Absetz, P; Schreck, M

153

SolStation: Saturn  

Science.gov (United States)

This SolStation site provides a detailed and well-illustrated description of the Saturn system, beginning with" Breaking News" and then moving to a description of the planet, the rings, and the moons. The many images and accompanying detailed discussion present a wealth of information. The text is written for someone with a good working understanding of introductory physics.

2008-10-28

154

Canary Wharf Tube Station  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Elegantly designed glass canopy "bubbles", cover the entrances of the underground tube station. Designed by Foster&Partners and built in 1999, this model [1:100] was built by Gabriella Dias, 3rd year B.Sc. (Arch) student, University of Pretoria, 2005.

Dias, Gabriella

155

Nuclear power station operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This chapter is concerned with the operation of nuclear power stations with reference to Magnox reactors, Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (AGR), and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The topics considered are: operation policy; irradiation effects on operation and control; temperature effects in reactors; reactor kinetics; reactor control; control and instrumentation; operation management; fuel management; condition monitoring. (UK)

1992-01-01

156

Kiowa Creek Switching Station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

1990-03-01

157

Fessenheim nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fessenheim nuclear power plant includes two PWR type units each with net electrical output of 890MW(e). The site and layout of the station, geological features and cooling water characteristics are described. Reference is made to other aspects of the environment such as population density and agronomy. (U.K.)

1975-01-01

158

Pickering generating station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design, operation, and economics of the Pickering generating station are described. Pickering A comprises four 508MW(e) units and is based on the Candu system of heavy water moderated, pressurised heavy water cooled, uranium dioxide fueled, horizontal pressure tube reactor. Brief details are given of station layout and principle design parameters. Safety features are described and a brief account is given of scheduling, construction and commissioning. Operating performance is discussed. Turbine generators and auxiliaries, and the feedwater system contributed to more than half the outage time. An illustration is given of incorrect rolling operation which caused cracks in the Zr-Nb pressure tube, resulting in several leaks in Unit 3. Heavy water losses were low, as were radioactive releases. Economic features are discussed in terms of capital cost operating costs and total unit energy cost. Reference is made to Pickering B which is a 4 x 540MW(e) station, a mirror image of Pickering A, and scheduled for operation in 1980. The interest in the Pickering station being shown in many areas of the world is attributed to its simplicity, low fuel cycle cost, versatile pressure tube design features which meet requirements for safety, reliability, and maintainability. (U.K.)

1975-06-04

159

Central Station Design Options  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping. The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high penetration of wind power is present, is considered as special case. The distribution grid in Denmark is built using larger secondary distribution transformers (e.g. 630 kVA) which in general allows higher flexibility for the installation of Central Stations, compared to Bornholm’s distribution grid. With the 3-phase AC quick charging options of 11, 22 kW and 43 kW, (IEC 62196, EN60038, EN 61851) both the Danish and Bornholm environments offer a good chance for EV integration [1]. Dealing with Fast Charging, the study determined that 300kW Fast Charging, which corresponds to 10 minutes charging for a 50 kWh battery-EV is not feasible in Bornholm at the 0.4 kV level, due to predominantly small size secondary distribution transformers, in the range of 100 - 200 kVA. This is possible at the 10kV level (MV level), if the Fast Charging station is equipped with its own dedicated transformer. With DC charging, rated at 50 kW, fast charging would be easier in both Denmark and Bornholm scenarios. For each scenario and charging power level, the possible number of EVs is estimated and finally architectural design options are proposed. Technical assessment is performed for evaluating the benefits of different charging concepts as Fast Charging and Battery Swapping as well as different loading options as DC loading versus AC loading, single phase (230V) versus three phase (400V) loading. A study on possible siting for Central Stations is performed for the Danish main land, where the average distance covered by EVs is used as input data. A finding of the study is that a reasonable number of fast charging and swapping stations are about 15, assuming that all EVs have a range of 100-120 Km. Furthermore the Bornholm case is not very relevant for fast charging or battery swapping stations, due to the relatively small dimensions of the island. Several architectures of Central Station are assessed based on different hardware components onfiguration: in particular we could have a Central Station with dedicated transformer sized ad-hoc for the DC charging equipment. On the other hand, it is possible to have a Central Station connected to an existing distribution transformer; in this case the transformer load management becomes crucial. Furthermore we could have the options of AC versus DC power distribution in a Central Station. In case of DC distribution, we could have multiple fast chargers, implemented as DC/DC converters, operating in parallel and serving different vehicles. Local active harmonics compensation is ecommended as a valid option for mitigating the effect on the grid due to fast charging equipment, in compliance to IEC/TS 61000-3-12. Among power quality issues in distribution grids with EVs, voltage drops and transformer overloading are identified in this work as most critical situations [1]. The mitigation of voltage drops within a Central Station requires the local analysis of the site and eventually the installation of energy storage systems for mitigating the drop during transients or parallel charging, in compliance to EN 50160. Transformer overloading can be prevented, providing real-time access to the local power flow data. The assumption of 50% transformer average loading is used as a single reference point in the current report. For future investigations on transformer overloading, more reference points might be necessary to represent various transformer loading levels. The subject of safety in Central Station is also addr

2011-01-01

160

Religious attendance and loneliness in later life.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social integration and social support are key mechanisms that link religious attendance and loneliness. DESIGN AND METHODS: To formally test our theoretical model, we use data from the National Social Life Health and Aging Project (2005/2006), a large national probability sample of older adults aged 57-85 years. RESULTS: We find that religious attendance is associated with higher levels of social integration and social support and that social integration and social support are associated with lower levels of loneliness. A series of mediation tests confirm our theoretical model. IMPLICATIONS: Taken together, our results suggest that involvement in religious institutions may protect against loneliness in later life by integrating older adults into larger and more supportive social networks. Future research should test whether these processes are valid across theoretically relevant subgroups.

Rote S; Hill TD; Ellison CG

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
161

Do young people attending addiction services differ from those attending youth mental health services?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: We aimed to describe and compare the self-reported substance use, psychopathology and psychosocial morbidity in adolescents attending two adolescent outpatient services, a triage-based mental health service and an engagement-focused addiction service in Auckland, New Zealand. DESIGN AND METHODS: A naturalistic cross-section of 131 (addiction service = 67, mental health service = 64) 14-18-year-old boys and girls attending each service completed a standardised screening and assessment instrument, the Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised. The Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised measures self-reported problems across 10 domains of functioning, including substance use, behaviour, psychiatric symptoms and school and family functioning. Descriptive statistics were used to provide an overview of the self-reported morbidity in each group and t-tests were used to determine differences between the two groups. RESULTS: Adolescents attending the addiction service reported significantly more problems with substance use, school performance and peer relationships than those attending the mental health service. There was no significant difference in reported psychiatric symptoms, behavioural problems, social competency, health problems, family problems, difficulties in work functioning or leisure time between the two groups. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Young people presenting to engagement-focused substance use services report similar difficulties to those at mental health services across most areas of psychosocial functioning. Addiction services may require equivalent staffing expertise and workforce development to that in mental health to effectively meet young people's needs.

Christie G; Merry S; Robinson E

2010-07-01

162

A Comparison of Attending and Non-Attending Junior High School Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Because a large number of nonattending students had been retained in the first three grades, a nongraded or pass-fail system in early elementary grades was recommended to reduce the negative impact of failure on student performance. Incentives for attendance were also suggested. (JMF)|

Shelton, Jeffrey

1980-01-01

163

Advances in power station construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is about the construction of modern power stations by the Central Electricity Generating Board in England and Wales from the mid-1970s to 1986. The first chapter is devoted to the considerations, evaluations and factors leading up to the decision as to when, where and what type of power station to build. This includes siting and developments in turbines, electrical power systems and primary auxiliary systems. Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5 are devoted to Littlebrook-D oil-fired station, Drax coal-fired station, Dinorwig pumped storage station and Heysham-2 advanced gas-cooled reactor nuclear station. The last of these is abstracted separately. Chapter 6 describes the intended design of Sizewell B pressurized water reactor nuclear station and is abstracted separately. Chapter 7 explains the organisation, procedures and practices relating to the management of power station projects. (U.K.)

1986-01-01

164

How to reduce the petroleum dependency of Quebec? A ground breaking collective approach; Comment reduire la dependance quebecoise au petrole? Une demarche collective inedite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quebec population and socio economic agents are little or not summoned to in the definition of a vision relating to the dependency of Quebec to petroleum. The presented approach expects to include them as determining actors in the research for solutions to this collective issue, exploring aspects linked both to the energy consumption and production. The question to which the consultation is looking for answers is: How can Quebec reduce its petroleum consumption and increase its energy independence while promoting the harmonious economic and social development of its territory?. [French] La population et les agents socioeconomiques du Quebec sont peu ou pas interpelles dans la definition d'une vision entourant la dependance du Quebec au petrole. La demarche presentee prevoit les inclure comme acteurs determinants vers la recherche de solutions a cet enjeu collectif, explorant les aspects lies tant a la consommation qu'a la production energetique. La question a laquelle la consultation lancee cherchera des reponses est : Comment le Quebec peut-il diminuer sa consommation de petrole et accroitre son independance energetique tout en favorisant le developpement economique et social harmonieux de son territoire?.

Bourke, Philippe; Caron-Malenfant, Julie

2010-09-15

165

Battery charging stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

Bergey, M.

1997-12-01

166

Dream Anatomy Learning Station  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site contains the educational materials for Dream Anatomy, a new exhibit at the National Library of Medicine. Viewable online, the exhibit offers a somewhat macabre but undeniably fascinating survey of changes in anatomical representation over the last five centuries. Recently added to the main Dream Anatomy Web site, Learning Station provides lesson plans and activities intended for 6-12 graders. The material can be used exhibit or its online version. The lesson plans titled Beginnings of Anatomical Illustrations (grades 6-12) and Anatomical Metaphors (grades 7-8) have especially strong life sciences applications. Other online activities offer "fun ways for high school and older students to explore the content of Dream Anatomy." Altogether, Dream Anatomy Learning Station offers students a unique look at the intersection of art, science, and the imagination.

167

Robotic dissolution station  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention is comprised of a robotic station for dissolving active metals in acid in an automated fashion. A vessel with cap, containing the active metal is placed onto a shuttle which retracts to a point at which it is directly beneath a cap removing and retaining mechanism. After the cap is removed, a tube carrying an appropriate acid is inserted into the vessel, and the acid is introduced. The structure of the station forms an open hood which is swept of gases generated by the dissolution and the air removed to a remote location for scrubbing. After the reaction is complete, the shuttle extends and the vessel may be removed by a robot arm.

Beugelsdijk, T.J.; Hollen, R.M.; Temer, D.J.; Haggart, R.J.; Erkkila, T.H.

1991-12-31

168

Environmental Education Station  

Science.gov (United States)

The Environmental Education Station functions primarily as a portal to environmental information on the Internet. Offered through Centre College and University of the South, this Web site contains an excellent collection of links to detailed information on various environmental topics, including global warming, environmental audits, land reclamation, biodiversity, and more. The Environmental Education Station also includes a fairly extensive index of syllabi and readings for environmental science courses in universities across the U.S. Readers will find lectures, interactive resources, and other materials under the Miscellaneous heading in the Teaching Materials section. The site also offers a public domain image gallery, which could be of use in putting together lectures, presentations, and the like.

169

Viewpoints of the attendings and medical students about the Students' evaluation of the attendings, Mazandaran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Evaluation is one of the most important bases of promoting the quality of education. It is very important to know the attendings’ and students’ viewpoints as evaluated and evaluator groups. So in this study the viewpoint of the attendings and students of School of Medicine of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (MUMS) about the students evaluation of the attendings, were studied.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-cross sectional study, all faculty members (FM) and students of the school of Medicine were included in the study by census sampling.Data collection was done using a questionnaire including demographic questions and educational variables, the FM and students viewpoint about manner of evaluation (time, the way of distributing the forms and the explanation), the student's features in evaluation (awareness, truthfulness and puposes) and the instrument of evaluation (questionnaires and items). Results: 345 individuals (95 FM and 250 students) took part in this study. The manner of evaluation (time, distribution and explanations) to most of FMs' and students’ opinion was appropriate. About student's awareness and truthfulness in filling in the questionnaires; a considerable percentage of FMs (20-40%) had a negative opinion and over half of them had a negative attitude about the whole process of evaluation. About the items of theoretical, practical and clinical questionnaires, while the students laid stress on aspect such as: being a teacher and concepts transferring, on attendings opinion these aspects were less important. Conclusion: To most FMs and students opinion, the manner of evaluation is appropriate but a considerable negative attitude exists among attendings about students’ awareness and truthfulness in filling in the questionnaire. The priorities of evaluation are different in these two groups’ point if view.

M. Ranjbar; K. Vahidshahi; M. Mahmoudi

2007-01-01

170

Nuclear station control challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes the computerized control and monitoring systems being used at Scottish Nuclear's Torness advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR), said to be the most comprehensive computer system ever built for a nuclear station. The fully integrated on-line system has plant-specific features which can be described under five headings; advanced operating systems, integrated plant data acquisition, comprehensive communications facilities, process management and database management. (UK).

Tinham, B.

1993-05-01

171

Symmetric tidal station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tidal station includes a plurality of turbine/generator sets removably insertable along the central axis of a caisson to provide a symmetrical installation. Fixedly disposed basin side and sea side diffusers include inlets alternately juxtaposed opposite ends of the turbine/generator sets as the sets are rotatably displaced 180 degrees between ebb and flood tides. Ballasting/deballasting structure contained in the caisson permits self-portability of the caisson to its site and subsequent positioning thereat.

Gutierrez Atencio, F.J.

1984-08-28

172

Guerledan pumping station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Guerledan development is located in Brittany, France; it consists of an energy transfer pumping station project. The report gives a short account of the project and describes the problems encountered. It also discusses the 1:60 scale-model tests undertaken to design a combined intake and outlet structure which minimises the environmental impact of the project on the reservoir. The proposed layout deals satisfactorily with the problems met.

Alam, S. (SOGREAH, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Longuemare, R. (EDF, REAL, 73 - Chambery (France))

1983-01-01

173

Stations of Light  

Science.gov (United States)

Student groups rotate through four stations to examine light energy behavior: refraction, magnification, prisms and polarization. They see how a beam of light is refracted (bent) through various transparent mediums. While learning how a magnifying glass works, students see how the orientation of an image changes with the distance of the lens from its focal point. They also discover how a prism works by refracting light and making rainbows. And, students investigate the polar nature of light using sunglasses and polarized light film.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

174

Sizewell power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper reports the questions and debate by the House of Lords on the CEGB's commitments, with respect to the proposed power station at Sizewell, in advance of the Sizewell inquiry report. The topics discussed included: the merits of the AGR, public apprehension of nuclear power, the Sizewell inquiry and the PWR, and the present expenditure chargeable to the Sizewell project. (U.K.)

1986-04-16

175

Biological Work Station  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A biological work station for culturing and monitoring cells includes a laminar flow bench and an incubator disposed on the bench. The bench includes a work surface adjacent the incubator that allows experiments and other manipulations to be performed within the confines of the laminar flow bench. An imaging system, such as a stereoscope, may be mounted to the bench so that images may be captured of a culture without removal of the culture from the incubator.

BEEBE DAVID J; HAUBERT KATHRYN M; MOGA BENJAMIN J

176

Thermal power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal Power Stations presents in a detailed way the main processes of modern power generation. The most important matters, i.e. the quality factor in energy conversion and the effectiveness and the efficient use of fuels are discussed. A description of the intensive development work that is performed in the domain of fuel cells provides a glimpse to the future and completes the booklet.

2007-01-01

177

Transportable solar power station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar operated power station is described for space operation transportable in a spacecraft having a hold with a deck, the power station comprising: a chassis module containing electrical components and circuits of the station and drive system; articulated base support means movably interconnecting the chassis and the spacecraft to guide the displacement of the chassis from the craft; a pair of opposing extensible arms each movably connected at its inboard end to a corresponding side of the chassis for operation by the drive system and extensible outwardly from the chassis side when driven by the drive system, each of the arms having two members and each of the members having two links pivotally interconnected to each other to form a scissor linkage; panel support tubes rotatably mounted transversely of each arm at an outboard end thereof, the panel support tubes being configured to be driven by the drive system when the arms are folded against the chassis sides; and an assembly of solar panels supported by each of the panel support tubes. Each of the solar panel assemblies is configured for packing in a stowed position and including extender means for depolying solar cells of the panel assembly from a retracted position adjacent the chassis to a fully extended position for intercepting rays of sunlight. The tubes are secured to the arms for rotation of the solar panel assemblies from a position pointing toward the deck of the hold during stowage to an outwardly extending position after the chassis has been positioned.

Chapman, M.R.

1986-12-23

178

Chronic fatigue in primary care attenders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From 686 patients attending primary care physicians, 77 were identified by a screening procedure as having chronic fatigue. Of these, 65 were given a comprehensive psychological, social and physical evaluation. Seventeen cases (26%) met criteria for the chronic fatigue syndrome. Forty-seven (72%) received an ICD-9 diagnosis of whom 23 had neurotic depression, with a further 5 meeting criteria for neurasthenia. Forty-nine were 'cases' as defined by the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), and 42 if the fatigue item was excluded. Psychiatric morbidity was more related to levels of social stresses than was severity of fatigue. The main difference between these subjects and those examined in hospital settings is that the former are less liable to attribute their symptoms to wholly physical causes, including viruses, as opposed to social or psychological factors. Identification and management of persistent fatigue in primary care may prevent the secondary disabilities seen in patients with chronic fatigue syndromes.

McDonald E; David AS; Pelosi AJ; Mann AH

1993-11-01

179

Nursing research: building roads to attend  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to show the construction of the knowledge of Nursing, through the research, interrelating it with the social context and attendance to the health. Methodology: as sources of obtaining the data we had used articles of newspapers, books, as well as critical works presented in the Course of Academic Master's degree of ,ad Universities Federal de Pelotas. Texts were analyzed that focused the historical and social context of Nursing in the period from 1981 to 2000. Results: thematic nucleus emerged as "Research in nursing: articulation between theory and practice in the social context" and "Weaving bonds between the assistential nursing and the teaching". Conclusions: in the reflections accomplished in readings, discussions in classroom we evidenced that the construction process and invigoration of Nursing, as profession and science, happened through the research. The knowledge had been built with other sciences, but the construction of the scientific "know” still is a challenge for Nursing in the current society.

Samanta Bastos Maagh, Juliana Graciela Vestena Zillmer, Lenice de Castro Muniz de Quadros, Sabrina Gomes Ferreira, Caroline de Leon Linck, Eda Schwartz, Sonia Maria Könzgen Meincke, Celmira Lange

2009-01-01

180

Persistent frequent attenders in primary care: costs, reasons for attendance, organisation of care and potential for cognitive behavioural therapeutic intervention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The top 3% of frequent attendance in primary care is associated with 15% of all appointments in primary care, a fivefold increase in hospital expenditure, and more mental disorder and functional somatic symptoms compared to normal attendance. Although often temporary if these rates of attendance last more than two years, they may become persistent (persistent frequent or regular attendance). However, there is no long-term study of the economic impact or clinical characteristics of regular attendance in primary care. Cognitive behaviour formulation and treatment (CBT) for regular attendance as a motivated behaviour may offer an understanding of the development, maintenance and treatment of regular attendance in the context of their health problems, cognitive processes and social context. Methods/design A case control design will compare the clinical characteristics, patterns of health care use and economic costs over the last 10?years of 100 regular attenders (?30 appointments with general practitioner [GP] over 2?years) with 100 normal attenders (6–22 appointments with GP over 2?years), from purposefully selected primary care practices with differing organisation of care and patient demographics. Qualitative interviews with regular attending patients and practice staff will explore patient barriers, drivers and experiences of consultation, and organisation of care by practices with its challenges. Cognitive behaviour formulation analysed thematically will explore the development, maintenance and therapeutic opportunities for management in regular attenders. The feasibility, acceptability and utility of CBT for regular attendance will be examined. Discussion The health care costs, clinical needs, patient motivation for consultation and organisation of care for persistent frequent or regular attendance in primary care will be explored to develop training and policies for service providers. CBT for regular attendance will be piloted with a view to developing this approach as part of a multifaceted intervention.

Morriss Richard; Kai Joe; Atha Christopher; Avery Anthony; Bayes Sara; Franklin Matthew; George Tracey; James Marilyn; Malins Samuel; McDonald Ruth; Patel Shireen; Stubley Michelle; Yang Min

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Algorithm for Efficient Attendance management: Face Recognition based approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Students attendance in the classroom is very important task and if taken manually wastes a lot of time. There are many automatic methods available for this purpose i.e. biometric attendance. All these methods also waste time because students have to make a queue to touch their thumb on the scanning device. This work describes the efficient algorithm that automatically marks the attendance without human intervention. This attendance is recorded by using a camera attached in front of classroom that is continuously capturing images of students, detect the faces in images and compare the detected faces with the database and mark the attendance. The paper review the related work in the field of attendance system then describes the system architecture, software algorithm and results.

Naveed Khan Baloch; Haroon Yousaf; Waqar Ahmad; M. Iram Baig

2012-01-01

182

Attendance and achievement in medicine: investigating the impact of attendance policies on academic performance of medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The attendance mandate for the medical course in Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal, India was increased from 75% to 90% based on the assumption that the mandatory increase will improve the students' performance. AIMS: To find out whether there is any correlation between class attendance and academic performance. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was an institution based retrospective analytical study. Students who have completed Phase I (first two and a half years) of the MBBS course were included in the study. Student marks and attendance, from the database were obtained from three random batches, each, from two clusters A and B respectively. Those who had a mandatory attendance requirement of 75% belonged to A (n = 243), and those who had a mandatory attendance percentage of 90% belonged to B (n = 360). Statistical analyses performed included, Pearson 2 tailed correlation to correlate class attendance with student performance; Cluster analysis to classify group average in a similarity matrix; t-test to determine significance of difference in percentage of students who attained 100% when the college changed mandatory attendance from 75% to 90%; Mann-Whitney test to find out if there was a better performance in university exam when attendance policy changed. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between attendance and the students who passed in the University exam. The number of students in the pass category was maximum (>90%) compared to students in distinction and failed categories. Percentage of students with 100% attendance rose from 4% (n = 10) to 11% (n = 40) when the mandatory attendance was increased from 75% to 90%. CONCLUSIONS: Attendance policy correlated with better academic performance. Reducing absenteeism, probably contributed to the improved academic performance of the students. But the link between attendance and best and worst performances could not be predicted because of small numbers in every batch.

Subramaniam B; Hande S; Komattil R

2013-04-01

183

Intermountain Generating Station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Intermountain Generating Station is a 1775 MW coal-fired power plant in Delta, Utah, USA and owned by the Intermountain Power Agency. The two-unit plant has subcritical boiler, tandem compound steam turbines, and low-NOx burners, fabric filters and a scrubber for emissions control. Intermountain has implemented an effective heat rate improvement plan that relies on 13 controllable parameters. The plan includes a high-pressure steam turbine upgrade program. The plant personnel work together well, teaching skills to less experienced personnel.

NONE

2002-08-01

184

Quillayute air reference station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A large number of radioactive and non-radioactive airborne constituents are being measured continually at the BNWL coastal air-reference station located in northwestern Washington State. Important correlations have been observed between many of these materials and also with atmospheric parameters. The apparent relationships between changing concentrations and meteorological parameters are being tested using more thorough techniques of investigation, including back trajectory computer analyses. Data are included on radionuclides, aerosol particle size and stable elements in daily air samples. (U.S.)

1975-01-01

185

Residents' ethical disagreements with attending physicians: an unrecognized problem.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency and nature of ethical disagreements over patient care between housestaff and attending physicians. METHOD: During the spring of 1994, a cross-sectional survey about ethical disagreements was conducted of all 42 internal medicine housestaff at the West Virginia University Hospitals and all 51 faculty in the Department of Medicine at the West Virginia University School of Medicine. Chi-square analysis was used to compare categorical variables. RESULTS: Thirty-six (86%) of the residents and 41 (80%) of the faculty responded. The housestaff recounted 127 ethical disagreements between attending physicians and housestaff in the previous year; the attending physicians reported 19. A total of 32 residents reported at least one ethical disagreement with an attending physician during the previous year. When asked about their most troubling disagreement, 27 (84%) of these residents reported they had been distressed because they considered the treatment ordered by the attending physician to be futile. Only 11 residents (34%) had discussed their most troubling disagreement with the attending physician. Of the 24 residents who correctly identified that a formal process to resolve ethical disagreements with a physician did not exist, 17 desired one. CONCLUSION: The residents' disagreements with attending physicians over ethical aspects of patient care were common and usually concerned issues of overtreatment. Since most of the housestaff did not express their concerns, the attending physicians were largely unaware of them. The findings suggest that residency directors need to encourage housestaff to discuss their ethical conflicts with attending physicians.

