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Sample records for petrol station attendants

  1. Working Environment Factors that Affect Quality of Work Life among Attendants in Petrol Stations in Kitale Town in Kenya

    Aloys Nyagechi Kiriago; Henry M. Bwisa

    2013-01-01

    This research sought to establish working environment factors that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants in Kitale town. The objective of the study was to identify working environment aspects that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants. This study was an exploratory survey, carried out in 17 petrol stations that are located in Kitale Town, Kenya. The target population comprised 17 station managers and 170 attendants, out of which a sample of 102 resp...

  2. Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria

    N. E. Udonwa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM, Petrol Station Attendants (PSA and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (MetHb and packed cells volume (PCV. Mean MetHb value was higher in AM (7.3% and PSA (5.8% than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%. PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%, than AM (33.3% and the subjects from the general population (40.8%. MetHb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and MetHb as a useful biomarker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour.

  3. Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria

    A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM), Petrol Station Attendants (PSA) and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (Met Hb) and packed cells volume (PCV). Mean Met Hb value was higher in AM (7.3%) and PSA (5.8%) than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%). PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%), than AM (33.3%) and the subjects from the general population (40.8%). Met Hb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and Met Hb as a useful bio marker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour.

  4. Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria

    Udonwa, N. E.; Uko, E. K.; Ikpeme, B. M.; Ibanga, I. A.; Okon, B. O.

    2009-01-01

    A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM), Petrol Station Attendants (PSA) and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (MetHb) and packed cells volume (PCV). Mean MetHb value was higher in AM (7.3%) and PSA (5.8%) than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%). PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%), than AM (33.3%) and the subjects from the general population (40.8%). MetHb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and MetHb as a useful biomarker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour. PMID:19936128

  5. Nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of petrol station attendants in Udaipur, Rajasthan

    Rashmi Metgud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The petroleum derivatives consist of a complex mixture of chemical compounds one among which is benzene. Petrol station workers who pump fuel to vehicles absorb the products of fuel fumes and the products of combustion. Materials and Methods: To study the occupational exposure to petroleum derivatives such as benzene, exfoliated buccal cells from 40 petrol station attendants and 40 age-matched control subjects were examined for micronuclei, binucleation, karyorrhexis and karyolysis frequency by using feulgen and Giemsa stains. Statistical evaluation was performed with ANOVA test. Results: In the present study, inter-comparison of mean values for micronuclei, binucleation, karyorrhexis and karyolysis using Fuelgen stain between smokers of study and control group, as well as between smokers and non-smokers of study and control group revealed statistically highly significant results with P value 0.00002 and 0.0001 respectively. Whereas inter comparison between non-smokers of study and control group using Feulgen stain and inter comparison between smokers of study and control group, using Giemsa stain revealed statistically significant results with P value 0.0034 and 0.0004, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that the studied individuals belong to a risk group and should periodically undergo biological monitoring and proper care.

  6. Meyrin Petrol Station

    2006-01-01

    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  7. China Tightens Control over Petrol Stations

    Sun Huiping

    2002-01-01

    @@ China has recently mounted a nationwide campaign to standardize petrol stations. Based on the reports from China Central Television, all the petrol station that have not been licensed with "Oil Products Retail Permit" issued by the provincial economic and trade commission will be halted for business operation. Such petrol stations will be allowed to resume business if they are in line with the local industrial development plan and obtain the permits after going though all the necessary formalities. The petrol stations that are not in line with the development plan will be closed before August 31,2002.

  8. Overexpression of miR-221 in peripheral blood lymphocytes in petrol station attendants: A population based cross-sectional study in southern China.

    Hu, Dalin; Peng, Xiaowu; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaochun; Tang, Huanwen; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Yang, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Benzene is a recognized environmental leukemogen, however, the mechanisms for its carcinogenesis have not been fully elucidated. Recently, miR-221, a suggested oncogene involved in a number of malignancies, has been detected with elevated expression levels in blood cells of patients with leukemia. To explore whether benzene exposure has an effect on the expression of miR-221, a population based cross-sectional study was conducted in southern China, with 97 petrol station attendants as the exposure group and 103 general residents as the control group. Plasma benzene was analyzed by using GC∖MS. miR-221 in peripheral blood lymphocytes were measured by qRT-PCR and the ΔCt value for each sample was calculated by normalizing the Ct value for miR-221 with U6 RNA (i.e., ΔCt = CtmiR-221 - CtU6). Potential confounding factors were taken into account. Pearson correlation, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed in statistical analysis. The results showed that the air concentrations of benzene were significantly higher in petrol stations than in control sites (P < 0.05); The levels of benzene and miR-221 in exposure group were both significantly higher than in control group (P < 0.05) and there was a significant positive correlation between the two indexes (r = 0.851, P < 0.05); An association between benzene levels and the ΔCt values for miR-221 was identified by univariate and multivariate logistic analysis (OR 0.274; 95%CI 0.117, 0.396). Our investigation indicates that benzene exposure may be related to elevated miR-221 expression in human lymphocytes. PMID:26841344

  9. Evaluation and Comparison of Micronuclei from Intraoral Smears of Petrol Pump Attendants and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients

    Divya Uppala; Parmeswara Peela; Sumit Majumdar; Mahesh Babu Tadakamadla; G Sanjeev Anand

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Evaluation of nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of petrol station attendants and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Materials and me thods: Study was carried out on 60 subjects. 20 petrol pump attendants, 20-squamous cell carcinoma patients and 20 healthy subjects. They were asked questions regarding their life style and personal factors (age, duration of working in the petrol pump, alcohol consumption and smoking habits) were st...

  10. Research of volatile organic compounds from petrol filling stations

    Bikbajeva, Žana

    2008-01-01

    The research focuses on the environmental problem of volatile organic compounds in ambient air of petrol filling stations. The literature review of the issues, arising from petrol-related VOCs, with actual and proposed VOC emissions trends in Europe, have been performed. Besides petrol filling station’s typical technology layout, petrol nature and composition, applicable petrol vapour recovery solutions and their efficiency were examinated. The volatile organic compounds’ experimental researc...

  11. The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium

    In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally established

  12. The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium

    Naeyer, F. de; Van Dyck, E. [OVAM, Mechelen (Belgium); Janssens, J.P.; Duliere, A. [BIM, Brussel (Belgium); Fondaire, D. [DGRNE, Liege (Belgium); Bodart, O. [Governement Wallon, Namur (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally

  13. Replacement of the pumps at the CERN petrol stations

    2007-01-01

    The CERN petrol stations will be closed on the following dates to allow the pumps to be replaced: Prévessin petrol station: 26 and 27 November Meyrin petrol station: 28, 29 and 30 November The current fuel cards in the vehicles will have expired by the time the new pumps begin operation. All those in possession of a CERN vehicle are therefore requested to collect a transponder badge from the light- vehicle maintenance office (130/R-013), which is open from 8.00 a.m. to midday and from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Badges will be issued on presentation of the keys of the vehicle in question. TS-IC-LO Section – Tel. 77039 - 72228

  14. Replacement of the pumps at the CERN petrol stations

    2007-01-01

    The CERN petrol stations will be closed on the following dates to allow the pumps to be replaced: Prévessin petrol station: 26 and 27 November Meyrin petrol station: 28, 29 and 30 November The current fuel cards in the vehicles will have expired by the time the new pumps begin operation. All those in possession of a CERN vehicle are therefore requested to collect a transponder badge from the light vehicle maintenance office (130/R-013), which is open from 8.00 a.m. to midday and from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Badges will be issued on presentation of the keys of the vehicle in question. TS-IC-LO Section Tel. 77039 - 72228

  15. Evaluation and Comparison of Micronuclei from Intraoral Smears of Petrol Pump Attendants and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients

    Divya Uppala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluation of nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of petrol station attendants and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Materials and me thods: Study was carried out on 60 subjects. 20 petrol pump attendants, 20-squamous cell carcinoma patients and 20 healthy subjects. They were asked questions regarding their life style and personal factors (age, duration of working in the petrol pump, alcohol consumption and smoking habits were statistically analyzed. Buccal smears were taken from respective sites and stained with Periodic Acid Schiff. Results: There was a significant number of nuclear abnor - malities seen in oral carcinoma group and then followed by the petrol pump workers. Discussion: Micronuclei are identified with presence of a main nucleus and one or more smaller nuclei (micronuclei in the cells. The micronuclei are usually round or oval in shape and their diameter may range between 1/3 and 1/16, the diameter of the main nucleus. Nuclear abnormalities were classified accord - ing to Tolbert et al (1992. These criteria are intended to classify buccal cells into categor ies that distinguish between ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ based on their aberrant nuclear morphology.

  16. Electrostatic hazards with underground plastic pipes at petrol stations

    The paper analyses some ignition incidents that have been reported with insulating, (non-conductive) underground plastic pipes in retail petrol stations. The occurrence of the incidents is compared with voltage measurements, observations of the typical spread of streaming currents recorded in gasoline handling and theoretical estimates of the voltages on the pipes. The comparisons suggest that neither incendive sparks from unbonded conductors nor incendive brush discharges from insulating pipe surfaces can be ruled out although both are expected to be rare. The hazards can be prevented by using pipes with earthed conductive or dissipative inner linings.

  17. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China

    Dalin Hu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE, a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet  little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01 and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value. The calculated cancer risks (CRs at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 106 for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 106 for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−4; The hazard quotients (HQs for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk.

  18. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet  little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 106 for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 106 for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−4; The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk. PMID:26861375

  19. State of subsoil in a former petrol station: physicochemical characterization and hydrocarbon contamination evaluation

    María Rosales, Rosa; Martinez-Pagán, Pedro; Faz, Ángel; Bech, Jaume

    2013-04-01

    Former petrol stations are, possibly, potential hydrocarbon contaminated soil areas due to leakage in Underground Storage Tanks and fuel dispensing activities. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in gasoline, like benzene and semi-volatile organics in diesel, are carcinogenic and very toxic substances which can involve a serious risk for ecosystem and human health. Based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography 2D results from a previous work, there have been selected three potentially contaminated goal areas in a former petrol station located in SE Spain in order to obtain soil samples by drilling and to assess the gasoline and diesel contamination. A special sampling design was carried out and soil samples for VOCs were preserved at field with a KCl solution to minimize volatilization losses. It had been chosen Headspace-GC-MS as the better technique to quantify individual VOCs and GC-FID to get a Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) assessment after a solid/fluid pressurized extraction. The physicochemical characterization of the subsoil was performed to know how humidity, clay content or pH data could be related to the presence of hydrocarbons in the soil samples. Results show that VOCs concentrations in subsoil samples of the petrol station are around ppb levels. TPH ranged between 17 mg/kg soil and 93 mg/kg soil (ppm levels) what involves diesel and gasoline leaks due to these detected residual concentrations in the subsoil. The maximum value was found at 6 m deep in an intermediate zone between Underground Storage Tanks positions (located at 4 m deep). Therefore, these results confirm that organic compounds transference with strong vertical component has taken place. It has been observed that humidity minimum values in the subsoil are related to TPH maximum values that could be explained because of the vapour phase and the retention of hydrocarbon in soil increases when humidity goes down. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in the subsoil tend to be pH-dependent and clay

  20. Lipoid Pneumonia in a Gas Station Attendant

    Gladis Isabel Yampara Guarachi; Valeria Barbosa Moreira; Angela Santos Ferreira; Selma M. De A. Sias; Rodrigues, Cristovão C.; Graça Helena M. do C. Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    The exogenous lipoid pneumonia, uncommon in adults, is the result of the inhalation and/or aspiration of lipid material into the tracheobronchial tree. This is often confused with bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis due to a nonspecific clinical and radiologic picture. It presents acutely or chronically and may result in pulmonary fibrosis. We describe here a case of lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant who siphoned gasoline to fill motorcycles; he was hospitalized due to pr...

  1. Hazards Forecasting and Weights Determination during Operation and Maintenance of Petrol Fuel Station

    M.M. Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Petrol Fuel Stations (PFS is the most commonly available hazardous facility within urban and rural areas. Hazardous materials such as petrol, diesel, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG and kerosene oil normally sell and stores at PFS. PFS can be considered as small refinery within the city. A 3.5 year study conducted and 3216 non-compliances were recorded from PFS located in various cities of Pakistan. The operating company was ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certified. The recorded non-compliances during study period were categorized into 8 potential factors. These were Housekeeping (HK, Transportation Hazard (TH, Slips, Trips and Falls (STF, Carelessness (C, Fire Risks (FR, Electrical Fault (EF, Miscellaneous Cases (MC and Medical Treatment Cases (MTC. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP was used and categorized 8 factors were prioritized. The same data was further classified based upon to cause fatality, accident, incident and near miss cases. A total numbers of 14, 426, 975 and 1804, fatality, accident, incident and near miss cases were recorded. With application of Exponential Smoothing method the fatalities, accident, incident and near miss cases for the years 2011, 2012 and 2013 were forecasted. The results of AHP and forecasted hazards will be presented and discussed in this study. It is hope that the both approaches will assist health and safety professionals for future hazards predictions and hazards weights determinations. Health and safety practitioners can take remedial and preventative measures by using past data with utilization of proposed techniques.

  2. Lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant.

    Yampara Guarachi, Gladis Isabel; Barbosa Moreira, Valeria; Santos Ferreira, Angela; Sias, Selma M De A; Rodrigues, Cristovão C; Teixeira, Graça Helena M do C

    2014-01-01

    The exogenous lipoid pneumonia, uncommon in adults, is the result of the inhalation and/or aspiration of lipid material into the tracheobronchial tree. This is often confused with bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis due to a nonspecific clinical and radiologic picture. It presents acutely or chronically and may result in pulmonary fibrosis. We describe here a case of lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant who siphoned gasoline to fill motorcycles; he was hospitalized due to presenting with a respiratory infection that was hard to resolve. The patient underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, which, on cytochemical (oil red O) evaluation, was slightly positive for lipid material in the foamy cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages. Due to his occupational history and radiographic abnormalities suggestive of lipoid pneumonia, a lung biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was serially treated with segmental lung lavage and showed clinical, functional, and radiological improvement. PMID:25374742

  3. Lipoid Pneumonia in a Gas Station Attendant

    Gladis Isabel Yampara Guarachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exogenous lipoid pneumonia, uncommon in adults, is the result of the inhalation and/or aspiration of lipid material into the tracheobronchial tree. This is often confused with bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis due to a nonspecific clinical and radiologic picture. It presents acutely or chronically and may result in pulmonary fibrosis. We describe here a case of lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant who siphoned gasoline to fill motorcycles; he was hospitalized due to presenting with a respiratory infection that was hard to resolve. The patient underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, which, on cytochemical (oil red O evaluation, was slightly positive for lipid material in the foamy cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages. Due to his occupational history and radiographic abnormalities suggestive of lipoid pneumonia, a lung biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was serially treated with segmental lung lavage and showed clinical, functional, and radiological improvement.

  4. Environmental impact assessment of trace metal deposition around the petrol filling stations

    The wide use of petroleum products causes contamination of air, water, soil and plants. The present study was conducted to monitor the trace metal deposition in road side soil around the petrol filling stations along the busy roads of Karachi, Pakistan. Total 21 road side soil samples were collected from selected locations of busy roads. The soil samples were digested using acid digestion method and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used for the elemental analysis. Results of the study showed that concentration of lead was highest in the soil samples ranging from 41.3 to 361 mg/kg, then copper from 23.0 to 101 mg/kg, manganese from 36.2 to 125.0 mg/kg and zinc from 27.5 to 213.0 mg/kg, respectively. The correlation-coefficient (r) was also calculated between the metals in soil samples. The correlation matrix showed that all the pollution is coming from the same source. The gravitational sedimentation and impact on vegetation of coarse fraction is responsible for the high lead contamination of vegetation and soils. Collected data showed that, almost all the pollution being generated by automobile exhaust in urban areas of Karachi. The soil acts as an important sink for pollutants released through different activities. (author)

  5. Evaluation of benzene exposure in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics by urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA determination

    Teresa Cirillo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Occupational exposure to benzene in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics was studied by examining the benzene content in both the air breathed and in the urinary metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA. Thirty petrol pump attendants and thirty mechanics (as exposed workers and thirty adult male office workers (as non exposed workers were involved in the study. Measures were taken at the begin and at the end of the working shifts.

     The benzene concentrations in the breathing air samples varied from 2 to 88 μg m-3, lower than the EU acceptable limit for occupational environment. The average urinary t,t-MA in the petrol pump attendants at the begin and at the end of the working shifts ranged between 133 ± 69 and 255 ± 174 μg g-1 creatinine and in the mechanics between 204 ± 139 and 300 ± 211 μg g-1 creatinine, respectively.

    In all the participants the mean levels of urinary t,t-MA at the end of the working shifts were significantly higher than those at the beginning. In the exposed workers mean levels of urinary t,t-MA were significantly higher than in those of the non-exposed workers. The influence of the smoking was demonstrated by the urinary t,t-MA levels in smoking non-exposed subjects.

  6. Petrol Price Cycles

    David P. Byrne

    2012-01-01

    I never owned a car as a student. If I had to go somewhere, I walked or took public transport. I paid little attention to petrol prices because they did not affect my weekly budget. However, if you talk to someone who owns a car or drives to work, you will likely find they pay attention to prices at the pump.They may tell you which are the cheap petrol stations in their market, what the cheap day of the week for buying petrol is, or express concern that petrol prices rise around weekends and ...

  7. Spirometry in fuel station attendants : a comparative study

    Vella, Jacob; Borg, Manwel

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to volatile fuel compounds and roadway motor vehicle exhaust leads to increased risk of chronic lung disease and carcinogenesis. Tobacco smoking further accelerates this process. Spirometry is an objective way of assessing lung function. The aim of this study is to infer whether fuel station attendants manifest a further decrease in lung function when compared to other full-time workers working outdoors and whether smoking tobacco manifest a further decrease in lung function among at...

  8. Oil fuel delivery optimization for multi product and multi depot: the case of petrol station replenishment problem (PSRP)

    Surjandari, Isti; Rachman, Amar; Dianawati, Fauzia; Wibowo, R. Pramono

    2011-10-01

    With the Oil and Gas Law No. 22 of 2001, national and foreign private enterprises can invest in all sectors of Oil and Gas in Indonesia. In anticipation of this free competition, Pertamina, as a state-owned enterprises, which previously had monopolized the oil and gas business activities in Indonesia, should be able to improve services as well as the efficiency in order to compete in the free market, especially in terms of cost efficiency of fuel distribution to gas station (SPBU). To optimize the distribution activity, it is necessary to design a scheduling system and its fuel delivery routes daily to every SPBU. The determination of routes and scheduling delivery of fuel to the SPBU can be modeled as a Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PSRP) with the multi-depot, multi-product, time windows and split deliveries, which in this study will be completed by the Tabu Search algorithm (TS). This study was conducted in the area of Bandung, the capital of West Java province, which is a big city and the neighboring city of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. By using the fuel delivery data for one day, the results showed a decrease of 16.38% of the distance of the route compared to the current conditions, which impacted on the reduction of distribution costs and decrease the number of total trips by 5.22% and 3.83%.

  9. Variability of benzene exposure among filling station attendants

    A monitoring survey of filling station attendants aimed at identifying sources of variability of exposure to benzene and other aromatics was carried out. Concurrent samples of the worker's breathing zone air, atmospheric air in the service station proximity, and gasoline were collected, along with information about daily workloads and other exposure-related factors. Benzene personal exposure was characterised by a small between-worker variability and a predominant within-worker variance component. Such elevated day-to-day variability yields to imprecise estimates of mean personal exposure. Almost 70% of the overall personal exposure variance was explained by a model including daily benzene from dispensed fuel, presence of a shelter over the refueling area, amount of fuel supplied to the station if a delivery occurred, and background atmospheric benzene concentration

  10. Methodology for the detection of contamination by hydrocarbons and further soil sampling for volatile and semi-volatile organic enrichment in former petrol stations, SE Spain

    Rosa María Rosales Aranda; Pedro Martinez Pagán; Angel Faz Cano

    2012-01-01

    The optimal detection and quantification of contamination plumes in soil and groundwater by petroleum organic compounds, gasoline and diesel, is critical for the reclamation of hydrocarbons contaminated soil at petrol stations. Through this study it has been achieved a sampling stage optimization in these scenarios by means of the location of potential contamination areas before sampling with the application of the 2D electrical resistivity tomography method, a geophysical non destructive tec...

  11. The Petrol Station and the Internet Cafe: Rural Technospaces for Youth.

    Laegran, Anne Sofie

    2002-01-01

    A study in two Norwegian villages focused on the local gas station and the Internet cafe as "technospaces" for rural youth cultures--spaces at the intersection of technology and human interaction. The car and the Internet were given different symbolic and utility values in various youth subcultures. Local contexts influenced technology usage…

  12. Geo-enviromental monitoring system of the oil storages on petrol stations

    Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In large cities, fuel consumption is growing rapidly, and therefore the number of filling stations. And they are a source of anthropogenic impact on the environment and represent current scientific and practical task, because recently no research was conducted into the optimization of monitoring systems in the construction of gas station storage tanks, and no activity on replacing the obsolete design with new storage tanks. In this regard, much attention should be paid to the creation of geo-environmental systems integrated assessment of the environment, as well as modeling and forecasting various negative situations. In the modern world, the creation of such systems is possible with the help of modern computer tools such as geographic information systems.

