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Working Environment Factors that Affect Quality of Work Life among Attendants in Petrol Stations in Kitale Town in Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research sought to establish working environment factors that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants in Kitale town. The objective of the study was to identify working environment aspects that affect Quality of Work Life among petrol station attendants. This study was an exploratory survey, carried out in 17 petrol stations that are located in Kitale Town, Kenya. The target population comprised 17 station managers and 170 attendants, out of which a sample of 102 resp...

Aloys Nyagechi Kiriago; Bwisa, Henry M.

2013-01-01

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Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM), Petrol Station Attendants (PSA) and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure t...

Udonwa, N. E.; Uko, E. K.; Ikpeme, B. M.; Ibanga, I. A.; Okon, B. O.

2009-01-01

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Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM, Petrol Station Attendants (PSA and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (MetHb and packed cells volume (PCV. Mean MetHb value was higher in AM (7.3% and PSA (5.8% than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%. PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%, than AM (33.3% and the subjects from the general population (40.8%. MetHb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and MetHb as a useful biomarker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour.

N. E. Udonwa

2009-01-01

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Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS) fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM), Petrol Station Attendants (PSA) and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (Met Hb) and packed cells volume (PCV). Mean Met Hb value was higher in AM (7.3%) and PSA (5.8%) than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%). PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%), than AM (33.3%) and the subjects from the general population (40.8%). Met Hb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and Met Hb as a useful bio marker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour.

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Meyrin Petrol Station  

CERN Document Server

Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

2006-01-01

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Biomarkers of lead exposure in petrol station attendants and auto-mechanics in Abeokuta, Nigeria: effect of 2-week ascorbic acid supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to study the ameliorative effects of ascorbic acid in chronic lead poisoning, petrol station attendants and auto-mechanics in Abeokuta, Nigeria, who have been shown to be occupationally exposed to lead and university students (serving as control), were supplemented daily with 500mg ascorbic acid for 2 weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected from the subjects before and after ascorbic acid regimen and analysed for lead and biochemical effects associated with lead toxicity. The 2-week ascorbic acid supplementation resulted in a significant (P lead in the occupationally exposed subjects. The reduction in blood lead amounted to 57% in male petrol station attendants, 50% in female petrol station attendants and 44% in the auto-mechanics. Urinary excretion of lead increased remarkably in the occupationally exposed subjects (P lead also responded positively to the ascorbic acid regimen. Plasma and urine aminolevulinic acid (ALA) were reduced significantly (P lead poisoning. PMID:21782728

Onunkwor, B; Dosumu, O; Odukoya, O O; Arowolo, T; Ademuyiwa, O

2004-07-01

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DNA single strand break analysis in mononuclear blood cells of petrol pump attendants.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA single strand breaks, including DNA adducts that lead to alkali-labile sites, were measured in peripheral mononuclear blood cells of 35 petrol pump attendants by alkaline filter elution. Blood samples from petrol pump attendants were taken on Monday and Friday. Additionally, DNA single strand breaks of smoking and non-smoking control persons were examined. For the smoking (n = 12) and the non-smoking controls (n = 20) a mean normalized elution rate of 1.49 +/- 0.52 (mean value +/- 95% confidence interval) and 1.32 +/- 0.28, respectively, was obtained. The difference between smoking and non-smoking controls was not statistically significant (U test). An increase in DNA single strand breaks from Monday to Friday was detected for non-smoking petrol pump attendants with a daily working time of more than 4 h at the pump station. Their mean normalized elution rate increased from 1.08 on Monday to 1.89 on Friday. This difference was statistically significant (P petrol pump attendants who were on duty for less than 4 h per day at the pump station. No statistically significant increase in DNA single strand breaks could be detected for smoking petrol pump attendants whether they were pumping gasoline for more or for less than 4 h per day. PMID:7622277

Oesch, F; Fuchs, J; Vaupel, J; Hengstler, J G

1995-01-01

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Immunoglobulin classes and liver function tests in Nigerian petrol attendants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prolonged exposure to petrol has been shown to be a significant health hazard, especially for skeletal, circulatory, immune and reproductive systems. The present study investigates liver functions (alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein and albumin) and immune functions (IgG, IgA and IgM) in 29 male petrol attendants and compares them with corresponding values in 22 sex- and age-matched controls using spec...

Akinosun O; Arinola O; Salimonu L

2006-01-01

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Research of air pollution in petrol station environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A petrol station is one of the most dangerous sources which are known to contribute greatly to the pollution of the environment due to normal pollutants they emit into atmosphere. The aim of the research is to assess the level of the pollution in the surroundings of a particular city petrol station as well as in the territory of the nearly by petrol stations. A research has been carried out to measure the amount of nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen monoxide, sulfur dioxide, benzene, formaldehyde and...

Miknevic?ius, Vytautas

2014-01-01

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The petrol station replenishment problem with time windows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the Petrol Station Replenishment Problem with Time Windows (PSRPTW) the aim is to optimize the delivery of several petroleum products to a set of petrol stations using a limited heterogeneous fleet of tank-trucks. More specifically, one must determine the quantity of each product to deliver, the assignment of products to truck compartments, delivery routes, and schedules. The objective is to maximize the total profit equal to the sales revenue, minus the sum of routing costs and of regular...

Cornillier, Fabien; Laporte, Gilbert; Boctor, Fayez F.; Renaud, Jacques

2009-01-01

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The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of thuld be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally established conditions, which depend on the situation at their petrol station. It is estimated that 4.000 petrol stations will submit an application. These conditions take into account European legislation concerning support measures and competition law. The legislator took learning experiences in the Netherlands and Denmark as a basis. These countries have launched similar funds in the past. BOFAS however goes further in its financial support

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Replacement of the pumps at the CERN petrol stations  

CERN Multimedia

The CERN petrol stations will be closed on the following dates to allow the pumps to be replaced: Prévessin petrol station: 26 and 27 November Meyrin petrol station: 28, 29 and 30 November The current fuel cards in the vehicles will have expired by the time the new pumps begin operation. All those in possession of a CERN vehicle are therefore requested to collect a transponder badge from the light- vehicle maintenance office (130/R-013), which is open from 8.00 a.m. to midday and from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Badges will be issued on presentation of the keys of the vehicle in question. TS-IC-LO Section – Tel. 77039 - 72228

2007-01-01

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Replacement of the pumps at the CERN petrol stations  

CERN Multimedia

The CERN petrol stations will be closed on the following dates to allow the pumps to be replaced: Prévessin petrol station: 26 and 27 November Meyrin petrol station: 28, 29 and 30 November The current fuel cards in the vehicles will have expired by the time the new pumps begin operation. All those in possession of a CERN vehicle are therefore requested to collect a transponder badge from the light vehicle maintenance office (130/R-013), which is open from 8.00 a.m. to midday and from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Badges will be issued on presentation of the keys of the vehicle in question. TS-IC-LO Section Tel. 77039 - 72228

2007-01-01

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Electrostatic hazards with underground plastic pipes at petrol stations  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper analyses some ignition incidents that have been reported with insulating, (non-conductive) underground plastic pipes in retail petrol stations. The occurrence of the incidents is compared with voltage measurements, observations of the typical spread of streaming currents recorded in gasoline handling and theoretical estimates of the voltages on the pipes. The comparisons suggest that neither incendive sparks from unbonded conductors nor incendive brush discharges from insulating pipe surfaces can be ruled out although both are expected to be rare. The hazards can be prevented by using pipes with earthed conductive or dissipative inner linings.

Walmsley, H. L.

2011-06-01

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Electrostatic hazards with underground plastic pipes at petrol stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper analyses some ignition incidents that have been reported with insulating, (non-conductive) underground plastic pipes in retail petrol stations. The occurrence of the incidents is compared with voltage measurements, observations of the typical spread of streaming currents recorded in gasoline handling and theoretical estimates of the voltages on the pipes. The comparisons suggest that neither incendive sparks from unbonded conductors nor incendive brush discharges from insulating pipe surfaces can be ruled out although both are expected to be rare. The hazards can be prevented by using pipes with earthed conductive or dissipative inner linings.

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Biomarkers of exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl tert-butyl ether in petrol station workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-sectional study was aimed at reconstructing the exposure to gasoline in 102 petrol station attendants by environmental and biological monitoring of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and biomonitoring of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Airborne BTEX were higher for manual refuelers than self-service assistants and were highly correlated with each other. Significant relationships were found between airborne BTX and the corresponding urinary solvents (U-BTX) and beween airborne B and urinary MTBE (U-MTBE). Smokers eliminated higher values of U-B, trans,trans-muconic (t,t-MA) and S-phenylmercapturic (S-PMA) acids but not U-MTBE. All these biomarkers were, however, significantly raised during the shift, independently from smoking. Linear regression confirmed that occupational exposure was a main predictor of U-MTBE, U-B and S-PMA values, both the latter confounded by smoking habits. The study supports the usefulness of biomonitoring even at low exposure levels. PMID:22458326

De Palma, Giuseppe; Poli, Diana; Manini, Paola; Andreoli, Roberta; Mozzoni, Paola; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

2012-06-01

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TRAINING OF EMPLOYEES AT SERVICE STATIONS, WITHIN THE COMPANY PETROL MALOPRODAJA SLOVENIJA, D.O.O.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Education plays a very important role in our life, and we have to be aware that constant education is, after all, inevitable. The theoretical part of the thesis presents a few theories about education and motivation. This is followed by an introduction to the company Petrol Maloprodaja, d.o.o., its staffing, its organization chart and a presentation of the educational process for service station employees. The research part of the thesis indicates the results of the survey. Our main ...

Radonc?ic?, Linda

2011-01-01

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Environmental Exposure to Xylenes in Drivers and Petrol Station Workers by Urinary Methylhippuric Acid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The aims of this study were evaluation of exposed to xylenes in low concentration and compare urinary level of methyl hippuric acid in taxi drivers and petrol stations workers in West of Iran.

Ar, Bahrami; Jonidi-jafari, A.; Mahjub, H.

2011-01-01

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Assessment of BTX concentrations near a petrol station using passive samplers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A combined monitoring and dispersion modelling methodology was applied for assessing air quality related to concentration levels of benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) at three different levels of proximity to a petrol selected service Station: (I) next to the fuel pumps, (II) in the surrounding environment, and (III) m the background. A Gaussian dispersion model (CALINE4) was used for assessing the road traffic contribution to the local concentrations under different meteorological conditions...

Gonzalez-flesca, Norbert; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Cicolella, Andre?

2001-01-01

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BTX concentrations near a stage II implemented petrol station.  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined monitoring and dispersion modelling methodology was applied for assessing air quality at three different levels of proximity to the selected service station: (I) next to the fuel pumps, (II) in the surrounding environment, and (III) in the background. Continuous monitoring and passive sampling were used for achieving high temporal and spatial resolution, respectively. A Gaussian dispersion model (CALINE4) was used for assessing the road traffic contribution to the local concentrations under different meteorological conditions. It was established that Stage 2 vapour recovery reduces BTX concentrations not only near the pumps, but also in their surrounding environment. However, there is evidence that the efficiency of the system is wind speed dependent. The modelling simulation of the worst case wind scenario revealed the significance of local traffic emissions. It was shown that the traffic contribution even from a single road in the vicinity of the station can, under certain conditions, be higher than the contribution of the station itself to the local BTX levels. Finally, after comparison with previous studies, the concentrations measured near the service station (which was situated in a rural environment) appear to be lower than those observed in busy street canyons in city centres. It can be concluded, although Stage 2 recovery system effectively reduces working VOC losses in service stations, that it will only have a limited positive impact on local air quality if the service station is located in a heavily polluted area. PMID:12094529

Gonzalez-Flesca, Norbert; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Cicolella, André

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Environmental Exposure to Xylenes in Drivers and Petrol Station Workers by Urinary Methylhippuric Acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: The aims of this study were evaluation of exposed to xylenes in low concentration and compare urinary level of methyl hippuric acid in taxi drivers and petrol stations workers in West of Iran.

Methods: This observation study was carried out on samples of the exposed men to xylenes in two occupational groups in Hamadan City (west of Iran from March 2003 to March 2004. Subjects included 45 taxi drivers and 25 petrol station workers. The study group was selected from 54 workers at petrol stations and 300 drivers by simple random sampling. Xylenes was analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID. The urinary methyl hippuric acid (MHA was analyzed with High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC equipped with an ultraviolet (UV detector.

Results: Total xylene exposure was 1.05±0.55 ppm (mean±SD with a range of 0.20-2.55 ppm that was about 4 times more than taxi drivers' exposure. The poor correlation coefficient was seen between xylenes concentration and urinary MHA for drivers (r2= 0.09 to 0.42 but significant associations were noted between urinary MHA and xylene in the breathing zone of petrol station workers (r2= 0.69 to 0.77; P< 0.05.

Conclusion: High xylenes levels are emitted in petrol stations at Iran. Urinary MHA level has a poor correlation with exposure to xylenes in drivers but has good correlation in petrol station workers.

AR Bahrami

2011-06-01

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State of subsoil in a former petrol station: physicochemical characterization and hydrocarbon contamination evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Former petrol stations are, possibly, potential hydrocarbon contaminated soil areas due to leakage in Underground Storage Tanks and fuel dispensing activities. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in gasoline, like benzene and semi-volatile organics in diesel, are carcinogenic and very toxic substances which can involve a serious risk for ecosystem and human health. Based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography 2D results from a previous work, there have been selected three potentially contaminated goal areas in a former petrol station located in SE Spain in order to obtain soil samples by drilling and to assess the gasoline and diesel contamination. A special sampling design was carried out and soil samples for VOCs were preserved at field with a KCl solution to minimize volatilization losses. It had been chosen Headspace-GC-MS as the better technique to quantify individual VOCs and GC-FID to get a Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) assessment after a solid/fluid pressurized extraction. The physicochemical characterization of the subsoil was performed to know how humidity, clay content or pH data could be related to the presence of hydrocarbons in the soil samples. Results show that VOCs concentrations in subsoil samples of the petrol station are around ppb levels. TPH ranged between 17 mg/kg soil and 93 mg/kg soil (ppm levels) what involves diesel and gasoline leaks due to these detected residual concentrations in the subsoil. The maximum value was found at 6 m deep in an intermediate zone between Underground Storage Tanks positions (located at 4 m deep). Therefore, these results confirm that organic compounds transference with strong vertical component has taken place. It has been observed that humidity minimum values in the subsoil are related to TPH maximum values that could be explained because of the vapour phase and the retention of hydrocarbon in soil increases when humidity goes down. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in the subsoil tend to be pH-dependent and clay content dependent: maximum of adsorption taken place at minimum pH what encourage protonation and minimum clay content in the subsoil make organic compounds infiltration downstream easier. It could be noticed the importance of physicochemical subsoil characterization and contamination assessment in the subsoil of petrol stations in order to avoid the hydrocarbons pollution of the groundwater. Then plan the best remediation technique according to this characterization taking into account the residual hydrocarbon concentration in the subsoil and the associated risk for human and ecosystems.

María Rosales, Rosa; Martinez-Pagán, Pedro; Faz, Ángel; Bech, Jaume

2013-04-01

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Hazards Forecasting and Weights Determination during Operation and Maintenance of Petrol Fuel Station  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Petrol Fuel Stations (PFS is the most commonly available hazardous facility within urban and rural areas. Hazardous materials such as petrol, diesel, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG and kerosene oil normally sell and stores at PFS. PFS can be considered as small refinery within the city. A 3.5 year study conducted and 3216 non-compliances were recorded from PFS located in various cities of Pakistan. The operating company was ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certified. The recorded non-compliances during study period were categorized into 8 potential factors. These were Housekeeping (HK, Transportation Hazard (TH, Slips, Trips and Falls (STF, Carelessness (C, Fire Risks (FR, Electrical Fault (EF, Miscellaneous Cases (MC and Medical Treatment Cases (MTC. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP was used and categorized 8 factors were prioritized. The same data was further classified based upon to cause fatality, accident, incident and near miss cases. A total numbers of 14, 426, 975 and 1804, fatality, accident, incident and near miss cases were recorded. With application of Exponential Smoothing method the fatalities, accident, incident and near miss cases for the years 2011, 2012 and 2013 were forecasted. The results of AHP and forecasted hazards will be presented and discussed in this study. It is hope that the both approaches will assist health and safety professionals for future hazards predictions and hazards weights determinations. Health and safety practitioners can take remedial and preventative measures by using past data with utilization of proposed techniques.

M.M. Ahmed

2013-06-01

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Petrol war in Nijmegen, Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since April 2000 a petrol war rages in Nijmegen and surroundings (Netherlands) whereby considerable discounts are given to the national retail prices. The cause of the war is a new unmanned petrol station of the enterprise Tango. In this article the development and the consequences of the discount at petrol stations in Nijmegen and surroundings are analyzed 3 refs

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Evaluation of benzene exposure in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics by urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA determination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Occupational exposure to benzene in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics was studied by examining the benzene content in both the air breathed and in the urinary metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA. Thirty petrol pump attendants and thirty mechanics (as exposed workers and thirty adult male office workers (as non exposed workers were involved in the study. Measures were taken at the begin and at the end of the working shifts.

 The benzene concentrations in the breathing air samples varied from 2 to 88 ?g m-3, lower than the EU acceptable limit for occupational environment. The average urinary t,t-MA in the petrol pump attendants at the begin and at the end of the working shifts ranged between 133 ± 69 and 255 ± 174 ?g g-1 creatinine and in the mechanics between 204 ± 139 and 300 ± 211 ?g g-1 creatinine, respectively.

In all the participants the mean levels of urinary t,t-MA at the end of the working shifts were significantly higher than those at the beginning. In the exposed workers mean levels of urinary t,t-MA were significantly higher than in those of the non-exposed workers. The influence of the smoking was demonstrated by the urinary t,t-MA levels in smoking non-exposed subjects.

Teresa Cirillo

2004-12-01

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Variability of benzene exposure among filling station attendants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A monitoring survey of filling station attendants aimed at identifying sources of variability of exposure to benzene and other aromatics was carried out. Concurrent samples of the worker's breathing zone air, atmospheric air in the service station proximity, and gasoline were collected, along with information about daily workloads and other exposure-related factors. Benzene personal exposure was characterised by a small between-worker variability and a predominant within-worker variance component. Such elevated day-to-day variability yields to imprecise estimates of mean personal exposure. Almost 70% of the overall personal exposure variance was explained by a model including daily benzene from dispensed fuel, presence of a shelter over the refueling area, amount of fuel supplied to the station if a delivery occurred, and background atmospheric benzene concentration

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Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments). In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks) were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was...

Adriano Pinto Mariano; Ana Paula Arruda Geraldes Kataoka; Dejanira de Franceschi Angelis; Daniel Marcos Bonotto

2007-01-01

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Geo-enviromental monitoring system of the oil storages on petrol stations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In large cities, fuel consumption is growing rapidly, and therefore the number of filling stations. And they are a source of anthropogenic impact on the environment and represent current scientific and practical task, because recently no research was conducted into the optimization of monitoring systems in the construction of gas station storage tanks, and no activity on replacing the obsolete design with new storage tanks. In this regard, much attention should be paid to the creation of geo-...

Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna; Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich

2014-01-01

29

The Petrol Station and the Internet Cafe: Rural Technospaces for Youth.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study in two Norwegian villages focused on the local gas station and the Internet cafe as "technospaces" for rural youth cultures--spaces at the intersection of technology and human interaction. The car and the Internet were given different symbolic and utility values in various youth subcultures. Local contexts influenced technology usage…

Laegran, Anne Sofie

2002-01-01

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Geo-enviromental monitoring system of the oil storages on petrol stations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In large cities, fuel consumption is growing rapidly, and therefore the number of filling stations. And they are a source of anthropogenic impact on the environment and represent current scientific and practical task, because recently no research was conducted into the optimization of monitoring systems in the construction of gas station storage tanks, and no activity on replacing the obsolete design with new storage tanks. In this regard, much attention should be paid to the creation of geo-environmental systems integrated assessment of the environment, as well as modeling and forecasting various negative situations. In the modern world, the creation of such systems is possible with the help of modern computer tools such as geographic information systems.

Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna

2014-03-01

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An investigation of environmental impact of aerial metal deposition around the petrol filling stations and applying remedial measures to reduce the elevated level of lead metal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The wide use of petroleum products causes contamination of air, water, soil and plants. The present study was related to monitor the aerial deposition of metals on soil and ryegrass around the fuel stations along central road of Karachi city, Pakistan. Samples of soil and ryegrass were collected from the selected locations of central road. Concentrations of selected trace metals were estimated through atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Multivariate analysis is also applied to authenticate the concentration difference between affected and control samples. Statistical analyses of metals in soil and ryegrass samples were reported in terms of average concentration of trace metals, standard deviation, median and mean values. The correlation coefficient (r was also calculated between metals in soil vs. soil and ryegrass vs. Ryegrass samples. By applying adsorption technique the beds of adsorbents like activated charcoal, cement, silica gel and calcium carbonate were placed at the petrol filling stations for the period of one month and monitor the deposited metal content.

H . Tahir

2011-09-01

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Condição auditiva de frentistas / Hearing conditions of gas stations attendants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar os limiares auditivos nas frequências convencionais e altas frequências, e ainda a integridade do arco reflexo, em frentistas. MÉTODO: foram avaliados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. Após adequação aos critérios de inclusão, a amostra ficou compos [...] ta por 24 frentistas expostos a combustíveis, 21 do gênero masculino e três do gênero feminino, com faixa etária entre 20 e 40 anos. Os exames utilizados foram audiometria tonal liminar, audiometria de altas frequências e imitanciometria. O tempo de exposição variou de um a 17 anos. O grupo controle foi composto por 24 sujeitos não expostos a qualquer agente nocivo à audição. RESULTADOS: a média dos limiares da audiometria tonal liminar e da audiometria de altas frequências foi superior no grupo estudo em todas as frequências testadas. Verificou-se diferença de limiar estatisticamente significante nas frequências de 0,5 (p=0,004), 2 (p=0,001) e 3 kHz (p=0,025), e nas frequências de 9 (p=0,007) e 10 kHz (p=0,026). Os limiares das frequências de 12,5 e 14 kHz não diferiram estatisticamente (p>0,05). Em 16, 18 e 20 kHz foi observada maior ausência de respostas no grupo estudo (p>0,05). Também se observou maior ausência de reflexos acústicos (ipsi e contralateral) no grupo estudo, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda, não houve diferença entre os grupos, para a ocorrência do reflexo ipsilateral. A ausência de reflexo contralateral foi maior no grupo estudo em todas as frequências testadas. CONCLUSÃO: frentistas com limiares auditivos normais podem apresentar alterações cocleares e centrais. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the hearing threshold in the conventional frequencies and high frequencies, and the integrity of the acoustic reflex, in subjects exposed to fuels. METHOD: attendants of three gas stations were evaluated in Santa Maria/RS. After the adaptation to the inclusion criteria, the samp [...] le was composed of 24 subjects. It was used the Pure Tone Audiometry, high frequency audiometry and acoustic immitance assessment to evaluate the sample. The time of exposition ranged from one to seventeen years. The control group was composed by 24 not exposed subjects. RESULTS: the average of the thresholds of the PTA and of the high frequency audiometry was superior in the study group in all the tested frequencies. A statistically significant difference of thresholds was verified on the frequencies of 0,5 (p=0,004), 2 (p=0,001), 3 kHz (p=0,025), and frequencies of 9 (p=0,007) e 10 kHz (p=0,026). In 16, 18, 20 kHz a greater absence of responses was observed in the study group (p>0, 05). Also it was observed a greater absence of acoustic reflexes (ipsilateral and contralateral) at the study group, on the right ear. On the left ear, there was no difference between the groups, for the occurrence of ipsilateral reflex. The absence of the contralateral reflex was superior in the study group on all frequencies tested. CONCLUSION: individuals exposed to fuels with normal hearing thresholds may have cochlear and central alterations.

Tania Maria, Tochetto; Lenita da Silva, Quevedo; Márcia do Amaral, Siqueira.

1137-11-01

33

Cochlear condition and olivocochlear system of gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Organic solvents have been increasingly studied due to its ototoxic action. Objective: Evaluate the conditions of outer hair cells and olivocochlear system in individuals exposed to organic solvents. Method: This is a prospective study. 78 gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents had been evaluated from three gas stations from Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul (RS). After applying the inclusion criteria, the sample was constituted by 24 individuals. The procedures us...

Tochetto, Tania Maria; Siqueira, Ma?rcia Do Amaral; Quevedo, Lenita Da Silva

2012-01-01

34

Traveling Salesman Approach for Solving Petrol Distribution Using Simulated Annealing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research presents an attempt to solve a logistic company's problem of delivering petrol to petrol station in the state of Johor. This delivery system is formulated as a travelling salesman problem (TSP). TSP involves finding an optimal route for visiting stations and returning to point of origin, where the inter-station distance is symmetric and known. This real world application is a deceptive simple combinatorial problem and our approach is to develop solutions based on the idea of loc...

Zuhaimy Ismail; Ibrahim, Wan R. W.

2008-01-01

35

Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments. In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system. To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ. Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de um tanque de armazenamento de óleo diesel subterrâneo em um posto de combustíveis. Experimentos em escala laboratorial (respirômetros de Bartha foram utilizados para avaliar a biodegradação do óleo diesel. Estímulo da biodegradação foi realizado utilizando-se as técnicas de bioestímulo (adição de soluções de nitrogênio e fósforo ou surfactante Tween 80 e de bioaumento (consórcio bacteriano isolado de um sistema de landfarming. Para investigar as interações entre os fatores otimizadores, e encontrar a melhor combinação entre esses agentes, o estudo foi baseado em um delineamento experimental fatorial completo. A eficiência de biodegradação foi simultaneamente medida com dois métodos: respirométrico (produção de CO2 microbiano e cromatografia gasosa. Testes de toxicidade aguda com Daphnia similis foram aplicados para examinar a eficiência dos processos em termos de geração de produtos menos tóxicos. Resultados mostraram que todas as estratégias de biorremediação aceleraram a biorremediação natural do solo contaminado e os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando os tratamentos tinham adição de nutrientes. Dados respirométricos indicaram uma máxima mineralização de hidrocarbonetos de 19,8%, obtida com a combinação dos três agentes, com uma remoção de hidrocarbonetos totais de petróleo (TPH de 45,5% em 55 dias de tratamento. No final dos experimentos, duas espécies predominantes de bactéria foram isoladas e identificadas como Staphylococcus hominis e Kocuria palustris.

Adriano Pinto Mariano

2007-06-01

36

Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station / Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ). Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de um tanque [...] de armazenamento de óleo diesel subterrâneo em um posto de combustíveis. Experimentos em escala laboratorial (respirômetros de Bartha) foram utilizados para avaliar a biodegradação do óleo diesel. Estímulo da biodegradação foi realizado utilizando-se as técnicas de bioestímulo (adição de soluções de nitrogênio e fósforo ou surfactante Tween 80) e de bioaumento (consórcio bacteriano isolado de um sistema de landfarming). Para investigar as interações entre os fatores otimizadores, e encontrar a melhor combinação entre esses agentes, o estudo foi baseado em um delineamento experimental fatorial completo. A eficiência de biodegradação foi simultaneamente medida com dois métodos: respirométrico (produção de CO2 microbiano) e cromatografia gasosa. Testes de toxicidade aguda com Daphnia similis foram aplicados para examinar a eficiência dos processos em termos de geração de produtos menos tóxicos. Resultados mostraram que todas as estratégias de biorremediação aceleraram a biorremediação natural do solo contaminado e os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando os tratamentos tinham adição de nutrientes. Dados respirométricos indicaram uma máxima mineralização de hidrocarbonetos de 19,8%, obtida com a combinação dos três agentes, com uma remoção de hidrocarbonetos totais de petróleo (TPH) de 45,5% em 55 dias de tratamento. No final dos experimentos, duas espécies predominantes de bactéria foram isoladas e identificadas como Staphylococcus hominis e Kocuria palustris. Abstract in english The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments). In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel [...] oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks) were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant) and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system). To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production) and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris).

Adriano Pinto, Mariano; Ana Paula de Arruda Geraldes, Kataoka; Dejanira de Franceschi de, Angelis; Daniel Marcos, Bonotto.

2007-06-01

37

Cochlear condition and olivocochlear system of gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Organic solvents have been increasingly studied due to its ototoxic action. Objective: Evaluate the conditions of outer hair cells and olivocochlear system in individuals exposed to organic solvents. Method: This is a prospective study. 78 gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents had been evaluated from three gas stations from Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. After applying the inclusion criteria, the sample was constituted by 24 individuals. The procedures used on the evaluation were audiological anamnesis, Transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAES and research for the suppressive effect of TEOAES. A group control (GC compounded by 23 individuals was compared to individuals exposed and non-exposed individuals. The data collection has been done in the room of Speech Therapy of Workers Health Reference Center of Santa Maria. Results: The TEOAES presence was major in the left ear in both groups; the average relation of TEOAES signal/noise in both ears was greater in GE; the TEOAES suppressive effect in the right ear was higher in the individual of GE (62,5% and in the left ear was superior in GC (86,96%, with statistically significant difference. The median sign/noise ratio of TEOAES, according to the frequency range, it was higher in GC in three frequencies ranges in the right ear and one in the left ear. Conclusion: It was not found signs of alteration on the outer hair cells neither on the olivocochlear medial system in the individuals exposed to organic solvents.

Tochetto, Tania Maria

2012-01-01

38

Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em frentistas / Auditory brainstem response in gas station attendants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A ototoxidade dos solventes orgânicos pode atingir o sistema auditivo a nível coclear e retrococlear. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a integridade neurofisiológica do sistema auditivo até tronco cerebral por meio do PEATE. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo. Estudados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de S [...] anta Maria/RS. A amostra ficou composta por 21 sujeitos, que foram avaliados por meio de potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico. RESULTADOS: Alteração nas latências absolutas das ondas I e III e em todas as latências interpicos, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda houve alteração na latência absoluta de todas as ondas, e em todos os intervalos interpicos. Alteração na diferença interaural da onda V foi verificada em 19% dos sujeitos. No grupo exposto há mais de cinco anos, foram estatisticamente significantes o número de sujeitos com alteração: no intervalo interpico I-V da orelha direita; na latência absoluta da onda I e no intervalo interpico III-V da orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: A exposição a combustíveis pode causar alterações no sistema auditivo central. Abstract in english Ototoxicity of organic solvents can affect the hearing system up to the cochlea level and the central structures of hearing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neurophysiological integrity of the hearing system in subjects exposed to fuels using ABR. METHOD: Prospective study. We evaluated attendants from t [...] hree gas stations in Santa Maria/RS. The sample had 21 subjects, who were evaluated by auditory brainstem response. RESULTS: We found an alteration in the absolute latencies of Waves I and III and in all the interpeak latencies, in the right ear. In the left ear there was a change in the absolute latencies of all Waves, and in all the interpeak intervals. A change in the interaural difference of Wave V was found in 19% of the individuals. In the group exposed for more than five years, there were subjects with a statistically significant changes: in the I-V interpeak of the right ear; in the absolute latency of Wave I and in the III-V interpeak of the left year. CONCLUSION: Exposure to fuels can cause alterations in the central hearing system.

Lenita da Silva, Quevedo; Tania, Tochetto; Marcia Amaral, Siqueira; Márcia Salgado, Machado.

2012-12-01

39

An investigation of environmental impact of aerial metal deposition around the petrol filling stations and applying remedial measures to reduce the elevated level of lead metal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The wide use of petroleum products causes contamination of air, water, soil and plants. The present study was related to monitor the aerial deposition of metals on soil and ryegrass around the fuel stations along central road of Karachi city, Pakistan. Samples of soil and ryegrass were collected from the selected locations of central road. Concentrations of selected trace metals were estimated through atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Multivariate analysis is also applied to authenticate t...

Tahir, H.; Jahanzeb, Q.; Sultan, M.

2011-01-01

40

Benzene emission from the actual car fleet in relation to petrol composition in Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study covers an investigation of the trends in air pollution levels of benzene in Danish cities and their relationship with the benzene content in petrol. Petrol samples from the two refineries in Denmark as well as sold petrol from some representative Danish petrol stations were analysed. The benzene content in Danish petrol was reduced from 3.5% for 95 octane prior to 1995 to approx. 2% in 1995 and further to 1% in 1998. Air quality measurements of aromatic VOC are available from two Danish cities; Copenhagen since 1994 and Odense since 1997. Measurements of benzene, CO and NOx from these two locations were analysed using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) and trends in the actual emissions of these pollutants were determined. It is shown that the decrease in both the concentration levels and in the emissions was significantly larger for benzene than for CO and NOx. The decreasing trends of NOx and CO could be explained by the increasing fraction of petrol-fuelled vehicles with three way catalysts (TWC). The much steeper decreasing trend for benzene can most likely be attributed to a combination of the effect of the increasing share of the TWC vehicles and a simultaneous reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol. The reduction of benzene concentrations and emissions is observed despite that the total amount of aromatics in petrol has increased slightly in the same period. (Author)eriod. (Author)

 
 
 
 
41

The complicated transition to competition in the petrol industry in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Spanish petrol market has been deeply restructured. However, the results of two decades of liberalization are mixed. A more active policy of fostering and defending competition has been missing. Reform efforts in the sector and economic analyses of the markets have overwhelming been focussed on the upstream activities of manufacturing and wholesaling. By contrast, other activities of the sector are the ones that are constraining competition. Vertical relations between petrol major companies and petrol stations have a very significant impact on the process to achieve effective competition. And access to distribution essential facilities such as pipes is a necessary condition to open up the market to new operators. In Spain, transition to competition in the petrol industry has not taken enough care on restructuring vertical relations and access to essential facilities. (Author)

42

The Health Impacts of Ethanol Blend Petrol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A measurement program designed to evaluate health impacts or benefits of using ethanol blend petrol examined exhaust and evaporative emissions from 21 vehicles representative of the current Australian light duty petrol (gasoline) vehicle fleet using a composite urban emissions drive cycle. The fuels used were unleaded petrol (ULP), ULP blended with either 5% ethanol (E5) or 10% ethanol (E10). The resulting data were combined with inventory data for Sydney to determine the expected fleet emiss...

Rosemary Wood; David Williams; Stephen White; Anne Tibbett; Jennifer Powell; Michael Patterson; James McGregor; Peter Nancarrow; Imants Liepa; Sunhee Lee; Sarah Lawson; Steven Lavrencic; Melita Keywood; David Jacyna; Ian Galbally

2011-01-01

43

Traveling Salesman Approach for Solving Petrol Distribution Using Simulated Annealing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research presents an attempt to solve a logistic company's problem of delivering petrol to petrol station in the state of Johor. This delivery system is formulated as a travelling salesman problem (TSP. TSP involves finding an optimal route for visiting stations and returning to point of origin, where the inter-station distance is symmetric and known. This real world application is a deceptive simple combinatorial problem and our approach is to develop solutions based on the idea of local search and meta-heuristics. As a standard problem, we have chosen a solution is a deceptively simple combinatorial problem and we defined it simply as the time spends or distance travelled by salesman visiting n cities (or nodes cyclically. In one tour the vehicle visits each station just once and finishes up where he started. As standard problems, we have chosen TSP with different stations visited once. This research presents the development of solution engine based on local search method known as Greedy Method and with the result generated as the initial solution, Simulated Annealing (SA and Tabu Search (TS further used to improve the search and provide the best solution. A user friendly optimization program developed using Microsoft C++ to solve the TSP and provides solutions to future TSP which may be classified into daily or advanced management and engineering problems.

Zuhaimy Ismail

2008-01-01

44

Effects of changes in petrol taxation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to estimate and discuss some of the policy-relevant effects of petrol tax changes. Our approach is to seek to separate the extent to which each of the following variables is affected by changes in the price of petrol: (i) car ownership (ii) car use (iii) petrol consumption per km. The estimates show that the sum of (i) and (ii) results in a price-elasticity with respect to 'car traffic' equal to -0.2 in the short run, and -0.3 in the long run. Because of possibilities to increase the fuel efficiency of cars, the price-elasticity of 'petrol demand' is substantially greater: -0.3 in the short run and of the order of -0.7 in the long run. One conclusion is: A petrol price rise is considerably more effective as a measure for energy and environmental policy than for transport policy. The effect of petrol tax changes to the total tax revenue is also discussed. At last, the regional welfare distribution effects are treated in the form of estimation of regional differences to the reduction in the consumers' surplus from a petrol price increase. 19 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs

45

TOXICITY OF PETROL OIL ON SPIRULINA PLATENSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1947, UN declared Spirulina as “the best food for tomorrow”. It is very rich in protein content. In the present study we have determined the effect of petrol oil on Spirulina platensis growth rate. It is exposed to different concentration of petrol oil to see the effect of petrol on the protein, carbohydrate and growth rate of Spirulina platensis. It involved 2,5,10 and 20 ml of petro oil in the media after which the survival and the growth of the S. platensis were evaluated. Although the percentage of protein and carbohydrate decreased as the quantity of the petrol oil added to the media comparison to the control samples. The results obtained in this study showed that spillage of mixture of gasoline poses threats to the survival and development of algae and plants.