Shreves JG; Moss AH

1996-10-01

186

Attending to the reasons for attribute non-attendance in choice experiments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper focuses on behavioural reasons underlying stated attribute non-attendance in choice experiments. In order to identify and incorporate procedures for dealing with heterogeneous attribute processing strategies, we ask respondents follow-up questions regarding their reasons for ignoring attributes. Based on these statements, we conclude that the standard way of assigning a zero impact of ignored attributes on the likelihood is inappropriate. We find that some respondents act in accordance with the passive bounded rationality assumption since they ignore an attribute simply because it does not affect their utility. Excluding these genuine zero preferences, as the standard approach essentially does, might bias results. Other respondents claim to have ignored attributes to simplify choices. However, we find that these respondents have actually not completely ignored attributes. We argue along the rationally adaptive behavioural model that valid preference information may indeed be elicited in these cases, and we illustrate howrecoding of non-attendance statements conditional on stated reasons may be a more appropriate solution than the current standard way of taking stated non-attendance into account.

Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; MØrkbak, Morten Raun

2013-01-01

187

Reasons for attending and not attending a support group for recipients of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and their carers.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is evidence to suggest that people who have an implantable cardioverter defibrillator and their caregivers experience psychological distress. This qualitative descriptive study explored the experiences, concerns and needs of recipients of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and their caregivers who attended or did not attend a support group organized by a public hospital located in Perth, Western Australia, Australia. Eleven recipients of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and their caregivers participated in this study. Among those who attended the support group, four major themes were identified: providing information, connecting with others, helping others and attendance. Explanations for non-attendance included difficulties attending because of the location, not wanting to be reminded about the implantable cardioverter defibrillator, and a perception, among younger recipients, that the support group was comprised of mainly older recipients with whom they had little in common. PMID:15149460

Williams, Anne M; Young, Jeanne; Nikoletti, Sue; McRae, Shelley

2004-06-01

188

Reasons for attending and not attending a support group for recipients of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and their carers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is evidence to suggest that people who have an implantable cardioverter defibrillator and their caregivers experience psychological distress. This qualitative descriptive study explored the experiences, concerns and needs of recipients of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and their caregivers who attended or did not attend a support group organized by a public hospital located in Perth, Western Australia, Australia. Eleven recipients of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and their caregivers participated in this study. Among those who attended the support group, four major themes were identified: providing information, connecting with others, helping others and attendance. Explanations for non-attendance included difficulties attending because of the location, not wanting to be reminded about the implantable cardioverter defibrillator, and a perception, among younger recipients, that the support group was comprised of mainly older recipients with whom they had little in common.

Williams AM; Young J; Nikoletti S; McRae S

2004-06-01

189

Wind power station. Windkraftwerk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The wind power station is a closed system of great strength and stiffness due to its construction, having its own wind stability, smooth, wind-repellant surface properties, high conductivity for wind and appropriate processing of the wind. It can move freely horizontally around a circular guyed tower. In the one or several pairs of wind ducts made as a mirror image of each other, the wind is guided, compressed and taken elastically continuously to the wind rotors situated protected inside the ducts, which are adjustable, depending on the wind pressure by a pressure tube. The subpressure at the outlet port, due to the design, increases the pressure drop. By using plastic and other light materials, the power station is given a relatively small mass. The individual parts can be prefabricated. Assembly at site is done on the ground around the previously built tower. Hoists installed at the top of the tower lift the plant to the working level, where they are stored and held. Steps, hoists, gangways and spaces are situated inside the tower and powerstation. The plant should use wind energy optimally from the lowest to the highest windspeeds, including in difficult places endangered by storms.

Kaufmann, R.

1985-06-05

190

Predictors of blood lead concentrations in the lead-free petrol era; Danskernes bly i bldoet efter overgang til blyfri benzin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blood lead concentrations in a Danish reference population were related to information from an extensive questionnaire on work, environment and life style. The mean concentration of lead in blood was 0.167 {mu}mol/L, i.e. significantly lower than in previous studies. This finding is in accordance with the fact that less than 10% of petrol used in Denmark contained lead additives (up to 0.15 g/L). An important finding was that the well-documented predictors for lead in blood at higher concentration levels, such as age, gender, menopausal status, and intake of alcohol, are still valid in a low-level exposure situation. In addition, a strong and negative correlation was found between blood lead concentrations and dietary supplementation with vitamins and minerals. The present data indicate that lead exposure may still constitute of health risk in a small proportion of adult males and postmenopausal woman. (au) 13 refs.

Nielsen, J.B.; Grandjean, P.; Joergensen, P.J.

1998-12-01

191

Discharges from nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

1991-01-01

192

States Mull Obama's Call to Raise Compulsory-Attendance Age  

Science.gov (United States)

|President Barack Obama's call for every state to require school attendance until age 18 may spark a flurry of action in some statehouses, but changing attendance laws will do little by itself to drive down the nation's dropout rates, experts on the issue say. In his State of the Union address last month, President Obama said states should require…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2012-01-01

193

Class Attendance and Performance in Principles of Economics  

Science.gov (United States)

A sample of 347 students, enrolled in principles of economics classes during the period 1997-2001, is used to examine the relation between class attendance and student performance on examinations. Among the questions examined are: Is attendance related to performance, with and without controls for other factors? Do only substantial levels of…

Cohn, Elchanan; Johnson, Eric

2006-01-01

194

Kakrapar Atomic Power Station Gujarat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) is the fifth Atomic Power Station in India. It is a twin unit with a generating capacity of 220 MWe each. Reactors are known as Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. The heat is generated by nuclear fission using natural uranium as fuel. Unit-1 is under commercial operation since 06 May 1993 and Unit-2 since 01 September 1995. The safety performance of station is improving continuously. As on 30 September 2010, Station has record of longest reportable accident free period of 2873 days and fire free days of 4515

1993-05-06

195

Application for the Tape Station  

CERN Multimedia

The Tape Station is used as an Isolde facility to observe the variations of intensity and the lifespan of certain isotopes. A Siemens Simatic FM-352-5 module controls the Tape Station in a PLC system then a DSC controls the PLC, which will be controlled the Tape station program. During the Isolde consolidation project, the Tape Station has been rebuilt, and the control system has been fully integrated in the PS control. Finally, a new application has been written in JAVA Development kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment. The main purpose of this note is to explain how to use this program.

Solero, A

2003-01-01

196

Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza) since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS-) with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia) provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population. Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension), however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern/Insular Italy). Similar geographical distributions can be noted in the attendance rates (60.5% in the North of Italy, 56% in the Central area and 38.3% in the South of Italy). Cervical cancer screening: From the data obtained by the 2006 survey, 93.5% of theoretical extension was registered in the Centre of Italy, 65% in the North and 65.5% or in the South of Italy. 38.5% of invited women underwent a Pap-test. A decreasing trend in participation can be observed from Northern (45.6%) to Central (35.7%), and to Southern (28.7%) Italy. Colorectal cancer screening: In 2006, theoretical extension of colorectal cancer screening in Italy was 44%, with significant differences in geographical distribution (66.1% in the North of Italy 48.5% in the Centre and about 10% in the South of our country). About 907,000 people had a faecal occult blood test in 2006 (adjusted compliance of 44.6%). Data from the survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” showed that organised screening activity can reduce social inequalities of access to cancer screening, increasing screening utilization particularly in less educated people.Conclusions: Organised cancer screening programmes have been extended in recent years, improving the equity in the access to early diagnosis for the people invited. However, social and geographical inequalities still remain.

Grazia Grazzini; Marco Zappa

2008-01-01

197

Hydrogen vehicle fueling station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors describe a hydrogen vehicle fueling station that receives and stores hydrogen in liquid form and dispenses it either as a liquid or compressed gas. The economics that accrue from the favorable weight and volume advantages of liquid hydrogen support this concept both now and probably for some time to come. The model for liquid transfer to a 120-liter vehicle tank shows that transfer times under five minutes are feasible with pump-assisted transfer, or for pressure transfer with subcooling greater than 1 K. The model for compressed gas transfer shows that underfilling of nearly 30% can occur during rapid filling. Cooling the fill gas to 214 K completely eliminates underfilling.

Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.

1995-09-01

198

Local control stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted

1993-01-01

199

Boeing: International Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Boeing, the prime contractor for the International Space Station (ISS), has developed this website to provide information on the technology of the program. The ISS will be more than four times as large as the Russian Mir when completed, and is "the largest, most complex international scientific project in history and our largest adventure into space to date." Boeing is responsible for the design, development, construction and integration of the ISS and assisting NASA in operating the orbital outpost. They provide an overview of the status of the project and describes the current configuration, components, structure, and systems with more detailed information on some sections. Visitors can follow links to also read more about the scientific research conducted by the expedition crew.

2005-11-03

200

Longannet Power Station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal currently meets more than one quarter of the world's energy needs, with about 37% of the world's electricity supply being produced from coal. The environmental implications of fossil fuel combustion have led governments to develop policies for reducing these impacts. Limits for particulate matter, SO{sub 2} and NOx have been established in many countries. Emission reduction can be achieved by installing very expensive state-of-the-art technologies or simply by operating plant at optimal conditions to improve the overall efficiency. This publication describes the techniques and technologies used by Longannet Power Station in Scotland to operate the plant within legislative requirements, and the resulting benefits.

NONE

2000-02-01

 
 
 
 
201

GEMS (GEophysical Monitoring Station)  

Science.gov (United States)

The GEMS (GEophysical Monitoring Station) is one of three missions undergoing Phase A development for possible selection by NASA's Discovery Program [1]. If selected, GEMS will illuminate the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution by performing the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation of Mars. It will provide key information on the composition and structure of an Earth-like planet that has gone through most of the evolutionary stages of the Earth up to, but not including, plate tectonics. Thus the traces of this history are still contained in the basic parameters of the planet: the size, state and composition of the core, the composition and layering of the mantle, the thickness and layering of the crust, and the thermal flux from the interior.

Banerdt, B.; Smrekar, S.; Dehant, V.; Lognonné, P.; Spohn, T.; Grott, M.

2011-10-01

202

Solar power station. Solarkraftwerk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention concerns a solar powerstation with semi-conductor solar cells to produce electricity. The semi-conductor solar cells are fixed to a space travel device such as a balloon or kite and are connected to a ground station via an insulated cable. The supporting elements are covered with solar cells on all sides, reflected radiation from the earth or from the lowest cloud layer is also well used and in the morning and evening the device is subjected to direct solar radiation from below. Several solar cell surfaces can be situated above one another with a small space between and can be connected to each other so that the angle of incidence can be altered. The balloon is provided with transparent outer and inner covers, so that the plates can be accommodated in the gas-filled space inside.

Wenzel, J.

1981-04-16

203

Local control stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted.

Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wachtel, J.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Research

1993-05-01

204

The nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The processes taking place in a nuclear power plant and the dangers arising from a nuclear power station are described. The means and methods of controlling, monitoring, and protecting the plant and things that can go wrong are presented. There is also a short discourse on the research carried out in the USA and Germany, aimed at assessing the risks of utilising nuclear energy by means of the incident tree analysis and probability calculations. (DG)[de] Die sich in einer Kernkraftanlage abspielenden Vorgaenge und die Gefahren, die von einem Kernkraftwerk ausgehen, werden beschrieben. Die Mittel und Methoden zur Regelung, Ueberwachung, Schutz und Stoerfallvorsorge sind dargestellt. Ferner erfolgt eine kurze Abhandlung der in den USA und in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland angestellten Untersuchungen, die das Ziel haben, mit den Methoden der Fehlerbaumanalyse und Wahrscheinlichkeitsberechnung die Risiken der Kernkraftnutzung abzuschaetzen. (DG)

1987-01-01

205

[Guo Feng attends birth control meeting].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 1980 provincial population growth rate was 8.71/1000, the lowest since the founding of the PRC. In addition, the 1980 provincial birth rate was also the lowest. This reflects the fact that the province has scored great achievements in birth control work. A meeting was held today in the province to commend those collectives and individuals that have achieved advanced results in birth control work, including 10 Red Banner units, 190 advanced collectives, 73 workers, and 27 individuals. The 10 Red Banner units are Dazhong District in Shenyang Municipality; the state-run Liming machinery company; Zhangtiekou and Anjingzi Districts in Dalian Municipality; Jin County; Lishan District in Anshan Municipality; the Anshan iron and steel company; and Yingkou, Dawa, and Heishan Counties. Attending the meeting were Guo Feng, Chen Puru, Liu Wen, and Zhang Zhiyuan. Comrade Chen Puru spoke at the meeting. On behalf of the provincial CCP Committee and People's Government, Comrade Zhang Zhiyuan pointed out to the meeting that the 1981 provincial population growth rate should be set at or below 10/1000. This is an arduous goal because there are some 3 million youths in the province at the legal marriageable age set by the new marriage law. Therefore, we should not blindly hold an optimistic and complacent attitude toward this work. We should intensify propaganda and education work to enhance the ideological and political awareness of youths and continue to implement various policies concerning birth control. Those who deserve commendation should be commended and those who deserve punishment should be punished according to regulations. Comrade Zhang Zhiyuan continued: The practice of birth control is an important policy of the party and the People's Government, and is a duty of every citizen. All communists, CYL members, and cadres should play a leading role in this regard.

1981-03-01

206

[Guo Feng attends birth control meeting].  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1980 provincial population growth rate was 8.71/1000, the lowest since the founding of the PRC. In addition, the 1980 provincial birth rate was also the lowest. This reflects the fact that the province has scored great achievements in birth control work. A meeting was held today in the province to commend those collectives and individuals that have achieved advanced results in birth control work, including 10 Red Banner units, 190 advanced collectives, 73 workers, and 27 individuals. The 10 Red Banner units are Dazhong District in Shenyang Municipality; the state-run Liming machinery company; Zhangtiekou and Anjingzi Districts in Dalian Municipality; Jin County; Lishan District in Anshan Municipality; the Anshan iron and steel company; and Yingkou, Dawa, and Heishan Counties. Attending the meeting were Guo Feng, Chen Puru, Liu Wen, and Zhang Zhiyuan. Comrade Chen Puru spoke at the meeting. On behalf of the provincial CCP Committee and People's Government, Comrade Zhang Zhiyuan pointed out to the meeting that the 1981 provincial population growth rate should be set at or below 10/1000. This is an arduous goal because there are some 3 million youths in the province at the legal marriageable age set by the new marriage law. Therefore, we should not blindly hold an optimistic and complacent attitude toward this work. We should intensify propaganda and education work to enhance the ideological and political awareness of youths and continue to implement various policies concerning birth control. Those who deserve commendation should be commended and those who deserve punishment should be punished according to regulations. Comrade Zhang Zhiyuan continued: The practice of birth control is an important policy of the party and the People's Government, and is a duty of every citizen. All communists, CYL members, and cadres should play a leading role in this regard. PMID:12263992

1981-03-31

207

Reducing inappropriate emergency department attendances--a review of ambulance service attendances at a regional teaching hospital in Scotland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Emergency Departments (ED) in the UK have seen increasing attendance rates in recent years. Departments are now seeking strategies to reduce their attendances. A review of all ambulance attendances to the ED at Ninewells Hospital was conducted to identify if patients presenting by ambulance could be seen and treated more appropriately in other parts of the health service. METHOD: A retrospective review of ambulance attendances to the ED at Ninewells Hospital over 7 non-consecutive days. The ambulance patient report form and the ED notes were reviewed by the duty consultant to deem whether it was appropriate for the patient to be presented to the ED. If inappropriate, an alternative destination was suggested. Additional data was collected on the source of the ambulance call. RESULTS: There were 910 attendances in the 7 days. 295 (32%) presented by ambulance. 32 had incomplete data and were excluded. 185 (70%) and 179 (68%) of the 263 were deemed appropriate from review of the patient report form and notes respectively. Of the inappropriate, 74.4% and 79.7% had primary care suggested as an alternative. Patients who call for their own ambulance and NHS24 had higher rates of inappropriate attendances. DISCUSSION: The ambulance services present one-third of the patients to the ED at Ninewells Hospital. 30%-32% were found to be attending inappropriately and 74%-80% of these could have been managed in primary care. Reducing inappropriate ambulance attendances could reduce the departmental patient load by 11%.

Patton GG; Thakore S

2013-06-01

208

Effects of leaded petrol with 0.15 g Pb/litre without a scavenger on the operation of petrol engines. Final report; Auswirkungen von verbleitem Ottokraftstoff mit 0,15 g Pb/l ohne Scavenger auf den Betrieb von Ottomotoren. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a joint examination by the car and oil industries, the possibility was checked whether petrol engines using petrol with a lead content of 0.15 g Pb/litre and without a scavenger can be used without damage or interruption of operation, in order to exclude environmental pollution by scavengers. The investigations have shown that dispensing with scavengers has an adverse effect on deposits in the combustion space and has consequences to the sparking plugs; however, the changes were in the tolerable range. (HW) [Deutsch] In einer gemeinsamen Untersuchung von Automobil- und Mineraloel-Industrie wurde die Moeglichkeit ueberprueft, ob Otto-Motoren mit einem Benzin mit einem Bleigehalt von 0,15 g Pb/l und ohne Scavenger ohne Schaeden oder Betriebsstoerungen betrieben werden koennen, um somit eine Umweltbelastung durch Scavenger auszuschliessen. Die Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, dass der Verzicht auf Scavenger zum Teil einen negativen Einfluss auf die Ablagerungen im Brennraum und an den Zuendkerzen zur Folge hatte; die Veraenderungen lagen jedoch noch im tolerierbaren Bereich. (HW)

Schmauder, J. [Porsche (F.) AG Entwicklungszentrum Weissach (Germany)

1990-12-31

209

Factors Associated with Attendance and Non-Attendance of Support Groups among HIV Positive Adults Attending an Antiretroviral Community Clinic at Ekurhuleni District, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health care facilities providing antiretroviral treatment (ART) to HIV positive people have seen a decline in the uptake and use of HIV support groups. A cross sectional survey was conducted to 1) determine the characteristics of HIV positive people who have and who have not attended support groups; 2) determine factors associated with attendance of support groups; and 3) investigate perceived barriers to participate in support groups among HIV positive adults attending an ART clinic in Gauteng, South Africa. The total samples included 248 HIV positive adults and the highest proportion were females (n = 156, 62.9%). The mean age of the participants was 34.2 years, (range 18 to 56 years). Almost two thirds (n = 144, 58.1%) had never attended support groups. Participants who attended support groups were more likely to be older than non-attenders (OR = 1.04, CI: 1.01 - 1.07), more likely to be taking ART medication (OR = 1.64, CI: 1.00 - 2.65) and more likely to have known of their HIV diagnosis for a longer time (OR = 2.20, CI: 1.42 - 3.40). Employed participants were less likely to attend support groups than unemployed participants (OR = 0.47, CI: 0.27 - 0.80). Concerns for privacy and confidentiality in support groups, and fear of stigma and discrimination were the key barriers to participate in support groups. Participants also perceived support groups as a service for people who could not cope with their HIV diagnosis. Health care providers who plan to start support groups should take into consideration issues of support group size, confidentiality, and timing for support group meetings. It is imperative that education on the benefits of HIV support groups forms a primary component of routine counselling for PLWHI.

Sphiwe Madiba; Olga Kekana

2013-01-01

210

International Space Station Research Plan  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

Theses viewgraphs discuss the International Space Station's Research Plan. The goals for the International Space Station Utilization are to provide a state-of-the-art research facility on which to study gravity's effects on physical, chemical, and biological systems. It is also an advanced testbed for technology and human exploration as well as a commercial platform for space research and development.

2000-01-01

211

The Tomskneft gas compression station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reports on the recent completion of the Tomskneft gas compression project in Siberia. As a result of Russian government policy, the flaring of gas was discouraged and this was the motive for the Tomskneft project. The compressor station can handle about 150 million SCFD. A flowchart of the system is given together with an explanation of what the station does.

Williams, R.L. [Bateman Project Holdings Ltd (South Africa)

2000-02-01

212

Geophysical Monitoring Station (GEMS)  

Science.gov (United States)

GEMS (GEophysical Monitoring Station) is one of three missions undergoing Phase A development for possible selection by NASA's Discovery Program. If selected, GEMS will perform the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation of Mars, filling a longstanding gap in the scientific exploration of the solar system. It will illuminate the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution, providing unique and critical information about the initial accretion of the planet, the formation and differentiation of the core and crust, and the subsequent evolution of the interior. The scientific goals of GEMS are to understand the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets through investigation of the interior structure and processes of Mars and to determine its present level of tectonic activity and impact flux. A straightforward set of scientific objectives address these goals: 1) Determine the size, composition and physical state of the core; 2) Determine the thickness and structure of the crust; 3) Determine the composition and structure of the mantle; 4) Determine the thermal state of the interior; 5) Measure the rate and distribution of internal seismic activity; and 6) Measure the rate of impacts on the surface. To accomplish these objectives, GEMS carries a tightly-focused payload consisting of 3 investigations: 1) SEIS, a 6-component, very-broad-band seismometer, with careful thermal compensation/control and a sensitivity comparable to the best terrestrial instruments across a frequency range of 1 mHz to 50 Hz; 2) HP3 (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package), an instrumented self-penetrating mole system that trails a string of temperature sensors to measure the thermal gradient and conductivity of the upper several meters, and thus the planetary heat flux; and 3) RISE (Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment), which would use the spacecraft X-band communication system to provide precision tracking for planetary dynamical studies. The two instruments are moved from the lander deck to the martian surface by an Instrument Deployment Arm, with an appropriate location identified using an Instrument Deployment Camera. In order to ensure low risk within the tight Discovery cost limits, GEMS reuses the successful Lockheed Martin Phoenix spacecraft design, with a cruise and EDL system that has demonstrated capability for safe landing on Mars with well-understood costs. To take full advantage of this approach, all science requirements (such as instrument mass and power, landing site, and downlinked data volume) strictly conform to existing, demonstrated capabilities of the spacecraft and mission system. It is widely believed that multiple landers making simultaneous measurements (a network) are required to address the objectives for understanding terrestrial planet interiors. Nonetheless, comprehensive measurements from a single geophysical station are extremely valuable, because observations constraining the structure and processes of the deep interior of Mars are virtually nonexistent. GEMS would utilize sophisticated analysis techniques specific to single-station measurements to determine crustal thickness, mantle structure, core state and size, and heat flow, providing our first real look deep beneath the surface of Mars.

Banerdt, B.; Dehant, V. M.; Lognonne, P.; Smrekar, S. E.; Spohn, T.; GEMS Mission Team

2011-12-01

213

Bradwell Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] When built, the Magnox reactors were expected to have operating lifetimes of 20-25 years. In order to satisfy the licensing authorities of their continued safety, long term safety reviews (LTSRs) are being carried out as the reactors reach 20 years of operation. This is the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate's (NII) summary report on Bradwell nuclear power station. The objectives of the LTSR are stated. A description of the plant is followed by an explanation of the statutory position on licensing. The responsibilities of the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and the NII are defined. From the examination of the CEGB's LTSR it is concluded that this generally confirms the validity of the existing safety case for present operation. However, some recommendations are made as to work required for reactor operation up to 1992. A summary of the NII findings is presented. This includes the reactor pressure circuit integrity, effects of ageing and in-service wear and radiation doses. (U.K.)