  13. Methodology for the detection of contamination by hydrocarbons and further soil sampling for volatile and semi-volatile organic enrichment in former petrol stations, SE Spain

    Rosa María Rosales Aranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal detection and quantification of contamination plumes in soil and groundwater by petroleum organic compounds, gasoline and diesel, is critical for the reclamation of hydrocarbons contaminated soil at petrol stations. Through this study it has been achieved a sampling stage optimization in these scenarios by means of the location of potential contamination areas before sampling with the application of the 2D electrical resistivity tomography method, a geophysical non destructive technique based on resistivity measurements in soils. After the detection of hydrocarbons contaminated areas, boreholes with continuous coring were performed in a petrol station located in Murcia Region (Spain. The drillholes reached depths down to 10 m and soil samples were taken from each meter of the drilling. The optimization in the soil samples handling and storage, for both volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds determinations, was achieved by designing a soil sampler to minimize volatilization losses and in order to avoid the manual contact with the environmental samples during the sampling. The preservation of soil samples was performed according to Europe regulations and US Environmental Protection Agency recommendations into two kinds of glass vials. Moreover, it has been taken into account the determination techniques to quantify the hydrocarbon pollution based on Gas Chromatography with different detectors and headspace technique to reach a liquid-gas equilibrium for volatile analyses.

  14. Petrol Fiyatlarinin Ihracat Uzerindeki Etkisi

    Olcay Yucel Culha; Mustafa Utku Ozmen; Erdal Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    [TR] Petrol fiyatlarinda 2014 yilinin ikinci yarisindan itibaren gozlenen ciddi dusus, petrol fiyatlarinin dis denge uzerindeki etkilerine iliskin tartismalari gundeme getirmistir. Soz konusu dusus petrol ihrac eden ulkelerden petrol ithal eden ulkelere reel gelirlerin kaymasina yol acmaktadir. Bu cercevede, bu calismada, ihracatin yaklasik ucte birinin petrol ihrac eden ulkelere, ucte ikisinin ise petrol ithal eden ulkelere yapildigi dikkate alinarak, petrol fiyatlarindaki degisimin Turkiye’...

  15. Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel

    Adriano Pinto Mariano; Ana Paula Arruda Geraldes Kataoka; Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis; Daniel Marcos Bonotto

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments). In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks) were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was...

  16. Traveling Salesman Approach for Solving Petrol Distribution Using Simulated Annealing

    Zuhaimy Ismail; Wan R.W. Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an attempt to solve a logistic company's problem of delivering petrol to petrol station in the state of Johor. This delivery system is formulated as a travelling salesman problem (TSP). TSP involves finding an optimal route for visiting stations and returning to point of origin, where the inter-station distance is symmetric and known. This real world application is a deceptive simple combinatorial problem and our approach is to develop solutions based on the idea of loc...

  17. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether and benzene among service station attendants and operators.

    Hartle, R

    1993-12-01

    Concerns for atmospheric pollution from auto exhaust have led to the blending of "oxygenates" with motor fuels. The most common oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently required within several metropolitan areas (Denver and Phoenix) in the range of 12% of the motor fuel. Amendments to the Clean Air Act may expand this requirement to as many as 44 other areas of the United States in the near future. In consideration of the magnitude of potential uncontrolled exposures from its extensive use and a related concern involving the potential influence of MTBE blending on exposures to other constituents of gasoline (particularly benzene), an evaluation of exposures among service station attendants and operators was undertaken at the request, and in cooperation with, the American Petroleum Institute during the latter part of 1990. For application of the survey results to a broad audience, three categories or types of service stations were identified with regard to MTBE use and exposure potential: a) service stations that do not use MTBE or use it only as an octane enhancer, b) service stations with seasonal requirements to use 12-15% MTBE (the Denver, Colorado, and Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan areas), and c) service stations equipped with stage II (active) vapor recovery systems (several coastal areas, most notably Southern California). At the two sampled service stations that use only minimal amounts of MTBE (less than 1%), only 1 of 32 personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples from attendants was above the analytical limit of detection, reported at 0.16 ppm. The geometric mean concentration of benzene among this same population (n = 32) was 0.04 ppm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8020445

  18. Molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress and role of dietary factors in gasoline station attendants.

    Costa, Chiara; Ozcagli, Eren; Gangemi, Silvia; Schembri, Federico; Giambò, Federica; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to benzene promotes oxidative stress through the production of ROS, which can damage biological structures with the formation of new metabolites which can be used as markers of oxidant/antioxidant imbalance. This study aims to assess modifications in circulating levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) in a group of gasoline station attendants exposed to low-dose benzene and to evaluate the influence of antioxidant food intake on these biomarkers of oxidative stress. The diet adopted by the population examined consisted of compounds belonging to the classes of terpenoids, stilbenes and flavonoids, notably resveratrol, lycopene and apigenin. Ninety one gasoline station attendants occupationally exposed to benzene and 63 unexposed male office workers were recruited for this study. Urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) concentration, determined to assess individual exposure level, resulted significantly higher in exposed workers. In subjects exposed to benzene, we observed a significant increase (p gasoline station workers and other subjects exposed to low-dose benzene. Moreover, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables demonstrated an inverse association with the levels of oxidative stress markers, suggesting a protective role of antioxidant food intake in workers exposed to oxidant agents. PMID:26827788

  19. 浅谈加油加气站的防雷防静电技术%Discussion of Anti-lightning and Anti-static Technology of Petrol and Gas Stations

    姜云宽; 汤杰; 赵涛; 曾飞

    2013-01-01

    Petrol and gas stations are flammable and explosive place, so that its anti-lightning and anti-static is particularly important. Lightning is a serious threat to the place by various means. Measures should be taken against for lightning and static. This paper describes the comprehensive protection technology about petrol and gas stations. Calculation and analysis shows that lightning counterattack is harm to the flammable and explosive place. The result is that the process of engineering design should be considered in safety margin in practical, then it will be sufficient to minimize the risk of disaster.%加油加气站为易燃易爆场所,其防雷防静电尤为重要。雷电通过各种途径对该场所造成严重威胁。该场所不仅仅要防雷电,而且还要防静电。本文阐述了加油加气站的综合防护技术,通过计算、分析,得出雷电反击带来的危害。结果表明:在实际的防雷设计过程中应当考虑防雷设计的余量,方可足够将灾害的风险降低到最小。

  20. Petrol Pipe Line Telemonitoring Design

    Abdelrasoul Jabar Alzubaidi

    2015-01-01

    Petrol pipe lines are subjected to different types of malfunction. The malfunction can happen due to technical faults or it may be due to a gangsters attack on the petrol pipes in order to hinder the petrol pumping operations.. The damage of the petrol pipes causes a loss of a large amount of petrol from the pipe lines. Petrol pipe damage also causes fires and pollution to the environments . Such operations causes a lot of loss in economy to the country concerned where the sabotag...

  1. Occupational Exposure of Diesel Station Workers to BTEX Compounds at a Bus Depot

    Raeesa Moolla; Curtis, Christopher J.; Jasper Knight

    2015-01-01

    Diesel fuel is known to emit pollutants that have a negative impact on environmental and human health. In developing countries like South Africa, attendants are employed to pump fuel for customers at service stations. Attendants refuel vehicles with various octane unleaded fuel, lead-replacement petrol and diesel fuel, on a daily basis. Attendants are at risk to adverse health effects associated with the inhalation of volatile organic compounds released from these fuels. The pollutants releas...

  2. Cochlear condition and olivocochlear system of gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents

    Tochetto, Tania Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic solvents have been increasingly studied due to its ototoxic action. Objective: Evaluate the conditions of outer hair cells and olivocochlear system in individuals exposed to organic solvents. Method: This is a prospective study. 78 gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents had been evaluated from three gas stations from Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. After applying the inclusion criteria, the sample was constituted by 24 individuals. The procedures used on the evaluation were audiological anamnesis, Transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAES and research for the suppressive effect of TEOAES. A group control (GC compounded by 23 individuals was compared to individuals exposed and non-exposed individuals. The data collection has been done in the room of Speech Therapy of Workers Health Reference Center of Santa Maria. Results: The TEOAES presence was major in the left ear in both groups; the average relation of TEOAES signal/noise in both ears was greater in GE; the TEOAES suppressive effect in the right ear was higher in the individual of GE (62,5% and in the left ear was superior in GC (86,96%, with statistically significant difference. The median sign/noise ratio of TEOAES, according to the frequency range, it was higher in GC in three frequencies ranges in the right ear and one in the left ear. Conclusion: It was not found signs of alteration on the outer hair cells neither on the olivocochlear medial system in the individuals exposed to organic solvents.

  3. Benzene emission from the actual car fleet in relation to petrol composition in Denmark

    Palmgren, Finn; Hansen, Asger B.; Berkowicz, Ruwim; Skov, Henrik

    The present study covers an investigation of the trends in air pollution levels of benzene in Danish cities and their relationship with the benzene content in petrol. Petrol samples from the two refineries in Denmark as well as sold petrol from some representative Danish petrol stations were analysed. The benzene content in Danish petrol was reduced from 3.5% for 95 octane prior to 1995 to approx. 2% in 1995 and further to 1 % in 1998. Air quality measurements of aromatic VOC are available from two Danish cities; Copenhagen since 1994 and Odense since 1997. Measurements of benzene, CO and NO x from these two locations were analysed using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) and trends in the actual emissions of these pollutants were determined. It is shown that the decrease in both the concentration levels and in the emissions was significantly larger for benzene than for CO and NO x. The decreasing trends of NO x and CO could be explained by the increasing fraction of petrol-fuelled vehicles with three way catalysts (TWC). The much steeper decreasing trend for benzene can most likely be attributed to a combination of the effect of the increasing share of the TWC vehicles and a simultaneous reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol. The reduction of benzene concentrations and emissions is observed despite that the total amount of aromatics in petrol has increased slightly in the same period.

  4. Benzene emission from the actual car fleet in relation to petrol composition in Denmark

    The present study covers an investigation of the trends in air pollution levels of benzene in Danish cities and their relationship with the benzene content in petrol. Petrol samples from the two refineries in Denmark as well as sold petrol from some representative Danish petrol stations were analysed. The benzene content in Danish petrol was reduced from 3.5% for 95 octane prior to 1995 to approx. 2% in 1995 and further to 1% in 1998. Air quality measurements of aromatic VOC are available from two Danish cities; Copenhagen since 1994 and Odense since 1997. Measurements of benzene, CO and NOx from these two locations were analysed using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) and trends in the actual emissions of these pollutants were determined. It is shown that the decrease in both the concentration levels and in the emissions was significantly larger for benzene than for CO and NOx. The decreasing trends of NOx and CO could be explained by the increasing fraction of petrol-fuelled vehicles with three way catalysts (TWC). The much steeper decreasing trend for benzene can most likely be attributed to a combination of the effect of the increasing share of the TWC vehicles and a simultaneous reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol. The reduction of benzene concentrations and emissions is observed despite that the total amount of aromatics in petrol has increased slightly in the same period. (Author)

  5. Monitoring of gas station attendants exposure to benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) using three-color chromosome painting

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure of BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) may lead to progressive degeneration of bone marrow, aplastic anemia and/or leukemia. In Brazil there is no self-service fuel in gas stations and attendants fill the fuel themselves. Due to this they are chronically exposed to high concentration of BTX. Occupational exposure to benzene has been associated with increased chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using whole chromosome painting (wcp) probes allows the rapid detection of chromosomal aberration. In the present study three-color wcp probes for chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 were used for monitoring 60 gas station attendants. Results Blood tests were done and interviews were conducted for each worker. For searching for possible associations between the clinical characteristics and the frequency of chromosomal aberrations the workers were divided into two groups (≤ 10 chromosomal abnormalities per 1,000 metaphases and > 10 chromosomal abnormalities per 1,000 metaphases).The studied workers had a low median age (36 year), albeit long period of BTX exposure (median was 16 years). Low prevalence of smoking and moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages were found in this population. The cytogenetic analysis showed 16.6% (10/60) of workers with a high frequency of chromosomal abnormalities (>10 chromosomal abnormalities per 1,000 metaphases). Translocations were the most frequently observed chromosome aberration. The statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences in skin color (p = 0.002) and a weak significant differences in gender (p = 0.052) distribution between the two groups. Conclusion 16.6% of the studied population showed elevated frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities, which is highly likely to be correlated with their exposure to BTX during their work. Therefore, further studies are needed for better characterize the work associated damage of the genome in

  6. Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments. In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system. To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ. Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de

  7. The complicated transition to competition in the petrol industry in Spain

    The Spanish petrol market has been deeply restructured. However, the results of two decades of liberalization are mixed. A more active policy of fostering and defending competition has been missing. Reform efforts in the sector and economic analyses of the markets have overwhelming been focussed on the upstream activities of manufacturing and wholesaling. By contrast, other activities of the sector are the ones that are constraining competition. Vertical relations between petrol major companies and petrol stations have a very significant impact on the process to achieve effective competition. And access to distribution essential facilities such as pipes is a necessary condition to open up the market to new operators. In Spain, transition to competition in the petrol industry has not taken enough care on restructuring vertical relations and access to essential facilities. (Author)

  8. Discussion on Legal Risks about Process of Signing Contract in Developing Network of Petrol Stations and Control Strategies%浅谈加油站网络发展中关于合同签订过程的法律风险及控制策略

    钟荷明

    2011-01-01

    目前,成品油销售企业对网络发展和布局作为工作的一项重要任务来进行,在发展加油站网络,特别是在收购、租赁、参股等方面,合同的规范和合同存在的风险问题日益突出.本文试图从一家成品油销售企业法律事务的角度,对加油站网络发展中关于合同签订过程的法律风险作出分类,并提出相应的控制策略,从而为成品油网络发展的人员提供启示和策略.%At present, product oil sell enterprises' important task is the work of development and layout of network, and the contract specifications and contract risks have become increasingly prominent in developing network of petrol slations, especially aspects, such as acquisition, leasing, equity participation and so on. This paper attempts to classify the legal risks about process of signing contract in developing network of petrol stations, and put forward corresponding control strategies from the perspective of legal affairs of one product oil sell enterprise, so as to provide inspiration and strategies for the persons of developing network of product oil.

  9. Traveling Salesman Approach for Solving Petrol Distribution Using Simulated Annealing

    Zuhaimy Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an attempt to solve a logistic company's problem of delivering petrol to petrol station in the state of Johor. This delivery system is formulated as a travelling salesman problem (TSP. TSP involves finding an optimal route for visiting stations and returning to point of origin, where the inter-station distance is symmetric and known. This real world application is a deceptive simple combinatorial problem and our approach is to develop solutions based on the idea of local search and meta-heuristics. As a standard problem, we have chosen a solution is a deceptively simple combinatorial problem and we defined it simply as the time spends or distance travelled by salesman visiting n cities (or nodes cyclically. In one tour the vehicle visits each station just once and finishes up where he started. As standard problems, we have chosen TSP with different stations visited once. This research presents the development of solution engine based on local search method known as Greedy Method and with the result generated as the initial solution, Simulated Annealing (SA and Tabu Search (TS further used to improve the search and provide the best solution. A user friendly optimization program developed using Microsoft C++ to solve the TSP and provides solutions to future TSP which may be classified into daily or advanced management and engineering problems.

  10. Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em frentistas Auditory brainstem response in gas station attendants

    Lenita da Silva Quevedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A ototoxidade dos solventes orgânicos pode atingir o sistema auditivo a nível coclear e retrococlear. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a integridade neurofisiológica do sistema auditivo até tronco cerebral por meio do PEATE. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo. Estudados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. A amostra ficou composta por 21 sujeitos, que foram avaliados por meio de potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico. RESULTADOS: Alteração nas latências absolutas das ondas I e III e em todas as latências interpicos, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda houve alteração na latência absoluta de todas as ondas, e em todos os intervalos interpicos. Alteração na diferença interaural da onda V foi verificada em 19% dos sujeitos. No grupo exposto há mais de cinco anos, foram estatisticamente significantes o número de sujeitos com alteração: no intervalo interpico I-V da orelha direita; na latência absoluta da onda I e no intervalo interpico III-V da orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: A exposição a combustíveis pode causar alterações no sistema auditivo central.Ototoxicity of organic solvents can affect the hearing system up to the cochlea level and the central structures of hearing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neurophysiological integrity of the hearing system in subjects exposed to fuels using ABR. METHOD: Prospective study. We evaluated attendants from three gas stations in Santa Maria/RS. The sample had 21 subjects, who were evaluated by auditory brainstem response. RESULTS: We found an alteration in the absolute latencies of Waves I and III and in all the interpeak latencies, in the right ear. In the left ear there was a change in the absolute latencies of all Waves, and in all the interpeak intervals. A change in the interaural difference of Wave V was found in 19% of the individuals. In the group exposed for more than five years, there were subjects with a statistically significant changes: in the I

  11. Variability of benzene exposure among filling station attendants; Variabilita` dell`esposizione a benzene tra gli addetti all`erogazione di carburanti

    Carere, A.; Iacovella, N.; Turrio Baldassarri, L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Comparata ed Ecotossicologia; Fuselli, S.; Iavarone, I.; Lagorio, S.; Proietto, A.R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1996-12-01

    A monitoring survey of filling station attendants aimed at identifying sources of variability of exposure to benzene and other aromatics was carried out. Concurrent samples of the worker`s breathing zone air, atmospheric air in the service station proximity, and gasoline were collected, along with information about daily workloads and other exposure-related factors. Benzene personal exposure was characterised by a small between-worker variability and a predominant within-worker variance component. Such elevated day-to-day variability yields to imprecise estimates of mean personal exposure. Almost 70% of the overall personal exposure variance was explained by a model including daily benzene from dispensed fuel, presence of a shelter over the refueling area, amount of fuel supplied to the station if a delivery occurred, and background atmospheric benzene concentration.

  12. An attitude study on the environmental effects of rationing petrol in Tehran

    The objective of this study is to assess the environmental effects of implementing petrol rationing and the issuance of fuel smartcards in central Tehran. The results and their application are significant from the perspective of preserving fuel sources and protecting the environment, both of which being among the goals of sustainable development. Through the analysis of soft data (owners of automobile and light pickup trucks attitude), 3 general hypotheses were assessed and the result was compared to hard data (the traffic situation information, petrol consumption and air pollution). The soft data was gathered using a comprehensive questionnaire which randomly distributed among 2000 automobile and pickup truck drivers in the central Tehran area who were at petrol stations to refuel their vehicles. The gathered data was then analyzed at two levels: descriptive and inferential. The results of this research reveal that according to the soft data, the smartcard project has resulted in a decline in traffic and petrol consumption and a rise in air pollution; furthermore, the positive cultural effects of this project have been comparatively prominent. The actual figures show that the project has led to lower traffic load and air pollution but petrol consumption remains the same as before.

  13. An attitude study on the environmental effects of rationing petrol in Tehran

    The objective of this study is to assess the environmental effects of implementing petrol rationing and the issuance of fuel smartcards in central Tehran. The results and their application are significant from the perspective of preserving fuel sources and protecting the environment, both of which being among the goals of sustainable development. Through the analysis of soft data (owners of automobile and light pickup trucks attitude), 3 general hypotheses were assessed and the result was compared to hard data (the traffic situation information, petrol consumption and air pollution). The soft data was gathered using a comprehensive questionnaire which randomly distributed among 2000 automobile and pickup truck drivers in the central Tehran area who were at petrol stations to refuel their vehicles. The gathered data was then analyzed at two levels: descriptive and inferential. The results of this research reveal that according to the soft data, the smartcard project has resulted in a decline in traffic and petrol consumption and a rise in air pollution; furthermore, the positive cultural effects of this project have been comparatively prominent. The actual figures show that the project has led to lower traffic load and air pollution but petrol consumption remains the same as before. (author)

  14. China Highlights Petrol and Financial Strategic System

    Xiao Sun

    2005-01-01

    @@ The People's Daily,a Chinese central government-backed newspaper,issued an article at the end of May, stressing that the issue of petrol safety is of vital importance to the sustainable development of China's economy and society as well as to the improvement of the comprehensive national power, and even to the National Security.

  15. China Highlights Petrol and Financial Strategic System

    Xiao; Sun

    2005-01-01

      The People's Daily,a Chinese central government-backed newspaper,issued an article at the end of May, stressing that the issue of petrol safety is of vital importance to the sustainable development of China's economy and society as well as to the improvement of the comprehensive national power, and even to the National Security.……

  16. Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market - end 1994

    Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market (as at 31.12.94) are tabulated, with brand names and company names, areas of operation, and total numbers of retail petrol outlets displaying brand names, self-service sites, company-owned sites and outlets retailing Derv given. Statistics resulting from a retail marketing survey (1995) are listed and cover UK petrol sites from 1985-1994; motorway brands; a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets; UK outlets retailing derv; average UK prices for petrol and derv per litre; percentage of petrol sites per company (1994); number of company petrol sites as a percentage of total; number of outlets at hypermarkets/supermarkets; and vapour recovery sites. (UK)

  17. Tobacco use, Body Mass Index, and Potentially Malignant Disorders Among petrol fillers in Pimpri-Pune (India: A descriptive study

    Mamatha G. S. Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since petrol is combustible and smoking is banned at the petrol pumps, it may be predicted that use of smokeless tobacco is more prevalent among the petrol fillers. Also, smokeless tobacco is a major risk factor for developing oral potentially malignant disorders. The present study was conducted to determine the tobacco use, body mass index (BMI, and potentially malignant disorders among a cohort of petrol fillers and also to evaluate the interaction of tobacco use and BMI with the presence of potentially malignant disorders. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at 45 petrol stations located at Pimpri-Pune, India. A descriptive study design was used. Materials and Method: Four hundred and ten petrol fillers aged 17-64 years participated in the study. General information and tobacco history was obtained by interview. Height and weight were recorded to obtain BMI. Oral examination was conducted to identify the potentially malignant disorders. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test, Z test, and logistic regression were used. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results and Conclusions: It was found that 242 (59.02% used tobacco in different forms. 77.68% were tobacco chewers, and 8.26% were smokers. Leukoplakia was prevalent among 68.47%, oral submucous fibrosis among 27.45%, and 5.08% had erythroplakia. Age (χ2 = 11.46, P < 0.05, duration (χ2 = 17.46, P < 0.05, and frequency of tobacco chewing (χ2 = 14.16, P < 0.05 were significantly associated with potentially malignant disorders. Tobacco chewing was more prevalent as compared to smoking. It can be concluded that the petrol fillers are at a high risk for developing oral potentially malignant disorders.