Rajni Karoriya

2013-09-01

46

Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as an indicator for assessing the exposures of booth attendants of a highway toll station to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, 32 booth attendants (the exposure group) and 21 in pre-job training to become booth attendants (the reference group) were randomly selected from a highway toll station. Personal PAH samplings were conducted on the exposure group on each day during the studied workweek. Pre-shift urinary 1-hydroxylpyrene levels (1-OHP) were measured on the first day of the workweek (BM(pre)) for both the exposure and reference groups, but the post-shift 1-OHP levels were measured on the last day of the workweek (BM(pest)) only for the exposure group. For the exposure group, we found that their mean total PAH exposure level (C(total PAHs)) was 11 400 ng/m3 and that their mean BM(post) was significantly higher than their mean BM(pre) (= 3.02 and 0.910 micromol of 1-OHP/mol of creatinine, respectively). In addition, the mean BM(pre) for the exposure group were higher than that for the reference group (= 0.410 micromol of 1-OHP/mol of creatinine). The above results suggest that vehicle exhaust significantly affects the booth attendants' 1-OHP levels. None of the three personal factors (age, work experience, and smoking habit), except for C(total PAHs), had a significant effect on predicting booth attendants' BM(inc) levels (= BM(post) - BM(pre)) (R2 = 0.57). The above results suggest that urinary 1-OHP could be a suitable biomarker for characterizing workers' PAH exposures. Similarly, we found that none of the three personal characteristics, except for the involved vehicle flow rates and vehicle types, had a significant effect on predicting booth attendants' BM(inc), levels (R2 = 0.60). The above result suggests that the traffic densities of various traffic types could be a suitable surrogate indicator for assessing workers' PAH exposures. Considering that the type of traffic designed for a given type of tollbooth is quite similar all over the world, the results obtained from this study, at least, could be served as a stepping-stone for providing a cheaper and convenient way for assessing traffic PAH exposures in the future. PMID:14740717

Tsai, Perng-Jy; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chen, Hsiao-Lung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing

2004-01-01

47

TESTING TECHNIQUE OF MOTOR PETROL PHYSICAL STABILITY ESTIMATION AND FORECASTING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 The technique of petrol physical stability assessment and forecasting was tested. The results of study aimed at investigation of modern motor petrols evaporability are presented in the article. The refractive index is shown to be useful tool in making prognosis about evaporation losses of motor petrol. The validation of this technique was conducted and recommendations are given on its application.

Boychenko, Sergey V.; Sidorenko, Nina A.; Chernyak, Larisa N.; Pugachevskaya, Eugenya P.

2009-01-01

48

The Potential Of Poland's Bio-Petrol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aspiration to promote the bio-petrol industry is an attempt to provide a solution for some of the problems the European Union countries share, such as the decreasing importance of peripheral areas, the need to diversify energy sources and the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. Once Poland joined the EU in 2004, it became committed to adopting the organisation’s decisions regarding the bio-petrol industry and to keep up with EU production objectives. An analysis of the factors that influe...

Yossi Mann

2011-01-01

49

Investigating Competition in the Retail Petrol Market.  

Science.gov (United States)

A questionnaire that college economics students can use to investigate the degree and nature of competition in the retail market for petrol is provided. A simple computer program is included to help in the analysis of the questionnaire. (Author/RM)

Davies, P.

1984-01-01

50

Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market - end 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market (as at 31.12.94) are tabulated, with brand names and company names, areas of operation, and total numbers of retail petrol outlets displaying brand names, self-service sites, company-owned sites and outlets retailing Derv given. Statistics resulting from a retail marketing survey (1995) are listed and cover UK petrol sites from 1985-1994; motorway brands; a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets; UK outlets retailing derv; average UK prices for petrol and derv per litre; percentage of petrol sites per company (1994); number of company petrol sites as a percentage of total; number of outlets at hypermarkets/supermarkets; and vapour recovery sites. (UK)

51

The complicated transition to competition in the petrol industry in Spain; La dificil conduccion de la competencia por el sector de las gasolinas en Espana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Spanish petrol market has been deeply restructured. However, the results of two decades of liberalization are mixed. A more active policy of fostering and defending competition has been missing. Reform efforts in the sector and economic analyses of the markets have overwhelming been focussed on the upstream activities of manufacturing and wholesaling. By contrast, other activities of the sector are the ones that are constraining competition. Vertical relations between petrol major companies and petrol stations have a very significant impact on the process to achieve effective competition. And access to distribution essential facilities such as pipes is a necessary condition to open up the market to new operators. In Spain, transition to competition in the petrol industry has not taken enough care on restructuring vertical relations and access to essential facilities. (Author)

Perdiguero, J.; Borrel, J. R.

2007-07-01

52

PETROL-INHALATION DEPENDENCE : A CASE REPORT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ms M. a 13 years old class III student presented with one year history of petrol fumes inhalation dependence and six months history of kerosene inhalation dependence. She liked the smell of fumes getting pleasant feeling of well-being and increased confidence. She though fulfilled all the criteria of inherent dependence differed from typical cases described in published reports. Like male preponderance and group activity, the prominent features of inhalation dependence were absent in our case.

Pahwa, Madhu; Baweja, Aneesh; Gupta, Vinesh; Jiloha, R. C.

1998-01-01

53

Petrol with isotopically differentiated lead added  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment is proposed aimed at determining the role of motor traffic in the pollution of the environment by lead, in particular of air, soil, vegetation, food and the human body. The technique of determining the isotopic composition of lead, used in the right way, should enable the whole problem to be solved. It is intended to add lead with a constant isotopic composition different from that of normally occuring lead, whether natural in origin or otherwise, to petrol in at least two regions of Italy. Analyses of lead samples taken from the principal mines have shown that Australian lead (Broken Hill Mine) has quite a different isotopic composition. This lead will therefore be used to prepare the antiknock additives for petrol sold in the regions in question. Adequate sampling should make it possible to determine the contribution to pollution of lead from motor vehicle exhausts. The regions chosen for the experiment are Piedmont (city and province of Turin) and Sardinia (city and province of Cagliari) - the first because of its high traffic density and level of industrialization, the second because of its remoteness and the lead content of the soil, which may affect food. Both regions present favourable conditions for supplying petrol of the intended type. The experiment is intended to last three years; the petrol with Australian lead will be marketed for a period of 18 months. The first results of analyses of the isotopic composition of lead contained in atmosphercomposition of lead contained in atmospheric dust in the city of Turin and of lead from a number of blood samples are reported in the paper

54

Petrol consumption and redistributive effects of its taxation in Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this paper is to estimate a petrol consumption function for Spain and to evaluate the redistributive effects of petrol taxation. We use micro data from the Spanish Household Budget Survey of 1990/91 and model petrol consumption taking into account the effect that income changes may have on car ownership levels, as well as the differences that exist between expenditure and consumption. Our results show the importance that household structure, place of residence and income have...

Asensio Ruiz Alda, Francisco Javier

2006-01-01

55

Effects of Gasoline Inhalation on Menstrual Characteristics and the Hormonal Profile of Female Petrol Pump Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing numbers of young women are employed as gasoline station attendants in most developing countries despite the lack of empirical data on the adverse reproductive health effect of this solvent. This study therefore sought to assess the effects of gasoline inhalation on the serum sex hormone profile and menstrual characteristics of female gasoline station attendants in

Ekpenyong, Christopher E.; Koofreh Davies; Nyebuk Daniel

2013-01-01

56

The Health Impacts of Ethanol Blend Petrol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A measurement program designed to evaluate health impacts or benefits of using ethanol blend petrol examined exhaust and evaporative emissions from 21 vehicles representative of the current Australian light duty petrol (gasoline vehicle fleet using a composite urban emissions drive cycle. The fuels used were unleaded petrol (ULP, ULP blended with either 5% ethanol (E5 or 10% ethanol (E10. The resulting data were combined with inventory data for Sydney to determine the expected fleet emissions for different uptakes of ethanol blended fuel. Fleet ethanol compatibility was estimated to be 60% for 2006, and for the air quality modelling it was assumed that in 2011 over 95% of the fleet would be ethanol compatible. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from ULP, E5 and E10 emissions was studied under controlled conditions by the use of a smog chamber. This was combined with meteorological data from Sydney for February 2004 and the emission data (both measured and inventory data to model pollutant concentrations in Sydney’s airshed for 2006 and 2011. These concentrations were combined with the population distribution to evaluate population exposure to the pollutant. There is a health benefit to the Sydney population arising from a move from ULP to ethanol blends in spark-ignition vehicles. Potential health cost savings for Urban Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth are estimated to be A$39 million (in 2007 dollars for a 50% uptake (by ethanol compatible vehicles of E10 in 2006 and $42 million per annum for a 100% take up of E10 in 2011. Over 97% of the estimated health savings are due to reduced emissions of PM2.5 and consequent reduced impacts on mortality and morbidity (e.g., asthma, cardiovascular disease. Despite more petrol-driven vehicles predicted for 2011, the quantified health impact differential between ULP and ethanol fuelled vehicles drops from 2006 to 2011. This is because modern petrol vehicles, with lower emissions than their older counterparts, will make up a higher proportion of the fleet in the future. Hence the beneficial effects of reductions in particulate matter become less significant as the fleet as a whole produces lower emissions.

Rosemary Wood

2011-02-01

57

Saccade dysfunction associated with chronic petrol sniffing and lead encephalopathy  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: In chronic petrol sniffers, recent exposure to high levels of leaded petrol may give rise to a lead encephalopathy characterised by tremor, chorea, ataxia, hyperreflexia, convulsive seizures, and death. Neurological abnormalities associated with lead encephalopathy involve the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and brain stem. Objective: To use saccadic eye movement tasks as an experimental tool to determine which CNS changes are associated with chronic petrol sniffing and which with a history of lead encephalopathy, and to what extent these changes are reversible. Methods: Saccade function was assessed in chronic petrol sniffers with a history of lead encephalopathy (encephalopathic sniffers), chronic petrol sniffers who had never suffered lead encephalopathy (chronic sniffers), individuals who had sniffed petrol in the past but had not done so for more than six months (ex-sniffers), and individuals who had never sniffed petrol (non-sniffers). Results: Chronic sniffers showed increased latency of visually guided saccades and antisaccades and increased antisaccade errors which suggested cortical and basal ganglia dysfunction. These abnormalities returned to normal in ex-sniffers. Encephalopathic sniffers showed the same abnormalities as chronic sniffers but with greater severity and additional saccadic signs including dysmetria, gaze evoked nystagmus, and saccade slowing which usually indicate cerebellar and brain stem dysfunction. Conclusions: Chronic petrol abuse is associated with cortical and basal ganglia abnormalities that are at least partially recoverable with abstinence. Additional long term cerebellar and brain stem abnormalities are associated with lead encephalopathy. PMID:14966167

Cairney, S; Maruff, P; Burns, C; Currie, J; Currie, B

2004-01-01

58

Saccade dysfunction associated with chronic petrol sniffing and lead encephalopathy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In chronic petrol sniffers, recent exposure to high levels of leaded petrol may give rise to a lead encephalopathy characterised by tremor, chorea, ataxia, hyperreflexia, convulsive seizures, and death. Neurological abnormalities associated with lead encephalopathy involve the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and brain stem.

Cairney, S.; Maruff, P.; Burns, C.; Currie, J.; Currie, B.

2004-01-01

59

[Guidelines for assessment and management of risks caused by benzene for workers at gas stations].  

Science.gov (United States)

The European regulations classify gasoline as "carcinogenic agent" because of its content of benzene (> 0.1%). Consequently the preventive and protective actions towards the petrol station attendants prescribe, before all, the elimination of the agent or the reduction of the exposure and the risk to the minimum. Well known are currently a series of preventive measures able to produce appreciable reduction of the risk: reduction of the benzene content of gasoline, vapor recovery systems, self-areas or do-it-yourself, specific procedures for working. Exposure assessment is an essential step in order to establish the need for further preventive measure and to verify their efficacy. The exposure levels to gasoline of the petrol station attendants can be influenced by a variety of factors other than benzene air concentrations and therefore biological monitoring can give some sensible advantage in respect to air monitoring. Dosage of benzene in expired air, in urine, or in blood give a very good estimation of the exposure to benzene but they are not test largely practicable today, because analytical, economical, organizational reasons. Recent studies suggest that the dosage in urine of trans,trans muconic acid (ttMA) or phenil mercapturic acid can be useful biomarkers of recent exposure, even at low levels of exposure such as in filling stations. Exposure conditions to gasoline vapors in filling stations are rapidly changing thanks to some technological innovations and legal restrictions and the exposure levels are much below the occupational air standards, Toxicological and epidemiological data (although not yet conclusive at low doses) suggest to carry out however health and epidemiological surveillance programs for the working population. A program for the health surveillance and biological monitoring is here proposed: a clinical examination, integrated with haematological tests and biological monitoring tests, must be carried out in pre-employment and subsequently repeated yearly in the highest exposure conditions. When the exposure levels should decrease the examinations could be carried out every two years. PMID:11084881

Maranelli, G; Romeo, L; Apostoli, P; Perbellini, L; Betta, A; Marchiori, L; Verga, V; Brugnone, F

2000-01-01

60

Idiosyncrasies in Australian petrol price behaviour: evidence of seasonalities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been argued that there are certain idiosyncrasies in Australian petrol price behaviour. To the extent that these idiosyncrasies result in large magnitude differences in petrol prices, they may be exploited by consumers to significantly reduce their household expenditure on the product. Similarly, such seasonalities may influence retailers in their purchase and storage decision. The objective of this paper is to test for seasonalities in the Australian retail petrol market. The approach adopted is similar to that for determining calendar anomalies as documented in the financial and commodity markets literature. We find that a monthly seasonal effect is pronounced with petrol prices lower in the months of February-May and highest in July and August. A day-of-the-week effect is also apparent and is manifest in all petrol prices for capital cities (Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney) across various years. However, the half-month effect, as is common in stock returns, is not observed. Moreover, contrary to popular belief that petrol prices are higher surrounding holidays, no evidence of the holiday effect is found. In Brisbane and Melbourne, petrol prices also have some relationship to the mood of consumers, as proxied using weather conditions. This is not observed in Adelaide and Sydney. (Author)

 
 
 
 
61

The supply of petrol: a report on the supply in the United Kingdom of petrol by wholesale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report by the UK Monopolies and Mergers Commission on the supply of petrol examines the extent of vertical control within the industry and concludes that it is a competitive market. Topics covered include petrol prices, profits, petrol exchange agreements, wholesaler agreements with retailers, wholesalers' ownership of retail sites and control over prices and barriers to the entry to the market. In addition to concluding that none of the facts found operate against the public interest, some recommendations regarding the future are made. (UK)

62

RESULTS OF PILOT RESEARCHES OF PETROL OIL FRACTIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the article we show the results of pilot studies of petrol and oil fractions, their main physical and chemical properties, density and DNP, a liquid phase, two-phase area, critical area and boundary curves

Kharchenko P. M.; Timofeev V. P.

2014-01-01

63

RESULTS OF PILOT RESEARCHES OF PETROL OIL FRACTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article we show the results of pilot studies of petrol and oil fractions, their main physical and chemical properties, density and DNP, a liquid phase, two-phase area, critical area and boundary curves

Kharchenko P. M.

2014-04-01

64

Study of cluster formation in petrol pitch by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Structural and magnetic properties of the iron containing clusters in petrol pitchs (JCCP), produced by mixing of petrol pitch's matrix with iron carbonyl complex, was studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. (orig.)

65

Health Risk Assessment of Ambient Air Concentrations of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene (BTX in Service Station Environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comprehensive evaluation of the adverse health effects of human exposures to BTX from service station emissions was carried out using BTX exposure data from the scientific literature. The data was grouped into different scenarios based on activity, location and occupation and plotted as Cumulative Probability Distributions (CPD plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ at 50% (CEXP50 and 95% (CEXP95 exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 > 1 were obtained with benzene in the scenario for service station attendants and mechanics repairing petrol dispensing pumps indicating a possible health risk. The risk was minimized for service stations using vapour recovery systems which greatly reduced the benzene exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 were obtained for all other scenarios with benzene suggesting minimal risk for most of the exposed population. However, HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 was also found with toluene and xylene for all scenarios, suggesting minimal health risk. The lifetime excess Cancer Risk (CR and Overall Risk Probability for cancer on exposure to benzene was calculated for all Scenarios and this was higher amongst service station attendants than any other scenario.

Benjamin Edokpolo

2014-06-01

66

Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

2012-01-01

67

Emissions of VOCs at urban petrol retail distribution centres in India (Delhi and Mumbai).  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution has assumed gigantic proportion killing almost half a million Asians every year. Urban pollution mainly comprises of emissions from buses, trucks, motorcycle other forms of motorized transport and its supporting activities. As Asia's cities continue to expand the number of vehicles have risen resulting in greater pollution. Fugitive emissions from retail distribution center in urban area constitute a major source. Petrol vapours escape during refueling adding pollutants like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene to ambient air. This paper discusses a study on fugitive emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) at some refueling station in two metropolitan cities of India, i.e., Mumbai and Delhi. Concentration of VOCs in ambient air at petrol retail distribution center is estimated by using TO-17 method. Concentration of benzene in ambient air in Delhi clearly shows the effect of intervention in use of petroleum and diesel fuel and shift to CNG. Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model is used to estimate source contributions. At Delhi besides diesel combustion engines, refueling emissions are also major sources. At Mumbai evaporative emissions are found to contribute maximum to Total VOC (TVOC) concentration in ambient air. PMID:16240200

Srivastava, Anjali; Joseph, A E; More, Ajit; Patil, Sunil

2005-10-01

68

Process for improving anti-knock qualities of petrol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sulphur compounds and dienes are removed from petrol to improve the anti-knock qualities. According to the invention, this can be achieved in one stage of the process, where petrol is mixed with additives, the mixture is heated to 80 to 100/sup 0/C and the end product is distilled. Iron, nickel and molybdenum carbonyl are suitable as additives, and so are a mixture of iron and manganese carbonyl, a complex mixture of cobalt carbonyl and triphenyl phosphene, a complex mixture of manganese chloride, triphenyl phosphene and lithium-aluminium hydride. The octane number rises in this process. 10 examples illustrate the process.

Namjotkin, N.S.; Gubin, S.P.; Tjurin, W.D.; Fjodorow, W.W.; Usatschjow, W.S.; Matweew, M.S.; Larionow, L.I.; Eliner, A.S.; Baraschkow, R.J.

1977-03-03

69

Petrol with octane number 91 and 98 will disappear  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Next or may be already this year Petrol with octane number 91 and 98 will disappear from the market of the Slovak Republic. A final deadline has not been set yet. According to an explanation provided by deputy general manager for refinery and marketing of Slovnaft, a.s., Bratislava, Bela Kelemen the reason for this decision is lack of interest drivers show for this type of fuel. The consumption of diesel, on the other hand, is growing rapidly. According to representatives of Slovnaft the balance between offer and demand is tense in case of diesel, petroleum and the most used petrol with octane number 95. In their opinion this is caused mainly by the cold weather

70

MOTIVACIJA ZA IZOBRAŽEVANJE V PODJETJU PETROL, D. D.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Motivacija predstavlja klju?ni pomen v vsakdanjem življenju. ?e nismo motivirani, težko dosežemo dolo?en cilj. Prav tako pa si brez izobraževanja danes ne znamo ve? predstavljati življenja. V diplomskem delu smo predstavili motivacijo za izobraževanje v podjetju Petrol, d. d. Diplomsko delo sestavljata teoreti?ni in raziskovalni del. V teoreti?nem delu smo obravnavali opredelitev pojma motivacija, opredelitev motivov, vlogo nadrejenih v procesu motivacije, osebnostne tipe zapo...

Z?ibert, S?pela

2011-01-01

71

Regional Finance and Competition Policy: The Canary Islands petrol market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Market competition levels affect all agents of an economy: businesses, consumers and the State. Traditional analysis has evaluated the State’s effects on the other agents, but no analysis has been conducted regarding the inverse relationship. Thus, the aim of this study is to estimate the tributary income losses that low levels of competition in the retail petrol market could cause in a market, using for it the Canary Islands Autonomous Community. To begin, we will use P...

Perdiguero-garci?a, Jordi; Jime?nez, Juan Luis

2010-01-01

72

Sharp increase in petrol prices and climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current increase in energy prices may be seen as good news for climate change by creating a reduction in energy consumption and therefore emissions of CO2. This study uses the GEMINI-E3 model to analyse the impact of a sharp increase in petrol prices on the world economy and on climate change. The effects of the increase are compared with those of policies for reducing greenhouse gases. (authors)

73

Implementation of Turbocharger in Petrol Engines and its Thermal Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we have discussed about turbocharging of four stroke petrol engine, difference between turbocharging of diesel and gasoline engine and possibilities to reduce losses in Exhaust system are highlighted. However, it omits to discuss two stroke engines due to their different gas exchange processes. Designing of different components involved in turbocharging is done and thermal analysis of turbocharger’s connector pipehas been done along with different kind of stress analysis.

Swapnil Bhurat, Amit Yadav

2012-01-01

74

Implementation of Turbocharger in Petrol Engines and its Thermal Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we have discussed about turbocharging of four stroke petrol engine, difference between turbocharging of diesel and gasoline engine and possibilities to reduce losses in Exhaust system are highlighted. However, it omits to discuss two stroke engines due to their different gas exchange processes. Designing of different components involved in turbocharging is done and thermal analysis of turbocharger’s connector pipehas been done along with different kind of stress analysis.

Swapnil Bhurat, Amit Yadav , Atreya pathak

2012-12-01

75

A novel possible strategy for the management of petrol sniffing addiction in adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the 1950s there have been many reports on petrol addiction, mostly describing the practice of petrol sniffing and its acute and chronic physical and psychological effects. To the authors’ knowledge, none have described the use of opiates to manage and control this addiction.

Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mosallai, Sharif

2010-01-01

76

Petrol and gas: an opportunity for the Arab countries?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 17 February 2006 the Institute of the Arab World (IMA) and the Franco-Arab Chamber of Commerce (CCFA) jointly organised a symposium on ''Petrol and Gas, an Opportunity for the Arab countries?''. The preparatory work had been initiated by M. Yves Guena, President of IMA and M. Serge Boidevaix, President of CCFA, with Dr Saleh Al Tayar, the Secretary-General of CCFA. An audience of more than one hundred, made up of experts, professional management, senior company directors and journalists participated. (author)

77

Petrol and gas: an opportunity for the Arab countries?; Petrole et gaz: une chance pour les pays arabes?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On 17 February 2006 the Institute of the Arab World (IMA) and the Franco-Arab Chamber of Commerce (CCFA) jointly organised a symposium on ''Petrol and Gas, an Opportunity for the Arab countries?''. The preparatory work had been initiated by M. Yves Guena, President of IMA and M. Serge Boidevaix, President of CCFA, with Dr Saleh Al Tayar, the Secretary-General of CCFA. An audience of more than one hundred, made up of experts, professional management, senior company directors and journalists participated. (author)

Saleh, Al Tayar; Sarkis, N.; Appert, O.; Boisseau, Ph.; Perrin, F.; Dauger, J.M.; Pochettino, N.; Chevalier, J.M.; Benkhadra, A.; Thevenot, N

2006-04-15

78

Condição coclear e do sistema olivococlear medial de frentistas de postos de gasolina expostos a solventes orgânicos / Cochlear condition and olivocochlear system of gas station attendants exposed to organic solvents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Solventes orgânicos são cada vez mais estudados em função de sua ação ototóxica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a condição das células ciliadas externas e o sistema olivococlear medial de sujeitos expostos a solventes orgânicos. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo. Foram avaliados 78 frentistas [...] de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (RS) expostos a solventes orgânicos. Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, a amostra ficou constituída por 24 sujeitos. Os procedimentos utilizados na avaliação foram anamnese audiológica, Emissões Otoacústicas Transientes (EOAT) e pesquisa do efeito supressor das EOAT. Um grupo controle (GC) composto por 23 sujeitos, foi utilizado para comparar sujeitos expostos e não-expostos. A coleta de dados foi realizada na sala de Fonoaudiologia do Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador de Santa Maria. RESULTADOS: A presença de EOAT foi maior na orelha esquerda em ambos os grupos; a média da relação sinal/ruído das EOAT de ambas as orelhas foi maior no GE; o efeito supressor das EOAT na orelha direita foi maior nos sujeitos do GE (62,5%) e na orelha esquerda foi superior no GC (86,96%), com diferença estatisticamente significante. A mediana da relação sinal/ruído das EOAT, segundo a faixa de frequência, foi maior no GC em três faixas de frequência na orelha direita e em uma na orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: Não foram encontrados sinais de alteração nas células ciliadas externas nem no sistema olivococlear medial nos sujeitos expostos a solventes orgânicos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Organic solvents have been increasingly studied due to its ototoxic action. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the conditions of outer hair cells and olivocochlear system in individuals exposed to organic solvents. METHOD: This is a prospective study. 78 gas station attendants exposed to organic solv [...] ents had been evaluated from three gas stations from Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul (RS). After applying the inclusion criteria, the sample was constituted by 24 individuals. The procedures used on the evaluation were audiological anamnesis, Transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAES) and research for the suppressive effect of TEOAES. A group control (GC) compounded by 23 individuals was compared to individuals exposed and non-exposed individuals. The data collection has been done in the room of Speech Therapy of Workers Health Reference Center of Santa Maria. RESULTS: The TEOAES presence was major in the left ear in both groups; the average relation of TEOAES signal/noise in both ears was greater in GE; the TEOAES suppressive effect in the right ear was higher in the individual of GE (62,5%) and in the left ear was superior in GC (86,96%), with statistically significant difference. The median sign/noise ratio of TEOAES, according to the frequency range, it was higher in GC in three frequencies ranges in the right ear and one in the left ear. CONCLUSION: It was not found signs of alteration on the outer hair cells neither on the olivocochlear medial system in the individuals exposed to organic solvents.

Lenita da Silva, Quevedo; Tania Maria, Tochetto; Márcia do Amaral, Siqueira.

2012-03-01

79

Ignition study of a petrol/CNG single cylinder engine  

Science.gov (United States)

Benefits of laser ignition over the electrical ignition system for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engines have fuelled automobile industry and led to an extensive research on basic characteristics to switch over to the emerging technologies. This study was undertaken to determine the electrical and physical characteristics of the electric spark ignition of single cylinder petrol/CNG engine to determine minimum ignition requirements and timeline of ignition events to use in subsequent laser ignition study. This communication briefly reviews the ongoing research activities and reports the results of this experimental study. The premixed petrol and CNG mixtures were tested for variation of current and voltage characteristics of the spark with speed of engine. The current magnitude of discharge circuit was found to vary linearly over a wide range of speed but the stroke to stroke fire time was found to vary nonlinearly. The DC voltage profiles were observed to fluctuate randomly during ignition process and staying constant in rest of the combustion cycle. Fire to fire peaks of current amplitudes fluctuated up to 10% of the peak values at constant speed but increased almost linearly with increase in speed. Technical barriers of laser ignition related to threshold minimum ignition energy, inter-pulse durations and firing sequence are discussed. Present findings provide a basic initiative and background information for designing suitable timeline algorithms for laser ignited leaner direct injected CNG engines.

Khan, N.; Saleem, Z.; Mirza, A. A.

2005-11-01

80

Modelling the Price of Unleaded Petrol in Australia’s Capital Cities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the long-run and short-run determinants of unleaded petrol price in Australia’s capitalcities using monthly data to find out whether prices respond asymmetrically to external shocks. Based on thecointegration test results and the estimated asymmetric short-run dynamic models, it is found that: (1) in thelong-run petrol prices are mainly determined by Tapis crude oil and Singapore petrol prices; (2) there issome evidence of asymmetric price adjustments in the short-run si...

Abbas Valadkhani

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Data Mining System For Quality Prediction Of Petrol Using Artificial Neural Network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing cry of the masses over poor quality of petroleum products most especially petrol has poised researchers and refinery engineers to devise a way of telling the class of quality of products expected from a sample crude oil without having to refine it. To this end, a system that can predict the quality and class of petrol expected from a sample crude oil is desired. Getting such accurate predictions for the class and hence the quality of petrol however can be tasking for humans. Th...

Adeyemo, Omowumi O.; Osofisan, Adenike O.; Fashina, Ebunoluwa P.; Kayode Otubu

2012-01-01

82

Phenol oxidation of petrol refinery wastewater catalyzed by Laccase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid-state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries) have been evaluated in both systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 u/ml) was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 u/ml) was achieved in a submerged system, containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The Laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of Laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant

83

Research of the diesel engine performance parameters when operating on rape oil and petrol blends  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The theme of the Kornelijus Cebyla Master degree final project is „Research of the diesel engine performance parameters when operating on rape oil and petrol blends“. The research work consists of 71 pages, 6 tables, 46 pictures and 14 appendixes. There were used 24 references. The research was started in year 2003 and finisched in 2005 at Lithuanian University of Agriculture. The purpose of this project – to quality a develop of usage rape oil and petrol blends as a fuel in diesel...

C?ebyla, Kornelijus

2005-01-01

84

Effectiveness and effects of attempts to regulate the UK petrol industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates the impact that investigation and regulation of the UK petrol industry has had on the profitability of the companies. Using a gross margin for petrol, we estimate a series of variable parameter autoregressive processes. The results demonstrate that the 1979 Monopolies and Mergers Commission investigation into the industry, caused a long-term decline in profit margins in the industry, despite the fact that no recommendations or undertakings were made. This cannot, however, be said for subsequent investigations. 27 refs

85

Impact of Organic Solvents and Environmental Pollutants on the Physiological Function in Petrol Filling Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long term exposure to solvents and air pollutants can lead to deleterious effects on respiratory, haematological and thyroid functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic exposure to solvents like benzene and pollutants like carbon monoxide in petrol filling workers had adverse effect on blood parameters, thyroid and respiratory functions. The study group consisted of 42 healthy, non-smoker petrol filling workers, aged 20-50 years with work (exposure) duration from 2-1...

Devender Reddy, V.; Anthony David, M.; Nusrat Aziz; Santhosh Kumar, B.; Khaja Mohinuddin Salar, B. M.; Nazia Uzma

2008-01-01

86

The ignitability of petrol vapours and potential for vapour phase explosion by use of TASER® law enforcement electronic control device.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental study was made of the potential of the TASER-X26™ law enforcement electronic control device to ignite petrol vapours if used by an officer to incapacitate a person soaked in petrol, or within a flammable atmosphere containing petrol vapour. Bench scale tests have shown that a wooden mannequin with pig skin covering the chest was a suitable representation of a human target. Full scale tests using the mannequin have shown that the arc from a TASER-X26™ is capable of igniting petrol/air vapours on a petrol-soaked person. Further tests in a 1/5 scale and a full scale compartment have shown that if a TASER is used within a compartment, a petrol vapour explosion (deflagration) may be achieved. It is evident from this research that if used in a flammable vapour rich environment, the device could prove fatal not only to the target but the TASER® operator as well. PMID:25498927

Clarke, C; Andrews, S P

2014-12-01

87

Research of combustion in older generation spark-ignition engines in the condition of use leaded and unleaded petrol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes the potential problems in the exploitation of the older generation of spark-ignition engines with higher octane number of petrol (unleaded petrol BMB 95 than required (leaded petrol MB 86. Within the experimental tests on two different engines (STEYR-PUCH model 712 and GAZ 41 by applying piezoelectric pressure sensors integrated with the engine spark plugs, acceleration sensors (accelerometers and special electronic block connected with distributor, show that the cumulative first and second theoretical phase of combustion when petrol of higher octane number (BMB 95 is used lasts slightly longer than when the low-octane petrol MB 86 is used. For new petrol (BMB 95 higher optimal angles of pre-ignition have been determined by which better performances of the engine are achieved without a danger of the combustion with detonation (also called knocking.

Bulatovi? Željko M.

2014-01-01

88

Research of combustion in older generation spark-ignition engines in the condition of use leaded and unleaded petrol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the potential problems in the exploitation of the older generation of spark-ignition engines with higher octane number of petrol (unleaded petrol BMB 95) than required (leaded petrol MB 86). Within the experimental tests on two different engines (STEYR-PUCH model 712 and GAZ 41) by applying piezoelectric pressure sensors integrated with the engine spark plugs, acceleration sensors (accelerometers) and special electronic block connected w...

Bulatovi? Željko M.; Raki? Slavko N.; Kneževi? Dragan M.; Tomi? Miroljub V.; Bojer Ljubiša M.; Radi? Dragoslav B.; Jerkin Goran L.

2014-01-01

89

Experimental analysis on a spark ignition petrol engine fuelled with LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as alternative fuel to petrol is common practise in spark ignition engines. While the main driving force to the use of LPG still remains the low cost for the end user, its favourable pollutant emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, will in the middle term probably increase interest in LPG as an IC engine fuel. In addition, there are both theoretical and technical reasons to consider LPG as an attractive fuel also in terms of engine performance. Despite the continuously increasing stock production of dual-fuel (petrol–LPG) passenger car models, doubts still exist about both real engine performance in LPG operation and the reliability of the dual-fuel feeding system. This paper deals with the theoretical advantages of using LPG as fuel for SI engines. Brake performance tests of a passenger car engine fed with petrol and LPG are analysed and compared. The stock engine has been equipped with a “third-generation” standard kit for dual-fuel operation. The performance reductions in LPG operation are discussed in both steady state and transient condition. The results of some modifications to the set-up of both the petrol and LPG metering devices, designed for a better justification of the measured performance, are also presented. -- Highlights: ? Experimental research on the actual performances of an SI engine fed with petrol and gaseous LPG. ? Theoretical advantages and drawbacks of fuelling SI ICE’s with LPG. ? Brake performance analysis shows a noticeable gap between LPG and petrol operation. ? Local measurements confirm that the thermodynamic operation of the evaporator-pressure reducer device is crucial for the engine performance. ? The performance of the up-to-date kit for petrol–LPG dual-fuel operation is greatly affected by the settings of the mechanical components of the LPG evaporator device.

90

Coal petrol and SNG - alternatives for the future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If in the decades to come no alternatives are found for the conventional fuels, i.e. petrol and diesel oil, in vehicle propulsion and if the non-energetic use of mineral oil is maintained on a large scale for economic reasons although there is a technical possibility of substitution by synthesizing substances other than those derived from mineral oil, the domains of traffic and non-energetic uses will largely remain oil-dependent. Model calculations have shown however that this demand could theoretically be satisfied by the upgrading of coal, which would require substantial additional expenditure. But even if all possible energy measures are taken and on the assumption of rising oil imports, the development of nuclear power is indicated, as coal cannot act as a substitute for nuclear power and a source of fuel at the same time. The necessary volume of capital expenditure is, however, justified only if this is done with the consistent aim of reducing the dependence of oil imports. Development of even part of the coal liquefaction potential would have a favourable and lasting effect in terms of energy policy on the dependence of oil imports all over the world. (Auth.)

91

LCAs of petrol and diesel - A literature review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have investigated the environmental impact of using biofuel in transportation compared with fossil fuels. Since these studies often use standard values for the fossil fuel reference scenario, there is a need for a thorough review of published data on fossil fuel use in transportation. This study reviewed the available literature regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy balances in petrol and diesel use and examined possible causes for the differences reported in the literature. This included differences connected to the LCA methodology itself, but also those resulting from technical and economic effects. Thirteen studies were reviewed in order to establish the level of GHG emissions and energy use in the well-to-tank perspective and, where possible, in the entire well-to-wheel perspective. The studies used different input data, allocation methods and system boundaries, but the results fell within a narrow range, since the energy content of the fuels on a tank-to-wheel basis differed only slightly, while the use phase represents most GHG emissions and energy usage in fuel life cycles. All studies reviewed reported GHG emissions values that exceeded the reference value of 83.8 g CO{sub 2}-eq/MJ fuel suggested in the EU Renewable Energy Directive.

Eriksson, Mattias; Ahlgren, Serina

2013-09-01

92

Analyse of some organic and anorganic compounds in air near petrol stations. Technical aspects and results  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In de maanden april tot en met september 1987 zijn in de stad Utrecht diverse metingen verricht, ten behoeve van het onderzoek: "Verspreiding van benzeen rondom benzinestations". Met behulp van meetwagens zijn op verschillende locaties rondom drie benzinestations bemonsteringen uitgevoerd ter bepaling van benzeenconcentraties.Tevens is tolueen bemonsterd en zijn de concentraties van koolstofmonoxide, stikstofmonoxide en ozon bepaald. Meteorologische omstandig...

Hp, Bos; Jt, Schippers; Fj, Michel

2012-01-01

93

Severe petrol contamination in the aquifer of the Llobregat river delta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 16-09-91 an attack on an oil pipeline led to some 70 tons of petrol spilling out and catching fire. About 20 tons filtered down into the aquifer of the river Llobregat delta. On 08-12-91 the presence of petrol was detected in a well used for supplying water about 1 km downstream. A system was set up for monitoring and extracting the polluted ground water. The volume affected had now reached 3.5 hm''3. The decontamination costs came to 245 million pesetas in comparison to only 10 millions pesetas for the petrol spill. The cost of extracting the water was 70 pta/m''3. Finally the importance of regional planning and the need to prevent such accidents is pointed out. The means necessary to deal with them should be available. (Author)

94

Comparative Effects of Petrol and Diesel on Enzyme Activity in Tympanotonus fuscatus after Sublethal Exposure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pollution of the aquatic environment by petroleum and its products is common the world over. This study is aimed at examining sublethal effects of petrol and diesel on enzymes in Tympanotonus fuscatus namely: Aspartate Transaminase (AST (E.C. 2.6.1.1, Alanine Transaminase (ALT (E.C. 2.6.2.2 and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP (E.C. 3.1.3.1 activity after exposure. The periwinkles were exposed to 10.40, 15.60, 21.00, 26.00 ml L-1 and a control. The organs were removed on the sixth day and were prepared for enzymatic analysis. Enzyme activities were compared to the control value and between the toxicants. The effects of the toxicants on AST activity in the muscle and viscera were significantly different (p>0.05 from the control value (137.50±15.10 IU L-1. AST activity were raised more in petrol concentrations than the diesel concentrations in the muscle. The reverse was the case in the viscera at 15.60 ml L-1 (227.50±24.75 IU L-1. ALT activity in the muscle were not significant (p>0.05 between the toxicant media. In the viscera, significant differences (p>0.05 were observed in some of the concentrations with petrol showing higher activity. ALP activity in the muscle were not significant (p>0.05 in both media, but were more elicited in the diesel concentrations. In the viscera, the activities of ALP were more pronounced in the petrol concentrations and were significant (p>0.05 at the higher diesel concentrations. The exposure of Tympanotonus fuscatus to petrol and diesel concentrations caused changes in the enzymatic activities in the organism with those of petrol more pronounced than those of the diesel.