1987-01-01

214

Swedish encapsulation station review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

1998-06-01

215

Controversial power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When information on plans to build a power station in Trebisov first appeared reactions differed. A 40-billion investment in a town with more than 20% unemployment seemed attractive. But some people did not like the idea of having a power plant located in the town. Around one year after the investment was officially announced TREND returned to Trebisov. In the meantime the investor has managed to overcome one of the biggest obstacles on its way to building a new power plant. The ministry responsible gave the environmental study a positive rating. But objectors are still not sure that everything is fine. They claim that the study misinterprets data and that the ministry did not show expertise when evaluating it. 'Is it possible that a coal power plant located in a town would have twice as many positive effects on peoples' health than negative ones? Why don't we build them everywhere?'asked the chairman of the civic society, Trebisov nahlas, Gejza Gore. The developer of the project, Ceskoslovenska energeticka spolocnost (CES), Kosice is fighting back and claims that their counterpart lacks professional arguments. In the meantime it is preparing for area management proceedings. Trebisov is also involved in the discussion and claims that the town planning scheme does not include such a project. The Ministry of Construction has a different opinion. In the opinion of the Ministry the town planning scheme allows a 885-megawatt power plant to be built only a few hundred meters away from housing estates. (author)

2008-02-21

216

Ground station digital interface  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital computer interface equipment was developed to enable the recovery of digital data encoded in special format and recorded, both in flight and in laboratory experiments, using an analog magnetic tape transport. The recorded data were first reproduced, in a continuous manner, at a ground station processing center, using an analogue magnetic tape reproducing machine and was then taken to the input of the interface equipment. Serial to parallel conversion of the data into 16-bit words suitable for direct entry into a computer, under interrupt control, was performed by the interface equipment. Time-of-day information which is normaly multiplexed with other digital data and recorded on the magnetic tape, effectively constitutes an identifier which may be used for specifying the location of any areas of interest on the tape. To enable the analog reproducing machine to be stopped at any predetermined location, a present stop signal generator was incorporated in the interface equipment. Complete details, together with a functional description, of each circuit within the digital interface equipment are included.

Fraser, K. F.; Krieser, U. R.

1980-09-01

217

Shippingport station communications program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project, the central idea of the communications program that was developed for use was purposely designed to be as uncomplicated as possible. The central theme, that was developed and communicated, is that all nuclear plants will someday need to be retired and also decommissioned. The Shippingport Plant, originally constructed as a demonstration nuclear power plant, was now being decommissioned as a demonstration to the world-wide nuclear industry that this evolution can be done in a safe and cost-effective manner. Furthermore, the technology currently exists to complete this process. The new phase of the communications program was initiated even before the responsibility for the plant was transferred from Duquesne Light to GE. With such a change forthcoming, it was necessary to inform local officials of these plans, and the reasons for them. Equally important was the need to inform a variety of agencies and offices in the three-state area of the changes, and the continuing need to involve them in the Site Emergency Plan. This document was also revised in recognition of changing site conditions, as well as the changes in responsibility. 1 ref.

Stote, J.J.

1988-01-01

218

[Physicians attending detainees in police custody: an improved format of the doctor's opinion].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Physicians attending detainees in police custody should decide whether the detainee's health status is compatible with detention in a police station. According to a recent French law on police custody (April 14, 2011), the physician is expected to make any useful observations. Standard documents have been proposed since 2004. They have not been extensively used so far. Our objective was to analyze the content and the limitations of such documents and to elaborate a new model. METHODS: We analyzed available models, studied how they fit to national guidelines, and proposed a new model which was more in accordance with the existing guidelines. RESULTS: Recommended format of the doctor's opinion consists in two parts: a standard medical certificate to be sent to the authority who requested the doctor's attendance and a confidential medical record, which is not sent to the requesting authority. Some guidelines were not followed, e.g. detection of psychiatric illnesses and addictive behaviours, and a systematic record of traumatic injuries. The new model has been tested for 18 months by a group of 25 forensic physicians. It includes the description of traumatic injuries and suggests that the doctor systematically assesses a duration of total incapacity to work, even if an extensive description is not requested by the authority. The confidential medical record mentions psychiatric history and addictive behaviours. CONCLUSION: The proposed model could help detainees to assert their rights. It could also take part in characterizing health hazards to which detainees can be exposed.

Briffa H; Lefèvre T; Boraud C; Chariot P

2013-01-01

219

Professor Atta invited to attend WSIS as `eminent scientist'  

CERN Document Server

Ministry of Science and Technology Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman has been nominated as an "eminent scientist" to attend the roundtables during "World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)" on December 12 (1 paragraph).

2003-01-01

220

Physical Activity Levels Among Children Attending Family Day Care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Children attending family day care participate in low levels of PA during the child care day. The results highlight the need for effective programs to promote PA in family day care.

Rice KR; Trost SG

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Review of strategies in promoting attendance for cervical screening.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: The importance of cervical screening has been addressed in numerous studies. However, reviews conducted to explore of strategies to promoting attendance for cervical screening have been limited. This study aimed to explore strategies to promote attendance for cervical screening. Materials and Methods: A literature search from databases (1994-2011) was undertaken to include papers that identified strategies related to the cervical screening. Results: Twenty-four papers were included in this review. The review of existing strategies identified valuable information on cervical screening and areas that could be improved in meeting womens' needs. Conclusions: The review highlighted important aspects of cervical screening that could be further addressed by promoting strategies to attendance. Assessing women's health beliefs, inpatient cervical cancer screening, nurse-led screening, and cognition-emotion focused programs are among the strategies to promote attendance for pap smear testing.

Demirtas B

2013-01-01

222

Torness: proposed nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need for and desirability of nuclear power, and in particular the proposed nuclear power station at Torness in Scotland, are questioned. Questions are asked, and answered, on the following topics: position, appearance and cost of the proposed Torness plant, and whether necessary; present availability of electricity, and forecast of future needs, in Scotland; energy conservation and alternative energy sources; radiation hazards from nuclear power stations (outside, inside, and in case of an accident); transport of spent fuel from Torness to Windscale; radioactive waste management; possibility of terrorists making a bomb with radioactive fuel from a nuclear power station; cost of electricity from nuclear power; how to stop Torness. (U.K.).

1979-01-01

223

Belledune generating station status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design and construction of the first 450 megawatt unit of the 900 megawatt coal-fired Belledune generating station project is reviewed. This will be the first utility generating station in Canada to come into service with a flue gas desulphurization system. Features of environmental significance are highlighted, with particular emphasis on sulfur dioxide emissions control using the flue gas desulphurization system. The role of the new station in New Brunswicks's sulphur dioxide control strategy is defined, including a related sulphate deposition monitoring program and supplemental control programs, and fuel delivery and handling and freshwater supplies are discussed.

Rivenbark, E.; Hickman, C.

1991-01-01

224

APS Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2010 APS Conferences  

Science.gov (United States)

From The Physiologist. Four travel fellows received funding to attend the 2010 APS Intersociety Meeting, ÃÂGlobal Change and Global Science: Comparative Physiology in a Changing World,ÃÂ from August 4-7, 2010 in Westminster, CO. Four travel fellows received funding to attend the APS Conference, ÃÂInflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease,ÃÂ from August 25-28, 2010 also in Westminster, CO. The application reviews were led by Committee Member, Johana Vallejo-Elias.

2010-12-01

225

Systematization of Angra-1 operation attendance - Maintenance and periodic testings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A maintenance analysis, their types and their functions for the safety of nuclear power plants is done. Programs and present trends in the reactor maintenance, as well as the maintenance program and periodic tests of Angra I, are analysed. The necessities of safety analysis and a systematization for maintenance attendance are discussed and the periodic testing as well as the attendance of international experience. (M.C.K.).

1988-01-01

226

High-precision injection in combination with the new BMW twin-turbo petrol engine; High Precision Injection in Verbindung mit Aufladung am neuen BMW Twin-Turbo-Ottomotor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design highlights of the new engine that went into series production in mid-2006 with the 335i Couple have already been described in the February issue of the MTZ. Continuing with this report, this article deals with the functional aspects of piezo-fuel injection technology used for the first time by BMW in connection with turbocharging which BMW is again reintroducing in petrol engine construction after an absence of more than 20 years. (orig.)

Maehrle, Werner; Krauss, Michael; Luttermann, Christoph; Klauer, Norbert [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Antriebsentwicklung

2007-04-15

227

Greenhouse effect: the electric power to replace the petrol and the gas oil; Effet de serre: l'electricite pour remplacer l'essence et le gazole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Facing the climatic consequences of the greenhouse effect, produced mainly by the carbon dioxide emissions, it is necessary to decrease the use of fossil fuels. The electric power can replace the fossil fuels in most of stationary facilities. This paper shows how the electric power could be used to replace the petrol and the gas oil, directly (electric vehicle) or indirectly with the hydrogen. (A.L.B.)

SalaUN, A.

2001-07-01

228

Understanding non-attendance in outpatient paediatric clinics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Outpatient clinic appointments are often not kept. There has been little study of the reasons for this, but failure to attend may affect future health. Our study was based on the children's outpatient department of a large inner city district general hospital. The parents of 34 children who had failed to keep appointments and of 12 who did attend were interviewed in depth and the appointment systems of the hospital and of a nearby regional referral centre for children were reviewed. At the district general hospital 23% of first appointments and 35% of subsequent appointments were not kept. We found that parents usually made a conscious decision about attending, balancing the perceived advantages and disadvantages of doing so. Their assessment of the severity of the child's illness was crucial in this. Twenty one of the 34 children who had not attended were assessed at the time of interview as still needing to attend. Of these, 16 subsequently kept an appointment and 11 underwent further investigation or treatment. We conclude that children who are not brought for outpatient appointments may be at risk of avoidable ill health and that ways of either ensuring attendance at outpatient clinics or providing alternative means of health supervision are needed.

Andrews R; Morgan JD; Addy DP; McNeish AS

1990-02-01

229

REAL TIME FACE RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR TIME AND ATTENDANCE APPLICATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available — In this paper, we have proposed an automated Face Recognition System for Time and Attendance application. The model is developed with the help of real time OpenCV library The proposed system comprised of using the Viola Jones algorithm for detecting the human faces and then the detected face is resized to the required size, this resized face is further processed by using linear stretch contrast enhancement and finally it is recognized using a simple PCA / LDA. Once recognition is done, automatically attendance will be updated in an Excel Sheet along with his name, date and time. An html file is automatically updated by our system so that a remote authenticated user can access the attendance file .Our system is integrated to an Automatic Attendance Management System, with the help of which some post attendance works like stipend amount calculation, viewing attendance report for the required date, calculating the number of hours a person is present in the class, searching for a required person in the classroom etc. Spoofing which is a major threat for our system can be avoided using Eye Blink Detector algorithm. Our system can automatically update the Database for the newly enrolled persons. The proposed system can execute the instructions given orally to it (eliminating the need of a mouse interface) and can speak back to us.

APARNA BEHARA, M.V. RAGHUNADH

2013-01-01

230

Enclosed versus open nursing stations in adult acute care psychiatric settings: does the design affect the therapeutic milieu?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Specific efforts by hospital accreditation organizations encourage renovation of nursing stations, so nurses can better see, attend, and care for their patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nursing station design on the therapeutic milieu in an adult acute care psychiatric unit. A repeated cross-sectional, pretest-posttest design was used. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 81 patients and 25 nursing staff members who completed the Ward Atmosphere Scale. Pretest data were collected when the unit had an enclosed nursing station, and posttest data were collected after renovations to the unit created an open nursing station. No statistically significant differences were found in patient or staff perceptions of the therapeutic milieu. No increase in aggression toward staff was found, given patients' ease of access to the nursing station. More research is needed about the impact of unit design in acute care psychiatric settings.

Southard K; Jarrell A; Shattell MM; McCoy TP; Bartlett R; Judge CA

2012-05-01

231

Return flow of experience from operating and maintenance work in the Biblis nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The return flow of experience is discussed on the basis of the KTA1401 regulations. An exchange of information is produced by attendance at external and internal committees. Details of the operating and organisation manual of the Biblis nuclear power station are presented. The return flow of experience from maintenance orders and plant damage statistics are other topic covered in this article. figs

1992-01-01

232

Smart grid stations; Smarte nettstasjoner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy industry in Norway is facing a significant upgrading of infrastructure for production, distribution and use of electrical energy. A smart grid station will be a key component in the development of a smart grid. (AG)

Aksdal, Geir Nilsen; Nilsen, Richard

2010-07-01

233

The trend of the total stock of the private car-petrol in Spain: Stochastic modelling using a new gamma diffusion process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main aim of this study is to model the trend of the evolution of the total stock of private petrol-driven cars. In Spain, as in other EU countries, this trend between 2000 and 2005 differed significantly from that observed from 1986 to 1999. Moreover, it varies greatly from that corresponding to the stock of diesel-driven cars, which consistently presents an exponential Gompertz-type increase. Spain constitutes a typical example of a failure to observe the maximum CO2 emission levels assigned to it by 2012 under the Kyoto Protocol (1992); a significant percentage of these excess emissions is accounted for by the land transport sector, in general, and by the private cars subsector, in particular. This paper proposes a stochastic model based on a new non homogeneous stochastic gamma-type diffusion process which it is a stochastic version of a Gamma function type deterministic growth model considered in Skiadas . We describe its main probabilistic characteristics and establish a statistical methodology by which it can be fitted to real data and obtain medium-term forecasts that, in statistical terms, are quite accurate.

2009-01-01

234

The trend of the total stock of the private car-petrol in Spain: Stochastic modelling using a new gamma diffusion process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main aim of this study is to model the trend of the evolution of the total stock of private petrol-driven cars. In Spain, as in other EU countries, this trend between 2000 and 2005 differed significantly from that observed from 1986 to 1999. Moreover, it varies greatly from that corresponding to the stock of diesel-driven cars, which consistently presents an exponential Gompertz-type increase. Spain constitutes a typical example of a failure to observe the maximum CO{sub 2} emission levels assigned to it by 2012 under the Kyoto Protocol (1992); a significant percentage of these excess emissions is accounted for by the land transport sector, in general, and by the private cars subsector, in particular. This paper proposes a stochastic model based on a new non homogeneous stochastic gamma-type diffusion process which it is a stochastic version of a Gamma function type deterministic growth model considered in Skiadas. We describe its main probabilistic characteristics and establish a statistical methodology by which it can be fitted to real data and obtain medium-term forecasts that, in statistical terms, are quite accurate. (author)

Gutierrez, R.; Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.; Nafidi, A. [Department of Statistics and Operational Research, University of Granada, Facultad de Ciencias, Campus de Fuentenueva 18071 Granada (Spain)

2009-01-15

235

How Attendance Affects the General Success of the Student  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyse the students’ attendance at the Faculty of Business and Economics. The study is divided into two parts: the first part analyses why some students are not motivated to attend lectures and practical hours while the second part analyses the impact of students’ attendance (motivation, bonus) in lectures and practical hours and their final success. This paper provides results of a survey completed at the beginning of the summer semester and results of the final success in three courses for the academic year 2010/11 (Business Mathematics, Statistics and Managerial Economics) with first, second and third-year students at the Faculty of Business and Economics, at South East European University in Tetovo. This paper uses logical regression to give an overview of the impact of students’ attendance (motivation, bonus) at lectures and practical hours in their final success. Results show that, besides other daily engagements during studies, students have other excuses for absence from lectures and practical hours such as conditions, management and methods of teaching in the Faculty. Final results of three subjects which are considered as more practical show that attendance of students have a big influence in students’ final success. The software MedCalc was used for the elaboration of data.

Sadri Alija

2013-01-01

236

Web-Server based Student Attendance System using RFIDTechnology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most educational institutions’ administrators are concerned about student irregular attendance. Truancies can affect student overall academic performance. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure, hence inefficient. Therefore, computer based student attendance management system is required to assist the faculty and the lecturer for this time-provide much convenient method to take attendance, but some prerequisites has to be done before start using the program. Although the use of RFID systems in educational institutions is not new, it is intended to show how the use of it came to solve daily problems in our university. The system has been built using the web-based applications such as ASP.NET and IIS server to cater the recording and reporting of the students’ attendances The system can be easily accessed by the lecturers via the web and most importantly, the reports can be generated in real-time processing, thus, providing valuable information about the students’.

Abdul Aziz Mohammed#1 , Jyothi Kameswari U

2013-01-01

237

Towards sustainable regions: the spatial distribution of electric vehicles’ recharging stations from a socio-economic perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The last decades have witnessed a growing interest in electric vehicles (EV) as an integral part of the vision for sustainable regions. The main reasons include the acknowledgment of the necessity of auto-mobility, the technological advancements of electric vehicles, and the interest in petrol-free, low-emission vehicles due to the rising oil prices and global warming. Adequate on-road EV recharging infrastructure is essential in the transformation of EV into a practical transport option and the wide-scale market penetration of EV. Nevertheless, the efficient spatial distribution of EV recharging is rarely explored. current study focuses on assessing the demand driven need for on-road EV recharging stations, and finding their efficient spatial distribution, while accounting for economic, social, environmental and land-use considerations. The analysis, conducted for Demark, consists of four steps. Firstly, the demand for on-road recharging of EV’s based on the national travel demand patterns is evaluated, while considering the existence of a city-wide slow recharging network. Secondly, the Edison model for the optimal deployment of EV recharging stations is applied. The model evaluates the need for recharging at the vehicle level, and seeks the optimal deployment of recharging stations on the basis of the distribution of the potential recharging points and the inventory of candidate sites. Thirdly, the EV market share is evaluated as a function of the number of EV recharging stations by employing a discrete choice model, estimated on the basis of a stated preference survey. Last, the feasibility of the optimal EV spatial distribution of the EV charging stations is analyzed, based on the Danish official socio-economic framework (TERESA). Results show: (i) the number of required recharging stations for satisfying the travel demand, (ii) the optimal deployment of recharging stations, (iii) the change in travel patterns due to detours for EV recharging, (iv) the feasibility of the proposed infrastructure while considering economic costs and benefits for operators and users, impact on government budget as well as environmental externalities, namely pollutant emissions, carbon footprint, and noise exposure. The results demonstrate the applicability and feasibility of the proposed method for planning an EV recharging network in sustainable regions.

Christensen, Linda; Kaplan, Sigal

238

Detection of Rogue Base Station Using MATLAB  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of detectingrogue base station in WiMAX/802.16 networks. A roguebase station is an attacker station that duplicates a legitimatebase station. The rogue base station puzzles a set ofsubscribers who try to get service which they believe to be alegitimate base station. It may lead to disturbance in service.The strategy of attack depends on the type of network. Ourapproach is based on the inconsistencies in sensitivity andreceived signal strength (RSS) reports received by mobilestations can be seen if a rogue Base Station (BS) is present ina network. These reports can be assessed by the legitimatebase stations, for instance, when a mobile station undertakesa handover towards another BS. A new algorithm fordetecting a rogue base station is described in this paper.

Ramanpreet Singh; Sukhwinder Singh

2011-01-01

239

[The qualification of nursing attendants: transformations in work and life].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines the transformations that occurred in the work, life and especially in the way of thinking and acting of nursing attendants after their professional qualification through the Projeto Larga Escala (PLE). Subjects were attendants who qualified as nursing auxiliaries through the PLE, which was conducted by the Regional Health Administration-5 (São Paulo city), from 1990 to 1992. The study used life stories as a strategy to apprehend reality, and work and qualification were used a analytical categories. The analysis allowed us to recognize the possibilities and limitations of the training process that guarantee the attendants with: promotion to a professional category and conquest of some rights; knowledge improvement and care humanization. The qualification process seems to have some power to modify the quality of health care, although it does not seem capable to promote changes in the health care model.

Aguiar Neto Z; Soares CB

2004-07-01

240

Factors associated with sexually transmitted disease clinic attendance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most people in the United States who are infected with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) do not attend STD clinics for treatment in spite of the low-cost efficacious treatment. We asked a clinic and a community sample about perceived benefits and problems of attending an STD clinic. Analyses yielded two treatment-oriented and two socially oriented, factors, which were also expressed in qualitative interviews. Further analyses suggested that treatment-oriented factors were more strongly associated with clinic attendance than were social factors, although respondents were more positive about expected quality of treatment than they were about retaining confidentiality. We suggest that implications of the results favor integrating STD care with other health care. PMID:15476764

Hogben, Matthew; Bloom, Fred; McFarlane, Mary; St Lawrence, Janet S; Malotte, C Kevin

2004-11-01

 
 
 
 
241

Syrian Women's Preferences for Birth Attendant and Birth Place  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Women’s preferences for type of maternity caregiver and birth place have gained importance and have been documented in studies reported from the developed world. The purpose of our study was to identify Syrian women’s preferences for birth attendant and place of delivery. Methods Interviews with 500 women living in Damascus and its suburbs were conducted using a pretested structured questionnaire. Women were asked about their preferences for the birth attendant and place of delivery, and an open-ended question asked them to give an explanation for their preferences. We analyzed preferences and their determinants, and also agreement between actual and preferred place of delivery and birth attendant. Results Only a small minority of women (5–10%) had no preference. Most (65.8%) preferred to give birth at the hospital, and 60.4 percent preferred to be attended by doctors compared with midwives (21.2%). More than 85 percent of women preferred the obstetrician to be a female. The actual place of delivery and type of birth attendant did not match the preferred place of delivery and type of birth attendant. Women’s reasons for preferences were a perception of safety and competence, and communication style of caregiver. Conclusions Most women preferred to be delivered by female doctors at a hospital in this population sample in Syria. The findings suggest that proper understanding of women’s preferences is needed, and steps should be taken to enable women to make good choices. Policies about maternity education and services should take into account women’s preferences.

Bashour, Hyam; Abdulsalam, Asmaa

2006-01-01

242

Monitoring of nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the invention is to create a process for undelayed automated detection and monitoring of accidents in the operation of nuclear power stations. According to the invention, this problem is solved by the relevant local measurements, such as radiation dose, components and type of radiation and additional relevant meteorological parameters being collected by means of wellknown data collection platforms, these being transmitted via transmission channels by means of satellites to suitable worldwide situated receiving stations on the ground, being processed there and being evaluated to recognise accidents. The local data collection platforms are used in the immediate vicinity of the nuclear power station. The use of aircraft, ships and balloons as data collection systems is also intended. (HWJ).

1986-05-30

243

Telephone activated air monitoring stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Suffolk County Department of Health Services has designed and constructed telephone activated air monitoring stations (TAAMS) to meet current and future regulatory agency monitoring requirements for the collection of air toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Employment of the TAAMS system provides a means to rapidly respond to community air monitoring episodes at remote fixed locations on a 24 hours/day, 7 days/week basis. The TAAMS features the following: (1) Ability to activate a remote network of air monitoring stations within a few minutes using a telephone; (2) Microprocessor control of all air sampling parameters; (3) Heated fused silica coated stainless steel air sampling manifold inlet system; (4) Cellular receiver/transmitter modem communications; (5) Ability to sample using several different types of collection media, either simultaneously or individually; and (6) Low maintenance weather-proof monitoring station that is insulated, interior temperature controlled, illuminated with fluorescent lights and has an electrical circuited breaker box with ground fault interrupt protection.

Boehler, W.F.; Ames, P.R.; Hill, K.M. [Suffolk County Dept. of Health Services, Hauppauge, NY (United States)

1997-12-31

244

Management of power station chemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The management of power station chemistry must change to support the new corporate objectives which have resulted from the enhanced commercial focus due to the corporatization and privatization of the power industry. This paper reviews the opportunities to define and enhance the management of power station chemistry within the changing corporate environment. Management processes discussed include vision and mission statements, goals, strategic planning, quality systems, maintenance management, networking, corporate chemical procedures, customer focus, environmental management, networking, corporate chemical procedures, customer focus, environmental management systems, financial control, staffing, national laboratory accreditation, use of consultants, risk assessment, due diligence, best practice and benchmarking. New management concepts, systems and skills are now available and relevant to the aim of enhancing the management of power station chemistry. These can be used to ensure the best performance of chemical sections in meeting the goal of the organization in an environment of change, competition, compliance and commercial focus. (author).

Joy, G. [AUSTA Electric, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Pacific Power (International) Pty. Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

1995-12-31

245

An Efficient Automatic Attendance System using Fingerprint Verification Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to develop an accurate, fast and very efficient automatic attendance system using fingerprint verification technique. We propose a system in which fingerprint verification is done by using extraction of minutiae technique and the system that automates the whole process of taking attendance, Manually which is a laborious and troublesome work and waste a lot of time, with its managing and maintaining the records for a period of time is also a burdensome task. For this purpose we use fingerprint verification system using extraction of minutiae techniques. The experimental result shows that our proposed system is highly efficient in verification of user fingerprint .