  18. The complicated transition to competition in the petrol industry in Spain; La dificil conduccion de la competencia por el sector de las gasolinas en Espana

    Perdiguero, J.; Borrel, J. R.

    2007-07-01

    The Spanish petrol market has been deeply restructured. However, the results of two decades of liberalization are mixed. A more active policy of fostering and defending competition has been missing. Reform efforts in the sector and economic analyses of the markets have overwhelming been focussed on the upstream activities of manufacturing and wholesaling. By contrast, other activities of the sector are the ones that are constraining competition. Vertical relations between petrol major companies and petrol stations have a very significant impact on the process to achieve effective competition. And access to distribution essential facilities such as pipes is a necessary condition to open up the market to new operators. In Spain, transition to competition in the petrol industry has not taken enough care on restructuring vertical relations and access to essential facilities. (Author)

  19. Petrol consumption and redistributive effects of its taxation in Spain

    Asensio Ruiz de Alda, Francisco Javier; Matas i Prat, Anna; Raymond Bara, José Luis

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate a petrol consumption function for Spain and to evaluate the redistributive effects of petrol taxation. We use micro data from the Spanish Household Budget Survey of 1990/91 and model petrol consumption taking into account the effect that income changes may have on car ownership levels, as well as the differences that exist between expenditure and consumption. Our results show the importance that household structure, place of residence and income have...

  20. The Health Impacts of Ethanol Blend Petrol

    Rosemary Wood

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A measurement program designed to evaluate health impacts or benefits of using ethanol blend petrol examined exhaust and evaporative emissions from 21 vehicles representative of the current Australian light duty petrol (gasoline vehicle fleet using a composite urban emissions drive cycle. The fuels used were unleaded petrol (ULP, ULP blended with either 5% ethanol (E5 or 10% ethanol (E10. The resulting data were combined with inventory data for Sydney to determine the expected fleet emissions for different uptakes of ethanol blended fuel. Fleet ethanol compatibility was estimated to be 60% for 2006, and for the air quality modelling it was assumed that in 2011 over 95% of the fleet would be ethanol compatible. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from ULP, E5 and E10 emissions was studied under controlled conditions by the use of a smog chamber. This was combined with meteorological data from Sydney for February 2004 and the emission data (both measured and inventory data to model pollutant concentrations in Sydney’s airshed for 2006 and 2011. These concentrations were combined with the population distribution to evaluate population exposure to the pollutant. There is a health benefit to the Sydney population arising from a move from ULP to ethanol blends in spark-ignition vehicles. Potential health cost savings for Urban Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth are estimated to be A$39 million (in 2007 dollars for a 50% uptake (by ethanol compatible vehicles of E10 in 2006 and $42 million per annum for a 100% take up of E10 in 2011. Over 97% of the estimated health savings are due to reduced emissions of PM2.5 and consequent reduced impacts on mortality and morbidity (e.g., asthma, cardiovascular disease. Despite more petrol-driven vehicles predicted for 2011, the quantified health impact differential between ULP and ethanol fuelled vehicles drops from 2006 to 2011. This is because modern petrol vehicles, with lower emissions than

  1. Study of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate as the Assessment of Lung Function in Occupationally Exposed Petrol Pump Workers of Western Maharashtra

    Patil Smita V

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fast urbanization trends, rapid industrial growth, globalization, and poor environmental conditions at work places have created a lot of healthrelated issues. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR as the assessment of lung function in occupationally exposed petrol pump workers and also check whether PEFR increases or decreases with duration of exposure. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 male petrol pump workers between age group of 20-40 years who were working as petrol filling attendants for more than one year from western Maharashtra. 50 normal healthy males with same socioeconomic status were chosen as controls to find out the effect of occupational exposure to petroleum product on PEFR as the assessment of lung function tests. Petrol pump workers were divided into three groups based on their duration of exposure i.e. 1- 5 yrs, 6- 10 yrs and more than 11 years. PEFR of petrol pump workers and control was measured by using a Mini Wright peak flow meter which is a portable device for measuring ventilator functions. Comparisons was done using unpaired t-test for 2 groups comparisons and one way ANOVAfor multiple groups of exposures. Results: The PEFR was significantly lower decrease (p=0.001 around petrol pump workers (389.17 as compared to control (534.2. As year of exposure increased mean value of PEFR was significantly decreased from 452.17, 378.00 and 283.64 respectively in petrol pump workers. Conclusion: The results suggested that respiratory functions i.e. PEFR of occupationally exposed petrol pump workers are significantly reduced as compared to controls, also PEFR is significantly reduced with increase in the duration of exposure.

  2. Fiber optical sensor for the determination of adulteration in petrol

    Bali, L. M.; Srivastava, Atul K.; Shukla, Rajesh K.; Srivastava, Anchal

    1999-07-01

    The newly designed prism based fiber optical refractometer sensor has been used to determine adulteration in petrol. A procedure for identification of the adulterant and determination of its concentration in a sample of petrol has been reported. Substances like kerosene, diesel, a mixture of these two or of aviation gasoline and kerosene have been used as adulterants.

  3. Idiosyncrasies in Australian petrol price behaviour: evidence of seasonalities

    It has been argued that there are certain idiosyncrasies in Australian petrol price behaviour. To the extent that these idiosyncrasies result in large magnitude differences in petrol prices, they may be exploited by consumers to significantly reduce their household expenditure on the product. Similarly, such seasonalities may influence retailers in their purchase and storage decision. The objective of this paper is to test for seasonalities in the Australian retail petrol market. The approach adopted is similar to that for determining calendar anomalies as documented in the financial and commodity markets literature. We find that a monthly seasonal effect is pronounced with petrol prices lower in the months of February-May and highest in July and August. A day-of-the-week effect is also apparent and is manifest in all petrol prices for capital cities (Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney) across various years. However, the half-month effect, as is common in stock returns, is not observed. Moreover, contrary to popular belief that petrol prices are higher surrounding holidays, no evidence of the holiday effect is found. In Brisbane and Melbourne, petrol prices also have some relationship to the mood of consumers, as proxied using weather conditions. This is not observed in Adelaide and Sydney. (Author)

  4. FUEL STATIONS BRAND POSITIONING PROCESS: AN APPLICATION WITH MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING ANALYSIS IN ISPARTA

    Didar BÜYÜKER İŞLER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil industry, one of the most prominent figures of energy market of Turkey, is also considered among driving powers behind the country’s economy. The competition among petrol stations in oil industry is quite profound both in local and global dimensions. It is of vital importance for petrol stations to set their strategies of brand positioning so that they can ensure consumer loyalty and brand continuity and attract new consumers. This study aims at identifying consumer perception regarding petrol stations through multidimensional scaling analysis in order to determine how petrol stations position their brands. To that end, the consumers were asked to evaluate the similarities and differences among five most known petrol station brands in Turkey with regards to some dimensions in consequence of the data acquired from the literature research. Thus, stations with great resemblance and those with no relevance were determined as a result of the study. Multidimensional scaling analysis allows petrol stations to conduct their own self-assessments in consideration of their positions in the market. It was found that for nearly all criteria consumers perceive Petrol Ofisi and Opet as brands which they never give preference to one another while other stations (Total, BP and Shell might be given preference to one another. However, Shell was perceived distinctively with only regards to its image/style and credit card offers.

  5. PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS IN PETROL PUMP WORKERS IN CHITTOOR DISTRICT

    Arpana Bhide

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The main aim of the study was to assess the PFT in petrol pump workers who were exposed to petrol and diesel. In addition the effect of the duration of the service at the petrol pumps was also studied and these changes were compared with those of age matched healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprises of 60 petrol pump workers who were categorized into two groups depending on duration of exposure. Thirty healthy ages, non smoker males served as controls. Each subjects age, smoking habits, the duration of exposure and health conditions were recorded. Their PFT were studied at their work place by using computerized spirometer.2010 model parameters of PFT are FVC, TV, FEC, FEV/FC, FEF 25-75%, FEF 75-85%, PEF and MVV. RESULT: Results showed statistically significant decrease in the values of TV, FVC, FEV, FEF 25-75%, FEF 75- 85%, FEV/FC, PEF and MVV in petrol pump workers who have worked for more than 5 years when compared to control group. The result shows statistically decreased in value of TV, FVC, FEV1, FEF 25-75% and MVV in petrol pump workers who have worked for below 5 years when compared to control group. CONCLUSION: Petrol pump workers are continuously exposed to fuel vapours and automobile exhaust. The average duration of daily exposure is about 8 hrs/day. These pollutants affect even other organs in the body. In order to prevent lung damage in petrol pump workers awareness programmes should be conducted and also pre employment check up and periodic medical checkups which include pulmonary function tests should be conducted to detect any lung function impairment at the earliest.

  6. Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.

    Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

  7. Development And Testing Of Biogas-Petrol Blend As An Alternative Fuel For Spark Ignition Engine

    Awogbemi; Omojola; Adeyemo,, Adebowale; Sunday Babatunde

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This research is on the development and testing of a biogas-petrol blend to run a spark ignition engine. A2080 ratio biogaspetrol blend was developed as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engine test bed. Petrol and biogas-petrol blend were comparatively tested on the test bed to determine the effectiveness of the fuels. The results of the tests showed that biogas petrol blend generated higher torque brake power indicated power brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective p...

  8. Occupational Exposure of Diesel Station Workers to BTEX Compounds at a Bus Depot

    Raeesa Moolla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diesel fuel is known to emit pollutants that have a negative impact on environmental and human health. In developing countries like South Africa, attendants are employed to pump fuel for customers at service stations. Attendants refuel vehicles with various octane unleaded fuel, lead-replacement petrol and diesel fuel, on a daily basis. Attendants are at risk to adverse health effects associated with the inhalation of volatile organic compounds released from these fuels. The pollutants released include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX, which are significant due to their high level of toxicity. In this study, a risk assessment of BTEX was conducted at a diesel service station for public buses. Using Radiello passive samplers, it was found that benzene concentrations were above recommended international standards. Due to poor ventilation and high exposure duration, the average benzene concentration over the sampling campaign exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency’s chronic inhalation exposure reference concentration. Lifetime cancer risk estimation showed that on average there is a 3.78 × 10−4 cancer risk, corresponding to an average chronic daily intake of 1.38 × 10−3 mg/kg/day of benzene exposure. Additionally, there were incidences where individuals were at potential hazard risk of benzene and toluene that may pose non-carcinogenic effects to employees.

  9. Measuring Consumers’ Preferences and Attitudes Towards Branded Petrol: An Initial Investigation of the Branded Petrol Market

    Anurag Dugar

    2013-01-01

    Petrol was sold as a ‘commodity’ through ‘mass marketing’ in India for over four decades and generations of Indian consumers got so used to this that when ‘segmented marketing’ arrived and brands were launched in 2002, a paradigm shift was expected in marketing practices and also in consumer behaviour. The changes occurred, as expected.Before 2002, Indian consumers purchased petrol which came in only one variant, from government regulated companies with similar sounding names and ...

  10. Implementation of Turbocharger in Petrol Engines and its Thermal Analysis

    Swapnil Bhurat, Amit Yadav , Atreya pathak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have discussed about turbocharging of four stroke petrol engine, difference between turbocharging of diesel and gasoline engine and possibilities to reduce losses in Exhaust system are highlighted. However, it omits to discuss two stroke engines due to their different gas exchange processes. Designing of different components involved in turbocharging is done and thermal analysis of turbocharger’s connector pipehas been done along with different kind of stress analysis.

  11. Implementation of Turbocharger in Petrol Engines and its Thermal Analysis

    Swapnil Bhurat, Amit Yadav , Atreya pathak

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we have discussed about turbocharging of four stroke petrol engine, difference between turbocharging of diesel and gasoline engine and possibilities to reduce losses in Exhaust system are highlighted. However, it omits to discuss two stroke engines due to their different gas exchange processes. Designing of different components involved in turbocharging is done and thermal analysis of turbocharger’s connector pipehas been done along with different kind of stress analysis.

  12. Development And Testing Of Biogas-Petrol Blend As An Alternative Fuel For Spark Ignition Engine

    Awogbemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is on the development and testing of a biogas-petrol blend to run a spark ignition engine. A2080 ratio biogaspetrol blend was developed as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engine test bed. Petrol and biogas-petrol blend were comparatively tested on the test bed to determine the effectiveness of the fuels. The results of the tests showed that biogas petrol blend generated higher torque brake power indicated power brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure but lower fuel consumption and exhaust temperature than petrol. The research concluded that a spark ignition engine powered by biogas-petrol blend was found to be economical consumed less fuel and contributes to sanitation and production of fertilizer.

  13. Optical sensor for the determination of adulteration in petrol: design and development

    Kishor, Kamal; Sinha, R. K.; Varshney, Anshu D.; Kumar, Vinit

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we report design and development of optical sensor for the determination of adulteration in petrol using optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR). OTDR is generally used to find out fault in optical fibers but we effectively use this technique for the determination of the percentage of adulteration in petrol. This OTDR method enables detection of adulteration in petrol very accurately. The OTDR measurement method reported in this paper is easy to carry out and also a cost effective tool for the determination of adulteration in petrol.

  14. ZADOVOLJSTVO ZAPOSLENIH NA NAJEMNEM BENCINSKEM SERVISU PETROL D.D.

    Ravnihar, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Namen diplomske naloge je ugotoviti zadovoljstvo zaposlenih na najemnem bencinskem servisu Šenčur. Za celovit prikaz je predstavljeno podjetje Petrol d. d. kot celota, njihova vizija za prihodnost ter delovanje posameznih franšiz, kamor spada tudi najemni servis Šenčur. Zaposleni lahko predstavljajo za podjetja konkurenčno prednost. Upravljanje človeških virov in zavedanje o potrebi po tem lahko pomeni odločilno prednost določenega podjetja. V današnjem času zgolj upravljanje organizacij n...

  15. Petrol and Crude Oil Prices: Asymmetric Price Transmission

    Wlazlowski, Szymon

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between crude oil prices, the dollar-pound exchange rate and petrol prices in the UK over the period 1982-2001. Quantitative methods were used to examine the existence of the long-run equilibrium and test for the presence of asymmetric patterns in the short-run responses to upstream price changes. Also the degree of asymmetry in the adjustment towards long-run equilibrium was analysed. Results confirm that short-run response is greater for increases in ups...

  16. Ignition study of a petrol/CNG single cylinder engine

    Khan, N.; Saleem, Z.; Mirza, A. A.

    2005-11-01

    Benefits of laser ignition over the electrical ignition system for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engines have fuelled automobile industry and led to an extensive research on basic characteristics to switch over to the emerging technologies. This study was undertaken to determine the electrical and physical characteristics of the electric spark ignition of single cylinder petrol/CNG engine to determine minimum ignition requirements and timeline of ignition events to use in subsequent laser ignition study. This communication briefly reviews the ongoing research activities and reports the results of this experimental study. The premixed petrol and CNG mixtures were tested for variation of current and voltage characteristics of the spark with speed of engine. The current magnitude of discharge circuit was found to vary linearly over a wide range of speed but the stroke to stroke fire time was found to vary nonlinearly. The DC voltage profiles were observed to fluctuate randomly during ignition process and staying constant in rest of the combustion cycle. Fire to fire peaks of current amplitudes fluctuated up to 10% of the peak values at constant speed but increased almost linearly with increase in speed. Technical barriers of laser ignition related to threshold minimum ignition energy, inter-pulse durations and firing sequence are discussed. Present findings provide a basic initiative and background information for designing suitable timeline algorithms for laser ignited leaner direct injected CNG engines.

  17. REGIONAL ASPECTS OF BOURGAS-ALEXANDROUPOLIS PETROL PIPELINE

    Konstantin KALINKOV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following scientific research discusses issues, connected to the construction of the Bourgas-Alexandroupolis petrol pipeline, from the point of view of the energy policy of the European Union (EU. The established relations between the EU and Russia lead to a demand for alternative opportunities for the construction of such infrastructure. The Bourgas-Alexandroupolis pipeline is the only infrastructural facility in this region that passes only through the territory of countries that are all members of the EU (Bulgaria and Greece. This is a circumstance that definitely makes petrol deliveries more secure. On the other hand the accomplishment of the project needs many regional ecological problems to have been solved beforehand. That’s why the research’s author suggests that such major investment projects of international significance are to be approved in advance by the countries from the Black sea area. Such a preliminary decision would be a guarantee for preserving the sustainable development of the Black sea.

  18. Phenol oxidation of petrol refinery wastewater catalyzed by Laccase

    Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid-state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries) have been evaluated in both systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 u/ml) was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 u/ml) was achieved in a submerged system, containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The Laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of Laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant

  19. Heat storage for a bus petrol internal-combustion engine

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.; Burak, Victor S.; Kulakov, Andry G.; Mishkinis, Donatas A.; Bohan, Pavel V.

    The heat storage (HS) system for pre-heating a bus petrol internal combustion engine to starting was mathematically modelled and experimentally investigated. The development of such devices is an extremely urgent problem especially for regions with a cold climate. We discuss how HS works on the effect of absorption and rejection of heat energy at a solid-liquid phase change of a HS substance. In the first part of the paper a numerical method to calculate the HS mass-dimensional parameters and their characteristics are described. In the experimental part of the paper results are given of experiments on the pre-heating device aiding to start a carburettor engine under operational conditions and analysis of data received. Practical confirmation of the theoretical development of HS devices for a bus engine for starting by pre-heating is given.

  20. Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas

    Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke; Barinaadaa Thaddeus Lebele-Alawa

    2013-01-01

    This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationsh...

  1. Modelling the Price of Unleaded Petrol in Australia’s Capital Cities

    Abbas Valadkhani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the long-run and short-run determinants of unleaded petrol price in Australia’s capitalcities using monthly data to find out whether prices respond asymmetrically to external shocks. Based on thecointegration test results and the estimated asymmetric short-run dynamic models, it is found that: (1 in thelong-run petrol prices are mainly determined by Tapis crude oil and Singapore petrol prices; (2 there issome evidence of asymmetric price adjustments in the short-run since petrol price increases have been mostlypassed on to the consumer faster than price decreases in four capital cities. More specifically, this paperprovides convincing evidence in support of asymmetric price adjustments and the “rockets-and-feathershypothesis” in Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney. One can thus argue that there are a significantdegree of market inefficiency and/or collusion, requiring a closer government price monitoring and scrutiny.

  2. Evaluation of influence of multyfunctional additives on operational and technical parameters of petrol

    Роїк, Ірина Володимирівна; Василькевич, Олександр Іванович; Бондаренко, Сергій Григорович; Степанов, Микола Борисович

    2013-01-01

    The article grounds the usefulness of multifunctional additives for petrol in order to improve the environmental characteristics of the performance of internal combustion engines. On the basis of surfactants and antioxidants a number of additives was developed. Choosing antioxidants was based on determination of their thermal stability. The influence of additives on the octane number of petrol and the process of cool-flaming oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel was studied. For the research a high-p...

  3. Condition on price in contracts of petrol delivery at wholesale and retail in the Russian Federation

    Irkyagul A. Sadriyevа

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to reveal the peculiarities of forming conditions on price in contracts on delivery of oil products in wholesale and retail markets on thenbspbasis of analysis of legislation and law enforcement practice and to substantiate the proposals concerning the necessity to codify in the legislation the rule that a condition on price in the petrol delivery contract is an essential condition. Methods the methodological basis of the study includes general logical methods analysis induction analogy research synthesis and specific scientific methods of interpretation of law comparative law survey method. Results normative legal acts legal practice and theoretical ideas on price were analyzed. The expediency of the legal rule isnbsp grounded which stipulates that the condition on price in the petrol delivery contract is essential. The peculiarities are revealed of forming the conditions on price in the petrol delivery contracts in wholesale and retail markets. Scientific novelty the article attempts to divide the conditions of price forming on the wholesale and retail markets of oil products supplies. Thenbspconcept is formulated of price in petrol delivery contracts reflecting the specifics of relations in this sphere through analysis of court practice and petrol delivery contracts. Practical significance the conclusions of the research can be used in the field of legislative activity to improve the civil legislation on the petrol delivery contract. The article can be used in educational process for preparing special courses on civil and business law in the law schools. nbsp

  4. Research of combustion in older generation spark-ignition engines in the condition of use leaded and unleaded petrol

    Bulatović Željko M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the potential problems in the exploitation of the older generation of spark-ignition engines with higher octane number of petrol (unleaded petrol BMB 95 than required (leaded petrol MB 86. Within the experimental tests on two different engines (STEYR-PUCH model 712 and GAZ 41 by applying piezoelectric pressure sensors integrated with the engine spark plugs, acceleration sensors (accelerometers and special electronic block connected with distributor, show that the cumulative first and second theoretical phase of combustion when petrol of higher octane number (BMB 95 is used lasts slightly longer than when the low-octane petrol MB 86 is used. For new petrol (BMB 95 higher optimal angles of pre-ignition have been determined by which better performances of the engine are achieved without a danger of the combustion with detonation (also called knocking.

  5. Research of combustion in older generation spark-ignition engines in the condition of use leaded and unleaded petrol

    Bulatović Željko M.; Rakić Slavko N.; Knežević Dragan M.; Tomić Miroljub V.; Bojer Ljubiša M.; Radić Dragoslav B.; Jerkin Goran L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential problems in the exploitation of the older generation of spark-ignition engines with higher octane number of petrol (unleaded petrol BMB 95) than required (leaded petrol MB 86). Within the experimental tests on two different engines (STEYR-PUCH model 712 and GAZ 41) by applying piezoelectric pressure sensors integrated with the engine spark plugs, acceleration sensors (accelerometers) and special electronic block connected w...