E.S. Edori

2014-01-01

95

DEVELOP students attend conference  

Science.gov (United States)

Last month, Madeline Brozen and Jason Jones of the DEVELOP Program at John C. Stennis Space Center joined members from the program's national office at Langley Research Center to attend the Southern Growth Policies Board annual conference in Biloxi. Pictured are (l to r): Karen Allsbrook, Jonathan Gleason, Gov. Haley Barbour, Madeline Brozen, Lindsay Rogers and Tracey Silcox.

2009-01-01

96

Induction of microsomal drug metabolism in man and in the rat by exposure to petroleum.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine the effect of petroleum exposure on the activity of hepatic mixed function oxidase enzymes, salivary elimination kinetics of antipyrine were determined in 19 petrol station attendants and compared with 19 controls. Antipyrine half life in petrol station attendants was shorter than in controls. Microsomal preparations (10 000 x g supernatants) were prepared from six male Porton rats exposed to petrol vapour (5 ppm at an air flow rate of 41/min for eight hours a day for three weeks...

Harman, A. W.; Frewin, D. B.; Priestly, B. G.

1981-01-01

97

THE CONSEQUENCES OF LEAD PETROL USE ON LEAD CONTENT IN CABBAGE ALONG THE MOTORWAY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Besides the negative ecological consequences, during the production of the motor petrol (alkyl lead as anti–knock compound), as well as the application (combustion in motor engines), there are the ecological consequences manifested by deposition of Pb in the soil beside the motorway. At the same time this is the end of the life cycle of the petrol. However, Pb enters the human consumption chain through the plants that absorb Pb from the soil, and it is also deposited in the human body. The ...

Matavuly, M.; Zh. Kevreshan; Dy. Yovanovicy

2006-01-01

98

THE STORAGE OF OIL DERIVATES IN THE STORAGE PETROL RA?E  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

V diplomskem delu je predstavljeno delovanje procesov v skladiš?u naftnih derivatov skladiš?a Petrol Ra?e. Skladiš?e ima za skladiš?enje dve vrsti rezervoarjev, podzemne in nadzemne rezervoarje. Za pre?rpavanje se uporabljata dva pre?rpališ?a, pre?rpališ?e za goriva, pripeljana z avto cisternami, in pre?rpališ?e za goriva, pripeljana z ?elezniškimi cisternami. Cilj diplomske naloge je izboljšati proces jemanja vzorcev goriv v skladiš?u Petrol Ra?e, delo olajšati t...

S?korja, Barbara

2011-01-01

99

PHENOL OXIDATION OF PETROL REFINERY WASTEWATER CATALYZED BY LACCASE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La lacasa se ha obtenido a través de dos sistemas de producción diferentes, el primero usando Pleurotus ostreatus en fermentación en estado sólido, el segundo usando Trametes versicolor en cultivo sumergido. Se han evaluado diferentes sustratos (derivados de la levadura, harina e industrias de la be [...] bida) en ambos sistemas. La mayor cantidad de la lacasa producida con Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml) se obtuvo en un medio de salvado de trigo. El máximo nivel de concentración de la enzima usando Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml) se logró en un sistema sumergido con 10% vinaza, 4,5% salvado de trigo y 0,2% de melaza por litro. El filtrado del cultivo extraído del Pleurotus ostreatus se usó para remover el fenol de las aguas residuales. El tratamiento enzimático es eficaz para un amplio rango de pH y de temperatura. El tratamiento con la lacasa se ha utilizado para desfenolizar el agua residual de las refinerías de la industria del petróleo. La ventaja de la desfenolización lacasa es que esta enzima usa el oxígeno molecular como un oxidante. Abstract in english Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries) have been evaluated in both [...] systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml) was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml) was achieved in a submerged system containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant.

María-Carolina, Vargas; Nubia E, Ramírez.

2002-12-01

100

PHENOL OXIDATION OF PETROL REFINERY WASTEWATER CATALYZED BY LACCASE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laccase has been obtained through two different production systems, the first using Pleurotus ostreatus in solid state fermentation, the second one using Trametes versicolor in submerged culture. Different substrates (by products from yeast, flour and beverage industries have been evaluated in both systems. Maximum laccase yield with Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml was obtained in a wheat bran medium. The maximum enzyme concentration level using Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml was achieved in a submerged system containing 10% vinasse, 4,5% wheat bran and 0,2% molasses per liter of waste. Culture filtrate extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus was used to remove phenol from wastewater. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide pH and temperature range. The laccase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize industrial petrol refinery wastewater. The advantage of laccase dephenolization is that this enzyme uses molecular oxygen as an oxidant.La lacasa se ha obtenido a través de dos sistemas de producción diferentes, el primero usando Pleurotus ostreatus en fermentación en estado sólido, el segundo usando Trametes versicolor en cultivo sumergido. Se han evaluado diferentes sustratos (derivados de la levadura, harina e industrias de la bebida en ambos sistemas. La mayor cantidad de la lacasa producida con Pleurotus ostreatus (25 U/ml se obtuvo en un medio de salvado de trigo. El máximo nivel de concentración de la enzima usando Trametes versicolor (25 U/ml se logró en un sistema sumergido con 10% vinaza, 4,5% salvado de trigo y 0,2% de melaza por litro. El filtrado del cultivo extraído del Pleurotus ostreatus se usó para remover el fenol de las aguas residuales. El tratamiento enzimático es eficaz para un amplio rango de pH y de temperatura. El tratamiento con la lacasa se ha utilizado para desfenolizar el agua residual de las refinerías de la industria del petróleo. La ventaja de la desfenolización lacasa es que esta enzima usa el oxígeno molecular como un oxidante.

María-Carolina Vargas

2002-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Comparison of Urinary o-Cresol and Hippuric Acid in Drivers, Gasoline Station Workers and Painters Exposed to Toluene in West of Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was evaluation of exposed to toluene and compare levels of hippuric acid and o-Cresol in taxi drivers, petrol station workers, car painters with a control group in West of Iran. The urinary o-creasol and toluene in air were analyzed by a gas chromatography and hippuric acid was extracted from urine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The significant differences in the levels of urinary o-Cresol were found in painters and petrol station workers compare...

Abdulrahman Bahrami; Ahmad Jonidi-Jafari; Behzad Folladi; Hossien Mahjub; Qolamhosien Sadri; Majid Motamed Zadeh

2005-01-01

102

A house with its own filling station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This short article describes how a house in Erlinsbach, Switzerland was rebuilt and, at the same time, fitted with a new gas-fired heating system - and with its own natural gas filling station. The history behind this unusual project is discussed. The inclusion of a filling station in the project made it worthwhile for the gas utility to lay a connection from the gas mains to the house. The economic advantages for its builder, who sells such natural gas filling station equipment, are mentioned. The consumption of the natural gas used as motor fuel is measured and taxed separately. Equivalent fuel costs are now said by the owner to be already below today's petrol prices and will become even lower when the planned reduction of levies on such use of natural gas come into force

103

Septic arthritis of both knees following intra-articular injection of petrol.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 70 years old man was referred to our center with bilateral knee arthritis following intra-articular petrol injection. Because of previous antibiotics use gram stain and culture were negative. Septic arthritis was diagnosed and antibiotics and drainage were started. After 2 years he improved eventually and was able to walk. But, some movement limitation remained. © 2015 KUMS, All rights reserved. PMID:24879072

Janbakhsh, Alireza; Mansouri, Feizollah; Vaziri, Siavash; Sayad, Babak; Afsharian, Mandana; Ghaffari, Parviz

2015-01-01

104

Pipes, Petrol, Paint and Pewter: The Rise and Fall of Lead  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead is a good example of a metal that was used for many things over centuries--in water pipes, paints, on roofs, and in leaded petrol, for example--but was superseded as scientists discovered "new" metals, and because its toxicity became a problem. It was originally an important element in pewter utensils, alloyed with tin; it made the tin easier…

Peacock, Alan

2010-01-01

105

Does class attendance still matter?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the impact of class attendance on academic performance in a second year Electronics Engineering course module with online notes and no mandatory class attendance policy. The study shows that class attendance is highly correlated to academic performance, despite the availability of online class notes. In addition, there is significant correlation between class attendance and non-class contact with the lecturer and between student performance in the first year of university study and current academic performance and class attendance. However, there is no correlation between pre-university academic performance and current class attendance and academic performance. The study finds no gender bias in either class attendance or academic performance. Lastly, this being a course module open to students following different degree programmes, the study finds that a student’s choice of degree programme has no impact on class attendance and academic performance in this particular course module.

Abel Nyamapfene

2010-07-01

106

Does class attendance still matter?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a study on the impact of class attendance on academic performance in a second year Electronics Engineering course module with online notes and no mandatory class attendance policy. The study shows that class attendance is highly correlated to academic performance, despite the availability of online class notes. In addition, there is significant correlation between class attendance and non-class contact with the lecturer and between student performance in the first year of ...

Abel Nyamapfene

2010-01-01

107

Temperature dependence density and kinematic viscosity of petrol, bioethanol and their blends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the flow behaviour conventional petrol, bioethanol and their blends, especially E15 and E85. The temperature dependence density and kinematic viscosity of samples have been measured and modelled. The rotary rheometer has been used to the measuring temperature dependence kinematic viscosity of fuel and blends. The digital densitometer with the fuel scale has been used to the measuring temperature dependence density of fuel and blends. The range of temperature measurement has been stated from the -10 to 40 degree C. The mathematic models (polynomial and exponential function) have been created according to the general formulae. The coefficients of determination R/sup 2/ have achieved high values 0.99 for temperature dependence density and from 0.89 to 0.97 for temperature dependence kinematic viscosity. The created mathematical models could be used to the predict flow behaviour of petrol, bioethanol and their blends. (author)

108

MOTIVATION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE ENTERPRISE CONTACT CENTER PETROL D.D.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Motivation is crucial for the success of each enterprise. Rightly motivated employees need to know what encourages them toward successful work. Healthy relations, mutual respect, trust and appropriate payment for the work that is done are those factors which motivate each one of us the most to achieve the company goals. The study is divided into theoretical and practical part and talks about the motivation of employees in their company Petrol, d.d. In the theoretical part we have summ...

S?c?ernjavic?, Nina

2012-01-01

109

Performace Test and Engine Emission on Acid Oleic Oxygenated as Additives Petrol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of oxygenated oleic acid additives in standard petrol on the engine performance and the exhaust emissions. The 4-stroke 1.5 litre engine was used on the engine test bed coupled to eddy current electric dynamometer which is also connected to CADET V12 control system and exhaust gas analyser IMR2000/2000P. The oxygenated oleic acid additives used for this experiment is fixed at 0.2% by volume due to limited quantity available. Two types of test were carried out first test is with variable speed and no loads and the second test is at constant speed of 1,400 rpm with variable loads. The experimental results showed that the brake power increased by 2%, torque by 2%, brake thermal efficiency by about 7% and specific fuel consumption decreased by about 10%. The exhaust emissions analysed are carbon monoxide, (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2 and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. The result by comparing the oxygenated petrol with the standard petrol indicated that CO gas emission depend on the engine speed which decreased with increasing speed up to 1,600 rpm and increased after that speed on test without load. The CO also decreased by about 28% on the test with loads. The emission of CO2 increased by 2.7% for tests with load and by 8% for tests without loads. The NOx emission decreased by 9% for test without load and about 7% for test with load. This study indicates that engine performance is improved by adding 0.2% oxygenated additives to standard petrol.

Irfan Wahyudi

2010-10-01

110

Multicommodity formulations for the prize collecting vehicle routing problem in the petrol industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Mobile Oil Recovery (MOR) unit is a truck designed to pump marginal oil wells in a petrol field. The MOR optimization Problem (MORP) consists in optimizing both the oil extraction and the travel costs. In this article, we describe several formulations for the MORP using a single vehicle and we propose two formulations to the case where several vehicles are used. We strengthen the proposed formulations by taking advantage of the MORP characteristics, by improving the number of subtour elim...

Duhamel, Christophe; Santos, Andre?a C.; Aloise, Dario J.

2009-01-01

111

The chances for green petrol. Alternative for MTBE is ethylene tertiary butylether  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To find a useful and environment-friendly fuel is difficult. Lead and benzene already were replaced by methyl tertiary butylether (MTBE), but this fuel additive too appears to be hazardous for man and the environment. When MTBE will be banned the chances for so-called green petrol (made from biomass) are rising. A brief overview of the developments in the field of fuel additives so far is given

112

Some investigations in design of low cost variable compression ratio two stroke petrol engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Historically two stroke engine petrol engines find wide applications in construction of two wheelers worldwide, however due to stringent environmental laws enforced universally; these engines are fading in numbers. In spite of the tight norms, internationally these engines are still used in agriculture, gensets etc. Several designs of variable compression ratio two stroke engines are commercially available for analysis purpose. In this present investigation a novel method of...

Srinivas, A.; Venkatasubbaiah, G.; Rao, P. Venkateswar; Reddy, M. Penchal

2012-01-01

113

Modeling for Friction of Four Stroke Four Cylinder In-Line Petrol Engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A four stroke four cylinder in-line petrol engine is modeled to estimate various performance parameters. The solution is based on tribology and dynamics principle. The detailed parameters relating to engine friction and lubrication are computed numerically for the engine firing order 1-3-4-2. The numerical method is based on finite difference method that solves coupled Reynolds Equation and Energy Equation. Output includes the movie thickness, friction force, friction power loss and temperatu...

Mishra, P. C.

2013-01-01

114

HAM PETROL F?YATLARININ YAPAY S?N?R A?LARI ?LE TAHM?N? = CRUDE OIL PRICE FORECASTING WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Almost every sector in economy is connected with oil directly or indirectly. Consequently, the changes on petrol industry, and thus, on petrol prices create various effects on both country and world economy by means of chaining reactions turning up. For making affective plans for the future about petrol industry which has a considerably unsteady and interactive structure because of its complex dynamics, straight and confidential predictions are needed. So, classical time series analysis metho...

Demi?rkoparan, Ferhan; Tas?tan, Serkan; Kaynar, Og?uz

2010-01-01

115

Study of performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine using rice bran oil ethanol and petrol blends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, influence on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using pure rice bran oil (RBO, and its 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% blends with ethanol (ERBO and petrol (PRBO. The influence on the viscosity of the RBO with the addition of the ethanol and petrol from 200C to 700C has also been studied. The tests conducted from no load to full load of the engine with an increment of 20%of the load. The experimental test results showed that the kinematic viscosity reduced maximum by 28.3% and 31.7% with addition of ethanol and petrol respectively. The maximum brake thermal efficiency of 26.83% with ERBO2.5 and 27% with PRBO7.5 was obtained. Among the ethanol blends the minimum brake specific fuel consumption of 0.312 is observed with ERBO7.5 and among the petrol blends the minimum brake specific fuel consumption of 0.299 is observed with PRBO2.5 at full load of the engine. Lower CO emissions of 0.021 with ERBO2.5 and higher CO emissions of 0.032 observed with ERBO7.5. The CO emissions of petrol blends observed between the values of ethanol blends. The unburnt hydrocarbons increased with load in both the ethanol and petrol blends. The lower NOx emissions of 920 with ERBO2.5 and higher NOx emissions of 1045 measured with PRBO7.5. The CO2 increased to 3.72 with PRBO7.5 and reduced to 2.45 with ERBO7.5. The unused O2 increased 17.2%with ethanol blends and reduced to 13.1% with petrol blends. The smoke reduced with both the blends and lower value of 34.0% observed with PRBO7.5.

G. Venkata Subbaiah

2010-06-01

116

Reclamation of petrol oil contaminated soil by rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains for growing Withania somnifera a medicinal shrub.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, cannot be used for agricultural intents due to their toxic effect to the plants. Surfactants producing by plant growth promotory rhizobacteria (PGPR) can effectively rig the problem of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination and growth promotion on such contaminated soils. In the present study three Pseudomonas strains isolated from contaminated soil identified by 16S rRNA analysis were ascertained for PGPR as well as biosurfactants property. Biosurfactants produced by the strains were further characterized and essayed for rhamnolipids. Inoculation of the strains in petrol hydrocarbon contaminated soil and its interaction with Withania somnifera in presence of petrol oil hydrocarbons depict that the strains helped in growth promotion of Withania somnifera in petrol oil contaminated soil while rhamnolipids helped in lowering the toxicity of petrol oil. The study was found to be beneficial as the growth and antioxidant activity of Withania sominfera was enhanced. Hence the present study signifies that rhamnolipids producing PGPR strains could be a better measure for reclamation of petrol contaminated sites for growing medicinal plants. PMID:25480735

Kumar, Rajesh; Das, Amar Jyoti; Juwarkar, Asha A

2015-02-01

117

Religious Attendance as Reproductive Support  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We argue that a central function of religious attendance in the contemporary U.S. is to support a high-fertility, monogamous mating strategy. Although religious attendance is correlated with many demographic, personality, moral, and behavioral variables, we propose that sexual and family variables are at the core of many of these relationships. Numerous researchers have assumed that religious socialization causes people to feel moral reactions and engage in behaviors promoted by religious gro...

Weeden, Jason; Cohen, Adam B.; Kenrick, Douglas T.

2008-01-01

118

The role of coal, petrol and natural gas in the global ecological energy strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of coal, petrol and natural gas in the global energy balance impose a rigid international control on all harmful emissions (CO2, SO2, NOx etc.) based on extended legislation. The trends for more efficient usage of fuels are discussed from ecological and energetic point of view. The alternative introduction of natural gas in the energy sector is considered. The ways for utilization of CO2 and its recycling are discussed as well as the trends towards development of 'hydrogen' energetics. 15 refs., 2 tbs., 3 figs. (orig.)

119

The role of regulation, fiscal incentives and changes in tastes in the diffusion of unleaded petrol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyses the diffusion of unleaded petrol in the UK. Changes in the market share of unleaded fuel are the results of changes in the composition of the car stock and changes in the choice of fuel given the car stock. We find the fuel type choices have been mainly driven by changes in tastes and learning as opposed to changes in relative prices induced by fiscal incentives. However car stock composition effects dominate the diffusion process and we find that through this route regulatory changes have made major contributions to changes in the market share of unleaded fuel. (Author)

120

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PETROL GROUP WITH TWO FOREIGN COMPETITORS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

V diplomski nalogi smo naredili primerjalno analizo uspešnosti in u?inkovitosti poslovanja med slovensko energetsko družbo Petrol, avstrijsko energetsko družbo OMV AG ter angleško-nizozemsko energetsko družbo Royal Dutch Shell plc za obdobje petih let (od leta 2006 do leta 2010). S pomo?jo podatkov v temeljnih ra?unovodskih izkazih in iz njih izpeljanih kazalnikov smo analizirali premoženjsko-finan?ni položaj, poslovno in denarno uspešnost podjetij. Ugotavljamo, da je skoraj ...

Kavas?, Barbara

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Performace Test and Engine Emission on Acid Oleic Oxygenated as Additives Petrol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of oxygenated oleic acid additives in standard petrol on the engine performance and the exhaust emissions. The 4-stroke 1.5 litre engine was used on the engine test bed coupled to eddy current electric dynamometer which is also connected to CADET V12 control system and exhaust gas analyser IMR2000/2000P. The oxygenated oleic acid additives used for this experiment is fixed at 0.2% by volume due to limited quantity available. Two types...

Irfan Wahyudi; Abdul Amir Hassan Kadhum; Yusoff Ali

2010-01-01

122

Study of performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine using rice bran oil ethanol and petrol blends  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, influence on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using pure rice bran oil (RBO), and its 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% blends with ethanol (ERBO) and petrol (PRBO). The influence on the viscosity of the RBO with the addition of the ethanol and petrol from 200C to 700C has also been studied. The tests conducted from no load to full load of the engine with an increment of ...

Venkata Subbaiah, G.; Raja Gopal, K.; Durga Prasad, B.

2010-01-01

123

Station Models  

Science.gov (United States)

This project will allow users to become acquainted with station models that are found on weather maps. Students will study the various atmospheric variables that are depicted on a station model and then practice on an interactive station model program. Part 1 - Being able to read and interpret weather maps is a very important skill in meteorology. One of the most basic skills of predicting the weather is being able to interpret a station model of a given location. A station model is a bundle of information that ...

Ertl, Mr.

2007-11-03

124

An analytic study of applying Miller cycle to reduce NOx emission from petrol engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analytic investigation of applying Miller cycle to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from a petrol engine is carried out. The Miller cycle used in the investigation is a late intake valve closing version. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the cycle is presented. A comparison of the characters of Miller cycle with Otto cycle is presented. From the results of thermodynamic analyses, it can be seen that the application of Miller cycle is able to reduce the compression pressure and temperature in the cylinder at the end of compression stroke. Therefore, it lowers down the combustion temperature and NOx formation in engine cylinder. These results in a lower exhaust temperature and less NOx emissions compared with that of Otto cycle. The analytic results also show that Miller cycle ratio is a main factor to influence the combustion temperature, and then the NOx emissions and the exhaust temperature. The results from the analytic study are used to analyse and to compare with the previous experimental results. An empirical formula from the previous experimental results that showed the relation of NOx emissions with the exhaust temperature at different engine speed is presented. The results from the study showed that the application of Miller cycle may reduce NOx emissions from petrol engine

125

Emissions from a vehicle fitted to operate on either petrol or compressed natural gas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of emission products from a six-cylinder sedan car under a variety of operating conditions, before and after it has been converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel. The specific focus of the measurements was on emission levels and characteristics of ultra fine particles and the emission levels together with the emissions of gaseous pollutants for a range of operating conditions before and up to 3 months after the vehicle was converted are presented and discussed in the paper. The investigations showed that converting a petrol operating vehicle to CNG has the potential of reducing some of the emissions and thus risks, while it does not appear to have an impact on others. In particular there was no statistically significant change in the emission of particles for the vehicle operating on petrol, before the conversion, compared to the emissions for the vehicle operating on CNG, after the conversion. There was a significant lowering of emissions of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and formaldehyde when the vehicle was operated on CNG, and a reduction of global warming potential was also observed when the vehicle was run on CNG, but the later gain is only at high vehicle speeds/loads, and would thus have to be considered in view of traffic and transport models for the region (in these models vehicle speed is an important parameter). PMID:15081726

Ristovski, Z; Morawska, L; Ayoko, G A; Johnson, G; Gilbert, D; Greenaway, C

2004-05-01

126

THE CONSEQUENCES OF LEAD PETROL USE ON LEAD CONTENT IN CABBAGE ALONG THE MOTORWAY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Besides the negative ecological consequences, during the production of the motor petrol (alkyl lead as anti–knock compound, as well as the application (combustion in motor engines, there are the ecological consequences manifested by deposition of Pb in the soil beside the motorway. At the same time this is the end of the life cycle of the petrol. However, Pb enters the human consumption chain through the plants that absorb Pb from the soil, and it is also deposited in the human body. The series of analyses of the cabbage head, outer leaves and soil includes left and right sides of the motorway of each of the control points, at the distance of 1m, 2m, 5m, 10m, 100m, and 400m from the motorway, each distance on the left and right side of the motorway. The results are shown in mg Pb/kg of the sample. The quantity of Pb shows decreasing effect when the distance from the motorway, is increased.

M. Matavuly

2006-06-01

127

Induction of microsomal drug metabolism in man and in the rat by exposure to petroleum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the effect of petroleum exposure on the activity of hepatic mixed function oxidase enzymes, salivary elimination kinetics of antipyrine were determined in 19 petrol station attendants and compared with 19 controls. Antipyrine half life in petrol station attendants was shorter than in controls. Microsomal preparations were prepared from six male Porton rats exposed to petrol vapour and six control rats maintained under the same conditions without exposure to petrol vapour. The rates of oxidative metabolism of antipyrine, aminopyrine, ethylmorphine, aniline, and benzo(a)pyrene were all increased by more than 45% in the petrol-exposed rats. The results indicate that petrol vapour is a moderately potent inducer of mixed function oxidase activity in rats, and that occupational exposure to petroleum may result in enhanced microsomal drug metabolism.

Harman, A.W.; Frewin, D.B.; Priestly, B.G.

1981-02-01

128

Effectiveness of leaded petrol phase-out in Tianjin, China based on the aerosol lead concentration and isotope abundance ratio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phase-out of leaded petrol has been a measure widely used to reduce atmospheric lead pollution. Since the 1980s, China began to promote unleaded petrol. In order to assess the effectiveness of the measure an isotope fingerprint technique was applied for aerosol samples in the city of Tianjin. After dilute acid leaching, the lead concentration and isotope abundance ratios were determined for 123 samples collected in Tianjin during eight years (1994-2001). The 206Pb / 207Pb ratio was lower in summer, when coal combustion emission was low and vehicle exhaust became more important, indicating that the 206Pb / 207Pb ratio of leaded petrol in Tianjin is lower than that of aerosol samples. The 206Pb / 207Pb ratio gradually increased from 1994 to 2001, a trend that suggests that the contribution from vehicle exhaust was diminishing. Overall, the measurements matched well with national statistical data of leaded and unleaded petrol production. After the nationwide switch to unleaded gasoline, comprehensive control measures are urgently needed to reduce air lead pollution in China, as aerosol lead reduced slightly but remains at a relatively high level

129

Petrol governance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the limits of the earth`s carrying capacity come to show, increasing pressure is brought to bear on private enterprise to behave in more environmentally responsible ways. One of the rare studies, that not only focuses on the enterprise level of analyse but at the industrial chain of production is Integrated Production Chain Management (IPCM), which postulates that the chain needs to be modified in its entirety. IPCM is not just a technical coordination problem but also a organizational problem in which different interests of actors play a role. These interests must be analysed. The present article will not go into the technical bottlenecks but will go into organizational bottlenecks that are the result of conflicts of interests. The choice between different technological options is not seen as a merely `technical` one but rather as a choice between different socio-technical (sub)systems. This choice is made in an interaction process in a network of various actors, each with their own perceptions and their own interests, in situations in which information is far from conclusive. (author)

Taminau, Y.; Vliet, M. van [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Public Management

1995-12-31

130

Impact of Organic Solvents and Environmental Pollutants on the Physiological Function in Petrol Filling Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long term exposure to solvents and air pollutants can lead to deleterious effects on respiratory, haematological and thyroid functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic exposure to solvents like benzene and pollutants like carbon monoxide in petrol filling workers had adverse effect on blood parameters, thyroid and respiratory functions. The study group consisted of 42 healthy, non-smoker petrol filling workers, aged 20-50 years with work (exposure duration from 2-15 years while 36 healthy subjects of the same age group served as controls. Physical examination and measurement of pulmonary functions by portable electronic spirometer were performed. Complete blood pictures (CBP were determined by normal haematology lab procedure and hormones by Chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA light absorption techniques. There was a significant decrease in the lung volumes and capacities; the restrictive pattern was more prevalent in the workers when compared with the control groups. But in the workers exposed for long period (more than 10 years the restrictive pattern was changed to mixed pattern. A significant increase in haemoglobin (Hb (>16 mg % and red blood cells (RBC (5.4 million cells/mm3 were observed in workers with longer period of exposure when compared with the control subjects (14.483 mg% and 4.83 million cells/mm3 for Hb and RBC respectively. White blood cell count except eosinophils and platelets were significantly lower in workers compared to controls. Marked increase in the tetra iodothyroinine (T4, free thyroxine (T4F level and significant decrease in thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH, and tri-iodothyronine (T3 were observed between long term exposed and non – exposed groups. Till now researchers focused only on the effect of solvents in workers professionally exposed to solvents without considering the effect of concomittant air pollution. The result obtained from present study indicates that there is a significant toxic effect of solvents and air pollutants on workers exposed for longer duration. Improved detection and prevention technologies are needed to answer environmentally related health questions for petrol filling workers.

V. Devender Reddy

2008-09-01

131

Comparative performance of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on the biofuel kinematical viscosity, brake mean effective pressure (bmep), brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a diesel engine and its brake thermal efficiency (bte). Addition into RO from 2.5 to 7.5 vol% of ethanol and petrol its viscosity at ambient temperature of 20 deg. C diminishes by 9.2-28.3% and 14.1-31.7%, respectively. Heating up to the temperature of 60 deg. C the viscosity of pure RO, blends ERO2.5-7.5 and PRO2.5-10 further diminishes 4.2, 3.9-3.8 and 3.9-3.6 times. At 1800 min-1 speed, the maximum brake mean effective pressure (bmep) higher up to 1.6% comparing with that of pure RO (0.77 MPa) ensure three agent blends EPRO5-7.5, whereas at rated 2200 min-1 speed, the bmep higher by 5.6% can be obtained when fuelling the engine with blend PRO2.5. Brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) at maximum torque (240.2 g/kWh) and rated power (234.0 g/kWh) is correspondingly lower by 3.4% and 5.5% in comparison with pure RO when biofuel blends EPRO5 and PRO2.5 are used. The biggest brake thermal efficiency at maximum torque (0.40thermal efficiency at maximum torque (0.40-0.41) and rated power (0.42-0.43) relative to that of RO (0.39) suggest blends PRO2.5 and EPRO5-7.5, respectively

132

Yearly measurements of blood lead in Swedish children since 1978: an update focusing on the petrol lead free period 1995–2001  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aims: To assess blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) in children not exposed to petrol lead. In a previous paper we reported the results for the period 1978–94 (2441 children measured). A substantial decrease of B-Pb was found, which reflected a beneficial effect of gradual banning of petrol lead. Since 1994, petrol sold in Sweden has not contained lead. Methods: In the south of Sweden, each year from 1995 to 2001, B-Pb was measured in 329 boys and 345 girls, aged ...

Stro?mberg, Ulf; Lundh, Thomas; Schu?tz, A.; Skerfving, Staffan

2003-01-01

133

Price setting under cost uncertainty and menu costs - the case of the Danish petrol market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper derives the optimal pricing policy for a firm facing menu costs and stochastic production cost. The pricing policy is a boundary pricing policy and numerical comparative static analysis shows how exogenous parameters - the drift and variance of the production cost, the discount factor and the menu costs - affect the boundaries. Analyzing daily data for the Danish petrol price illustrates that a boundary pricing policy indeed has been followed for the period 1988-1992, with occasional shifts in both the desired mark-up and more importantly in the width of the bounds. While the theoretical model can say nothing of the shifts in desired mark-up, changes in the width of the bounds are found to be consistent with the implications of the model. (au)

134

Some investigations in design of low cost variable compression ratio two stroke petrol engine  

CERN Document Server

Historically two stroke engine petrol engines find wide applications in construction of two wheelers worldwide, however due to stringent environmental laws enforced universally; these engines are fading in numbers. In spite of the tight norms, internationally these engines are still used in agriculture, gensets etc. Several designs of variable compression ratio two stroke engines are commercially available for analysis purpose. In this present investigation a novel method of changing the compression ratio is proposed, applied, studied and analyzed. The clearance volume of the engine is altered by introducing a metal plug into the combustion chamber. This modification permitted to have four different values of clearance value keeping in view of the studies required the work is brought out as two sections. The first part deals with the design, modification, engine fabrication and testing at different compression ratios for the study of performance of the engine. The second part deals with the combustion in engi...

Srinivas, A; rao, P Venkateswar; Reddy, M Penchal

2012-01-01

135

Cost effectiveness of introducing a new European evaporative emissions test procedure for petrol vehicles  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaporative emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) arise from the vehicle's fuel system due to changes in ambient and vehicle temperatures, and contribute to urban smog. This paper presents an economic analysis of the societal costs and benefits of implementing a revised European evaporative emission test procedure for petrol vehicles under four scenarios for the period 2015-2040. The paper concludes that the most cost-effective option is the implementation of an aggressive purging strategy over 48 h and improved canister durability (scenario 2+). The average net benefit of implementing this scenario is €146,709,441 at a 6% discount rate. Per vehicle benefits range from €6-9 but when fuel savings benefits are added, total benefits range from €13-18. This is compared to average additional cost per vehicle of €9.

Haq, Gary; Martini, Giorgio; Mellios, Giorgos

2014-10-01

136

Modeling for Friction of Four Stroke Four Cylinder In-Line Petrol Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A four stroke four cylinder in-line petrol engine is modeled to estimate various performance parameters. The solution is based on tribology and dynamics principle. The detailed parameters relating to engine friction and lubrication are computed numerically for the engine firing order 1-3-4-2. The numerical method is based on finite difference method that solves coupled Reynolds Equation and Energy Equation. Output includes the movie thickness, friction force, friction power loss and temperature rise in the ring liner conjunction in all four cylinders. Transient regime of ring liner lubrication isaddressed while the same changes from hydrodynamic to mixed in an engine cycle. Momentary cessation near the top and bottom dead center that causes boundary interaction is analyzed through asperity contact. The non - Newtonian behavior of lubricant film due to pressure and temperature is addresses using viscosity -pressure- temperature inter relationship.

P.C. Mishra

2013-09-01

137

Standard 6: Attend to precision  

Science.gov (United States)

This web page from the Inside Mathematics initiative aims to guide and support educators in understanding the sixth CCSS Practice Standard. Instances of teachers engaging students to be mathematically proficient with the capacity to "attend to precision" are described in Classroom Observations and illustrated in video excerpts of fifth grade students discussing how a rule should be written to describe a pattern. The video clips are excerpts from public lesson: "Numerical Patterning" (cataloged separately).

Austin, The C.; Centre, Shell

2012-01-01

138

Attendance Control System based on RFID technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Kazakhstan, checking students' attendance is one of the important issues for universities, because many universities evaluate students attendance and while giving the final grade, professors consider their total number of appearances on classes during the whole semester. This brings to the idea of having some tool to control students attendance. Some universities prefer to use paper sheet for controlling attendance, whereas some universities prefer to use paper sheet for checking students'...

Nurbek Saparkhojayev; Selim Guvercin

2012-01-01

139

Successful Attendance Policies and Programs. Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

What steps can be taken to assure that High School students have the best attendance possible? It is commonly believed and well supported by research that students who attend school regularly are more successful than those who do not. The challenge for high schools is to design and implement attendance policies and programs that monitor,…

Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012

2012-01-01

140

Reduced risk of acute poisoning in Australian cattle from used motor oils after introduction of lead-free petrol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead (Pb) poisoning of cattle has been relatively common in Australia and sump oil has been identified as an important cause of Pb toxicity for cattle because they seem to have a tendency to drink it. Lead-free petrol has been available in Australia since 1975, so the aim of this study was to assess the current risk to cattle from drinking used automotive oils. Sump or gear box oil was collected from 56 vehicles being serviced. The low levels of Pb found suggest that the removal of leaded petrol from the Australian market as a public health measure has benefited cattle by eliminating the risk of acute poisoning from used engine oil. PMID:20553575

Burren, B G; Reichmann, K G; McKenzie, R A

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

World future prospects of natural gas industry and research programs on natural gas led by Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper gives a general overview on future prospects of world natural gas industry till 2020. In a first part, statistical data on energy demand, natural gas resources, natural gas and liquefied natural gas production and transport, supply, trade, costs and prices are offered. In the second part, the paper describes briefly research programs led by Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) in several fields: exploration and underground storage, production and transport, treatment and liquefaction, gas uses. 4 figs., 2 tabs

142

Th effectiveness of soot removal techniques for the recovery of fingerprints on glass fire debris in petrol bomb cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increased use of petrol bombs as an act of vengeance in Malaysia has heightened awareness for the need of research relating physical evidence found at the crime scene to the perpetrator of the crime. A study was therefore carried out to assess the effectiveness of soot removal techniques on glass fire debris without affecting the fingerprints found on the evidence. Soot was removed using three methods which were brushing, 2 % NaOH solution and tape lifting. Depending on the visibility of prints recovered, prints which were visible after soot removal were lifted directly while prints that were not visible were subjected to enhancement. Glass microscope slides were used in laboratory experiment and subjected to control burn for the formation of soot. Soot was later removed following enhancement of the prints over time (within 1 day, within 2 days and after 2 days). While in simulated petrol bomb ground experiment, petrol bombs were hurled in glass bottles and the fragments were collected. Favorable results were obtained in varying degrees using each soot removal methods. In laboratory testing, brushing and 2 % NaOH solution revealed fingerprints that were visible after removal of excess soot and were lifted directly. As for tape lifting technique, some prints were visible and were successfully lifted while those that were not visible were subjected to super glue fuming for effective fingerprint identification. (author)

143

Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within ...

Mackinnon, G.; Mackenzie, A. B.; Cook, G. T.; Pulford, I. D.; Duncan, H. J.; Scott, E. M.