Chitresh Saraswat,; Amit Kumar

2010-01-01

246

Repowering cuts air pollution, improves station`s efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reports that after rehab plans for 30-yr-old boilers proved untenable, gas-fired combined cycle, with the existing steam turbines retained, was the choice. Large reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} will be benefits. A unique closed-loop cooling system reduces impact on environment in several ways. When the boilers of existing steam Units 1 and 2 at Bergen generating station were in need of major overhaul, Public Service Electric and Gas Co (PSE and G) began analysis of alternatives to the rehab work. Combined-cycle repowering offered several advantages, including improvement in efficiency -- from 28 to 44% -- and important reduction in air-pollutant and thermal emissions. Continued use of a large portion of the existing plant and infrastructure meant added economic advantages for repowering over construction of a new plant. The project which will come on line in 1995, increases station output from 570MW to 650MW. The station operates as a load-following unit, with expected capacity factor of 65% compared with 30% for the old station. For minimum load, one gas turbine (GT) runs at 100% load, with the steam turbine operational. The GTs operate independently, and the ramp up to 100% load is done immediately, which gives best efficiency and reduces air emissions.

Daledda, K. [Public Service Electric and Gas Co., Newark, NJ (United States)

1995-04-01

247

Analyses of power station economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of construction, fuel and other running costs of electricity production based on conventional coal/oil-fired plants and on atomic power stations. These types of stations are selected: a 600 MW coal/oil-fired plant, a 900 MW atomic power plant of LWR type, and a 635 MW atomic power plant of CANDU type. The comparison serves to elucidate the immediate effects on social economics that the choice between conventional and atomic power production must be presumed to have for investments, fuel consumption, running costs and consumer prices for electricity, as well as for currency costs and employment during the construction and operation of power plants. (B.P.)

1976-01-01

248

Studying Absenteeism in Principles of Macroeconomics: Do Attendance Policies Make a Difference?  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this article is to see if and how attendance policy influences class attendance in undergraduate-level principles of macroeconomics classes. The second objective, which is related to the first, is to examine whether the nature of the attendance policy matters in terms of its impact on class attendance behavior. The results…

Self, Sharmistha

2012-01-01

249

Student and Teacher Attendance: The Role of Shared Goods in Reducing Absenteeism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A theoretical model is advanced that demonstrates that, if teacher and student attendance generate a shared good, then teacher and student attendance will be mutually reinforcing. Using data from the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan, empirical evidence supporting that proposition is advanced. Controlling for the endogeneity of teacher and student attendance, the most powerful factor raising teacher attendance is the attendance of the children in the school, and the most important factor influencing child attendance is the presence of the teacher. The results suggest that one important avenue to be explored in developing policies to reduce teacher absenteeism is to focus on raising the attendance of children.

Banerjee, Ritwik; King, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

250

Progress of Pupils Attending Resourced Provision for Specific Learning Difficulties  

Science.gov (United States)

|An analysis of the improvement in attainments of 109 students attending specialist-resourced provision for specific learning difficulties (SpLD) attached to mainstream secondary schools was conducted as they progressed through Key Stages 3 and 4. Steady progress was made in terms of reading accuracy, reading comprehension, spelling ability and…

Warhurst, Amy; Norgate, Roger

2012-01-01

251

Automating time and attendance saves time and money.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Soaring patient care costs coupled with a shrinking work force demand that today's hospitals find new ways to increase the effectiveness of labor management. The Hospital of Saint Raphael, in New Haven, Conn., has replaced its outdated, manual time and attendance systems with an automated solution--and they have saved $150,000 annually in the bargain.

Pajor JM

1991-06-01

252

Family Income, School Attendance, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and academic achievement among a diverse sample of children from kindergarten to 4th grade (N = 35,419) using both random and within-child fixed-effects models. Generally, results suggest that the receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and duration of receipt have small but positive associations with school absences and tardies. Poor attendance patterns predict poorer grades, with absences more associated with grades than tardies. Given the small associations between receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and school attendance, and between the duration of receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and children's grades, results do not provide strong evidence that absences and tardies meaningfully attenuate relations between the duration of low family income and student achievement; poorer attendance and persistent low income independently predict poorer grades. Implications for policy and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Morrissey TW; Hutchison L; Winsler A

2013-08-01

253

Increasing skilled birth attendance through midwifery workforce management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Policy makers and development partners struggle to help find solutions to the high rates of maternal and newborn mortality in many low and middle income countries. Increasing access to midwives and health workers skilled in midwifery can help to alleviate the situation. We aim to contribute to the debate on strategies to increase access to skilled birth attendance by sharing our views, illustrated with as yet unpublished case stories that were recognized with Awards of Excellence at the Second Global Forum on Human Resources for Health, 2011, held in Bangkok, Thailand. The correlation between access to skilled birth attendance and the density of midwives, nurses and doctors has been well established in the literature. How to cost-effectively scale up skilled birth attendance in low and middle income countries, however, remains a matter of debate. This article is based on a review of success stories in midwifery workforce management and innovations in increasing population access to midwives and other health workers skilled in midwifery. We draw on case stories from three low resource settings: Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nigeria. Addressing the problem of access to skilled birth attendance, some countries are making good progress towards achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Unshakeable political will and financial commitment are fundamental.

Rosskam E; Pariyo G; Hounton S; Aiga H

2013-01-01

254

10 CFR 36.65 - Attendance during operation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attendance during operation. (a) Both an irradiator operator and at least one other...present onsite: (1) Whenever the irradiator is operated using an automatic product...or out of the radiation room when the irradiator is operated in a batch mode....

2010-01-01

255

Does it pay to attend a prestigious university?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper provides evidence of heterogeneity in the returns to higher education in the UK. Attending the most prestigious universities leads to a wage premium of up to 6% for males. The rise in participation in higher education also led to a greater sorting of students and an increase in the return...

Chevalier, Arnaud; Conlon, Gavan

256

Waste heat from hydropower stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat loss from hydropower stations, of which there are 42 with at least 100 MW instal led effect, amount to approx. 0.5 - 2 percent arising from generators or transformers. Of the total installed effect of ca 16 000 MW a considerable amount of energy is wasted. Only 9 stations have a larger consumer of heat energy at 1 km distance. A number of operational and environmental factors limit, however, the chance to utilize waste heat. Where smaller stations, under 100 MW, are concerned only 2 of 10 have potential for waste heat recuperation, but other heating methods for neighbouring buildings were chosen. Some waste utilizing stations and their operational experience are described. Finally, two proposals for recuperation of waste heat in principle for a topical case are discussed for heating a nearby suitable consumer. A pay-off time of approx. 6 years is likely for using waste heat from the transformer only. Another 20 objects are suggested for similar studies as well as alerting owners and country councils to possible savings in the future.

Grafstroem, H.; Hedlund, P.; Rydberg, S.

1984-01-01

257

Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

2009-04-01

258

Modular fast reactor power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reseach and development progress on metal fuel element (U-Pu-Zr), pyrometallurgical reprocessing and inherent safety for FBR are summarized. Based on this some design studies of modular FBR power station in U.S.A. since the 1980s are introduced.

1990-01-01

259

Sound qualities in railway stations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with the perception of sound qualities inside railway stations. My purpose is to describe sound qualities or sound failures perceived by users in the aim to create a prediction tool for architects. Sociological, acoustical and architectural surveys have been used to understand what ...

Rémy, Nicolas

260

Hydroelectric power station Pournari, Greece  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hydroelectric power station at Pournari, located in the western part of central Greece, comprises three 100 MW units that supply a major portion of the peak load requirements. BBC, acting as leading member, was responsible for the planning and supply of the complete electrical equipment. This article describes the control system, excitation equipment, generator busbars, and switchgear installed.

Bieler, K.; Woinke, W.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Perceptions and expectations of cardiothoracic residents and attending surgeons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: With our specialty going through a critical phase of re-evaluation and adaptation, our aim was to evaluate and compare the perceptions and expectations among residents and faculty regarding cardiothoracic training. METHODS: A content-validated, 13-item survey was distributed electronically from August 14 to August 24, 2010 to 728 cardiothoracic surgery residents, recent program graduates (on or after June 2006), cardiothoracic surgery chairpersons, and program directors identified in the Cardiothoracic Surgery Network database. RESULTS: The response rate was 34% (244 of 728). Of the respondents, 76% reported being "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with their program. Faculty willingness to teach in the operating room was ranked as the most valuable aspect of a training program, and strict adherence to the 80-h work week ranked as least valuable. Most respondents believed that a resident performing at least 75% of a case was acceptable for low-complexity procedures (92% of residents, 77% of attending physicians) and at least 25% for high-complexity procedures (91% of residents, 73% of attending physicians). However, residents wanted to perform more of the operations than the attending physicians considered necessary (P < 0.05). Finally, 63% of respondents (73% of residents, 56% of attending physicians) indicated that the increasing scrutiny of outcomes has adversely affected training. Other differences between the residents' and attending physicians' perceptions regarded the importance of participation in preoperative and postoperative care, what constitutes "scut work," and the value of auxiliary staff. CONCLUSIONS: Reconciling residents' expectations with the realities of duty-hour restrictions and high-stakes procedures will require the development of novel educational approaches to improve resident learning.

Stephens EH; Cornwell LD; Simpson KH; Chu D; Coselli JS; Holman WL; Vaporciyan AA; Merrill WH; Bakaeen FG

2012-10-01

262

Differences between attendings' and residents' operative notes for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Operative notes are the gold standard for detecting adverse events and near misses and form the basis for scientific research. In order to guarantee safe patient care, operative notes must be objective, complete, and accurate. This study explores the current routine of note writing for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and the differences between the notes of attendings and residents. METHODS: Attendings and residents were sent a DVD with footage of three LCs and were asked to "write" the corresponding notes and to complete a questionnaire. Dictation tapes were transcribed and items in the notes were analyzed for each procedure ("item described" or "item not described"). Fisher's exact tests were performed using SPSS 16.0 for Mac. RESULTS: Thirteen sets of typewritten notes and 10 dictation tapes were returned. The results of the questionnaire showed that 16 of the 23 sets of notes were dictated. Eight participants found the current system for generating notes inadequate. 14 items (31 %) were included more often in the attendings' notes and 25 items (56 %) were included more often in the residents' notes. Overall, residents significantly more often described the location of the epigastric trocar (P = 0.018), the size of both working trocars (P = 0.019), the opening of the peritoneal envelope (P = 0.002), Critical View of Safety reached (P = 0.002), and the location for removing the gallbladder (P = 0.019). With the exception of "gallbladder perforation" (20 of 21 notes), complications were underreported. CONCLUSIONS: In this study residents described more items than attendings. All notes lacked information concerning complications in the procedure, which makes the notes subjective and incomplete. A procedure-specific template or black-box-based operative notes based on established guidelines could improve the quality of the notes of both attendings and residents.

Wauben LS; Goossens RH; Lange JF

2013-08-01

263

DOE industry profile: power stations (excluding nuclear power stations)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This industry profile deals with possible land contamination at power stations that generated electricity from coal, oil or gas. Until the 1960s all fossil fuelled plants burned coal; in the 1960s oil and diesel were also used. Natural gas is now widely employed. All of these fuels can cause problems from storage and generation facilities. Problematic processes include: boiler cleaning, water/steam circuit conditioning, water purification and cooling water conditioning. Wastes and residues are also often found: ashes from both coal and oil fired stations, flue gas desulphurisation residues, timber treatment chemicals, asbestos, and other plant chemicals. Factors affecting the degree and type of contamination include: coal and ash, fuel oils, asbestos, polychlorinated biphenyls, radioactivity, and other oils and solvents. The manner in which contaminants have migrated and persisted is also influential, particularly metals and organics. 20 refs., 1 tab.

NONE

1995-12-31

264

Email for the coordination of healthcare appointments and attendance reminders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Email is a popular and commonly-used method of communication, but its use in health care is not routine. Where email communication has been utilised in health care, its purposes have included the coordination of healthcare appointments and attendance reminders, but the effects of using email in this way are not known. This review considers the use of email for the coordination of healthcare appointments and reminders for attendance; particularly scheduling, rescheduling and cancelling healthcare appointments, and providing prompts/reminders for attendance at appointments. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of using email for the coordination of healthcare appointments and attendance reminders, compared to other forms of coordinating appointments and reminders, on outcomes for health professionals, patients and carers, and health services, including harms. SEARCH METHODS: We searched: the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1 2010), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1950 to January 2010), EMBASE (OvidSP) (1980 to January 2010), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (1967 to January 2010), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (1982 to February 2010),and ERIC (CSA) (1965 to January 2010). We searched grey literature: theses/dissertation repositories, trials registers and Google Scholar (searched July 2010). We used additional search methods: examining reference lists and contacting authors. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies of interventions that use email for scheduling health appointments, for reminders for a scheduled health appointment or for ongoing coordination of health appointments and that took the form of 1) unsecured email 2) secure email or 3) web messaging. All healthcare professionals, patients and caregivers in all settings were considered. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed the titles and abstracts of retrieved citations. No studies were identified for inclusion. Consequently, no data collection or analysis was possible. MAIN RESULTS: No studies met the inclusion criteria, therefore there are no results to report on the use of email for the coordination of healthcare appointments and attendance reminders. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: No conclusions on the effects of using email for the coordination of healthcare appointments and attendance reminders could be made and thus no recommendations for practice can be stipulated. Given the significant theoretical opportunities that email presents, there is a need for rigorous studies addressing the review question, but this may involve addressing barriers concerning trial development and implementation.

Atherton H; Sawmynaden P; Meyer B; Car J

2012-01-01

265

Waste Heat Rejection from Geothermal Power Stations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste heat rejection systems for geothermal power stations have a significantly greater influence on plant operating performances and costs than do corresponding systems in fossil- and nuclear-fueled stations. With thermal efficiencies of only about 10%, ...

R. C. Robertson

1979-01-01

266

SOLAR POWER STATIONS FOR REMOTE AGRICULTURAL CONSUMERS ????????? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ???????????????????? ????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The solar power stations for energy supply of remote technological processes making requirements to their design have been designed. Energy estimate of power stations design for remote agricultural consumers has been made

Gazalov V. S.; Evdokimov A. Y.

2013-01-01

267

Johannesburg's new station Architect replies to criticism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A reply by mr. Gerard Moerdyk, one of the architects of the new Johannesburg Railway Station, to criticism levelled by "A Student of Architecture" against the station in the "Rand Daily Mail" newspaper. , Undated newspaper article.

Unknown

268

Servicing Capability for the Evolutionary Space Station.  

Science.gov (United States)

User servicing for Space Station Freedom (SSF) will span an evolutionary period paralleling that of the station's growth plan. This will include a baseline servicing configuration followed by a final growth phase in which all user servicing requirements a...

G. Alcorn J. Corbo D. Martin L. Levin

1990-01-01

269

Training of power station staff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE currently operates 51 generating stations with 900 and 1300 MW Pressurized Water Reactors while, only 15 years ago, France possessed only a very small number of such stations. It was therefore vital to set up a major training organization to produce staff capable of starting, controlling and maintaining these facilities with a constant eye to improving quality and safety. Operator and maintenance staff training is based on highly-structured training plans designed to match both the post to be filled and the qualifications possessed by the person who is to fill it. It was essential to set up suitable high-performance training resources to handle this fast growth in staff. These resources are constantly being developed and allow EDF to make steady progress in a large number of areas, varying from the effects of human factors to the procedures to be followed during an accident.

1993-01-01

270

Checking nuclear power station safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the test facilities and research projects for Sizewell-B and other nuclear power stations, directed by the National Nuclear Corporation (NNC). The NNC is Britain's nuclear power station design and construction company, and is currently carrying out commissioning on both the Heysham and Torness AGRs. A description is given of NNC's nuclear research and development work, which includes: the production of Cobalt-free alloy, coatings for the primary containment shell, and ''fitness for purpose'' tests on reactor components using its 'Loki' rig to put the equipment through postulated accident conditions. NNC also has a rig to test structural features under extreme thermal shock conditions. (U.K.).

Opie, Roy.

1987-10-01

271

Ergonomic Application on the Work Station Layout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Work station layout in the ideal way has been made. The dimension of the work station is 9.4 m x 7.1 m. The workers to be stationed should feel comfort. This can be done by honoring the dimensions and the sum of the tools that should be stationed and also the free space that should be mention between the tools as state in EPRI, NP-2411. (author)

2003-01-01

272

High sensitive gas leak detection station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The description of the semi-automatic gas leak detection station is presented. The station was designed to test drift tubes (DT) of the ATLAS muon spectrometer for gas leak. Strong requirements for DT-gas tightness (maximum accepted leak is 10-8 bar · 1/s) and high production rate demanded building of a specialized testing station. The station performance and results from the first year of mass production are presented. (author)

2001-01-01

273

To attend or not attend? A critical review of the factors impacting on initial appointment attendance from an approach-avoidance perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of initial therapy appointments are not attended. Whether this reflects service-user choice or an unmet need for therapy, non-attendance can impact on patients, therapists, services and research evaluation. AIMS: To understand the complexities of this phenomenon, this paper reviews the mental health literature to gain further insight into how predictor variables can influence professional help-seeking decisions. METHODS: This review reveals a modest success at identifying specific demographic and psychological factors, yet methodological issues surrounding data collection techniques have often led to contradictory and inconclusive findings. CONCLUSIONS: This paper examines the possibility that approach-avoidance conflict [Kushner, M.G. & Sher, K.J. (1989, 1991). Fear of psychological treatment and its relation to mental health service avoidance. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 20, 251-257; The relation of treatment fearfulness and psychological service utilization: An overview. Professional Psychology: Research and practice, 22, 196-203] could explain the contradictions in the literature because, in this model, different factors involved in driving engagement versus avoidance become more salient depending on a dynamic interplay of timing, the individual and their service context. The core principles behind this approach-avoidance conceptualisation are explained and further avenues for research are identified.

Paige L; Mansell W

2013-02-01

274

Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Germany's highest environmental research station - located near the top of the mountain Zugspitze - provides a unique base not only for the continuous monitoring of physical and chemical characteristics of the atmosphere, but also for the analysis of various processes which influence the weather and climate. It is on the basis of such observations that the current state and the future development of the worldwide climate may be understood. An overview about the UFS technical and scientific infrastructure is given.

Bittner, M.; Specht, S.; Mikulla, C.

2009-04-01

275

CNG Fuelling Stations Design Philosophy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] I. Overview (a) Compressed Natural Gas - CNG:- Natural Gas, as an alternative fuel for vehicles, is supplied from the Natural Gas Distribution Network to the CNG fuelling stations to be compressed to 250 bars. It is then dispensed, to be stored on board of the vehicle at about 200 bars in a cylinder installed in the rear, under carriage, or on top of the vehicle. When the Natural Gas is required by the engine, it leaves the cylinder traveling through a high pressure pipe to a high pressure regulator, where the pressure is reduced close to atmospheric pressure, through a specially designed mixer, where it is properly mixed with air. The mixture then flows into the engine's combustion chamber, and is ignited to create the power required to drive the vehicle. (b) CNG Fuelling Stations General Description: as Supply and Metering The incoming gas supply and metering installation primarily depend on the pressure and flow demands of the gas compressor. Natural Gas Compressor In general, gas compressors for natural gas filling stations have relatively low flow rates

2004-01-01

276

Optimization of station battery replacement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

1993-11-06

277

Standardized Curriculum for Service Station Retailing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This curriculum guide for service station retailing was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all service station retailing programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for service station retailing I and II courses.…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

278

CLASSIFICATION AND PERSPECTIVES OF MINI HYDROPOWER STATIONS ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classifications of mini hydropower stations, placement types of power stations, the methods of execution, the development prospects of the Russian Federation have been presented in the article. The basic problems of the technique of using mini hydropower stations have been revealed

Ponomarenko A. S.

2013-01-01

279

An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months) children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999) was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05).

Zuhal Gizir Ergen; Aysel Köksal Akyol

2012-01-01

280

Parental Awareness and Dental Attendance of Children Among African Immigrants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To assess parental awareness of their child's dental status and the relationship between parental awareness and children's dental attendance. Participants were children aged 6 years or younger and their African parents who had lived in Canada for up to 10 years. Demographics and parents' perceived dental status were collected. Children's normative dental status was determined by dental examinations. 125 pairs of parents and children aged 21-72 months were included. 52 % of the children never had a dental visit. Dental status of 44 % of children was rated as good by parents, among them, 56 % had dental decay. Parental assessments did not coincide with the clinical assessments of 62 % of children. No correlation was found between parental awareness and children's dental attendance. Children of African immigrants are at high risk for developing severe dental decay because of low parental awareness and lack of regular dental visits.

Amin MS; Perez A; Nyachhyon P

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

Attending registered nurse: an innovative role to manage between spaces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Massachusetts General Hospital embarked on the implementation of a new model that redesigned the role of selected staff nurses, advanced standardized processes, improved workflow, and introduced technology to enhance communication. These efforts included selecting 12 inpatient units to function as "Innovation Units". These units were specifically designated to support rapid change and test initiatives that would reduce costs and improve quality. The work of the Innovation Units allows nurse leaders to understand if the goals for improvement could be adopted by all inpatient units and beyond the walls of the hospital. The high-leverage intervention of introducing the role of the "Attending Nurse" in coordinating the work of the interdisciplinary team in addressing overuse, underuse, and misuse of services has been a significant staffing innovation. The Attending Nurse, while just one strategy, has placed the nurse at the center of the care team.

Erickson JI; Ditomassi M; Adams JM

2012-09-01

282

Special China. Guandong terminal: who will carry off the contract? Clean petrol for big cities. The oil trade and the import restrictions; Special Chine. Terminal de Guandong: qui remportera le contrat? De l'essence propre pour les grandes villes. Le commerce petrolier et les restrictions a l'importation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These columns present a selection of three articles initially published in China, Oil Gas and Petrochemicals journal and adapted for Petrole et Gaz informations. The first article deals with the project of LNG import terminal of Guandong in joint venture with a foreign partner. The second article concerns the supply of unleaded petrol to the three main cities of China (Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou) by Sinopec and CNPC. The last article treats of the import restrictions of petroleum products for the reduction of domestic stocks and the improvement of refineries profitability. (J.S.)

Anon.

2000-08-01

283

An Efficient Automatic Attendance System Using Fingerprint Reconstruction Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biometric time and attendance system is one of the most successful applications of biometric technology. One of the main advantage of a biometric time and attendance system is it avoids "buddy-punching". Buddy punching was a major loophole which will be exploiting in the traditional time attendance systems. Fingerprint recognition is an established field today, but still identifying individual from a set of enrolled fingerprints is a time taking process. Most fingerprint-based biometric systems store the minutiae template of a user in the database. It has been traditionally assumed that the minutiae template of a user does not reveal any information about the original fingerprint. This belief has now been shown to be false; several algorithms have been proposed that can reconstruct fingerprint images from minutiae templates. In this paper, a novel fingerprint reconstruction algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the phase image, which is then converted into the grayscale image. The proposed reconstruction algorithm reconstructs the phase image from minutiae. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is used to automate the whole process of taking attendance, manually which is a laborious and troublesome work and waste a lot of time, with its managing and maintaining the records for a period of time is also a burdensome task. The proposed reconstruction algorithm has been evaluated with respect to the success rates of type-I attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint against the original fingerprint) and type-II attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint against different impressions of the original fingerprint) using a commercial fingerprint recognition system. Given the reconstructed image from our algorithm, we show that both types of attacks can be effectively launched against a fingerprint recognition system.

Josphineleela. R; Ramakrishnan. M

2012-01-01

284

Training traditional birth attendants in Nigeria--the pictorial method.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High maternal mortality and morbidity rates are a challenge for all involved in the care of mothers and babies. One response takes the form of an educational programme led by professional midwives to teach traditional birth attendants to recognize risk conditions and improve their care of mothers and babies. Such a programme was organized as part of a Canadian-Nigerian safe motherhood initiative, and carried out in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

Matthews MK; Walley RL; Ward A; Akpaidem M; Williams P; Umoh A

1995-01-01

285

Food conditions affect yolk testosterone deposition but not incubation attendance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In many bird species with hatching asynchrony, yolk androgens increase across the laying sequence. This has been hypothesized to represent a compensatory mechanism for disadvantages of later-hatching chicks - via positive effects of yolk androgens on early competitiveness and growth. However, the costs and benefits of this compensatory strategy probably depend on environmental factors determining the survival chances of the chicks such as the food conditions, which should, therefore, influence maternal yolk androgen deposition. We studied the consequences of manipulated food conditions on the expected level of hatching asynchrony in canaries (Serinus canaria) assigning females to either a low (=LQ) or high quality (=HQ) diet. We measured the incubation behaviour (as incubation attendance) and the yolk androgen deposition in order to investigate whether and how females modulate hatching asynchrony in relation to the food conditions. Females on a HQ diet laid larger and heavier clutches, showed a stronger increase in yolk testosterone content towards the last-laid eggs, but did not alter their incubation attendance. Thus, females on a HQ diet seem to favour the survival of later hatching chicks, as indicated by their yolk testosterone deposition pattern. However, females on a HQ diet laid larger clutches and might need to compensate more in order to achieve a similar degree of hatching asynchrony than females on a LQ diet, given the lack of plasticity in incubation attendance. This suggests that canary females respond to food manipulations mainly via changes in clutch size rather than by altering the degree of hatching asynchrony.

