WorldWideScience
1

Analysis of pesticide residues Or a needle in a barn  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is about the analysis of pesticide residues as well as the study of soil, air, water and organisms. The solvents used depend on the matrix, types of pesticides, analysis and the equipment. The chromatography engaged with mass spectrometry is one of the most used techniques.

2

Analysis of pesticide residues and metabolites by radioactive tracers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method using radioactive tracers is described for determining residues and metabolites of pesticides. The sensitivity of this technique is very high and it can be better as 10-3?gr per gr. of dry matter. (J.C.)

3

Optimisation of gas chromatography for pesticide residue analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water and soil contamination due to the variety of pesticides used in agriculture practices is a global environmental pollution problem. Organochlorine pesticides are of special interest in this context as their high chemical stability results in their persistence and bioaccumulation in the environment and animal tissues. Sensitive, rapid and reliable methods for the routine determination of organochlorine residues in environment are thus much needed. In this study for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residue in environmental samples; experimental parameters such as effect of temperature and pressure of GC-ECD were studied and optimized. (Author)

4

Agricultural pesticide residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tracer techniques used in the elucidation of the pathways and fate of pesticides in agriculture are reviewed. Such studies include investigating the uptake of labelled pesticides into plants in lysimeter and micro-ecosystem experiments, the translocations of pesticides in the soil, the degradation of pesticides in the soil, the biological availability of soil-applied substances and the bound pesticide residues in the soil. The use of macro- and microautoradiography and double and triple labelling is also described. (U.K.)

5

Optimisation of analytical method for pesticide residue analysis in tomato  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past, the effect of sample processing on the variability of the results and stability of residues gained very little attention of analyst. The current trend is to analyze 5- 10 g analytical portions to save money and time, and to reduce waste material. The sample processing methods and conditions should be optimized and the analytical method validated or its reproducibility verified. This study is carried out by comparing the efficiency of various equipment and processing procedure and to testing the stability of pesticide residues during sample processing. A stable and easy to analyze organophosphorus compound is applied on the surface of the tomato and processed according to the procedure intended to be used in the laboratory. The extract was analyzed by GCMS. From the thoroughly homogenized material, five replicate analytical portions are withdrawn and extracted. Comparing the expected and measured residues in the analytical portions through the recoveries assesses the stability of residues. (Author)

6

Agricultural pesticide residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

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Residue analysis of multi-class pesticides in watermelon by LC-MS/MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

As watermelon is farmed primarily by protected and successive cultivation techniques, a number of pesticides are required for the control of pests and diseases. To evaluate the harmful effects of pesticides in watermelon and to guarantee consumers' safety, a rapid screening process for pesticides is required. A LC-MS/MS method was applied for the direct quantitation of 44 pesticide residues in watermelon. A Zorbax XDB-C(18) column was selected for analysis, with a mobile phase consisting of a gradient system of water and 5 mM methanolic ammonium formate. MS/MS experiments were performed in ESI positive ion and multiple reaction monitoring modes. The LOQs were in the range of 1-26 microg/kg, thereby indicating good sensitivity. Most of the recoveries ranged between 70-131% with RSDs dimethomorph (di) in amides (AM) and cinosulfuron (ci) in ureas (UR) may have been overestimated for the pesticides owing to increased alpha-error risk, whereas the amounts of pesticide residues, such as imibenconazole (ie) in the triazoles (TR) and fenpyroximate (fee) in the imidazoles (IM), may have been underestimated as the result of increased beta-error risk. The current method allowed for the rapid quantitation and identification of low pesticide levels in the watermelon samples. No pesticide residues were detected in any of the surveyed watermelons obtained from eight local markets in the Republic of Korea. Statistical analysis of the recoveries classified the 44 pesticides into nine groups and three overall categories. PMID:20175086

Park, Semin; Lee, Sung Joong; Kim, Hae Gyeong; Jeong, Won Young; Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M; Jeong, Sung Woo; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Soo Taek; Shin, Sung Chul

2010-03-01

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Evaporated extracts of samples for pesticide residue analysis simplifies transport from remote places  

OpenAIRE

The increasing use of pesticides demands a world-wide control of residue levels in food and the environment. However, pesticide residue analysis is challenging and needs both experience and instrumentation. Although much can be done with fairly simple means, many countries with limited resources can only perform certain analyses. Also in technologically more advanced countries, different laboratories may specialize in certain kinds of analyses and there is also a need to confirm results with ...

Terenius, Olle; A?kerblom, Malin

1997-01-01

9

Pesticide residues in eagles  

Science.gov (United States)

Bald and golden eagles found sick or dead in 18 States and Canada during 1964-1965 were analyzed for pesticide residues. Residues in bald eagles were considerably higher than in golden eagles. Residues of DDE, DDD, and dieldrin were detected in all samples of bald eagle carcasses; other compounds found, less frequently were heptachlor epoxide, endrin, and DCBP, a metabolite of DDT. DDE was detected in all samples of golden eagle carcasses; DDD, DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide were detected less frequently.

Reichel, W.L.; Cromartie, E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.

1969-01-01

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Analysis of Some Pesticide Residues in Cauliflower by High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Increased use of chemicals on vegetables started gaining momentum and continued its up-trend in Bangladesh. Wide spread use of pesticides in agriculture concern of residue accumulation, which may remain in food and agricultural environment causing concern of human health and risking ecological balance. Attempt made to ensure that their applications were correct and safe and result in no residues in food beyond codex developed maximum residue limits. Approach: This study reported a method based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC for determination of pesticide residues used in Cauliflower. Cauliflower sprayed with, 4 different pesticides (diazinon, malathion, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin at recommended dose and double of recommended dose were analyzed for their residual contents. Samples were collected at same day after application of pesticide. Commercial samples of cauliflowers were collected from different markets of Dhaka city. Reversed-phase HPLC system with UV detection was used for the separation, identification and quantification of all these analytes using acetonitrile-water (70:30, v/v as mobile phase. Results: Limit of detection of 0.02 mg kg-1 was obtained. Calibration curves that constructed for the analytes spiked into samples followed linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (R2>0.990. In the analysis, from vegetables treated with diazinon and chlorpyrifos at recommended and double of recommended doses, residual amounts above respective MRL values were found. Conclusion: Method used permitted the determination of these pesticides in cauliflower at concentration level demanded by current legislation. Attention paid on excess use or abuse of pesticides by judicious application for safety of public health in Bangladesh. Additional data to monitor residues in food and to fill gaps in current knowledge would be helpful in assessing human exposure risks from ingestion of contaminated cauliflower or other vegetables.

Sheheli Islam

2009-01-01

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Selectivity and sensitivity in coupled chromatographic techniques as applied in pesticide residue analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The advantages and drawbacks of coupled chromatographic techniques are discussed on the basis of selected applications of LC-LC and LC-GC in the analysis of pesticide residues applied to environmental biological samples. (author). 18 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

12

The use of solid phase extraction method for analysis of residues of pesticides used in banana production in Costa Rica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different solid phase extraction devices were tested for the analysis of residues of eleven pesticides used in banana production in Costa Rica. The analysis was performed by using gas chromatograph equipped with NPD and ECD detectors. In general low recoveries and high variation coefficients were found for chlorothalonil, imazalil, terbufos and thiabendazole. For the other pesticides recoveries ranged between 60 and over 100%. (author)

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QuEChERS sample preparation approach for mass spectrometric analysis of pesticide residues in foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter describes an easy, rapid, and low-cost sample preparation approach for the determination of pesticide residues in foods using gas and/or liquid chromatographic (GC and/or LC) analytical separation and mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The approach is known as QuEChERS, which stands for "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe." Originally, QuEChERS was a particular "method" for pesticide residue analysis, but it is very flexible and has evolved into an "approach," which has been used in many methods, and not just for pesticide residues. Two of the QuEChERS versions using buffering have been validated in interlaboratory trials for dozens of pesticides in several food matrices, and both have successfully met performance criteria to achieve "official" status from international standard organizations (AOAC Official Method 2007.01 and CEN Standard Method EN 15662). The main aspects of the QuEChERS approach consists of extraction of a well-homogenized sample by shaking with solvent (typically acetonitrile) in a centrifuge tube, salt-out partitioning of water with salts including magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)), and cleanup using "dispersive solid-phase extraction" (dSPE), in which common matrix components are retained by sorbent(s) and the analytes remain in the extract. For widest analytical scope, concurrent analysis is done for hundreds of pesticides using GC-MS(/MS) and LC-MS/MS. The aim of this chapter is to review the QuEChERS sample preparation methodology and provide a summary of up-to-date information with modification options depending on the application needs. PMID:21643905

Lehotay, Steven J

2011-01-01

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EVALUATION OF A NEW MICROVOLUME 3HSC ELECTRON CAPTURE DETECTOR AND ANCILLARY DATA SYSTEM FOR PESTICIDE RESIDUE ANALYSIS  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of a linearized 3HSc electron capture detector (ECD) and its ancillary data system was evaluated for use in the analysis of pesticide residues. Serial dilutions of pesticide standards were used to determine the maximum linear range and sensitivity of the detector....

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The role of GC-MS/MS with triple quadrupole in pesticide residue analysis in food and the environment  

OpenAIRE

Gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) using a triple quadrupole (QqQ) analyzer has in the last few years become a powerful technique for the determination of pesticide residues due to its robustness, and excellent sensitivity and selectivity. This review gives an overview of currently published applications of GC-MS/MS with a QqQ analyzer for pesticide residue analysis of different food and environmental sample matrices. This technique allows the reliable quantific...

Herna?ndez Herna?ndez, Fe?lix; Cervera Vidal, Mari?a Ine?s; Portole?s Nicolau, Tania; Beltra?n Arandes, Joaquim; Pitarch Arquimbau, Mari?a Elena

2013-01-01

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Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction in Pesticide Residues Analysis: 2. Apple Samples  

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Full Text Available Headspace solid phase microextraction method (HS/SPME, optimised previously for pesticide water solutions, was applied to trace residues of the pesticides chlorpyrifos, fenthion and bifenthrin in apple samples. One-hour extraction procedure was performed at 60oC extraction temperature. Nonpolar polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS fiber was used. Detection and quantification were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. A non-pesticide treated apple sample was fortified with the pesticides over a 0.025-1.25 mg/kg concentration range in order to determine analytical parameters of the method applied. Linearity with regression coefficient (R values higher than 0.99 were obtained over the whole concentration range investigated for chlorpyrifos and fenthion, while linear dependence was observed in the 0.1-1.25 mg/kg range for bifenthrin. Relative recovery values for samples fortified at different levels were in the 56.68-82.91% range. Limit of detection (LOD values were determined as follows: 0.014 mg/kg for chlorpyrifos, 0.021 mg/kg for fenthion and 0.053 mg/kg for bifenthrin. Relative standard deviation (RSD values obtained for multiple analysis of the sample fortified at 0.6 mg/kg level were not higher than 20%.