2011-01-01

144

Petrol contaminated groundwater treatment with air-stripper in Balassagyarmat, Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater is a common environmental problem in Hungary. Leakage of underground storage tanks, pipe break or illegal tapping as well as lorry accidents can be mentioned as main reasons. MEGATERRA Ltd. elaborated, adopted and tested several groundwater clean-up methods. These methods are based on detailed survey and investigation, sampling and analysis, delineation of contaminated groundwater, risk assessment, establishment of monitoring wells, pumping tests and remediation action plan. One of these methods was implemented by MEGATERRA Ltd. in Balassagyarmat, Hungary. Contamination source was a 10 m3 vol. simple wall underground fuel-storage tank, which had been emptied. When the remediation started in April 1998, the petrol had already been accumulated on the ground water table forming a 5-7 m wide and 10-15 m long plume being expanded to SSE-NNW direction. The area of the dissolved hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater-body was 1 000 m2 and its concentration reached up to 30-40 mg/l TPH. The free-phase hydrocarbon layer was 10 cm thick. For the remediation of contaminated groundwater MEGATERRA Ltd. applied pump and treat method, namely groundwater pumping using extraction well, skimming of free-phase hydrocarbon, stripping of the contaminated ground water in air-stripper tower and draining of the treated groundwater into a drainage ditch. In the centre of the plume we established an extraction well with 300 mm diameter i an extraction well with 300 mm diameter in a 500 mm borehole. Peristaltic skimmer pump was used inside the extraction well to remove the free phase petrol from the ground water surface.Because of the intense volatility of the pollutant we applied aeration (stripping) technology. The extracted contaminated groundwater was cleaned in air-stripper equipment being able to eliminate efficiently the volatile pollutants from the water. The aeration tower is a compact cylindrical shaped column with 650 mm in diameter. Its height depends on the pollutant's type The extracted contaminated groundwater was conducted to the top of the tower and sprinkled into the air- stripper. A ventilator was connected to the bottom of the stripper, which blew the air with high pressure against the water stream. During the operation 4 544 m3 groundwater was pumped out, cleaned, drained and 110 l of free phase hydrocarbon was skimmed

145

Observation Station  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

Rutherford, Heather

2011-01-01

146

Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds-0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h-1. Emission factors and their relative values between the two fuel types together with a statistical significance for any difference were estimated for each parameter. In general, LPG was found to be a 'cleaner' fuel, although in most cases, the differences were not statistically significant owing to the large variations between emissions from different vehicles. The particle number emission factors ranged from 1011 to 1013 km-1 and was over 70% less with LPG compared to ULP. Corresponding differences in particle mass emission factor between the two fuels were small and ranged from the order of 10 ?g km-1 at 40 to about 1000 ?g km-1 at 100 km h-1. The count median particle diameter (CMD) ranged from 20 to 35 nm and was larger with LPG than with ULP in all modes except the idle mode. Carbon dioxide emission factors ranged from about 300 to 400 g km-1 at 40 km h-1, falling with increasing speed to about 200 g km-1 at 100 km h-1. At all speeds, the values were 10% to 18% greater with ULP than with LPGith LPG

147

Specifying Complex Systems in Object-Z: A Case Study of Petrol Supply Systems  

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Full Text Available As modern complex systems become increasingly large, sophisticated, feature-rich and data-intensive, people have recognized the importance of precisely and unambiguously specifying them with formal methods for a number of years. This paper advocates the use of Object-Z, a formal specification language, in the description of complex systems. Object-Z is an extension to the Z language to facilitate specification in an object-oriented style. The notation Object-Z builds on Z's strengths in modeling complex data and algorithms, and on its new class structuring's strengths in succinctly specifying the various relationships and communication between objects in a large system. In detail, first we describe informally the syntax and semantics of Object-Z, highlighting those features that facilitate decomposing a large system into a collection of interacting objects and thus separating concerns. Then, we demonstrate the use of Object-Z by presenting a case study of a petrol supply system, illustrating how the system runs by communicating the constituent objects. Finally, we discuss several issues we encountered in this exercise, which may serve as feedback to the development of Object-Z.

Yangping Li

2014-07-01

148

Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds--0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h(-1). Emission factors and their relative values between the two fuel types together with a statistical significance for any difference were estimated for each parameter. In general, LPG was found to be a 'cleaner' fuel, although in most cases, the differences were not statistically significant owing to the large variations between emissions from different vehicles. The particle number emission factors ranged from 10(11) to 10(13) km(-1) and was over 70% less with LPG compared to ULP. Corresponding differences in particle mass emission factor between the two fuels were small and ranged from the order of 10 microg km(-1) at 40 to about 1000 microg km(-1) at 100 km h(-1). The count median particle diameter (CMD) ranged from 20 to 35 nm and was larger with LPG than with ULP in all modes except the idle mode. Carbon dioxide emission factors ranged from about 300 to 400 g km(-1) at 40 km h(-1), falling with increasing speed to about 200 g km(-1) at 100 km h(-1). At all speeds, the values were 10% to 18% greater with ULP than with LPG. PMID:15919531

Ristovski, Z D; Jayaratne, E R; Morawska, L; Ayoko, G A; Lim, M

2005-06-01

149

Hydrogen Filling Station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4:

Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

2010-02-24

150

Designing a heat pipe to improve the exhaust emissions from petrol engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The national engineering Laboratory and the Shell research laboratory have co-operated in applying the heat pipe to the problem of exhaust emission from petrol engine. It is known that the carbon monoxide CO, un-burnt hydrocarbons (HxCy) and oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) content of the exhaust will vary with air to fuel ratio as shown in figure (1), in a conventional car engine the maximum efficiency is achieved at 15:1 and maximum power is obtained at 12:1. It's known that as the air fuel ratio increases, the CO content decreases and HxCy, NOx go through a minimum and maximum respectively. A considerable important in both CO and NOx content could be chivied by selecting a very weak mixture, but this not possible in a standard engine carburetor system due to the ignition difficulty, because the fuel is not fully vaporized, and because the fuel is not distributed equally between the cylinders and the vapor content is not as high as it should be due to the pressure of liquid fuel. This problem could be solved by designing a heat pipe that can transferring a certain quantities of heat from the exhaust to the induction manifold at the carburetor outlet as shown in figure (2). Under this condition a mixture as lean as 22:1 will ignite with out difficulty. In this paper, a complete design of heat pipe is carried out, taking into account the necessary criteria to decide various geometrical parameters. Th decide various geometrical parameters. The design has been carried out using basic formulas in thermodynamics, heat transfer and physics. The result of this design have been checked for various practical limits. (author)

151

On board emission and fuel consumption measurement campaign on petrol-driven passenger cars  

Science.gov (United States)

Realistic emission and fuel consumption rates of petrol-driven cars were determined by on-the-road experiments in 1995. A validated, in-house developed, on-board measuring system was used. Six three-way catalyst (TWC) cars and one carburetted non-catalyst car were measured. The effects of road type, driving behaviour and cold start on CO, HC and NO x emissions and fuel consumption were analysed. In real traffic situations, emissions for TWC cars were found to be at least 70% lower than for the non-catalyst car. For TWC cars, emissions decreased across the board from city to rural and motorway traffic. Without a catalyst, motorway traffic resulted in the highest NO x emissions. Compared to normal driving, aggressive driving gave emissions which were up to four times higher. Except for NO x, calm driving resulted in lower emissions still. Comparable fuel consumption rates were obtained from normal and calm driving. Those from aggressive driving were higher, by as much as 40% in city traffic. Cold starts resulted in significantly higher CO and HC emission values than hot starts. These differences were less pronounced for NO x. Emissions from TWC cars were higher than generally expected, compared to the European emission limit values (91/441/EEC) and the emission factors used in Flanders and the Netherlands (Klein,1993) for the national emission inventories. Low-emitting cars during the emission test on a chassis dynamometer, as prescribed by the 91/441/EEC directive, did not necessarily give low emissions in real traffic situations.

De Vlieger, I.

152

Eski Sovyet Ülkelerinde Cari Hesap Dengesi Belirleyicileri ve Petrol Zenginli?inin Neden Oldu?u Farkl?l?klar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bu çal??mada eski Sovyetler Birli?i ülkelerinde cari hesap dengesinin temel belirleyicilerinin ara?t?r?lmas? amaçlanm??t?r.Bu amaçla, birlik üyesi on ülkenin, petrol-do?algaz zenginli?i bak?m?ndan farkl? alt gruplar?n?n 1995-2010 dönemine ait y?ll?k verileri ve panel sabit etkiler yöntemi kullan?lm??t?r. Tahmin sonuçlar?, tüm ülke gruplar?nda yat?r?m art???n?n, finansal geli?menin ve genç nüfus oran? art???n?n cari hesap dengesini negatif yönde etkiledi?ine ili?kin bulgular sunmaktad?r. Bulgular petrol ve do?algaz bak?m?ndan zengin olmayan ülkelerde cari hesap dengesinin atalete ve yüksek sürdürülebilirlik özelli?ine sahip oldu?unu desteklemektedir. Fakat petrol ve do?algaz bak?m?ndan zengin ülkeler için, enerji fiyat? dalgalanmalar?n?n etkisini destekler ?ekilde cari hesap dengesi ataleti ve sürdürülebilirli?i söz konusu de?ildir. Bu ülkelerde, ticaret haddinde ve do?al kaynak gelirlerindeki de?i?meler cari hesap dengesi de?i?melerinin en önemli belirleyicisidir. Bunlar?n yan? s?ra, ikiz aç?klar hipotezi do?al kaynak bak?m?ndan zengin olmayan ülkeler için desteklenmektedir. Ayr?ca, tahmin sonuçlar?, ara?t?rma konusu ülkelerde cari hesap dengesinin konjonktür kar??t? özellikler ta??mad???n? ve geli?menin a?amalar? hipotezinin geçerli olmad???n? gösterir.

Seymur A?AYEV

2013-01-01

153

Is there an asymmetry in the response of diesel and petrol prices to crude oil price changes? Evidence from New Zealand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines how pre-tax petrol and diesel prices in New Zealand respond to changes in crude oil prices using an asymmetric error correction model. Our results show that oil companies adjust diesel prices upwards faster than they adjust them downwards, and the difference is statistically significant. However we find no statistical evidence for an asymmetry in the adjustment of petrol prices even though the magnitude of estimated coefficients suggests a faster response to rising prices. As diesel pricing is not as competitive as petrol pricing, calls for further government actions and monitoring of the oil market may be justified. Our findings also have important implications for the conduct of monetary policy as the pass-through of crude oil price changes can affect cost-push inflation. (author)

154

Ultra-fast selective sensing of ethanol and petrol using microwave-range metamaterial complementary split-ring resonators  

Science.gov (United States)

An extremely compact metamaterial microstrip sensor based on complementary split-ring-resonators (CSRRs) has been fabricated for chemical sensing. This device exhibits a resonance with high rejection at 4.5 GHz, which demonstrates concomitant variations when exposed to liquids of various permittivity values. The resonance frequency of CSRR is sensitive to the change in nearby dielectric material. The sensing of petrol shows a shift in frequency with a sharp dip in transmission, while, with ethanol, the frequency shift is accompanied with increase in the power of the signal. The ultra-fast reversibility and repeatability offers good headway towards hybrid fuel sensing applications.

Rawat, Vaishali; Dhobale, Sandip; Kale, S. N.

2014-10-01

155

Comparative Effects of Petrol and Diesel on Enzyme Activity in Tympanotonus fuscatus after Sublethal Exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pollution of the aquatic environment by petroleum and its products is common the world over. This study is aimed at examining sublethal effects of petrol and diesel on enzymes in Tympanotonus fuscatus namely: Aspartate Transaminase (AST) (E.C. 2.6.1.1), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) (E.C. 2.6.2.2) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) (E.C. 3.1.3.1) activity after exposure. The periwinkles were exposed to 10.40, 15.60, 21.00, 26.00 ml L-1 and a control. The organs were removed o...

Edori, E. S.; Festus, C.; Edori, O. S.

2014-01-01

156

Eski Sovyet Ülkelerinde Cari Hesap Dengesi Belirleyicileri ve Petrol Zenginli?inin Neden Oldu?u Farkl?l?klar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bu çal??mada eski Sovyetler Birli?i ülkelerinde cari hesap dengesinin temel belirleyicilerinin ara?t?r?lmas? amaçlanm??t?r.Bu amaçla, birlik üyesi on ülkenin, petrol-do?algaz zenginli?i bak?m?ndan farkl? alt gruplar?n?n 1995-2010 dönemine ait y?ll?k verileri ve panel sabit etkiler yöntemi kullan?lm??t?r. Tahmin sonuçlar?, tüm ülke gruplar?nda yat?r?m art???n?n, finansal geli?menin ve genç nüfus oran? art???n?n cari hesap dengesini negatif ...

Ag?ayev, Seymur

2013-01-01

157

FACE RECOGNITION BASED ATTENDANCE MARKING SYSTEM?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Automatic face recognition (AFR technologies have seen dramatic improvements in performance over the past years, and such systems are now widely used for security and commercial applications. An automated system for human face recognition in a real time background for a college to mark the attendance of their employees. So Smart Attendance using Real Time Face Recognition is a real world solution which comes with day to day activities of handling employees. The task is very difficult as the real time background subtraction in an image is still a challenge (6. To detect real time human face are used and a simple fast Principal Component Analysis has used to recognize the faces detected with a high accuracy rate. The matched face is used to mark attendance of the employee.Our system maintains the attendance records of employees automatically. Manual entering of attendance in logbooks becomes a difficult task and it also wastes the time. So we designed an efficient module that comprises of face recognition to manage the attendance records of employees. Our module enrols the staff’s face (3. This enrolling is a onetime process and their face will be stored in the database. During enrolling of face we require a system since it is a onetime process. You can have your own roll number as your employee id which will be unique for each employee. The presence of each employee will be updated in a database. The results showed improved performance over manual attendance management system. Attendance is marked after employee identification. This product gives much more solutions with accurate results in user interactive manner rather than existing attendance and leave management systems.

K.Senthamil Selvi

2014-02-01

158

Advanced introduction of cleaner petrol and diesel in the Netherlands. An analysis of the emission potential and cost effectiveness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2005 the European Union is to introduce tighter environmental standards for road vehicle fuels. The emissions of new passenger vehicles, delivery vans and heavy good vehicles will then have to satisfy even more stringent criteria, as will petrol and diesel fuel composition, the sulphur content of which must then be down from respectively 150 and 350 parts per million to 50 ppm. In the case of petrol, the maximum permitted aromatics content is also to be reduced, from 42% to 35%. There are two motives for introducing tighter environmental criteria for vehicle fuels. In the first place it will have the direct effect of immediately reducing the noxious emissions of all road vehicles running on these fuels, because of improvements to the combustion process. In addition, there will also be a significant indirect effect. Availability of low-sulphur fuels opens the door for several new vehicle technologies. In the case of petrol vehicles it permits introduction of direct-injection (DI) lean-burn engines with catalytic NOx absorption. In diesel vehicles new types of catalytic systems can be introduced, including 'particle traps' to reduce PM10 emissions. These technologies require low-sulphur fuels to be effective. An environmental downside of these cleaner fuels is that refinery production is more energy-intensive. EU member states are free to support implementation of these 'cleaner' fuels at an earlier date if they so desire. The objective of the present study is to proe objective of the present study is to provide background data for a possible decision on accelerated introduction of these fuels in the Netherlands. The aim of this study is to investigate the environmental effects and economic costs of accelerated introduction in the Netherlands of 'cleaner' fuels satisfying the EU's '2005 standards'. Two possible dates have been considered for earlier implementation: November 2001 and June 2003. November 2001 has been taken because this is when Germany will be introducing a tax incentive for low-sulphur petrol and diesel fuels. June 2003 lies exactly halfway between this date and January 2005. It has been assumed that the 'cleaner' fuels will immediately capture 100% of the market. Diesel and petrol have been examined separately, given the fact that little synergy will be created through simultaneous introduction of the two 'clean' fuels. The direct environmental effects of these fuels on the existing vehicle fleet have been calculated using a model for the European Auto-Oil programme updated by the TNO Road Vehicles Research Unit to account for the most recent developments. The indirect environmental effects have been estimated using literature data and TNO expertise. The cost estimates are based on information provided by the oil industry and from the literature, augmented where necessary by our own calculations. Give the substantial uncertainties surrounding much of this data, in relevant cases we have made both pessimistic and optimistic estimates. By assigning a monetary value to the environmental effects these can be compared with costs, enabling the cost-effectiveness of accelerated introduction to be calculated. 37 refs

159

Radio Frequency Identification Based Wireless Attendance System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, there have been rise in the number of applications based on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID systems and have been successfully applied to different areas as diverse as transportation, health-care, agriculture, and hospitality industry to name a few. RFID technology facilitates automatic wireless identification using electronic passive and active tags with suitable readers. In this paper, an attempt is made to solve recurrent lecture attendance monitoring problem in developing countries using RFID technology. The application of RFID to student attendance monitoring as developed and deployed in this study is capable of eliminating time wasted during manual collection of attendance and an opportunity for the educational administrators to capture face-to-face classroom statistics for allocation of appropriate attendance scores and for further managerial decisions.

Mistry Tapasvee

2014-03-01

160

Attendance Control System based on RFID technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Kazakhstan, checking students' attendance is one of the important issues for universities, because many universities evaluate students attendance and while giving the final grade, professors consider their total number of appearances on classes during the whole semester. This brings to the idea of having some tool to control students attendance. Some universities prefer to use paper sheet for controlling attendance, whereas some universities prefer to use paper sheet for checking students' attendance and after this, fill out these information into a system manually, like Kazakh-British Technical University does. However, this is not an efficient way since there will be spent much of time for calling students names and putting marks like presence or absence if the class is a lecture class, and in this class at least 5 groups are presented. Moreover, some students may call his/her friend as presence even though this student is currently absent. After thinking all these issues, authors of the following research paper decided to create a system that makes easier to check students attendance automatically, and this system is implemented in Suleyman Demirel University, Kazakhstan. Actually, this is the first time when such kind of system is being used in educational system of Kazakhstan. The system is based on RFID technology, and in this paper, details of this system are presented.

Nurbek Saparkhojayev

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Epidemiology of frequent attenders: a 3-year historic cohort study comparing attendance, morbidity and prescriptions of one-year and persistent frequent attenders  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners spend a disproportionate amount of time on frequent attenders. So far, trials on the effect of interventions on frequent attenders have shown negative results. However, these trials were conducted in short-term frequent attenders. It would be more reasonable to target intervention at persistent frequent attenders. Typical characteristics of persistent frequent attenders, as opposed to 1-year frequent attenders and non-frequent attenders, may generate hypotheses regarding modifiable factors on which new randomized trials may be designed. Methods We used the data of all 28,860 adult patients from 5 primary healthcare centers. Frequent attenders were patients whose attendance rate ranked in the (age and sex adjusted top 10 percent during 1 year (1-year frequent attenders or 3 years (persistent frequent attenders. All other patients on the register over the 3-year period were referred to as non-frequent attenders. The lists of medical problems coded by the GP using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC were used to assess morbidity. First, we determined which proportion of 1-year frequent attenders was still a frequent attender during the next two consecutive years and calculated the GPs' workload for these patients. Second, we compared morbidity and number of prescriptions for non-frequent attenders, 1-year frequent attenders and persistent frequent attenders. Results Of all 1-year frequent attenders, 15.4% became a persistent frequent attender equal to 1.6% of all patients. The 1-year frequent attenders (3,045; 10.6% were responsible for 39% of the face-to-face consultations; the 470 patients who would become persistent frequent attenders (1.6% were responsible for 8% of all consultations in 2003. Persistent frequent attenders presented more social problems, more psychiatric problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms, but also more chronic somatic diseases (especially diabetes. They received more prescriptions for psychotropic medication. Conclusion One out of every seven 1-year-frequent attenders (15.4% becomes a persistent frequent attender. Compared with non-frequent attenders, and 1-year frequent attenders, persistent frequent attenders consume more health care and are diagnosed not only with more somatic diseases but especially more social problems, psychiatric problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms.

ter Riet Gerben

2009-01-01

162

Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within 10 m of a motorway and 3 m of a minor road. Overall, the dominant source of Pb was historical emissions from nearby industrial areas. There was no discernible change in concentration or isotopic composition of Pb in surface soil or vegetation over the decade since the ban on the sale of leaded petrol. There was an order of magnitude decrease in Pb concentrations in road dust over the study period, but petrol Pb persisted at up to 43% of the total Pb concentration in 2010. Similar concentrations and spatial distributions of petrol Pb and non petrol Pb in vegetation in both 2001 and 2010, with enhanced concentrations near roads, suggested that redistribution of previously deposited material has operated continuously over that period, maintaining a transfer pathway of Pb into the biosphere. The results for vegetation and soil transects near minor roads provided evidence of a non petrol Pb source associated with roads/traffic, but surface soil samples from the vicinity of a motorway f samples from the vicinity of a motorway failed to show evidence of such a source. - Highlights: ? A 10 year study of Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in farmland. ? Soil and vegetation showed no systematic decrease in Pb concentrations over 10 years. ? Road dust Pb concentrations fell from 117 mg kg-1 in 2001 to 14.2 mg kg-1 in 2010. ? Enhancement of petrol Pb only within 10m of a motorway and 3m of a minor road.

163

Intermittent attendance at breast cancer screening  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. To determine why women skip rounds and factors influencing return of previous non attenders (PNAs to breast screening. Design and methods. Retrospective, quantitative, structured questionnaire posted to 2500 women. First PNAs did not attend their first screening appointment in 2007/2008 but then attended in 2010; First Controls first attended in 2010 without missed previous appointments. Women who attended screening in 2006 or earlier then skipped a round but returned in 2010 were Subsequent PNAs; Subsequent Controls attended all appointments.Results. More First Controls than First PNAs had family history of cancer (72.7% vs 63.2%; P=0.003; breast cancer (31.3% vs 24.8%; P=0.04. More PNAs lived rurally; more First PNAs had 3rd level education (33.2% vs 23.6%; P=0.002 and fewer had private insurance than First Controls (57.7% vs 64.8%; P=0.04. Excellent/good health was reported in First PNAs and First Controls (82.9% vs 83.2%, but fewer Subsequent PNAs than Subsequent Controls (72.7% vs 84.9%; P=0.000. Common considerations at time of missed appointment were had mammogram elsewhere (33% First PNA and postponed to next round (16% First PNA, 18.8% Subsequent PNA. Considerations when returning to screening were similar for First PNAs and Subsequent PNAs: I am older (35.4%, 29.6%, I made sure I remembered (29%, 23.6%, could reschedule (17.6%, 20.6%, illness of more concern (16.5%, 19%. More First PNAs stated my family/friends advised (22.3% vs 15.2% or my GP (12.6% vs 4.6% advised me to attend, heard good things about BreastCheck (28.8% vs 13.6%.Conclusions. Intermittent attenders do not fit socio-demographic patterns of non-attenders; GP recommendation and word of mouth were important in women’s return to screening. Fear and anxiety seem to act as a screening facilitator rather than an inhibitor.

Patricia Fitzpatrick

2013-09-01

164

Improving cervical cancer screening attendance in Finland.  

Science.gov (United States)

High attendance is essential to cervical cancer screening results. Attendance in the Finnish program is currently at 70%, but extensive opportunistic screening occurs beside the organized. A shift from opportunistic to organized screening is imperative to optimize the costs and impact of screening and minimize potential harms. We evaluated the effect of reminder letters (1st reminder) and self-sampling test (2nd reminder) on program attendance. The study population consisted of 31,053 screening invitees in 31 Finnish municipalities. 8,284 non-attendees after one invitation received a reminder letter and 4,536 further non-attendees were offered a self-sampling option. Socioeconomic factors related to participation were clarified by combining screening data to data from Statistics Finland. Reminder letters increased participation from 72.6% (95% CI 72.1, 73.1) to 79.2% (95% CI 78.8, 79.7) and self-sampling further to 82.2% (95% CI 81.8, 82.7). Reminder letters with scheduled appointments resulted in higher increase than open invitations (10 vs. 6%). Screening of original non-attendees increased the yield of CIN3+ lesions by 24%. Non-attendance was associated with young age, immigrant background, lower education level and having never been married. We showed that a total attendance of well over 80% can be achieved within an organized program when the invitational protocol is carefully arranged. PMID:25178683

Virtanen, Anni; Anttila, Ahti; Luostarinen, Tapio; Malila, Nea; Nieminen, Pekka

2015-03-15

165

The National Behaviour and Attendance Review in Wales: Findings and Recommendations on School Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the methodology and findings on school attendance obtained over two years from 2006 for the National Behaviour and Attendance Review in Wales. The review was led and chaired by the author and the report was presented to the Minister for Children, Lifelong Learning and Skills and the Welsh Assembly Government in May 2008. The…

Reid, Ken

2009-01-01

166

Study of exhaust emissions of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on diesel engine emission characteristics and smoke opacity of the exhausts. The biggest NOx emissions, 1954 and 2078 ppm, at 2000 min-1 speed generate blends PRO10 (9.72%) and EPRO5 (11.13%) against, 1731 and 1411 ppm, produced from ERO5 (12%) and ERO10 (13.2% oxygen) blends. The carbon monoxide, CO, emissions emitted from a fully loaded engine fuelled with three agent blends EPRO5-7.5 at maximum torque and rated speed are higher by 39.5-18.8% and 27.5-16.1% and smoke opacity lower by 3.3-9.0% and 24.1-17.6% comparing with RO case. When operating at rated 2200 min-1 mode, the carbon dioxide, CO2, emissions are lower, 6.9-6.3 vol%, from blends EPRO5-7.5 relative to that from RO, 7.8 vol%, accompanied by a slightly higher emission of unburned hydrocarbons HC, 16 ppm, and residual oxygen contents O2, 10.4-12.0 vol%, in the exhausts

167

Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

2004-01-01

168

An in vitro Assessment on the Efficacy of Clay-Based Formulated Cells of Pseudomonas Isolate UTAR EPA2 for Petrol Degradation  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Application of free-cell forms is usually impractical to achieve satisfactory bioremediative effect because the microbes are encumbered by the biotic and abiotic stresses from the environment. Approach: In this study, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium (Pseudomonas isolate UTAR EPA2 was formulated with various combinations of formulative materials, comprising of clay-based carrier materials such as Bentonite (B and Kaolin (K, enrichment materials such as Non-fat skimmed milk (N and Sucrose (S and a UV-protectant agent Para-aminobenzoic acid (P. Formulated cells were treated to sunlight exposure for 6 h to mimic the conditions in the environment prior to testing for their efficacy in degrading petrol, a mixed hydrocarbon substrate. Results: Cells in all formulations including free-cell suspension were able to degrade petrol with a relatively high degradation efficacy of more than 66% even after exposure to sunlight. Degradation efficacy was slightly higher for kaolin-based formulated cells compared to bentonite-based formulations, especially after exposure to sunlight, although their percentages of degradation were not statistically different. Nevertheless, kaolin-based formulations have very low viable cell count especially in formulations with P (KP, KNP, KSP, KNSP. This suggested that aside from viable cells, the physical properties of the clays could have also contributed to the degradation of petrol. Conclusion: For storage purposes and applications in the field, we suggest that the bacterium is formulated with bentonite-based formulations especially using Bentonite (B clay singly, as relatively high percentage of petrol degradation and viable cell count was achieved with this formulation.

A. S.Y. Ting

2010-01-01

169

Midwives without training: practices and beliefs of traditional birth attendants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is estimated that between 60-80% of all births in Africa, Asia and latin America are attended by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAS). TBAs are usually older women who have acquired their knowledge and skills from relatives. ... Zie: Summary

Lefe?ber-mans, Yvonne Hermine Francisca

1994-01-01

170

20 CFR 355.23 - Subpoenas for attendance at hearing.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Subpoenas for attendance at hearing. 355.23 Section 355.23 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD...UNDER THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 355.23 Subpoenas for attendance at hearing....

2010-04-01

171

The development of rhythmic attending in auditory sequences: attunement, referent period, focal attending.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is divided into three sections. The first section is theoretical; it extends Dynamic Attending Theory (Jones, M. R. Psychological Review 83 (1976) 323; Jones, M. R. Perception and Psychophysics 41(6) (1987) 631; Jones, M. R. Psychomusicology 9(2) (1990) 193; Jones, M. R., & Boltz, M. Psychological Review 96(3) (1989) 459) to developmental questions concerning tempo and time hierarchies. Generally Dynamic Attending Theory proposes that, when listening to a complex auditory sequence, listeners spontaneously focus on events occurring at an intermediate rate (the referent level), and they then may shift attention to events occurring over longer or shorter time spans, that is at lower (faster) or higher (slower) hierarchical levels (focal attending). The second section of the paper is experimental. It examines maturational changes of three dynamic attending activities involving referent period and level, attunement, and focal attending. Tasks involve both motor tapping (including spontaneous motor tempo and synchronization with simple sequences and music) and tempo discrimination. We compare performances by 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old children and adults, with or without musical training. Results indicate three changes with increased age and musical training: (1) a slowing of the mean spontaneous tapping rate (a reflection of the referent period) and mean synchronization rate (a reflection of the referent level), (2) enhanced ability to synchronize tapping and discriminate tempo (improved attunement), and (3) an enlarged range of tapping rates towards slower rates and higher hierarchical levels (improved focal attending). A final section considers results in light of the theory proposed here. It is suggested that growth trends can be expressed in terms of listeners' engagement of slower attending oscillators with age and experience, accompanied by the passage from the initial use of a single oscillator towards the coupling of multiple oscillators. PMID:11018511

Drake, C; Jones, M R; Baruch, C

2000-12-15

172

The International Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Users can access news articles, background information and links about the International Space Station. Materials presented here include crew biographies, expedition press kits, accounts of science experiments, and imagery taken from the station. Other features include a clock/counter that logs the station's and the crew's time in orbit and information for ground-based observers who wish to view the station as it passes overhead at night.

173

Southwestern Research Station  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site profiles AMNH's Southwestern Research Station (SWRS), a year-round field station that allows biologists, geologists, and anthropologists to study the diverse environments and biotas of the Chiricahua Mountains in southeastern Arizona. The site includes an overview of the field station and its work, information on courses offered, and information for visitors, researchers, interns and volunteers.

174

Determinants of childhood lead exposure in the postleaded petrol era: The Tooth Fairy cohort from Newcastle upon Tyne.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead is an environmental contaminant causing irreversible health effects in children. We used dentine lead levels as a measure of early-life lead exposure and explored determinants of lead exposure in children living in Newcastle upon Tyne, a historically industrialised UK city, in a cohort born since legislation was introduced to remove lead from petrol, paint and water pipes. The "Tooth Fairy study" cohort comprised 69 children aged 5-8 years. We collected upper deciduous incisors from children and questionnaire data from their parents in 2005. We measured lead levels in pre- and postnatal enamel and dentine using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and assessed associations between dentine lead levels and residential, dietary, lifestyle and socio-economic characteristics. Dentine lead levels were low (mean 0.26??g/g, range 0.06-0.77); however, we observed considerable variability in dentine lead levels within and between children suggestive of differing exposure levels and/or exposure sources across this population. Variables earlier documented to be associated with childhood lead levels were not found to be significant determinants of dentine lead levels in this study. Exposure pathways should continue to be investigated to enable targeted interventions and prevention of lead-induced health impacts in vulnerable populations.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 19 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.79. PMID:25407346

Hodgson, Susan; Manmee, Charuwan; Dirks, Wendy; Shepherd, Thomas; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja

2014-11-19

175

Have We Underestimated the Extent of Antebellum High School Attendance?  

Science.gov (United States)

Utilizing extensive individual-level data files to examine antebellum school attendance in Newburyport (Massachusetts), a procedure was devised to estimate school attendance in Essex County (Massachusetts), during the period 1860-61. Concludes that a substantial minority of antebellum youth attended high school in Massachusetts communities. (SLM)

Vinovskis, Maris A.

1988-01-01

176

Multitudes attend the Night of Science  

CERN Multimedia

The Night of Science, which took place in the Parc de la Perle du Lac in Geneva last weekend, was a great success, with 30 000 visitors attending according to the organisers. Many curious people flocked to the stands and animations until late on Saturday night and all afternoon on Sunday. The CERN stand (photo) received a great amount of interest from participants. Both kids and adults discovered the activities of the Laboratory and the data-processing revolution initiated by CERN, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Hats off to the CERN collaborators in the Communication Group and IT Department who made this event a success.

2006-01-01

177

Faculty and student perceptions of post-exam attendance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This project investigated differences between faculty and student perceptions of student attendance in courses for the class period after an exam, including factors thought to influence student attendance. Participants from a single university completed a mixed-methods on-line questionnaire. Quantitative analyses revealed significant differences between faculty and student perceptions on all but one project variable. Qualitative analyses reinforced those findings and suggested that faculty misunderstand what factors actually influence student attendance. Taken together, the results suggest a substantial disconnect between faculty and student perceptions of the importance of class attendance and highlight areas for faculty to influence student attendance.

Trent W. Maurer

2009-12-01

178

Capacity at Railway Stations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end stations and overtaking stations, the dwell/layover time is recommended to be reduced to the minimum required time as it results in the lowest possible capacity consumption. For dead end stations it is furthermore recommended that the trains can use all possible tracks and not only those tracks they originally was assigned. For complex stations with shunting movement, the results of UIC 406 capacity analyses are imprecise due to different possible routes and no exact knowledge of shunting movements. For these stations it is instead recommended that they are analysed with a supplement to compensate for the inaccuracies.

Landex, Alex Technical University of Denmark,

2011-01-01

179

Minor injury attendance times to the ED.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The Health Service Executive (HSE) highlights the need for effective patient throughput and management, whilst providing appropriate staffing and therapeutic interventions. It acknowledges that patient need is integral to the development of a nurse led service and advocates planning staffing levels to reflect arrival times of patients. An observational study of all patients who presented to the emergency department in July 2005 and February 2006 was undertaken (n=7768). The study identified 1577 patients suitable for treatment by the Advanced Nurse Practitioner (ANP) in these two months, which represents 20% of all patient attendances to the ED in this time period. A data collection tool was devised collectively by the ANPs to identify appropriate patients. The findings of the study revealed that 73% of patients suitable for the ANP service presented between the hours of 0800 and 2000, of which 54% attended between 0800 and 1600 h. Sunday emerged as the busiest day in July 2005 whereas Monday was found to be the busiest day in February 2006. Friday was found to be consistently busy for both months.

Conlon, Ciaran

2009-07-01

180

Attending to the reasons for attribute non-attendance in choice experiments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper focuses on behavioural reasons underlying stated attribute non-attendance. In order to identify and incorporate procedures for dealing with heterogeneous attribute processing strategies, we ask respondents follow-up questions regarding their reasons for ignoring attributes. Based on these statements, we conclude that the standard way of assigning a zero impact of ignored attributes on the likelihood is inappropriate. We find that some respondents act in accordance with the passive bounded rationality assumption since they ignore an attribute simply because it does not affect their utility. Excluding these genuine zero preferences, as the standard approach essentially does, might bias results. Other respondents claim to have ignored attributes to simplify choices. However, we find that these respondents have actually not completely ignored attributes. We argue along the rationally adaptive behavioural model that preferences are indeed elicited in these cases, and we show how using a scaling approachcan appropriately weight these observations in the econometric model. Finally, we find that some respondents ignore attributes for protest-like reasons which essentially convey no information about preferences. We suggest that using the standard approach combined with weighting procedures and recoding of non-attendance statements conditional on the specific reasons for non-attendance could be more appropriate than the current standard way of taking stated non-attendance into account.

Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; MØrkbak, Morten Raun

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Comparative analysis of environmental impact of S2P (Sunshine to Petrol) system for transportation fuel production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • We study solar fuels derived from CO2 and water using the S2P framework. • S2P fuels have lower environmental impact than conventional fuels. • We evaluate the economic, environmental, and social benefits of the S2P framework. - Abstract: A previous study on Sunshine to Petrol (S2P), a technology framework to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels from CO2 and water using a concentrated solar energy source, focused on process development as well as economic evaluation. The study herein presents results from a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach to a comparative analysis of the environmental impacts of S2P-derived and petroleum-derived gasoline. Results reveal that S2P gasoline shows lower impact scores than the conventional gasoline for all evaluated impact categories. Based on the LCA results, we then analyze the environmental benefits including greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and external cost savings. We find that if S2P gasoline could be successfully introduced to satisfy the gasoline demand of a sample city, Victorville in east California, 3.6 Mt CO2-eq of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (77% of the total regional emissions) would be mitigated based on the current fleet of vehicles. The lighter impact also corresponds to 4.2 M$ annual cost savings from avoided environment damage. More generally, for each million vehicles running on S2P gasoline there would be nearly $30 M in savings and 335 M gallons of gasoline displaced, which in turn results in nearly 25.8 Mt of CO2-eq avoided

182

Base Station Performance Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At present the testing of power amplifiers within base station transmitters is limited to testing at component level as opposed to testing at the system level. While the detection of catastrophic failure is possible, that of performance degradation is not. This paper proposes a base station model with respect to transmitter output power with the aim of introducing system level monitoring of the power amplifier behaviour within the base station. Our model reflects the expe...

Walsh, Barbara; Farrell, Ronan

2005-01-01

183

Viewpoints of the attendings and medical students about the Students' evaluation of the attendings, Mazandaran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Evaluation is one of the most important bases of promoting the quality of education. It is very important to know the attendings’ and students’ viewpoints as evaluated and evaluator groups. So in this study the viewpoint of the attendings and students of School of Medicine of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (MUMS about the students evaluation of the attendings, were studied.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-cross sectional study, all faculty members (FM and students of the school of Medicine were included in the study by census sampling.Data collection was done using a questionnaire including demographic questions and educational variables, the FM and students viewpoint about manner of evaluation (time, the way of distributing the forms and the explanation, the student's features in evaluation (awareness, truthfulness and puposes and the instrument of evaluation (questionnaires and items. Results: 345 individuals (95 FM and 250 students took part in this study. The manner of evaluation (time, distribution and explanations to most of FMs' and students’ opinion was appropriate. About student's awareness and truthfulness in filling in the questionnaires; a considerable percentage of FMs (20-40% had a negative opinion and over half of them had a negative attitude about the whole process of evaluation. About the items of theoretical, practical and clinical questionnaires, while the students laid stress on aspect such as: being a teacher and concepts transferring, on attendings opinion these aspects were less important. Conclusion: To most FMs and students opinion, the manner of evaluation is appropriate but a considerable negative attitude exists among attendings about students’ awareness and truthfulness in filling in the questionnaire. The priorities of evaluation are different in these two groups’ point if view.

M. Mahmoudi

2007-01-01

184

Weather Station Model  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson instructs students on how to read station models, the symbols used on weather maps to show data (temperature, wind speed and direction, barometeric pressure, etc.) for a given reporting station. It includes a diagram of a station model, an explanation of the data conveyed by the numbers and symbols, and a table of definitions for the graphic symbols used with models. There is also a set of interactive station models students can use for practice at interpretation, and an interactive exercise in which students use real-time weather data to interpret models.