Vergauwen J; Goerlich VC; Groothuis TG; Eens M; Müller W

2012-03-01

286

Access to cardiac rehabilitation does not equate to attendance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background/Aims:Timely access to appropriate cardiac care is critical for optimizing positive outcomes after a cardiac event. Attendance at cardiac rehabilitation (CR) remains less than optimal (10%-30%). Our aim was to derive an objective, comparable, geographic measure reflecting access to cardiac services after a cardiac event in Australia.Methods:An expert panel defined a single patient care pathway and a hierarchy of the minimum health services for CR and secondary prevention. Using geographic information systems a numeric/alpha index was modelled to describe access before and after a cardiac event. The aftercare phase was modelled into five alphabetical categories: from category A (access to medical service, pharmacy, CR, pathology within 1 h) to category E (no services available within 1 h).Results:Approximately 96% or 19 million people lived within 1 h of the four basic services to support CR and secondary prevention, including 96% of older Australians and 75% of the indigenous population. Conversely, 14% (64,000) indigenous people resided in population locations that had poor access to health services that support CR after a cardiac event.Conclusion:Results demonstrated that the majority of Australians had excellent 'geographic' access to services to support CR and secondary prevention. Therefore, it appears that it is not the distance to services that affects attendance. Our 'geographic' lens has identified that more research on socioeconomic, sociological or psychological aspects to attendance is needed.

Clark RA; Coffee N; Turner D; Eckert KA; van Gaans D; Wilkinson D; Stewart S; Tonkin AM

2013-04-01

287

Attendance patterns and dental health of parents and children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Questionnaires were posted to the parents of 293 5-year-old children who had been dentally examined at school in Stretford, Manchester, UK. Replies were received from 195 addresses and consisted of 182 mothers and 149 fathers. The mothers who replied were divided into three groups; 99 who reported that they attended the dentist for regular check-ups, 38 who went for occasional check-ups and 45 who only went when having trouble. The mean numbers of decayed teeth of their children were 0.92, 1.50 and 2.00 respectively (p < 0.05) and the mean dmft scores were 1.36, 2.05 and 2.69 (p < 0.05). Fifty children whose mothers reported having 25 teeth or less had a mean of 2.12 decayed teeth compared with 1.06 for 125 children whose mothers had 26 teeth or more (p < 0.01). The mean dmft scores for the two groups were 2.68 and 1.59 respectively (p < 0.05). In contrast, dividing the children into groups based on reported attendance patterns and numbers of natural teeth of their fathers did not show any significant differences in decayed teeth or dmft scores. It is concluded that the dental attendance pattern and dental health of the mother, but not of the father, are important influences on the dental health of 5-year-old children.

Whittle JG

1993-09-01

288

Attendance patterns and dental health of parents and children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Questionnaires were posted to the parents of 293 5-year-old children who had been dentally examined at school in Stretford, Manchester, UK. Replies were received from 195 addresses and consisted of 182 mothers and 149 fathers. The mothers who replied were divided into three groups; 99 who reported that they attended the dentist for regular check-ups, 38 who went for occasional check-ups and 45 who only went when having trouble. The mean numbers of decayed teeth of their children were 0.92, 1.50 and 2.00 respectively (p < 0.05) and the mean dmft scores were 1.36, 2.05 and 2.69 (p < 0.05). Fifty children whose mothers reported having 25 teeth or less had a mean of 2.12 decayed teeth compared with 1.06 for 125 children whose mothers had 26 teeth or more (p < 0.01). The mean dmft scores for the two groups were 2.68 and 1.59 respectively (p < 0.05). In contrast, dividing the children into groups based on reported attendance patterns and numbers of natural teeth of their fathers did not show any significant differences in decayed teeth or dmft scores. It is concluded that the dental attendance pattern and dental health of the mother, but not of the father, are important influences on the dental health of 5-year-old children. PMID:8269338

Whittle, J G

1993-09-01

289

Spent fuel canister docking station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The working report for the spent fuel canister docking station presents a design for the operation and structure of the docking equipment located in the fuel handling cell for the spent fuel in the encapsulation plant. The report contains a description of the basic requirements for the docking station equipment and their implementation, the operation of the equipment, maintenance and a cost estimate. In the designing of the equipment all the problems related with the operation have been solved at the level of principle, nevertheless, detailed designing and the selection of final components have not yet been carried out. In case of defects and failures, solutions have been considered for postulated problems, and furthermore, the entire equipment was gone through by the means of systematic risk analysis (PFMEA). During the docking station designing we came across with needs to influence the structure of the actual disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel, too. Proposed changes for the structure of the steel lid fastening screw were included in the report. The report also contains a description of installation with the fuel handling cell structures. The purpose of the docking station for the fuel handling cell is to position and to seal the disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel into a penetration located on the cell floor and to provide suitable means for executing the loading of the disposal canister and the changing of atmosphere. The designed docking station consists of a docking ring, a covering hatch, a protective cone and an atmosphere-changing cap as well as the vacuum technology pertaining to the changing of atmosphere and the inert gas system. As far as the solutions are concerned, we have arrived at rather simple structures and most of the actuators of the system are situated outside of the actual fuel handling cell. When necessary, the equipment can also be used for the dismantling of a faulty disposal canister, cut from its upper end by machining. The overall cost estimate for the manufacture of the equipment, value added tax not included, totalled 669 000 EUR, of which 189 000 EUR constituted designing costs and 73 000 EUR installation costs. (orig.)

Suikki, M. [Afore Oy, Turku (Finland)

2006-01-15

290

Spent fuel canister docking station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The working report for the spent fuel canister docking station presents a design for the operation and structure of the docking equipment located in the fuel handling cell for the spent fuel in the encapsulation plant. The report contains a description of the basic requirements for the docking station equipment and their implementation, the operation of the equipment, maintenance and a cost estimate. In the designing of the equipment all the problems related with the operation have been solved at the level of principle, nevertheless, detailed designing and the selection of final components have not yet been carried out. In case of defects and failures, solutions have been considered for postulated problems, and furthermore, the entire equipment was gone through by the means of systematic risk analysis (PFMEA). During the docking station designing we came across with needs to influence the structure of the actual disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel, too. Proposed changes for the structure of the steel lid fastening screw were included in the report. The report also contains a description of installation with the fuel handling cell structures. The purpose of the docking station for the fuel handling cell is to position and to seal the disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel into a penetration located on the cell floor and to provide suitable means for executing the loading of the disposal canister and the changing of atmosphere. The designed docking station consists of a docking ring, a covering hatch, a protective cone and an atmosphere-changing cap as well as the vacuum technology pertaining to the changing of atmosphere and the inert gas system. As far as the solutions are concerned, we have arrived at rather simple structures and most of the actuators of the system are situated outside of the actual fuel handling cell. When necessary, the equipment can also be used for the dismantling of a faulty disposal canister, cut from its upper end by machining. The overall cost estimate for the manufacture of the equipment, value added tax not included, totalled 669 000 EUR, of which 189 000 EUR constituted designing costs and 73 000 EUR installation costs. (orig.)

2006-01-01

291

(Visit to the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica): Foreign trip report, February 28--March 5, 1988  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traveler attended the quarterly meeting of the National Board of Governors of The Nature Conservancy held in Costa Rica to highlight their international program in Central America. The traveler used this opportunity to visit the La Selva Biological Station of the Organization for Tropical Studies and to examine their ecosystem research project on wet lowland tropical forests. Discussions were held with the co-directors, faculty, students, and visiting scientists from the United States.

Reichle, D.E.

1988-03-17

292

Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station  

CERN Multimedia

Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

Kelly, James Floyd

2013-01-01

293

Predictors of Post-bariatric Surgery Appointment Attendance: the Role of Relationship Style.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Attendance at bariatric surgery follow-up appointments has been associated with bariatric surgery outcomes. In this prospective study, we sought to examine psychosocial predictors of attendance at post-operative follow-up appointments. METHODS: Consecutive bariatric surgery patients (n?=?132) were assessed pre-surgery for demographic variables, depressive symptoms, and relationship style. Patients were followed for 12 months post-surgery and, based on their attendance at follow-up appointments, were classified as post-surgery appointment attenders (attenders-attended at least one appointment after post-operative month 6) or post-surgery appointment non-attenders (non-attenders-did not attend at least one appointment after post-operative month 6). Psychosocial and demographic variables were compared between the attender and non-attender groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors of attendance at post-bariatric surgery follow-up appointments. RESULTS: At 12 months post-surgery, 68.2 % of patients were classified as attenders. The non-attender group was significantly older (p?=?0.04) and had significantly higher avoidant relationship style scores (p?=?0.02). There was a trend towards patients in the non-attender group living a greater distance from the bariatric center (p?=?0.05). Avoidant relationship style was identified as the only significant predictor of post-operative appointment non-attendance in the logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that avoidant relationship style is an important predictor of post-bariatric surgery appointment non-attendance. Recognition of patients' relationship style by bariatric surgery psychosocial team members may guide the delivery of interventions aimed at engaging this patient group post-surgery.

Sockalingam S; Cassin S; Hawa R; Khan A; Wnuk S; Jackson T; Okrainec A

2013-06-01

294

Serpentes da Bacia petrolífera de Urucu, município de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil Snakes of the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Um inventário estruturado de serpentes foi realizado na Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura (BOGPM), localizada na Bacia Petrolífera de Urucu, Município de Coari, Amazonas, nos anos de 2003, 2004 e 2007. Nas quatro expedições realizadas (51 dias de coleta) foram registradas 47 espécies de serpentes, pertencentes a sete famílias e 33 gêneros. Foram utilizados quatro métodos complementares de amostragem de serpentes: armadilha de interceptação e queda, encontros ocasionais, procura limitada por tempo a pé e procura limitada por tempo de carro. Das 47 espécies coletadas, Liophis reginae (n= 14), Philodryas viridissima (n= 9), Philodryas boulengeri (n= 7) e Oxybelis fulgidus (n= 7) foram as mais abundantes em toda região. O maior número de espécies e espécimes foi registrado pela procura limitada por tempo de carro (52,8%). Estudos anteriores indicam que as localidades ao sul do Rio Amazonas (como região Leste do Pará, Usina Hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, e de Samuel, Estado de Rondônia) apresentam maior riqueza quando comparadas às regiões ao norte do Amazonas (como Município de Manaus, Reserva do INPA-WWF e Usina Hidrelétrica de Balbina, Estado do Amazonas). Desta forma, é possível inferir que o levantamento das serpentes da região de Urucu ainda não esteja completo, sendo necessário um maior esforço de coleta para que novos registros sejam adicionados para a área.A structured snake inventory was carried out at the Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura (BOGPM), located at the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, during 2003, 2004 and 2007. Throughout four sampling expeditions (51 collection days), seven species of snakes, belonging to seven families and 33 genera, were recorded. Four complementary sampling methods were used: pitfall traps with drift fence, occasional encounters, time-limited search on foot and time-limited search by car. Of the 47 collected species Liophis reginae (n= 14), Philodryas viridissima (n= 9), Philodryas boulengeri (n= 7) and Oxybelis fulgidus (n= 7) were the most abundant in the region. The highest number of species and specimens was obtained by the time-limited search by car (n=52.8%). Previous studies indicate that localities south of the Amazonas river (such as the eastern region of Pará and Tucuruí, state of Para, and Samuel Hydroelectric Plants, state of Rondônia) present a greater richness when compared to those north of the Amazonas river (such as the mucipality of Manaus, INPA-WWF Reserve and Balbina Hydroelectric Plant, state of Amazonas).Thus, it is possible to infer that the snake inventory in Urucu region is not yet complete, requiring more sampling efforts so that new records can be obtained for the area.

Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente; Gleomar Fabiano Maschio; Maria Cristina dos Santos-Costa; Darlan Tavares Feitosa

2010-01-01

295

Serpentes da Bacia petrolífera de Urucu, município de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil/ Snakes of the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Um inventário estruturado de serpentes foi realizado na Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura (BOGPM), localizada na Bacia Petrolífera de Urucu, Município de Coari, Amazonas, nos anos de 2003, 2004 e 2007. Nas quatro expedições realizadas (51 dias de coleta) foram registradas 47 espécies de serpentes, pertencentes a sete famílias e 33 gêneros. Foram utilizados quatro métodos complementares de amostragem de serpentes: armadilha de interceptação e queda, encon (more) tros ocasionais, procura limitada por tempo a pé e procura limitada por tempo de carro. Das 47 espécies coletadas, Liophis reginae (n= 14), Philodryas viridissima (n= 9), Philodryas boulengeri (n= 7) e Oxybelis fulgidus (n= 7) foram as mais abundantes em toda região. O maior número de espécies e espécimes foi registrado pela procura limitada por tempo de carro (52,8%). Estudos anteriores indicam que as localidades ao sul do Rio Amazonas (como região Leste do Pará, Usina Hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, e de Samuel, Estado de Rondônia) apresentam maior riqueza quando comparadas às regiões ao norte do Amazonas (como Município de Manaus, Reserva do INPA-WWF e Usina Hidrelétrica de Balbina, Estado do Amazonas). Desta forma, é possível inferir que o levantamento das serpentes da região de Urucu ainda não esteja completo, sendo necessário um maior esforço de coleta para que novos registros sejam adicionados para a área. Abstract in english A structured snake inventory was carried out at the Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura (BOGPM), located at the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, during 2003, 2004 and 2007. Throughout four sampling expeditions (51 collection days), seven species of snakes, belonging to seven families and 33 genera, were recorded. Four complementary sampling methods were used: pitfall traps with drift fence, occasional encounters, time-limited search on foot and ti (more) me-limited search by car. Of the 47 collected species Liophis reginae (n= 14), Philodryas viridissima (n= 9), Philodryas boulengeri (n= 7) and Oxybelis fulgidus (n= 7) were the most abundant in the region. The highest number of species and specimens was obtained by the time-limited search by car (n=52.8%). Previous studies indicate that localities south of the Amazonas river (such as the eastern region of Pará and Tucuruí, state of Para, and Samuel Hydroelectric Plants, state of Rondônia) present a greater richness when compared to those north of the Amazonas river (such as the mucipality of Manaus, INPA-WWF Reserve and Balbina Hydroelectric Plant, state of Amazonas).Thus, it is possible to infer that the snake inventory in Urucu region is not yet complete, requiring more sampling efforts so that new records can be obtained for the area.

Prudente, Ana Lúcia da Costa; Maschio, Gleomar Fabiano; Santos-Costa, Maria Cristina dos; Feitosa, Darlan Tavares

2010-01-01

296

77 FR 63811 - Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Author Speaker Series Event  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Author Speaker Series Event The Federal Energy...staff may attend the following event: Author Speaker Series featuring Daniel Yergin...event will feature Pulitzer Prize winning author, Daniel Yergin, presenting on his...

2012-10-17

297

Alcoholics Anonymous Attendance, Aftercare, and Outcome: A Secondary Analysis of Two Years Posthospitalization Data.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the results of a secondary analysis of two years post-hospitalization data from 2,950 subjects. Subjects' Alcoholics Anonymous Attendance and aftercare attendance (test variables) were correlated with 11 outcome variables suggestive of ...

D. C. Lull

1988-01-01

298

78 FR 19259 - Notice of Attendance at PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. Meetings  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulatory Commission Notice of Attendance at PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. Meetings The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...Commission staff may attend upcoming PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. (PJM) Members Committee and Markets and...

2013-03-29

299

77 FR 26537 - Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Leadership Development Program Graduation...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Leadership Development Program Graduation/Induction...may attend the following event: FERC Leadership Development Program Graduation/Induction...welcome 17 employees selected for the 2012 Leadership Development Program and graduate...

2012-05-04

300

Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Pressurized water reactor station blackout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that thermal-hydraulic responses of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) during a station blackout (i.e., total loss of A.C. power) transient were studied experimentally using the ROSA-IV Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) which is a 1/48 volumetrically-scaled full-height simulator of a PWR. In the experiment, the steam generator (SG) secondary side coolant inventory boiled dry at about 5000 s into the transient. The subsequent pressure increase in the simulated reactor primary system caused loss of coolant inventory through the pressurizer safety valve. Finally, the core upper regions were uncovered after 9700 s.

1990-01-01

302

The APS optics topography station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An in-house station for topographic testing of x-ray optical elements for the Advanced Photon Source experimental beamlines was set up by the Experimental Facilities Division of Argonne National Laboratory. A new double-crystal x-ray diffractometer was designed and built keeping in mind the need for testing large crystals possibly attached to cooling manifolds and lines. A short description of the new facility is given. The instrument performance fully satisfies imposed requirements, and the machine was successfully used for testing several silicon and diamond crystals. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Krasnicki, S. [Experimental Facilities Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

1996-09-01

303

The APS optics topography station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An in-house station for topographic testing of x-ray optical elements for the Advanced Photon Source experimental beamlines was set up by the Experimental Facilities Division of Argonne National Laboratory. A new double-crystal x-ray diffractometer was designed and built keeping in mind the need for testing large crystals possibly attached to cooling manifolds and lines. A short description of the new facility is given. The instrument performance fully satisfies imposed requirements, and the machine was successfully used for testing several silicon and diamond crystals.

Krasnicki, S.

1996-01-01

304

Motivating Attendance in a First-Year Mathematics Course Using "House Cash"  

Science.gov (United States)

Poor class attendance is detrimental to student success. This is especially true in entry-level college mathematics courses, where habitual non-attendance can have lasting effects that greatly limit a student's options for continued academic success. The purpose of this study was to design an attendance incentive and to evaluate its impact on…

Ellermeyer, S. F.; Leeds, E. M.; Banker, T. G.

2011-01-01

305

The effect of attendance on grade for first year economics students in University College Cork  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

D03 , This paper examines the relationship between attendance and grade, controlling for other factors, in first year economics courses in University College Cork. Determinants of both class attendance and grade are specified and estimated. We find that attendance is low, at least by comparison with US...

Kirby, Ann; McElroy, Brendan

306

Two distinct groups of non-attenders in an organized mammography screening program  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Udgivelsesdato: 2001-Nov , OBJECTIVE: To find out reasons for non-attendance and to study subgroup differences of the non-attenders in an organized mammography screening program. DESIGN: Prospective for background and psychosocial factors, retrospective for reasons of non-attendance. SETTING: Finnish s...

Aro, A R; de Koning, H J; Absetz, P; Schreck, M

307

Impact of breast cancer patients' awareness on attendance at screening.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of breast cancer awareness on the attendance for screening among women with breast cancer prior to diagnoses of breast cancer. BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women in Taiwan and its incidence rate continues to increase. However, screening for breast cancer is still not common even if the incidence rate has topped the list from 2003 to 2010. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among women diagnosed with breast cancer. Subjects (535 women) were recruited from two medical centres in central Taiwan. Information on attendance for breast cancer screening was collected by self-report. Chi-square test and logistic regression were utilized to analyse the relationships between awareness of breast cancer and attendance at screening. FINDINGS: The results indicated that pre-diagnostic awareness of 'the concept of early treatment relating to higher cure rate'[odds ratio (OR): 4.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-14.9], 'various breast cancer screening methods' (OR:3.00; 95% CI: 1.23-7.30), 'the coverage of breast cancer screening programme in the National Health Insurance' (OR:1.76; 95% CI: 1.03-3.02) and 'breast self-examination after each menstrual cycle' (OR:3.42; 95% CI: 1.99-5.87) were all significantly associated with the screening procedures performed. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study indicated that particular attention should be paid towards enhancement of women's knowledge for prevention and early detection of breast cancer through educational efforts by nurse professionals, medical institutions and/or civil organizations.

Shieh SH; Chen HC; Tsai WC; Kuo SY; Tsai YF; Lu CH

2012-09-01

308

Attending to social vulnerability when rationing pandemic resources.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pandemic plans are increasingly attending to groups experiencing health disparities and other social vulnerabilities. Although some pandemic guidance is silent on the issue, guidance that attends to socially vulnerable groups ranges widely, some procedural (often calling for public engagement), and some substantive. Public engagement objectives vary from merely educational to seeking reflective input into the ethical commitments that should guide pandemic planning and response. Some plans that concern rationing during a severe pandemic recommend ways to protect socially vulnerable groups without prioritizing access to scarce resources based on social vulnerability per se. The Minnesota Pandemic Ethics Project (MPEP), a public engagement project on rationing scarce health resources during a severe influenza pandemic, agrees and recommends an integrated set of ways to attend to the needs of socially vulnerable people and avoid exacerbation of health disparities during a severe influenza pandemic. Among other things, MPEP recommends: 1. Engaging socially vulnerable populations to clarify unique needs and effective strategies; 2. Engaging socially vulnerable populations to elicit ethical values and perspectives on rationing; 3. Rejecting rationing based on race, socioeconomic class, citizenship, quality of life, length of life-extension and first-come, first-served; 4. Prioritizing those in the general population for access to resources based on combinations of risk (of death or severe complications from influenza, exposure to influenza, transmitting influenza to vulnerable groups) and the likelihood of responding well to the resource in question. 5. Protecting critical infrastructures on which vulnerable populations and the general public rely; 6. Identifying and removing access barriers during pandemic planning and response; and 7. Collecting and promptly analyzing data during the pandemic to identify groups at disproportionate risk of influenza-related mortality and serious morbidity and to optimize the distribution of resources.

Vawter DE; Garrett JE; Gervais KG; Prehn AW; DeBruin DA

2011-01-01

309

Impulsivity and executive functions in polysubstance-using rave attenders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Rave parties are characterized by high levels of drug use and polysubstance-using patterns that may be especially harmful for psychological and neuropsychological functioning. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of different aspects of impulsivity and executive functions in a sample of polysubstance-using rave attenders. METHODS: We collected data from two groups: rave attenders (RvA, n = 25) and drug-free healthy comparison individuals (HCI, n = 27). RvA were regular users of cannabis, cocaine, methampethamine, hallucinogens, and alcohol. The assessment protocol included a drug-taking interview, the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, the delay-discounting questionnaire and a set of neuropsychological tests taxing different aspects of executive functions: response speed, working memory, reasoning, response inhibition and switching, self-regulation, decision making, and emotion perception. RESULTS: For impulsivity measures, RvA had significantly elevated scores on lack of perseverance and positive and negative urgency, but did not differ from controls on lack of premeditation or sensation seeking. For neuropsychological functioning, RvA had significantly poorer performance on indices of analogical reasoning, processing speed, working memory, inhibition/switching errors, and decision making, but performed similar to controls on indices of self-regulation, reversal learning, and emotion processing. Peak and binge alcohol and drug use were positively correlated with positive urgency, and negatively correlated with performance on executive indices. CONCLUSION: Rave attenders have selective alterations of impulsive personality and executive functions. These findings can contribute to delineate the neuropsychological profiles that distinguish recreational polysubstance use from substance dependence.