Jelena Milinovi?

2007-01-01

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Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction in Pesticide Residues Analysis: 2. Apple Samples  

OpenAIRE

Headspace solid phase microextraction method (HS/SPME), optimised previously for pesticide water solutions, was applied to trace residues of the pesticides chlorpyrifos, fenthion and bifenthrin in apple samples. One-hour extraction procedure was performed at 60oC extraction temperature. Nonpolar polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) fiber was used. Detection and quantification were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A non-pesticide treated apple sample was fortified with the ...

Jelena Milinovi?; Mirjana Markovi?; Dragan Markovi?; Rada ?urovi?

2007-01-01

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SBSE-GC-ECD/FPD in the analysis of pesticide residues in Passiflora alata dryander herbal teas  

OpenAIRE

Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) in combination with GC-ECD/FPD analysis is here applied to the determination of the residues of 11 pesticides (hexachlorobenzene, lindane, chlorothalonil, parathion methyl, parathion ethyl, fenitrothion, malathion, dieldrin, - and -endosulfan, and tetradifon) in herbal teas prepared with Passiflora alata Dryander spiked leaves. The method was optimized using spiked herbal teas in a range from 0.05 to 1 pg/L for organochlorine pesticides and from 0.15 to 3 p...

Bicchi, Carlo; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Cordero, Chiara Emilia Irma

2003-01-01

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Multi-Residue Analysis of Pesticides in Pistachio Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS  

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Full Text Available Background: Analysis of pesticide residues in food and other environmental commodities have become an essential requirement for consumers, producers, food inspectors and authorities. This study is focused on validation of an accurate, rapid and reliable method for multi-residual analysis of pesticides in pistachio as a strategic crop for export and one of the main nuts in Iranian food basket. Methods: We developed a "Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS method based on spiking blank samples and used the data for drawing calibration curves instead of standard solutions. Sample preparations were developed for determination of 12 pesticide residues in pistachio by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Results: Recovery of pesticides at 5 concentration levels (n=3 was in the range of 81.40% - 93.08 %. The method proved to be repeatable in the majority of samples with relative standard deviation (RSD of lower than 20%. The limits of detection and quantification for all pesticides were 2 ppb and 10 ppb, respectively. Conclusion: The calibration curves of pesticides were linear in the range of 10-500 (ng/g and correlation coefficient of entire pesticides was higher than 0.994. The recovery of pesticides at 5 concentration levels (n=3 was in range of 81.41- 91.80 %. The method was proved to be repeatable with the majority of RSDs being lower than 20%. The limits of detection and quantification for all pesticides were 2 and 10 ppb, respectively. The recoveries and repeatabilities were in accordance with the criteria set by SANCO Guideline (Commission of the European Communities, 2006.

Azadeh Emami

2014-12-01

20

Validation of thin-layer chromatographic methods for pesticide residue analysis. Results of the coordinated research projects 1996-2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) has a long history, but has been used only to a limited extent in pesticide residue analytical laboratories since gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) became readily available. Recent developments in the quality of plate coating and detection systems, as well as in extraction and cleanup methods have revived interest in TLC. The combination of these procedures with rigid quality control has created a niche for TLC in laboratories working in compliance with ISO 17025 or GLP. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture recognized the importance of testing pesticide residues, especially in countries with limited resources. A coordinated research programme (CRP) was initiated for investigating the application of TLC detection methods to complement the instrumental techniques in pesticide residue analysis. An initial technical contract provided proof of the concept and elaborated the basic procedures, including a substantial database of retention factors and minimum detectable quantities of pesticides. To satisfy the demands from the eligible laboratories, two similar projects were started in 1997 and 1998. The titles of the projects were as follows: (i) Validation of Thin-layer Chromatographic Screening Methods for Pesticide Residue Analysis; and (ii) Alternative Methods to Gas and High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Pesticide Residue Analysis in Grain. Scientists from 18 countries participated in the above noted two projects. The major tasks of this programme were to adapt the methods, check the repeatability and reproducibility of Rf values, the minimum detectable quantities (MDQ) and apply the methods for determining various pesticide residues in representative matrices. Furthermore, they have extended the methods to other pesticides and commodities of interest in their countries and validated the methods elaborated. This TECDOC includes the most important results of the CRPs. The Rf and MDQ values reported by the participating scientists are compiled in one table for facilitating the assessment of the repeatability and reproducibility of the results. Since the participants were applying the same basic methodology, described in detail in the first article, these methods are only referred to in the other papers. However, the modifications made by the participants are described in their papers. The purpose of this TECDOC is to provide the readers with comprehensive information on the application of TLC detection methods to complement the instrumental techniques in pesticide residue analysis. Further information on any specific topic may be obtained from the authors

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Analysis of Some Pesticide Residues in Cauliflower by High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: Increased use of chemicals on vegetables started gaining momentum and continued its up-trend in Bangladesh. Wide spread use of pesticides in agriculture concern of residue accumulation, which may remain in food and agricultural environment causing concern of human health and risking ecological balance. Attempt made to ensure that their applications were correct and safe and result in no residues in food beyond codex developed maximum residue limits. Approach: ...

Sheheli Islam; Nazneen Afrin; Hossain, Mohammad S.; Nilufar Nahar; Mohammad Mosihuzzaman; Mamun, Mohammad I. R.

2009-01-01

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Comprehensive multi-residue method for the target analysis of pesticides in crops using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) multi-residue method for the simultaneous target analysis of a wide range of pesticides and metabolites in fruit, vegetables and cereals has been developed. Gradient elution has been used in conjunction with positive mode electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to detect up to 171 pesticides and/or metabolites in different crop matrices using a single chromatographic run. Pesticide residues were extracted/partitioned from the samples with acetone/dichloromethane/light petroleum. The analytical performance was demonstrated by the analysis of extracts from lettuce, orange, apple, cabbage, grape and wheat flour, spiked at three concentration levels ranging from 0.01 to 0.10 mg/kg for each pesticide and/or metabolite. In general, recoveries ranging from 70 to 110%, with relative standard deviations better than 15%, were obtained. The recovery and repeatability data are in good accordance with EU guidelines for pesticide residue analysis. The limit of quantification for all targeted pesticides and metabolites tested was 0.01 mg/kg. The selectivity and robustness of the LC-MS/MS method was demonstrated by a 1-year comparison of its analytical results with those obtained from our validated GC and LC multi-residue methods applied to more than 3500 routine samples. The validated LC-MS/MS method has been implemented in our analytical scheme since 2004, replacing four of the conventional detection methods, i.e. GC-flame-photometric detection (acephate, methamidophos, etc.), GC-nitrogen-phosphorus detection, LC-UV detection (carbendazim, thiabendazole, imazalil and prochloraz) and LC-fluorescence detection (N-methylcarbamate pesticides). During a 3-year period, the LC-MS/MS method has been applied to the analyses of more than 12,000 samples. PMID:17442324

Hiemstra, Maurice; de Kok, André

2007-06-22

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Method of analysis for residues of cholinesterase inhibitor pesticides in foodstuffs (Multimethod 2)  

OpenAIRE

In dit rapport wordt een methode gegeven voor de bepaling van cholinesterase-remmende bestrijdingsmiddelen. Het voorschrift is een gemoderniseerde versie van de huidige Multi-residue Method 2, zoals deze vermeld staat in de bundel "Analytical Methods for Residues of Pesticides in Foodstuffs", 4th edition (1985), uitgegeven door het Minsterie van WVC bij de Staatsuitgeverij te Den Haag (ISBN 90 12 04672 6) onder redactie van de werkgroep OVR (Ontwikkeling en V...

Pa, Greve

2012-01-01

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Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Fortified Water, Soil and Vegetable Samples  

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Full Text Available Water, soil and potato samples spiked with insecticides were analyzed for percent recoveries on Gas Chromatograph (GC equipped with Electron Capture Detector (ECD, using capillary column. Percent recoveries of methyl parathion were calculated to be 100, 67 and 94 percent at spiking level of 0.17, 1.7 and 8.7 micro g/liter and 310 and 138 percent for cypermethrin at spiking level of 0.146 and 1.46 g/liter by liquid-liquid extraction. Through solid-phase extraction the percent recovery of deltamethrin was 37 and 78 percent at spiking level of 0.16 and 1.6 micro g/liter. The percent recoveries of deltamethrin through solvent extraction technique were found to be 78 and 86 percent at spiking level of 2.56 and 25.20 micro g/liter, while 81 and 147 percent for deltamethrin and cypermethrin through soxhlet extraction at 8.0 and 8.7 micro g/liter concentration respectively. The percent recoveries at spiking level of 0.1 ppm were calculated to be 0, 5.59, 35.52 and 0 percent, and in 1.00 ppm recovery was calculated to be 91.98, 56.60, 44.56 and 58.93 percent in fortified samples of potato with dimethoate, methyl parathion, endosulfan and cypermethrin, followed by 0, 59.82, 111.20, 11.36 percent in blank spiked at 0.1 ppm respectively. The data presented provides evidence that capillary column GC with ECD detection can be used reliably and advantageously for regulatory determination of pesticide residues in food, water and soil. The different methods described allow quantitative extraction of the pesticides. However, further experiments need to be conducted to ensure consistent results. The reproducibility of analytical methods require that the pesticide residue analysis be performed with the highest possible accuracy and so qualified that, the results obtain reflect the least deviation from the true value.