185

International Space Station: Update  

Science.gov (United States)

In November 1998, Zarya was launched into space, ushering in the era of the International Space Station (featured in the November 25, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). This month, the docking of the Zvezda Service Module marks the beginning of yet another phase -- in which Zvezda will serve as living quarters to the first ever resident crew (Expedition One), scheduled to arrive at the International Space Station in early November. This site from NASA provides updated information on the International Space Station, including recent news, planned missions, and a virtual tour of the (yet-to-be-completed) station.

186

Comparison of Urinary o-Cresol and Hippuric Acid in Drivers, Gasoline Station Workers and Painters Exposed to Toluene in West of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of exposed to toluene and compare levels of hippuric acid and o-Cresol in taxi drivers, petrol station workers, car painters with a control group in West of Iran. The urinary o-creasol and toluene in air were analyzed by a gas chromatography and hippuric acid was extracted from urine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The significant differences in the levels of urinary o-Cresol were found in painters and petrol station workers compared to the control group (p<0.005. There was no significant correlation between toluene in air and biomarkers for taxi drivers. The lowest toluene concentration at which urinary hippuric acid increased to a measurable level was approximately 25 to 35 ppm and for o-Cresol was 2 ppm. In conclusion our results was showed that o-Cresol and hippuric acid could separate the exposed to toluene from the non-exposed when toluene in breathing zone of subjects was greater than 3 and 35 ppm, respectively. Hippuric acid and o-Cresol are not suitable biomarkers for occupations such as drivers that exposure to toluene in low concentration.

Abdulrahman Bahrami

2005-01-01

187

Nuclear power stations licensing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed

188

Station 13 revisited  

Science.gov (United States)

The article I wrote on the somewhat mysterious tracking station at Babsfontein in Gauteng (MNASSA Vol. 11 nos 3&4, April 2012) resulted in some correspondence, enabling me to get into contact with people who had worked at the station. This made it necessary to update the original article.

Roberts, G.

2012-10-01

189

SPS rectifier stations  

CERN Multimedia

The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

1974-01-01

190

Sol Station: Sol  

Science.gov (United States)

This site from Sol Station contains much information on the Sun, its history, and its future. Special emphasis is placed on how the Sun produces an environment on Earth that is suitable for life. The site is illustrated with many images, charts, and several videos. Also provided are links to Sol Station sites on the planets and nearby stars.

2006-11-25

191

Gautrain Station, Hatfield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Station buildings across the world have always been the epiphany of efficiency with the coldness associated with this building type. With the Gautrain Station, Hatfield, Pretoria, the efficiency of the machine is effectively combined with the humanity of nature - the abundance of the South African natural world is allowed to bleed into all spaces normally seen as the exclusive domain of steel and concrete.

Du Plessis, Andre C.

2003-01-01

192

Factors influencing attendance of ice hockey games in Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Commercialization of sport has been growing since 80s and club owners tend to pay more and more attention not just to cups and titles but to commercial success as well. Nevertheless, fans are still the key source of revenues. Besides direct spending while attending games popular clubs and crowded stadiums grab attention of generous advertisers. That is why the problem of sports attendance becomes more and more important though ice hockey attendance is still not the most popular topic among sp...

Arzhilovskiy, Maxim; Priyatel, Kirill

2012-01-01

193

An Efficient Automatic Attendance System Using Fingerprint Reconstruction Technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biometric time and attendance system is one of the most successful applications of biometric technology. One of the main advantage of a biometric time and attendance system is it avoids "buddy-punching". Buddy punching was a major loophole which will be exploiting in the traditional time attendance systems. Fingerprint recognition is an established field today, but still identifying individual from a set of enrolled fingerprints is a time taking process. Most fingerprint-bas...

Josphineleela. R; Ramakrishnan. M

2012-01-01

194

How Attendance Affects the General Success of the Student  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this research is to analyse the students’ attendance at the Faculty of Business and Economics. The study is divided into two parts: the first part analyses why some students are not motivated to attend lectures and practical hours while the second part analyses the impact of students’ attendance (motivation, bonus) in lectures and practical hours and their final success. This paper provides results of a survey completed at the beginning of the summer semester and results of the...

Sadri Alija

2013-01-01

195

Attending to the reasons for attribute non-attendance in Choice Experiments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper focuses on behavioural reasons underlying stated attribute non-attendance in choice experiments. In order to identify and incorporate procedures for dealing with heterogeneous attribute processing strategies, we ask respondents follow-up questions regarding their reasons for ignoring attributes. Based on these statements, we conclude that the standard way of assigning a zero impact of ignored attributes on the likelihood is inappropriate. We find that some respondents act in accordance with the passive bounded rationality assumption since they ignore an attribute simply because it does not affect their utility. Excluding these genuine zero preferences, as the standard approach essentially does, might bias results. Other respondents claim to have ignored attributes to simplify choices. However, we find that these respondents have actually not completely ignored attributes. We argue along the rationally adaptive behavioural model that valid preference information may indeed be elicited in these cases, and we illustrate how recoding of non-attendance statements conditional on stated reasons may be a more appropriate solution than the current standard way of taking stated non-attendance into account.

Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; MØrkbak, Morten Raun

2013-01-01

196

How to reduce the petroleum dependency of Quebec? A ground breaking collective approach; Comment reduire la dependance quebecoise au petrole? Une demarche collective inedite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quebec population and socio economic agents are little or not summoned to in the definition of a vision relating to the dependency of Quebec to petroleum. The presented approach expects to include them as determining actors in the research for solutions to this collective issue, exploring aspects linked both to the energy consumption and production. The question to which the consultation is looking for answers is: How can Quebec reduce its petroleum consumption and increase its energy independence while promoting the harmonious economic and social development of its territory?. [French] La population et les agents socioeconomiques du Quebec sont peu ou pas interpelles dans la definition d'une vision entourant la dependance du Quebec au petrole. La demarche presentee prevoit les inclure comme acteurs determinants vers la recherche de solutions a cet enjeu collectif, explorant les aspects lies tant a la consommation qu'a la production energetique. La question a laquelle la consultation lancee cherchera des reponses est : Comment le Quebec peut-il diminuer sa consommation de petrole et accroitre son independance energetique tout en favorisant le developpement economique et social harmonieux de son territoire?.

Bourke, Philippe; Caron-Malenfant, Julie

2010-09-15

197

Effects of ultrafine petrol exhaust particles on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress generation, DNA damage and inflammation in human A549 lung cells and murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution has persistently been the major cause of respiratory-related illness and death. Environmental pollutants such as diesel and petrol exhaust particles (PEPs) are the major contributors to urban air pollution. The aim of the present study was to characterize and investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammation induced by PEPs. Cultured type II epithelium cells (human A549 lung cells) and alveolar macrophages (murine RAW 264.7 cells) were exposed to control, vehicle control and to different concentrations of PEPs for up to 24h. Each treatment was evaluated by cell viability, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammatory parameters. Overall in vitro studies demonstrated that both cell lines showed similar patterns in response to the above studies induced by petrol exhaust nanoparticles (PENPs). Vehicle control showed no changes compared with the control. In both cell lines, significant changes at the dose of 20 and 50?g/mL (A549 cell lines) and 10and 20?g/mL (macrophages) for PENPs were found. The reactive oxygen species production in both cell lines shot up in minutes, reached the maximum within an hour and came down after 4h. Hence, exposure to PENPs resulted in dose-dependent toxicity in cultured A549 cells and RAW 264.7 cells and was closely correlated to increased oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammation. PMID:25173103

Durga, Mohan; Nathiya, Soundararajan; Rajasekar, Abbu; Devasena, Thiyagarajan

2014-09-01

198

Transportation - Space Station interfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

A study aimed at identifying conceptual mechanisms for the transfer and manipulation of various masses in the vicinity of or on the Space Station is presented. These transfers encompass mass transfers involved in the arrivals or departures of various vehicles including the Shuttle, Orbital Manuever Vehicles (OMVs), and Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTVs); point-to-point mass transfer of a nonroutine nature around the Space Station; and routine transfer of cargo and spacecraft around the Space Station, including the mating and processing of OMVs, OTVs, propellants, and payloads.

Macconchie, Ian O.; Eide, D. G.; Witcofski, R. D.; Pennington, J. E.; Rhodes, M. D.; Melfi, L. T.; Jones, W. R.; Morris, W. D.

1984-02-01

199

Management of School Attendance in the UK: A Strategic Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior to 1997, managing school attendance was the sole responsibility of the Department for Education and Skills (DfES). Since devolution, responsibility for school attendance has resided with each of the four UK-wide administrations. These are the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) in England; the Scottish Executive Education…

Reid, Ken

2010-01-01

200

Improving School Attendance in the New Bedford Public Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Regular school attendance is a key contributor toward student success. Lack of attendance by its very nature removes the student from time on learning that is essential for academic success (Estridge, 2009). The reality is an absence, whether it is excused or not, means that a child is not in benefiting from educational opportunities on that day.…

Larkin, Heather D.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was located on the Ohio River in Shippingport Borough (Beaver County), Pennsylvania, USA. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) constructed the plant in the mid-1950s on a seven and half acre parcel of land leased from Duquesne Light Company (DLC). The purposes were to demonstrate and to develop Pressurized Water Recovery technology and to generate electricity. DLC operated the Shippingport plant under supervision of (the successor to AEC) the Department of Energy (DOE)-Naval Reactors (NR) until operations were terminated on October 1, 1982. NR concluded end-of-life testing and defueling in 1984 and transferred the Station's responsibility to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL), Surplus Facility Management Program Office (SFMPO5) on September 5, 1984. SFMPO subsequently established the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and selected General Electric (GE) as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This report is intended to provide an overview of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

202

"Central Station" Londonis  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

2000-01-01

203

GNSS station displacement analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Time series of GNSS station results of both the EUPOS®-Riga and LatPos networks have been developed at the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation (University of Latvia). The reference stations from EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) in surroundings of Latvia have been used and Bernese GPS Software, Version 5.0, in both static and kinematic modes was applied. The standard data sets were taken from IGS data base. The results of time series have been analysed and distinctive behaviour of daily and subdaily movements of EUPOS®-Riga and LatPos stations was identified. The reasons of dependence of GNSS station coordinate distribution on possible external factors such as seismic activity of some areas of Latvia and periodic processes were given.

Haritonova, Diana; Balodis, Janis; Janpaule, Inese; Normand, Madara

2013-04-01

204

Space station propulsion technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The progress on the Space Station Propulsion Technology Program is described. The objectives are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. The evaluation of concepts was completed. The accumulator module of the test bed was completed and, with the microprocessor controller, delivered to NASA-MSFC. An oxygen/hydrogen thruster was modified for use with the test bed and successfully tested at mixture ratios from 4:1 to 8:1.

Briley, G. L.

1986-01-01

205

Electrostatic pickup station  

CERN Multimedia

Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

1982-01-01

206

Waste Transfer Stations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable.

Christensen, Thomas HØjlund

2011-01-01

207

Space Station galley design  

Science.gov (United States)

An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

1986-01-01

208

Waste Transfer Stations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, hous...

Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2010-01-01

209

Backyard Weather Stations  

Science.gov (United States)

Learn how to build your own backyard weather station with complete directions provided by FamilyEducation.com's Web site, Backyard Weather Stations. The site shows exactly what you'll need and how to build the necessary components (e.g., rain gauge and barometer), as well as how to keep records of the data collected. Parents and teachers will enjoy watching the kids "learn the basics of scientific observation and record-keeping while satisfying their natural curiosity about weather."

Randall, Dennis.

210

Factors Associated with Attendance and Non-Attendance of Support Groups among HIV Positive Adults Attending an Antiretroviral Community Clinic at Ekurhuleni District, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health care facilities providing antiretroviral treatment (ART to HIV positive people have seen a decline in the uptake and use of HIV support groups. A cross sectional survey was conducted to 1 determine the characteristics of HIV positive people who have and who have not attended support groups; 2 determine factors associated with attendance of support groups; and 3 investigate perceived barriers to participate in support groups among HIV positive adults attending an ART clinic in Gauteng, South Africa. The total samples included 248 HIV positive adults and the highest proportion were females (n = 156, 62.9%. The mean age of the participants was 34.2 years, (range 18 to 56 years. Almost two thirds (n = 144, 58.1% had never attended support groups. Participants who attended support groups were more likely to be older than non-attenders (OR = 1.04, CI: 1.01 - 1.07, more likely to be taking ART medication (OR = 1.64, CI: 1.00 - 2.65 and more likely to have known of their HIV diagnosis for a longer time (OR = 2.20, CI: 1.42 - 3.40. Employed participants were less likely to attend support groups than unemployed participants (OR = 0.47, CI: 0.27 - 0.80. Concerns for privacy and confidentiality in support groups, and fear of stigma and discrimination were the key barriers to participate in support groups. Participants also perceived support groups as a service for people who could not cope with their HIV diagnosis. Health care providers who plan to start support groups should take into consideration issues of support group size, confidentiality, and timing for support group meetings. It is imperative that education on the benefits of HIV support groups forms a primary component of routine counselling for PLWHI.

Sphiwe Madiba

2013-05-01

211

A modelling study of the impact on air quality and health due to the emissions from E85 and petrol fuelled cars in Sweden  

Science.gov (United States)

Alternative fuels are becoming more and more important for road traffic and one fuel that has been used for several years is ethanol (E85). The main discussion points regarding the environmental performance for ethanol as a fuel are related to the production. However, there are also some notable differences in the emissions between E85 and petrol fuelled vehicles. This relates to some extent to the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) but mainly to the composition of the emitted organic compounds. In the present study two fuel scenarios for passenger cars are investigated for the Västra Götaland Region in Sweden; one where the cars with Otto engines run on petrol and one where they run on E85. Two emission scenarios for 2020 are constructed for the whole Europe and coupled dispersion-chemistry modelling is applied to obtain the population exposure to key pollutants. The differences obtained from the modelling show decreased levels of NOx, ozone and benzene with E85 and increased levels of acetaldehyde in the Västra Götaland Region. For the latter the increase may be up to 80%, while NOx and ozone show decreases of up to a few per cent and a few tenths of per cent, respectively. Exposure to the different air pollutants is calculated as population-weighted concentrations. The health risk assessment, using the calculated exposure and published exposure-response functions for the relevant pollutants, shows decreased health risks in the E85 scenario relative the all-petrol scenario, due to the decreased NOx exposure, correlated with both preterm deaths and asthma. However, NOx (and NO2) may partly be indicators of unmeasured causal exhaust components in the epidemiological studies and thus the exposure-response functions for these may not be applicable in the present case where there is a difference in NOx exposure but not a proportional difference in exposure to other exhaust components normally associated with NOx. Smaller effects are expected from the changes in ozone, acetaldehyde, PM2.5 and benzene exposure. The overall difference is about 1.6 preterm deaths per year for the Västra Götaland Region, with lower values for the E85 scenario, when the uncertain differences due to the differences in NOx exposure are not considered.

Fridell, Erik; Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Moldanova, Jana; Forsberg, Bertil; Sjöberg, Karin

2014-01-01

212

Social environment and frequent attendance in Danish general practice.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: A lack of social support is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a decreased effect of prevention. Frequent attenders to primary care are characterised by poorer social conditions than other patients in general practice, but we do not know whether this is due to social inequalities in health or whether social factors in themselves determine the use of general practice. AIM: To examine if social factors are associated with frequent attendance in general practice after adjusting for physical and psychological health variables. DESIGN OF STUDY: Population-based cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Two hundred and twenty GPs in 132 practices in the county of Aarhus, Denmark, and the listed adult population (aged 20-64 years). METHOD: A sample of frequent attenders and infrequent attenders was drawn. The study included only those resident in the county and who had consulted a GP during the period November 1997-October 1998. A questionnaire about physical, psychological and social factors was sent to the patients. The associations between social factors and frequent attendance were adjusted for physical and psychological health and tendency towards somatisation. RESULTS: A total of 1423 (73.7%) frequent attenders and 1103 (74.9%) infrequent attenders responded. Male frequent attendance was associated, with statistical significance, with living alone and being without work or on a disability pension. Among women, lack of professional education or being without work tended to increase the likelihood of frequent attendance. CONCLUSION: This study shows that for men, social factors may in themselves determine the use of general practice. None of the investigated social factors seemed to restrict the use of general practice. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Jul

Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

2005-01-01

213

Shippingport station decommissioning experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was the first large-scale commercial nuclear power plant to be decommissioned in the United States. The station consisted of a four-loop nuclear steam supply system and a radioactive waste processing facility which were owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and a 100-MWe turbine generator and balance of plant owned by the Duquesne Light Company. The Shippingport Station is located 35 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on seven acres of land leased in 1954 by the US DOE from the Duquesne Light Company for forty years. This paper will provide a management perspective of the lessons learned during the planning and physical decommissioning phases of the Shippingport Station decommissioning project. Lessons learned include: The key elements and lead times required to perform a safe and cost-effective decommissioning The relationship of detailed engineering, planning, scheduling and cost estimating from both a regulatory compliance and work performance standpoint. An understanding of the Shippingport Station decommissioning lessons learned should be useful in planning and executing future projects

214

ILRS Station Reporting  

Science.gov (United States)

Network stations provided system configuration documentation upon joining the ILRS. This information, found in the various site and system log files available on the ILRS website, is essential to the ILRS analysis centers, combination centers, and general user community. Therefore, it is imperative that the station personnel inform the ILRS community in a timely fashion when changes to the system occur. This poster provides some information about the various documentation that must be maintained. The ILRS network consists of over fifty global sites actively ranging to over sixty satellites as well as five lunar reflectors. Information about these stations are available on the ILRS website (http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/network/stations/index.html). The ILRS Analysis Centers must have current information about the stations and their system configuration in order to use their data in generation of derived products. However, not all information available on the ILRS website is as up-to-date as necessary for correct analysis of their data.

Noll, Carey E.; Pearlman, Michael Reisman; Torrence, Mark H.

2013-01-01

215

Hydrogen vehicle fueling station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

216

Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in street dust in major cities in Greece in relation to the use of lead in petrol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Until recently, the most important source of environmental lead pollution in cities was thought to come from the combustion of leaded petrol. A simple way to monitor the extent of this phenomenon, used in a number of studies in the past, has been to measure lead levels in street dust. Nowadays, it would be expected that lead concentrations in urban dust would have decreased from earlier values, following the progressive reduction of lead in petrol over the past few years, and this hypothesis has recently been confirmed in Manchester, UK. The object of the present work is to determine levels of lead pollution in cities in Greece on 1997 and, if possible, to discover whether similar reductions in lead concentrations have occurred there also. Surveys have been conducted in Thessaloniki, Athens and Piraeus. Samples of roadside dust were collected from streets (categorised by traffic density), national gardens and school playgrounds, and lead was extracted by digestion with concentrated nitric acid. Lead concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and lead isotope ratios measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results for Thessaloniki showed that mean lead concentrations in all categories of location are similar to present levels in Manchester. Further, lead concentrations in dust in the busiest streets in Thessaloniki have fallen by about 55% since a previous study 17 years ago. In Athens and Piraeus, the lead levelsgo. In Athens and Piraeus, the lead levels in street dust are much higher and significant differences were observed between the various types of street. In particular, it was observed that lead levels in school playgrounds in these two cities were much higher than in similar locations in Thessaloniki and Manchester, with a possible hazard to children. Isotope ratio measurements showed that Thessaloniki's lead is isotopically distinct from that found in Athens and Piraeus, which presumably reflects differences in sources of supply

217

The organized Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Space Station organization designers should consider the onboard stowage system to be an integral part of the environment structured for productive working conditions. In order to achieve this, it is essential to use an efficient inventory control system able to track approximately 50,000 items over a 90-day period, while maintaining peak crew performance. It is noted that a state-of-the-art bar-code inventory management system cannot satisfy all Space Station requirements, such as the location of a critical missing item.

Lew, Leong W.

218

Solar power station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar power station with semiconductor solar cells for generating electric power is described, wherein the semiconductor solar cells are provided on a member such as a balloon or a kite which carries the solar cells into the air. The function of the balloon or kite can also be fulfilled by a glider or airship. The solar power station can be operated by allowing the system to ascend at sunrise and descend at sunset or when the wind is going to be too strong in order to avoid any demage.

Wenzel, J.

1982-11-30

219

77 FR 63308 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission...above-referenced meeting will be held at: Atlanta Airport Marriott, Atlanta Georgia...contact Valerie Martin, Office of Energy Market Regulation, Federal...

2012-10-16

220

77 FR 38046 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice...Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby...Georgia Corporate Headquarters Atlanta, Georgia. The above-referenced...Valerie Martin, Office of Energy Market Regulation,...

2012-06-26

 
 
 
 
221

Professor Atta invited to attend WSIS as `eminent scientist'  

CERN Multimedia

Ministry of Science and Technology Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman has been nominated as an "eminent scientist" to attend the roundtables during "World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)" on December 12 (1 paragraph).

2003-01-01

222

77 FR 58376 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

...ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...Renewables North America, LLC v. Midwest...EL11-53, Shetek Wind Inc., Jeffers...Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Midwest...Office of Energy Markets...

2012-09-20

223

77 FR 50492 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

...OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...ER09-36-001, Prairie Wind Transmission, LLC...Climate & Renewables North America, LLC v. Midwest...Strong, Office of Energy Markets Regulation,...

2012-08-21

224

38 CFR 21.374 - Authorization for travel of attendants.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Spouse, (ii) Parent, (iii) Child, (iv) Brother, (v) Sister, (vi) Uncle, (vii) Aunt, (viii) Niece, or (ix) Nephew. (c) Attendant employed by the Federal government. (1) VA may authorize a person in the...

2010-07-01

225

34 CFR 694.6 - Who may provide GEAR UP services to students attending private schools?  

Science.gov (United States)

...GEAR UP services to students attending private schools? 694.6 Section...GEAR UP services to students attending private schools? (a) GEAR UP services to students attending private schools must be...

2010-07-01

226

9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2...Research Facilities § 2.33 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. ...research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate...

2010-01-01

227

9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers...WELFARE REGULATIONS Attending Veterinarian and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care...

2010-01-01

228

Sources of dietary calcium in patients attending an osteoporosis clinic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gemma HornSurgical Department, Perth Royal Infirmary, Perth, ScotlandIntroduction: Osteoporosis is a common disease that affects both women and men but is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Reviews suggest that dietary-derived calcium is vital in maintaining adequate calcium balance. Sources of dietary calcium intake among adult patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were reviewed.Method: Two hundred and ninety-one patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were given an eleven-item fo...

Horn G

2012-01-01

229

APS Minority Travel Fellows Attend the 2010 APS Conferences  

Science.gov (United States)

From The Physiologist. Four travel fellows received funding to attend the 2010 APS Intersociety Meeting, ÃÂGlobal Change and Global Science: Comparative Physiology in a Changing World,ÃÂ from August 4-7, 2010 in Westminster, CO. Four travel fellows received funding to attend the APS Conference, ÃÂInflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease,ÃÂ from August 25-28, 2010 also in Westminster, CO. The application reviews were led by Committee Member, Johana Vallejo-Elias.

2010-12-01

230

REAL TIME FACE RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR TIME AND ATTENDANCE APPLICATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available — In this paper, we have proposed an automated Face Recognition System for Time and Attendance application. The model is developed with the help of real time OpenCV library The proposed system comprised of using the Viola Jones algorithm for detecting the human faces and then the detected face is resized to the required size, this resized face is further processed by using linear stretch contrast enhancement and finally it is recognized using a simple PCA / LDA. Once recognition is done, automatically attendance will be updated in an Excel Sheet along with his name, date and time. An html file is automatically updated by our system so that a remote authenticated user can access the attendance file .Our system is integrated to an Automatic Attendance Management System, with the help of which some post attendance works like stipend amount calculation, viewing attendance report for the required date, calculating the number of hours a person is present in the class, searching for a required person in the classroom etc. Spoofing which is a major threat for our system can be avoided using Eye Blink Detector algorithm. Our system can automatically update the Database for the newly enrolled persons. The proposed system can execute the instructions given orally to it (eliminating the need of a mouse interface and can speak back to us.

APARNA BEHARA, M.V. RAGHUNADH

2013-07-01

231

Shippingport Station aging evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Atomic Power Station, the first US large-scale, central-station nuclear plant, now in the final stages of decommissioning, has been a major source of naturally aged equipment for the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) and other US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) programs. Because naturally aged components and materials experience the actual service-related external stressors, corrosion and wear, testing procedures, and maintenance practices, their evaluation is valuable in verifying degradation models, validating aging projections based on the extrapolation of accelerated test data, and detecting unexpected aging mechanisms (surprises) that could significantly impact component or system safety performance. As part of the Shippingport Station aging evaluation work, more than 200 items, ranging in size from small instruments and materials samples to one of the main coolant pumps, have been removed and shipped to designated NRC contractors. Although detailed evaluations of the components and material from the Shippingport Station are just beginning, the preliminary results from the studies conducted to date are indicative of the value of the aging information that ultimately may be obtained. 30 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs

232

Canary Wharf Tube Station  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Elegantly designed glass canopy "bubbles", cover the entrances of the underground tube station. Designed by Foster&Partners and built in 1999, this model [1:100] was built by Gabriella Dias, 3rd year B.Sc. (Arch) student, University of Pretoria, 2005.

Dias, Gabriella

2005-01-01

233

Electrostatic pickup station  

CERN Multimedia

Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

1979-01-01

234

Kiowa Creek Switching Station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

1990-03-01

235

Water Exploration Station  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity (located on page 3 of the PDF), learners investigate the way water moves and how we can control and direct water. At the Water Exploration Station, learners experiment with various tools like eye droppers, sponges, turkey basters, etc. to move and play with the water. Included in this lesson guide are challenge questions intended to direct the learning.

Museum, Chicago C.

2008-01-01

236

Station Model Plot  

Science.gov (United States)

This applet provides a test of decoding station model plots. From the plot, the user must determine the temperature, dew point, wind speed and direction, cloud cover, pressure and pressure change, and current weather. Values can be checked and attempted again.

Ackerman, Steve; Whittaker, Tom

237

Designing a Weather Station  

Science.gov (United States)

The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

Roman, Harry T.

2012-01-01

238

Point Lepreau generating station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Point Lepreau-1 reactor is a 600 MWe generating station expected to be in service by October 1979. New Brunswick is suffering a 'catch up' phenomenon in load growth and needs to decrease dependence on foreign oil. The site is on salt water and extensive study has gone into corrosion control. Project management, financing and scheduling have unique aspects. (E.C.B.)

239

34 CFR 403.114 - How does a State determine the number of economically disadvantaged students attending vocational...  

Science.gov (United States)

...disadvantaged students attending vocational...the Secondary School Vocational Education...disadvantaged students attending vocational education...the Secondary School Vocational Education...disadvantaged students attending vocational...

2010-07-01

240

Mobile environmental radiation monitoring station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mobile environmental radiation monitoring station has been developed and established for the Israeli Ministry of Environment. The radiation monitoring station is ready for immediate placing in any required location, or can be operated from a vehicle. The station collects data Tom the detector and transfers it via cellular communication network to a Computerized Control Center for data storage, processing, and display . The mobile station is fully controlled from the. Routinely, the mobile station responses to the data request accumulated since the last communication session. In case of fault or alarm condition in the mobile station, a local claim is activated and immediately initiates communication with the via cellular communication network. (authors)

 
 
 
 
241

Central Station Design Options  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping. The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high penetration of wind power is present, is considered as special case. The distribution grid in Denmark is built using larger secondary distribution transformers (e.g. 630 kVA) which in general allows higher flexibility for the installation of Central Stations, compared to Bornholm’s distribution grid. With the 3-phase AC quick charging options of 11, 22 kW and 43 kW, (IEC 62196, EN60038, EN 61851) both the Danish and Bornholm environments offer a good chance for EV integration [1]. Dealing with Fast Charging, the study determined that 300kW Fast Charging, which corresponds to 10 minutes charging for a 50 kWh battery-EV is not feasible in Bornholm at the 0.4 kV level, due to predominantly small size secondary distribution transformers, in the range of 100 - 200 kVA. This is possible at the 10kV level (MV level), if the Fast Charging station is equipped with its own dedicated transformer. With DC charging, rated at 50 kW, fast charging would be easier in both Denmark and Bornholm scenarios. For each scenario and charging power level, the possible number of EVs is estimated and finally architectural design options are proposed. Technical assessment is performed for evaluating the benefits of different charging concepts as Fast Charging and Battery Swapping as well as different loading options as DC loading versus AC loading, single phase (230V) versus three phase (400V) loading. A study on possible siting for Central Stations is performed for the Danish main land, where the average distance covered by EVs is used as input data. A finding of the study is that a reasonable number of fast charging and swapping stations are about 15, assuming that all EVs have a range of 100-120 Km. Furthermore the Bornholm case is not very relevant for fast charging or battery swapping stations, due to the relatively small dimensions of the island. Several architectures of Central Station are assessed based on different hardware components onfiguration: in particular we could have a Central Station with dedicated transformer sized ad-hoc for the DC charging equipment. On the other hand, it is possible to have a Central Station connected to an existing distribution transformer; in this case the transformer load management becomes crucial. Furthermore we could have the options of AC versus DC power distribution in a Central Station. In case of DC distribution, we could have multiple fast chargers, implemented as DC/DC converters, operating in parallel and serving different vehicles. Local active harmonics compensation is ecommended as a valid option for mitigating the effect on the grid due to fast charging equipment, in compliance to IEC/TS 61000-3-12. Among power quality issues in distribution grids with EVs, voltage drops and transformer overloading are identified in this work as most critical situations [1]. The mitigation of voltage drops within a Central Station requires the local analysis of the site and eventually the installation of energy storage systems for mitigating the drop during transients or parallel charging, in compliance to EN 50160. Transformer overloading can be prevented, providing real-time access to the local power flow data. The assumption of 50% transformer average loading is used as a single reference point in the current report. For future investigations on transformer overloading, more reference points might be necessary to represent various transformer loading levels. The subject of safety in Central Station is also addr

2011-01-01

242

Exploration Station 2010 Brings Science to the Public  

Science.gov (United States)

Exploration Station is a public outreach event held prior to the AGU Fall Meeting each year and is a joint venture between AGU and NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The event features hands-on science activities for the public. This year's event was held in conjunction with the AGU public lecture given by SDO lead project scientist, Dean Pesnell. Many members of the general public attended, including families with children. They were joined by many AGU members, who also enjoyed the exhibits and explored the possible education and outreach activities available within the AGU community. Educators from across AGU were involved, but space physics and planetary sciences were especially well represented.

Wawro, Martha; Asher, Pranoti

2011-04-01

243

Determinants of skilled birth attendants for delivery in Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review is to explore the factors affecting the uptake of skilled birth attendants for delivery and the issues associated with women's role and choices of maternal health care service for delivery in Nepal. Literature was reviewed across the globe and discussed in a Nepalese context. Delivery by Skilled Birth Attendance serves as an indicator of progress towards reducing maternal mortality worldwide, the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Nepal has committed to reducing its maternal mortality by 75% by 2015 through ensuring accessibility to the availability and utilisation of skilled care at every birth. The literature suggests that several socio-economic, cultural and religious factors play a significant role in the use of Skilled Birth Attendance for delivery in Nepal. Availability of transportation and distance to the health facility; poor infrastructure and lack of services; availability and accessibility of the services; cost and convenience; staff shortages and attitudes; gender inequality; status of women in society; women's involvement in decision making; and women's autonomy and place of residence are significant contributing factors for uptake of Skilled Birth Attendance for delivery in Nepal. The review found more quantitative research studies exploring the determinants of utilisation of the maternal health services during pregnancy in Nepal than qualitative studies. Findings of quantitative research show that different social demographic, economic, socio-cultural and religious factors are responsible for the utilisation of maternal health services but very few studies discussed how and why these factors are responsible for utilisation of skilled birth attendants in pregnancy. It is suggested that there is need for more qualitative research to explore the women's role and choice regarding use of skilled birth attendants services and to find out how and why these factors are responsible for utilisation of skilled birth attendants for delivery. Qualitative research will help further exploration of the issues and contribute to improvement of maternal health services. PMID:22610739

Baral, Y R; Lyons, K; Skinner, J; van Teijlingen, E R

2010-01-01

244

Cabin attendants’ exposure to vibration and shocks during landing  

Science.gov (United States)

The Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) has noted that cabin attendants have reported an increase in health problems associated with landing. The European Union reports cover health problems related to neck, shoulder, and lower-back injuries. Moreover, analysis of these reports shows that the problems are often associated with specific airplanes that have a longer tail behind the rear wheels and appear more often in attendants who sit in the back of planes rather then the front. Against this background, this study measures and describes the vibration during landing in specific airplanes to evaluate the health risk for the cabin attendants. Measurements were conducted on regular flights with passengers in the type of airplane, Boeing 737-800, which was related to the highest per cent of reported health problems. All measurements were performed the same day during three landings in one airplane with the same pilots and cabin attendants. The measurements were carried out simultaneously on the cabin crew seats in the back and front of the passenger cabin. Under the cabin crew's seat cushions, a triaxiell seat-accelerometer was placed to measure the vibration in three axes. The signals from the accelerometers were amplified by charge amplifiers and stored on tape. The stored data were analysed with a computer-based analyse system. For the cabin attendants, the dominant direction for the vibration load during landing is the up-and-down direction although some vibration also occurs in the other horizontal directions. The exposure to vibration is higher on the rear crew seat compared to the front seat. For instance, both the vibration dose value (VDV) and the frequency-weighted acceleration in the dominant direction are more then 50% higher on the rear seat. The frequency-weighted acceleration and the VDV measured at the crew seats are below the exposure limits as described by the European vibration directive. The evaluation of the cabin attendants' exposure to multiple shocks during landing shows that the potential of an adverse health effect for the cabin attendants is low in the front of the airplane and increases to moderate in the rear. Although this is a limited study, it could be conclude that there could be a risk for cabin attendants due to the exposure of multiple shocks. Therefore, efforts should be spent to minimize their risk by developing a better seat cushion and back support to lessen the effects of shocks. In addition, attendants should be informed about the most suitable posture to take during landing.

Burström, Lage; Lindberg, Lennart; Lindgren, Torsten

2006-12-01

245

Space Station Information Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The utility of the Space Station is improved, the ability to manage and integrate its development and operation enhanced, and the cost and risk of developing the software for it is minimized by three major information systems. The Space Station Information System (SSIS) provides for the transparent collection and dissemination of operational information to all users and operators. The Technical and Management Information System (TMIS) provides all the developers with timely and consistent program information and a project management 'window' to assess the project status. The Software Support Environment (SSE) provides automated tools and standards to be used by all software developers. Together, these three systems are vital to the successful execution of the program.

Pittman, Clarence W.

1988-01-01

246

Robotic dissolution station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention is comprised of a robotic station for dissolving active metals in acid in an automated fashion. A vessel with cap, containing the active metal is placed onto a shuttle which retracts to a point at which it is directly beneath a cap removing and retaining mechanism. After the cap is removed, a tube carrying an appropriate acid is inserted into the vessel, and the acid is introduced. The structure of the station forms an open hood which is swept of gases generated by the dissolution and the air removed to a remote location for scrubbing. After the reaction is complete, the shuttle extends and the vessel may be removed by a robot arm.

Beugelsdijk, T.J.; Hollen, R.M.; Temer, D.J.; Haggart, R.J.; Erkkila, T.H.

1991-12-31

247

Battery charging stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

Bergey, M.

1997-12-01

248

Dream Anatomy Learning Station  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site contains the educational materials for Dream Anatomy, a new exhibit at the National Library of Medicine. Viewable online, the exhibit offers a somewhat macabre but undeniably fascinating survey of changes in anatomical representation over the last five centuries. Recently added to the main Dream Anatomy Web site, Learning Station provides lesson plans and activities intended for 6-12 graders. The material can be used exhibit or its online version. The lesson plans titled Beginnings of Anatomical Illustrations (grades 6-12) and Anatomical Metaphors (grades 7-8) have especially strong life sciences applications. Other online activities offer "fun ways for high school and older students to explore the content of Dream Anatomy." Altogether, Dream Anatomy Learning Station offers students a unique look at the intersection of art, science, and the imagination.

249

Shippingport station communications program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author discusses how the communications program for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station has a long history. It can be traced as far back as 1953, when the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) awarded a contract to Westinghouse Electric to design the nuclear portion of a power plant for electric utility use. During May of the next year, President Eisenhower initiated groundbreaking ceremonies for the construction of the commercial atomic power plant at Shippingport, Pennsylvania

250

COMPRESSOR STATION AUTOMATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The diploma work presents the realization of control compressor station in the laboratory for process control. It is divided into two parts, namely the theoretical part, which describes the used components and the LON technology. The second part presents the implementation of the process. The concept of remote control and supervision of the compressor is described. With LON technology we allow control over the compressor. By using web server i.Lon 1000 we observe state of the compressor th...

Krebs, Boz?o

2012-01-01

251

Bamfield Marine Station  

Science.gov (United States)

The station provides year-round research facilities and technical assistance to scientists from the five western Canadian universities as well as visiting scientists, offers courses for undergraduate and graduate students in the marine sciences, and runs a public education program for schools and interested groups of all ages. Information includes all the latest research news and events, plus field trip and community projects information. Explore OceanLink and Ocean News for an abundance of education resources.

252

Web-Server based Student Attendance System using RFIDTechnology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most educational institutions’ administrators are concerned about student irregular attendance. Truancies can affect student overall academic performance. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure, hence inefficient. Therefore, computer based student attendance management system is required to assist the faculty and the lecturer for this time-provide much convenient method to take attendance, but some prerequisites has to be done before start using the program. Although the use of RFID systems in educational institutions is not new, it is intended to show how the use of it came to solve daily problems in our university. The system has been built using the web-based applications such as ASP.NET and IIS server to cater the recording and reporting of the students’ attendances The system can be easily accessed by the lecturers via the web and most importantly, the reports can be generated in real-time processing, thus, providing valuable information about the students’.