Verdejo-García A; Del Mar Sánchez-Fernández M; Alonso-Maroto LM; Fernández-Calderón F; Perales JC; Lozano O; Pérez-García M

2010-06-01

310

Insurance of nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Electrical utility companies have invested large sums in the establishment of nuclear facilities. For this reason it is normal for these companies to attempt to protect their investments as much as possible. One of the methods of protection is recourse to insurance. For a variety of reasons traditional insurance markets are unable to function normally for a number of reasons including, the insufficient number of risks, an absence of meaningful accident statistics, the enormous sums involved and a lack of familiarity with nuclear risks on the part of insurers, resulting in a reluctance or even refusal to accept such risks. Insurers have, in response to requests for coverage from nuclear power station operators, established an alternative system of coverage - insurance through a system of insurance pools. Insurers in every country unite in a pool, providing a net capacity for every risk which is a capacity covered by their own funds, and consequently without reinsurance. All pools exchange capacity. The inconvenience of this system, for the operators in particular, is that it involves a monopolistic system in which there are consequently few possibilities for the negotiation of premiums and conditions of coverage. The system does not permit the establishment of reserves which could, over time, reduce the need for insurance on the part of nuclear power station operators. Thus the cost of nuclear insurance remains high. Alternatives to the poor system of insurance are explored in this article. (author)

1992-01-01

311

Impact of lupus on school attendance and performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cognitive impairment in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can affect intelligence, academic achievement, arithmetic, reading comprehension, learning, visual memory and complex problem solving ability. In this prospective two-center study, we examined children's (and adolescents') and parents' perception of the impact of SLE on school; the relationship between child and parent reports on school-related issues; and the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and school-related issues. Patients aged 9-18 years with SLE and their parents completed corresponding child and parent reports of the SLE-specific HRQOL scale, Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (SMILEY), and PedsQL(TM) generic and rheumatology modules. Patients also completed questions related to school attendance and performance. Qualified physicians assessed SLE activity, damage and severity. Forty-one patients (73% girls) with SLE with mean age of 15 +/- 3 years and 32 parents participated. Mean school domain scores for child and parent reports of the PedsQL( TM) generic report were lower compared with total and subscale scores. Patients reported difficulty with schoolwork, had problems with memory and concentration, and were sad about the effect of SLE on schoolwork and attendance. Moderate to strong correlations were found between child and parent reports on school-related items from all questionnaires. Eighty-three percent of patients felt that they would have done better in school if they did not have SLE. Moderate correlations (r = 0.3-0.4) were found between SMILEY total score and the following items: satisfaction with school performance, interest in schoolwork, remembering what was learned, and concentrating in class. Patients on intravenous chemotherapeutic medications missed more school days (p < 0.05) compared with patients on oral medications. Also, patients with a greater number of missed school days had increased disease activity (p = 0.008). SLE and activities related to caring for the disease clearly impose a burden on children's school attendance and performance. School-related activities can have a significant impact on HRQOL in children and adolescents with SLE. Detailed examination of the impact of SLE on attendance and the various aspects of school performance will enable us to formulate interventions in school for these children and adolescents.

Moorthy LN; Peterson MG; Hassett A; Baratelli M; Lehman TJ

2010-04-01

312

Impact of lupus on school attendance and performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cognitive impairment in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can affect intelligence, academic achievement, arithmetic, reading comprehension, learning, visual memory and complex problem solving ability. In this prospective two-center study, we examined children's (and adolescents') and parents' perception of the impact of SLE on school; the relationship between child and parent reports on school-related issues; and the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and school-related issues. Patients aged 9-18 years with SLE and their parents completed corresponding child and parent reports of the SLE-specific HRQOL scale, Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (SMILEY), and PedsQL(TM) generic and rheumatology modules. Patients also completed questions related to school attendance and performance. Qualified physicians assessed SLE activity, damage and severity. Forty-one patients (73% girls) with SLE with mean age of 15 +/- 3 years and 32 parents participated. Mean school domain scores for child and parent reports of the PedsQL( TM) generic report were lower compared with total and subscale scores. Patients reported difficulty with schoolwork, had problems with memory and concentration, and were sad about the effect of SLE on schoolwork and attendance. Moderate to strong correlations were found between child and parent reports on school-related items from all questionnaires. Eighty-three percent of patients felt that they would have done better in school if they did not have SLE. Moderate correlations (r = 0.3-0.4) were found between SMILEY total score and the following items: satisfaction with school performance, interest in schoolwork, remembering what was learned, and concentrating in class. Patients on intravenous chemotherapeutic medications missed more school days (p < 0.05) compared with patients on oral medications. Also, patients with a greater number of missed school days had increased disease activity (p = 0.008). SLE and activities related to caring for the disease clearly impose a burden on children's school attendance and performance. School-related activities can have a significant impact on HRQOL in children and adolescents with SLE. Detailed examination of the impact of SLE on attendance and the various aspects of school performance will enable us to formulate interventions in school for these children and adolescents. PMID:20064912

Moorthy, L N; Peterson, M G E; Hassett, A; Baratelli, M; Lehman, T J A

2010-01-11

313

Stream Station video server system; Video saba sochi `Stream station`  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A video server system Stream Station is developed for delivering moving images to the client on the VOD (video on demand) basis. In this system, video data compressed using the MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) technique are stored in a RAID (redundant arrays of independent disks) system, and is outputted as analog video data after expansion in a decoder provided at the output stage. The server system easily realizes a VOD system using the existing in-house cable TV facilities for instance for hotel rooms. The data for this purpose may be either in the MPEG1 or MPEG2 format, pictures may be simultaneously transmitted via as many as 32 channels at the maximum, and the storage holds 256 gigabytes at the maximum. It incorporates a video server architecture developed by Toshiba Corporation, and the data transfer rate from data readout to transmission is totally warranted. (translated by NEDO)

NONE

1999-03-01

314

Petroleum price; Prix du petrole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil market is the most volatile of all markets, with the exception of the Nasdaq. It is also the biggest commodity market in the world. Therefore one cannot avoid forecasting oil prices, nor can one expect to avoid the forecasting errors that have been made in the past. In his report, Joel Maurice draws a distinction between the short term and the medium-long term in analysing the outlook for oil prices. (author)

Maurice, J

2001-07-01

315

Petroleum days; Journees du petrole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These petroleum days were organized by the COPREP and CEP and M committees and by the AFTP. Several geological communications were presented during the first day about deep offshore and reservoir studies. They focussed on the new technical problems encountered in heterogenous reservoirs as reveled by 4-D seismic surveys and aided-recovery processes. The second day was devoted to a presentation of the economic situation of big French energy companies: EdF, GdF, Cogema, Total-Fina and Elf. This document comprises 13 selected communications presented during the first day of the conference and dealing with geology/geophysics of oil and gas fields, well drilling techniques, natural gas technologies, and marine exploitation. (J.S.) (Separate records have been prepared for thirteen presentations from this conference.)

NONE

2000-07-01

316

Space Stations using the Skylon Launch System  

Science.gov (United States)

After the International Space Station is decommissioned in 2020 or soon after, Skylon will be an operating launch system and it is the obvious means to launch any successor in orbit infrastructure. The study looked at establishing 14 stations of 7 different types located from Low Earth Orbit to the Moon's surface with common elements all launched by Skylon. The key reason for the study was to validate Skylon could launch such an infrastructure, but the study's secondary objectives were to contribute to consideration of what should replace the ISS, and explore a ``multiple small station'' architecture. It was found that the total acquisition costs for LEO stations could be below 1 billion (2010) while for stations beyond LEO total acquisition costs were found to be between 3 and £5 billion. No technical constraints on the Skylon launch system were found that would prevent it launching all 14 stations in under 5 years.

Hempsell, M.

317

STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations  

Science.gov (United States)

The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of inspection deformation of leveling networks within the European framework of ground based GNSS European positioning augmentation system EUPOS®. The GNSS observation RTCM corrections produced by the EUPOS® system can be used for high precision position determination in various navigation and land surveying applications. Using EUPOS® network together with data from European Combined Geodetic Network (ECGN) and applying Bernese v.5.0 Software it is possible to compare situation of the solid Earth tide caused vertical displacements at the EUPOS® (EUREF) stations which are close to Struve arc within region from Artic Ocean till Black Sea. Scientific staff of LU GGI is looking forward for eventual participation in cooperation and science projects. Supported by ERAF Project 010/0202/2DP/2.1.1.2.0/10/APIA/VIAA/013

Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana

2013-04-01

318

Practices of traditional birth attendants in Machakos District, kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The aim of the study was to document TBAs practices as well as the indigenous herbal remedies they use to manage pre, intra and post partum complications in a rural Kenyan community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted on practicing TBAs and their clients living in the study area. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and interviews. Focused group discussions were held with the TBAs to supplement the interviews and questionnaire survey. RESULTS: Two hundred TBAs and 20 clients were interviewed. The majority of the TBAs were females 75% of them having attended to over 200 pregnant women over a period of 5 years and above compared to only 6% of the males. A total of 10 pregnancy related complications and symptoms including threatened abortion, labor complications, post partum hemorrhage and retained after birth were recorded. Fifty five plant species most of them belonging to Euphorbiaceae family were identified for the management of the complications. CONCLUSION: Traditional Birth Attendants still have a role to play in assisting pregnant women in rural communities. Their knowledge on herbal medicines is equally important and should be preserved for posterity.

Kaingu CK; Oduma JA; Kanui TI

2011-09-01

319

Sources of dietary calcium in patients attending an osteoporosis clinic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gemma HornSurgical Department, Perth Royal Infirmary, Perth, ScotlandIntroduction: Osteoporosis is a common disease that affects both women and men but is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Reviews suggest that dietary-derived calcium is vital in maintaining adequate calcium balance. Sources of dietary calcium intake among adult patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were reviewed.Method: Two hundred and ninety-one patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were given an eleven-item food questionnaire to complete. The results were compared to the recommended daily allowance of 700 mg.Results: The overall mean intake was 657 mg/day with little difference between age or gender. The best foods for supplying calcium were cheese and milky drinks.Conclusion: This study has confirmed that suboptimal calcium intakes remain common. Dairy sources of calcium remain important. More awareness is needed to convey the importance of dietary calcium and bone health to avoid the development of osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoporosis, clinic, food questionnaire, calcium, dietary intake, bone health

Horn G

2012-01-01

320

Representation of Attended Versus Remembered Locations in Prefrontal Cortex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A great deal of research on the prefrontal cortex (PF), especially in nonhuman primates, has focused on the theory that it functions predominantly in the maintenance of short-term memories, and neurophysiologists have often interpreted PF's delay-period activity in the context of this theory. Neuroimaging results, however, suggest that PF's function extends beyond the maintenance of memories to include aspects of attention, such as the monitoring and selection of information. To explore alternative interpretations of PF's delay-period activity, we investigated the discharge rates of single PF neurons as monkeys attended to a stimulus marking one location while remembering a different, unmarked location. Both locations served as potential targets of a saccadic eye movement. Although the task made intensive demands on short-term memory, the largest proportion of PF neurons represented attended locations, not remembered ones. The present findings show that short-term memory functions cannot account for all, or even most, delay-period activity in the part of PF explored. Instead, PF's delay-period activity probably contributes more to the process of attentional selection.

Lebedev Mikhail A; Messinger Adam; Kralik Jerald D; Wise Steven P

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Reproductive tract infections among women attending gynaecology outpatient department  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Women often suffer silently with reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and sexually active young women are particularly susceptible to sexually transmitted Infections (STIs). The study aimed to know the prevalence of reproductive tract infections among married women attending Gynecological Outpatients Department of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH), Kathmandu, Nepal.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hospital based crosssectional design was used to investigate RTIs among women attending outpatients department of Gynae and Obstetrics, TUTH from July to November, 2006. A total of 208 samples from 104 women were examined microscopically and culture using standard microbial technique to investigate etiological agents of RTIs. Study samples were selected and examined on the basis of either having discharge or complaints of lower abdominal pain.RESULTS: A total of 208 samples collected from 104 patients were examined and 26% samples were positive for different causative agents of RTIs. Thirty percent of women reported having symptoms related to RTIs and was common in young married women. Nineteen percent had STIs. Thirteen percent had trichomonasis and 7% had gonorrhoea identified in Gram stained smears and cultures. Many women had endogenous RTIs. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 15% and vaginal candidiasis in 25% of women.CONCLUSIONS: Young married women have a high prevalence of RTIs. Education and outreach programs are needed to reduce embarrassment and lack of knowledge related to RTIs. The low socio?economic status of women appears to have influence on high rate of infections.

Bohara MS; Joshi AB; Lekhak B; Gurung G

2012-01-01

322

NRC's object-oriented simulator instructor station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of a comprehensive simulator upgrade program, the simulator computer systems associated with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) nuclear power plant simulators were replaced. Because the original instructor stations for two of the simulators were dependent on the original computer equipment, it was necessary to develop and implement new instructor stations. This report describes the Macintosh-based Instructor Stations developed by NRC engineers for the General Electric (GE) and Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) simulators.

1995-01-01

323

Environmental assessment, proposed generating station for Darlington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document indicates the intention of Ontario Hydro to seek approval from the Provincial Government for its plan to construct and operate a 3400 MWe nuclear generating station at the Darlington site, west of Bowmanville. This preliminary proposal also contains the environmental assessment. The environmental section of this proposal describes and assesses the existing environment and the environmental influences which would occur due to the construction and operation of a nuclear generating station, consisting of four 850 MW units, at the Darlington site. This proposed station is similar to the Bruce GS A station presently under construction. (author).

1975-01-01

324

Effects of training attendance on muscle strength of young men after 11 weeks of resistance training  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available urpose: Training attendance is an important variable for attaining optimal results after a resistance training (RT) program, however, the association of attendance with the gains of muscle strength is not well defined. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to verify if attendance would affect muscle strength gains in healthy young males.Methods: Ninety two young males with no previous RT experience volunteered to participate in the study. RT was performed 2 days a week for 11 weeks. One repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press and knee extensors peak torque (PT) were measured before and after the training period. After the training period, a two step cluster analysis was used to classify the participants in accordance to training attendance, resulting in three groups, defined as high (92 to 100%), intermediate (80 to 91%) and low (60 to 79%) training attendance.Results: According to the results, there were no significant correlations between strength gains and training attendance, however, when attendance groups were compared, the low training attendance group showed lower increases in 1RM bench press (8.8%) than the other two groups (17.6% and 18.0% for high and intermediate attendance, respectively).Conclusions: Although there is not a direct correlation between training attendance and muscle strength gains, it is suggested that a minimum attendance of 80% is necessary to ensure optimal gains in upper body strength.

Paulo Gentil; Martim Bottaro

2013-01-01

325

Effects of training attendance on muscle strength of young men after 11 weeks of resistance training.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Training attendance is an important variable for attaining optimal results after a resistance training (RT) program, however, the association of attendance with the gains of muscle strength is not well defined. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to verify if attendance would affect muscle strength gains in healthy young males. METHODS: Ninety two young males with no previous RT experience volunteered to participate in the study. RT was performed 2 days a week for 11 weeks. One repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press and knee extensors peak torque (PT) were measured before and after the training period. After the training period, a two step cluster analysis was used to classify the participants in accordance to training attendance, resulting in three groups, defined as high (92 to 100%), intermediate (80 to 91%) and low (60 to 79%) training attendance. RESULTS: According to the results, there were no significant correlations between strength gains and training attendance, however, when attendance groups were compared, the low training attendance group showed lower increases in 1RM bench press (8.8%) than the other two groups (17.6% and 18.0% for high and intermediate attendance, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although there is not a direct correlation between training attendance and muscle strength gains, it is suggested that a minimum attendance of 80% is necessary to ensure optimal gains in upper body strength.

Gentil P; Bottaro M

2013-06-01

326

Nuclear power station project management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book covers the project management of two major engineering projects from commissioning through design and construction to operation. Based on experience gained with Heysham 2 and Torness AGR stations, the contributions in this book show how the highest standards of construction quality can be reconciled with the major economic advantages of building quickly. Other topics covered include probabilistic risk assessment, seismic design, computer aided design and manufacture, simulators and the use of robotic techniques. This book has wide relevance to the management of any large-scale capital-intensive project, as well as specific application to AGRs and the nuclear industry. There are twenty-four papers, all indexed separately. The discussion following each section is included. (author).

1989-01-01

327

Forest climate stations in Bavaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The hydrology division of the Forstliche Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt of Bavaria is the responsible operator of forest climate stations, with which it fulfills the following basic tasks: - securing of climate data relevant to growth and vitality which are representative of all major Bavarian forest areas, - measurement of soil humidity in region-typical forest sites as a parameter of forest site prospection and for the application of forest-hydrological models, - establishment of the deposition of pollutants and nutrients to forest ecosystems, - verification of the quality of soil leachates under forest sites, - preparing of budgets of substance cycles in forest ecosystems, - monitoring of biological processes in forest ecosystems as an instrument of precautionary environmental care. Furthermore, these basic data are prepared for use in ecosystemal research approachers in cooperation with other scientific disciplines. (orig.)

1992-01-01

328

The remote security station (RSS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports that, as an outgrowth of research into physical security systems, Sandia is investigating robotic technologies for improving physical security performance and flexibility. Robotic systems have the potential to allow more effective utilization of security personnel, especially in scenarios where they might be exposed to harm. They also can supplement fixed site installations where sensors have failed or where transient assets are present. The Remote Security Station (RSS) program for the defense Nuclear Agency is developing a proof-of-principle robotic system which will be used to evaluate the role, and associated cost, of robotic technologies in exterior physical security systems. The RSS consists of three primary elements: a fixed but quickly moveable tripod with intrusion detection sensors and assessment camera; a mobile robotic platform with a functionally identical security module; and a control console which allows an operator to perform security functions and teleoperate the mobile platform.

Pletta, J.B. (Advanced Technology Div., Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (US))

1991-01-01

329

Power station pumps and fans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Topics covered at this international conference include: An assessment of nuclear main coolant pump permanent instrumentation; condition monitoring of pump and fan drive motors using phase current analysis; vibration analysis of a cooling tower fan; dynamic considerations of flexible foundations for rotating pumps; unstable flow in centrifugal fans; and the prediction and detection of unstable flows in power station fans. Sealing of boiler feed pumps; experimental investigations on the influence of leakage flow in centrifugal pumps with diagonal clearence gap; and operations and maintenance remote from support facilities are reviewed. Development and operating experience of a 5000 KW test boilerfeed pump on active magnetic bearings; extending life for existing boiler draught fans; and developments in power industry fan specifications are discussed. Variable speed drive on large centrifugal fans; seventy-five years of experience in concrete volute pumps; and boiler feed pump design features; are considered, and an overview of pumps in the power industry presented. (author)

1992-01-01

330

Characteristics and prevalence of hardcore smokers attending UK general practitioners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking remains a public health problem and although unsolicited GPs' advice against smoking causes between one and three percent of smokers to stop, a significant proportion of smokers are particularly resistant to the notion of stopping smoking. These resistant smokers have been called "hardcore smokers" and although 16% of smokers in the community are hardcore, little is known about hardcore smokers presenting to primary care physicians. Consequently, this study reports the characteristics and prevalence of hardcore smokers attending UK GPs. Methods A cross-sectional survey using data from two different research projects was conducted. Data for this analysis had been collected from surgery consultation sessions with 73 GPs in Leicestershire, England, (42 GPs from one project). Research assistants distributed pre-consultation questionnaires to 4147 adults attending GPs' surgery sessions. Questionnaires identified regular smokers, the proportion of hardcore smokers and their characteristics. Non-hardcore and hardcore smokers' ages, gender and nicotine addiction levels were compared. Results 1170 regular smokers attended surgery sessions and, 16.1% (95% CI, 14.1 to 18.4) were hardcore smokers. Hardcore smokers had higher levels of nicotine addiction than others (p = 0.000), measured by the Heaviness of Smoking Index and were more likely to be male [50.5% hardcore versus 35.3% non-hardcore, (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.4 to 2.6)] but no age differences were observed between groups. Conclusion A significant minority of the smokers who present in general practice are resistant to the notion of smoking cessation and these smokers are more heavily nicotine addicted than others. Although clinical guidelines suggest that GPs should regularly advise all smokers against smoking, it is probable that hardcore smokers do not respond positively to this and help to make up the 97%–99% of smokers who do not quit after being advised to stop smoking by GPs. General practitioners need to find approaches for raising the issue of smoking during consultations in ways that do not reinforce the negative opinions of hardcore smokers concerning smoking cessation.

MacIntosh Hannah; Coleman Tim

2006-01-01

331

Process for optimising the operation of an externally ignited piston internal combustion engine, particularly a petrol engine. Verfahren zum Optimieren des Betriebs einer fremdgezuendeten Kolbenbrennkraftmaschine, insbesondere eines Otto-Motors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a process for optimising the operation of an externally ignited piston internal combustion engine, particularly a petrol engine, with steps for the measurement and evaluation of a knock signal to operate the piston internal combustion engine just below the knock limit, steps to determine the air filling of the working volume of the piston internal combustion engine and steps to set the ignition angle of the piston internal combustion engine. To measure the pressure curve in the combustion space to be monitored, pressure states processed in a suitable way and measured by means of a pressure sensor in the cylinder head concerned are subjected to a peak pressure evaluation, the mean value of peak pressure is calculated and the engine operating point is then corrected, if necessary, based on the determined values.

Ellmann, S.; Wier, M.

1990-12-06

332

Testing of continuously working aldehyde analysers for measuring the exhaust gases from petrol engines. Final report. Pruefung und Erprobung von kontinuierlich arbeitenden Aldehydanalysatoren fuer die Messung von Abgasen aus Ottomotoren. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this project, two measuring equipments working with the non-dispersive ultraviolet process are examined regarding their suitability for aldehyde analysis. They are to be used for the analysis of exhaust gases from petrol and Diesel engines, using conventional fuels, mixtures with alcohol and alcohol fuels. In the context of the tests, the given equipment specifications are checked. The calibration function is determined and is checked for cross-sensitivity by model gases. Measurements on actual gases with the equipment to be tested and with an independent comparative measuring process are carried out. One equipment proves to be unsuitable for measuring formaldehyde. The other equipment is basically suitable for the measurement of aldehydes; but its use with actual exhaust gas is not possible yet, because of a large cross-sensitivity to NO/sub 2/. (RHM).

Morys-Kolm, M.; Richter, T.; Zajontz, J.

1985-01-01

333

Evaluating appreciation of measures attending to pupil diversity (EMAD).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evaluating appreciation of measures attending to pupil diversity (EMAD) is a scale for evaluating the understanding of measures describing pupils' cultural and diversity needs among the staff responsible for such measures in Spanish primary schools. Its 9 Likert-scale items correspond to the various types of action in this area that are currently being promoted in Spain. The principal objective of this study was to assess the scale's factor structure and internal consistency, to which end the scale was completed by the heads of the Departments of Orientation of 140 Spanish primary schools. Corrected item-total correlations and Cronbach alpha (.91) indicated adequate scale homogeneity. Principal components analysis followed by varimax rotation indicated two factors jointly accounting for 71.4% of total variance, one associated with actions involving modification of syllabuses, and the other with actions not requiring such changes. Cronbach alphas were .89 and .79 for the two factors.

Pino M; Dominguez J; Lopez-Castedo A

2007-06-01

334

Etiological pattern of demented patients attending in a tertiary hospital.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is a cross sectional study where 125 demented patients were enrolled who attended in neurology department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) Hospital. The purpose of the study was to find out the etiology of dementia. Dementia was diagnosed by the criteria indicated by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV and confirmed by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Diagnosis of specific type of dementia was made on the basis of established criteria. The most common etiological factor was post stroke dementia (PSDE) (36%) followed by Alzheimer's disease (AD) (14.4%), multi infarct dementia (MID) (8%), Mixed AD and PSDE (6.4%), vitamin B?? deficiency (4.8%) etc. Vascular dementia is the most common etiological factor. Next to this is the Alzheimer disease. This study will provide baseline information regarding the types of dementia occurring in Bangladeshi population and will be the basis of planning health program and data for future research.

Islam MN; Khan RK; Rahman MM; Hayee MA; Jahan ME; Bhuiya MM

2013-07-01

335

Learning where to Attend with Deep Architectures for Image Tracking  

CERN Document Server

We discuss an attentional model for simultaneous object tracking and recognition that is driven by gaze data. Motivated by theories of perception, the model consists of two interacting pathways: identity and control, intended to mirror the what and where pathways in neuroscience models. The identity pathway models object appearance and performs classification using deep (factored)-Restricted Boltzmann Machines. At each point in time the observations consist of foveated images, with decaying resolution toward the periphery of the gaze. The control pathway models the location, orientation, scale and speed of the attended object. The posterior distribution of these states is estimated with particle filtering. Deeper in the control pathway, we encounter an attentional mechanism that learns to select gazes so as to minimize tracking uncertainty. Unlike in our previous work, we introduce gaze selection strategies which operate in the presence of partial information and on a continuous action space. We show that a s...

Denil, Misha; Larochelle, Hugo; de Freitas, Nando

2011-01-01

336

Traditional birth attendants in Bophuthatswana (Bo-Mmaabotsetse)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey was conducted among the 104 traditional birth attendants (hommaabotsetse) in Bophuthatswana during the 1985 winter vacation. The objective of the survey was to estimate the number of women practising as well as provide their characteristics and practices. Findings revealed that bommaabotsetse were elderly women with an average age of 58 years, were married and had a considerable period of experience. Preference for delivery in a health service, which is not always accessible, is discussed with a suggestion of a few options. It is concluded that some women in rural Bophuthatswana make a conscious choice of home delivery even when modern delivery facilities are available. A training programme for bommaabotsetse with adequate support and supervision is recommended.