  6. A Temporal Association between Accumulated Petrol (Gasoline Lead Emissions and Motor Neuron Disease in Australia

    Mark A. S. Laidlaw

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The age standardised death rate from motor neuron disease (MND has increased from 1.29 to 2.74 per 100,000, an increase of 112.4% between 1959 and 2013. It is clear that genetics could not have played a causal role in the increased rate of MND deaths over such a short time span. We postulate that environmental factors are responsible for this rate increase. We focus on lead additives in Australian petrol as a possible contributing environmental factor. Methods: The associations between historical petrol lead emissions and MND death trends in Australia between 1962 and 2013 were examined using linear regressions. Results: Regression results indicate best fit correlations between a 20 year lag of petrol lead emissions and age-standardised female death rate (R2 = 0.86, p = 4.88 × 10−23, male age standardised death rate (R2 = 0.86, p = 9.4 × 10−23 and percent all cause death attributed to MND (R2 = 0.98, p = 2.6 × 10−44. Conclusion: Legacy petrol lead emissions are associated with increased MND death trends in Australia. Further examination of the 20 year lag between exposure to petrol lead and the onset of MND is warranted.

  7. An Application of the Double Hurdle Model to Petrol and Diesel Household Expenditures in Ireland

    John Eakins

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of household petrol and diesel expenditures using a large micro data set of Irish households. This research is timely given the switch in purchases from petrol cars to diesel cars arising out of changes in how vehicle registration tax and motor tax rates are calculated. The study finds that households living in urban areas, households that spend money on public transport and households that do not possess a car will spend less on both...

  8. Research of the diesel engine performance parameters when operating on rape oil and petrol blends

    Čebyla, Kornelijus

    2005-01-01

    The theme of the Kornelijus Cebyla Master degree final project is „Research of the diesel engine performance parameters when operating on rape oil and petrol blends“. The research work consists of 71 pages, 6 tables, 46 pictures and 14 appendixes. There were used 24 references. The research was started in year 2003 and finisched in 2005 at Lithuanian University of Agriculture. The purpose of this project – to quality a develop of usage rape oil and petrol blends as a fuel in diesel engin...

  9. Monitoring Student Attendance Using Dashboard

    Hasniza Yahya; Rina Md. Anwar

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that student attendance has positive relationship with academic achievement. However, the manual process of taking attendance using paper does not allow the teacher to easily view and monitor individual attendance. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of dashboard in managing and monitoring student attendance. By using the attendance dashboard, teacher can easily track the attendance of a student and take necessary actions when needed.

  10. Impact of Attendance Policies on Course Attendance among College Students

    Chenneville, Tiffany; Jordan, Cary

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to investigate whether having a graded attendance policy would have an effect on course attendance among college students, and (b) to examine beliefs about education and attendance policies among college students. Results support the utility of graded attendance policies for increasing class attendance…

  11. Septic arthritis of both knees following intra-articulari njection of petrol

    Alireza Janbakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A 70 years old man was referred to our center with bilateral knee arthritis following intra-articular petrol injection. Because of previous antibiotics use gram stain and culture were negative. Septic arthritis was diagnosed and antibiotics and drainage were started. After 2 years he improved eventually and was able to walk. But, some movement limitation remained.

  12. Risk comparision of LPG and petrol vehicles in public car parks

    Steen, M. van der; Molag, M.

    1998-01-01

    LPG is generally considered as a clean fuel for cars in comparison with petrol. Although from an environmentally point of view LPG may be favoured, a further introduction of the use of the fuel is hindered by legislative measures. In some countries cars running on LPG are not allowed to enter public

  13. Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas

    Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG. It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationship for an isentropic compression process. This computation of compression ratio is based on an inlet air temperature of 30oC (representative of tropical ambient condition and pre-combustion temperature of 540oC (corresponding to the auto-ignition temperature of CNG. Using this value of compression ratio, a dimensional modification Quantity =1.803mm was obtained using simple geometric relationships. This value of 1.803mm is needed to increase the length of the connecting rod, the compression height of the piston or reducing the sealing plate’s thickness. After the modification process, a CNG engine of air standard efficiency 62.7% (this represents a 4.67% increase over the petrol engine, capable of a maximum power of 83.6kW at 6500rpm, was obtained.

  14. An analytic study of applying miller cycle to reduce nox emission from petrol engine

    Wang, Yaodong; Lin, Lin; Roskilly, Antony P.; Zeng, Shengchuo; Huang, Jincheng; He, Yunxin; Huang, Xiaodong; Huang, Huilan; Wei, Haiyan; Li, Shangping; Yang, J

    2007-01-01

    An analytic study of applying miller cycle to reduce nox emission from petrol engine correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +0044 191 2223522; fax: +0044 191 2225491. (Wang, Yaodong) (Wang, Yaodong) School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University - Newcastle upon Tyne--> , NE1 7RU--> - UNITED KINGDOM (Wang, Yaodong) Mechanical Engineering College, Guangxi University - Nanning--...

  15. Feasibility of alternatives to driving on diesel and petrol

    Van Vliet, O.P.R.

    2010-08-30

    Globally, our road transport sector is powered almost exclusively by internal combustion engines (ICE) and more than 90% of these engines are powered by fuels derived from crude oil. Both the current cost and projected future costs of crude oil have risen sharply in the last years. Doubts whether security of imported crude oil supplies remains, and prices are expected to remain volatile but higher than in the past. Road transport is also a major source of greenhouse gases (GHG) and air pollutants such as NOx, PM10 and volatile organic compounds. In the European Union (EU), it is responsible for 18% of GHG emissions. Changing the cars, fuels and related infrastructure we use today is a complicated and expensive transition. To reduce dependence on crude oil in transport, the use of electricity and hydrogen in cars has been advocated. However, hydrogen and battery powered cars were found to be uncompetitive by a large margin: even if the cost of fuel cells would come down to 120 euro/kW or the cost of batteries to 150 euro/kWh, advanced hybrid cars are found to have a lower cost of driving. Due to increased efficiency, series of hybrid cars can reduce emissions of CO2 by 34-47% compared to regular diesel and petrol cars. Plug-in hybrid cars and fully battery powered cars can further reduce GHG emissions, depending on the source of electricity used. Based on the generation capacity projected for the Netherlands in 2015, electricity for electric vehicle (EV) charging would be generated using natural gas, and this would mean a reduction of GHG emissions of 51-78% compared to current cars and fuels. If off-peak charging is successfully introduced, electric driving need not strain infrastructure even in case of a 100% switch to electric vehicles. Reduction of oil dependence and, possibly, GHG emissions can also be achieved by using alternative fuels. Synthetic fuel may be competitive with oil-based diesel, and for gas-to-liquids (GTL), coal-to-liquids (CTL) and biomass

  16. Plataformas para prospecciones petrolíferas en el mar

    Garnault, André

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumption of petroleum makes it necessary to seek new producing areas, especially in the neighbourhood of the main consumption districts. The rock layers containing petroleum often extend beneath the sea, and in such cases the method of extraction of the petroleum involves specialised techniques, which depend on the nature of the site. The first tests were out in the Gulf of Mexico, where the sea is shallow and mainly calm. In Europe the problem is different, since the sea is usually deeper and more agitated, so that the classical drilling methods cannot be applied. To overcome these difficulties the floating platforms were introduced. These are taken to a given site, and fixed there. The French firm Neptune has two such platforms: «Neptune I» and «Neptune-Gascogne», whose functional features are described in this article. These platforms have three fixed points of support on the soil, but in the near future, to be able to reach depths of 200 to 300 m, it will be necessary to do without the fixed points of support, as they greatly limit the use of the platforms. Submergible platforms, with static or dynamic anchorage systems, are being studied, and it is hoped to carry out trials fairly soon.El aumento creciente en el consumo del petróleo obliga a buscar nuevas zonas productoras que amplíen la capacidad de reserva existente y que, por otra parte, se encuentren próximas a las principales zonas de consumo. Las capas sedimentarias que contienen los mantos petrolíferos se prolongan frecuentemente bajo el mar; en este medio su extracción presenta problemas muy diferentes según las características de la zona. Los primeros ensayos se realizaron en el Golfo de Méjico con profundidades pequeñas y mares calmados. En Europa el problema es distinto, puesto que generalmente se trata de mares profundos y muy agitados en los que no se puede utilizar normalmente los dispositivos clásicos de perforación. Para salvar esta limitaci

  17. On-road remote sensing of petrol vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation in Hong Kong

    Chan, T. L.; Ning, Z.; Leung, C. W.; Cheung, C. S.; Hung, W. T.; Dong, G.

    In the present study, the real world on-road petrol vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitric oxide (NO) were investigated at nine sites in Hong Kong. A regression analysis approach based on the measured petrol vehicle emission data was also used to estimate the on-road petrol vehicle emission factors of CO, HC and NO with respect to the effects of instantaneous vehicle speed and acceleration/deceleration profiles for local urban driving patterns. The results show that the petrol vehicle model years, engine sizes and driving patterns have a strong correlation on their emission factors. A comparison of average petrol vehicle emission factors in different engine sizes and European vehicle emission standards was also presented. The deviation of the average emission factors of aggregate petrol vehicle reflects on the variability of local road condition, vehicle traffic fleet and volume, driving pattern, fuel composition and ambient condition etc. Finally, a unique database of the correlation of petrol vehicle emission factors on different model years and engine sizes for urban driving patterns in Hong Kong was established.

  18. Attending IBM & SAM

    马洁

    2007-01-01

    The delegation of China Acrobats Association, twelve people with Lin Jian, Vice President of China Acrobats Association as a director, went to America to attend the 79th Annual Convention of International Brotherhood of Magic (IBM) and the Magic Convention of Society of American Magicians 2007 from June 26th, 2007 to July 8th, 2007.

  19. Student Attendance Accounting Manual.

    Freitas, Joseph M.

    In response to state legislation authorizing procedures for changes in academic calendars and measurement of student workload in California community colleges, this manual from the Chancellor's Office provides guidelines for student attendance accounting. Chapter 1 explains general items such as the academic calendar, admissions policies, student…

  20. A house with its own filling station

    This short article describes how a house in Erlinsbach, Switzerland was rebuilt and, at the same time, fitted with a new gas-fired heating system - and with its own natural gas filling station. The history behind this unusual project is discussed. The inclusion of a filling station in the project made it worthwhile for the gas utility to lay a connection from the gas mains to the house. The economic advantages for its builder, who sells such natural gas filling station equipment, are mentioned. The consumption of the natural gas used as motor fuel is measured and taxed separately. Equivalent fuel costs are now said by the owner to be already below today's petrol prices and will become even lower when the planned reduction of levies on such use of natural gas come into force

  1. EXPECTATION SCHOOL ATTENDANCE

    BURGSTALLEROVÁ, Kateřina

    2011-01-01

    In a theoretical part of this work I will map on the basis of work with qoalifications literature the problem of inauguaration school attendance. Describ pre-school child from the porspective of development psychology, will mention posibility of adaptions problems.I will also try to quylify the diference between primary and preprimary education, and conception in document of education program. In practical part I will with aid of quality interview to find out, how is the expectation of future...

  2. Serpentes da Bacia petrolífera de Urucu, município de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil Snakes of the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, Brasil

    Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente; Gleomar Fabiano Maschio; Maria Cristina dos Santos-Costa; Darlan Tavares Feitosa

    2010-01-01

    Um inventário estruturado de serpentes foi realizado na Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura (BOGPM), localizada na Bacia Petrolífera de Urucu, Município de Coari, Amazonas, nos anos de 2003, 2004 e 2007. Nas quatro expedições realizadas (51 dias de coleta) foram registradas 47 espécies de serpentes, pertencentes a sete famílias e 33 gêneros. Foram utilizados quatro métodos complementares de amostragem de serpentes: armadilha de interceptação e queda, encontros ocasionais, procura limitada...

  3. The ignitability of petrol vapours and potential for vapour phase explosion by use of TASER® law enforcement electronic control device.

    Clarke, C; Andrews, S P

    2014-12-01

    An experimental study was made of the potential of the TASER-X26™ law enforcement electronic control device to ignite petrol vapours if used by an officer to incapacitate a person soaked in petrol, or within a flammable atmosphere containing petrol vapour. Bench scale tests have shown that a wooden mannequin with pig skin covering the chest was a suitable representation of a human target. Full scale tests using the mannequin have shown that the arc from a TASER-X26™ is capable of igniting petrol/air vapours on a petrol-soaked person. Further tests in a 1/5 scale and a full scale compartment have shown that if a TASER is used within a compartment, a petrol vapour explosion (deflagration) may be achieved. It is evident from this research that if used in a flammable vapour rich environment, the device could prove fatal not only to the target but the TASER® operator as well. PMID:25498927

  4. Does class attendance still matter?

    Abel Nyamapfene

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the impact of class attendance on academic performance in a second year Electronics Engineering course module with online notes and no mandatory class attendance policy. The study shows that class attendance is highly correlated to academic performance, despite the availability of online class notes. In addition, there is significant correlation between class attendance and non-class contact with the lecturer and between student performance in the first year of ...

  5. Lab Attendance and Academic Performance

    Kirk Adair; Swinton, Omari H

    2012-01-01

    The benefits from attendance of lectures have been established in the literature. This paper focuses on attendance not of the lecture, but of smaller labs. These labs are 50 minutes one-day-a-week sessions to emphasis material covered during lecture. Using a 200-student Principles of Economics class that covers microeconomics with six different labs, we investigate the effect of lab attendance on exam performance by taking into account individual characteristics. We find that lab attendance b...

  6. Rhizoremediation of Petrol Engine Oil Using Biosurfactants Producing Microbial Consortium in Mustard Crop

    Govind Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of soil / water resources by petroleum products poses severe threats to underground water and soil quality. In the present study biosurfactant producing bacterial cultures were used to degrade petrol engine oil under in situ conditions in the plant rhizosphere system. Two bacterial isolates used in this study were recovered from Haldia oil refinery sites and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (JX100389 and P. moraviensis (JX149542. Application of consortium C2, (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. moraviensis degraded 79.02 % petrol engine oil @ 2% in the soil planted with mustard (Brassica juncea var. Kranti crop after 120 days. GC-MS of biodegraded fuel showed the presence of new product like hexadecanoic acid 2, oxo-methyl ester.

  7. Petrol-inhalation in aboriginal towns. Its remedy: the homelands movement.

    Eastwell, H D

    1979-09-01

    Regular petrol-inhaling involves 50 children ("sniffers"), aged nine to 14 years, at the Aboriginal town of Maningrida--over one-third of resident children of this age. Children of two closely related clan-language groups comprise the majority of inhalers. Similarly, at the town of Galiwinku the children of two deprived clans are involved almost exclusively. These are the only clans in eastern Arnhem Land without outstations on their homelands. Revitalization of these clans appears the only effective method of containing the practice. Petrol-inhaling is associated with delinquency, low body weight, venereal disease, and elevated levels of blood lead. The effectiveness of past remedial action is in doubt. PMID:514145

  8. Managing salinity in water associated with petrol industry production

    Carlos Alberto Guerrero Fajardo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a conceptual design for handling an oilfield’s industrial wastewater; its oblective was to use type-1 fractioned crystallisation within a feasible environmental and technical framework for obtaining the highest percentage of salt.La Gloria, La Gloria Norte and Morichal (all belonging to the Casanare department association stations were used for planning and analysing this handling alternative as they produce high salt-containing industrial effluent.This alternative was focused on treating 30% of the total volume of the associated water so produced. This volume is expected to be 1239 m3/d in 2000 in the oilfields being studied here. The process allows 92% retrieval from present NaCl (0.918 Ton/h, having 97% purity. Evaporation and aeration systems should be set prior to the crystallisation stage as a means of guaranteeing final product quality and making good use of the field’s facilities.

  9. Performace Test and Engine Emission on Acid Oleic Oxygenated as Additives Petrol

    Irfan Wahyudi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of oxygenated oleic acid additives in standard petrol on the engine performance and the exhaust emissions. The 4-stroke 1.5 litre engine was used on the engine test bed coupled to eddy current electric dynamometer which is also connected to CADET V12 control system and exhaust gas analyser IMR2000/2000P. The oxygenated oleic acid additives used for this experiment is fixed at 0.2% by volume due to limited quantity available. Two types of test were carried out first test is with variable speed and no loads and the second test is at constant speed of 1,400 rpm with variable loads. The experimental results showed that the brake power increased by 2%, torque by 2%, brake thermal efficiency by about 7% and specific fuel consumption decreased by about 10%. The exhaust emissions analysed are carbon monoxide, (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2 and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. The result by comparing the oxygenated petrol with the standard petrol indicated that CO gas emission depend on the engine speed which decreased with increasing speed up to 1,600 rpm and increased after that speed on test without load. The CO also decreased by about 28% on the test with loads. The emission of CO2 increased by 2.7% for tests with load and by 8% for tests without loads. The NOx emission decreased by 9% for test without load and about 7% for test with load. This study indicates that engine performance is improved by adding 0.2% oxygenated additives to standard petrol.

  10. Evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-fuelled motor vehicles

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.; Duffy, B. L.; Nelson, P. F.

    This study reports the identification and quantification of 1,3-butadiene in petrol and in the evaporative emissions from Australian light-duty passenger vehicles. The mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in each of the different grades of any brand of Australian petrol was found to be relatively constant for a given marketing area. However, the mass fractions vary significantly between the different brands (or refineries) from 0.004±0.001% to 0.047±0.008%. The measurements of the evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from in-service motor vehicles were performed using standard Australian Design Rule 37/00 (ADR 37/00) Sealed Housing Evaporative Determination (SHED) tests. For post-1985 catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with unleaded petrol, average evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene were 9.4 (0.7-22) and 5.0 (0.1-23) mg per test for diurnal and hot soak SHED tests, respectively. The corresponding average evaporative emissions for the older, pre-1986 non-catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with leaded petrol were 26.5 (11.7-45.4) and 9.2 (4.3-13.1) mg per test, respectively, about double the observed emissions from newer vehicles. For the complete vehicle set (all ages), the average mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in the total hydrocarbon (sum of C 1-C 10 hydrocarbons) emission was 0.21±0.14% from the diurnal phase and was 0.11±0.06% from the hot-soak phase. Evaporative emissions were estimated to contribute about 4% (ranging from 1-15%) of the total (exhaust and evaporative) emissions of 1,3-butadiene from Australian motor vehicles.

  11. Some investigations in design of low cost variable compression ratio two stroke petrol engine

    A. Srinivas; Venkatasubbaiah, G.; Rao, P. Venkateswar; Reddy, M. Penchal

    2012-01-01

    Historically two stroke engine petrol engines find wide applications in construction of two wheelers worldwide, however due to stringent environmental laws enforced universally; these engines are fading in numbers. In spite of the tight norms, internationally these engines are still used in agriculture, gensets etc. Several designs of variable compression ratio two stroke engines are commercially available for analysis purpose. In this present investigation a novel method of changing the comp...

  12. TOPSIS Multi-Criteria Decision Modeling Approach for Biolubricant Selection for Two-Stroke Petrol Engines

    Masoud Dehghani Soufi; Barat Ghobadian; Gholamhassan Najafi; Mohammad Reza Sabzimaleki; Talal Yusaf

    2015-01-01

    Exhaust pollutants from two-stroke petrol engines are a problem for the environment. Biolubricants are a new generation of renewable and eco-friendly vegetable-based lubricants, which have attracted a lot of attention in recent years. In this paper, the applicability of the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method to support the process of building the scoring system for selecting an appropriate two-stroke lubricant has been analyzed. For this purpose,...

  13. Emissions from Petrol Engine Fueled Gasoline–Ethanol–Methanol (GEM) Ternary mixture as Alternative Fuel

    Thangavelu Saravana Kannan; Chelladorai Piraiarasi; Ani Farid Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demands of petroleum fuels due to the rapid development automotive society coupled with the environmental pollution issues have inspired the efforts on exploring alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Bioethanol obtained from biomass and bioenergy crops has been proclaimed as one of the feasible alternative to gasoline. In this study, the effect of gasoline–ethanol–methanol (GEM) ternary blend on the emission characteristics of petrol engine was studied. Three diffe...

  14. Condition monitoring of valve clearance fault on a small four strokes petrol engine using vibration signals

    Songpon Klinchaeam; Pornchai Nivesrangsan

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies condition monitoring technique of a small four strokes, single cylinder petrol engine using vibrationsignal analysis based on time domain, crank angle domain, and signal energy. Vibration signals are acquired from the cylinderhead of the engine and used to describe engine processes such as intake/exhaust valve operations, ignition process, andcombustion process. In this study, vibration signals have been applied to monitor various fault conditions in the engine suchas intak...

  15. Rhizoremediation of Petrol Engine Oil Using Biosurfactants Producing Microbial Consortium in Mustard Crop

    Govind Kumar; Rajesh Kumar; Anita Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of soil / water resources by petroleum products poses severe threats to underground water and soil quality. In the present study biosurfactant producing bacterial cultures were used to degrade petrol engine oil under in situ conditions in the plant rhizosphere system. Two bacterial isolates used in this study were recovered from Haldia oil refinery sites and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (JX100389) and P. moraviensis (JX149542). Application of consortium C2, (Pseudomonas ...

  16. Modeling for Friction of Four Stroke Four Cylinder In-Line Petrol Engine

    Mishra, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    A four stroke four cylinder in-line petrol engine is modeled to estimate various performance parameters. The solution is based on tribology and dynamics principle. The detailed parameters relating to engine friction and lubrication are computed numerically for the engine firing order 1-3-4-2. The numerical method is based on finite difference method that solves coupled Reynolds Equation and Energy Equation. Output includes the movie thickness, friction force, friction power loss and temperatu...