Abdul Aziz Mohammed#1 , Jyothi Kameswari U

2013-05-01

253

How Attendance Affects the General Success of the Student  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyse the students’ attendance at the Faculty of Business and Economics. The study is divided into two parts: the first part analyses why some students are not motivated to attend lectures and practical hours while the second part analyses the impact of students’ attendance (motivation, bonus in lectures and practical hours and their final success. This paper provides results of a survey completed at the beginning of the summer semester and results of the final success in three courses for the academic year 2010/11 (Business Mathematics, Statistics and Managerial Economics with first, second and third-year students at the Faculty of Business and Economics, at South East European University in Tetovo. This paper uses logical regression to give an overview of the impact of students’ attendance (motivation, bonus at lectures and practical hours in their final success. Results show that, besides other daily engagements during studies, students have other excuses for absence from lectures and practical hours such as conditions, management and methods of teaching in the Faculty. Final results of three subjects which are considered as more practical show that attendance of students have a big influence in students’ final success. The software MedCalc was used for the elaboration of data.

Sadri Alija

2013-01-01

254

Impact of Learners on Emergency Medicine Attending Physician Productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Several prior studies have examined the impact of learners (medical students or residents on overall emergency department (ED flow as well as the impact of resident training level on the number of patients seen by residents per hour. No study to date has specifically examined the impact of learners on emergency medicine (EM attending physician productivity, with regards to patients per hour (PPH. We sought to evaluate whether learners increase, decrease, or have no effect on the productivity of EM attending physicians in a teaching program with one student or resident per attending.Methods: This was a retrospective database review of an urban, academic tertiary care center with 3 separate teams on the acute care side of the ED. Each team was staffed with one attending physician paired with either one resident, one medical student or with no learners. All shifts from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2010 were reviewed using an electronic database. We predefined a shift as “Resident” if > 5 patients were seen by a resident, “Medical Student” if any patients were seen by a medical student, and “No Learners” if no patients were seen by a medical student or resident. Shifts were removed from analysis if more than one learner saw patients during the shift. We further stratified resident shifts by EM training level or off-service rotator. For each type of shift, the total number of patients seen by the attending physician was then divided by 8 hours (shift duration to arrive at number of patients per hour. Results: We analyzed a total of 7,360 shifts with 2,778 removed due to multiple learners on a team. For the 2,199 shifts with attending physicians with no learners, the average number of PPH was 1.87(95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86,1.89. For the 514 medical student shifts, the average PPH was 1.87(95% CI 1.84,1.90, p = 0.99 compared with attending with no learner. For the 1,935 resident shifts, the average PPH was 1.99(95% CI 1.97,2.00. Compared with attending physician with no learner, attending physicians with a resident saw more PPH (1.99 vs 1.87, p< 0.005. There was no statistically significant difference found between EM1: 1.98PPH, EM2: 1.99PPH, EM3: 1.99PPH, and off-service rotators: 1.99PPH. Conclusion: EM attending physicians paired with a resident in a one-on-one teaching model saw statistically significantly more patients per hour (0.12 more patients per hour than EM attending physicians alone. EM attending physicians paired with a medical student saw the same number of patients per hour compared with working alone. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(1:41–44.

Rahul Bhat

2014-02-01

255

On the Predictability of Talk Attendance at Academic Conferences  

CERN Document Server

This paper focuses on the prediction of real-world talk attendances at academic conferences with respect to different influence factors. We study the predictability of talk attendances using real-world tracked face-to-face contacts. Furthermore, we investigate and discuss the predictive power of user interests extracted from the users' previous publications. We apply Hybrid Rooted PageRank, a state-of-the-art unsupervised machine learning method that combines information from different sources. Using this method, we analyze and discuss the predictive power of contact and interest networks separately and in combination. We find that contact and similarity networks achieve comparable results, and that combinations of different networks can only to a limited extend help to improve the prediction quality. For our experiments, we analyze the predictability of talk attendance at the ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia 2011 collected using the conference management system Conferator.

Scholz, Christoph; Atzmueller, Martin; Stumme, Gerd

2014-01-01

256

Prolonged school non-attendance in adolescence: a practical approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prolonged school non-attendance in adolescence poses a significant public health concern. Adverse outcomes for adolescents who have missed out on the social and academic benefits of high school include mental health disorders and economic, social and relationship difficulties that may persist into adulthood. Healthcare professionals are often consulted in cases of prolonged school non-attendance. Diagnosis and management of specific physical and mental health problems must be the health professional's initial priority, with the subsequent development of a management plan to assist with school reintegration. Using a specific framework, an understanding of the factors contributing to a young person's school non-attendance can be developed. Intervention leading to a successful return to school has the potential to lower the risk of associated long-term adverse health outcomes. PMID:24914097

Hawkrigg, S; Payne, D N

2014-10-01

257

Studying Absenteeism in Principles of Macroeconomics: Do Attendance Policies Make a Difference?  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this article is to see if and how attendance policy influences class attendance in undergraduate-level principles of macroeconomics classes. The second objective, which is related to the first, is to examine whether the nature of the attendance policy matters in terms of its impact on class attendance behavior. The results…

Self, Sharmistha

2012-01-01

258

Attenders versus Slackers: A Classroom Demonstration of Quasi-Experimentation and Self-Selecting Samples  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of the effects of class attendance on class performance typically are quasi-experimental because students choose whether or not to attend class; that is, the samples are self-selecting. The lack of random assignment prevents one from establishing a causal relationship between attendance and performance. Relating attendance to performance…

Stellmack, Mark A.

2013-01-01

259

Child Labour or School Attendance? Evidence from Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia. Since the data come from a household survey with information on all household members, it allows us to take account of unobserved household effects by introducing household specific effects in a logit model. The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away from school.

Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

1996-01-01

260

Student and Teacher Attendance: The Role of Shared Goods in Reducing Absenteeism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A theoretical model is advanced that demonstrates that, if teacher and student attendance generate a shared good, then teacher and student attendance will be mutually reinforcing. Using data from the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan, empirical evidence supporting that proposition is advanced. Controlling for the endogeneity of teacher and student attendance, the most powerful factor raising teacher attendance is the attendance of the children in the school, and the most important factor influencing child attendance is the presence of the teacher. The results suggest that one important avenue to be explored in developing policies to reduce teacher absenteeism is to focus on raising the attendance of children.

Banerjee, Ritwik; King, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

47 CFR 74.783 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations...the suffix “-LP.” (f) TV broadcast booster station shall be identified by their primary stations by broadcasting of the primary station's call...

2010-10-01

262

47 CFR 95.1205 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1205 Section...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES...SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication...95.1205 Station identification. A station is not...transmit a station identification...

2010-10-01

263

47 CFR 80.405 - Station license.  

Science.gov (United States)

...5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station license. 80.405 Section 80.405 Telecommunication...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Station Documents § 80.405 Station license....

2010-10-01

264

47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109 ...SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station...

2010-10-01

265

47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 80.409 Section 80.409 Telecommunication...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Station Documents § 80.409 Station logs....

2010-10-01

266

47 CFR 74.1281 - Station records.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station records. 74.1281 Section 74.1281 ...DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1281 Station records. (a)...

2010-10-01

267

47 CFR 74.482 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Station identification. 74...CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL...Remote Pickup Broadcast Stations § 74.482 Station...remote pickup broadcast base or mobile station...

2010-10-01

268

Southeast Regional Experiment Station  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

1994-08-01

269

Patterns of Attendance of Children Under 12 Years at School Dental Service in Western Australia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of attendance at School Dental Service (SDS) and reasons for attendance (treatment or prevention) for children in the Perth Metropolitan Area, in particular investigating the first year of SDS attendance and attendance until the year the child turned 12. The first 150 SDS records located for children from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were used for this study. Patterns of attendance of children at SDS were described...

Lam, Spl; Baros, H.; O’grady, Mj; Kendall, Ge; Messer, Lb; Slack-smith, Lm

2012-01-01

270

Nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear power station is disclosed having a reactor buried in rock and machine groups formed with the use of turbines, compressors, generators or other apparatus, inclusive gas conduits; the individual machine groups and the gas conduits are arranged in rooms hollowed out in the rock for receiving and supporting these; to each group there leads at least one tunnel hollowed out in the rock; a safety chamber for a machine group concerned is situated adjacent the group and is secludable relatively to the atmosphere

271

Astronomical Station at Vidojevica  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently a project was started aimed at building a new astronomical station at the mountain of Vidojevica in Serbia (ASV) as an extension of the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade. The first phase - ASV1 - is planned to be finished during 2006. ASV1 will consist of one observatory dome, a reflector of 60cm aperture, and a dormitory. In this year, the Faculty of Mathematics and its Department of Astronomy applied for the project of reinforcing and upgrading it to ASV2. The project objective is to improve the research capacities in astronomy and applied mathematics in Serbia and Western Balkan.

Ninkovi?, S.; Pejovi?, N.; Mijajlovi?, Ž.

2007-05-01

272

Measuring participation in an evidence-based practice: illness management and recovery group attendance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the important role of treatment attendance as an indicator of program implementation and as a potential moderator of program effectiveness, this study sought to develop useful indicators of attendance for evidence-based practices. The current study examined consumer attendance patterns in a randomized controlled trial comparing illness management and recovery (n=60) to a problem solving control condition (n=58). Associations were examined between consumer clinical indicators, demographics, and level of recovery and indices of attendance. Attendance was poor, but comparable to rates found in many other studies. Four indicators of attendance (percent sessions attended, time enrolled, periods of attendance, and longest period of attendance) were highly inter-related and were more sensitive to baseline differences than a traditional approach of dichotomizing participants into "attenders" and "non-attenders." Older age, lower hostility, fewer psychotic symptoms, and more education were associated with higher group attendance in both treatment conditions; the client-reported illness management and recovery scale was associated with attendance in the control group. Indicators of attendance were an advancement over dichotomous classification. Strategies to increase attendance are still needed, particularly for younger consumers with greater positive symptoms. PMID:24011850

McGuire, Alan B; Bonfils, Kelsey A; Kukla, Marina; Myers, Laura; Salyers, Michelle P

2013-12-30

273

Attendance and Student Performance in Undergraduate Chemistry Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous studies suggest that attendance may be one of the key factors which influence student performance. Although there have been many studies in introductory science courses, there have been virtually no studies which analyze and compare students' performance from different types of institutions as well as different level of classes. Our study…

Lyubartseva, Ganna; Mallik, Uma Prasad

2012-01-01

274

Improving Attendance and Behaviour in Wales: The Action Plan  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Behaviour and Attendance Review (NBAR) Report for Wales was produced in 2008. Subsequently, its recommendations were accepted by the Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) which established an Implementation Group to prepare its response in detail. A year later in April 2009 this Group presented its findings and recommendations to WAG in the…

Reid, Ken

2010-01-01

275

77 FR 64983 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...MidAmerican Energy Company and Midwest...Renewables North America, LLC v. Midwest...EL11-53, Shetek Wind Inc., Jeffers...Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Midwest...Office of Energy Markets...

2012-10-24

276

77 FR 40606 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

...ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...ER09-36-001, Prairie Wind Transmission...Renewables North America, LLC v. Midwest...EL12-28-000, Xcel Energy Services Inc...Office of Energy Markets...

2012-07-10

277

77 FR 73645 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...MidAmerican Energy Company and Midwest...Renewables North America, LLC v. Midwest...EL11-53, Shetek Wind Inc., Jeffers...Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Midwest...Office of Energy Markets...

2012-12-11

278

Draper Station Analysis Tool  

Science.gov (United States)

Draper Station Analysis Tool (DSAT) is a computer program, built on commercially available software, for simulating and analyzing complex dynamic systems. Heretofore used in designing and verifying guidance, navigation, and control systems of the International Space Station, DSAT has a modular architecture that lends itself to modification for application to spacecraft or terrestrial systems. DSAT consists of user-interface, data-structures, simulation-generation, analysis, plotting, documentation, and help components. DSAT automates the construction of simulations and the process of analysis. DSAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI), plus a Web-enabled interface, similar to the GUI, that enables a remotely located user to gain access to the full capabilities of DSAT via the Internet and Webbrowser software. Data structures are used to define the GUI, the Web-enabled interface, simulations, and analyses. Three data structures define the type of analysis to be performed: closed-loop simulation, frequency response, and/or stability margins. DSAT can be executed on almost any workstation, desktop, or laptop computer. DSAT provides better than an order of magnitude improvement in cost, schedule, and risk assessment for simulation based design and verification of complex dynamic systems.

Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jang, Jiann-Woei; McCants, Edward; Omohundro, Zachary; Ring, Tom; Templeton, Jeremy; Zoss, Jeremy; Wallace, Jonathan; Ziegler, Philip

2011-01-01

279

The trend of the total stock of the private car-petrol in Spain: Stochastic modelling using a new gamma diffusion process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main aim of this study is to model the trend of the evolution of the total stock of private petrol-driven cars. In Spain, as in other EU countries, this trend between 2000 and 2005 differed significantly from that observed from 1986 to 1999. Moreover, it varies greatly from that corresponding to the stock of diesel-driven cars, which consistently presents an exponential Gompertz-type increase. Spain constitutes a typical example of a failure to observe the maximum CO2 emission levels assigned to it by 2012 under the Kyoto Protocol (1992); a significant percentage of these excess emissions is accounted for by the land transport sector, in general, and by the private cars subsector, in particular. This paper proposes a stochastic model based on a new non homogeneous stochastic gamma-type diffusion process which it is a stochastic version of a Gamma function type deterministic growth model considered in Skiadas . We describe its main probabilistic characteristics and establish a statistical methodology by which it can be fitted to real data and obtain medium-term forecasts that, in statistical terms, are quite accurate

280

It Doesn’t Hurt to Ask: Assessing Default Effects in a Brazilian Gas Station  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When an option is set as the default and as a result people are more likely to choose it, we call it a default effect. In this research we investigated whether drivers were more likely to choose a more expensive type of fuel if it was set as the default option by a mere suggestion from the gas station attendant. In the first study, we collected data showing that drivers did not believe they could be affected by default options. The second study, however, refuted these findings: we conducted a field experiment in which a trivial question asked by the gas station attendant, whose effect was the creation of a default option, led drivers to purchase a product they would not otherwise have considered. We thus provide evidence that default effects might be even more pervasive in real situations with real consumers than what one would expect from controlled laboratory experiments.

Maurício Mittelman

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Discharges from nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

282

Kakrapar Atomic Power Station Gujarat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) is the fifth Atomic Power Station in India. It is a twin unit with a generating capacity of 220 MWe each. Reactors are known as Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. The heat is generated by nuclear fission using natural uranium as fuel. Unit-1 is under commercial operation since 06 May 1993 and Unit-2 since 01 September 1995. The safety performance of station is improving continuously. As on 30 September 2010, Station has record of longest reportable accident free period of 2873 days and fire free days of 4515

283

Application for the Tape Station  

CERN Document Server

The Tape Station is used as an Isolde facility to observe the variations of intensity and the lifespan of certain isotopes. A Siemens Simatic FM-352-5 module controls the Tape Station in a PLC system then a DSC controls the PLC, which will be controlled the Tape station program. During the Isolde consolidation project, the Tape Station has been rebuilt, and the control system has been fully integrated in the PS control. Finally, a new application has been written in JAVA Development kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment. The main purpose of this note is to explain how to use this program.

Solero, A

2003-01-01

284

Laki?j? organini? jungini? tyrimas nuo benzino degalini?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research focuses on the environmental problem of volatile organic compounds in ambient air of petrol filling stations. The literature review of the issues, arising from petrol-related VOCs, with actual and proposed VOC emissions trends in Europe, have been performed. Besides petrol filling station’s typical technology layout, petrol nature and composition, applicable petrol vapour recovery solutions and their efficiency were examinated. The volatile organic compounds’ experimental res...

Bikbajeva, Z?ana

2008-01-01

285

SMART Station Blackout Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima accident represents the latest fear of any nuclear industry whether established or just starting. Although it was a natural disaster, it must be assured that even under such circumstances, radioactive material is contained and release is avoided. Despite the possibility of radioactive release occurring over multiple consequences, such scenarios must be considered. The Fukushima scenario is considered in the SMART (System Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) design with the availability and loss of the Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS). Using the Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety (MARS) code, this paper presents the Fukushima scenario studies along with the calculated grace time as results. The results of SMART Station Black Out (SBO) analysis show grace time of almost two and a half days for the worst-case scenario

286

Space station furnace facility  

Science.gov (United States)

The Space Shuttle Furnace Facility (SSFF) is the modular, multi-user scientific instrumentation for conducting materials research in the reduced gravity environment of the International Space Station. The facility is divided into the Core System and two Instrument Racks. The core system provides the common electrical and mechanical support equipment required to operate experiment modules (EMs). The EMs are investigator unique furnaces or apparatus designed to accomplish specific science investigations. Investigations are peer selected every two years from proposals submitted in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Announcements. The SSFF Core systems are designed to accommodate an envelope of eight types of experiment modules. The first two modules to be developed for the first instrument rack include a high temperature gradient furnace with quench, and a low temperature gradient furnace. A new EM is planned to be developed every two years.

Cobb, Sharon D.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

1996-07-01

287

Space Station power  

Science.gov (United States)

The DC primary power requirements are presented for Space Station Freedom. The power conversion system used is a current-fed push-pull (CFPP) converter. Large signal, small signal, and closed-loop control, analysis of the CFPP converter is presented. Both PSPICE circuit simulation and MATLAB control loop simulation along with experimental results confirm theoretical work. A prototype unit has been developed by using specially designed power components, which exhibit power conversion efficiency of more than 92 percent. By using the state-space averaging method, the Buck-like canonical model of the DC-to-DC converter unit was derived. The peak-current programming control is employed to ensure the cycle-to-cycle correction of small distribution. In the controller design, the interactions among line filter, power stage, and output filter have been taken into account.

Silva, Rosemary; Lee, Henry

288

GEMS (GEophysical Monitoring Station)  

Science.gov (United States)

The GEMS (GEophysical Monitoring Station) is one of three missions undergoing Phase A development for possible selection by NASA's Discovery Program [1]. If selected, GEMS will illuminate the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution by performing the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation of Mars. It will provide key information on the composition and structure of an Earth-like planet that has gone through most of the evolutionary stages of the Earth up to, but not including, plate tectonics. Thus the traces of this history are still contained in the basic parameters of the planet: the size, state and composition of the core, the composition and layering of the mantle, the thickness and layering of the crust, and the thermal flux from the interior.

Banerdt, B.; Smrekar, S.; Dehant, V.; Lognonné, P.; Spohn, T.; Grott, M.

2011-10-01

289

Boeing: International Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Boeing, the prime contractor for the International Space Station (ISS), has developed this website to provide information on the technology of the program. The ISS will be more than four times as large as the Russian Mir when completed, and is "the largest, most complex international scientific project in history and our largest adventure into space to date." Boeing is responsible for the design, development, construction and integration of the ISS and assisting NASA in operating the orbital outpost. They provide an overview of the status of the project and describes the current configuration, components, structure, and systems with more detailed information on some sections. Visitors can follow links to also read more about the scientific research conducted by the expedition crew.

290

An Investigation of Creativity Among Children Attending Preschools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate creativity among children attending preschools in terms of several variables. The study was conducted with 72 female and 63 male 5-year-old (60-72 months children selected from independent preschools related to the Turkish Ministry of National Education in Ankara. The “General Information Form” was administered to children in order to collect basic information about children and their parents. To determine creativity among children, the “Torrence Creative Thinking Test” developed by Torrence in 1966 and translated into Turkish by Aslan (1999 was used. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis H tests were used to analyze data. As a result of the study, gender and father’s educational level do not affect creativity scores of the children, yet duration of preschool attendance and mother’s educational level statistically have a significant effect on their creativity scores (p<.05.

Zuhal Gizir Ergen

2012-04-01

291

Pup growth and maternal attendance patterns in Subantarctic fur seals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Samples of pups from the expanding populations of Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis at Marion and Gough islands were weighed at specific ages between birth and weaning in the period 1993-2000. Growth was estimated and compared between years, sexes, sites of different density, and populations. Pups of comparable age were consistently heavier at Marion Island than at Gough Island, probably reflecting relative prey resource abundance. No changes in pup growth rates were apparent over the study period, nor was there any evidence that growth was affected by ENSO events. Measures of pup growth at Marion Island were complemented by measures of maternal attendance behaviour during three summer and winter seasons. More years of data are required to determine patterns between attendance, growth, resource conditions and population abundance trends.

P.A. Pistorius

2011-10-01

292

RF-Station control crate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives a description of the electronic control-system for the RF-station of AmPS. The electronics form the connection between the computer-system and the hardware of the RF-station. Only the elements of the systems which are not described in the other NIKHEF-reports are here discussed in detail. (author). 7 figs

293

Balloon launching station, Mildura, Victoria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Mildura Balloon Launching Station was established in 1960 by the Department of Supply (now the Department of Manufacturing Industry) on behalf of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) to determine the content of radioactive material in the upper atmosphere over Australia. The Station location and layout, staffing, balloon launching equipment, launching, tracking and recovery are described. (R.L.)

294

Sighting the International Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

Teets, Donald

2008-01-01

295

Modeling Flight Attendants’ Exposures to Pesticide in Disinsected Aircraft Cabins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aircraft cabin disinsection is required by some countries to kill insects that may pose risks to public health and native ecological systems. A probabilistic model has been developed by considering the microenvironmental dynamics of the pesticide in conjunction with the activity patterns of flight attendants, to assess their exposures and risks to pesticide in disinsected aircraft cabins under three scenarios of pesticide application. Main processes considered in the model are microenvironmen...

Zhang, Yong; Isukapalli, Sastry; Georgopoulos, Panos; Weisel, Clifford

2013-01-01

296

Telephone reminders to reduce non-attendance rate for endoscopy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Non-attendance at clinics and endoscopy units wastes resources and lengthens waiting lists. In a previous study elsewhere, a substantial proportion of patients claimed to have forgotten their appointment. We therefore assessed the value of telephoning patients a week before their booked day-case endoscopy. An observation period of two months was followed by an intervention period of two months in which patients were contacted by phone and asked if they wished to come for their investigation. ...

Lee, C. S.; Mccormick, P. A.

2003-01-01

297

Impact of Learners on Emergency Medicine Attending Physician Productivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Several prior studies have examined the impact of learners (medical students or residents) on overall emergency department (ED) flow as well as the impact of resident training level on the number of patients seen by residents per hour. No study to date has specifically examined the impact of learners on emergency medicine (EM) attending physician productivity, with regards to patients per hour (PPH). We sought to evaluate whether learners increase, decrease, or have no effect on...

Rahul Bhat; Jeffrey Dubin; Kevin Maloy

2014-01-01

298

Motivation for and Benefits from Attending the AP Statistics Reading  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores the Advanced Placement® Statistics reading as a source of professional development for teachers. The study was conducted to capture the motivation for and benefits from attending the collective grading. Research has shown that examining student work during professional development has implications for teaching. The premise of this study is that Advanced Placement readings are a context for examining the impact of collective grading of student work. The purpo...

Tim Jacobbe; Hartlaub, Bradley A.; Douglas Whitaker

2013-01-01

299

Epidemiology of endometriosis in women attending family planning clinics.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To describe the epidemiology of endometriosis in women attending family planning clinics with special reference to contraceptive methods. DESIGN--Non-randomised cohort study with follow up of subjects for up to 23 years. Disease was measured by first hospital admission rates since endometriosis can be diagnosed with accuracy only at laparotomy or laparoscopy. SETTING--17 family planning centres in England and Scotland. SUBJECTS--17,032 married white women aged 25-39 years at entry ...

Vessey, M. P.; Villard-mackintosh, L.; Painter, R.

1993-01-01

300

Genital human papillomavirus infection among patients attending an STD clinic.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES--To determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in patients, male and female, attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). DESIGN--A randomly selected group of patients representative of the population studied and first-time visitors to the STD clinic, were asked to participate in the study. Samples from the skin and mucous membranes of the lower genital region were taken for cytological analysis by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for...

Strand, A.; Rylander, E.; Evander, M.; Wadell, G.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Modeling Flight Attendants’ Exposures to Pesticide in Disinsected Aircraft Cabins  

Science.gov (United States)

Aircraft cabin disinsection is required by some countries to kill insects that may pose risks to public health and native ecological systems. A probabilistic model has been developed by considering the microenvironmental dynamics of the pesticide in conjunction with the activity patterns of flight attendants, to assess their exposures and risks to pesticide in disinsected aircraft cabins under three scenarios of pesticide application. Main processes considered in the model are microenvironmental transport and deposition, volatilization, and transfer of pesticide when passengers and flight attendants come in contact with the cabin surfaces. The simulated pesticide airborne mass concentration and surface mass loadings captured measured ranges reported in the literature. The medians (means±standard devitions) of daily total exposures intakes were 0.24 (3.8±10.0), 1.4 (4.2±5.7) and 0.15 (2.1±3.2) ?g/(day kg BW) for scenarios of Residual Application, Preflight and Top-of-Descent spraying, respectively. Exposure estimates were sensitive to parameters corresponding to pesticide deposition, body surface area and weight, surface-to-body transfer efficiencies, and efficiency of adherence to skin. Preflight spray posed 2.0 and 3.1 times higher pesticide exposure risk levels for flight attendants in disinsected aircraft cabins than Top-of-Descent spray and Residual Application, respectively. PMID:24251734

Zhang, Yong; Isukapalli, Sastry; Georgopoulos, Panos; Weisel, Clifford

2014-01-01

302

Neural responses to complex auditory rhythms: the role of attending  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the role of attention in pulse and meter perception using complex rhythms. We used a selective attention paradigm in which participants attended to either a complex auditory rhythm or a visually presented word list. Performance on a reproduction task was used to gauge whether participants were attending to the appropriate stimulus. We hypothesized that attention to complex rhythms – which contain no energy at the pulse frequency – would lead to activations in motor areas involved in pulse perception. Moreover, because multiple repetitions of a complex rhythm are needed to perceive a pulse, activations in pulse related areas would be seen only after sufficient time had elapsed for pulse perception to develop. Selective attention was also expected to modulate activity in sensory areas specific to the modality. We found that selective attention to rhythms led to increased BOLD responses in basal ganglia, and basal ganglia activity was observed only after the rhythms had cycled enough times for a stable pulse percept to develop. These observations suggest that attention is needed to recruit motor activations associated with the perception of pulse in complex rhythms. Moreover, attention to the auditory stimulus enhanced activity in an attentional sensory network including primary auditory, insula, anterior cingulate, and prefrontal cortex, and suppressed activity in sensory areas associated with attending to the visual stimulus.

HeatherLChapin

2010-12-01

303

Shippingport station communications program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project, the central idea of the communications program that was developed for use was purposely designed to be as uncomplicated as possible. The central theme, that was developed and communicated, is that all nuclear plants will someday need to be retired and also decommissioned. The Shippingport Plant, originally constructed as a demonstration nuclear power plant, was now being decommissioned as a demonstration to the world-wide nuclear industry that this evolution can be done in a safe and cost-effective manner. Furthermore, the technology currently exists to complete this process. The new phase of the communications program was initiated even before the responsibility for the plant was transferred from Duquesne Light to GE. With such a change forthcoming, it was necessary to inform local officials of these plans, and the reasons for them. Equally important was the need to inform a variety of agencies and offices in the three-state area of the changes, and the continuing need to involve them in the Site Emergency Plan. This document was also revised in recognition of changing site conditions, as well as the changes in responsibility. 1 ref

304

Swedish encapsulation station review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

1998-06-01

305

Personality types of women attending an STD clinic: correlation with keeping first review appointments.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One hundred and eighty new women patients attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic answered the Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) which measures psychoticism, extraversion, neuroticism, and a tendency to "fake good". These personality scores were correlated with the patients' attendance or non-attendance for their first review appointments. The results showed that the mean psychoticism scale scores of the 41 non-attenders was significantly higher than that of the 139 who ke...

Hammond, D.; Maw, R. D.; Mulholland, M.

1989-01-01

306

Development of Attendance Database System Using Bar-coded Student Card  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The calculation of the level of attendance is very important, because one indicator of a person's credibility can be seen from the level of attendance. For example, at a university, data about the level of attendance of a student in a lecture is very important as one of components in the assessment. The manual presence system is considered less effective. This research presents the draft of presence system using bar codes (barcodes) as input data representing the attendance. The presence syst...

Abdul Fadlil; Kartika Firdausy; Fauzi Hermawan

2008-01-01

307

The Trencin water power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This leaflet describes the Trencin water power station. The Trencin water power station was built seven years after the Dubnica nad Vahom water power station started its operation and was the last stage of the first and the oldest derived cascade of water power stations on the Vah River. After completing water power stations at Ladce (1936), Ilava (1946) and Dubnica nad Vahom (1949) and before constructing the Trencin water power station, the whole second derived cascade of water power stations including water power stations at Kostolna, Nove Mesto nad Vahom and Horna Streda was built as soon as possible mainly because the need to get compensation for discontinued electricity supplies as well as energetic coal from the Czech Republic. Hereby, experiences from the construction of previous grades were used, mainly as far as the dimensioning was concerned, as the fi rst installed power stations had, in comparison with the growing requirements on the electricity supplies, very low absorption capacity - only 150 m3.s-1. Thus the Trencin power station (original name was the Skalka power station) was already dimensioned for the same absorption capacity as the cascade located downstream the river, that is 180 m3.s-1. That was related also to growing demands on electricity supplies during the peaks in the daily electric system load diagram, and thus to the transfer from continuous operation of the water power station to semi-peak or even peak performance. According to the standards of power station classification, the Trencin water power station is a medium size, low pressure, channel power station with two units equipped by Kaplan turbines and synchronous hydro-alternators. The water power station installed capacity is 16.1 MW in total and its designed annual production of electrical energy for medium water year is 85,000 MWh, while the average annual production during the last 30 years is 86,252 MWh. Installed unit has a four-blade Kaplan turbine with the diameter of the impeller wheel 3800 mm. Its water absorption maximum flow is 90 m3.s-1 and operational extension of the head between 13.85 and 10,35 m. Maximum power output of the generator is 11.5 MVA, a nominal voltage 10.5 kV and the power factor cos ? = 0.7. The power station has a block arrangement with its output led out through the 22 kV switchgear that is connected to the 110 kV switchgear. The big inner cubicle-type switchgear of 22 kV provides power supplies for many industrial plants in Trencin and for the city of Trencin itself, as well as interconnection with neighbouring water power stations

308

Motivating Attendance in a First-Year Mathematics Course Using "House Cash"  

Science.gov (United States)

Poor class attendance is detrimental to student success. This is especially true in entry-level college mathematics courses, where habitual non-attendance can have lasting effects that greatly limit a student's options for continued academic success. The purpose of this study was to design an attendance incentive and to evaluate its impact on…

Ellermeyer, S. F.; Leeds, E. M.; Banker, T. G.

2011-01-01

309

Utilising Multimedia ESP Programme in Enhancing Flight Attendants' Safety Knowledge and Problem Solving Skills  

Science.gov (United States)

A multimedia English for Specific Purposes (ESP) programme was developed to train flight attendants. The programme comprised of two units. Unit one is listening comprehension, which provides the flight attendants' with specific information of Airbus A340. Unit two is reading comprehension, which provides the flight attendants with the emergency…

Bani-Salameh, Zakaria A.; Kabilan, Muhammad K.; Bani-Salalmeh, Lina

2011-01-01

310

Using Attending Cues and Responses To Increase the Efficiency of Direct Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Designed to be used by practicing teachers, students who are learning to become teachers, and faculty members who instruct such students, this manual describes how to use attending cues and responses to help children with mild disabilities attend to the important aspects of instructional activities, and how to use attending cues and responses to…

Holcombe-Ligon, Ariane; And Others

311

Functional Limitations and Religious Service Attendance among African American and White Older Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Church attendance is associated with improved health and well-being among older adults, but older adults with functional limitations may have difficulty attending church services. This article examines differences in the association between functional limitations and church attendance in a sample of 987 elderly African American and white…

Roff, Lucinda Lee; Klemmack, David L.; Simon, Cassandra; Cho, Gi Won; Parker, Michael W.; Koenig, Harold G.; Sawyer-Baker, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.

2006-01-01

312

Seismometer array station processors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of the design, construction and initial testing of two types of Seismometer Array Station Processor (SASP), one to work with data stored on magnetic tape in analogue form, the other with data in digital form. The purpose of a SASP is to detect the short period P waves recorded by a UK-type array of 20 seismometers and to edit these on to a a digital library tape or disc. The edited data are then processed to obtain a rough location for the source and to produce seismograms (after optimum processing) for analysis by a seismologist. SASPs are an important component in the scheme for monitoring underground explosions advocated by the UK in the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. With digital input a SASP can operate at 30 times real time using a linear detection process and at 20 times real time using the log detector of Weichert. Although the log detector is slower, it has the advantage over the linear detector that signals with lower signal-to-noise ratio can be detected and spurious large amplitudes are less likely to produce a detection. It is recommended, therefore, that where possible array data should be recorded in digital form for input to a SASP and that the log detector of Weichert be used. Trial runs show that a SASP is capable of detecting signals down to signal-to-noise ratios of about two with very few false detections, and at mid-continental array sites it should be capable of detecting most, if not all, the signals with magnitude above msub(b) 4.5; the UK argues that, given a suitable network, it is realistic to hope that sources of this magnitude and above can be detected and identified by seismological means alone. (author)

313

Space Station Freedom Evolution Symposium  

Science.gov (United States)

Information on the Space Station Freedom Evolution Symposium is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include industry development needs and the Office of Commercial Programs strategy, the three-phase program to develop commercial space, Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), key provisions of the Joint Endeavor agreement, current commercial flight experiment requirements, the CCDS expendable launch vehicle program, the Commercial Experiment Transporter (COMET) program, commercial launch dates, payload sponsors, the commercial roles of the Space Station Freedom, and a listing of the Office of Commercial Programs Space Station Freedom payloads.

Ott, Richard H.

1991-01-01

314

47 CFR 73.1120 - Station location.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 false Station location. 73.1120 Section 73.1120 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1120 Station location. Each AM, FM, TV...

2010-10-01

315

47 CFR 73.210 - Station classes.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station classes. 73.210 Section 73.210 Telecommunication...SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.210 Station classes. (a) The rules applicable to a...

2010-10-01

316

47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 80.409 Section 80.409 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Station Documents § 80.409 Station logs. (a) General requirements....

2010-10-01

317

47 CFR 90.735 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Station identification. ...SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations...Band § 90.735 Station identification. ...the call sign of the base station at 30...

2010-10-01

318

47 CFR 90.647 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Station identification. ...SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations...Bands § 90.647 Station identification. ...the call sign of the base station facility...

2010-10-01

319

Detection of Rogue Base Station Using MATLAB  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper considers the problem of detectingrogue base station in WiMAX/802.16 networks. A roguebase station is an attacker station that duplicates a legitimatebase station. The rogue base station puzzles a set ofsubscribers who try to get service which they believe to be alegitimate base station. It may lead to disturbance in service.The strategy of attack depends on the type of network. Ourapproach is based on the inconsistencies in sensitivity andreceived signal strength (RSS) reports rec...

Sukhwinder Singh; Ramanpreet Singh

2011-01-01

320

Sexual behaviour in women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 1025 women attending a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic, sexual experience had started at an increasingly early age during the past 30 years, from a mode of 19 in the early 1950s to 16 in the early 1980s. Up to the age of 40, sexually active older women had as many recent sexual partners as younger women. Oral intercourse (fellatio) was practised by 714 (70%) women, and 378 (37%) experienced ejaculation in the mouth. Anal intercourse was practised by 200 (20%) women and 90 (9%) experien...

Evans, B. A.; Bond, R. A.; Macrae, K. D.

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Minimizing Base Station Power Consumption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a new radio resource management algorithm which aims at minimizing the base station supply power consumption for multi-user MIMO-OFDM. Given a base station power model that establishes a relation between the RF transmit power and the supply power consumption, the algorithm optimizes the trade-off between three basic power-saving mechanisms: antenna adaptation, power control and discontinuous transmission. The algorithm comprises two steps: a) the first step estima...

Holtkamp, Hauke; Auer, Gunther; Bazzi, Samer; Haas, Harald

2014-01-01

322

The Koeberg nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the article reasons are given for the building of the Koeberg nuclear power station instead of choosing one of the other options available for power generation in the Western Cape. The selection of the site at Duynefontein for the erection of Koeberg is discussed. Thirdly, a description of the four major sections into which nuclear power stations can be divided, namely the nuclear island, conventional island (turbine hall), the water cooling system and the substation, is given

323

Minimizing Base Station Power Consumption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a new radio resource management algorithm which aims at minimizing the base station supply power consumption for multi-user MIMO-OFDM. Given a base station power model that establishes a relation between the RF transmit power and the supply power consumption, the algorithm optimizes the trade-off between three basic power-saving mechanisms: antenna adaptation, power control and discontinuous transmission. The algorithm comprises two steps: a) the first step estima...

Holtkamp, Hauke; Auer, Gunther; Bazzi, Samer; Haas, Harald

2013-01-01

324

Space Station Freedom research capabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA's plan for enhancing space-based research capabilities begins with extended-duration Space Shuttle missions that will double the research capability currently provided by Spacelab and culminate in Space Station Freedom. The 14-day USML 1 mission flown on the Space Shuttle in June 1992 was a space station precursor mission, dedicated to microgravity and life science research. Freedom will be a permanent space-based research facility, providing a working environment nearly free of buoyancy-driven convection, sedimentation, and hydrostatic pressure and featuring access to the ultra-high vacuum of space (for external payloads). In its crew-tended phase, Space Station Freedom will provide 40 times Spacelab's capability, and in its permanently occupied phase, Freedom will provide 110 times Spacelab's capability. (The Russian space station, Mir, offers 26 times Spacelab's capabilities.) According to NASA's current schedule, the first launch of a space station element will take place in November 1995, with permanently occupied capability planned for September 1999. This year, NASA will conduct space station critical design reviews (CDR's). Work package design reviews will take place from February to April 1993, followed by a systems CDR.