Seema Tahir

1999-01-01

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Pesticide residue analysis of soil, water, and grain of IPM basmati rice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of the present investigations was to compare the pesticide load in integrated pest management (IPM) with non-IPM crops of rice fields. The harvest samples of Basmati rice grain, soil, and irrigation water, from IPM and non-IPM field trials, at villages in northern India, were analyzed using multi-pesticide residue method. The field experiments were conducted for three consecutive years (2008-2011) for the successful validation of the modules, synthesized for Basmati rice, at these locations. Residues of tricyclazole, propiconazole, hexconazole, lambda cyhalothrin, pretilachlor chlorpyrifos, DDVP, carbendazim, and imidacloprid were analyzed from two locations, Dudhli village of Dehradun, Uttrakhand and Saboli and Aterna village of Sonepat, Haryana. The pesticide residues were observed below detectable limit (BDL) (<0.001-0.05 ?g/g) in all 24 samples of rice grains and soil under IPM and non-IPM trials. Residues were below detection level (<0.001-0.05 ?g/L) in irrigation water samples (2008-09). Residues of tricyclazole and carbendazim, analyzed from same locations, revealed pesticide residues as BDL (<0.001-0.05 ?g/g) in all 40 samples of Basmati rice grains and soil. It was also observed as BDL (<0.001-0.05 ?g/L) for 12 water samples (2009-2010). The residues of tricyclazole, propioconazole, chlorpyrifos, hexaconazole, pretilachlor, and ?-cyhalothrin were also found as BDL (<0.001-0.05 ?g/g) in 40 samples of Basmati rice grains and soil and 12 water samples (<0.001-0.05 ?g/L) (2010-2011). PMID:25213562

Arora, Sumitra; Mukherji, Irani; Kumar, Aman; Tanwar, R K

2014-12-01

26

Residue analysis of organochlorine pesticides in the Mae Klong river of Central Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most natural waterways in Thailand are utilized for conventional agricultures, e.g. irrigation and wastewater discharge. Concentrations of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in surface sediments collected from the tributaries of the Mae Klong river during 2003-2005. The sampling sites chosen were nearby the rice paddy which organochlorine pesticides were intensively used for crop cultivation. Solid-liquid extraction technique was used for sediment extraction, and gas chromatography with electron capture detector was applied for pesticides determination. Total concentrations of OCPs found were ranged from 4.12 to 214.91 ?g g-1 dw in the first year. In the second year, total residue concentrations in the surface sediments were in the range of 3.26-215.09 ?g g-1 dw. Concentrations of pesticides were greater in dry-season rice cultivation period in both sampling years, and heptachlor epoxide was the contaminant found at highest concentration in this study. In addition, the occurrence of some selected contaminants including DDT, DDD and DDE reflects the recent contamination in the study area. This demonstrates not only that the natural waterway was polluted and contained much pesticide residues, but it also illustrates the necessity of a continuous long-term monitoring of the affected environment

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Application of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for the Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Food—A Highly Selective and Innovative Approach  

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Full Text Available The increasing application of pesticides for agricultural purposes involves serious risk to the environment and human health due to either exposure or through residues in food and drinking water. Since food safety is of mandatory importance there is a growing interest on the development of selective, simple, rapid, cost-effective and reliable analytical methodologies in order to ensure that pesticides residues should not be found at levels above the established maximum pesticide residue limits (MRLs. In recent years, a new methodology based on the development of molecularly imprinting polymers (MIPs allows not only pre-concentration and cleaning of the sample but also selective extraction of the target analyte, which is crucial, particularly when the sample is complex and impurities can interfere with quantification. The scope of this review is to provide a general overview on MIPs field, with emphasis on MIP preparation and its use as sorbents for solid-phase extraction. This paper will be focused on the review of the current state of the art in the use of MIPs as selective materials in molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE for the analysis of pesticide residues from food matrices. A review of preparation and application of MIPs in food matrices, will also be discussed.

Raquel Garcia

2011-12-01

28

Pesticide residue analysis in parsley, lettuce and spinach by LC-MS/MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, pesticide residues in parsley, lettuce and spinach (120 samples) were analyzed by the application of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). All samples of spinach, parsley or lettuce contained residues of three or more active substances. In parsley, carbendazim (100.0%), dichlorvos (100.0%), fenarimol (40.0%), pendimethalin (95.0%), in lettuce, diazinon (30.0%), dichlorvos (100.0%), pendimethalin (92.5%) phenthoate (12.5%), and in spinach, carbendazim (45.0%), cymoxanil (85.0%), dichlorvos (100.0%) and fenarimol (85.0%) were the significant active compounds. The maximum residue limits were exceeded in 28, 20 and 40 samples of parsley, lettuce and spinach, respectively. The results showed that there was a high occurrence of pesticide residues in parsley, lettuce and spinach samples from Hatay province, in which most of them were prohibited from use in Turkey for these vegetables. The contamination levels of these residues may be considered a serious public health problem according to the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of Turkey and the European Union (EU). PMID:24587520

Esturk, Okan; Yakar, Yasin; Ayhan, Zehra

2014-03-01

29

Validation of thin lay chromatographic screening methods for pesticide residue analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thin layer chromatographic (TLC) separation and detection methods were tested as a cost efficient alternative for identification and quantitative determination of numerous pesticide residues. Over 80% reproducibility was obtained for Rf and MDQ values compared to those previously reported. The applicability of the methods resulted in recovery values between 75 and 100%. The sample load up to 600 mg sample equivalent did not affect the Rf values significantly. (author)

30

Application of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for the Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Food—A Highly Selective and Innovative Approach  

OpenAIRE

The increasing application of pesticides for agricultural purposes involves serious risk to the environment and human health due to either exposure or through residues in food and drinking water. Since food safety is of mandatory importance there is a growing interest on the development of selective, simple, rapid, cost-effective and reliable analytical methodologies in order to ensure that pesticides residues should not be found at levels above the established maximum pesticide residue limit...

Raquel Garcia; Maria João Cabrita; Ana Maria Costa Freitas

2011-01-01

31

Analysis of 10 systemic pesticide residues in various baby foods using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten systemic pesticides, comprising methomyl, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, carbofuran, fosthiazate, metalaxyl, azoxystrobin, diethofencarb, propiconazole, and difenoconazole, were detected in 13 baby foods (cereals, boiled potatoes, fruit and milk) using QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) for sample preparation and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for analysis. The matrix-matched calibration curves showed good linearity with determination coefficients (R(2) )?>0.992. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.0015-0.003 and 0.005-0.01 mg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of three different concentrations ranged from 69.2 to 127.1% with relative standard deviations <20%. The method was successfully applied to 13 actual samples collected from a local market, and none of the samples were found to contain pesticide residues. This method is suitable for the identification and quantification of systemic pesticides with matrix-matched standards in various baby foods. PMID:24861738

Yang, Angel; Abd El-Aty, A M; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Goudah, Ayman; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Do, Jung-Ah; Choi, Ok-Ja; Shim, Jae-Han

2014-06-01

32

Headspace solid phase microextraction in the analysis of pesticide residues – kinetics and quantification prior to the attainment of partition equilibrium  

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Full Text Available A new theoretical approach to the headspace/solid phase microextraction (HS/SPME process is proposed and tested by the analysis of pesticide residues of water samples. The new approach focuses on mass transfer at the sample/gas phase and gas phase/SPME polymer interfaces. The presented model provides a directly proportional relationship between the amount of analytes sorbed by the SPME fiber and their initial concentrations in the sample. Also, the expression indicates that quantification is possible before partition equilibrium is attained. Experimental data for pesticides belonging to various classes of organic compounds were successfully interpreted by the developed model. Additionally, a linear dependence of the amount of pesticide sorbed on the initial analyte concentration in aqueous solution was obtained for a sampling time shorter than that required to reach sorption equilibrium.

DRAGAN MARKOVIC

2007-08-01

33

Multi-residue analysis of pesticide residues in mangoes using solid-phase microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography and UV-Vis detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sensitive and efficient solid-phase microextraction method, based on liquid chromatography and UV-Vis detection, was developed and validated as an alternative method for sample screening prior to LC-MS analysis. It enables the simultaneous determination of ten pesticides in mango fruits. The fiber used was polydimethylsiloxane while optimum SPME conditions employed have been developed and optimized in a previous work. The desorption process was performed in static mode, using acetonitrile as a solvent. The results indicate that the DI-SPME/HPLC/UV-Vis procedure resulted in good linear range, accuracy, precision and sensibility and is adequate for analyzing pesticide residues in mango fruits. The limits of detection (0.6-3.3??g/kg) and quantification (2.0-10.0??g/kg) were achieved with values lower than the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by Brazilian legislation for all pesticides in this study. The average recovery rates obtained for each pesticide ranged from 71.6 to 104.3% at three fortification levels, with the relative standard deviation ranging from 4.3 to 18.6%. The proposed method was applied for the determination of the aforementioned compounds in commercial mango samples and residues of azoxystrobin, fenthion, permethrin, abamectin and bifenthrin were detected in the mango samples, although below the MRLs established by Brazilian legislation. PMID:21919197

Filho, Adalberto M; dos Santos, Fábio N; Pereira, Pedro A de Paula

2011-11-01

34

ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES: A COMPILATION OF METHODS SELECTED FOR USE IN PESTICIDE MONITORING PROGRAMS  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual provides the pesticide chemist with methodology useful in determining human exposure to pesticides and related industrial chemicals. Methods are also presented for measuring the extent of environmental contamination with these compounds. This manual has been compiled ...

35

Cost effective screening methods for pesticide residue analysis in fruits, vegetables and cereal grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports the results of studies performed to investigate the potential of applying thin layer chromatography (TLC) detection in combination with selected extraction and cleanup methods, for providing an alternative cost-effective analytical procedure for screening and confirmation of pesticide residues in plant commodities. The extraction was carried out with ethyl acetate and an on-line extraction method applying an acetone-dichloromethane mixture. The extracts were cleaned up with SX-3 gel, an adsorbent mixture of active carbon, magnesia, and diatomaceous earth, and on silica micro cartridges. The Rf values of 118 pesticides were tested in eleven elution systems with UV, and eight biotest methods or and chemical detection reagents. Cabbage, green peas, orange, and tomatoes were selected as representative sample matrices for fruits and vegetables, while maize, rice and wheat represented cereal grains. As an internal quality control measure, marker compounds were applied on each plate to verify the proper elution and detection conditions. The Rf values varied in the different elution systems. The best separation (widest Rf range) was achieved with silica gel (SG)-ethyl acetate (0.05-0.7), SG-benzene, (0.02-0.7) and reverse phase RP-18 F-254S layer with acetone:methanol:water (30:30:30 v/v) (0.1-0.8). The relative standard deviation of Rf values (CVRf) within-laboratory reproducibility was generally less than 20%, except below 0.2 Rf, where the CVRf rapidly increased with decreasing Rf values. The fungi spore inhibition, chloroplast inhibition and enzyme inhibition were found most suitable for detection of pesticides primarily for confirming their identity or screening for known substances. Their use for determination of pesticide residues in samples of unknown origin is not recommended. (author)

36

A new multi-residue method for analysis of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in a wide variety of fruit and vegetables, using the National Food Administration (NFA) ethyl acetate extraction and determination by means of LC-MS/MS, is presented. The method includes pesticides normally detected by LC-UV or LC-fluorescence such as benzimidazoles, carbamates, N-methylcarbamates and organophosphorus compounds with an oxidisable sulphide group as well. After extraction with ethyl acetate, the extract is concentrated and an aliquot of the extract is evaporated to dryness and redissolved in methanol before injection on LC-MS/MS. The method has been validated for 57 different pesticides and metabolites. Representative species from different commodity groups were chosen as matrices in order to study the influence from different matrices on recoveries. The fortification levels studied were 0.01-0.5 mg kg(-1). Matrix effects were tested for all matrices by means of standard addition to blank extracts. The matrix effect, expressed as signal in solvent compared to signal in matrix, was in general found to be small. The obtained recoveries are, with a few exceptions, in the range 70-100%. The proposed method is quick and straightforward and no additional clean-up steps are needed. The method can be used for the analysis of all 57 pesticides in one single determination step at 0.01 mg kg(-1). PMID:14760853

Jansson, Christer; Pihlström, Tuija; Osterdahl, Bengt-Göran; Markides, Karin E

2004-01-01

37

Analysis of tomato matrix effect in pesticide residue quantification through QuEChERS and single quadrupole GC/MS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The detection of pesticide in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) matrix using Gas Chromatography hyphenated to Mass Spectrometry detector (GC/MS) can affect the sensitivity of the analysis by enhancement or suppression of their chromatography response, the percentages of recoveries and leading to erro [...] rs in the quantification of the pesticides. In this study, the matrix effect was investigated using nine pesticides, and "Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe" (QuEChERS)-GC/MS analytical technique was validated for pesticides multiresidue analysis. The matrix effect was determined using not statistical and statistical procedures including ANOVA, with similar results. Strong negative matrix effect was found for the pesticides trifluralin, 4,4'-DDT, and permethrin, resulting in the increment of the chromatogram background and a decrease in their detection responses. Contrary, an enhancement induced by the matrix presence was obtained for carbaryl and azinphos methyl, showing a positive medium matrix effect. While, dimethoate, simazine, 4,4'-DDE, and iprodione did not exhibit matrix effect. The detection limits (LOD) obtained, varied from 0.003 to 0.1 mg kg-1. Reproducibility was less than 20% for each pesticide. Recoveries were found to be between 71% and 121%, except for dimethoate, carbaryl, and azinphos methyl which reached values lower than 70%. Recoveries relative standard deviations were less than 22%. QuEChERS-GC/MS technique was used for evaluation of fresh commercial tomatoes samples, detecting carbaryl in all of them, but in concentration levels lower than the maximum residue limits according to regulations of Codex.