  17. Ham petrol fiyatlarının ANFIS ile tahmini

    Oğuz KAYNAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ekonomik kalkınmanın temel ağırlıklı girdisini oluşturan ve halen dünyadaki en önemli enerji kaynağı olma özelliğini koruyan petrol, doğrudan ya da dolaylı olarak tüm sektörleri etkilemektedir. Bu nedenle petrol piyasasında ve dolayısıyla fiyatında ortaya çıkan değişiklikler, oluşturdukları zincirleme reaksiyonlar aracılığı ile hem ülke, hem de dünya ekonomisi üzerinde çeşitli etkiler yaratmaktadır. Karmaşık dinamiklerinden dolayı, oldukça değişken ve etkileşimli bir yapıya sahip petrol piyasasında geleceğe yönelik etkili planlar yapmak için doğru ve güvenilir tahminlere gereksinim vardır. Bu çalışmada orta ve uzun vadeli petrol fiyatlarını tahmin etmek amacıyla bulanık çıkarım sistemleriyle yapay sinir ağlarının birleşiminden oluşan ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System kullanılmıştır.

  18. Salaires, emploi des jeunes et inscription dans un etablissement d'enseignement : donnees recentes liees aux augmentations des prix mondiaux du petrole

    Lu, Yuqian; Chan, Winnie; Morissette, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Les reserves de petrole du Canada sont concentrees dans trois provinces : l'Alberta, la Saskatchewan et Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador. Les prix du petrole qu'obtiennent les producteurs canadiens ont plus que double entre 2001 et 2008. La proportion de jeunes hommes ayant un emploi dans l'industrie du petrole differe considerablement selon la province et le niveau de scolarite. Collectivement, ces faits portent a croire qu'au Canada, les augmentations des prix mondiaux du petrole observees entre 200...

  19. PSYCHOLOGY OF FLIGHT ATTENDANT'S PROFESSION

    Tatyana V. Filipieva

    2012-01-01

    The profession of a flight attendant appeared in aviation in the 1920s. Professional community of flight attendants is constantly growing with the growth of complexity of aviation technology, professional standards of passenger service and safety. The psychological scientific research was carried out by a psychologist who worked as a flight attendant. The study revealed the psychological content, demands, peculiarities in cabin crews' labor. A job description was accomplished. Temporal and sp...

  20. Reclamation of petrol oil contaminated soil by rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains for growing Withania somnifera a medicinal shrub.

    Kumar, Rajesh; Das, Amar Jyoti; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2015-02-01

    Soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, cannot be used for agricultural intents due to their toxic effect to the plants. Surfactants producing by plant growth promotory rhizobacteria (PGPR) can effectively rig the problem of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and growth promotion on such contaminated soils. In the present study three Pseudomonas strains isolated from contaminated soil identified by 16S rRNA analysis were ascertained for PGPR as well as biosurfactants property. Biosurfactants produced by the strains were further characterized and essayed for rhamnolipids. Inoculation of the strains in petrol hydrocarbon contaminated soil and its interaction with Withania somnifera in presence of petrol oil hydrocarbons depict that the strains helped in growth promotion of Withania somnifera in petrol oil contaminated soil while rhamnolipids helped in lowering the toxicity of petrol oil. The study was found to be beneficial as the growth and antioxidant activity of Withania sominfera was enhanced. Hence the present study signifies that rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains could be a better measure for reclamation of petrol contaminated sites for growing medicinal plants. PMID:25480735

  1. Attendance Policies, Student Attendance, and Instructor Verbal Aggressiveness

    Snyder, Jason; Forbus, Robert; Cistulli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The authors utilized an experimental design across six sections of a managerial communications course (N = 173) to test the impact of instructor verbal aggressiveness and class attendance policies on student class attendance. The experimental group received a policy based on the principle of social proof (R. B. Cialdini, 2001), which indicated…

  2. PRIMERJALNA ANALIZA UČINKOVITOSTI IN USPEŠNOSTI SKUPINE PETROL Z DVEMA TUJIMA KONKURENTOMA

    Kavaš, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi smo naredili primerjalno analizo uspešnosti in učinkovitosti poslovanja med slovensko energetsko družbo Petrol, avstrijsko energetsko družbo OMV AG ter angleško-nizozemsko energetsko družbo Royal Dutch Shell plc za obdobje petih let (od leta 2006 do leta 2010). S pomočjo podatkov v temeljnih računovodskih izkazih in iz njih izpeljanih kazalnikov smo analizirali premoženjsko-finančni položaj, poslovno in denarno uspešnost podjetij. Ugotavljamo, da je skoraj v vseh prime...

  3. El suministro de productos petrolíferos a la República en guerra

    Martínez Molinos, Guillem

    1988-01-01

    Este artículo constituye una aproximación al análisis de la estrategia adoptada por el Gobierno republicano para asegurar durante la guerra civil española el suministro continuo de productos petrolíferos con los que alimentar la maquinaria bélica y el sector de economía civil residual. Se apoya, fundamentalmente, en la documentación depositada en el Archivo General de la Cía. Arrendataria del Monopolio de Petróleos, S. A. (Campsa) al que el autor ha tenido acceso gracias a la colaboración de ...

  4. The role of regulation, fiscal incentives and changes in tastes in the diffusion of unleaded petrol

    This paper analyses the diffusion of unleaded petrol in the UK. Changes in the market share of unleaded fuel are the results of changes in the composition of the car stock and changes in the choice of fuel given the car stock. We find the fuel type choices have been mainly driven by changes in tastes and learning as opposed to changes in relative prices induced by fiscal incentives. However car stock composition effects dominate the diffusion process and we find that through this route regulatory changes have made major contributions to changes in the market share of unleaded fuel. (Author)

  5. Performace Test and Engine Emission on Acid Oleic Oxygenated as Additives Petrol

    Irfan Wahyudi; Abdul Amir Hassan Kadhum; Yusoff Ali

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of oxygenated oleic acid additives in standard petrol on the engine performance and the exhaust emissions. The 4-stroke 1.5 litre engine was used on the engine test bed coupled to eddy current electric dynamometer which is also connected to CADET V12 control system and exhaust gas analyser IMR2000/2000P. The oxygenated oleic acid additives used for this experiment is fixed at 0.2% by volume due to limited quantity available. Two types...

  6. Effect of advancing age on pulmonary functions in petrol pump workers of Cuttack: a cross sectional study

    Girija Priyadarshini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental pollution is a worldwide phenomenon. Petrol pump workers are exposed to toxic substances present in petrol and diesel and also to various air pollutants. Long term exposure of these chemical vapours leads to deleterious effects on respiratory functions that range from mild cough to lung cancer. In the present study an attempt has been made to find out the correlation of advancing age and toxic effects of vapours on respiratory system by comparing pulmonary function tests in petrol pump workers and subjects not exposed to petrol. Methods: The study comprised of 60 petrol pump workers in age group 30-60 years working for more than 1 year. 60 healthy age matched male served as controls. Age, smoking habits, duration of exposure and health conditions of each subject were recorded. The pulmonary function was assessed in all subjects by Medspiror having Helios 401 software. The pulmonary function parameters studied were FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, FEF25-75%, PEFR and MVV. The parameters were compared by using Student’s t-test, ANOVA and multiple comparison Bonferroni tests. Results: A statistically significant decline in FEV1, FVC, PEFR, FEF25-75% and MVV was observed in petrol pump workers with advancing age. However, decline in FEV1/FVC was significant in elderly age of 50 to 60 years. Conclusion: Elder workers were more susceptible to harmful effects of benzene and other gaseous pollutants on pulmonary functions. Early recognition and removal of susceptible workers from work place before chronic impairment develops will prove to be beneficial.

  7. An analytic study of applying Miller cycle to reduce NOx emission from petrol engine

    An analytic investigation of applying Miller cycle to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from a petrol engine is carried out. The Miller cycle used in the investigation is a late intake valve closing version. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the cycle is presented. A comparison of the characters of Miller cycle with Otto cycle is presented. From the results of thermodynamic analyses, it can be seen that the application of Miller cycle is able to reduce the compression pressure and temperature in the cylinder at the end of compression stroke. Therefore, it lowers down the combustion temperature and NOx formation in engine cylinder. These results in a lower exhaust temperature and less NOx emissions compared with that of Otto cycle. The analytic results also show that Miller cycle ratio is a main factor to influence the combustion temperature, and then the NOx emissions and the exhaust temperature. The results from the analytic study are used to analyse and to compare with the previous experimental results. An empirical formula from the previous experimental results that showed the relation of NOx emissions with the exhaust temperature at different engine speed is presented. The results from the study showed that the application of Miller cycle may reduce NOx emissions from petrol engine

  8. Modelling of modern automotive petrol engine performance using Support Vector Machines

    VONG Chi-man; WONG Pak-kin; LI Yi-ping; HO Chon-meng

    2005-01-01

    Modern automotive petrol engine performance is significantly affected by effective tune-up. Current practice of engine tune-up relies on the experience of the automotive engineer, and tune-up is usually done by trial-and-error method and then the vehicle engine is run on the dynamometer to show the actual engine performance. Obviously the current practice involves a large amount of time and money, and then may even fail to tune up the engine optimally because a formal performance model of the engine has not been determined yet. With an emerging technique, Support Vector Machines (SVM), the approximate performance model of a petrol vehicle engine can be determined by training the sample engine performance data acquired from the dynamometer. The number of dynamometer tests for an engine tune-up can therefore be reduced because the estimated engine performance model can replace the dynamometer tests to a certain extent. In this paper, the construction, validation and accuracy of the model are discussed. The study showed that the predicted results agree well with the actual test results. To illustrate the significance of the SVM methodology, the results were also compared with that regressed using multilayer feedforward neural networks.

  9. Petrol governance

    Taminau, Y.; Vliet, M. van [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Public Management

    1995-12-31

    As the limits of the earth`s carrying capacity come to show, increasing pressure is brought to bear on private enterprise to behave in more environmentally responsible ways. One of the rare studies, that not only focuses on the enterprise level of analyse but at the industrial chain of production is Integrated Production Chain Management (IPCM), which postulates that the chain needs to be modified in its entirety. IPCM is not just a technical coordination problem but also a organizational problem in which different interests of actors play a role. These interests must be analysed. The present article will not go into the technical bottlenecks but will go into organizational bottlenecks that are the result of conflicts of interests. The choice between different technological options is not seen as a merely `technical` one but rather as a choice between different socio-technical (sub)systems. This choice is made in an interaction process in a network of various actors, each with their own perceptions and their own interests, in situations in which information is far from conclusive. (author)

  10. Class attendance and university performance

    Hoffmann, Anna-Lena; Lerche, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Using survey data collected at Göttingen University, Germany, this paper evaluates the effect of attending the lecture and/or tutorial on the grade achieved in two basic courses in business administration and economics. The analysis shows that going to class has no significant impact on student performance in most specifications. Although the identification of a causal effect may not be possible with the data at hand, the results suggest that, in the given framework, attending class and study...

  11. School attendance 1880-1939

    Sheldon, Nicola; Professor Jane Humphries; Janet Howarth

    2008-01-01

    The thesis covers two sides of the truancy problem in the period following compulsory school attendance - the truanting children and their parents, and the local authorities charged with enforcing the law. The introduction covers current concerns about truancy and school attendance, which have increased in prominence since the 1980s. Chapter 2 reviews the historiography, which has mainly debated working-class attitudes towards compulsory schooling in the nineteenth century. Th...

  12. School attendance and parental disability

    Raccanello, Kristiano; Garñudo Estrada, León; Herrera Escalante, Andrea; Uribe Cruz, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Socio economic problems exacerbate school drop-out that harms youths by limiting their knowledge and future development. Scholars have investigated both the variables linked to school attendance and the problems faced by impaired children. However, it has not yet been considered whether school attendance is harmed when parents are impaired. In order to partially fill this gap, we test the hypothesis that parental disability increases school drop-out through a sample of 598 youths between 14 a...

  13. Effect of sample geometry on synchronous fluorimetric analysis of petrol, diesel, kerosene and their mixtures at higher concentration

    Patra, D.; Mishra, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    A comparison of synchronous fluorescence scan (SFS) spectra of petrol, diesel and their mixtures with kerosene in front surface, 45{sup o} and 90{sup o} angle sample geometry as obtainable from a commercial fluorimeter reveals that 90{sup o} angle geometry provides certain distinct characteristics to SFS spectra. The presence of extensive inner filter effects and resonance energy transfer in petroleum products are the major causes of the distinctive characteristics of these spectra. These characteristics enable the development of calibration plots for mixture samples (petrol-kerosene and diesel-kerosene) based on the shift in {gamma}{sub SFS{sup max}} and SFS intensity. This novel method shows promise in detecting and estimating the contamination of petrol and diesel by kerosene. Calibration graphs obtained from SFS intensity measurement are found to be efficacious in the whole range 0-90% v/v of kerosene, and give a good linearity in the adulteration range generally found in the field (0-50% v/v) for petrol and diesel. The method is simple, rapid and superior both in terms on sensitivity (0.1% v/v) and accuracy to other analytical methods used for petroleum product analysis. (Author)

  14. Effectiveness of leaded petrol phase-out in Tianjin, China based on the aerosol lead concentration and isotope abundance ratio

    The phase-out of leaded petrol has been a measure widely used to reduce atmospheric lead pollution. Since the 1980s, China began to promote unleaded petrol. In order to assess the effectiveness of the measure an isotope fingerprint technique was applied for aerosol samples in the city of Tianjin. After dilute acid leaching, the lead concentration and isotope abundance ratios were determined for 123 samples collected in Tianjin during eight years (1994-2001). The 206Pb / 207Pb ratio was lower in summer, when coal combustion emission was low and vehicle exhaust became more important, indicating that the 206Pb / 207Pb ratio of leaded petrol in Tianjin is lower than that of aerosol samples. The 206Pb / 207Pb ratio gradually increased from 1994 to 2001, a trend that suggests that the contribution from vehicle exhaust was diminishing. Overall, the measurements matched well with national statistical data of leaded and unleaded petrol production. After the nationwide switch to unleaded gasoline, comprehensive control measures are urgently needed to reduce air lead pollution in China, as aerosol lead reduced slightly but remains at a relatively high level

  15. Impact of Organic Solvents and Environmental Pollutants on the Physiological Function in Petrol Filling Workers

    V. Devender Reddy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Long term exposure to solvents and air pollutants can lead to deleterious effects on respiratory, haematological and thyroid functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic exposure to solvents like benzene and pollutants like carbon monoxide in petrol filling workers had adverse effect on blood parameters, thyroid and respiratory functions. The study group consisted of 42 healthy, non-smoker petrol filling workers, aged 20-50 years with work (exposure duration from 2-15 years while 36 healthy subjects of the same age group served as controls. Physical examination and measurement of pulmonary functions by portable electronic spirometer were performed. Complete blood pictures (CBP were determined by normal haematology lab procedure and hormones by Chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA light absorption techniques. There was a significant decrease in the lung volumes and capacities; the restrictive pattern was more prevalent in the workers when compared with the control groups. But in the workers exposed for long period (more than 10 years the restrictive pattern was changed to mixed pattern. A significant increase in haemoglobin (Hb (>16 mg % and red blood cells (RBC (5.4 million cells/mm3 were observed in workers with longer period of exposure when compared with the control subjects (14.483 mg% and 4.83 million cells/mm3 for Hb and RBC respectively. White blood cell count except eosinophils and platelets were significantly lower in workers compared to controls. Marked increase in the tetra iodothyroinine (T4, free thyroxine (T4F level and significant decrease in thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH, and tri-iodothyronine (T3 were observed between long term exposed and non – exposed groups. Till now researchers focused only on the effect of solvents in workers professionally exposed to solvents without considering the effect of concomittant air pollution. The result obtained from present study indicates that there is

  16. Emission of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-driven motor vehicles

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.

    This study reports the measurement of 1,3-butadiene emissions from 30 petrol-driven vehicles from the Australian car fleet using the Australian Design Rule 37/00 vehicle test procedure. Six of the cars tested were not equipped with catalytic converters and used leaded petrol as fuel. The remaining 24 cars were fitted with catalytic converters and used unleaded petrol. 1,3-Butadiene in exhaust samples was found to degrade rapidly in SUMMA treated stainless steel canisters and the degradation followed first-order kinetics. The rate coefficient of the decay can be represented by a linear dependence on the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust ( r2 = 0.79, n = 43), and the gas-phase reaction of NO 2 and 1,3-butadiene may have a major role in this loss. The 1,3-butadiene concentrations used to estimate vehicle emissions were corrected for this loss using the decay rate constant either observed from replicate analyses or from the NO x concentrations in the samples. The measurements showed that 1,3-butadiene was emitted at a rate of 20.7 ± 9.2 mg km -1 from 6 non-catalyst vehicles. There was considerable scatter in the observations from catalyst equipped vehicles and we infer that this was due to the malfunction of the emission control devices on some vehicles. The 19 vehicles that appeared to have functioning catalyst emission control devices had an average emission rate of 2.1 ± 1.5 mg km -1. These emission rates are consistent with atmospheric observations and are much higher than those reported previously. We calculate that more than 90% of the 1,3-butadiene in engine exhaust comes from the common alkane and aromatic constituents of the fuel. A comparison of emissions in the different phases of the drive cycle indicates that current emission controls remove more than 90% of the 1,3-butadiene from the initial exhaust mixture.

  17. Comparative performance of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys [Department of Transport and Power Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Student Street 15, P.O. Box LT-53361, Kaunas Academy (Lithuania)

    2009-03-15

    This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on the biofuel kinematical viscosity, brake mean effective pressure (bmep), brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a diesel engine and its brake thermal efficiency (bte). Addition into RO from 2.5 to 7.5 vol% of ethanol and petrol its viscosity at ambient temperature of 20 C diminishes by 9.2-28.3% and 14.1-31.7%, respectively. Heating up to the temperature of 60 C the viscosity of pure RO, blends ERO2.5-7.5 and PRO2.5-10 further diminishes 4.2, 3.9-3.8 and 3.9-3.6 times. At 1800 min{sup -1} speed, the maximum brake mean effective pressure (bmep) higher up to 1.6% comparing with that of pure RO (0.77 MPa) ensure three agent blends EPRO5-7.5, whereas at rated 2200 min{sup -1} speed, the bmep higher by 5.6% can be obtained when fuelling the engine with blend PRO2.5. Brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) at maximum torque (240.2 g/kWh) and rated power (234.0 g/kWh) is correspondingly lower by 3.4% and 5.5% in comparison with pure RO when biofuel blends EPRO5 and PRO2.5 are used. The biggest brake thermal efficiency at maximum torque (0.40-0.41) and rated power (0.42-0.43) relative to that of RO (0.39) suggest blends PRO2.5 and EPRO5-7.5, respectively. (author)

  18. Using Attendance Worksheets to Improve Student Attendance, Participation, and Learning

    Rhoads, Edward

    2013-06-01

    As science instructors we are faced with two main barriers with respect to student learning. The first is motivating our students to attend class and the second is to make them active participants in the learning process once we have gotten them to class. As we head further into the internet age this problem only gets exacerbated as students have replaced newspapers with cell phones which can surf the web, check their emails, and play games. Quizzes can motivated the students to attend class but do not necessarily motivate them to pay attention. Active learning techniques work but we as instructors have been bombarded by the active learning message to the point that we either do it already or refuse to. I present another option which in my classroom has doubled the rate at which students learn my material. By using attendance worksheets instead of end of class quizzes I hold students accountable for not just their attendance but for when they show up and when they leave the class. In addition it makes the students an active participant in the class even without using active learning techniques as they are writing notes and answering the questions you have posed while the class is in progress. Therefore using attendance worksheets is an effective tool to use in order to guide student learning.

  19. Price setting under cost uncertainty and menu costs - the case of the Danish petrol market

    This paper derives the optimal pricing policy for a firm facing menu costs and stochastic production cost. The pricing policy is a boundary pricing policy and numerical comparative static analysis shows how exogenous parameters - the drift and variance of the production cost, the discount factor and the menu costs - affect the boundaries. Analyzing daily data for the Danish petrol price illustrates that a boundary pricing policy indeed has been followed for the period 1988-1992, with occasional shifts in both the desired mark-up and more importantly in the width of the bounds. While the theoretical model can say nothing of the shifts in desired mark-up, changes in the width of the bounds are found to be consistent with the implications of the model. (au)

  20. Modeling for Friction of Four Stroke Four Cylinder In-Line Petrol Engine

    P.C. Mishra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A four stroke four cylinder in-line petrol engine is modeled to estimate various performance parameters. The solution is based on tribology and dynamics principle. The detailed parameters relating to engine friction and lubrication are computed numerically for the engine firing order 1-3-4-2. The numerical method is based on finite difference method that solves coupled Reynolds Equation and Energy Equation. Output includes the movie thickness, friction force, friction power loss and temperature rise in the ring liner conjunction in all four cylinders. Transient regime of ring liner lubrication isaddressed while the same changes from hydrodynamic to mixed in an engine cycle. Momentary cessation near the top and bottom dead center that causes boundary interaction is analyzed through asperity contact. The non - Newtonian behavior of lubricant film due to pressure and temperature is addresses using viscosity -pressure- temperature inter relationship.

  1. Some investigations in design of low cost variable compression ratio two stroke petrol engine

    Srinivas, A; rao, P Venkateswar; Reddy, M Penchal

    2012-01-01

    Historically two stroke engine petrol engines find wide applications in construction of two wheelers worldwide, however due to stringent environmental laws enforced universally; these engines are fading in numbers. In spite of the tight norms, internationally these engines are still used in agriculture, gensets etc. Several designs of variable compression ratio two stroke engines are commercially available for analysis purpose. In this present investigation a novel method of changing the compression ratio is proposed, applied, studied and analyzed. The clearance volume of the engine is altered by introducing a metal plug into the combustion chamber. This modification permitted to have four different values of clearance value keeping in view of the studies required the work is brought out as two sections. The first part deals with the design, modification, engine fabrication and testing at different compression ratios for the study of performance of the engine. The second part deals with the combustion in engi...