Moorehead, Robert

325

Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?  

Science.gov (United States)

This video, 'Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?', has been produced as a classroom tool geared toward middle school children. There are three segments to this video. Segment One is a message to teachers presented by Dr. Jeannine Duane, New Jersey, 'Teacher in Space'. Segment Two is a brief Social Studies section and features a series of Presidential Announcements by President John F. Kennedy (May 1961), President Ronald Reagan (July 1982), and President George Bush (July 1989). These historical announcements are speeches concerning the present and future objectives of the United States' space programs. In the last segment, Charlie Walker, former Space Shuttle astronaut, teaches a group of middle school children, through models, computer animation, and actual footage, what Space Station Freedom is, who is involved in its construction, how it is to be built, what each of the modules on the station is for, and how long and in what sequence this construction will occur. There is a brief animation segment where, through the use of cartoons, the children fly up to Space Station Freedom as astronauts, perform several experiments and are given a tour of the station, and fly back to Earth. Space Station Freedom will take four years to build and will have three lab modules, one from ESA and another from Japan, and one habitation module for the astronauts to live in.

Vonehrenfried, Dutch

326

Religious attendance after elevated depressive symptoms: is selection bias at work?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an attempt to determine if selection bias could be a reason that religious attendance and depression are related, the predictive value of elevated depressive symptoms for a decrease in future attendance at religious services was examined in a longitudinal panel of 1,673 Dutch adults. Religious attendance was assessed yearly over five years using the single question, “how often do you attend religious gatherings nowadays?” Depressive symptoms were assessed four times within the first year using the Depression subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Logistic regression models of change in attendance were created, stratifying by baseline attendance status. Attenders who developed elevated symptoms were less likely to subsequently decrease their attendance (relative risk ratio: 0.55, 95% CI [0.38–0.79] relative to baseline as compared to those without elevated symptoms. This inverse association remained significant after controlling for health and demographic covariates, and when using multiply imputed data to account for attrition. Non-attenders were unlikely to start attending after elevated depressive symptoms. This study provides counter evidence against previous findings that church attenders are a self-selected healthier group.

Lloyd Balbuena

2014-03-01

327

Sources of dietary calcium in patients attending an osteoporosis clinic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gemma HornSurgical Department, Perth Royal Infirmary, Perth, ScotlandIntroduction: Osteoporosis is a common disease that affects both women and men but is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Reviews suggest that dietary-derived calcium is vital in maintaining adequate calcium balance. Sources of dietary calcium intake among adult patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were reviewed.Method: Two hundred and ninety-one patients attending an osteoporosis clinic were given an eleven-item food questionnaire to complete. The results were compared to the recommended daily allowance of 700 mg.Results: The overall mean intake was 657 mg/day with little difference between age or gender. The best foods for supplying calcium were cheese and milky drinks.Conclusion: This study has confirmed that suboptimal calcium intakes remain common. Dairy sources of calcium remain important. More awareness is needed to convey the importance of dietary calcium and bone health to avoid the development of osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoporosis, clinic, food questionnaire, calcium, dietary intake, bone health

Horn G

2012-09-01

328

Determinación y estandarización de plomo en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio del Estado Mérida Blood lead determination and standardization in petrol station workers in the State of Merida  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

En este trabajo se ha determinado el contenido de plomo (Pb) en sangre en operarios de estaciones de servicio de la ciudad de Mérida (Venezuela) y en un grupo de personas no expuestas ocupacionalmente. Las muestras de sangre provenientes de sujetos de ambos sexos n=21 (controles) y n=65 (personal expuesto) fueron procesadas por absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica (ETAAS). Las concentraciones obtenidas de 15,27±9,62 y 83,74±28,95 µg/L para los grupos denominados como contr...

Laura Molina; María Luisa Di Bernardo; Carlos Rondón; María Ysabel García; Pablo Carrero; José Rafael Luna; José Gregorio Salazar; Alexis Morales; Yajaira Hernández; Jesús Peña

2007-01-01

329

The Miksova water power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This leaflet describes the Miksova water power station. The Miksova water power station is part of the second derived cascade of hydro power stations on the river Vah. It was built at the end of a huge development in Slovak hydro-energy in the late 1950's and the beginning of the 1960's. It is the second water power station on this derived cascade, which is situated downstream the Hricov reservoir and water power station. At the power station, three turbine sets with vertical Kaplan turbines are installed with a total power output of 3 x 31.2 = 93.6 MW. With this power output the Miksova water power station (Miksova I) was the biggest water power station in the Slovak Republic until the construction of Pumping water power station Liptovska Mara. And it is still the biggest channel water power station on the Vah so far. It was put into operation during the period 1963 to 1965. There are three turbine sets with Kaplan turbines from CKD Blansko, with a synchronous hydro-alternator installed in the power station. Their installed capacity is 93.6 MW in total and the projected annual production of electrical energy is 207 GWh. The turbines are fi ve-bladed (on the Hricov and Povazska Bystrica water power stations they are four-bladed) and the impeller wheel has a diameter of 4800 mm. They are designed for extension of the head from 24.1 to 22.21 m and each of them has an absorption capacity of 134 m3.s-1 nd a nominal operating speed of 2.08 m3.s-1, runaway speed 4.9 m3.s-1. Each synchronous hydro-alternator has a maximum power output of 31.2 MW, a nominal voltage of 10.5 kV and power factor cos ? of 0.8. Power from the power station is led out through 110 kV switchgear. The water power station operates under automatic turbine mode of operation with remote indication and control from the Dispatch Centre at Vodne elektrarne, in Trencin. From start of operation until the end of 2003 all three turbine sets operated for a total of 450,500 running hours and the Miksova water power station produced total of about 7,161,342 MWh of electricity in its 40 years of activity. According to its functionality, the Miksova pumped storage station (Miksova II) the upper reservoir of which was built from 1963 to 1966 on the Benovsky stream, was an interesting hydro-energy construction. The lower reservoir was formed by the enlarged discharge channel of the Miksova water power station. This power station was a pilot project, at which pumping reversible turbines and other mechanical-technical equipment for hydro power stations were tested, especially for the future construction of PVE Ruzin and Liptovska Mara. A turbine set with a diagonal reversible turbine and an installed capacity of 2.6 MW, which had an operational capacity of 11.2 m3.s-1 in a turbine mode of operation and using a head of 22 to 28 m, was installed in the machine room. It pumped 8.8 m3.s-1 of water with a power input of 3.1 MW in a pumping mode of operation. During the period of its operation from 1971 to 1984, pumping hydro power station Miksova II produced a total of 13,042 MWh of electricity in total, but by testing reversible turbines and the simulation of some special hydraulic phenomena, this power station lost its importance as low-efficiency source, stopped working and its technological equipment was demounted. Experiences from its construction and from its few years of operation were later used during the construction of our pumping hydro power stations. Prolonging its operating period should help with the installation of a bigger basin on the inflow, from which a greater amount of water could be used for the generation of electrical power in turbine mode of operation

330

Shippingport Station decommissioning project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station located on the Ohio River, 30 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Shippingport Station is the first commercial size nuclear power plant to undergo decommissioning in the United Staes. The plant is located on approximately 7 acres of land owned by the Duquesne Light Company (DLC) and leased to the U.S. Government. DLC operates two nuclear power plants, Beaver Valley 1 and 2, located immediately adjacent to the site and the Bruce Mansfield coal-fired power plant is also within the immediate area. The Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September, 1984. The Shippingport Station consists of a 275' x 60' fuel handling building containing the reactor containment chamber, the service building, the turbine building, the radioactive waste processing building, the administration building and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops and most of the containment structures are located below grade. Structures owned by the U.S. Government including the fuel handling building, service building, contaminated equipment room, the boiler chambers, the radioactive waste processing building and the decontamination and laydown buildings will be dismantled and removed to 3 feet below grade. The area will then be filled with clean soil and graded. The turbine building, testing and training be turbine building, testing and training building and the administration building are owned by DLC and will remain

331

Shippingport station decommissioning project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS), the first commercial-sized nuclear power plant in the United States to undergo complete dismantlement. SAPS is located near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on approximately seven acres of land owned by Duquesne Light Company (DLC), and leased to the US Department of Energy. The Station consists of a 275' by 60' Fuel Handling Building containing the Reactor Containment Chamber, the Service Building, the Turbine Building, the Radioactive Waste Processing Building, the Administration Building, and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops; most of the containment structures are located below grade. Shippingport Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September 1984. At that time, responsibility for the plant was transferred from DOE Office of Assistant Secretary for Naval Reactors (NE-60) to DOE Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action (NE-20) and then to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL). Also at that time, responsibility for the operation/decommissioning of the station systems passed from DLC to General Electric Company (GE). A caretaker and site preparation period lasted from September, 1984 to September, 1985, at which time decommissioning activities started. The decommissioning period is scheduled as September, 1985 through April, 1990. Project total estimated cost is $98.3 million

332

Douglas Point Generating Station Commissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses a number of the interesting experiences encountered at the Douglas Point Nuclear Power Station. Sufficient background with respect to the basic process, equipment location, and commissioning history is given so that those not familiar with the station may follow the remainder of the paper. Three commissioning philosophies followed in the commissioning of Canadian nuclear power stations are mentioned: (1) no ordinary water used for commissioning heavy-water systems: (2) fuelling machines used for initial fuel loading; (3) no portable steam-generating equipment for preliminary turbine-generator run up. Against this background the following experiences are mentioned: low power physics measurements; fuel channel replacement and faulty booster removal; heat transport pressure control; ion-exchange resin in the heat transport system; heat transport pumps; boiler level control; possible fretting of pressure tubes; turbine operation; heavy-water experience. The paper concludes by mentioning some important lessons learned from the experience to date and states confidence in the future of Douglas Point Generating Station, and future Canadian nuclear power stations. (author)

333

Long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience among British adults: a retrospective analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is inconclusive evidence on the value of regular dental attendance. This study explored the relationship between long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience. We used retrospective data from 3,235 adults, ?16 yrs of age, who participated in the Adult Dental Health Survey in the UK. Participants were classified into four groups (always, current, former, and never regular-attenders) based on their responses to three questions on lifetime dental-attendance patterns. The association between dental-attendance patterns and caries experience, as measured using the decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index, was tested in negative binomial regression models, adjusting for demographic (sex, age, and country of residence) and socio-economic (educational attainment, household income, and social class) factors. A consistent pattern of association between long-term dental attendance and caries experience was found in adjusted models. Former and never regular-attenders had a significantly higher DMFT score and numbers of decayed and missing teeth, but fewer filled teeth, than always regular-attenders. No differences in DMFT or its components were found between current and always regular-attenders. The findings of this study show that adults with different lifetime trajectories of dental attendance had different dental statuses. PMID:25521216

Aldossary, Arwa; Harrison, Victoria E; Bernabé, Eduardo

2015-02-01

334

PHYSICAL MODELING OF A HYDRO POWER STATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this diploma basics of water energy are introduced and main types of hydro power stations and water turbines are also described. Hydro power stations activity is introduced in functional structure, where we focused on accumulative hydro power stations. Physical principals and their influential parameters as also their optimization abilities are defined for accumulative hydro power stations. Some systems, which work on the same physical principals as accumulative hydro power stations, but ...

Strelec, Primoz?

2013-01-01

335

Mielipidetutkimus Saarijärven Kolkanlahteen suunnitellusta lomakylähankkeesta  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the thesis was to research the attitudes of the local people in Saarijärvi regarding the Russian-owned holiday village plan in Kolkanlahti. The concept was to review the students´, working people´s, entrepreneurs´ and pensioners´ thought about the project and if and how the answers differentiated between these segments. The survey was executed by leaving questionnaire forms in the high school, ST1-Rantakivi petrol station and Cafe Picasso. Customers attending K-Market Minttu w...

Minkkinen, Jenni; Paananen, Miia

2009-01-01

336

Monitoring of nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the invention is to create a process for undelayed automated detection and monitoring of accidents in the operation of nuclear power stations. According to the invention, this problem is solved by the relevant local measurements, such as radiation dose, components and type of radiation and additional relevant meteorological parameters being collected by means of wellknown data collection platforms, these being transmitted via transmission channels by means of satellites to suitable worldwide situated receiving stations on the ground, being processed there and being evaluated to recognise accidents. The local data collection platforms are used in the immediate vicinity of the nuclear power station. The use of aircraft, ships and balloons as data collection systems is also intended. (HWJ)

337

Where to look? Automating attending behaviors of virtual human characters  

Science.gov (United States)

This research proposes a computational framework for generating visual attending behavior in an embodied simulated human agent. Such behaviors directly control eye and head motions, and guide other actions such as locomotion and reach. The implementation of these concepts, referred to as the AVA, draws on empirical and qualitative observations known from psychology, human factors and computer vision. Deliberate behaviors, the analogs of scanpaths in visual psychology, compete with involuntary attention capture and lapses into idling or free viewing. Insights provided by implementing this framework are: a defined set of parameters that impact the observable effects of attention, a defined vocabulary of looking behaviors for certain motor and cognitive activity, a defined hierarchy of three levels of eye behavior (endogenous, exogenous and idling) and a proposed method of how these types interact.

Chopra Khullar, S.; Badler, N. I.

2001-01-01

338

Ancient Chinese observations of physical phenomena attending solar eclipses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The realization that solar activity probably undergoes changes in qualitative character on time scales greater than the 11 or 22 year cycle but short compared to the duration of recorded history gives renewed importance to historical documents describing the state of solar activity. Modern eclipse observation reveal the presence of solar acitivity through the appearance of coronal structures and prominences. It has been widely remarked that eclipse records prior to the 18th century are uniformly silent on these conspicuous solar eclipse features, raising the possibility, however unlikely, that a change in solar activity has occurred which rendered them only recently noticeable. We present here material from ancient Chinese sources, primarily astrological, that describe phenomena attending solar eclipses that are almost certainly coronal structures and prominences. Thus, these aspects of the present character of solar activity have apparently occurred at other times in history, if not continuously. (orig.)

339

Motivation for and Benefits from Attending the AP Statistics Reading  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explores the Advanced Placement® Statistics reading as a source of professional development for teachers. The study was conducted to capture the motivation for and benefits from attending the collective grading. Research has shown that examining student work during professional development has implications for teaching. The premise of this study is that Advanced Placement readings are a context for examining the impact of collective grading of student work. The purpose of the study was to examine the motivation of and benefits for AP Statistics reading participants. The results suggest that analysis of student work may be a method to address teachers' preparation to teach statistics at the level expected by recent reform movements in the field of statistics education.

Tim Jacobbe

2013-04-01

340

Learning where to Attend with Deep Architectures for Image Tracking  

CERN Document Server

We discuss an attentional model for simultaneous object tracking and recognition that is driven by gaze data. Motivated by theories of perception, the model consists of two interacting pathways: identity and control, intended to mirror the what and where pathways in neuroscience models. The identity pathway models object appearance and performs classification using deep (factored)-Restricted Boltzmann Machines. At each point in time the observations consist of foveated images, with decaying resolution toward the periphery of the gaze. The control pathway models the location, orientation, scale and speed of the attended object. The posterior distribution of these states is estimated with particle filtering. Deeper in the control pathway, we encounter an attentional mechanism that learns to select gazes so as to minimize tracking uncertainty. Unlike in our previous work, we introduce gaze selection strategies which operate in the presence of partial information and on a continuous action space. We show that a s...

Denil, Misha; Larochelle, Hugo; de Freitas, Nando

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Finding, Food Waste Management Program at McMurdo Station  

Science.gov (United States)

... stations in Antarctica: McMurdo Station on Ross Island; the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station; and ... Palmer Station on the Antarctic Peninsula. McMurdo Station is the major base for providing logistics ...

342

47 CFR 73.807 - Minimum distance separation between stations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...authorized stations. Station class protected by LP100 Co-channel minimumseparation...or LPFM stations. Station class protected by LP10 Co-channel minimumseparation...the Virgin Islands: Station class protected by LP100 Co-channel...

2010-10-01

343

Analyses of power station economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of construction, fuel and other running costs of electricity production based on conventional coal/oil-fired plants and on atomic power stations. These types of stations are selected: a 600 MW coal/oil-fired plant, a 900 MW atomic power plant of LWR type, and a 635 MW atomic power plant of CANDU type. The comparison serves to elucidate the immediate effects on social economics that the choice between conventional and atomic power production must be presumed to have for investments, fuel consumption, running costs and consumer prices for electricity, as well as for currency costs and employment during the construction and operation of power plants. (B.P.)

344

Station Location - Complexity and Approximation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider a geometric set covering problem. In its original form it consists of adding stations to an existing geometric transportation network so that each of a given set of settlements is not too far from a station. The problem is known to be NP-hard in general. However, special cases with certain properties have been shown to be efficiently solvable in theory and in practice, especially if the covering matrix has (almost) consecutive ones property. In this paper we are narrowing the gap ...

Mecke, Steffen; Scho?bel, Anita; Wagner, Dorothea

2006-01-01

345

Petroleum price; Prix du petrole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil market is the most volatile of all markets, with the exception of the Nasdaq. It is also the biggest commodity market in the world. Therefore one cannot avoid forecasting oil prices, nor can one expect to avoid the forecasting errors that have been made in the past. In his report, Joel Maurice draws a distinction between the short term and the medium-long term in analysing the outlook for oil prices. (author)

Maurice, J

2001-07-01

346

Men and women who attend Al-anon: gender differences in reasons for attendance, health status and personal functioning, and drinker characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although Al-Anon Family Groups (Al-Anon) is the most common source of help for people concerned about someone else's drinking, only 16% of members are men. To identify gender differences, we compared demographics, reasons for attendance, health status, and personal functioning, and drinker characteristics of 174 men and women attending Al-Anon. Men and women were similar in most areas; however, some key differences emerged. Men reported better overall mental health than women, and described some differing concerns and drinker characteristics. With this information, healthcare providers may facilitate men's participation in Al-Anon by addressing their unique concerns and possible barriers to attendance. PMID:25245105

Short, Nicole A; Cronkite, Ruth; Moos, Rudolf; Timko, Christine

2015-01-01

347

Exposure of flight attendants to pyrethroid insecticides on commercial flights: urinary metabolite levels and implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pyrethroid insecticides have been used for disinsection of commercial aircrafts. However, little is known about the pyrethroids exposure of flight attendants. The objective of the study was to assess pyrethroids exposure of flight attendants working on commercial aircrafts through monitoring the urinary pyrethroids metabolite levels. Eighty four urine samples were collected from 28 flight attendants, 18 – 65 years of age, with seventeen working on planes that were non-disinsected, and eleve...

Wei, Binnian; Mohan, Krishnan R.; Weisel, Clifford P.

2011-01-01

348

Women’s Social Networks and Birth Attendant Decisions: Application of the Network-Episode Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the association of women's social networks with the use of skilled birth attendants in uncomplicated pregnancy and childbirth in Matlab, Bangladesh. The Network-Episode Model was applied to determine if network structure variables (density / kinship homogeneity / strength of ties) together with network content (endorsement for or against a particular type of birth attendant) explain the type of birth attendant used by women above and beyond the variance explained by women'...

Edmonds, Joyce K.; Hruschka, Daniel; Bernard, H. Russell; Sibley, Lynn

2011-01-01

349

Prospective study of predictors of attendance for breast screening in inner London.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the predictors of first-round attendance for breast screening in an inner city area. DESIGN--Prospective design in which women were interviewed or completed a postal questionnaire before being sent their invitation for breast screening. Sociodemographic factors, health behaviours, and attitudes, beliefs, and intentions were used as predictors of subsequent attendance. A randomised control group was included to assess the effect of being interviewed on attendance. SET...

Sutton, S.; Bickler, G.; Sancho-aldridge, J.; Saidi, G.

1994-01-01

350

The Spectrum of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Patients Attending Rheumatology Clinic in Nizwa Hospital-Oman  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To determine the spectrum and expression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in patients attending the rheumatology clinic in Nizwa hospital, Oman.Methods: Subjects and methods: 66 patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for the diagnosis of RA were included in the study. The patients were either attending for the first time or were already diagnosed and attending for follow up. The demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological findings are reported.R...

Faisal Al-Temimi

2010-01-01

351

A Wireless Framework for Lecturers' Attendance System with Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) Technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) technology is one type of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) method which can be used to significantly improve the efficiency of lecturers' attendance system. It provides the capability of automatic data capture for attendance records using mobile device equipped in users’ veh icle. The intent of this article is to propose a framework for automatic lecturers' attendance system using AVI technology. The first objective of this work in...

Emammer Khamis Shafter; Raveendra Rao; Luiz Fernando Capretz; Bikshapathi Gouda

2014-01-01

352

Measuring participation in an evidence-based practice: Illness management and recovery group attendance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given the important role of treatment attendance as an indicator of program implementation and as a potential moderator of program effectiveness, this study sought to develop useful indicators of attendance for evidence-based practices. The current study examined consumer attendance patterns in a randomized controlled trial comparing illness management and recovery (n = 60) to a problem solving control condition (n = 58). Associations were examined between consumer clinical indicators, demogr...

Mcguire, Alan B.; Bonfils, Kelsey A.; Kukla, Marina; Myers, Laura; Salyers, Michelle P.

2013-01-01

353

Personality and Gastric Cancer Screening Attendance: ?A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the Miyagi Cohort Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To determine the associations between personality subscales and attendance at gastric cancer screenings in Japan. Methods A total of 21,911 residents in rural Japan who completed a short form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) and a questionnaire on various health habits including the number of gastric cancer screenings attended were included in the primary analysis. We defined gastric cancer screening compliance as attendance at gastric cancer screening every year for the previous 5 years; all other patterns of attendance were defined as non-compliance. We defined gastric cancer screening visiting as attendance at 1 or more screenings during the previous 5 years; lack of attendance was defined as non-visiting. We used logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of gastric cancer screening compliance and visiting according to 4 score levels that corresponded to the 4 EPQ-R subscales (extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie). Result Extraversion had a significant linear, positive association with both compliance and visiting (trend, P cancer screening attendance. A better understanding of the association between personality and attendance could lead to the establishment of effective campaigns to motivate people to attend cancer screenings. PMID:19164872

Arai, Shizuha; Nakaya, Naoki; Kakizaki, Masako; Ohmori-Matsuda, Kaori; Shimazu, Taichi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Fukao, Akira; Tsuji, Ichiro

2009-01-01

354

Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS), the first commercial-sized nuclear power plant in the United States to undergo complete dimantlement. SAPS is located near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on approximately seven acres of land owned by Duquesne Light Company (DLC), and leased to the U.S. Department of Energy. The Station consists of a 275' x 60' Fuel Handling Building containing the Reactor Containment Chamber, the Service Building, the Turbine Building, the Radioactive Waste Processing Building, The Administration Building, and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops; most of the containment structures are located below grade. Shippingport Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September, 1984. A caretaker and site preparation period lasted from September, 1984 to September, 1985, at which time decommissioning activities started. The decommissioning period is scheduled as September, 1985 through April, 1990. Project total estimated cost is $98.3 million

355

Space station molecular sieve development  

Science.gov (United States)

An essential function of a space environmental control system is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere to control the partial pressure of this gas at levels lower than 3 mm Hg. The use of regenerable solid adsorbents for this purpose was demonstrated effectively during the Skylab mission. Earlier sorbent systems used zeolite molecular sieves. The carbon molecular sieve is a hydrophobic adsorbent with excellent potential for space station application. Although carbon molecular sieves were synthesized and investigated, these sieves were designed to simulate the sieving properties of 5A zeolite and for O2/N2 separation. This program was designed to develop hydrophobic carbon molecular sieves for CO2 removal from a space station crew environment. It is a first phase effort involved in sorbent material development and in demonstrating the utility of such a material for CO2 removal on space stations. The sieve must incorporate the following requirements: it must be hydrophobic; it must have high dynamic capacity for carbon dioxide at the low partial pressure of the space station atmosphere; and it must be chemiclly stable and will not generate contaminants.

Chang, C.; Rousseau, J.

1986-01-01

356

Indoor switchyards for power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Special problems encountered in the design of the 230 kV switchyards of the coastal nuclear station at Tarapur, India, are discussed. The remedial measures taken to overcome the deleterious effects of the salty sea water are also outlined. (K.B.)

357

Space Station power system issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Issues governing the selection of power systems for long-term manned Space Stations intended solely for earth orbital missions are covered briefly, drawing on trade study results from both in-house and contracted studies that have been conducted over nearly two decades. An involvement, from the Program Development Office at MSFC, with current Space Station concepts began in late 1982 with the NASA-wide Systems Definition Working Group and continued throughout 1984 in support of various planning activities. The premise for this discussion is that, within the confines of the current Space Station concept, there is good reason to consider photovoltaic power systems to be a venerable technology option for both the initial 75 kW and 300 kW (or much greater) growth stations. The issue of large physical size required by photovoltaic power systems is presented considering mass, atmospheric drag, launch packaging and power transmission voltage as being possible practicality limitations. The validity of searching for a cross-over point necessitating the introduction of solar thermal or nuclear power system options as enabling technologies is considered with reference to programs ranging from the 4.8 kW Skylab to the 9.5 gW Space Power Satellite

358

Repowering existing thermal power stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under consideration are the aging equipment of thermal power stations in Russia and possibilities of improving its technical-economical and environmental-protection characteristics. The basis for renovation of this equipment, as well as development and implementation of new, more effective technologies and designs, are special technical requirements which are either being developed or have been already prepared for implementation.

D`Yakov, A.F.; Nechaev, V.R.; Olkhovsky, G.G. [All-Russian Thermal Engineering Research Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

1998-12-31

359

Make Your Own Weather Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Become an amateur meteorologist by building your own weather station and keeping a record of your measurements. Older students can independently follow instructions on how to build five different instruments (barometer, hygrometer, rain gauge, weather vane, and compass). Younger students will need adult supervision with hammer and nails.

360

Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
361

The station living program Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shortly after the start of a preventive maintenance program upgrade using the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) process, Boston Edison Company identified the need to keep the RCM analysis current over time. After a period of study, it was decided to form a tailored collaboration with EPRI. The original title that was suggested was open-quotes RCM Living Programclose quotes. After discussions between plant staff and the EPRI Project Manager this title was broadened to that of open-quotes Preventative Maintenance Living Programclose quotes. Initially, development of the open-quotes Preventive Maintenance Living Programclose quotes was limited to the PM world, but numerous links to other plant processes and to the NRC Maintenance Rule were not addressed. The project was reformulated to include the affected plant processes and implementation of the NRC mandated Maintenance Rule. The project became the open-quotes Station Living Programclose quotes. This Maintenance Rule/Living Program project is a collaborative effort co-funded by Boston Edison and EPRI, with Quadrex Corporation providing supplemental on-site technical support. This paper describes the open-quotes Station Living Programclose quotes as it is being developed at Boston Edison's Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station

362

Spent fuel canister docking station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The working report for the spent fuel canister docking station presents a design for the operation and structure of the docking equipment located in the fuel handling cell for the spent fuel in the encapsulation plant. The report contains a description of the basic requirements for the docking station equipment and their implementation, the operation of the equipment, maintenance and a cost estimate. In the designing of the equipment all the problems related with the operation have been solved at the level of principle, nevertheless, detailed designing and the selection of final components have not yet been carried out. In case of defects and failures, solutions have been considered for postulated problems, and furthermore, the entire equipment was gone through by the means of systematic risk analysis (PFMEA). During the docking station designing we came across with needs to influence the structure of the actual disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel, too. Proposed changes for the structure of the steel lid fastening screw were included in the report. The report also contains a description of installation with the fuel handling cell structures. The purpose of the docking station for the fuel handling cell is to position and to seal the disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel into a penetration located on the cell floor and to provide suitable means for executing the loading of the disposal canister and the changing of atmosphere. The designed docking station consisphere. The designed docking station consists of a docking ring, a covering hatch, a protective cone and an atmosphere-changing cap as well as the vacuum technology pertaining to the changing of atmosphere and the inert gas system. As far as the solutions are concerned, we have arrived at rather simple structures and most of the actuators of the system are situated outside of the actual fuel handling cell. When necessary, the equipment can also be used for the dismantling of a faulty disposal canister, cut from its upper end by machining. The overall cost estimate for the manufacture of the equipment, value added tax not included, totalled 669 000 EUR, of which 189 000 EUR constituted designing costs and 73 000 EUR installation costs. (orig.)

363

Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women Attending a Hospital in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Domestic violence is an important risk factor for pregnancy complications. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its related factors in a population of pregnant women. A cross sectional study was done on 426 women who were attended to an obstetrics ward of a hospital in Iran. A 35 item questionnaire was completed by the respondents. The life time prevalence of domestic violence was 42% and it was 19.3% during pregnancy. There was no relation between socioeconomic status, women`s education and employment and age of marriage with domestic violence. Unemployment, addiction and alcohol use among husbands were related to domestic violence. Slapping and punching were the most common kinds of violent behavior. The prevalence of domestic violence even during pregnancy is high in Iran, so there is a need to increase the awareness of the community and empower the health workers and professionals in order to prevent and control this problem.

2008-01-01

364

RFID in cloud environment for Attendance monitoring system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID initially is of great use in the marketing field render billing easy. It came into effect since world war-II attained its wide spread recognition only when Walmart introduced it as ‘mandate’. An object within the range of 20 feet can be easily tracked with the aid of its unique barcode using RFID chip. It is sophisticated than the primitive barcode techniques as there is no need of positioning of the scanner. Cloud computing is a system which provides access to all soft ware’s without installation, for a desired time period, at a specific cost, only with the help of a single web browser.. Interfacing RFID with cloud computing would be more beneficiary in solving current issues. Technological updates can be done without any technical support. This paper presents theoverview of interfacing RFID with cloud computing for updating students’ attendance and updating it into the parents’ corner and faculty mails. By considering the present issue, providing unique RFID code to the students reduce malpractice and human error. Also Human resources can be saved by the application of cloud computing. Time management is the most effective advantage gained from the use ofRFID and cloud computing.

A.Parvathy

2013-06-01

365

Public Staff Meetings – thank you for a large attendance  

CERN Multimedia

The public meetings of the Staff Association which took place recently were attended by about 500 staff, a large fraction of them young and on a limited duration (LD) contract. The audience mainly shared the worries of the Staff Association concerning the low number of IC post openings in this and the coming years. Moreover, after the meeting several LD contract holders contacted the Staff Association to express their point of view and to put forward their ideas to tackle this problem. As explained in those meetings, the Staff Association emphasizes that personnel policy should not be guided by self-imposed quota, even under pressure by the Member States. As we have repeated several times, CERN needs a total staff complement well beyond the baseline ceiling of 2250, the number agreed by Council, if it has to guarantee an efficient and excellence level of service to the ever-growing user community, which has almost doubled over the last decade. Moreover, the indefinite contract (IC) component should stan...

Staff Association

2013-01-01

366

Manifestations of 'capabilities poverty' with learners attending informal settlement schools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In this study I use the notion of 'capabilities poverty', as theorised by Sen, to examine the experiences of learners attending informal settlement schools in North-West Province, South Africa. Sen distinguishes between functionings (what people do or their ability to do something) and capabilities [...] (various combi­nations of what people do, their notions of freedom, what life opportunities they may have). The study was based on a sample of respondents from four schools in the Sarafina informal settlement in Ikageng township in the municipal district of Tlokwe (Potchefstroom). It captured some complexities of schooling within South Africa's democratic educational framework and clearly exposed the mani­festations of capabilities poverty. The precise location of capabilities poverty within the plethora of poverty approaches presents educational research with a reality check when looking at informal settlement schools. The study revealed a multiplicity of barriers for informal settlement learners that prevent them from choosing the educational experience they value and contributes to research into the nuanced nature of the interface between poverty and schooling.

Rouaan, Maarman.

2009-08-01

367

[Psychosocial responses of infertile couples attending an assisted reproduction program].  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate gender differences in the psychosocial responses of 85 couples who attended the assisted reproduction program at Chung Shan Medical & Dental College Hospital from September 1991 to February 1992. The infertile couples were investigated by a self-administered structured questionnaire about demographic data, infertility history, and psychosocial responses and 75 couples completed the questionnaire. The average age of husbands was 35.0 years/and wives, 31.6 years. The average duration of infertility and treatment was 52.7 and 34.6 months, respectively. Parental expectation was the leading source of stress for men, while women counted being unable to meet childbearing demands as the main source of stress. Infertile women showed a higher psychosocial distress than their partners on the global measures and all the subscales of the infertility questionnaire and psychiatric symptoms test. Except for hostility, the differences between couples in subscales of self-esteem/body image, guilty, and all psychiatric symptoms reached statistical significance (p infertile couples, concordant response was demonstrated only in response to sexuality and physical condition. We consistently conclude with previous reports that infertile women showed a higher level of distress than their spouses, and that men and women displayed different psychosocial responses to infertility. PMID:7549587

Lee, S H; Kau, B J; Lee, M C; Lee, M S

1995-06-01

368

SOLAR POWER STATIONS FOR REMOTE AGRICULTURAL CONSUMERS ????????? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ???????????????????? ????????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The solar power stations for energy supply of remote technological processes making requirements to their design have been designed. Energy estimate of power stations design for remote agricultural consumers has been made

Gazalov V. S.; Evdokimov A. Y.

2013-01-01

369

47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.  

Science.gov (United States)

...deviation was beyond a prescribed tolerance, by a...Stations may keep EAS data in a special EAS log...of the equipment being recorded; (2) The recording...station log, original data may be recorded in rough form and...

2010-10-01

370

47 CFR 78.69 - Station records.  

Science.gov (United States)

...was made, if an automatic alarm system is not employed...Identification of Flight Service Station...was given to the Flight Service Station...associated tower lighting control devices, indicators, and alarm systems. (ii)...

2010-10-01

371

47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97...of time on the common data base coordinated, maintained...

2010-10-01

372

47 CFR 74.1283 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...information to the primary station licensee for this purpose. (2) By transmitting the call sign in International Morse Code at least once each hour. Transmitters of FM broadcast translator stations of more than 1 watt transmitter output...

2010-10-01

373

47 CFR 95.119 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...The station identification must be transmitted in: (1) Voice in the English language; or (2) International Morse code telegraphy. (e) A station need not identify its transmissions if it automatically retransmits communications...

2010-10-01

374

47 CFR 5.115 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...sign is transmitted at least once every thirty minutes. The station identification shall be transmitted in clear voice or Morse code. All digital encoding and digital modulation shall be disabled during station...

2010-10-01

375

Adaptive Skills and Maladaptive Behavior of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Attending Special Schools in Singapore  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the profile of and relationships between adaptive skills and the maladaptive behaviors exhibited by adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) attending special schools in Singapore. Parents of 20 adolescents with ASD attending special schools completed the Development Behavior Checklist (DBC; Einfeld & Tonge, 1995;…

Poon, Kenneth K.

2011-01-01

376

Four-Year Graduates Attending Community Colleges: A New Meaning for the Term "Second Chance."  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines four-year college graduates who attended Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC) in North Carolina after obtaining their baccalaureate degrees, exemplifying a growing population of "reverse transfer" students. The study employed a telephone survey of the four-year graduates attending CPCC, an analysis of student records to…

Quinley, John W.; Quinley, Melissa P.

377

The Meaning of Persistence for African American Females Attending Urban Community Colleges  

Science.gov (United States)

The purposes of this study were to examine the experiences of African American female students attending urban community colleges, to gain further understanding of how they interpret the meaning of persistence, and to identify the factors that affect their persistence. African American women attending community college in Los Angeles were…

Glavan, John

2009-01-01

378

Multiple Intelligences of 6-Year-Old Children Attending Preschool in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to examine 6-year-old pupils attending different preschool institutions in Turkey in view of the multiple-intelligences theory. This research aims at determining whether the gender of pupils attending different preschool institutions leads to differences in their verbal-linguistics, mathematical-logical, visual-spatial,…

Uysal, Ebru; Akyol, Aysel Koksal

2007-01-01

379

28 CFR 92.6 - What colleges or universities can I attend under the Police Corps?  

Science.gov (United States)

...or universities can I attend under the Police Corps? 92.6 Section 92.6 Judicial...COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria...or universities can I attend under the Police Corps? (a) The choice of...

2010-07-01

380

The Effects of Attendance on Academic Performance: Panel Data Evidence for Introductory Microeconomics  

Science.gov (United States)

The author presents new evidence on the effects of attendance on academic performance. He used a large panel data set for introductory microeconomics students to explicitly take into account the effect of unobservable factors correlated with attendance, such as ability, effort, and motivation. He found that neither proxy variables nor instrumental…

Stanca, Luca

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Randomised Controlled Trial of Incentives to Improve Attendance at Adult Literacy Classes  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Incentives have been proposed as a method to improve attendance in adult literacy classes. In the UK, several areas have piloted the use of incentives to promote attendance at adult literacy classes. To date no rigorous evaluation of this policy has been undertaken. This paper describes (as far as we are aware) the "only" UK-based…

Brooks, Greg; Burton, Maxine; Cole, Pam; Miles, Jeremy; Torgerson, Carole; Torgerson, David

2008-01-01

382

Comparison of Health-Risk Behaviors among Students Attending Alternative and Traditional High Schools in Minnesota  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research, over a decade old, suggests students attending alternative high schools (AHS) engage in high levels of health-risk behaviors. Data from the 2007 Minnesota Student Survey for students attending AHS ("n" = 2,847) and traditional high schools (THS; "n" = 87,468) were used for this cross-sectional analysis to…

Johnson, Karen E.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Kubik, Martha Y.