C. Ntoane

1988-01-01

337

Motivation for and Benefits from Attending the AP Statistics Reading  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explores the Advanced Placement® Statistics reading as a source of professional development for teachers. The study was conducted to capture the motivation for and benefits from attending the collective grading. Research has shown that examining student work during professional development has implications for teaching. The premise of this study is that Advanced Placement readings are a context for examining the impact of collective grading of student work. The purpose of the study was to examine the motivation of and benefits for AP Statistics reading participants. The results suggest that analysis of student work may be a method to address teachers' preparation to teach statistics at the level expected by recent reform movements in the field of statistics education.

Tim Jacobbe; Bradley A. Hartlaub; Douglas Whitaker

2013-01-01

338

Alexithymia in patients attending a sexual disorders clinic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We measured alexithymic traits with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS; Bagby, Taylor, & Parker, 1988) in 170 individuals attending a sexual disorders clinic. We diagnosed 114 of the subjects with a sexual dysfunction and 56 with paraphilic disorders. We determined that 20.2% of the dysfunctional group and 26.8% of the paraphilic were alexithymic when the TAS was measured categorically. When we considered the TAS as a dimensional variable, the subset with paraphilias had significantly higher scores on the TAS only when depressed mood, as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993), was covaried. These data suggest that alexithymia in both sexually dysfunctional and paraphilic individuals is related to depressed mood, although the effect is more pronounced in paraphilics.

Wise TN; Osborne C; Strand J; Fagan PJ; Schmidt CW Jr

2002-10-01

339

Radionuclide Monitoring Stations in CTBT verification regime  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Monitoring System (IMS) will be established across the world to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The IMS will be capable of detecting and identifying nuclear explosions detonated within the atmosphere, underwater and underground. Three hundred and twenty-one monitoring stations will be set around the world as a monitoring network of the IMS. The four technologies of seismology, hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide will be used for monitoring purposes. In order to build the radionuclide monitoring network, 80 radionuclide stations were chosen. Particles in the atmosphere are collected on a filter at each station to measure radioactivity by a HP-Ge detector. Stations will be certified as one of the IMS station by the CTBT organization with satisfaction of technical and operational requirements. Further, 40 out of these 80 stations are be equipped with an automatic radioactive noble gas sampler/analyzer. The JAERI-Tokai is establishing infrastructure to host radionuclide air monitoring equipment for two radionuclide stations in Japan: one is in Takasaki, Gunma prefecture, and the other is in Kunigami-gun, Okinawa prefecture. This paper presents the current status of the establishment and promising performance of the stations in Japan. (author)

2002-10-01

340

Radionuclide Monitoring Stations in CTBT verification regime  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Monitoring System (IMS) will be established across the world to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The IMS will be capable of detecting and identifying nuclear explosions detonated within the atmosphere, underwater and underground. Three hundred and twenty-one monitoring stations will be set around the world as a monitoring network of the IMS. The four technologies of seismology, hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide will be used for monitoring purposes. In order to build the radionuclide monitoring network, 80 radionuclide stations were chosen. Particles in the atmosphere are collected on a filter at each station to measure radioactivity by a HP-Ge detector. Stations will be certified as one of the IMS station by the CTBT organization with satisfaction of technical and operational requirements. Further, 40 out of these 80 stations are be equipped with an automatic radioactive noble gas sampler/analyzer. The JAERI-Tokai is establishing infrastructure to host radionuclide air monitoring equipment for two radionuclide stations in Japan: one is in Takasaki, Gunma prefecture, and the other is in Kunigami-gun, Okinawa prefecture. This paper presents the current status of the establishment and promising performance of the stations in Japan. (author)

Kumata, Masahiro; Oda, Tetsuzo; Miyamoto, Yutaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

2002-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Microgravity Environment on the International Space Station.  

Science.gov (United States)

A primary feature of the International Space Station will be its microgravity environment--an environment in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced. The International Space Station design has been driven by a long-standing, high-level requir...

R. DeLombard K. Hrovat E. Kelly K. McPherson

2004-01-01

342

Artificial intelligence for space station automation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book provides guidance on the state of the art of Al-based technology for space station automation. The contents include the following: Al-based Technology; Review; Concept Designs; Analysis of Al Technology Needs; Design for Automation; Teleoperation and Robotics; Sensors; Expert Systems; Planning Space Station Information System; Man-Machine Interface; and Appendix - Technology Transfer to Terrestrial Applications.

Firschein, O.

1986-01-01

343

Present trends in HVDC converter station design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

HVDC converter station technology has developed rapidly to satisfy increasing requirements during past 10 - 15 years, but there has not been any dramatic changes since thyristor valves were introduced in the mid 70s. This paper describes some recent and expected future developments, that will substantiality change and simplify future converter stations. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs.

Carlsson, Lennart; Asplund, Gunnar; Bjorklund, Hans; Flisberg, Gunnar [ABB Power Systems AB, Ludvika (Sweden)

1994-12-31

344

S. Pellegrino and Brasimone seismic stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the technical features relative to the S. Pellegrino and Brasimone seismic stations. The stations have been modified in order to realize a central data acquisition system; in this way seismic signals are sent to Brasimone Center through telephone pair and are recorded in continuous form. (author)

1988-01-01

345

Sodium wash station operational testing report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides the test report for the Operability Test Procedure (OTP) performed on the Westinghouse Hanford Company developed Sodium Wash Station. The purpose of the Sodium Wash Station is to provide the capability to control and monitor the water vapor nitrogen reaction of sodium remaining in drained tanks and other components.

Knotek, H.M.

1996-10-01

346

Hereford combined heat and power station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The philosophy of generating and distributing combined heat and power by electric power generating stations is introduced. The basic requirements of such a station are presented. Meeting peak demands, design for relatively frequent heat load fluctuations and the electrical aspects of design are considered. A cost analysis is carried out and various plant options are compared.

Price, M.E.

1981-01-01

347

School attendance in childhood cancer survivors and their siblings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate school absenteeism among childhood cancer survivors and their siblings and examine factors related to absenteeism in survivors. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted among consecutive cancer survivors attending a large pediatric cancer survivor clinic. Absenteeism rates were obtained for survivors and their closest in age sibling from school report cards. Absenteeism was compared with a population control group of 167752 students using 1-sample t tests. The Child Vulnerability Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and Behavior Assessment System for Children were administered to survivors. Univariate and multiple regression analyses assessed variables associated with days absent. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-one survivors (median age at assessment: 13.4 years, range 8.0-19.2; median age at diagnosis: 9.4 years, range 4.3-17.3) and 77 siblings (median age at assessment: 13 years, age range 7-18) participated. Survivors and siblings missed significantly more school days than the population control group (mean ± SD: 9.6 ± 9.2 and 9.9 ± 9.8 vs 5.0 ± 5.6 days, respectively, P < .0001). Among matched survivor-sibling pairs (N = 77), there was no difference in absenteeism (9.6 ± 9.2 vs 9.9 ± 9.8 days, P = .85). Absenteeism in survivors was significantly associated with a low Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Physical Health Summary Score (P = .01). Parents' perception of their child's vulnerability and emotional and social functioning were not associated with absenteeism. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood cancer survivors and siblings miss more school than the general population. The only predictor of absenteeism in survivors is poor physical quality of health. More research should be devoted to school attendance and other outcomes in siblings of childhood cancer survivors.

French AE; Tsangaris E; Barrera M; Guger S; Brown R; Urbach S; Stephens D; Nathan PC

2013-01-01

348

Insulin dose changes in children attending a residential diabetes camp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: ? To examine the effects of insulin dose adjustments on rates of hypoglycaemia for school-aged children with Type 1 diabetes attending camp. METHODS: ? Camp records for 256 children aged 7-15 years (55% on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion) attending a week-long residential summer camp were analysed. RESULTS: ? In anticipation of increased physical activity, basal insulin was decreased for all children on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and injection therapy by 10% upon arrival at camp. During the first day, children on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion received 11.1±6.3% less basal insulin than home doses, whereas children on injections decreased intermediate/long-acting insulin by 8.2±12.8%. Despite these decreases, 60% had at least one blood sugar level <70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/l) during the first day. Children on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion were more likely to have hypoglycaemia during the first day than those on injections. The number of episodes of hypoglycaemia increased with increasing camper age. Overall, children did not have further significant reductions in their total daily insulin dose by the last day of camp. However, on the last day, children had fewer episodes of hypoglycaemia than during the first day (0.7±0.9 vs. 1.1±1.2, P<0.001) and 51% had no low blood sugar levels that day. CONCLUSIONS: ? An empiric 10% reduction in basal insulin appears reasonable, as nearly equal numbers of children required dose increases as dose decreases as camp progressed. However, hypoglycaemia was still common in all age groups. Prospective studies characterizing individual variables are needed in order to facilitate tailored insulin dose adjustments that minimize glycaemic variability while optimizing control in the diabetes camp setting.

Miller AR; Nebesio TD; DiMeglio LA

2011-04-01

349

Impact of class attendance upon examination results of students in basic medical sciences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A number of studies have shown the impact of attending the classes during the session on examination results of students. Students with good lecture attendance show good results while those with poor lecture attendance are at risk for poor performance in the examinations. In this study we wanted to test this in students of basic medical sciences in our set up. METHODS: All the students in Basic Medical Sciences of Gomal Medical College, D.I. Khan, Pakistan, during the session 1999-2000 were enrolled for this study. Performance of these students in one of their three annual term tests, which covered duration of studies for four months, from February 2000 to May 2000, was analyzed. Students were grouped into two, Group-A with > or = 75% attendance and Group-B with < 75% attendance. The frequency of failure in the two groups was compared using the chi square test. RESULTS: Results of the term test showed that the percentage of failure in students of Group-B with less than 75%, attendance was significantly higher when compared to Group-A with equal or more than 75% attendance. CONCLUSION: Our results supported the previous studies showing that attendance in the classes during teaching sessions had a direct impact on performance of students in the examinations. Students with good attendance show good results while those with poor attendance are at risk for poor performance during examinations in basic medical sciences.

Khan HU; Khattak AM; Mahsud IU; Munir A; Ali S; Khan MH; Saleem M; Shah SH

2003-04-01

350

Barriers to pulmonary rehabilitation: characteristics that predict patient attendance and adherence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is efficacious in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As completion rates of PR are poor, we wished to assess predictors of attendance and adherence. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 711 patients with COPD, who were invited to attend PR. Data were compared to allow predictors (gender, smoking status, attending partner, referral route, employment status, body mass index, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), oxygen therapy (LTOT), oxygen saturations, chronic respiratory questionnaire (CRQ), shuttle walk distance, travel distance and time) of attendance (0 or >0 attendance) and adherence (< or >63% attendance) to be identified. RESULTS: 31.8% of patients referred for PR did not attend and a further 29.1% were non-adherent. Predictors of non-attendance were female gender, current smoker, and living alone. Predictors of non-adherence were extremes of age, current smoking, LTOT use, FEV(1), CRQ score and travelling distance. Multiple logistic regression revealed that LTOT and living alone were independent predictors of poor attendance and current smoking, poor shuttle walking distance and hospitalisations were independent predictors of poor adherence. CONCLUSION: Smoking status, availability of social support and markers of disease severity were predictors of attendance and adherence to PR.

Hayton C; Clark A; Olive S; Browne P; Galey P; Knights E; Staunton L; Jones A; Coombes E; Wilson AM

2013-03-01

351

Hereford c. h. p. station opened  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first combined heat and power (c.h.p.) station to be built by the electricity supply industry was opened at Moorfields in Hereford. The 15-MW (electric) 13-MW (heat) station is semi-automatic and has an overall thermal efficiency of nearly 80% - about 2 1/2 times that of a large modern coal-fired power station. The Hereford c.h.p. station is operated to provide high grade heat in the form of steam and hot water to local industry in addition to generating 15-MW of electricity which is fed into the 11-V distribution system in Hereford. The station's high thermal efficiency is obtained by using the waste heat in the exhaust gases - in this case for providing steam for industrial processes in the nearby H. P. Bulmer and the Sun Valley Poultry factories.

1980-05-16

352

Associations between respiratory illnesses and secondhand smoke exposure in flight attendants: A cross-sectional analysis of the Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with increased risk of respiratory illness, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Prior to smoking bans on airlines in the late 1980s, flight attendants were exposed to a significant amount of SHS. In the present study, we examine associations between flight attendant SHS exposure and development of respiratory illnesses and cardiovascular disease. Methods Between December 2006 and October 2010, three hundred sixty-two flight attendants completed an online questionnaire with information regarding experience as a flight attendant, medical history, smoking history, and SHS exposure. Rates of illnesses in flight attendants were compared with an age and smoking history matched population sample from NHANES 2005-2006. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of reported medical conditions and pre-ban years of exposure. Results Compared with the sample from NHANES 2005-2006, flight attendants had increased prevalence of chronic bronchitis (11.7% vs. 7.2%, p Conclusions Flight attendants experience increased rates of respiratory illnesses compared to a population sample. The frequency of symptoms of nasal congestion, throat or eye irritation is associated with occupational SHS exposure in the pre-smoking ban era.

Beatty Alexis L; Haight Thaddeus J; Redberg Rita F

2011-01-01

353

Simulators of nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report deals with the simulators of nuclear power stations used for the training of operators and for the analysis of operations. It reviews the development of analogical, hybrid and digital simulators up to the present, indicating the impact resulting from the TMI-2 accident. It indicates, the components of simulators and the present accepted terminology for a classification of the various types of simulators. It reviews the present state of the art of the technology: how a basic mathematical model of a nuclear power system is worked out and what are the technical problems associated with more accurate models. Examples of elaborate models are given: for a PWR pressurizer, for an AGR steam generator. It also discusses certain problems of hardware technology. Characteristics of present replica simulators are given with certain details: simulated transient evolutions and malfunctions, accuracy of simulation. The work concerning the assessment of the validity of certain simulators is reported. A list of simulator manufacturers and a survey of the principal simulators in operation in the countries of the European Community, in the United States, and in certain other countries are presented. Problem associated with the use of simulators as training facilities, and their use as operational devices are discussed. Studies and research in progress for the expected future development of simulators are reviewed.

1984-01-01

354

Catawba Station advanced material testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Column testing has been used by a number of utilities in liquid radwaste processing improvement efforts. When properly done, column testing can provide meaningful data and insights in the design of new radwaste processing schemes. Utility personnel can reduce full scale testing of new materials and arrangements to those options with the highest potential for processing improvements. This results in a significant increase in the options being considered and a reduction in the time required for an improvement program. This paper describes media testing at Catawba Nuclear Station in a EPRI tailored collaboration project. The equipment used in this project is an improvement over previously used methods. Previously, column tests were often performed on batches of water and did not analyze changes in system influents or test the effects of multi-bed processing. Often, the lab results did not match results later achieved in full-scale testing. The equipment used in the Catawba testing was designed to simulate the plant`s radwaste demineralizer system. It consists of an arrangement of quick disconnect ion exchange columns designed for direct testing of the radwaste process stream. The equipment allows the testing of media at system conditions in a real-time mode. The test apparatus allows the utility personnel to evaluate new materials in a variety of arrangements directly on the actual radwaste stream. The plant staff can rapidly test a wide range of ion exchange resins and absorbent materials in various arrangements to determine the optimum radwaste processing approach.

Baker, R.E. Jr.; Carpenter, C.R. [Duke Power Co., Huntersville, NC (United States); Naughton, M.D. [CenTec-21, Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

1995-11-01

355

Role of religious attendance and identity conflict in psychological well-being.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sample of individuals who identified as gay or lesbian were administered measures of church attendance, their religious organization's view of homosexuality, perceived conflict between religious faith identity and sexual orientation identity, social support, depression, and generalized anxiety. Among participants who rated their church as rejecting of homosexuality, greater frequency of attendance was related to a higher incidence of GAD symptoms, but not depression. No correlation was found for those attending accepting faith communities. Those who attend rejecting faith communities attended services less often, experienced greater identity conflict, and reported significantly less social support than those of the Accepted group. Regression analyses indicated that identity conflict and social support did not fully account for the relationship between attendance and GAD symptoms. Overall, findings from the current study support previous suggestions that participation in conservative or rejecting religious communities may adversely affect the emotional well-being of GL individuals. PMID:21761275

Hamblin, Rebecca; Gross, Alan M

2013-09-01

356

Role of religious attendance and identity conflict in psychological well-being.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A sample of individuals who identified as gay or lesbian were administered measures of church attendance, their religious organization's view of homosexuality, perceived conflict between religious faith identity and sexual orientation identity, social support, depression, and generalized anxiety. Among participants who rated their church as rejecting of homosexuality, greater frequency of attendance was related to a higher incidence of GAD symptoms, but not depression. No correlation was found for those attending accepting faith communities. Those who attend rejecting faith communities attended services less often, experienced greater identity conflict, and reported significantly less social support than those of the Accepted group. Regression analyses indicated that identity conflict and social support did not fully account for the relationship between attendance and GAD symptoms. Overall, findings from the current study support previous suggestions that participation in conservative or rejecting religious communities may adversely affect the emotional well-being of GL individuals.

Hamblin R; Gross AM

2013-09-01

357

Prevalence of copied information by attendings and residents in critical care progress notes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and mechanism of copying among ICU physicians using an electronic medical record. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Medical ICU of an urban, academic medical center. PATIENTS: Two thousand sixty-eight progress notes of 135 patients generated by 62 residents and 11 attending physicians between August 1, 2009, and December 31, 2009. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: EIghty-two percent of all residents and 74% of all attending notes contained greater than or equal to 20% copied information (p = 0.001). Although residents authored more copied notes than attendings, residents copied less information between notes than attendings (55% vs. 61%, p < 0.001). Following greater than or equal to 1 day off, residents copied less often from their own prior notes compared to attendings (66% vs. 94%, p < 0.001). Of the copied information following a day off, there was no difference in the amount of information copied into notes of residents (59%) or attendings (61%, p = 0.17). In a regression model of attending notes, no patient factors were associated with copying. However, the levels of copying among attendings varied from 41% to 82% (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Copying among attendings and residents was common in this ICU-based cohort, with residents copying more frequently and attendings copying more information per note. The only factor that was independently associated with attending copying was the attending. Further studies should focus on further elucidating the factors influencing copying in the ICU and the effects of copying on patient outcomes.

Thornton JD; Schold JD; Venkateshaiah L; Lander B

2013-02-01

358

Deposition station for selenium isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Isotopic tracing of nanoparticles mostly involved in environmental and metabolic processes, industrial, and agricultural technologies, attracts an increasing attention nowadays. As an experimental goal, for proposed tracing studies selenium was chosen, which is an essential trace element for the nutrition of almost all living organisms, since it plays a crucial role in the antioxidant activity of seleno-enzymes. Selenium in forms of nanoparticles being synthesized by wet chemical or microbial dissimilatory processes, turned out to possess new functionality as examplified in affecting semiconductor properties, toxicity, and growth factors, which are important for both nutritional supplements and potential cancer therapy agents. Stable isotope tracing of selenium nanoparticles under in vivo conditions would then yield relevant information on biodistributions, efficiency and safety issues of applications. A prototype version of a deposition station for enrichment of stable selenium isotopes was constructed and installed downstream to the sector magnet of the DiSP isotope separator. The deposition of the isotopic beam particles was carried out with the use of selfsputtering technique. The beam with a kinetic energy of 25-30 keV was first guided through electrostatic elements, where it was focused and decelerated to 300-500 eV (Fig. 1). The geometry of the electrostatic lenses was designed with the simulation code SIMION 8. The outcoming beam impinged upon the surface of a tungsten disc, on which recombination and selfsputtering of selenium ions occurred. Sputtering yields and efficiencies were measured as a function of beam intensities. It was concluded that emission of the selenium atoms can be predominantly attributed to heat spike mechanism due to large differences in evaporation characteristics of selenium and tungsten. The selenium atoms were then deposited as a thin film on a polypropylene (PP) surface with a conical geometry. PP was chosen to resist strong oxidizing agents used for dissolving and processing the selenium. On the other hand, the deposition as a thin film with large surface-to-volume ratio was also essential to produce oxyanions with a well-controlled oxidation state, strongly affecting the efficiency of nanoparticle biosynthesis. The isotopic compositions of samples were checked with SNMS (Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometer) technique at Atomki, while quantitative analyses were carried out with AFS (Atomic Fluorescent Spectrometer) technique at the University of Debrecen. The net efficiency of transforming isotopic Se(0) to Se(IV) was found 0.90±0.25 with respect to estimated values, which were calculated by measuring integrated beam charge, assumed evaporation profiles, and expected losses of the dissolution procedure. As an outlook, this prototype of deposition station is planned to be developed and integrated in a new scattering chamber, which will host various beam forming, analytical, and target manipulator elements to achieve a higher level of control over parameters of implantation and deposition using isotopic ion beams.

2009-01-01

359

Exploring medical student decisions regarding attending live lectures and using recorded lectures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Student decisions about lecture attendance are based on anticipated effect on learning. Factors involved in decision-making, the use of recorded lectures and their effect on lecture attendance, all warrant investigation. Aim: This study was designed to identify factors in student decisions to attend live lectures, ways in which students use recorded lectures, and if their use affects live lecture attendance. Methods: A total of 213 first (M1) and second year (M2) medical students completed a survey about lecture attendance, and rated factors related to decisions to attend live lectures and to utilize recorded lectures. Responses were analyzed overall and by class year and gender. Results: M1 attended a higher percentage of live lectures than M2, while both classes used the same percentage of recorded lectures. Females attended more live lectures, and used a smaller percentage of recorded lectures. The lecturer was a key in attendance decisions. Also considered were the subject and availability of other learning materials. Students use recorded lectures as replacement for live lectures and as supplement to them. Conclusions: Lectures, both live and recorded, are important for student learning. Decisions about lecture placement in the curriculum need to be based on course content and lecturer quality.

Gupta A; Saks NS

2013-09-01

360

Speak Out Students! Why Don’t You Attend English Classes?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to focus on the reasons why students do not to attend English classes, and linking this to performance. Data were gathered from three sources: (1) a student questionnaire, (2) a round of semi-structured interviews and (3) attendance records and end of semester grades. The results indicated a number of reasons for non-attendance to include: workload in the faculty, the duration of the classes, time of the day, uninteresting and unchallenging classes, and irrelevant material and writing tasks. A significant positive relationship between attendance and grades was also found.

Pauline Ghenghesh; Nabila Louis Nakhla

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

A survey of medical students attending an international ?student conference  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the lifestyle choices of international medical students attending a ?student conference. ?Study Design: Questionnaire-based census study.?Methods: A pre-tested structured questionnaire was given to the 481 delegates attending an ?international medical student conference in 2009 in Macedonia. The respondents were asked ?questions on their demographics, physical activity, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, sexual ?activity and nutritional intake. The results obtained from statistical analysis using SPSS version ??16 were used to outline the socio-demographic variables under survey.?? Results: An overall response rate of 60.9% (n=293) was achieved. The sample population had a ?mean age of 22.45, 44% (128) of the respondents were male and 56% (165) were female. 89% ?were undergraduate students and 62% were from Europe. 78.8% reported practicing physical ?activity at least once a week, with 4.5% reporting no physical activity at all. Of those who ?reported practicing physical activity, half carry out more than one hour of activity daily. 22.2% ??(n=65) smoke on a regular basis, of which 88.7% smoked cigarettes and 11.3% reported ?smoking marijuana over the previous 12 months. The Eastern Mediterranean Region reported the ?highest percentage of smoking (31.6%), followed by Europe (23.1%). 84.6% of the respondents ?reported regular consumption of alcohol. The majority of respondents (97%) reported consuming ?vegetables and fruit at least on a weekly basis. 37% reported consuming fast food at least once a ?week. 76.9% of the subjects reported having been sexually active. Of the sexually active ?population; 82.4% reported always using contraception, with the condom and the pill being the ?more popular methods.?? Conclusions: Medical students are in constant contact with health promotion and this should ?reflect in their own personal lifestyle choices. A very low percentage was observed to smoke on ?a regular basis, a high percentage carry out physical activity regularly and the majority include ?healthy food in their diet. The same population did however report a high percentage of alcohol ?and fast food consumption. The latter may be due to lifestyle choices made somewhat inevitable ?by their educational schedule, many of whom live away from home.?