  2. Performance and Emission Studies of a SI Engine using Distilled Plastic Pyrolysis Oil-Petrol Blends

    Kumar Kareddula Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an experimental investigation is carried out to evaluate the use of plastic oil derived from waste plastic which used in a Spark Ignition engine. Experiments are conducted, the measured performance and emissions of plastic oil blends at different proportions are compared with the baseline operation of the SI engine running with gasoline fuel. Engine performance and exhaust gas emissions such as carbon monoxide, total unburned hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen are measured. From the experiments it is observed that 50% Distilled Plastic Pyrolysis Oil (50%DPPO exhibits the substantial enhancement in brake power, brake thermal efficiency and reduction in brake specific fuel consumption running at full load conditions among different blends and pure petrol. There is also noticed decrement of carbon dioxide and unburned hydrocarbons emissions at the same blend. The experimental result shows that plastic oil shall conveniently be used as a substitute to gasoline in the existing SI engines without any modifications.

  3. Condition monitoring of valve clearance fault on a small four strokes petrol engine using vibration signals

    Songpon Klinchaeam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies condition monitoring technique of a small four strokes, single cylinder petrol engine using vibrationsignal analysis based on time domain, crank angle domain, and signal energy. Vibration signals are acquired from the cylinderhead of the engine and used to describe engine processes such as intake/exhaust valve operations, ignition process, andcombustion process. In this study, vibration signals have been applied to monitor various fault conditions in the engine suchas intake and exhaust valve clearance faults. Vibration signals acquired in time domain could be mapped onto crank angledomain using top dead center signal. Time domain techniques were used to analyze vibration signals so that the main eventsrelated to the engine operations could be described easily. Using energy analysis technique, all fault conditions could bealso identified. For future work, signal analysis techniques must be developed and the detected signals should be comparedwith other signals such as pressure signal in order to verify the accuracy of the results.

  4. Performance of two stroke and four cylinder engine with dimension 7,2/6 at work on petrol with additives of synthesis gas

    Митрофанов, А. С.; Тимошевский, Б. Г.; Ткач, М. Р.; Проскурин, А. Ю.; Познанский, А. С.

    2014-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of the performance of 2 cylinder 4–stroke engine 7,2/6 with spark ignition and external mixture formation at work on petrol with synthesis gas additives are presented. Obtained at work in the load characteristic mode are indicator diagrams of dependence of petrol hourly consumption from the engine capacity and of petrol specific actual consumption from the engine capacity with addition of 28%, 38% and 64% synthesis gas. It is established, that the hourly co...

  5. Amtrak Stations

    Department of Homeland Security — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  6. Serpentes da Bacia petrolífera de Urucu, município de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil Snakes of the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, Brasil

    Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Um inventário estruturado de serpentes foi realizado na Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura (BOGPM, localizada na Bacia Petrolífera de Urucu, Município de Coari, Amazonas, nos anos de 2003, 2004 e 2007. Nas quatro expedições realizadas (51 dias de coleta foram registradas 47 espécies de serpentes, pertencentes a sete famílias e 33 gêneros. Foram utilizados quatro métodos complementares de amostragem de serpentes: armadilha de interceptação e queda, encontros ocasionais, procura limitada por tempo a pé e procura limitada por tempo de carro. Das 47 espécies coletadas, Liophis reginae (n= 14, Philodryas viridissima (n= 9, Philodryas boulengeri (n= 7 e Oxybelis fulgidus (n= 7 foram as mais abundantes em toda região. O maior número de espécies e espécimes foi registrado pela procura limitada por tempo de carro (52,8%. Estudos anteriores indicam que as localidades ao sul do Rio Amazonas (como região Leste do Pará, Usina Hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, e de Samuel, Estado de Rondônia apresentam maior riqueza quando comparadas às regiões ao norte do Amazonas (como Município de Manaus, Reserva do INPA-WWF e Usina Hidrelétrica de Balbina, Estado do Amazonas. Desta forma, é possível inferir que o levantamento das serpentes da região de Urucu ainda não esteja completo, sendo necessário um maior esforço de coleta para que novos registros sejam adicionados para a área.A structured snake inventory was carried out at the Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura (BOGPM, located at the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, during 2003, 2004 and 2007. Throughout four sampling expeditions (51 collection days, seven species of snakes, belonging to seven families and 33 genera, were recorded. Four complementary sampling methods were used: pitfall traps with drift fence, occasional encounters, time-limited search on foot and time-limited search by car. Of the 47 collected species Liophis reginae (n= 14

  7. Parameters of Multiple College Attendance.

    Dillon, Paul H.

    This is a report analyzing the multiple community college attendance patterns of students from nine colleges in the Los Angeles Community College District (California) from 1990-2000. The assessment utilizes the Multiple College Index (MCI), which is a measure based on the proportion of units a student earns at different colleges. The study…

  8. Lobbying na Regulação Contábil: Evidências do Setor Petrolífero

    Odilanei Morais dos Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar os fatores determinantes à submissão de cartas comentários, como estratégia de lobbying no contexto da regulação contábil, à audiência pública do Discussion Paper Extractive Activities do International Accounting Standards Board IASB.Os resultados mostram o tamanho como fator determinante, em todas as modelagens utilizadas, indicando que grandes empresas petrolíferas possuem maior probabilidade para realizar lobbying. Essa propensão é verificada para posicionamentos essencialmente desfavoráveis às propostas apresentadas pelo IASB, o que implica em considerar que a revisão/substituição do International Financial Reporting Standard -IFRS6 será um processo complexo e sujeito a pressões por parte das empresas petrolíferas para manter o status quo.

  9. World future prospects of natural gas industry and research programs on natural gas led by Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP)

    This paper gives a general overview on future prospects of world natural gas industry till 2020. In a first part, statistical data on energy demand, natural gas resources, natural gas and liquefied natural gas production and transport, supply, trade, costs and prices are offered. In the second part, the paper describes briefly research programs led by Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) in several fields: exploration and underground storage, production and transport, treatment and liquefaction, gas uses. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Analysis of Petrol and Diesel Vapour and Vehicle Engine Exhaust Gases Using Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry

    Smith, D.; Cheng, P.; Španěl, Patrik

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2002), s. 1124-1134. ISSN 0951-4198 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0632; GA ČR GA203/02/0737 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : SIFT-MS * petrol * vehicle exhaust gas Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.372, year: 2002

  11. Türkiye'nin Petrol Politikaları Ve Enerji Özelleştirmelerine Bir Bakış

    Akalın, Uğur Selçuk; Tüfekçi, Suat

    2014-01-01

    Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO) is a big petroleum energy cartel company which operates Turkish petroleum policy and its very important for Turkish energy sector. Turkish petrol policy was a national trend at the 1930s and contiuned up to the 1950s. Turkish energy policy and petroleum research activities have changed and influenced by globalization and privatization trends since last three decades. Petroleum exploration, production, oil field research, trading and distribution services r...

  12. Th effectiveness of soot removal techniques for the recovery of fingerprints on glass fire debris in petrol bomb cases

    The increased use of petrol bombs as an act of vengeance in Malaysia has heightened awareness for the need of research relating physical evidence found at the crime scene to the perpetrator of the crime. A study was therefore carried out to assess the effectiveness of soot removal techniques on glass fire debris without affecting the fingerprints found on the evidence. Soot was removed using three methods which were brushing, 2 % NaOH solution and tape lifting. Depending on the visibility of prints recovered, prints which were visible after soot removal were lifted directly while prints that were not visible were subjected to enhancement. Glass microscope slides were used in laboratory experiment and subjected to control burn for the formation of soot. Soot was later removed following enhancement of the prints over time (within 1 day, within 2 days and after 2 days). While in simulated petrol bomb ground experiment, petrol bombs were hurled in glass bottles and the fragments were collected. Favorable results were obtained in varying degrees using each soot removal methods. In laboratory testing, brushing and 2 % NaOH solution revealed fingerprints that were visible after removal of excess soot and were lifted directly. As for tape lifting technique, some prints were visible and were successfully lifted while those that were not visible were subjected to super glue fuming for effective fingerprint identification. (author)

  13. Environmental Analysis of Petrol, Diesel and Electric Passenger Cars in a Belgian Urban Setting

    Nils Hooftman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The combustion of fossil fuels in the transport sector leads to an aggravation of the air quality along city roads and highways. Urban air quality is a serious problem nowadays as the number of vehicles increases on a yearly basis. With stricter Euro emission regulations, vehicle manufacturers are not meeting the imposed limits and are also disregarding the non-exhaust emissions. This paper highlights the relevance of non-exhaust emissions of passenger vehicles, both conventional (diesel and petrol or electric vehicles (EV, on air quality levels in an urban environment in Belgium. An environmental life cycle assessment was carried out based on a real-world emission model for passenger cars and fuel refinery data. A cut-off was applied to the models to highlight what emissions, both from the refinery to the exhaust and electricity production for EV, do actually occur within Belgium’s borders. Results show that not much progress has been made from Euro 4 to 6 for conventional vehicles. Electric vehicles pose the best alternative solution as a more environmentally friendly means of transportation. The analysis results target policy makers with the intention that regulations and policies would be developed in the future and target the characterization of non-exhaust emissions from vehicles. These results indicate that EVs offer a valid solution for addressing the urban air quality issue and that non-exhaust emissions should be addressed in future regulatory steps as they dominate the impact spectrum.

  14. Emissions from Petrol Engine Fueled Gasoline–Ethanol–Methanol (GEM Ternary mixture as Alternative Fuel

    Thangavelu Saravana Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demands of petroleum fuels due to the rapid development automotive society coupled with the environmental pollution issues have inspired the efforts on exploring alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Bioethanol obtained from biomass and bioenergy crops has been proclaimed as one of the feasible alternative to gasoline. In this study, the effect of gasoline–ethanol–methanol (GEM ternary blend on the emission characteristics of petrol engine was studied. Three different fuel blends, namely, E0 (gasoline, G75E21M4 (75% gasoline, 21% hydrous ethanol and 4% methanol and E25 (25% anhydrous ethanol and 75% gasoline were tested in a 1.3-l K3-VE spark-ignition engine. The results indicate that, when G75E21M4 fuel blend was used, a significant drop in CO, CO2, NOx and HC emissions by about 42%, 15%, 7% and 5.2% compared to E0, respectively. Moreover, the emission results for G75E21M4 are marginally lower than E25 whereas; HC emission was slightly higher than E25.

  15. Green fuels, growth engines after petroleum; Les carburants verts, moteurs de la croissance apres le petrole

    Mili, Dino

    2010-09-15

    The contribution of the new fuels to a greener environment is important and immediate. Thanks to clean novel technologies and to commercial plant projects in development, companies like Enerkem contribute to satisfy increasing global demand for clean energy. They stimulate local economies by creating jobs in an industry that offers real growth potential. Green fuels will gradually allow us to let go of non sustainable energy sources like oil to adopt a way of life based on sustainable development. They will also allow a shift towards a green economy. [French] La contribution des nouveaux carburants a un environnement plus vert est importante et immediate. Grace a des technologies propres novatrices et a des projets d'sines commerciales en developpement, des entreprises comme Enerkem contribuent a satisfaire a la demande mondiale croissante en energie propre. Elles stimulent les economies locales par la creation d'emplois dans une industrie qui offre un veritable potentiel de croissance. Les carburants verts permettront graduellement de nous affranchir des sources d'energie non renouvelables comme le petrole pour adopter un mode de vie base sur le developpement durable. Ils permettront aussi un virage vers une economie verte.

  16. TOPSIS Multi-Criteria Decision Modeling Approach for Biolubricant Selection for Two-Stroke Petrol Engines

    Masoud Dehghani Soufi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust pollutants from two-stroke petrol engines are a problem for the environment. Biolubricants are a new generation of renewable and eco-friendly vegetable-based lubricants, which have attracted a lot of attention in recent years. In this paper, the applicability of the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method to support the process of building the scoring system for selecting an appropriate two-stroke lubricant has been analyzed. For this purpose, biolubricants (TMP-triesters based on castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil were produced and then utilized in a 200 cc two-stroke gasoline engine to investigate their effects on its performance and exhaust emissions. The results obtained from the use of the entropy technique in the TOPSIS algorithm showed that palm oil-based lubricant took up the greatest distance from the Negative Ideal Solution (NIS and was selected as the most optimal lubricant for these types of engines.

  17. 45 CFR 1305.8 - Attendance.

    2010-10-01

    ..., RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE IN HEAD START § 1305.8 Attendance. (a) When the monthly... as well as special family support service activities provided by program staff must be documented....

  18. Using RFID Technology to Track Attendance

    Mehmet F. Dicle; John Levendis

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between class attendance and academic performance continues to be of interest. The most common methods of tracking attendance, however, have their shortcomings and biases. We provide researchers with a method to collect unbiased and reliable attendance data. Late arrivals and early departures can also be recorded with ease, allowing researchers to evaluate these behaviors as well. Our method is intended to collect valuable attendance data at a minimal cost of time or money: s...

  19. Attendance Control System based on RFID technology

    Nurbek Saparkhojayev; Selim Guvercin

    2012-01-01

    In Kazakhstan, checking students' attendance is one of the important issues for universities, because many universities evaluate students attendance and while giving the final grade, professors consider their total number of appearances on classes during the whole semester. This brings to the idea of having some tool to control students attendance. Some universities prefer to use paper sheet for controlling attendance, whereas some universities prefer to use paper sheet for checking students'...

  20. Attendance and Attainment in a Calculus Course

    Meulenbroek, Bernard; van den Bogaard, Maartje

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between attendance and attainment in a standard calculus course is investigated. Calculus could in principle be studied without attending lectures due to the wealth of material available (in hardcopy and online). However, in this study we will show that the pass rate of students attending classes regularly (>75%…

  1. Attendance and Performance: How Important Is It for Students To Attend Class?

    Moore, Randy

    2003-01-01

    Explores the correlation between class attendance and performance in a biology course. Shows that class attendance by most students in nonmajor science classes is influenced by whether they receive points for attending class. Indicates the value of stressing to introductory science students the importance of class attendance to their academic…

  2. On board emission and fuel consumption measurement campaign on petrol-driven passenger cars

    De Vlieger, I.

    Realistic emission and fuel consumption rates of petrol-driven cars were determined by on-the-road experiments in 1995. A validated, in-house developed, on-board measuring system was used. Six three-way catalyst (TWC) cars and one carburetted non-catalyst car were measured. The effects of road type, driving behaviour and cold start on CO, HC and NO x emissions and fuel consumption were analysed. In real traffic situations, emissions for TWC cars were found to be at least 70% lower than for the non-catalyst car. For TWC cars, emissions decreased across the board from city to rural and motorway traffic. Without a catalyst, motorway traffic resulted in the highest NO x emissions. Compared to normal driving, aggressive driving gave emissions which were up to four times higher. Except for NO x, calm driving resulted in lower emissions still. Comparable fuel consumption rates were obtained from normal and calm driving. Those from aggressive driving were higher, by as much as 40% in city traffic. Cold starts resulted in significantly higher CO and HC emission values than hot starts. These differences were less pronounced for NO x. Emissions from TWC cars were higher than generally expected, compared to the European emission limit values (91/441/EEC) and the emission factors used in Flanders and the Netherlands (Klein,1993) for the national emission inventories. Low-emitting cars during the emission test on a chassis dynamometer, as prescribed by the 91/441/EEC directive, did not necessarily give low emissions in real traffic situations.

  3. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  4. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  5. La distribución al por mayor de productos petrolíferos en España

    Cayetano Espejo Marín

    2008-01-01

    El desarrollo económico de España desde los años setenta del siglo pasado hasta la actualidad ha sido posible por la disponibilidad de productos petrolíferos, a pesar de carecer España de petróleo. Las grandes inversiones en logística han permitido a nuestro país contar con una red de oleoductos e instalaciones de almacenamiento capaces de garantizar el abastecimiento de todos los derivados del petróleo.

  6. Ultra-fast selective sensing of ethanol and petrol using microwave-range metamaterial complementary split-ring resonators

    Rawat, Vaishali; Dhobale, Sandip; Kale, S. N.

    2014-10-01

    An extremely compact metamaterial microstrip sensor based on complementary split-ring-resonators (CSRRs) has been fabricated for chemical sensing. This device exhibits a resonance with high rejection at 4.5 GHz, which demonstrates concomitant variations when exposed to liquids of various permittivity values. The resonance frequency of CSRR is sensitive to the change in nearby dielectric material. The sensing of petrol shows a shift in frequency with a sharp dip in transmission, while, with ethanol, the frequency shift is accompanied with increase in the power of the signal. The ultra-fast reversibility and repeatability offers good headway towards hybrid fuel sensing applications.

  7. Rapid NO 2 formation in diluted petrol-fuelled engine exhaust—A source of NO 2 in winter smog episodes

    Shi, Ji Ping; Harrison, Roy M.

    Substantially enhanced rates of oxidation of nitric oxide have been found in petrol engine exhaust diluted with air in the dark. The main product of oxidation is nitrogen dioxide, but up to 20% of the oxidised NO can be in the form of other NO y species. Similarly enhanced NO oxidation rates are also found in the presence of petrol vapour. The kinetics of NO oxidation are close to zero order in NO, the rate being appreciably faster than the known thermal reaction 2NO + O 2 → 2NO 2. Attempts to isolate the chemical species responsible for this rate enhancement from petrol vapour and engine exhaust have led to identification of 1-methyl-1,3-cyclopentadiene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene. A mechanism has been developed in which addition of NO 2 to a conjugated diene causes initiation of a free-radical chain oxidation. A simple numerical model incorporating this process is capable of explaining the observed rate enhancements.

  8. Attendance and attainment in a Calculus course

    Meulenbroek, Bernard; van den Bogaard, Maartje

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the relationship between attendance and attainment in a standard calculus course is investigated. Calculus could in principle be studied without attending lectures due to the wealth of material available (in hardcopy and online). However, in this study we will show that the pass rate of students attending classes regularly (>75% of the classes) is much higher than the pass rate of students attending fewer classes. We use a logistic model to investigate whether this correlation is significant. We will argue why we believe that this correlation between attendance and attainment is causal, i.e. why it is necessary for most students to attend classes in order to (improve their chances to) pass the exam.

  9. Dividendos e Juros Sobre o Capital Próprio no Setor Petrolífero Brasileiro

    Marcio de Araújo Resende

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar se as companhias abertas do setor petrolífero nacional remuneram adequada- mente seus acionistas, quando se utilizam dos juros sobre o capital próprio. Ou seja, o foco é verificar se estão imputando os JSCP adequadamente aos dividendos, isto é, se a imputa- ção está ocorrendo unicamente aos dividendos obrigatórios. Foram selecionadas três companhias abertas do setor petrolí- fero nacional, da base de dados da CVM, que, no período de 2001 a 2003, remuneraram seus acionistas por meio dos juros sobre o capital próprio. Os resultados da pesquisa mostraram que todas as companhias pesquisadas apresenta- ram algum problema, seja quanto à imputação dos juros sobre o capital próprio aos dividendos obrigatórios, seja quanto à qualidade das informações. Isto demonstra que a questão da imputação dos juros sobre o capital próprio aos dividendos ainda gera confusão e dúvidas, quanto ao trata- mento adequado a ser dado pelas companhias.

  10. Advanced introduction of cleaner petrol and diesel in the Netherlands. An analysis of the emission potential and cost effectiveness

    In 2005 the European Union is to introduce tighter environmental standards for road vehicle fuels. The emissions of new passenger vehicles, delivery vans and heavy good vehicles will then have to satisfy even more stringent criteria, as will petrol and diesel fuel composition, the sulphur content of which must then be down from respectively 150 and 350 parts per million to 50 ppm. In the case of petrol, the maximum permitted aromatics content is also to be reduced, from 42% to 35%. There are two motives for introducing tighter environmental criteria for vehicle fuels. In the first place it will have the direct effect of immediately reducing the noxious emissions of all road vehicles running on these fuels, because of improvements to the combustion process. In addition, there will also be a significant indirect effect. Availability of low-sulphur fuels opens the door for several new vehicle technologies. In the case of petrol vehicles it permits introduction of direct-injection (DI) lean-burn engines with catalytic NOx absorption. In diesel vehicles new types of catalytic systems can be introduced, including 'particle traps' to reduce PM10 emissions. These technologies require low-sulphur fuels to be effective. An environmental downside of these cleaner fuels is that refinery production is more energy-intensive. EU member states are free to support implementation of these 'cleaner' fuels at an earlier date if they so desire. The objective of the present study is to provide background data for a possible decision on accelerated introduction of these fuels in the Netherlands. The aim of this study is to investigate the environmental effects and economic costs of accelerated introduction in the Netherlands of 'cleaner' fuels satisfying the EU's '2005 standards'. Two possible dates have been considered for earlier implementation: November 2001 and June 2003. November 2001 has been taken because this is when Germany will be introducing a tax incentive for low

  11. A Study on Attendance and Academic Achievement

    Sund, Kristian J.; Bignoux, Stephane

    -all degree classification, which we see as a proxy for academic ability. We suggest that attendance may simply be a reflection of student conscientiousness, engagement and motivation. We also challenge the assumptions about gender differences found in prior research on student attendance and student...

  12. On exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled passenger cars at low ambient temperatures

    Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1998-11-01

    The study at hand deals with regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled cars at low ambient temperatures with present-day or near-future exhaust after treatment systems. The subject has been investigated at VTT over a decade and this report compiles data from various sub-studies carried out between the years 1993 - 1997. Each one of them viewed different aspects of the phenomenon, like determining the low-temperature response of today`s new cars employing three-way catalytic converters or assessing the long-term durability and the influence of vehicle mileage upon the low-temperature emissions performance. Within these studies, together more than 120 cars of model years from 1990 to 1997 have been tested. Most of them were normal, in-service vehicles with total mileages differing between only a few thousand kilometres for new cars up to 80,000 km or even more for the in-use vehicles. Both the US FTP75 and the European test cycle have been employed, and the ambient temperatures ranged from the baseline (+22 deg C) down to +- O deg C, -7 deg C and in some cases even to -20 deg C. The studies attested that new cars having today`s advanced emissions control systems produced fairly low levels of emissions when tested in conditions designated in the regulations that are the basis of the current new-vehicle certification. However, this performance was not necessarily attained at ambient temperatures that were below the normative range. Fairly widespread response was recorded, and cars having almost equal emissions output at baseline could produce largely deviating outcomes in low-temperature conditions. On average, CO and HC emissions increased by a factor of five to 10, depending on the ambient temperature and vehicle type. However, emissions of NO{sub x} were largely unaffected. Apart from these regulated emissions, many unregulated species were also determined, either by using traditional sampling and chromatography methods or on-line, employing

  13. Frequent attenders in out-of-hours general practice care: attendance prognosis

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the use of out-of-hours service and analyse attendance prognosis for frequent attenders and other groups of attenders, and to present a concept describing frequent attendance over time. METHODS: All adult attenders in 1990 were included in a 4-year follow-up study...... or three contacts per year. The setting was out-of-hours general practice in Aarhus County, Denmark. Data were collected from the database of the Public Health Insurance, Aarhus County. The county had approximately 600,000 inhabitants, of whom 465,000 were aged 18 years and over. The subjects were...