2013-01-01

383

Characteristics of Students Attending the Hawthorne and Northeast Centers. Volume 12, No. 10.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to develop a profile of students attending the college's new Northeast Center and to compare these students with those attending classes at the old Hawthorne Center and the college's main campus. Surveys were mailed to 103 degree credit students and 97 continuing education students…

Howard, William; And Others

384

Reasons for Attending, Expected Obstacles, and Degree Aspirations of Asian Pacific American Community College Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined how the academic aspirations of Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) attending community colleges are influenced by their demographic and educational background, reasons for attending, and obstacles they expect to encounter. The sample consisted of 846 APAs out of a total student sample of 5,000 in an urban community college…

Wang, Winnie W.; Chang, June C.; Lew, Jonathan W.

2009-01-01

385

Differences in Students' Motivation to Attend College: Large versus Small High Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study examined the relationship between the variables: school size, motivation, and college attendance to determine if the size of a student's high school, along with his/her motivational tendencies, influenced the student's choice to pursue a college education. Data was gathered from college students attending a small mid-west…

Horyna, Brittney; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.

2012-01-01

386

Illness representations, psychological distress and non-cardiac chest pain in patients attending an emergency department  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Many patients who attend an emergency department (ED) with chest pain receive a diagnosis of non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP), and often suffer poor psychological outcomes and continued pain. This study assessed the role of illness representations in explaining psychological distress and continued chest pain in patients attending an ED.

Webster, R.; Norman, P.; Goodacre, S.; Thompson, A. R.; Mceachan, R. R. C.

2014-01-01

387

Demographic patterns, attitudes and practices of women attending an antenatal clinic in rural Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

To establish the demographic patterns, attitudes, and practices of women attending an antenatal clinic in an isolated rural area, 175 women were interviewed by questionnaire, and 7 groups of 5 women were interviewed in focus discussion groups. Further demographic information was collected using routine registration data and was compared with similar data gathered from an under-10 years' clinic held in the same place on different days. This showed differences in caste distribution for antenatal clinic attenders compared to those attending the under-10 years' clinic. Almost 1/4 of the women were prepared to walk a considerable distance to attend the antenatal clinic. Compared to the national literacy rate, women attending here were more likely to be literate and to have attended the hospital for their previous delivery. Foetal lie was of particular concern to women attending this clinic. Even among this biased population, the majority of women still delivered at home with only the assistance of a female relative or friend. Sudhenis (traditional birth attendants) were used in only a small number of cases. Education, not only of the sudhenis, but also of local women, is important in improving perinatal care in rural areas. PMID:12283775

Kirkpatrick, M; Lamichhane, S

1990-01-01

388

Patterns of Substance Use among Young People Attending Colleges of Further Education in Northern Ireland  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims: Substance use and misuse amongst young people attending colleges of further education (FE) has received little attention in the drug use literature in the UK. This article aims to explore the patterns of drug use amongst young people attending colleges of further education in Northern Ireland. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey…

McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew

2011-01-01

389

Tackling Behaviour and Attendance Issues in Schools in Wales: Implications for Training and Professional Development  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2009, the Welsh Assembly Government published its Report on the review of behaviour and attendance in schools in Wales. The National Behaviour and Attendance Review (NBAR) in Wales was chaired by the author of this paper. Both the Review and the Welsh Assembly Government's response contained recommendations related to the training and…

Reid, Ken

2011-01-01

390

The Views of Primary Pupils on School Attendance at Key Stage 2 in Wales  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides new empirical evidence on primary pupils' views on school attendance in Wales at Key Stage 2. The research was conducted as part of the specific evidence commissioned by the Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) for the National Behaviour and Attendance Review (NBAR) in Wales which was chaired by the lead author. The findings…

Reid, Ken; Challoner, Caroline; Lancett, Ann; Jones, Glenda; Rhysiart, Gwion Ap; Challoner, Sally

2010-01-01

391

Factors Influencing Midlife and Older Adults' Attendance in Family Life Education Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the likelihood of midlife and older adults attending a family life education program by assessing learner characteristics and deterrents to and motivators of attendance. Data were collected through a survey mailed to a stratified sample of adults aged 50 and over. Discriminant analysis results based on survey responses from 264…

Ballard, Sharon M.; Morris, Michael Lane

2005-01-01

392

Factors that Impact Two-Year College Attendance and Program Enrollment among Community College Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Research suggests that numerous factors affect community college attendance. Therefore, when students choose to attend community college, those factors often are key aspects of their decisions. Nonetheless, limited information exists that identifies which particular traits affect community college choice and how the background characteristics of…

McCullough, Aaron Keith

2010-01-01

393

Space Station solar water heater  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

1990-01-01

394

Instalation of modern tide gauge station  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diploma work describes geodetic activities at the renovation and upgrading the tide gauge station Koper, which were taken in the time of experimental operation of tide gauge station. In the diploma work the procedures of geodetic fixing of new tide gauge station Koper, with different measurement procedures: gravimetry, geometric levelling, GPS observations and terrestrial observations are presented. The goal we want to achieve was to connect the tide gauge station with the terrestrial referen...

Burs?ic?, Branka

2006-01-01

395

RECONSTRUCTION OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION DOBLAR I  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This diploma work presents reconstruction of hydroelectric power station Doblar I. It contains construction development, electrical equipment and technical characteristic of hydroelectric power station before reconstruction and all electrical equipment and technical characteristic after reconstruction. There is also a short description of hydroelectric power station Doblar II and pumping hydroelectric power station Av?e. With calculation of short circuit using program PSCAD the sizing of al...

Colaric?, Darjan

2010-01-01

396

Ergonomic Application on the Work Station Layout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Work station layout in the ideal way has been made. The dimension of the work station is 9.4 m x 7.1 m. The workers to be stationed should feel comfort. This can be done by honoring the dimensions and the sum of the tools that should be stationed and also the free space that should be mention between the tools as state in EPRI, NP-2411. (author)

397

Nuclear Station Facilities Improvement Planning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An effective facilities improvement program will include a plan for the temporary relocation of personnel during the construction of an adjoining service building addition. Since the smooth continuation of plant operation is of paramount importance, the phasing plan is established to minimize the disruptions in day-to-day station operation and administration. This plan should consider the final occupancy arrangements and the transition to the new structure; for example, computer hookup and phase-in should be considered. The nuclear industry is placing more emphasis on safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. In order to do this, more emphasis is placed on operations and maintenance. This results in increased size of managerial, technical and maintenance staffs. This in turn requires improved office and service facilities. The facilities that require improvement may include training areas, rad waste processing and storage facilities, and maintenance facilities. This paper discusses an approach for developing an effective program to plan and implement these projects. These improvement projects can range in magnitude from modifying a simple system to building a new structure to allocating space for a future project. This paper addresses the planning required for the new structures with emphasis on site location, space allocation, and internal layout. Since facility planning has recently been completed by Sargent and Leyden at six U. S. nuclear stations, specific e at six U. S. nuclear stations, specific examples from some of those plants are presented. Site planning and the establishment of long-range goals are of the utmost importance when undertaking a facilities improvement program for a nuclear station. A plan that considers the total site usage will enhance the value of both the new and existing facilities. Proper planning at the beginning of the program can minimize costs and maximize the benefits of the program

398

Microbiology on Space Station Freedom  

Science.gov (United States)

This panel discussion convened in Houston, Texas, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, on November 6 to 8, 1989, to review NASA's plans for microbiology on Space Station Freedom. A panel of distinguished scientists reviewed, validated, and recommended revisions to NASA's proposed acceptability standards for air, water, and internal surfaces on board Freedom. Also reviewed were the proposed microbiology capabilities and monitoring plan, disinfection procedures, waste management, and clinical issues. In the opinion of this advisory panel, ensuring the health of the Freedom's crews requires a strong goal-oriented research effort to determine the potential effects of microorganisms on the crewmembers and on the physical environment of the station. Because there are very few data addressing the fundamental question of how microgravity influences microbial function, the panel recommended establishing a ground-based microbial model of Freedom, with subsequent evaluation using in-flight shuttle data. Sampling techniques and standards will be affected by both technological advances in microgravity-compatible instrumentation, and by changes in the microbial population over the life of the station.

Pierson, Duane L. (editor); Mcginnis, Michael R. (editor); Mishra, S. K. (editor); Wogan, Christine F. (editor)

1991-01-01

399

Optimization of station battery replacement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

400

Space station atmospheric monitoring systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A technology assessment study on atmospheric monitoring systems was performed by Battelle Columbus Division for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's John F. Kennedy Space Center under Contract No. NAS10-11033. In this assessment, the objective was to identify, analyze, and recommend systems to sample and measure Space Station atmospheric contaminants and identify where additional research and technology advancements were required. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to define atmospheric monitoring requirements and to assess the state of the art and advanced technology and systems for technical and operational compatibility with monitoring goals. Three technical tasks were defined to support these needs: Definition of Monitoring Requirements, Assessment of Sampling and Analytical Technology, and Technology Screening and Recommendations. Based on the analysis, the principal candidates recommended for development at the Space Station's initial operational capability were: (1) long-path Fourier transform infrared for rapid detection of high-risk contamination incidences, and (2) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing mass selective detection (or ion-trap) technologies for detailed monitoring of extended crew exposure to low level (ppbv) contamination. The development of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/matrix isolation-Fourier transform infrared system was recommended as part of the long range program of upgrading Space Station trace-contaminant monitoring needs.

Buoni, C.; Coutant, R.; Barnes, R.; Slivon, L.

 
 
 
 
401

CNG Fuelling Stations Design Philosophy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I. Overview (a) Compressed Natural Gas - CNG:- Natural Gas, as an alternative fuel for vehicles, is supplied from the Natural Gas Distribution Network to the CNG fuelling stations to be compressed to 250 bars. It is then dispensed, to be stored on board of the vehicle at about 200 bars in a cylinder installed in the rear, under carriage, or on top of the vehicle. When the Natural Gas is required by the engine, it leaves the cylinder traveling through a high pressure pipe to a high pressure regulator, where the pressure is reduced close to atmospheric pressure, through a specially designed mixer, where it is properly mixed with air. The mixture then flows into the engine's combustion chamber, and is ignited to create the power required to drive the vehicle. (b) CNG Fuelling Stations General Description: as Supply and Metering The incoming gas supply and metering installation primarily depend on the pressure and flow demands of the gas compressor. Natural Gas Compressor In general, gas compressors for natural gas filling stations have relatively low flow rates

402

47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...535-1605 kHz) and AM (1605-1705 kHz broadcasts. If the same licensee...broadcast station in the 535-1605 kHz band and an AM broadcast station in the 1605-1705 kHz band with both stations licensed...FR 3791, Jan. 27, 1982; 48 FR 51308, Nov. 8,...

2010-10-01

403

47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.  

Science.gov (United States)

...what measures the space station operator plans to take...collisions. If the space station licensee is relying on...steps have been taken to contact, and ascertain the likelihood...satellite orbit space stations will be maintained...anticipated evolution over time of the orbit of the...

2010-10-01

404

CLASSIFICATION AND PERSPECTIVES OF MINI HYDROPOWER STATIONS ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classifications of mini hydropower stations, placement types of power stations, the methods of execution, the development prospects of the Russian Federation have been presented in the article. The basic problems of the technique of using mini hydropower stations have been revealed

Ponomarenko A. S.

2013-05-01

405

47 CFR 74.781 - Station records.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station records. 74.781 Section 74.781 Telecommunication... Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.781 Station records. (a) The licensee of a low power...

2010-10-01

406

47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...station as the source of the programming, using the format described...including any free multicast audio programming streams, in a manner that...station's main studio and on its Web site. At least one of the...Satellite operation. When programming of a broadcast station...

2010-10-01

407

Do women requesting only contraception find attendance at an integrated sexual health clinic more stigmatizing than attendance at a family planning–only clinic?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ulrike Sauer,1 Arti Singh,2 Punam Rubenstein,1 Rudiger Pittrof3 1Department of Reproductive and Sexual Health Services, Enfield Community Services, London, UK; 2University Health Services, KNUST Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana, 3Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Trust, London, UK Purpose: Both sexually transmitted infections and the genitourinary medicine clinics that patients attend for management of sexually transmitted infections are stigmatized by patients’ perceptions. The aim of this study was to assess whether women requesting contraception only find attendance at an integrated sexual health clinic (ISHC more stigmatizing than attendance at a family planning (FP–only clinic. Patients and methods: Women requesting contraception only were asked to complete a stigma assessment questionnaire in the waiting room of the clinic they attended. Ease of understanding was assessed for each item of the questionnaire prior to commencement of the survey. The questionnaire was given to women attending either an ISHC or a FP-only clinic. Results: One hundred questionnaires that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were returned. The users of FP-only services were generally older than the users of ISHCs and were more likely than the users of ISHCs to classify themselves as UK white. Stigma perception was significantly higher for the ISHC than the FP-only clinic. Conclusion: The results of this research indicate that among women who request contraception only, perceived stigma is higher when they attend an ISHC than when they attend a FP-only clinic. As this survey only enrolled clinic users, the authors were unable to assess whether integration generates sufficient stigma to deter some women from accessing contraception from integrated services. Of all stigma-related issues, disclosure concerns are likely to be the most important to the service user. Stigma is not an issue of overriding concern for most service users. Keywords: stigma, one-stop shop, sexually transmitted diseases, contraception

Sauer U

2013-02-01

408

Distinct neural correlates of attending speed vs. coherence of motion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attention to specific features of moving visual stimuli modulates the activity in human cortical motion sensitive areas. In this study we employed combined event-related electrophysiological, magnetencephalographic (EEG, MEG) and hemodynamic functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures of brain activity to investigate the precise time course and the neural correlates of feature-based attention to speed and coherence. Subjects were presented with an aperture of dots randomly moving either slow or fast, at the same time displaying a high or low level of coherence. The task was to attend either the speed or the coherence and press a button upon the high speed or high coherence stimulus respectively. When attention was directed to the speed of motion enhanced neural activity was found in the dorsal visual area V3a and in the IPL, areas previously shown to be specialized for motion processing. In contrast, when attention was directed to the coherence of motion significant hemodynamic activity was observed in the parietal areas fIPS and SPL that are specialized for the processing of complex motion patterns. Concurrent recordings of the event-related electro- and magnetencephalographic responses revealed that the speed-related attentional modulations of activity occurred at an earlier time range (around 240-290 ms), while the coherence-related ones occurred later (around 320-370 ms) post-stimulus. The current results suggest that the attentional selection of motion features modulates neural processing in the lowest-tier regions required to perform the task-critical discrimination. PMID:22963856

Kau, S; Strumpf, H; Merkel, C; Stoppel, C M; Heinze, H-J; Hopf, J-M; Schoenfeld, M A

2013-01-01

409

Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station  

CERN Document Server

Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

Kelly, James Floyd

2013-01-01

410

A customer-friendly Space Station  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

Pivirotto, D. S.

1984-01-01

411

47 CFR 73.3573 - Processing FM broadcast station applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing FM broadcast station applications. 73.3573...Broadcast Stations § 73.3573 Processing FM broadcast station applications. (a) Applications for FM broadcast stations are divided into two...

2010-10-01

412

Icebreakers Clear Channel into McMurdo Station  

Science.gov (United States)

... McMurdo Station Annual supply mission reaches main U.S. Antarctic research station The fuel tanker ... McMurdo Station. This year, the ice edge was more than 80 nautical miles from the station. Further ...

413

47 CFR 90.305 - Location of stations.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Location of stations. 90.305 Section... SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization...305 Location of stations. (a) The transmitter site(s) for base station(s),...

2010-10-01

414

Home birth attendants in low income countries: who are they and what do they do?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly half the world’s babies are born at home. We sought to evaluate the training, knowledge, skills, and access to medical equipment and testing for home birth attendants across 7 international sites. Methods Face-to-face interviews were done by trained interviewers to assess level of training, knowledge and practices regarding care during the antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum periods. The survey was administered to a sample of birth attendants conducting home or out-of-facility deliveries in 7 sites in 6 countries (India, Pakistan, Guatemala, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Zambia. Results A total of 1226 home birth attendants were surveyed. Less than half the birth attendants were literate. Eighty percent had one month or less of formal training. Most home birth attendants did not have basic equipment (e.g., blood pressure apparatus, stethoscope, infant bag and mask manual resuscitator. Reporting of births and maternal and neonatal deaths to government agencies was low. Indian auxilliary nurse midwives, who perform some home but mainly clinic births, were far better trained and differed in many characteristics from the birth attendants who only performed deliveries at home. Conclusions Home birth attendants in low-income countries were often illiterate, could not read numbers and had little formal training. Most had few of the skills or access to tests, medications and equipment that are necessary to reduce maternal, fetal or neonatal mortality.

Garces Ana

2012-05-01

415

An investigation into why patients do not attend for out-patient radiology appointments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Introduction: Patients who do not attend (DNA) for out-patient hospital appointments cause delays in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of their own, and other patient's, illnesses, with potentially hazardous consequences. This also impacts upon waiting lists. Failure to attend is viewed as a specific type of non-compliance and social cognition theories have been applied to previous studies in an attempt to uncover the reasons why patients choose not to keep their appointments. Methods: A case-control study was conducted throughout the X-ray departments of a District General type of NHS Trust, using telephone interview questionnaires based on the Health Belief Model, in an attempt to identify any significant differences between attenders and non-attenders, so that likely non-attenders could be targeted. Results: Principal reasons for non-attendance were that the patient forgot or that they did not receive their appointment. The results differed from previous research, in that specific health beliefs were not the primary reasons for non-attendance. Departments that gave patients the opportunity to arrange their appointments for a mutually convenient time had exceptionally low DNA rates, as did those which had rigorous confirmation systems in place.

Lyon, Rebecca [Radiology Department, Wrightington, Wigan and Leigh NHS Trust, Royal Albert Edward Infirmary, Wigan Lane, Wigan, Lancashire WN1 2NN (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rebecca.lyon@wwl.nhs.uk; Reeves, Pauline J. [Arrowe Park Hospital, Wirral (United Kingdom)

2006-11-15

416

An investigation into why patients do not attend for out-patient radiology appointments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction: Patients who do not attend (DNA) for out-patient hospital appointments cause delays in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of their own, and other patient's, illnesses, with potentially hazardous consequences. This also impacts upon waiting lists. Failure to attend is viewed as a specific type of non-compliance and social cognition theories have been applied to previous studies in an attempt to uncover the reasons why patients choose not to keep their appointments. Methods: A case-control study was conducted throughout the X-ray departments of a District General type of NHS Trust, using telephone interview questionnaires based on the Health Belief Model, in an attempt to identify any significant differences between attenders and non-attenders, so that likely non-attenders could be targeted. Results: Principal reasons for non-attendance were that the patient forgot or that they did not receive their appointment. The results differed from previous research, in that specific health beliefs were not the primary reasons for non-attendance. Departments that gave patients the opportunity to arrange their appointments for a mutually convenient time had exceptionally low DNA rates, as did those which had rigorous confirmation systems in place

417

Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

418

Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

Lyles Brad,McCurdy Greg,Chapman Jenny,Miller Julianne

2012-01-01

419

Preheater for nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The description is given of a feed water preheater for a nuclear power station, located between a feed pump and a reactor. The preheater is in the shape of a vertical exchanger vessel containing a bundle of tubes in which the feed water circulates and around which there is a casing in which the heating steam passes at various different pressures and coming from different parts of the installation. The lower part of the vessel is in the shape of an expansion tank for that part of the heating steam having a higher pressure than that of the remainder of the input steam

420

The APS optics topography station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An in-house station for topographic testing of x-ray optical elements for the Advanced Photon Source experimental beamlines was set up by the Experimental Facilities Division of Argonne National Laboratory. A new double-crystal x-ray diffractometer was designed and built keeping in mind the need for testing large crystals possibly attached to cooling manifolds and lines. A short description of the new facility is given. The instrument performance fully satisfies imposed requirements, and the machine was successfully used for testing several silicon and diamond crystals

 
 
 
 
421

A Pilot Study Using Nominal Group Technique to Assess Residents’ Perceptions of Successful Attending Rounds  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Ward attending rounds are fundamental for internal medicine residency training. An improved understanding of interns’ and residents’ perceptions of attending rounds should inform training programs and attending physicians. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to assess residents’ perceptions of successful attending rounds. DESIGN We convened two groups of interns and two groups of residents, to elicit their perceptions on attending rounds. SUBJECTS Participants were recruited by e-mail and conference announcements from the 49 interns and 80 residents in the internal medicine and medicine-pediatrics residency programs. MEASUREMENTS The nominal group technique (NGT) uses a structured group process to elicit and prioritize answers to a carefully articulated question. MAIN RESULTS Seven interns (14%) identified 27 success factors and ranked attending approachability and enthusiasm and high quality teaching as most important. A second group of six (12%) interns identified 40 detractors and ranked having “mean attendings,” receiving disrespectful comments, and too long or too short rounds as the most significant detractors. Nine (11%) residents identified 32 success factors and ranked attention to length of rounds, house staff autonomy, and establishing goals/expectations as the most important success factors. A second group of six (8%) residents identified 34 detractors and ranked very long rounds, interruptions and time constraints, and poor rapport between team members as the most significant detractors). CONCLUSIONS Although there was some overlap in interns’ and residents’ perceptions of attending rounds, interns identified interpersonal factors as the most important factors; whereas residents viewed structural factors as most important. These findings should assist attending physicians improve the way they conduct rounds targeting both interns and residents needs. PMID:18612745

Shewchuk, Richard M.; Willett, Lisa L.; Heudebert, Gustavo R.; Centor, Robert M.

2008-01-01

422

Why surgical lectures are not attended – what should be changed?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of the study: Only a minority of fourth year medical students participate in surgical large lectures. The underlying causes are unknown. Strategies to ensure students´ participation are lacking. The aim of our investigation was to evaluate why students do not participate large lectures in order to develop strategies to bring them back to the lecture hall.Methods: Students and teachers of the Surgical Department of the medical University of Marburg were interviewed by a standardized questionnaire. Causes of absence and suggestions for improving the participation at the lectures were suggested for choice using a 7 point Likkert scale ranging from "very low" to "very high" agreement. In addition, interviews were animated to give free text answers. Additionally, an internal benchmarking with the best utilized lecture at the medical university was performed. To exclude low acceptance of lectures as a local problem, a survey among representative students from 27 of 35 German medical universities was also performed.Results: Overall results showed a good agreement between students and teachers concerning their perceptions at surgical lectures. All 22 putative causes which may explain the low participation rate and all 16 but one suggested improvements showed no differences between students and teachers greater than two points on the Likkert scale. Both groups, the students and the teachers, are convinced that surgical lectures should be maintained. They recommended that excellent teaching should be rewarded. Several organizational nuisances, for example overlapping lectures, are pointed out to be the leading cause for to missing surgical lectures in Marburg. While students hesitate, teachers decided clearly that examinations are an essential part of the teaching strategy. The main differences between surgical and benchmarked lectures were attendance sheets and final examinations. According to information from other medical universities in Germany empty lecture halls are common.Conclusion: Low participation in surgical lectures is a general problem. Nevertheless, lectures are desired by students and teachers. The interview of students and teachers of the Surgical Department of the medical University of Marburg outlined that the improvement of participation in surgical lectures has several conditions. In face of the introduction of the new approbation guidelines organisational nuisances should be avoided and joins of lectures of different departments is needed to avoid redundancies. Excellent teaching should be rewarded. The contents of surgical lectures need to be examined.

Gerdes, Berthold

2005-04-01

423

Managing mood disorders in patients attending pulmonary rehabilitation clinics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Colleen Doyle,1–3 David Dunt,2 David Ames,1 Suganya Selvarajah11National Ageing Research Institute, Royal Melbourne Hospital Royal Park Campus, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 2Centre for Health Policy, Programs and Economics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 3Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: There is good evidence for the positive benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR in the prevention of hospital admissions, lower mortality, and improved health-related quality of life. There is also increasing evidence about the impact of PR on mental health and, in particular, mood disorders. We aimed to identify how depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients in Victoria, Australia, is being managed in PR, to identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms among COPD patients who attend PR, and to determine whether patients with depressive symptoms or anxiety symptoms dropped out of PR early.Method: Of 61 PR clinics, 44 were invited and 22 agreed to participate. Telephone interviews were conducted to see how depression and anxiety in COPD patients were being recognized and managed in these clinics. A total of 294 questionnaires were distributed to patients by clinic coordinators to determine the prevalence of anxiety/depression, as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Coordinators were contacted to provide information on whether respondents dropped out of rehabilitation early or continued with their treatment at 2–4 months post program.Results: Seven clinics were not aware of local guidelines on assessment/treatment/management of mood. Four clinics did not use any screening tools or other aids in the recognition and management of depression and/or anxiety. Overall, eight clinics participating in this study requested advice on suitable screening tools. The patient survey indicated that the mean depression score on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was 5.0 (standard deviation 3.0, range 1–13. The mean anxiety score was 5.5 (standard deviation 3.4, range 0–18. There was no evidence of a link between failure to complete rehabilitation and depression or anxiety scores, as only three of 105 patients failed to complete their rehabilitation.Discussion: Awareness of management guidelines for depression and anxiety in COPD patients was variable across the clinics recruited into our study. We found no link between compliance with rehabilitation and depression, but our sample had limitations.Conclusion: Future research needs to investigate how best to encourage more use of available guidelines regarding integrating psychological and psychosocial support to supplement the exercise and education that are currently offered routinely by all PR clinics studied in Victoria, Australia.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, anxiety, pulmonary rehabilitation

Selvarajah S

2013-01-01

424

Increasing patient attendance in a pediatric obesity clinic: a quality improvement project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research supports intensive lifestyle interventions (>25 contact hours/six months) to treat childhood obesity. Success requires retention in program. This quality improvement project's purpose was to increase attendance of follow-up patients in a childhood obesity clinic by 10%. A pretest posttest design was used. Three months of baseline data were collected, followed by 52weeks of intervention data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact test. Follow-up patient attendance improved significantly from 69% to 81% (z=1.76, p=.039 (95% CI=0.2822, 1.0021)). Simple and inexpensive interventions can significantly increase attendance of obese children in follow-up. PMID:25251646

Geer, Betty; Porter, Renee M; Haemer, Matthew; Krajicek, Marilyn J

2014-01-01

425

47 CFR 73.878 - Station inspections by FCC; availability to FCC of station logs and records.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station inspections by FCC; availability to FCC of station logs and records. 73.878 Section 73...BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.878 Station...

2010-10-01

426

Space Station Biological Research Project  

Science.gov (United States)

To meet NASA's objective of using the unique aspects of the space environment to expand fundamental knowledge in the biological sciences, the Space Station Biological Research Project at Ames Research Center is developing, or providing oversight, for two major suites of hardware which will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The first, the Gravitational Biology Facility, consists of Habitats to support plants, rodents, cells, aquatic specimens, avian and reptilian eggs, and insects and the Habitat Holding Rack in which to house them at microgravity; the second, the Centrifuge Facility, consists of a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge that will provide acceleration levels between 0.01 g and 2.0 g and a Life Sciences Glovebox. These two facilities will support the conduct of experiments to: 1) investigate the effect of microgravity on living systems; 2) what level of gravity is required to maintain normal form and function, and 3) study the use of artificial gravity as a countermeasure to the deleterious effects of microgravity observed in the crew. Upon completion, the ISS will have three complementary laboratory modules provided by NASA, the European Space Agency and the Japanese space agency, NASDA. Use of all facilities in each of the modules will be available to investigators from participating space agencies. With the advent of the ISS, space-based gravitational biology research will transition from 10-16 day short-duration Space Shuttle flights to 90-day-or-longer ISS increments.

Johnson, C. C.; Wade, C. E.; Givens, J. J.

1997-01-01

427

Space station operating system study  

Science.gov (United States)

The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

1988-01-01

428

A qualitative study of conceptions and attitudes regarding maternal mortality among traditional birth attendants in rural Guatemala.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To explore conceptions of obstetric emergency care among traditional birth attendants in rural Guatemala, elucidating social and cultural factors. STUDY: design Qualitative in-depth interview study. SETTING: Rural Guatemala. SAMPLE: Thirteen traditional birth attendants from 11 villages around San Miguel Ixtahuacán, Guatemala. METHOD: Interviews with semi-structured, thematic, open-ended questions. Interview topics were: traditional birth attendants' experiences and conception...

Ro?o?st, Mattias; Johnsdotter, Sara; Liljestrand, Jerker; Esse?n, Birgitta

2004-01-01

429

Reduction of vaporous emissions during transport of petrol and mineral oil products by river tank ships (20. BImSchV); Verminderung gasfoermiger Emissionen beim Transport von Ottokraftstoffen und Mineraloelprodukten mit Binnenschiffen (20. BImSchV)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The gas-free ventilation of the tanks of river tank ships by the common praxis to ventilate the tank atmosphere into ambient air is a big emission source of VOCs and a strong deterioration of air quality. It was shown during several measurement campaigns that the ventilation of the tank atmosphere of river tank ships via the loading / unloading pipes into the land-site vapour recovery unit is a technical solution. The measured emission source strengths during this type of ventilation are of the same amount as the measured emission source strengths during loading and unloading of petrol and are caused by attachment and detachment of loading / unloading pipes only. Furthermore, the concentrations of petrol in the tank atmosphere were measured by the PTB during these experiments. As result of the investigations a leaflet as instruction of environment friendly ventilation of tank atmosphere of river tank ships for the inland sailors and operators of tank storage plants was composed. On the basis of an inquiry of the available vapour recovery units the required capacity of land-site vapour recovery units for the replacement of all ventilation of tank atmosphere to open air was estimated. The capacity of the available vapour recovery units is too low for a preferably short time period of tank atmosphere ventilation. Solving this problem not only the enhancement of the capacity of the available vapour recovery units up to a capacity of 2,200 m{sup 3}/h must be considered but their availability at loading / unloading points of petrol as well as the availability of berthing place must be taken into account also. The necessary enhancement of the capacity and the number of possible new installations of vapour recovery units cannot be defined now because a new amendment for the execution of the 20. BImSchV came into force on 25 August 2001 which allows the ventilation of tank atmosphere of river tank ships to open air under certain conditions until 31 December 2005. To draw the consequences the further development of the need for ventilation of tank atmosphere of river tank ships must be followed. The use of mobile vapour recovery units can be a possible solution of the problem of the availability of vapour recovery units also. (orig.) [German] Die Gasfreimachung der Tanks von Binnenschiffen durch die bisher praktizierte Entgasung ins Freie ist eine grosse Emissionsquelle von VOC und eine erhebliche Beeintraechtigung der Luftqualitaet. Es wurde in mehreren Messkampagnen gezeigt, dass die Entgasung der Tanks von Binnentankschiffen in die VRU ueber die Loesch-/Ladeleitung eine technische Loesung darstellt. Die gemessenen Emissionsquellstaerken waehrend dieser Form der Gasfreimachung sind von gleicher Groesse wie die gemessenen Emissionsquellstaerken waehrend der Be- und Entladung und werden nur durch das Anschliessen und Loesen von Uebergabe- und Uebernahmeleitungen verursacht. Weiterhin wurden durch die PTB in den Tanks die Ottokraftstoffkonzentrationen gemessen. Im Ergebnis der Untersuchungen wurde ein Merkblatt als Handlungsanweisung fuer die Binnenschiffer und Tankanlagen-Betreiber zur Gasfreimachung der Tanks von Binnenschiffen erstellt. Auf der Grundlage einer Erhebung der vorhandenen VRU's wurde der Kapazitaetsbedarf fuer landseitige VRU's bei Abloesung aller Entgasungen ins Freie durch Entgasungen in VRU's ermittelt. Die Kapazitaeten der vorhandenen VRU's sind fuer eine moeglichst schnelle Entgasung zu klein. Bei der Loesung dieses Problems ist aber nicht nur die Kapazitaetserweiterung der vorhandenen VRU's auf 2.200 m{sup 3}/h sondern auch deren Verfuegbarkeit an den Be- und Entladeanlagen fuer Ottokraftstoffe in Verbindung mit den notwendigen Liegeplaetzen zu betrachten. Die notwendigen Kapazitaetserweiterungen und die Anzahl der eventuellen Neu-Installationen von VRU's kann derzeit noch nicht abgeschaetzt werden, da am 25. August 2001 eine neue Aenderungsverordnung der 20. BImSchV in Kraft getreten ist, die eine Entgasung der Binnenschiffe ins Freie unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen bis 31.12.20

Schaefer, K.; Hoffmann, H.; Emeis, S.; Jahn, C.; Sedlmaier, A.; Wilhelm, H.; Dormuth, I.

2001-11-01

430

Hydrological studies around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrological parameters of seven selected station around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) were assessed during the various seasons of the year. The pre-operational study was conducted to have a baseline data (October 1991 to April 1993) on water quality from aquatic environment around the power plant. General pattern of increase in turbidity was noted in monsoon and summer seasons. pH was alkaline from all the stations. Dissolved oxygen was mostly in higher concentration. The sampling station 3 (Blowdown point) was recorded with higher temperature and chloride content. On the other hand, station 7 was marked with higher dissolved oxygen total alkalinity and total hardness due to geological location of the station. The phosphate content was not significantly present whereas nitrate and silicate were found more in monsoon and winter seasons respectively. (author)

431

A comprehensive station for monitoring atmospheric radioactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive station for monitoring atmospheric radioactivity has been designed and five stations are in operation. The stations measure aerosol beta activity, analyse external radiation, and record electrical conductivity, temperature and rain intensity. The stations are computer controlled, but the most important measurements are also recorded with traditional analogue devices. The stations can detect an artificial beta activity in the aerosol at the level of a few becquerels per cubic metre. To avoid false alarms the validity of the data is checked against natural phenomena; that is, cosmic radiation, electrical conductivity, decay curve of radon progeny etc. The measured data are available at the network's central station after only a few minutes delay. (author)

432

Muscle oxygenation, EMG, and cardiovascular responses for cabin attendants vs. controls  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The goal was to investigate the effect of acute moderate hypobaric exposure on the physiological responses to sustained contractions (local) and light to moderate dynamic exercise (systemic) for cabin attendants (CAB) and a matched control group (CON).

Sandfeld, Jesper; Larsen, Lisbeth HØjkjær

2013-01-01

433

76 FR 15307 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Strategic Planning Committee Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Strategic Planning Committee (SPC), as noted below. Their attendance is part of the Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. SPP SPC March 28, 2011 (10 a.m.-4 p.m.), DFW Hyatt Regency,...

2011-03-21

434

Effect of weather on attendance with injury at a paediatric emergency department  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methods: The maximum daily temperature and weather conditions (rain/cloud/sun) were noted over a three month period in spring/summer 2002, together with the number of children attending with new injuries or trauma.

Macgregor, D.

2003-01-01

435

77 FR 24199 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State Committee and Board of Directors...meetings of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and...

2012-04-23

436

76 FR 22699 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State Committee and Board of Directors...meetings of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and...

2011-04-22

437

76 FR 4652 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State Committee and Board of Directors...meetings of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and...

2011-01-26

438

78 FR 64495 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State Committee and Board of Directors...meetings of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and...

2013-10-29

439

76 FR 64940 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State Committee and Board of Directors...meetings of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and...

2011-10-19

440

77 FR 42718 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State Committee and Board of Directors...meetings of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and...

2012-07-20

 
 
 
 
441

77 FR 64505 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State Committee and Board of Directors...meetings of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and...

2012-10-22

442

77 FR 3765 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State Committee and Board of Directors...meetings of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and...

2012-01-25

443

76 FR 42123 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State Committee and Board of Directors...meetings of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and...

2011-07-18

444

78 FR 6320 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State Committee and Board of Directors...meetings of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and...

2013-01-30

445

78 FR 25078 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional Entity Trustee, Regional State Committee and Board of Directors...meetings of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Regional Entity Trustee (RE), Regional State Committee (RSC) and...

2013-04-29

446

41 CFR 105-70.023 - Subpoena for attendance at hearing.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Subpoena for attendance at hearing. 105-70.023 Section 105-70.023 Public Contracts and Property Management ...Regional Offices-General Services Administration 70-IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL...

2010-07-01

447

75 FR 47302 - Notice of FERC Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting, Entergy ICT...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting, Entergy ICT Tranmission Planning Summit and Entergy SPP RTO Planning Process...Street, New Orleans, LA 70130, 504-525-2500. Entergy ICT Transmission Planning Summit August 11, 2010 (8:30...

2010-08-05

448

28 CFR 26.5 - Attendance at or participation in executions by Department of Justice personnel.  

Science.gov (United States)

...in executions by Department of Justice personnel. 26.5 Section 26.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ...Implementation of Death Sentences in Federal Cases § 26.5 Attendance at or participation in executions by...

2010-07-01

449

NRC's object-oriented simulator instructor station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of a comprehensive simulator upgrade program, the simulator computer systems associated with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) nuclear power plant simulators were replaced. Because the original instructor stations for two of the simulators were dependent on the original computer equipment, it was necessary to develop and implement new instructor stations. This report describes the Macintosh-based Instructor Stations developed by NRC engineers for the General Electric (GE) and Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) simulators

450

A global comparison of power station technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the third time, one of the most important conferences on power station technology was held in The Hague from Sept. 13-16 with 1500 participants from 30 countries. Experts from 8 countries talked about the present situation and development trends in conventional and nuclear power station engineering, environemntally-friendly power station technologies, CO2-reduction and the Franco-German reactor concept: the European Pressurised water reactor. This article gives an overview of all papers presented at the conference. (orig.)

451

Environmental protection of nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power stations as sources of radioactive pollution of the environment are considered. The principle of technological systems retaining environmental pollution at WWER-440 type power stations being built in Paks is referred to as well. By analysing the potential pathways of radioactive contaminants into the environment and the human body the principles of monitoring and supervising of the nuclear power stations are determined. (R.J.)

452

International Space Station (ISS) Payload Information Source  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Space Station Payload Information Source CD is a joint effort of NASA and United Space Alliance. It is an introduction to the Space Station's capabilities, payload accommodations and the payload integration process. The CD is designed for use in conjunction with the station payloads website. The outline for the website includes fields of research, getting on board, international partners, about the ISS, basic accommodations, specialized facilities, payload integration, payload processing, payload operations, and reference documents.