Ana M, Domínguez; Fabian, Placencia; Francisco, Cereceda; Ximena, Fadic; Waldo, Quiroz.

2014-04-01

38

Analysis of pesticide residues in hops and their extraction by liquid CO2 during the production of hop extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method has been developed for analysing pesticide residues in whole hops, hop pellets and hop extracts by GC-MS. Five batches of hop pellets containing nine different pesticides (triadimefon, dicofol, mephosfolan, bupirimate, cyhalothrin, tetradifon, endosulfan, pyrazophos and total bisdithiocarbamates) were extracted with liquid CO2. Pesticide concentrations in the original hop pellets and the extracts were determined. The pesticides were concentrated by the extraction process (concentration factor 1.3-8.3), except for the bisdithiocarbamates, which were not extracted. When the same amount of bitterness was added into the brewing process using liquid CO2 extract as opposed to hop pellets, for most of the pesticides proportionately less pesticide was added. However, for two pesticides (dicofol and triadimefon) corrected residue levels were similar to, or in some cases slightly higher than, those in hop pellets. PMID:7835474

Williams, C S; Eastoe, B V; Slaiding, I R; Walker, M D

1994-01-01

39

Analysis of pesticide residues in Brazilian medicinal plants: matrix solid phase dispersion versus conventional (European Pharmacopoeia methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a method based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD to determine the presence of organochlorine (OC and organophosphorus (OP pesticide residues in species of Passiflora L. (passion fruit leaves by gas chromatography, using an electron capture detector (HRGC-ECD. A comparison with conventional methods, mainly the European Pharmacopoeia method (EP, showed MSPD to be efficient, fast, simple and easy to perform. To date, there are no official methods or limits that take into account Brazil's "real life" conditions in the analysis of pesticides in medicinal plants and phytomedicines, and the MSPD method described herein has proved to be a feasible one for the analysis of Passiflora L-based phytomedicines.

Zuin Vânia G.

2003-01-01

40

Pesticide Residues in Food: Your Daily Dose.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive use of pesticides during food production has created concerns for certain involuntary risks. Examines these concerns: government role in control and monitoring pesticide use, proposals for reform, and how consumer awareness might be an effective pressure for finding remedies. A table listing produce and pesticide residues is included.…

Mott, Lawrie

1985-01-01

41

Strategies for the multi-residue analysis of 100 pesticides by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analytical strategies for screening, quantitation and confirmation of a group of 100 pesticides in fruit and vegetable samples by LC-MS and LC-MS/MS were developed. The pesticides studied belong to different chemical families of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. A selection of some degradation products was also included. Chromatographic separation was performed using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm and 5 ?m particle size), and gradient elution with acetonitrile-water (both with 0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase. LC-MS/MS using highly-selective selected reaction monitoring (H-SRM) acquisition mode monitoring two transitions for each compound showed to be the most sensitive methodology. Quantitation was carried out using matrix-matched standard calibration and good linearity of response was demonstrated (r>0.998). Limits of detection (by acquiring two transitions and with the ion-ratio requirements) ranged between 0.01 and 20 ?g/kg were obtained. So, in general, the sensitivity achieved meets the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by the European Union regulation for food monitoring programs. Pesticide confirmation was carried out following European Union guidelines. In order to prevent false-positives, further confirmatory strategies were proposed. LC-MS in highly-selective selected ion monitoring (H-SIM) mode with accurate mass measurement was used to obtain an orthogonal criterion (exact mass) for confirmation. Accurate mass measurements were always bellow 0.9 mDa for almost all pesticides studied (similar to those described with TOF instruments). A user reversed energy ramp (RER) product ion scan spectra library was generated by means of a data dependent analysis for routine library searching of pesticides. The combination of LC-MS/MS in H-SRM mode and the generation of the RER product ion scan spectra and library search were then used to achieve further confirmation on pesticide analysis. The LC-MS and LC-MS/MS strategies developed were successfully applied for the analysis and confirmation of pesticides in different types of fruit and vegetables samples, and examples of the screening, quantitation and confirmation of pesticides in these samples are shown in this work. PMID:22748376

Núñez, Oscar; Gallart-Ayala, Héctor; Ferrer, Imma; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, Maria Teresa

2012-08-01

42

ESTIMATION OF THE BURDEN OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN SLOVAK POPULATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticides used in the agriculture have to be applied according to the requirements of good agricultural practice and appropriate law. Pesticides leave detectable residues in agricultural crops, raw materials and ecosystem components. Pesticides reach the human population through the food chain. Information on the type and concentration of pesticide residues in food is in Slovakia collected trough the monitoring programs. Health risks associated with pesticides contaminants in human nutrition are very important and are recently studied by several expert groups. Prerequisite programs are necessary to protect public health. Risk analysis and monitoring of the population burden by pesticide contaminants have to be performed in expert level. The general strategy for assessment of toxicity of pesticides is listed by the World health Organisation. Scientific risk assessment is the basis for taking action and making the legislation at national and European community level.doi:10.5219/69

Jozef Sokol

2010-07-01

43

PESTICIDE RESIDUE RECOVERIES FROM SURFACE WIPES  

Science.gov (United States)

Human exposure is a consequence of pesticide use indoors with a primary source resulting from residue deposition on household surfaces. Accurate measurements of surface residues is essential for estimating exposure from different routes. Various procedures have been developed ...

44

New tendencies in isotopic analysis of pesticide residues from wines by mass spectrometry in concordance with the European standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multi-isotope analysis, the determination of isotope ratios by mass spectrometry or magnetic resonance spectroscopy, becomes increasingly used in the food industry and by national food control laboratories as a method of authenticating both raw materials and finished products. These highly sophisticated techniques are capable of determining the botanical and geographical origin of a wide variety of foodstuffs, thus providing a means of detecting product adulteration and controlling mislabelling practices which are virtually impossible to circumvent. The European Union has officially adopted the used of isotope analysis as a means of controlling sugar addition in wines. Its successful implementation in the wine-producing Member States has considerably reduced the financial losses which the Community had incurred due to over - capitalisation. Coupling mass spectrometer with gas chromatograph is used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of traces of pesticides from food. The presence of pesticides in foods is harmful for the nervous system, the cardiovascular apparatus and decreases the immunity of human body. In addition, ensuring the foods quality and safety is a requirement, which must be fulfilled for the integration in EU. The subject of this paper is the presentation of the tests results of the isotopic analysis for pesticide residues in wines, in concordance with European Standard. (authors)

45

Pesticide Residues and Bees – A Risk Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees. PMID:24718419

Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

2014-01-01

46

Thin Layer Chromatography of Pesticides and Their Residues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent progress in the analysis of organo-phosphorus, organo-chlorine, carbamate, urea, uracil pesticides and their residues by thin layer chromatorgraphic methods employing chemical and enzymatic methods is reviewed.

S. P. Katrolia

2014-03-01

47

Radioisotopes in pesticide residues and metabolic studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing use of pesticides and their serious role as environmental contaminants necessitate detailed studies of their metabolism,toxicology and environmental fate.The complex problems which are beyond conventional analytical analysis could,and with great precision,be solved by the use of nuclear techniques.Pesticides labelled with radionuclides(H-3,C-14,P-32 and Cl-36) can be used.Compounds labelled with these radionuclides can be easily measured,in very low concentrations, by use of liquid scintillation counters.Metabolism and distribution of the labelled compounds in the plant can be followed by autoradiography.In this study,supported by the IAEA, the following pesticides were investigated, C-14 DDT, C-14 Endosulfan, C-14 Carbaryl, C-14 Carbofuran, C-14 Amitraz, C-14 Aldicarb and C-14 Butocarboxim. The investigations included :a) study of the binding of these compounds in soils. b) study of the : i) fate and dynamics of aldicarb in cotton plant. ii) fate of amitraz in tomatoes. 'this work is part of the programme of studies of pesticide residues in soil, plants and foods, aproject supported by the international Atomic Energy Commission '.(Author)

48

Analysis of pesticide residues in rice using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho apresenta um método multirresíduo de extração por dispersão da matriz em fase sólida (MSPD) para quantificação de dois inseticidas organofosforados (malation e paration metílico) e um organoclorado (beta-endosulfan) em arroz por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução com detector por c [...] aptura de elétrons. Experimentos foram realizados com adição de pesticidas na amostra, variando quantidades de amostra e de suporte, tipo de suporte e solvente de eluição. A eficiência do método proposto foi demonstrada pelos valores médios de recuperação entre 75,5% e 116,0%, com valores de desvio padrão relativo entre 0,5% e 10,9%, obtidos nas análises de recuperação com amostras fortificadas nos níveis de 0,5 a 10,0 mg kg-1. Os limites de detecção foram de 20 a 105 pg para os pesticidas estudados. Arroz comercial foi analisado para a aplicação do método. Abstract in english This work reports a multi-residue extraction method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and capillary gas chromatography - electron capture detection for quantification of two widely used organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and parathion-methyl) and an organochlorine pesticide (beta-e [...] ndosulfan) in rice. A set of experiments was done with a spiked matrix with a standard mix, varying sample and solid phase amounts, solid phase and eluting solvent. Analyses of fortified rice samples were performed at different levels (0.5-10.0 mg kg-1). Mean recoveries from three replicates ranged from 75.5% to 116.0%, with coefficients of variation from 0.5% to 10.9%. The limit of detection was in the range of 20 to 105 pg for the pesticides. Commercial rice was analyzed for method application.