  14. Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK

    Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within 10 m of a motorway and 3 m of a minor road. Overall, the dominant source of Pb was historical emissions from nearby industrial areas. There was no discernible change in concentration or isotopic composition of Pb in surface soil or vegetation over the decade since the ban on the sale of leaded petrol. There was an order of magnitude decrease in Pb concentrations in road dust over the study period, but petrol Pb persisted at up to 43% of the total Pb concentration in 2010. Similar concentrations and spatial distributions of petrol Pb and non petrol Pb in vegetation in both 2001 and 2010, with enhanced concentrations near roads, suggested that redistribution of previously deposited material has operated continuously over that period, maintaining a transfer pathway of Pb into the biosphere. The results for vegetation and soil transects near minor roads provided evidence of a non petrol Pb source associated with roads/traffic, but surface soil samples from the vicinity of a motorway failed to show evidence of such a source. - Highlights: → A 10 year study of Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in farmland. → Soil and vegetation showed no systematic decrease in Pb concentrations over 10 years. → Road dust Pb concentrations fell from 117 mg kg-1 in 2001 to 14.2 mg kg-1 in 2010. → Enhancement of petrol Pb only within 10m of a motorway and 3m of a minor road.

  15. The application of product architecture in determining the concept of mini hydrogen cell for petrol powered internal combustion engine

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Nadzirah, T. S.; Juffrizal, K.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Product architecture is a method to translate the physical element of the functional requirement within the product system and describe the connection between these physical elements. Physical element will be interpreted through parts, component or subassemblies. Method of product architecture is an effective way in determined the conceptual design because it is not only considered the way of the product to be designed but it also focused on how the product will be made, used and even maintaining the product. This paper presents the methodology of the design and development of mini hydrogen cell for petrol powered internal combustion engine through the product architecture method. This method is applied based on the four stages of the product concept development process which is product element, product cluster, product geometry and the morphological chart. From this method, the best option of the concept is selected.

  16. O custo de abandono nas empresas petrolíferas The cost of abandonment in oil industries

    Odilanei Morais dos Santos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available As atividades petrolíferas são tipicamente de alto risco e, conseqüentemente, de altos prêmios, quando do sucesso do esforço exploratório. Nesse contexto, o custo de abandono é um componente fundamental em qualquer análise de viabilidade econômica de projetos de exploração e produção de óleo e gás. Tais custos são extremamente elevados e chegam a exceder, em alguns casos, aos investimentos incorridos para a construção da infraestrutura e instalação dos equipamentos necessários à produção. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar o arcabouço teórico e normativo do reconhecimento contábil do custo de abandono na contabilidade das empresas petrolíferas, contribuindo para o entendimento adequado das informações contábeis dessas empresas. Para tanto, desenvolveu-se um estudo exploratório-descritivo das normas contábeis aplicáveis ao custo de abandono nas empresas petrolíferas. As estimativas do custo de abandono devem ser consideradas como parte dos custos capitalizados do ativo (poços, equipamentos e instalações, tendo como contrapartida no passivo, o valor correspondente às obrigações futuras do desmantelamento, remoção e restauração dos campos petrolíferos. Tal prática foi implementada pelo SFAS 143 para dar uniformidade às informações divulgadas pelas empresas do setor, ante a diversidade de práticas anteriormente existentes.Oil industry activities are typically hazardous. When exploratory investments succeed, great rewards are achieved. Therefore, abandonment cost is an essential component that must be contemplated in any economic feasibility analysis of oil and gas exploration and production projects. Such costs are extremely high and in some cases they can exceed the investments to build infrastructure and install equipments necessary for production. The main goal of this study is to investigate both the theoretical framework and the existing standards used by oil companies to recognize

  17. Study of exhaust emissions of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys [Department of Transport and Power Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Student Street 15, P.O. Box LT-53361, Kaunas Academy (Lithuania)

    2009-03-15

    This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on diesel engine emission characteristics and smoke opacity of the exhausts. The biggest NO{sub x} emissions, 1954 and 2078 ppm, at 2000 min{sup -1} speed generate blends PRO10 (9.72%) and EPRO5 (11.13%) against, 1731 and 1411 ppm, produced from ERO5 (12%) and ERO10 (13.2% oxygen) blends. The carbon monoxide, CO, emissions emitted from a fully loaded engine fuelled with three agent blends EPRO5-7.5 at maximum torque and rated speed are higher by 39.5-18.8% and 27.5-16.1% and smoke opacity lower by 3.3-9.0% and 24.1-17.6% comparing with RO case. When operating at rated 2200 min{sup -1} mode, the carbon dioxide, CO{sub 2}, emissions are lower, 6.9-6.3 vol%, from blends EPRO5-7.5 relative to that from RO, 7.8 vol%, accompanied by a slightly higher emission of unburned hydrocarbons HC, 16 ppm, and residual oxygen contents O{sub 2}, 10.4-12.0 vol%, in the exhausts. (author)

  18. Consumer decision-making on festival attendance

    Noman, Md. Abu

    2012-01-01

    It has been challenging for the festival organizers to sell their festival tickets due to overcrowded festival market. To increase the ticket sale it is becoming more important to know the consumers and their decision making on festival attendance. There are many factors that influence people to make decision over festival attendance and the main purpose of this study was to identify those factors. The research was conducted for GigsWiz.com Ltd. to help the company gather information about fe...

  19. The Correlation between Attendence and Achievement

    Davis, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    In a global context it is generally accepted that the retention and associated completion rates for first year students is an area for concern in third level institutions. One are of particular interest is the low levels of completion on some degree programmes. Earlier studies of a similar nature have indicated that these students who attend at high levels not only pass examinations but also attain higher grades. Whilst attendance itself is not the cause of learning, even the most basic expos...

  20. Attendance and Exam Performance at University

    David O Allen; Webber, Don J

    2006-01-01

    Marburger (2006) explored the link between absenteeism and exam performance by assessing the impact on absenteeism of removing a university wide policy of mandatory attendance for a single class. His results indicate that while an attendance policy has a strong impact on reducing absenteeism the link between absenteeism and exam performance is weak.This paper presents an alternative exploration into the link between absenteeism and exam performance by assessing the impact of implementing a mo...

  1. Attendance Control System based on RFID technology

    Nurbek Saparkhojayev

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Kazakhstan, checking students' attendance is one of the important issues for universities, because many universities evaluate students attendance and while giving the final grade, professors consider their total number of appearances on classes during the whole semester. This brings to the idea of having some tool to control students attendance. Some universities prefer to use paper sheet for controlling attendance, whereas some universities prefer to use paper sheet for checking students' attendance and after this, fill out these information into a system manually, like Kazakh-British Technical University does. However, this is not an efficient way since there will be spent much of time for calling students names and putting marks like presence or absence if the class is a lecture class, and in this class at least 5 groups are presented. Moreover, some students may call his/her friend as presence even though this student is currently absent. After thinking all these issues, authors of the following research paper decided to create a system that makes easier to check students attendance automatically, and this system is implemented in Suleyman Demirel University, Kazakhstan. Actually, this is the first time when such kind of system is being used in educational system of Kazakhstan. The system is based on RFID technology, and in this paper, details of this system are presented.

  2. 甲醇-汽油两用燃料发动机设计%Design of Petrol-methanol Dual-fuel Engine

    杜爱民; 朱沛沛; 朱忠攀; 初川川

    2015-01-01

    A petrol-methanol dual-fuel engine was developed by locally modifying the hardware and software of a 1 .5 L inline 4-cylinder and 4-stroke engine .The dual fuel tank and rail which could be realized easily were chosen ,the fuel supply system , ignition system and control software for petrol-methanol dual-fuel were designed ,and the starting and warming up functions of petrol and the free switch and respective combustion for methanol and petrol were realized .The experiments of the dual-fuel engine show that methanol is more appropriate for transient conditions with large speed and load variance .Although the con-sumption of methanol is twice of the petrol ,the thermal efficiency of methanol is higher than that of petrol .%以一台1.5L、直列、四缸、四冲程发动机为基础开发了甲醇-汽油两用燃料发动机 ,对原发动机的硬件和软件进行了局部修改 ,选择了比较容易实现的双油箱双油轨结构 ,设计了甲醇-汽油两用的燃油供给系统、点火系统以及控制软件 ,实现了发动机汽油起动、暖机 ,甲醇、汽油之间的自由切换以及甲醇、汽油单独燃烧等功能.对甲醇-汽油两用燃料发动机进行了试验研究 ,试验表明 ,在转速变化较大而负荷相对变化较小的工况下适合燃用甲醇.虽然甲醇的消耗量大约是汽油的2倍 ,但其燃烧热效率比汽油高.

  3. Student attitudes about class absences, class attendance, and requiring attendance at Virginia Tech

    Hileman, Annmarie Long

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-nine undergraduate students were interviewed in February, 1992, to determine attitudes about class attendance, class absences, and required attendance. Three hundred undergraduates were selected in a random sample; seventy-nine attended one of the six group interview sessions. The reasons students gave for skipping classes included being lazy or tired, dislike of the professor, material for the class was seen as unimportant, bad or nice weather, early mornin...

  4. Epidemiology of frequent attenders: a 3-year historic cohort study comparing attendance, morbidity and prescriptions of one-year and persistent frequent attenders

    ter Riet Gerben

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners spend a disproportionate amount of time on frequent attenders. So far, trials on the effect of interventions on frequent attenders have shown negative results. However, these trials were conducted in short-term frequent attenders. It would be more reasonable to target intervention at persistent frequent attenders. Typical characteristics of persistent frequent attenders, as opposed to 1-year frequent attenders and non-frequent attenders, may generate hypotheses regarding modifiable factors on which new randomized trials may be designed. Methods We used the data of all 28,860 adult patients from 5 primary healthcare centers. Frequent attenders were patients whose attendance rate ranked in the (age and sex adjusted top 10 percent during 1 year (1-year frequent attenders or 3 years (persistent frequent attenders. All other patients on the register over the 3-year period were referred to as non-frequent attenders. The lists of medical problems coded by the GP using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC were used to assess morbidity. First, we determined which proportion of 1-year frequent attenders was still a frequent attender during the next two consecutive years and calculated the GPs' workload for these patients. Second, we compared morbidity and number of prescriptions for non-frequent attenders, 1-year frequent attenders and persistent frequent attenders. Results Of all 1-year frequent attenders, 15.4% became a persistent frequent attender equal to 1.6% of all patients. The 1-year frequent attenders (3,045; 10.6% were responsible for 39% of the face-to-face consultations; the 470 patients who would become persistent frequent attenders (1.6% were responsible for 8% of all consultations in 2003. Persistent frequent attenders presented more social problems, more psychiatric problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms, but also more chronic somatic diseases (especially diabetes

  5. Intermittent attendance at breast cancer screening

    Padraic Fleming

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determine why women skip rounds and factors influencing return of previous non attenders (PNAs to breast screening. Design and methods. Retrospective, quantitative, structured questionnaire posted to 2500 women. First PNAs did not attend their first screening appointment in 2007/2008 but then attended in 2010; First Controls first attended in 2010 without missed previous appointments. Women who attended screening in 2006 or earlier then skipped a round but returned in 2010 were Subsequent PNAs; Subsequent Controls attended all appointments.Results. More First Controls than First PNAs had family history of cancer (72.7% vs 63.2%; P=0.003; breast cancer (31.3% vs 24.8%; P=0.04. More PNAs lived rurally; more First PNAs had 3rd level education (33.2% vs 23.6%; P=0.002 and fewer had private insurance than First Controls (57.7% vs 64.8%; P=0.04. Excellent/good health was reported in First PNAs and First Controls (82.9% vs 83.2%, but fewer Subsequent PNAs than Subsequent Controls (72.7% vs 84.9%; P=0.000. Common considerations at time of missed appointment were had mammogram elsewhere (33% First PNA and postponed to next round (16% First PNA, 18.8% Subsequent PNA. Considerations when returning to screening were similar for First PNAs and Subsequent PNAs: I am older (35.4%, 29.6%, I made sure I remembered (29%, 23.6%, could reschedule (17.6%, 20.6%, illness of more concern (16.5%, 19%. More First PNAs stated my family/friends advised (22.3% vs 15.2% or my GP (12.6% vs 4.6% advised me to attend, heard good things about BreastCheck (28.8% vs 13.6%.Conclusions. Intermittent attenders do not fit socio-demographic patterns of non-attenders; GP recommendation and word of mouth were important in women’s return to screening. Fear and anxiety seem to act as a screening facilitator rather than an inhibitor.

  6. Father attendance in nurse home visitation.

    Holmberg, John R; Olds, David L

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the rates and predictors of father attendance at nurse home visits in replication sites of the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP). Early childhood programs can facilitate father involvement in the lives of their children, but program improvements require an understanding of factors that predict father involvement. The sample consisted of 29,109 low-income, first-time mothers who received services from 694 nurses from 80 sites. We conducted mixed-model multiple regression analyses to identify population, implementation, site, and nurse influences on father attendance. Predictors of father attendance included a count of maternal visits (B = 0.12, SE = 0.01, F = 3101.77), frequent contact between parents (B = 0.61, SE = 0.02, F = 708.02), cohabitation (B = 1.41, SE = 0.07, F = 631.51), White maternal race (B = 0.77, SE = 0.06, F = 190.12), and marriage (B = 0.42, SE = 0.08, F = 30.08). Random effects for sites and nurses predicted father-visit participation (2.7 & 6.7% of the variance, respectively), even after controlling for population sociodemographic characteristics. These findings suggest that factors operating at the levels of sites and nurses influence father attendance at home visits, even after controlling for differences in populations served. Further inquiry about these influences on father visit attendance is likely to inform program-improvement efforts. PMID:25521707

  7. Study of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate as the Assessment of Lung Function in Occupationally Exposed Petrol Pump Workers of Western Maharashtra

    Patil Smita V; Sumangala Patil; Sampada Kanitkar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fast urbanization trends, rapid industrial growth, globalization, and poor environmental conditions at work places have created a lot of healthrelated issues. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) as the assessment of lung function in occupationally exposed petrol pump workers and also check whether PEFR increases or decreases with duration of exposure. Material and Methods: The study was conducted o...

  8. An in vitro Assessment on the Efficacy of Clay-Based Formulated Cells of Pseudomonas Isolate UTAR EPA2 for Petrol Degradation

    A. S.Y. Ting

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Application of free-cell forms is usually impractical to achieve satisfactory bioremediative effect because the microbes are encumbered by the biotic and abiotic stresses from the environment. Approach: In this study, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium (Pseudomonas isolate UTAR EPA2 was formulated with various combinations of formulative materials, comprising of clay-based carrier materials such as Bentonite (B and Kaolin (K, enrichment materials such as Non-fat skimmed milk (N and Sucrose (S and a UV-protectant agent Para-aminobenzoic acid (P. Formulated cells were treated to sunlight exposure for 6 h to mimic the conditions in the environment prior to testing for their efficacy in degrading petrol, a mixed hydrocarbon substrate. Results: Cells in all formulations including free-cell suspension were able to degrade petrol with a relatively high degradation efficacy of more than 66% even after exposure to sunlight. Degradation efficacy was slightly higher for kaolin-based formulated cells compared to bentonite-based formulations, especially after exposure to sunlight, although their percentages of degradation were not statistically different. Nevertheless, kaolin-based formulations have very low viable cell count especially in formulations with P (KP, KNP, KSP, KNSP. This suggested that aside from viable cells, the physical properties of the clays could have also contributed to the degradation of petrol. Conclusion: For storage purposes and applications in the field, we suggest that the bacterium is formulated with bentonite-based formulations especially using Bentonite (B clay singly, as relatively high percentage of petrol degradation and viable cell count was achieved with this formulation.

  9. A review of attendance and non-attendance studies at sporting events

    JOHN DOUVIS

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite its rapid growth, in the last few years the GreekProfessional Basketball League has been concerned with the significant decrease in the general interest surrounding the game of basketball, which has resulted in a fewer number offans attending the league’s games. The Basketball Spectator Non-Attendance Scale is an instrument that facilitates the identification of factors associated with non-attendanceat professional basketball games in Greece. The scale was successfully tested for validity and reliability with a convenience sample of 270 students at the University of Athens. The design of the instrument, its practical applications and results from our initial findings are reported and explained. The paper also provides a review of attendance and non-attendance studies at sporting events, which are discussed in the context of current theoretical perspectives. Tentative recommendations are made for reaching this rather sizablenon-attendance market.

  10. Introduction of Institut Francais Du Petrole(IFP)%国外著名天然气研究机构简介(三)--法国石油研究院(Institut Francais Du Petrole)

    原青民

    2003-01-01

    @@ 法国石油研究院(IFP,全称为:Institut Francais Du Petrole)是一个世界著名的综合性石油、天然气、化工研究机构,成立于1944年,在上世纪50和60年代,开始介入地质和油藏研究;由于当时拉克(LACQ)气田的开发和其高酸性特点,使得IFP在高酸性天然气开发技术方面投入了很大力量,从而颇具影响.在炼油化工技术急速发展的上世纪60年代,IFP的炼化研究开发十分活跃;70年代又在钻采技术方面介入颇多.目前,IFP主要由四个研究部门组成,即地质和油藏研究、钻井与开发、炼油与化工、能源和发动机.

  11. WLAN Hot Spot services for the automotive and oil industries :a business analysis Or : "Refuel the car with petrol and information, both ways at the gas station"

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François); M.H.P. Oremus

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWhile you refuel for gas ,why not refuel for information or download vehicle data ? This paper analyzes in extensive detail the user segmentation by vehicle usage , service offering , and full business models from WLAN hot spot services delivered to vehicles (private, professional , publ

  12. F87. My home - my car - my petrol station; F87. Mein Haus - mein Auto - meine Tanksstelle. Das Effizienzhaus Plus mit Elektromobilitaet in Berlin

    Michaely, Petra [Werner Sobek Stuttgart GmbH und Co.KG, Stuttgart (Germany); Schroth, Juergen; Schuster, Heide; Thuemmler, Thomas [WSGreen Technologies GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Sobek, Werner [Werner Sobek Stuttgart GmbH und Co.KG, Stuttgart (Germany); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Leichtbau Entwerfen und Konstruieren

    2012-07-01

    In the presence of Federal Chancellor Dr. Angela Merkel, the efficient house Plus was inaugurated in December 2011 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany). This building is a temporary dwelling with a floor space of approximately 130 square meters. This building generates all the necessary energy for the operation and comfort by itself. The generated energy also is sufficient for the annual energy demand of two electric cars and an electric bicycle. The building also serves as a showcase to inform the general public.

  13. 科威特GC28集油站雨淋系统设计%Deluge System Design for a Petrol Collecting Station in Kuwait

    任美芳

    2002-01-01

    科威特GC28集油站是一座处理规模大、工艺复杂的油气水综合处理站.介绍了雨淋系统在该站中的应用,包括水力计算以及消防泵工作原理和自动雨淋阀的工作原理.整个雨淋系统实现了高度自动化.

  14. Modification of school attendance for an elementary population.

    Barber, R M; Kagey, J R

    1977-01-01

    The staff and students of a school composed of Grades 1 through 3 participated in a program to increase school attendance. Children earned the opportunity to attend part or all of a monthly party by their attendance. Immediate feedback occurred each morning by placing stars on a classroom chart for each child present. The school's attendance during the program was compared both with attendance during preceding years and with attendance at other schools. The experimental school's attendance improved dramatically to become the best of all elementary schools in the system. PMID:16795547

  15. Characterization of on-road CO, HC and NO emissions for petrol vehicle fleet in China city

    GUO Hui; ZHANG Qing-yu; SHI Yao; WANG Da-hui; DING Shu-ying; YAN Sha-sha

    2006-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are a major source of air pollution in urban areas. The impact on urban air quality could be reduced if the trends of vehicle emissions are well understood. In the present study, the real-world emissions of vehicles were measured using a remote sensing system at five sites in Hangzhou, China from February 2004 to August 2005. More than 48000 valid gasoline powered vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were measured. The results show that petrol vehicle fleet in Nangzhou has considerably high CO emissions, with the average emission concentration of 2.71%±0.02% , while HC and NO emissions are relatively lower, with the average emission concentration of (153.72± 1.16)× 10-6 and (233.53±1.80)× 10-6, respectively. Quintile analysis of both average emission concentration and total amount emissions by model year suggests that in-use emission differences between well maintained and badly maintained vehicles are larger than the age-dependent deterioration of emissions. In addition, relatively new high polluting vehicles are the greatest contributors to fleet emissions with, for example, 46.55% of carbon monoxide fleet emissions being produced by the top quintile high emitting vehicles from model years 2000~2004. Therefore, fleet emissions could be significantly reduced if new highly polluting vehicles were subject to effective emissions testing followed by appropriate remedial action.