Jonathan Mamo; Chantal Fenech

2012-01-01

362

Radiological environmental monitoring station for public reference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the authority of the Nuclear Power Plants of Paks a nuclear environmental survey station was developed and installed for public information in the supermarket of Kalocsa city. The station is able to measure the gamma dose rate from some 10 nGy/h value of the natural background radiation to 10 Gy/h value of the disaster level and can display it on a computer monitor on the spot. Furthermore the station measures and displays also meteorological data (temperature, pressure, humidity, wind force, wind direction, moisture).

1994-01-01

363

Donau power station Melk/A  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Donau power station Melk A was designed - like the power stations Ottenstein-Wilhering, Altenwoerth and Abwinden-Asten - as a flat building so as to fit into the landscape and as tube-turbine plant. The hydroelectric generating set is installed horizontally, which allows to design the power house and all other units as flat buildings - contrary to power stations built earlier on. Each of the turbines has a four-blade runner and is able to take in about 300 m/sup 3//s of Donauwater at full load thus producing 2200 kW for the generator drive.

Schmidt, W.

1983-12-01

364

ELECTRONIC VAPORIZING DEVICES AND DOCKING STATIONS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A docking station for an electronic vaporizing device (EVD), the docking station includes: a housing one or more charging slots in the housing for a plurality of spare batteries for use in the EVD a dedicated charging slot in the housing for engaging the EVD to charge the EVD's battery wherein the plurality of spare batteries are used as replacements for the EVD's battery and an AC/DC charger connected to an AC electrical plug receptacle for charging a main battery that powers the docking station.

NIELSEN MICHAEL D; LEADBEATER JOHN R; PALASOTA JAMES G

365

Relay protection of generator station service transformers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Generator station service transformers also called unit auxiliary transformers, are subjected to very rigorous short circuit duty. These faults fall generally into three areas: Faults within the transformers themselves, low-side faults between the transformer and the low-side bank breakers, and faults on the station service supply buses. The purpose of this paper is to show how station service transformers should be protected, and why any protective scheme can only be effective if these transformers are properly specified for UAT service.

Griffin, C.H.

1982-08-01

366

Operational information systems for power stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Systems to facilitate the manipulation of Power Station Operational Data have been installed in a number of Electricity Supply Board (ESB) power stations in response to business needs in such areas as Performance Calculations, Remanent Life Calculations, Emissions Compliance, etc. Most Operational Information Systems (OIS) are based upon modern digital control systems but the need for Information Systems for power plants with earlier controls was recognised and a cost effective solution sought. This paper discusses the feasibility of OIS for older plant and their design aspects as implemented in ESB in general and in North Wall Generating Station in particular. (author)

Canning, Tom [Electricity Supply Board, Dublin (Ireland)

1996-12-31

367

75 FR 1285 - Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMES)  

Science.gov (United States)

...transmitting co-frequency VMES earth stations in the same satellite...demonstration as exhibits to its earth station application: (i...satellites as exhibits to its earth station application: (A...coordination with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and...

2010-01-11

368

77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Notice 12-057] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting...open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including...

2012-07-12

369

75 FR 51852 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Notice (10-090)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting...open meeting of the NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee. The...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including...

2010-08-23

370

77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Notice (12-003)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting...open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including...

2012-01-19

371

77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Notice 12-090] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting...open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee...six-person crew aboard the International Space Station, including...

2012-11-01

372

47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107 Section...Radio Frequencies § 2.107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant...Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations desiring international...

2009-10-01

373

Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women Attending a Hospital in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Domestic violence is an important risk factor for pregnancy complications. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its related factors in a population of pregnant women. A cross sectional study was done on 426 women who were attended to an obstetrics ward of a hospital in Iran. A 35 item questionnaire was completed by the respondents. The life time prevalence of domestic violence was 42% and it was 19.3% during pregnancy. There was no relation between socioeconomic status, women`s education and employment and age of marriage with domestic violence. Unemployment, addiction and alcohol use among husbands were related to domestic violence. Slapping and punching were the most common kinds of violent behavior. The prevalence of domestic violence even during pregnancy is high in Iran, so there is a need to increase the awareness of the community and empower the health workers and professionals in order to prevent and control this problem.

S. Taghavi; M. Alizadeh; D. Khalilzadeh

2008-01-01

374

Manifestations of 'capabilities poverty' with learners attending informal settlement schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study I use the notion of 'capabilities poverty', as theorised by Sen, to examine the experiences of learners attending informal settlement schools in North-West Province, South Africa. Sen distinguishes between functionings (what people do or their ability to do something) and capabilities (various combi­nations of what people do, their notions of freedom, what life opportunities they may have). The study was based on a sample of respondents from four schools in the Sarafina informal settlement in Ikageng township in the municipal district of Tlokwe (Potchefstroom). It captured some complexities of schooling within South Africa's democratic educational framework and clearly exposed the mani­festations of capabilities poverty. The precise location of capabilities poverty within the plethora of poverty approaches presents educational research with a reality check when looking at informal settlement schools. The study revealed a multiplicity of barriers for informal settlement learners that prevent them from choosing the educational experience they value and contributes to research into the nuanced nature of the interface between poverty and schooling.

Rouaan Maarman

2009-01-01

375

Cancer incidence in California flight attendants (United States).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine unusual exposure opportunities to flight crews from chemicals, cosmic radiation, and electric and magnetic fields. METHODS: This project evaluated the incidence of cancers of the breast and other sites among Association of Flight Attendants (AFA) members residing in California. AFA membership files were matched to California's statewide cancer registry to identify a total of 129 newly diagnosed invasive cancers among AFA members with California residential histories between 1988 and 1995. RESULTS: Compared to the general population, female breast cancer incidence was over 30% higher than expected, and malignant melanoma incidence was roughly twice that expected. Both of these are cancers that are associated with higher socioeconomic status and have been suggestively associated with various sources of radiation. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with the results from Nordic studies of cabin crews and a recent meta-analysis of prior studies, these data suggest that follow-up investigations should focus on the potential relative contribution of workplace exposures and lifestyle characteristics to the higher rates of disease for these two cancers.

Reynolds P; Cone J; Layefsky M; Goldberg DE; Hurley S

2002-05-01

376

Changes in knowledge after attending a community pharmacists’ asthma workshop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Pharmacists can play an important role in both the detection of asthma and its monitoring in patients with asthma.Objective: To assess the change in asthma knowledge, and associated variables, of pharmacists attending the “Pharmacotherapy follow-up of Adult Bronchial Asthma” workshops run by the Pharmaceutical Care Center of Stada Laboratories.Methods: All participants in the “Pharmacotherapy follow-up of Adult Bronchial Asthma” workshops completed a pre-test and a post-test. Those who left the workshop and those who did not complete the tests were not included in the analysis. Tests were scored from 0 to 10, and the change in scores was analyzed.Results: Of the 90 participating pharmacists, 79 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 81% (64) were female, and their average age was 38.8 years [CI95%= 36.65-40.81]. The average pre-test score was 3.65 [CI95%=3.29-4.01]; 72.2% of the pharmacists scored less than 5 points. The average post-test score was 7.33 [CI95%=7.01-7.65]. The average change in scores was 3.68 [CI95%=3.29-4.07] . No statistical significance was found between this change in scores and other variables analyzed (age, gender, previous training, or position in the pharmacy).Conclusion: CAF Stada “Adult Bronchial Asthma” workshops increased pharmacists’ general knowledge.

Garcia Corpas JP; Ocaña Arenas A; Gonzalez Garcia L; Lopez Dominguez E; Garcia Jimenez E; Amariles P; Faus MJ

2006-01-01

377

Management of true shoulder dystocia at attended homebirth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At attended homebirth, shoulder dystocia poses less of a challenge and has better outcomes compared to hospital birth. If you don't panic, but do call someone into the room to help you with suprapubic pressure if needed and run thru the maneuvers systematically, you will get the baby out by six minutes avoiding damaging long-term consequences. At hospital birth, it is estimated to take a minimum of two minutes to turn the woman onto all fours from the usual position in a hospital bed while connected to a monitor, IV and epidural. An epidural anesthetizes the woman making it impossible to push optimally. Epidural also anesthetizes the baby, making spontaneous breathing less likely and making resuscitation more challenging. Suprapubic pressure is difficult at the height of the hospital bed, so time is lost while the bed is lowered. Vacuum and forceps vaginal deliveries, which are not used at home-birth but accompany about 8% of hospital births, are independent risk factors for true shoulder dystocia.

Cohain JS

2012-01-01

378

Dental attendance in preschool children - a prospective study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: At present, our understanding of the use of dental care services is incomplete, certainly where preschool children are concerned. OBJECTIVES: To investigate what proportion of 3- and 5-year-olds living in Flanders (Belgium) have already visited the dentist, to describe parents' experience about their child's dental visit, and to explore factors that may have an impact on children's early dental visit. DESIGN: Data were collected from 1057 children; validated questionnaires were completed, and children were examined by trained dentist at ages 3 and 5. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explain dental attendance. RESULTS: At the age of 3, 62% and by 5?years, 21% had never visited the dentist. The first dental visit was considered a pleasant experience for the majority of children. Multivariable regression analyses revealed that children who were not first born, whose mothers had a higher educational level and whose parents had recently visited the dentist, had significantly higher odds for having visited the dentist at young age. CONCLUSIONS: Parents of young children need to be informed about and motivated for an early dental visit. Promotion campaigns should focus on firstborn children, children from less educated parents, and parents who do not regularly see a dentist.

Leroy R; Bogaerts K; Hoppenbrouwers K; Martens LC; Declerck D

2013-03-01

379

RFID in cloud environment for Attendance monitoring system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) initially is of great use in the marketing field render billing easy. It came into effect since world war-II attained its wide spread recognition only when Walmart introduced it as ‘mandate’. An object within the range of 20 feet can be easily tracked with the aid of its unique barcode using RFID chip. It is sophisticated than the primitive barcode techniques as there is no need of positioning of the scanner. Cloud computing is a system which provides access to all soft ware’s without installation, for a desired time period, at a specific cost, only with the help of a single web browser.. Interfacing RFID with cloud computing would be more beneficiary in solving current issues. Technological updates can be done without any technical support. This paper presents theoverview of interfacing RFID with cloud computing for updating students’ attendance and updating it into the parents’ corner and faculty mails. By considering the present issue, providing unique RFID code to the students reduce malpractice and human error. Also Human resources can be saved by the application of cloud computing. Time management is the most effective advantage gained from the use ofRFID and cloud computing.

A.Parvathy; B. Rajasekhar; C.Nithya; K.Thenmozhi; J.B.B. Rayappan; Pethuru Raj; Rengarajan Amirtharajan

2013-01-01

380

47 CFR 74.793 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast...DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.793 Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of...

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
381

Economic effects of power station ash granulation and management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Components of economic effects of power station ash granulation and management are discussed. Estimated values of these effects for some professional and industrial power stations are presented. (author).

1990-01-01

382

Decommissioning strategy for Trawsfynydd power station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following the decision to close Trawsfynydd power station, Nuclear Electric adapted its generic decommissioning plans to suit the particular local circumstances. This resulted in an early reduced height safestore strategy which is described in the paper. (Author).

Jones, H.M.; Ellis, A.T. [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

383

Decommissioning strategy for Trawsfynydd power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the decision to close Trawsfynydd power station, Nuclear Electric adapted its generic decommissioning plans to suit the particular local circumstances. This resulted in an early reduced height safestore strategy which is described in the paper. (Author)

1995-01-01

384

Reducing nitrogen oxides from power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report contains 17 individual lectures of the seminar included in databanks. The lectures concern combustion and waste gas measures for reducing the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emission from coal-fired and gas-fired power stations. (PW).

1986-01-01

385

The Future Deep Underwater Space Station  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to provide an idea of developing an underwater space station. Though the ocean covers about 71% of the surface of the Earth and holds tremendous amount of resources, it is still an unknown field for human beings. With the depletion of natural resources on the land, there is an urgent need to explore and exploit the ocean, but this process is constrained by the ocean engineering equipment and technology. The study proposed a sketch of a deep sea space station, which is similar to the International space station. The station can applied to observe the ocean environment, generate power from the ocean energy, manage to mine resources, control underwater factories and underwater vehicles, be habitable for staff, making another space for human.

Jianjun Yao; Guilin Jiang; Rui Xiao

2013-01-01

386

AMS-02 on the International Space Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AMS-02 is the main phase of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment and is to be installed on the International Space Station for a three-year exposure. I will review motivations for the experiment and capabilities of the instrument

2004-02-05

387

International Space Station Propulsion Module Procurement Process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated the Space Station Program in 1984 to provide for a permanent human presence in an orbiting laboratory. The original U.S. design included a propulsion module that could adjust the orientati...

2001-01-01

388

Modeling International Space Station (ISS) Floating Potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The floating potential of the International Space Station (ISS) as a function of the electron current collection of its high voltage solar array panels is derived analytically. Based on Floating Potential Probe (FPP) measurements of the ISS potential and ...

D. C. Ferguson B. Gardner

2002-01-01

389

75 FR 22674 - Moynihan Station Development Project  

Science.gov (United States)

...passengers riding Amtrak, local commuter rail passengers, and subway riders. It is, however, plagued with design problems. As...Station, the Farley Building, and the existing New York City subway lines. The project as currently envisioned will take...

2010-04-29

390

76 FR 3064 - Travelers Information Stations  

Science.gov (United States)

...order to ``establish an efficient means of communicating certain kinds of information to travelers over low power radio transmitters licensed to Local Government entities.'' The Commission specifically noted that such stations had been...

2011-01-19

391

Johannesburg's new station, architect replies to criticism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mr. Moerdijk, one of the architects of the Johannesburg Railway station, reacts to criticism expressed by "A student of architecture". , Canoscan 80000f 6000DPI TIFF scanner used, edited using Photoshop v7.

Moerdyk, Gerard; Moerdijk, Gerard

392

Emergency medical care on space stations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This Note emphasizes the need, in a space station, of an emergency room, especially equipped with regard to clean air and competent paramedical personnel. The establishment of some degree of artificial gravity is desirable.

Frey R; Durner P; von Baumgarten R; Vogel H

1980-12-01

393

Astronauts' Legal Status: The International Space Station.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aspects of astronaut legal status as derived from the Intergovernmental Space Station Agreement (IGA) are discussed. The personal status of the astronauts is defined. Patent law considerations pertaining to the work or discoveries carried out by an astron...

J. Reifarth

1990-01-01

394

Upgrading of Latschau power station: Kaplan turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Latschau power station of the Vorarlberger Illwerke AG, Vorarlberg, Austria, consists of two vertical Kaplan turbines. The characteristics of the turbines built in 1943 are compared with the characteristics after the refurbishment in 1993. (Author)

Holzer, W. (J.M. Voith AG, St Poelten (Austria)); Schedler, E. (Vorarlberger Illwerke AG, Schruns (Austria))

1994-02-01

395

Automobile gas-filling compressor stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soviet requirements for automobile gas (CNG) filling stations recommend an average pumping capacity of 29,000-30,000 CF/hr for a total of 500 fillups/day. Along with a schematic drawing showing the basic elements of such stations and including two groups of low- and high-pressure compressors and accumulators, this study includes a nomograph for hydrate formation conditions and presents a procedure for drying gas at high pressure as it exits the compressor.

Gainullin, F.G.; Vasil' ev, Y.N.; Zolotarevskii, L.S.; Makovskii, V.A.

1983-04-01

396

Life in Space: The International Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Students are introduced to the International Space Station (ISS) with information about its structure, operation and key experiments. The ISS itself is an experiment in international cooperation to explore the potential for humans to live in space. The space station features state-of-the-art science and engineering laboratories to conduct research in medicine, materials and fundamental science to benefit people on Earth as well as people who will live in space in the future.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

397

Model concept for an anhydrite station (HBNPC)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The model is described for a new type of anhydrite station specially designed for a workplace where access is extremely difficult. The anhydrite is transported in ballast-conveying mine cars fitted with stainless-steel car bottoms. The transport and unloading procedure is mechanized and no manual effort is needed from the workforce at the station. The handling capacity is currently 12 t per hour.

Bouchend' homme, M.

1985-12-01

398

Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

Stoffel, T

2005-07-01

399

Safety of Russia's nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently, 29 nuclear power plant units are in operation in Russia. The units 2, respectively, of both the Novovoronesh and Belojarsk nuclear power stations are shut down for decommissioning. In judjing the safety of the units of the first and second generation, GOSATOMNAZDOR applies very strict standards. For several nuclear power stations this entailed restraints on their power output as well as upgrading and retrofitting measures (Kurk, Balakovo, Kalinin, Leningrade 1 and 2, and Kola). (DG)

1995-07-01

400

Socioeconomic impacts: nuclear power station siting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rural industrial development literature is used to gain insights on the socioeconomic effects of nuclear power stations. Previous studies of large industrial facilities in small towns have important implications for attempts to understand and anticipate the impacts of nuclear stations. Even a cursory review of the nuclear development literature, however, reveals that industrialization research in rural sociology, economic geography and agricultural economics has been largely ignored

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Servicing of the Belgian nuclear power stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Every nuclear boiler of a power station has to undergo an annual stop with the purpose of the partial refilling of the fuel. This pause is turned to account to ensure the maintenance both of the nuclear and the electro-mechanical part. The nuclear division of ACEC, a power station manufacturer, has created the servicing department with the aim of realizing an operator-manufacturer synergy the final purpose of which is the integral preventive servicing.

Couez, H.; Delcuve, J.; Lacomble, J. (Ateliers de Constructions Electriques de Charleroi (Belgium))

1982-01-01

402

Effects of teacher attention on attending behavior of two boys at adjacent desks1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of teacher attention on the attending behavior of two boys seated at adjacent desks were investigated. Baseline records were obtained of the appropriate attending behavior of two boys who were described as the most disruptive pupils in a second-grade classroom of a poverty area school. D...

Broden, Marcia; Bruce, Carl; Mitchell, Mary Ann; Carter, Virginia; Hall, R. Vance

403

Attending normalization after electroslag welding of 12KhM steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the method of experiment planning the effect of thermal cycle parameters of the electroslag welding with the attending normalization upon the structure and properties of the metal of the overheated region on the 12KhM steel is investigated. Regimes of the attending normalization during electroslag welding of the 12KhM steel are developed and recommended for practical use

1981-01-01

404

Effect of Strathclyde police initiative "Operation Blade" on accident and emergency attendances due to assault.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To review assault victim attendance at the accident and emergency department of Glasgow Royal Infirmary before and after a police initiative to curb knife carrying and tackle violent assaults ("Operation Blade"). METHODS: Assault victim attendance was reviewed for the month before the imp...

Bleetman, A; Perry, C H; Crawford, R; Swann, I J

405

Class absenteeism : reasons for non-attendance and the effect on academic performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE – Other business education literature, particularly in the field of economics, has developed theories in respect of the reasons for non-attendance of lectures and the positive correlation between class attendance and academic performance. The aim of this paper is to determine the generalizab...

Schmulian, Astrid; Coetzee, Stephen

406

Increased attendance rate: BMI matters, lifestyles don't. Results from the Dutch SMILE study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: a small group of frequent attenders is responsible for a disproportional large percentage of all daytime consultations in general practice. High attendance rates are related to demographic and psychological characteristics. Differences in attendance rates are only partly explained by chronic diseases. Furthermore, lifestyles might be relevant too. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of lifestyle on attendance rates. METHOD: this study is part of the Study of Medical Information and Lifestyles in Eindhoven, the Netherlands (SMILE). Generalized estimated equations were used to determine the relation between attendance rate and the different lifestyle factors (N = 4444). RESULTS: a higher body mass index was related to increased attendance rate in both male [relative risk (RR) 1.02; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.03] and female patients (RR 1.01; 95% CI 1.01-1.02). Lifestyles were not related to the attendance rate, except for a sedentary lifestyle in women (RR 1.08; 95% CI 1.04-1.12). DISCUSSION: since half of the Dutch population suffers from overweight or obesity and this number is still increasing, attendance rates will rise further. In order to relieve the GPs, nurse practitioners could play a more prominent role in lifestyle interventions concerning overweight and obesity and its related diseases.

van Steenkiste B; Knevel MF; van den Akker M; Metsemakers JF

2010-12-01

407

The Effects of Andragogical Teacher Training on Adult Students' Attendance and Evaluation of Their Teachers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study tested two hypotheses (1) student attendance will be better in classes taught by andragogically trained teachers and (2) students will evalute such teachers more positively. The experimental group received nine hours of andragogy training. Results indicate that the treatment had a significant, positive effect on attendance, but no effect…

Beder, Hal; Carrea, Natalino

1988-01-01

408

An ACCESS-based academic attending physician and resident rotation evaluation database.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A database of residents' evaluations of their Internal Medicine (IM) rotations and attending physicians (APs) was created using ACCESS (Microsoft). The IM attendings and the corresponding inpatient or outpatient rotations from three academic settings (county hospital, VA, and University) are ranked ...

Valdivia, T. D.; Hartquist, B. A.

409

Metabolic syndrome among students attending a historically black college: prevalence and gender differences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence rate of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among college students attending any Historically Black College and University (HBCU), which are mostly attended by young African Americans (AA). We report the prevalence and gender differ...

Topè Avinash M; Rogers Phyllis F

410

Migration, Remittances, and Children's High School Attendance: The Case of Rural China  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper uses a large nationally representative survey data to examine the impact of China's rural-urban migration on high school attendance of left-behind children by disentangling the effect of remittances from that of migration. The results show that the absence of adult household members has a negative impact on the high school attendance of…

Hu, Feng

2012-01-01

411

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Indicated Interventions to Increase School Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of intervention programs on school attendance behaviors of elementary and secondary school students to inform policy and practice. The specific questions guiding this study were: (1) Do indicated programs with a goal of increasing student attendance affect…

Maynard, Brandy R.; Tyson-McCrea, Katherine; Pigott, Therese; Kelly, Michael

2011-01-01

412

Distinct neural correlates of attending speed vs. coherence of motion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Attention to specific features of moving visual stimuli modulates the activity in human cortical motion sensitive areas. In this study we employed combined event-related electrophysiological, magnetencephalographic (EEG, MEG) and hemodynamic functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures of brain activity to investigate the precise time course and the neural correlates of feature-based attention to speed and coherence. Subjects were presented with an aperture of dots randomly moving either slow or fast, at the same time displaying a high or low level of coherence. The task was to attend either the speed or the coherence and press a button upon the high speed or high coherence stimulus respectively. When attention was directed to the speed of motion enhanced neural activity was found in the dorsal visual area V3a and in the IPL, areas previously shown to be specialized for motion processing. In contrast, when attention was directed to the coherence of motion significant hemodynamic activity was observed in the parietal areas fIPS and SPL that are specialized for the processing of complex motion patterns. Concurrent recordings of the event-related electro- and magnetencephalographic responses revealed that the speed-related attentional modulations of activity occurred at an earlier time range (around 240-290 ms), while the coherence-related ones occurred later (around 320-370 ms) post-stimulus. The current results suggest that the attentional selection of motion features modulates neural processing in the lowest-tier regions required to perform the task-critical discrimination.

Kau S; Strumpf H; Merkel C; Stoppel CM; Heinze HJ; Hopf JM; Schoenfeld MA

2013-01-01

413

Drug Interaction Awareness among Public Attending GMCH Ajman/UAE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is designed to assess peoples' knowledge towards drug interactions and their awareness towards the management and prevention of drug interaction in Ajman, UAE. A cross sectional study was conducted among subjects attending GMC hospital pharmacy/ GMCHRC [Gulf Medical College Hospital and Research Center], Ajman, UAE. Self-administered questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. The questionnaire included the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants and ten questions for the assessment of participants’ knowledge and awareness towards drug interactions and their management and prevention. Results showed that both male and female were significantly aware about drug interaction types P<0.01. There was a significant association between the finding and demographic variable such as age, and occupation. The poor knowledge response towards drug interaction types and poor awareness towards the management and prevention of drug interaction was recorded by participants with the age group above 40 years and participants without occupation. All participants were significantly recorded poor knowledge response towards the possible interaction of (OTC) and prescription medication with herbal remedies and supplements (P<0.01) and significant poor awareness (P<0.01) towards the management and prevention of drug interaction by visiting and purchasing all drug prescriptions from the same pharmacy. In conclusion, there is a need to improve the knowledge of elderly patients towards drug interaction types and the risk of polypharmacy and their awareness towards the management of drug interaction. Mass education program by health authorities is required for public in one side and health professional from the other side to control unwanted adverse drug reactions.

Nehad Mahdi Hamoudi

2013-01-01

414