Haroldo S., Dórea; Ledjane, Lima Sobrinho.

2004-10-01

49

Decline of Pesticide Residues from Barley to Malt  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The fate of dinitroaniline herbicides (pendimethalin and trifluralin), organophosphous insecticides (fenitrothion and malathion), and pyrimidine (nuarimol) and triazole (myclobutanil and propiconazole) fungicides from barley to malt has been assessed. Several samples for residue analysis were taken after each stage of malting (steeping, germination, and kilning). Analyses of pesticide residues were carried out by GC/ITMS in SIM mode. Pesticides decline along the process al...

Navarro, Simon; Vela, Nuria; Pe?rez, Gabriel; Navarro, Gine?s

2007-01-01

50

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke  

OpenAIRE

The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available...

Nicholas Sullivan; Sytze Elzinga; Raber, Jeffrey C.

2013-01-01

51

Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction in Pesticide Residues Analysis:1. Optimisation of Extraction Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The method of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS/SPME was successfully used in a simultaneous multicomponent analysis of hexachlorobenzene (HCB, tefluthrin, heptachlor, aldrin, chlorpyrifos, fenthion and bifenthrin in aqueous medium. Measurementswere performed using a nonpolar polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS fiber. Detection and quantification were done by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS.Optimal conditions for HS/SPME were determined both by performing extraction at different temperatures and examining extraction time profiles at constant temperature. Optimal extraction temperature for each pesticide studied was determined as follows: 60°C for HCB and for heptachlor, 80°C for aldrin and for chlorpyrifos, fenthion and tefluthrin, and temperature exceeding 80°C for bifenthrin. For the pesticide mixture studied, 60°C was identified as the optimum extraction temperature.Based on the time profiles obtained, it was confirmed that satisfactory extraction sensitivity can be obtained even for extraction times shorter than the time required to reach a sorption equilibrium. This conclusion was confirmed by linear concentration profiles obtained for the following ranges: 0.05-10 ng/ml (HCB, 0.05-25 ng/ml (tefluthrin, 0.05-40 ng/ml (heptachlor, 0.05-40 ng/ml (aldrin, 0.05-25 ng/ml (chlorpyrifos, 0.05-25 ng/ml (fenthionand 0.05-25 ng/ml (bifenthrin.Relative standard deviation (RSD values for triplicate measurements did not exceed 15%.

Rada ?urovi?

2007-01-01

52

Planar solid phase extraction clean-up for pesticide residue analysis in tea by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficient clean-up is indispensable for preventing matrix effects in multi-residue analysis of pesticides in food by liquid and gas chromatography (LC and GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). High-throughput planar solid phase extraction (HTpSPE) was recently introduced as a new clean-up concept in residue analysis of pesticides in fruit and vegetables (C. Oellig, W. Schwack, 2011 [45]). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used to completely separate pesticides from matrix compounds and to focus them into a sharp zone, followed by extraction of the target zone by the TLC-MS interface. As rather challenging matrices, tea samples were chosen in this study. Besides chlorophylls and polyphenols, high amount of caffeine is co-extracted resulting in strong matrix effects both in LC-MS and GC-MS. The former HTpSPE procedure was adapted to initial extracts of green and black tea resulting in colorless extracts nearly free of matrix effects and interferences, as shown for seven chemically representative pesticides (acetamiprid, penconazole, azoxystrobin, chlorpyrifos, pirimicarb, fenarimol, and mepanipyrim). LC-MS/MS calibration curves obtained in the range of 0.002-0.5 mg/kg from matrix-matched standards and solvent standards were nearly identical and demonstrated the effectiveness of clean-up by HTpSPE. Mean recoveries determined by LC-MS/MS against solvent standards at spiking levels of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg ranged between 72 and 114% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.7-4.7% (n=4), while LC-MS measurements of tea samples spiked at 1 mg/kg provided recoveries of 81-104% with RSDs of 1.2-4.9% (n=6). Using LC-MS/MS, the method showed high sensitivity with signal-to-noise ratios>10 for concentrations below 0.002 mg/kg. HTpSPE of one sample was done in a few minutes, while numerous samples were cleaned in parallel at minimal costs with very low sample and solvent consumption. PMID:22981507

Oellig, Claudia; Schwack, Wolfgang

2012-10-19

53

[Characterizing the toxicity interaction of the binary mixture between DMSO and pesticide by the multi-effect residual analysis (MERA)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Three groups of binary mixtures between dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and three widely used pesticides, dimethoate (DIM), dichlorvos (DIC), and metalaxyl (MET), were respectively constructed by using the direct equipartition ray design (EquRay). The luminescent inhibition toxicities of single chemical and binary mixtures to Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. -Q67 were determined by the microplate toxicity analysis (MTA). Selecting the concentration addition (CA) model as an additive reference, we developed a new multi-effect residual analysis (MERA) to quantitatively characterize the deviation of the observed toxicity from that predicted by the CA model, i. e. the degree of toxicity interaction. It was shown that the toxicity interactions between DMSO and pesticide were dominated by antagonism, and the highest antagonism distributed between -23% and -15%. The concentration ranges where antagonism existed and the degree of antagonism were influenced by the components in the mixture, the concentration ratios of the components, and the effect level. A comparison of the MERA with the conventional isobologram and the extended toxic unit summation revealed that the MERA characterizes the degree of toxicity interaction in the view of effect, with less limitation by different concentration ratios or effect levels. Therefore, the MERA can be used to evaluate the complex toxicity interactions taking place in binary mixtures. PMID:23487948

Huo, Xiang-Chen; Liu, Shu-Shen; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jin

2013-01-01

54

Analysis of pesticide residues in Brazilian medicinal plants: matrix solid phase dispersion versus conventional (European Pharmacopoeia) methods  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho é proposto um método baseado na dispersão da matriz em fase sólida (MSPD) para a determinação de resíduos de pesticidas organoclorados (OC) e organofosforados (OP) por cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de captura de elétrons (HRGC-ECD) em folhas de espécies de Passiflora L. (m [...] aracujá). Em confronto com os métodos convencionais, sobretudo versus o descrito pela Farmacopéia Européia (EP), a MSPD mostrou-se eficiente, rápida, simples e de fácil execução. Até o momento, não existem nem metodologias oficiais e nem limites que considerem a realidade brasileira para a análise de pesticidas em plantas medicinais e medicamentos fitoterápicos em geral, e o método MSPD aqui descrito mostrou ser uma opção viável para a análise de fitoterápicos de Passiflora L. Abstract in english This paper proposes a method based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) to determine the presence of organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticide residues in species of Passiflora L. (passion fruit) leaves by gas chromatography, using an electron capture detector (HRGC-ECD). A comparis [...] on with conventional methods, mainly the European Pharmacopoeia method (EP), showed MSPD to be efficient, fast, simple and easy to perform. To date, there are no official methods or limits that take into account Brazil's "real life" conditions in the analysis of pesticides in medicinal plants and phytomedicines, and the MSPD method described herein has proved to be a feasible one for the analysis of Passiflora L-based phytomedicines.

Vânia G., Zuin; Janete H., Yariwake; Fernando M., Lanças.

2003-04-01

55

Pesticide residues in rain water from Hisar, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presence of pesticide residues was studied in rain water during 2002 employing multi residue analysis method by gas liquid chromatography equipped with ECD and NPD detectors and capillary columns. The presence of pesticide residues in surface aquatic system triggered the investigation of the presence of pesticides in rain water. A total of 13 pesticides were detected in rain water samples. Among the different groups of pesticides, organochlorines were present in the range of 0.041-7.060 ppb with maximum concentration of p,p'-DDT up to 7.060 microg l(-1). Synthetic pyrethroids were present ranging from 0.100 to 1.000 microg l(-1) and organophosphates in the range of 0.050-4.000 microg l(-1) showing maximum contamination with cypermethrin (1.000 microg l(-1)) and monocrotophos (4.000 microg l(-1)) of the respective groups. Almost 80% samples showed the residues above MRL of 0.5 ppb fixed for multi residues and on the basis of single pesticide, 16-50% samples contained residues above the MRL value of 0.1 ppb. PMID:17268917

Kumari, Beena; Madan, V K; Kathpal, T S

2007-10-01

56

Considerations on the Content of Pesticides Residues in Vegetables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticide contamination of vegetables, today, is more and more questionable. Biodegradability and molecular recalcitrance are two properties expressing the capacity of used substances in plant treatments. Therefore, it is preferred the use of those pesticides that decompose from a treatment to another without accumulating thepollutant residues. It is recommended that, when choosing a pesticide which is used in treatments, to keep in mind: no effect dose, tolerable daily intake, tolerable amount of residues, residues’ limit, the maximum limit allowable, daily dose acceptable for the individual, level of tolerance, maximum limit of contamination allowed and themaximum daily intake acceptable for human. In the Laboratory of pesticide residues determination from plants and plant products in Târgu Mure?, pesticide residues were detected in some species of vegetables; methods of analysis used in the laboratory are multiresidual analysis methods developed in the laboratory (method GC x GC - TOF MS. To be mentioned that the pesticides detected values in vegetables have not exceeded the maximum permissible limits.

Florica Morar

2011-06-01

57

Analysis of six organophosphorus pesticide residues in apples and pears using cloud-point extraction coupled with HPLC-UV.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cloud-point extraction (CPE) method with Triton X-114 has been developed for analysis of six organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in apples and pears. In this CPE procedure, the effects of the surfactant volume, mass of sodium chloride, equilibrium temperature, equilibrium time, and pH on the extraction procedure were investigated. Under the optimal CPE conditions, the analytes were enriched 20-fold and the LODs dropped to 0.44-5.20 microg/kg. Furthermore, the proposed extraction method was validated by the correlation coefficient (R2) of the calibration curve, repeatability (RSD, n = 6), and fortified recoveries, which were 0.9967-0.9993, 2.7-6.5, and 74.7-104.5%, respectively. Based on these results, it could be concluded that the proposed CPE method with Triton X-114 was suitable for the effective extraction and enrichment of OPP residues in the apple and pear samples. PMID:25145158

Zhang, Lijin; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Wenhuan; Pan, Canping

2014-01-01

58

A method for the analysis of organophosphorus pesticide residues in Mexican axolotl.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was developed for quantitative extraction of three organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from the Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum. The determination was carried out using high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array spectrophotometric UV detection (DAD). The MSPD extraction with octadecylsilyl (C18) sorbent combined with a silica gel clean-up and acetonitrile elution was optimised for chlorpyrifos, fenthion and methyl parathion. The method was validated, yielding recovery values higher than 90%. The precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD), was less than or equal to 6% in muscle samples at spiking levels of 10 and 5 ppm. Linearity was studied from 15 to 60 ppm for chlorpyrifos and fenthion, and from 7.5 to 30 ppm for methyl parathion. The limits of detection (LODs) were found to be less than or equal to 0.5 ppm. This method was applied to the analysis of samples from a chlorpyrifos-exposed axolotl, demonstrating its use as an analytical tool for toxicological studies. PMID:20390927

García de Llasera, Martha P; Cruz-Reyes, Leopoldo; Vera-Avila, Luz E

2010-01-01

59

Simultaneous multiresidue analysis of 41 pesticide residues in cooked foodstuff using QuEChERS: Comparison with classical method.  