  16. Roll Call: The Importance of Teacher Attendance

    Joseph, Nithya; Waymack, Nancy; Zielaski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    While policymakers have been directing considerable attention to teacher effectiveness, one basic aspect of effectiveness has received relatively little attention: teacher attendance. No matter how engaging or talented teachers may be, they can only have an impact on student learning if they are in the classroom. This paper asks a simple question:…

  17. Assessing Reasons for School Non-Attendance

    Havik, Trude; Bru, Edvin; Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess reasons for school non-attendance including somatic symptoms, subjective health complaints, truancy, and school refusal and to investigate the relationship of these with gender, grade, and self-reported special educational needs. The study is based on a self-reported questionnaire distributed to students…

  18. CPAFFC Delegation Attends Global Zero Summit

    2010-01-01

    <正>CPAFFC President Chen Haosu led a delegation to attend the Global Zero Summit in Paris,France from February 2 to 4.The event aimed to promote a new phase in the"Global Zero"movement:working to reach a binding and verifiable agreement on elimination of all nuclear weapons worldwide.More than 200

  19. Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance

    Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

  20. Fire Stations - 2007

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  1. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  2. Fire Stations - 2009

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  3. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  4. Weather Radar Stations

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  5. Water Level Station History

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  6. Reference Climatological Stations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in...

  7. Attending to the reasons for attribute non-attendance in choice experiments

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye;

    This paper focuses on behavioural reasons underlying stated attribute non-attendance. In order to identify and incorporate procedures for dealing with heterogeneous attribute processing strategies, we ask respondents follow-up questions regarding their reasons for ignoring attributes. Based on...... these statements, we conclude that the standard way of assigning a zero impact of ignored attributes on the likelihood is inappropriate. We find that some respondents act in accordance with the passive bounded rationality assumption since they ignore an attribute simply because it does not affect their...... information about preferences. We suggest that using the standard approach combined with weighting procedures and recoding of non-attendance statements conditional on the specific reasons for non-attendance could be more appropriate than the current standard way of taking stated non-attendance into account....

  8. Eye drop administration in patients attending and not attending a glaucoma education center

    Aisha Al-Busaidi; Debbie Anne Samek; Oscar Kasner

    2016-01-01

    Background: To assess the technique of glaucoma eye drop instillation in patients who have and have not attended glaucoma education sessions. To compare this with their subjective perception of eye drop use and identify factors associated with improved performance. Patients and Methods: An observational study of 55 participants who instill their topical glaucoma medication for more than 1 year. Twenty-five patients attended (A) glaucoma teaching sessions >1 year before the study and were ...

  9. A Students Attendance System Using QR Code

    Fadi Masalha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are becoming more preferred companions to users than desktops or notebooks. Knowing that smartphones are most popular with users at the age around 26, using smartphones to speed up the process of taking attendance by university instructors would save lecturing time and hence enhance the educational process. This paper proposes a system that is based on a QR code, which is being displayed for students during or at the beginning of each lecture. The students will need to scan the code in order to confirm their attendance. The paper explains the high level implementation details of the proposed system. It also discusses how the system verifies student identity to eliminate false registrations.

  10. Attendance Demand for Baseball Games in Japan

    Hirao, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies how competitive balance in the Japanese professional baseball teams has changed over time, and estimates the effect of competitive balance on attendance demand for baseball games. Nippon Professional Baseball Organization (the ‘NPB’ hereinafter) consists of the Central League and the Pacific League, and there are six teams in each league. In 2004, a series of changes took place in the Pacific League, including the merger of the two existing teams, the entry of a new team, t...

  11. CPAFFC Delegation Attends Third OLAGI Meeting

    2007-01-01

    <正>ACPAFFC delegation led by Wang Hongqiang,deputy director general of the Department of American and Oceanian Affairs of the CPAFFC and secretary general of the China-Latin America Friendship Association,attended the Third Meeting of OLAGI(Organiacion Latinoamericana de Gobiernos Intermedios) held in La Romana,the Dominican Republic from October 18 to 20,2006 upon OLAGI’s invitation.

  12. A Students Attendance System Using QR Code

    Fadi Masalha; Nael Hirzallah

    2014-01-01

    Smartphones are becoming more preferred companions to users than desktops or notebooks. Knowing that smartphones are most popular with users at the age around 26, using smartphones to speed up the process of taking attendance by university instructors would save lecturing time and hence enhance the educational process. This paper proposes a system that is based on a QR code, which is being displayed for students during or at the beginning of each lecture. The students will need to scan the co...

  13. Attendant Service Cabinet : Mekaanisen konstruktion kehitys

    Ojala, Harri

    2013-01-01

    KONE Oyj tuottaa maailmanlaajuisesti hissejä sekä näiden yhteyteen kuuluvaa laitteistoa. Attendant Service Cabinet on hissin nappipaneelin yhteyteen saatava laitelevy. Asiakkaan valitsemat kytkimet sekä muut komponentit ovat lukittavan luukun takana. Kyseinen mekanismi joudutaan suunnittelemaan tapauskohtaisesti, eikä yhtenäistä linjausta mekaniikan rakenteesta toistaiseksi ole. Työn tavoitteena oli kyseisen kokoonpanon kehittäminen, siten että mekaniikan osia saataisiin standardoitua eik...

  14. Comparative analysis of environmental impact of S2P (Sunshine to Petrol) system for transportation fuel production

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • We study solar fuels derived from CO2 and water using the S2P framework. • S2P fuels have lower environmental impact than conventional fuels. • We evaluate the economic, environmental, and social benefits of the S2P framework. - Abstract: A previous study on Sunshine to Petrol (S2P), a technology framework to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels from CO2 and water using a concentrated solar energy source, focused on process development as well as economic evaluation. The study herein presents results from a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach to a comparative analysis of the environmental impacts of S2P-derived and petroleum-derived gasoline. Results reveal that S2P gasoline shows lower impact scores than the conventional gasoline for all evaluated impact categories. Based on the LCA results, we then analyze the environmental benefits including greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and external cost savings. We find that if S2P gasoline could be successfully introduced to satisfy the gasoline demand of a sample city, Victorville in east California, 3.6 Mt CO2-eq of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (77% of the total regional emissions) would be mitigated based on the current fleet of vehicles. The lighter impact also corresponds to 4.2 M$ annual cost savings from avoided environment damage. More generally, for each million vehicles running on S2P gasoline there would be nearly $30 M in savings and 335 M gallons of gasoline displaced, which in turn results in nearly 25.8 Mt of CO2-eq avoided

  15. Non-Coop Station History

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  16. 77 FR 37665 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    2012-06-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the North Carolina Transmission Planning...

  17. Sistema de protección contra incendios de un parque de almacenamiento de líquidos petrolíferos

    Esono Eyenga, Plácida

    2015-01-01

    Los procesos relacionados con el almacenamiento y manipulación de productos petrolíferos, conllevan siempre determinados riesgos de incendio que dependen básicamente de las propiedades físicas y químicas de los productos, y hacen indispensable la adopción de importantes medidas de seguridad contra incendios. Esto es debido a que las consecuencias previsibles en caso de la producción y expansión del incendio son tan graves que aconsejan la instalación de medios más potentes de lucha contra inc...

  18. O mercado retalhista do setor petrolífero português: contribuição para uma análise estratégica

    Lavado, Tiago Perdigoto Fernandinho

    2013-01-01

    Atualmente, a competitividade nos grandes setores económicos tem vindo a aumentar e torna-se por isso vital, compreender quais as estratégias a implementar para a obtenção do sucesso das empresas e dos mercados. Os avanços tecnológicos e a globalização que o mundo empresarial tem vindo a assistir tornam a concorrência e competitividade interna dos mercados maior. O setor petrolífero possui uma elevada importância na conjuntura mundial atual, principalmente ao nível socioeconómico. Assim, t...

  19. Patient characteristics affecting attendance at general outpatient clinics.

    McClure, R J; Newell, S J; Edwards, S

    1996-01-01

    A study was carried out to identify the characteristics of children who do not attend appointments at general outpatient clinics. Over six months, 359 children who had an appointment at a general clinic were studied using a questionnaire given to parents (74% response rate) and by inspection of case notes. Based on their first appointment in the study period, children were divided into 'attenders' (n = 262) and 'non-attenders' (n = 97) for analysis. Non-attenders were significantly more likel...

  20. Game Attendance and Competitive Balance in the National Hockey League

    Coates, Dennis; Humphreys, Brad

    2011-01-01

    We examine the relationship between attendance, uncertainty of outcome, and team quality in the National Hockey League. Based on results from a reduced form model of attendance at 6054 regular season NHL games from 2005/06 to 2009/10, we find evidence that attendance increases when fans expect the home team to win by a large margin. Attendance increases for home team underdogs, but the extent of that boost declines as the underdog status worsens. An asymmetric relationship exists between expe...

  1. Students Attendance Management System Based On RFID And Fingerprint Reader

    Moth Moth Myint Thein; Chaw Myat Nweand Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Today students class attendance is become more important part for any organizationsinstitutions. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure hence inefficient. This paper presents the manual students attendance management into computerized system for convenience or data reliability. So the system is developed by the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom for managing the students attendance ...

  2. Algorithm for Efficient Attendance management: Face Recognition based approach

    Naveed Khan Baloch; Haroon Yousaf; Waqar Ahmad; M. Iram Baig

    2012-01-01

    Students attendance in the classroom is very important task and if taken manually wastes a lot of time. There are many automatic methods available for this purpose i.e. biometric attendance. All these methods also waste time because students have to make a queue to touch their thumb on the scanning device. This work describes the efficient algorithm that automatically marks the attendance without human intervention. This attendance is recorded by using a camera attached in front of classroom ...

  3. Socio-Economic Determinants of School Attendance in India

    Usha Jayachandran

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the socio-economic determinants of school attendance in India, and the possible causes of disadvantage faced by the girl child. Based on Census data for 1981 and 1991, the determinants of inter-district variations in school attendance are explored, separately for boys and girls. A similar analysis is applied to the gender bias in school attendance. The results indicate that school attendance is positively related to school accessibility and parental education, and nega...

  4. Exploring the school attendance of children with epilepsy

    Karina Piccin Zanni; Thelma Simões Matsukura; Heber Souza Maia Filho

    2009-01-01

    The childhood epilepsy is a chronic disease that can have an impact in various spheres of life of the child, including academic performance and school attendance. This study aimed to describe and compare the school attendance of children with epilepsy who attend mainstream and special schools. Participants were 56 children aged between 7 and 14 years who attended regular or special schools located in two Brazilian cities of medium size. To collect the information we used two instruments: Data...

  5. Impact of Attendance on Academic Performance in Prenursing Students.

    Branson, Marietta; Loftin, Collette; Hadley, Lance; Hartin, Vicki; Devkota, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    A descriptive-correlational design was used to explore the relationship between attendance and course grade in a prenursing course. Findings revealed that attendance was positively associated with final course grades (r443 = 0.54, P attended a significantly higher percentage of classes than their nontraditional counterparts. These findings support the long-held belief by nursing faculty that attendance positively impacts course outcomes. PMID:26866733

  6. Class Attendance and Exam Performance: A Randomized Experiment

    Chen, Jennjou; Lin, Tsui-Fang

    2008-01-01

    The determination of college students' academic performance is an important issue in higher education. Whether students' attendance at lectures affects students' exam performance has received considerable attention. The authors conduct a randomized experiment to study the average attendance effect for students who choose to attend lectures, which…

  7. Is Attending Lectures Still Relevant in Engineering Education?

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Cronin, K.; Byrne, E.

    2011-01-01

    A case study was conducted on a group of undergraduate chemical engineering students to assess the relevance of attending lectures from a student perspective and to understand why these students attend and do not attend lectures with a view to developing approaches to teaching, which are of greater interest and benefit to student learning. The…

  8. Health risks of early swimming pool attendance.

    Schoefer, Yvonne; Zutavern, Anne; Brockow, Inken; Schäfer, Torsten; Krämer, Ursula; Schaaf, Beate; Herbarth, Olf; von Berg, Andrea; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-07-01

    Swimming pool attendance and exposure to chlorination by-products showed adverse health effects on children. We assessed whether early swimming pool attendance, especially baby swimming, is related to higher rates of early infections and to the development of allergic diseases. In 2003-2005, 2192 children were analysed for the 6-year follow-up of a prospective birth cohort study. Data on early swimming pool attendance, other lifestyle factors and medical history were collected by parental-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations. Babies who did not participate in baby swimming had lower rates of infection in the 1st year of life (i) diarrhoea: OR 0.68 CI 95% 0.54-0.85; (ii) otitis media: OR 0.81 CI 95% 0.62-1.05; (iii) airway infections: OR 0.85 CI 95% 0.67-1.09. No clear association could be found between late or non-swimmers and atopic dermatitis or hay fever until the age of 6 years, while higher rates of asthma were found (OR 2.15 95% CI 1.16-3.99), however, potentially due to reverse causation. The study indicates that, in terms of infections, baby swimming might not be as harmless as commonly thought. Further evidence is needed to make conclusions if the current regulations on chlorine in Germany might not protect swimming pool attendees from an increased risk of gastrointestinal infections. In terms of developing atopic diseases there is no verifiable detrimental effect of early swimming. PMID:17869580

  9. Multitudes attend the Night of Science

    2006-01-01

    The Night of Science, which took place in the Parc de la Perle du Lac in Geneva last weekend, was a great success, with 30 000 visitors attending according to the organisers. Many curious people flocked to the stands and animations until late on Saturday night and all afternoon on Sunday. The CERN stand (photo) received a great amount of interest from participants. Both kids and adults discovered the activities of the Laboratory and the data-processing revolution initiated by CERN, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Hats off to the CERN collaborators in the Communication Group and IT Department who made this event a success.

  10. GERIATRIC PATIENTS ATTENDING TERTIARY CARE PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL

    Silva Pereira, Yvonne Da; Estibeiro, Ajoy; Dhume, Rajesh; Fernandes, John

    2002-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to explore the Socio-demographic characteristics and clinical profile of patients aged 60 years and above, attending psychiatric services for the first time at the Institute of Psychiatry and Human Behaviour, Goa during 1993-1998. Hospital case files of six hundred and ninety-eight patients formed the study sample. Preliminary analysis revealed that 70% of the sample was between 60-69 years. Mean age was 65.8 years (Sd ±6.11). Sex ratio male to female was 38:62....

  11. Motives for attending the Cultivaria Arts Festival

    Saayman, Melville

    2011-01-01

    Festivals are becoming a key feature on the tourism calendar of many towns and cities. Cultivaria is one of South Africa’s newest arts festivals and is held at Paarl annually. The festival is one combining the arts, wine and food. The purpose of this research is to determine the reasons (motives) for visitors attending the festival. This information is needed so that a marketing plan can be developed, as well as to be able to ensure that visitors’ needs are fulfilled. In order to do this, the...

  12. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  13. Cooperative Station History Forms

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  14. Increasing Attendance for Psychotherapy: Implementation Intentions and the Self-Regulation of Attendance-Related Negative Affect

    Sheeran, Paschal; Aubrey, Richard; Kellett, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated an implementation intention intervention that aimed to increase attendance at scheduled, initial appointments for psychotherapy by helping clients to manage negative feelings about attendance. Participants received a postal questionnaire that measured their views about attending psychotherapy. One half of the sample was…

  15. Class Attendance in College: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Relationship of Class Attendance with Grades and Student Characteristics

    Crede, Marcus; Roch, Sylvia G.; Kieszczynka, Urszula M.

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the relationship between class attendance in college and college grades reveals that attendance has strong relationships with both class grades (k = 69, N = 21,195, p = 0.44) and GPA (k = 33, N = 9,243, p = 0.41). These relationships make class attendance a better predictor of college grades than any other known predictor of…

  16. Food Service and Nutrition for the Space Station

    Sauer, R. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the Workshop on Food Service and Nutrition for the Space Station, held in Houston, Texas, on April 10 and 11, 1984 was given. The workshop was attended by experts in food technology from industry, government, and academia. Following a general definition of unique space flight requirements, oral presentations were made on state of the art food technology with the objective of using this technology to support the space flight requirements. Numerous areas are identified which in the opinion of the conferees, would have space flight application. But additional effort, evaluation, or testing to include Shuttle inflight testing will be required for the technology to be applied to the Space Station.

  17. Students Attendance Management System Based On RFID And Fingerprint Reader

    Moth Moth Myint Thein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Today students class attendance is become more important part for any organizationsinstitutions. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure hence inefficient. This paper presents the manual students attendance management into computerized system for convenience or data reliability. So the system is developed by the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom for managing the students attendance using RFID and fingerprint reader. The system is designed to implement an attendance management system based on RFID and fingerprint reader which students need to use their student identification card ID and their finger ID to success the attendance where only authentic student can be recorded the attendance during the class. In this system passive RFID tag and reader pairs are used to register the student ID cards individually and fingerprint reader is used for attendance. This system takes attendance electronically with the help of the RFID and finger print device and the records of the attendance are stored in a database. Students roll call percentages and their details are easily seenvia Graphical User Interface GUI. This system will have the required databases for students attendance teachers subjects and students details. This application is implemented by Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server as IDE. C language is used to implement this system.

  18. Minor injury attendance times to the ED.

    Conlon, Ciaran

    2009-07-01

    The Health Service Executive (HSE) highlights the need for effective patient throughput and management, whilst providing appropriate staffing and therapeutic interventions. It acknowledges that patient need is integral to the development of a nurse led service and advocates planning staffing levels to reflect arrival times of patients. An observational study of all patients who presented to the emergency department in July 2005 and February 2006 was undertaken (n=7768). The study identified 1577 patients suitable for treatment by the Advanced Nurse Practitioner (ANP) in these two months, which represents 20% of all patient attendances to the ED in this time period. A data collection tool was devised collectively by the ANPs to identify appropriate patients. The findings of the study revealed that 73% of patients suitable for the ANP service presented between the hours of 0800 and 2000, of which 54% attended between 0800 and 1600 h. Sunday emerged as the busiest day in July 2005 whereas Monday was found to be the busiest day in February 2006. Friday was found to be consistently busy for both months.

  19. How to reduce the petroleum dependency of Quebec? A ground breaking collective approach; Comment reduire la dependance quebecoise au petrole? Une demarche collective inedite

    Bourke, Philippe; Caron-Malenfant, Julie

    2010-09-15

    Quebec population and socio economic agents are little or not summoned to in the definition of a vision relating to the dependency of Quebec to petroleum. The presented approach expects to include them as determining actors in the research for solutions to this collective issue, exploring aspects linked both to the energy consumption and production. The question to which the consultation is looking for answers is: How can Quebec reduce its petroleum consumption and increase its energy independence while promoting the harmonious economic and social development of its territory?. [French] La population et les agents socioeconomiques du Quebec sont peu ou pas interpelles dans la definition d'une vision entourant la dependance du Quebec au petrole. La demarche presentee prevoit les inclure comme acteurs determinants vers la recherche de solutions a cet enjeu collectif, explorant les aspects lies tant a la consommation qu'a la production energetique. La question a laquelle la consultation lancee cherchera des reponses est : Comment le Quebec peut-il diminuer sa consommation de petrole et accroitre son independance energetique tout en favorisant le developpement economique et social harmonieux de son territoire?.

  20. First proof of concept of remote attendance for future observation strategies between Wettzell (Germany) and Concepción (Chile)

    Ettl, Martin; Neidhardt, Alexander; Plötz, C.; Mühlbauer, M.; Dassing, R; Hase, H.; Sobarzo, S; Herrera, C. (Concepción); OÑate, E.; Zaror, P

    2010-01-01

    Current VLBI observations are controlled and attended locally at the radio telescopes on the basis of pre-scheduled session files. Operations have to deal with system specific station commands and individual setup procedures. Neither the scheduler nor the correlator nor the data-analyst gets real-time feedback about system parameters during a session. Changes in schedules after the start of a session by remote are impossible or at least quite difficult. For future scientific approaches, a mor...

  1. SPS rectifier stations

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  2. The Station System

    Brooks, David W.

    1970-01-01

    Describes an introductory college chemistry course utilizing laboratory stations and laboratory instruction by video taped presentations. Author discusses the general operation of the laboratory, the method used in evaluating students' progress, the teaching effectiveness and economy of the station system. Results of a student questionnaire reveal…

  3. Nuclear power stations licensing

    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed

  4. Secure base stations

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to se

  5. Petroleum apocalypse; Petrole apocalypse

    Cochet, Y

    2005-09-15

    Oil prices are increasing while current explanations for this phenomenon are no longer satisfactory. The cheap petroleum era is ending and this problem can seriously convulse our lifestyles. Transports, agriculture, plastics, clothes, medicines: petroleum is everywhere. This is why the rise of hydrocarbons price will not be a simple economic shock but the end of the world like the one we know. However, it is still possible to postpone this event to a later date and to limit its effects by the implementation of a new oil sobriety era. This implies to already organize the decay of materials and energy consumption, together with keeping solidarity, democracy and peace up. In this condition only the transition will be less painful. (J.S.)

  6. Petrole : statu quo

    Antonin, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Alors que le premier semestre 2012 avait été marqué par une grande volatilité des cours, les prix du Brent sont restés relativement stables au deuxième semestre avec une moyenne à 110 dollars. Le Brent est actuellement soumis à plusieurs forces antagonistes. D’une part, les cours restent élevés en raison de la concurrence croissante entre pays développés et pays émergents pour l’approvisionnement, de la politique monétaire expansionniste menée par les principales banques centrales et des t...

  7. Day-care attendance and child development:

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background as...

  8. Traditional birth attendants in Sierra Leone.

    Sisay, L

    1988-03-01

    Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a very significant role in the lives of a multitude of people in the traditional settlements and societies. They are people of eminent dignity and personality because their valuable contribution to society is appreciated by all, and they are known as those who keep the secrets of their society. In this article some of the practices of the TBAs are described, including the use of herbs in pregnancy tests, determining whether a delivery will be difficult, and determining labor signs, as well as the traditional method of care for premature babies. No cash payment is made to TBAs for their services, but gifts of rum and kola nuts are offered. PMID:12157965

  9. Waste Transfer Stations

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves a...... transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  10. Waste Transfer Stations

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves a...... transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....