Science.gov (United States)

The principal objective of this study was to develop a simple multiresidue method involving a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method for the identification and quantification of 41 pesticide residues in cooked foodstuffs including cooked potatoes, radishes, and rice using GC-?ECD. The analytes were subsequently confirmed via GC-MS. The results were then compared using the classical method established by the KFDA. The quantitation of individual pesticides was based on matrix-matched calibration curves with a correlation coefficient in excess of 0.993 for the 41 pesticides selected herein. Using QuEChERS, the mean recoveries ranged between 68.6 and 130.0% for the majority of the tested pesticides; however, the classical method exhibited low recoveries for dichlofluanid, tetraconazole, oxadixyl, fenbuconazloe, and paclobutrazol. After QuEChERS, the LODs and LOQs ranged between 0.004 and 0.3?g/kg and 0.0125 and 1.0?g/kg, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully to determine the residue levels in cooked foodstuffs, and none of the samples contained detectable amounts of pesticide residues. PMID:25214356

Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Bo Mi; Oh, Jae-Ho; Do, Jung-Ah; Kwon, Ki Sung; Shim, Ki-Hoon; Choi, Ok-Ja; Shin, Sung Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

2011-09-01

60

Análise de resíduos de pesticidas em tomates por cromatografia em camada delgada Analysis of residue pesticide in tomatoes by thin layer chromatography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesticide residues are determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC using the Hill reaction as a detection method. Tomatoes samples without pesticide were fortified with atrazine, diuron, chloroxuron and metribuzin, and were applyed in silica gel plates with the help of a microsyringe. The pesticides were elued with ethyl acetate. There was no need of cleaning up because no interference was noticed. After the revelation of the plates, the diameters of the spots were measure by using a rule. The range of the determined concentration for all the pesticides was from 0.1 to1.0 ng/muL. The results obtained through TLC can be used for semi-quantitative analysis.The results obtained were compared to gas and liquid chromatography, showing good agreement between both techniques.

Solange Leite Moraes

2002-05-01

61

75 FR 60452 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...establishment of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2010-09-30

62

78 FR 1798 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2013-01-09

63

76 FR 3885 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2011-01-21

64

76 FR 33183 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2011-06-08

65

78 FR 6274 - Withdrawal of Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2013-01-30

66

76 FR 2110 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2011-01-12

67

78 FR 70906 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2013-11-27

68

76 FR 20667 - Notice of Withdrawal of Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulations in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2011-04-13

69

The 2011 European Union Report on Pesticide Residues in Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The report presents the results of the control activities related to pesticide residues in food carried out in 2011 in 29 European countries (27 Member States and 2 EFTA countries. The report also presents a dietary risk assessment. On the basis of the detailed analysis of the results, EFSA derived some recommendations aimed at improving the enforcement of the European pesticide residue legislation. In 2011, more than 79,000 samples of more than 600 food products were tested for pesticide residues throughout Europe. Nearly 900 pesticides were sought and less than 400 were detected in measurable amounts. In the framework of the EU-coordinated monitoring programme which covered more than 12,000 samples 98.1 % of the tested food samples analysed complied with the legal limits and that 53.4 % of samples contained no measurable residues at all. The dietary risk assessment that was performed to estimate the long-term exposure of consumers confirmed that there was no long-term risk to consumer health through their diets from 99 % of the 171 pesticides assessed. For two pesticides (dieldrin and heptachlor the estimated worst-case exposure exceeded the toxicological reference value, indicating there may be a potential for an impact on consumer health. Neither compound is authorised for use as a pesticide, but due to historical use and the high persistence of the molecules and their capacity to bioaccumulate, they are still present in the food chain. The risk assessment that focussed on the short-term exposure revealed that potential consumer health concerns could not be excluded in 253 instances should the products that contained residues in high concentrations be consumed in high amounts. Finally, an acute risk assessment was carried out for pears that contained multiple residues of pesticides that share the same toxicological effects. Two samples of pears exceeded the toxicological threshold for cumulative effects.

European Food Safety Authority

2014-05-01

70

Pesticides residue levels in selected fruits from some Ghanaian markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of some pesticide residues in fruits was monitored at five (5) Accra Metropolis markets. Locally produced fruits (pawpaw and tomato) and imported apples were purchased from two supermarkets and three urban markets in Accra metropolis and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for pesticide residues. A total of 220 samples of fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (?-HCH, ?-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, ?-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, ?-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, endrin, ?-endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p'- DDT, endrin ketone and methoxychlor). The data showed that most of the fruit samples analyzed contain residues of the monitored pesticides above the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) as adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The results obtained showed that 38.6 % fruit samples showed results above the MRL, 48.7 % were below the MRL and 12.7 % contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides. Data analysis of health risk estimates indicated that, particularly ?-HCH, ?-HCH, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE or p,p'-DDT do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in the three fruits (pawpaw, tomato and apple). However, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable poidered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. Lastly, the public is aware of pesticide residues in fruits and advocates for the curtailing of pesticide use on horticulture produce or strong educational programmes for farmers on control and safer use of pesticides. (au)

71

Planar solid phase extraction clean-up and microliter-flow injection analysis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for multi-residue screening of pesticides in food.  

Science.gov (United States)

For multi-residue analysis of pesticides in food, a sufficient clean-up is essential for avoiding matrix effects in liquid and gas chromatography (LC and GC) analysis coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). In the last two years, high-throughput planar solid phase extraction (HTpSPE) was established as a new clean-up concept for pesticide residue analysis in fruits and vegetables (C. Oellig, W. Schwack, 2011) and tea (C. Oellig, W. Schwack, 2012). HTpSPE results in matrix-free extracts almost free of interferences and matrix effects. In this study, a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was applied to directly analyze HTpSPE extracts for pesticide residues. This HTpSPE-microliter-flow injection analysis (?L-FIA)-TOFMS approach detects all pesticides at once in a single mass spectrum, without a liquid chromatographic separation step. Complete sample information was obtained after the injection of the cleaned extract within a single peak. Recovery studies for seven representative pesticides in four different matrices (apples, red grapes, cucumbers, tomatoes) provided mean recoveries of 86-116% with relative standard deviations of 1.3-10% (n=5) using the mass signal intensities under the entire sample peak. Comparing the mass spectra of sample peaks from spiked extracts and solvent standards indicated the efficiency of HTpSPE clean-up. A pesticide database search detected all spiked pesticides with a low incidence of false-positives. HTpSPE of one sample required a few minutes, and numerous samples could be cleaned in parallel at minimal cost with low sample and solvent consumption. The ?L-FIA-TOFMS screening then needed an additional 6min per sample. The novel screening approach was successfully applied to QuEChERS extracts of several real samples, and the pesticides identified by HTpSPE-?L-FIA-TOFMS were identical to the pesticides detected by common target LC-MS/MS analyses. The high degree of concordantly identified pesticides by the new developed HTpSPE-?L-FIA-TOFMS approach and target LC-MS/MS demonstrates the applicability as a routine screening method. PMID:24877980

Oellig, Claudia; Schwack, Wolfgang

2014-07-18

72

Assessment of pesticide residues on selected vegetables of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was conducted to determine the pesticide residues on selected summer vegetables. Five vegetables were grown with three replicates in a split plot randomized complete block design. Pesticides were sprayed on vegetables thrice at regular intervals each after 15 days. At maturity the pesticides residues were extracted from edible and leaf portions using anhydrous sodium sulfate and ethyl acetate while adsorption chromatography technique was used for cleanup. The extracts were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separation and analysis of the compounds. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the pesticides residues on edible portions whereas highly significant differences (p<0.001) were observed for the leafy portions. The residual level of cypermethrin was highest (16.2 mg kg/sup -1/) in edible portion of bitter gourd, while Lambdacyhalothrin and Mancozeb residues were detected high (4.50 mg kg/sup -1/, 6.26 mg kg/sup -1/) in edible portion of bitter gourd and Cucumber respectively. Cypermethrin residues were high (1.86 mg kg/sup -1/) in Okra leaves. Mancozeb and Lambdacyhalothrin residual level was high (1.23 mg kg/sup -1/, and 0.0002 mg kg/sup -1/) in chili and tomato leaves. Cypermethrin residues were readily detected in edible and leaf portion of the selected vegetables. (author)

73

Assessment of analytical competencies related to pesticide residue analysis on the basis of experimental data  

OpenAIRE

The validity of analytical results contrasts with the analytical compromise of pesticide multi-methods as multi-methods are not able to cover all possible analyte-/matrix-combinations with the required analytical accuracy. By means of weak-point analyses of accreditation requirements (ISO 17025) and the authentic quality of laboratories’ performances assessments as well as by means of methodological comparisons (multi-methods according to DFG S 19, QuEChERS, BfR) areas of improvement were i...

Bruns, Silke Esmeralda

2012-01-01

74

Streamlining sample preparation and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of multiple pesticide residues in tea.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a new rapid method for the determination of 135 pesticide residues in green and black dry tea leaves and stalks employing gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with a triple quadrupole was developed and validated. A substantial simplification of sample processing prior to the quantification step was achieved: after addition of water to a homogenised sample, transfer of analytes into an acetonitrile layer was aided by the addition of inorganic salts. Bulk co-extracts, contained in the crude organic extract obtained by partition, were subsequently removed by liquid-liquid extraction using hexane with the assistance of added 20% (w/w) aqueous NaCl solution. The importance of matrix hydration prior to the extraction for achieving good recoveries was demonstrated on tea samples with incurred pesticide residues. For most of the analytes, recoveries in the acceptable range of 70-120% and repeatabilities (relative standard deviations, RSDs) ?20% were achieved for both matrices at spiking levels of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg kg(-1). Under optimised GC-MS/MS conditions, most of the analytes gave lowest calibration level ?0.01 mg kg(-1), permitting the control at the maximum residue levels (MRLs) laid down in Regulation (EC) No 396/2005. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in real tea samples. PMID:22882823

Cajka, Tomas; Sandy, Chris; Bachanova, Veronika; Drabova, Lucie; Kalachova, Kamila; Pulkrabova, Jana; Hajslova, Jana

2012-09-19

75

High-throughput pesticide residue quantitative analysis achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with automated flow injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of automated flow injection with MS/MS detection for fast quantitation of agrochemicals in food and water samples was demonstrated in this study. Active ingredients from the sulfonylurea herbicide and carbamate insecticide classes were selected as model systems. Samples were prepared using typical procedures from residue methods, placed in an autosampler, and injected directly into a triple quadrupole instrument without chromatographic separation. The technique allows data acquisition in 15 s per injection, with samples being injected every 65 s, representing a significant improvement from the 15-30 min needed in typical HPLC/MS/MS methods. The availability of HPLC systems is an advantage since they can be used in flow-injection mode (bypassing the column compartment). Adequate accuracy, linearity, and precision (R(2) > 0.99 and RSD limit of quantitation (LOQ) achieved for all analytes was 0.01 mg/kg in food samples and 0.1 ng/mL in water; while limits of detection (LOD) were estimated to be about 0.003 mg/kg and 0.03 ng/mL in food and water, respectively. The advantages and limitations of flow injection MS/MS for ultratrace-level quantitative analysis in complex matrixes are discussed. PMID:19296591

Nanita, Sergio C; Pentz, Anne M; Bramble, Frederick Q

2009-04-15

76

Pesticide residues survey in citrus fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of pesticides is widespread in citrus fruits production for pre- and post-harvest protection and many chemical substances may be applied in order to control undesirable moulds or insects. A survey was carried out to evaluate levels of pesticide residues in citrus fruits. Two multiresidue analytical methods were used to screen samples for more than 200 different fungicides, insecticides and acaricides. A total of 240 samples of citrus fruits including lemon, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lime, pomelo and kumquat were taken in various markets in the Geneva area during the year 2003. Ninety-five percent of the 164 samples issued from classical agriculture contained pesticides and 38 different compounds have been identified. This high percentage of positive samples was mainly due to the presence of two post-harvest fungicides, imazalil and thiabendazole, detected in 70% and 36% of samples respectively. Only three samples exceeded the Swiss maximum residue limits (MRLs). Fifty-three samples sold with the written indication "without post-harvest treatment" were also controlled. Among theses samples, three exceeded the Swiss MRLs for penconazole or chlorpyrifos and 18 (34%) did not respect the written indication since we found large amounts of post-harvest fungicides. Finally, 23 samples coming from certified organic production were analysed. Among theses samples, three contained small amounts of pesticides and the others were pesticides free. PMID:16019813

Ortelli, Didier; Edder, Patrick; Corvi, Claude

2005-05-01

77

Clean up of pesticide residues by Gel- Permeation chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of the semi-automatic gel chromatographic system, Type : KL-SX-3 ( GPC) was evaluated for pesticide residue analysis. The clean up procedure was found efficient for large column use (28 mm id. x 20 cm). Recoveries of linuron and pirimiphos-methyl were found 84.3 and 79.8 percent respectively. Fat and pesticide contents are clearly separable. About eighty percent of DDT (88.8%), 91.4% of carbaryl and 98% of carbofuran were recovered in 80-190 ml of cyclohexane-dichloromethane 1 : 1 eluent. In the small column more than 70% of pesticides come out in the initial fractions ( 0-30 ml) of eluent. From this study it is thus concluded that GPC (KL-SX-C) with large column is suitable to separate pesticides from fat and other co-extracts from grain samples, but small column technique is of limited use. (author)

78

Pesticide residue analysis of fruit juices by LC-MS/MS direct injection. One year pilot survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

For this work, thirteen types of fruit juices (orange, pineapple, peach, apple, multifruit, mango, strawberry, tomato, pear, mandarin, grape, banana and grapefruit) were selected to develop an analytical method for the analysis of 53 pesticides by direct injection in LC-MS/MS. The preparation of the samples was very simple: an aliquot of the juice was centrifuged and it was ten-times diluted prior to analysis, which allowed reducing considerably the time and cost of the analyses. Besides, dilution of the samples permits reducing the amount of matrix going into the system, and thus, decreasing the matrix effects, so common in this type of commodities, opening the possibility to perform quantification with solvent based standards. Validation of the method was carried out in accordance with EU guidelines. Calibration curves covering three orders of magnitude were performed, and they were linear over the concentration range studied for all the matrices (from 0.1 to 100 ?g L(-1)). Practical limits of quantification were in the low ?g L(-1) range, far below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of the EU regulations, which do not set specific MRLs for juices, and in this cases of processed food, MRLs of the raw product are applied. Repeatability of the instrumental method was studied in all matrices, obtaining good intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs). The proposed method was applied to 106 real fruit juice samples purchased in different local markets during a one-year survey in order to validate the suitability for routine analysis. 43% of the analysed samples gave positive results (higher than the practical limits of quantification). PMID:21238751

Ferrer, Carmen; Martínez-Bueno, M J; Lozano, Ana; Fernández-Alba, A R

2011-02-15

79

Microflow liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry-an approach to significantly increase sensitivity, decrease matrix effects, and reduce organic solvent usage in pesticide residue analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manuscript reports a new pesticide residue analysis method employing a microflow-liquid chromatography system coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (microflow-LC-ESI-QqQ-MS). This uses an electrospray ionization source with a narrow tip emitter to generate smaller droplets. A validation study was undertaken to establish performance characteristics for this new approach on 90 pesticide residues, including their degradation products, in three commodities (tomato, pepper, and orange). The significant benefits of the microflow-LC-MS/MS-based method were a high sensitivity gain and a notable reduction in matrix effects delivered by a dilution of the sample (up to 30-fold); this is as a result of competition reduction between the matrix compounds and analytes for charge during ionization. Overall robustness and a capability to withstand long analytical runs using the microflow-LC-MS system have been demonstrated (for 100 consecutive injections without any maintenance being required). Quality controls based on the results of internal standards added at the samples' extraction, dilution, and injection steps were also satisfactory. The LOQ values were mostly 5 ?g kg(-1) for almost all pesticide residues. Other benefits were a substantial reduction in solvent usage and waste disposal as well as a decrease in the run-time. The method was successfully applied in the routine analysis of 50 fruit and vegetable samples labeled as organically produced. PMID:25495653

Uclés Moreno, Ana; Herrera López, Sonia; Reichert, Barbara; Lozano Fernández, Ana; Hernando Guil, María Dolores; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo Rodríguez

2015-01-20

80

Multi-residue method for the analysis of 85 current-use and legacy pesticides in bed and suspended sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

A multi-residue method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 85 current-use and legacy organochlorine pesticides in a single sediment sample. After microwave-assisted extraction, clean-up of samples was optimized using gel permeation chromatography and either stacked carbon and alumina solid-phase extraction cartridges or a deactivated Florisil column. Analytes were determined by gas chromatography with ion-trap mass spectrometry and electron capture detection. Method detection limits ranged from 0.6 to 8.9 ??g/kg dry weight. Bed and suspended sediments from a variety of locations were analyzed to validate the method and 29 pesticides, including at least 1 from every class, were detected.

Smalling, K.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

2008-01-01

81

Environmental and food applications of LC-tandem mass spectrometry in pesticide-residue analysis: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

An overview is given on pesticide-residue determination in environmental and food samples by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Pesticides comprise a large number of substances that belong to many completely different chemical groups, the only common characteristic is that they are effective against pests. They still constitute a challenge in MS because there is no collective pathway for fragmentation. A brief introduction to the theory of tandem MS permits a discussion of which parameters influence the ionization efficiency when the ions are subjected to different actions. Emphasis is placed on the different tandem MS instruments: triple and ion-trap quadrupoles, and hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF), including advantages and drawbacks, typical detection limits, and ion signals at low concentrations. The instrumental setup, as well as LC and mass spectrometric experimental conditions, must be carefully selected to increase the performance of the analytical system. The capacity of each instrument to provide useful data for the identification of pesticides, and the possibility to obtain structural information for the identification of target and non-target compounds, are discussed. Finally, sample preparation techniques and examples of applications are debated to reveal the potential of the current state-of-the-art technology, and to further promote the usefulness of tandem MS. PMID:14625892

Picó, Yolanda; Blasco, Cristina; Font, Guillermina

2004-01-01

82

Requiring Pollutant Discharge Permits for Pesticide Applications that Deposit Residues in Surface Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species.

Terence Centner

2014-05-01

83

Requiring pollutant discharge permits for pesticide applications that deposit residues in surface waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species. PMID:24814945

Centner, Terence; Eberhart, Nicholas

2014-05-01

84

Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction in Pesticide Residues Analysis:1. Optimisation of Extraction Conditions  

OpenAIRE

The method of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS/SPME) was successfully used in a simultaneous multicomponent analysis of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), tefluthrin, heptachlor, aldrin, chlorpyrifos, fenthion and bifenthrin in aqueous medium. Measurementswere performed using a nonpolar polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) fiber. Detection and quantification were done by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).Optimal conditions for HS/SPME were determined both by performing extraction at differe...

Rada ?urovi?; Jelena Milinovi?; Mirjana Markovi?; Dragan Markovi?

2007-01-01

85

Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticide Residues in Beans from Markets in Lagos State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foods treated with pesticides for protection against destructive pests often contain residues of these chemicals. The levels of pesticide residues in food are often determined as a means of assessing appropriate use as well as the level of human exposure to these chemicals and hence their potential human health hazards. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in beans samples collected from markets in Lagos State and compare these values with established safety values. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. samples purchased from different markets in Lagos State were analyzed for residues of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Analysis was done using gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detector (GC-MS after careful extraction and cleanup. It was found that all the beans samples contained residues of one or more organophosphate or carbamate pesticides. Mean concentrations ranged from 19.4 to 455.9 ?g/kg. Maximum residue limits (MRL of the various pesticides (except for parathion were exceeded in up to 10% of samples. The estimated total diet intake (ETDI for dichlorvos exceeded its maximum permissible intake (MPI by 131%. Organophosphate and carbamate pesticide residues are present in beans sold in Lagos markets and maximum residue limits for most of the pesticides are exceeded. There is therefore a need for more stringent monitoring of importation and use of these pesticides in agriculture and food storage in Nigeria.

Ogah C.O

2011-03-01

86

Progress on multi-residue determination of pesticides in food  

OpenAIRE

Food safety is important for the national economy and the people’s livelihood. Development of new analytical techniques and risk assessment for pesticide residues in foods are beneficial for risk management, risk communication and the health of consumer. This paper reviewed the new sample pretreatment techniques, pesticide multi-residue detection technologies and its applications, to provide certain reference for the development and improvement of pesticide residues detection and risk asses...

Zhu, Pan; Miao, Hong; Du, Juan; Zhao, Yun-feng; Wu, Yong-ning

2013-01-01

87

Progress on multi-residue determination of pesticides in food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food safety is important for the national economy and the people’s livelihood. Development of new analytical techniques and risk assessment for pesticide residues in foods are beneficial for risk management, risk communication and the health of consumer. This paper reviewed the new sample pretreatment techniques, pesticide multi-residue detection technologies and its applications, to provide certain reference for the development and improvement of pesticide residues detection and risk assessment in food.

ZHU Pan

2013-02-01

88

77 FR 59577 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9364-3] Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...July 25, 2012, concerning Pesticide Petition (PP) 2F8026...establish tolerances for residues of the herbicide...

2012-09-28

89

Quantification, confirmation and screening capability of UHPLC coupled to triple quadrupole and hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in pesticide residue analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of three mass spectrometry (MS) analyzers (triple quadrupole, QqQ; time of flight, TOF; and quadrupole time of flight, QTOF) has been investigated and compared for quantification, confirmation and screening purposes in pesticide residue analysis of fruit and vegetable samples. For this purpose, analytical methodology for multiresidue determination of 11 pesticides, taken as a model, has been developed and validated in nine food matrices for the three mass analyzers coupled to ultra high pressure liquid chromatography. In all cases, limits of quantification around 0.01 mg/kg were reached, fulfilling the most restrictive case of baby-food analysis. Regarding absolute sensitivity, the lower limits of detection were obtained, as expected, for QqQ (100 fg), whereas slightly higher limits (300 fg) were obtained for both TOF and QTOF. Confirmative capacity of each analyzer was studied for each analyte based on the identification points (IPs) criterion, useful for a comprehensive comparison. QTOF mass analyzer showed the highest confirmatory capacity, although QqQ normally led to sufficient number of IPs, even at lower concentration levels. The potential of TOF MS was also investigated for screening purposes. To this aim, around 50 commercial fruits and vegetables samples were analyzed, searching for more than 400 pesticides. TOF MS proved to be an attractive analytical tool for rapid detection and reliable identification of a large number of pesticides thanks to the full spectrum acquisition at accurate mass with satisfactory sensitivity. This process is readily boosted when combined with specialized software packages, together with theoretical exact mass databases. Several pesticides (e.g. carbendazim in citrus and indoxacarb in grape) were detected in the samples. Further unequivocal confirmation of the identity was performed using reference standards and/or QTOF MS/MS experiments. PMID:20301091

Grimalt, Susana; Sancho, Juan V; Pozo, Oscar J; Hernández, Félix

2010-04-01

90

Determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in tomatoes by gas chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chloropyriphos and malathion are two organophosphorus pesticides from many others pesticides widely used by famers in agriculture .Because of their bad effect on human health, officials standards are set by the international organisations and communities to ensure safer food for consumer .In the same way, scientists over the world are working hard to develop new detection techniques responding to the international requirements. In this study, an ' IAEA-ethylacetate method ', an adaptation of the popular QuEChERS multi residue method, was optimized to analyse chloropyriphos and Malathion residues in tomatoes .Ethyl-Acetate was used as an extraction solvent the PSA was kept for the clean up procedure. GC-NPD is used for samples analysis .The method optimized is specifique, selective with a recovery averaged more than 70 pour cent. A complete validation of the method is necessary to be used for routine analysis.

91

Research of pesticide residues on fruit by terahertz spectroscopy technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide residues on the fruit skin are measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in 0.2-1.3THz. Pesticide is mainly residues for fruit, which threatens health of human, so the research about the fruit residues is absolutely important. In the experiment, a kind of pesticide carbendazim, orange, and the mixture of them are measured by THz-TDS, and then calculate absorption spectrums through Fourier transform and Fresnel formula. Experiment results indicate that THz-TDS is an effective tool for the measurement of pesticide residues on the fruit skin.

Ma, Yehao; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Huali

2011-11-01

92

Análise de resíduos de pesticidas em tomates por cromatografia em camada delgada Analysis of residue pesticide in tomatoes by thin layer chromatography  

OpenAIRE

Pesticide residues are determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) using the Hill reaction as a detection method. Tomatoes samples without pesticide were fortified with atrazine, diuron, chloroxuron and metribuzin, and were applyed in silica gel plates with the help of a microsyringe. The pesticides were elued with ethyl acetate. There was no need of cleaning up because no interference was noticed. After the revelation of the plates, the diameters of the spots were ...

Solange Leite Moraes; Maria Olímpia Oliveira Rezende; Lia Emi Nakagawa; Luiz Carlos Luchini

2002-01-01

93

Pesticide residues in birds and mammals  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous exposure to an organochlorine pesticide, the concentrations of residues in the different tissues are ordinarily directly correlated with each other. When the dosage is at lethal levels, or when stored residues are mobilised to lethal levels, the balanced relationship is disrupted. The concentrations of residues in the brain provide the most rigorous criteria for diagnosis of death due to these chemicals, and levels are generally similar across a wide range of species of birds and mammals. Residues in liver are closely correlated with recent dose, either from direct intake or from mobilisation from storage, and so reflect hazardous exposure. Residues in the whole carcass show the storage reserve, and so indicate the potential for adverse effects from lethal mobilisation or from the continuous slow mobilisation that occurs during the normal processes of metabolism and excretion. A synchronous, rapid, and widespread decline in weight and thickness of shells of eggs laid by many species of wild birds occurred in the late 1940's and has persisted. Birds of prey were primarily affected; exceptions apparently are the result of lesser exposure because of different food habits. Many species of fish-eating birds are also affected. Others, however, appear to be more resistant and to accumulate much higher residues before shell-thinning occurs. Seed-eating birds do not appear to have been generally affected; their exposure is ordinarily lower, but physiological factors also seem to be involved. A relationship between shell-thinning and population decline has been established for many species. In exceptional cases, such as the herring gull, persistent re-nesting and other population reactions have overcome adverse effects at the population level. The discovery of shell-thinning among natural populations, and the hypothesis that this thinning was related to the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides, stimulated experimental studies to determine wheth

Stickel, L.F.

1973-01-01

94

Automated gas chromatographic analysis of pesticide residues in food samples by means of fused-silica capillary columns and data processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

A conventional gas chromatograph with one system for split and splitless injection and one on-column injection system for fused-silica capillary columns and the two selective nitrogen-phosphorus and electron-capture detectors is applied to pesticide residue analysis in food samples. The gas chromatograph is equipped with a two-channel data processor that can be programmed with BASIC. Additionally an autosampler is used with the splitless injector. This automated injection system is connected to a 25-m methylsilicone fused-silica column which is coupled via an effluent splitter parallel to both detectors and used for screening in routine analysis. Calibration is performed on this column by means of three calibration test mixtures which include three internal standards. All compounds are calibrated on both detectors in parallel and the response calculated as an additional identification parameter. After the analysis of a of food samples together with the calibration mixture a report is plotted, containing all pesticide residues which may be present in the samples and their tentative quantities. The final confirmation is achieved on the second column, coated with methylphenyl-silicone phase, connected to the on-column injector. PMID:6323500

Goebel, H; Stan, H J

1983-11-25

95

40 CFR 158.2040 - Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table... § 158.2040 Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table...to determine the biochemical pesticides residue data requirements for a...

2010-07-01

96

40 CFR 158.2082 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table...Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table...to determine the biochemical pesticides residue data requirements for a...

2010-07-01

97

40 CFR 158.2172 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table...Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table...experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue. The test notes are...

2010-07-01

98

40 CFR 158.2130 - Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table... § 158.2130 Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table...requirements for microbial pesticides residue. The test notes are...

2010-07-01

99

9 CFR 318.16 - Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 false Pesticide chemicals and other residues...and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...PRODUCTS General § 318.16 Pesticide chemicals and other residues...ingredients. Residues of pesticide chemicals, food...

2010-01-01

100

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fresh and Greenhouse Vegetables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Regarding the public concerns about serious health risks from pesticide, the occurrences of 105 pesticide residues including Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, Organonitrogen, Dicarboximides, Strobilurin, Triazine, Pyrethroids were assessed using a descriptive method in 25 fresh and greenhouse vegetable samples (fresh carrot, greenhouse tomato and cucumber. Ethyl acetate was used for extraction of pesticides from samples and the extract was cleaned up by Envicarb Solid Phase Extraction column chromatography. Pesticide residues were identified and quantified using gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry detector. The mean recoveries and limit of detection of the pesticides in samples were respectively 61.67-117% and the reproducibility of relative standard deviation values for the pesticides was 3.49-14.55%. Our data demonstrated that 80% of the total analyzed samples contained detectable residues including trifluralin, permethrin, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, fenpropathrin and iprodione, which were below the accepted maximum residue limits (MRLS adopted by FAO/WHO Codex Commision Alimentarius.

M.H. Azizi

2008-04-01

101

Types of pesticides and determination of their residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pesticide is any material or component used to protect from pests. Its toxic effect is related to the chemical structure, which can be divided into 3 types : 1- Metal pesticides : Sulphur, cupper, zinc, mercury; 2- Vegetal pesticides : advanced and less toxic to the general health; 3- Synthetic organo pesticides : organo chlorine, organophosphorous, carbamate and pyrethroids. Pesticides in the soil undergo biological dissociation according to their concentration and chemical structure. High concentration of the pesticides in the soil may lead to fertility decrease due to destruction of micro-organisms by the pesticides. Many methods are used to analyze the residues of pesticides in plant or soil : 1- Chromatographic methods : Gas chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography; 2- Spectroscopy methods : spectrophotometer and mass spectrometer; 3- Isotopic methods : based on tracers technique which is the most sensitive and accurate method and can estimate minor amounts of the pesticides. (author)

102

Multivariate analysis of nutritional information of foodstuff of plant origin for the selection of representative matrices for the analysis of pesticide residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Testing safety of foodstuffs of plant origin involves the analysis of hundreds of pesticide residues. This control is only cost-effective through the use of methods validated for the analysis of many thousands of analyte/matrix combinations. Several documents propose representative matrices of groups of matrices from which the validity of the analytical method can be extrapolated to the represented matrices after summarised experimental check of within group method performance homogeneity. Those groups are based on an evolved expert consensus based on the empirical knowledge on the current analytical procedures; they are not exhaustive, they are not objectively defined and they propose a large list of representative matrices which makes their application difficult. This work proposes grouping 240 matrices, based on the nutritional composition pattern equivalence of the analytical portion right after hydration and before solvent extraction, aiming at defining groups that observe method performance homogeneity. This grouping was based on the combined outcome of three multivariate tools, namely: Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and K-Mean Cluster Analysis. These tools allowed the selection of eight groups for which representative matrices with average characteristics and objective criteria to test inclusion of new matrices were established. The proposed matrices groups are homogeneous to nutritional data not considered in their definition but ca not considered in their definition but correlated with the studied multivariate nutritional pattern. The developed grouping that must be checked with experimental test before use was tested against small deviations in food composition and for the integration of new matrices.

103

Distribution of multiple pesticide residues in apple segments after home processing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effects of washing, storing, boiling, peeling, coring and juicing on pesticide residue were investigated for field-sprayed Discovery and Jonagold apples. Residues of chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, diazinon, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, fenitrothion, fenpropathrin, iprodione, kresoxim-methyl, lambda-cyhalothrin, quinalphos, tolylfluanid and vinclozolin in the processed apples were analysed by gas chromatography. Statistical analysis showed that reductions of 18-38% were required to obtain significant effects of processing practices, depending on pesticide and apple variety. Juicing and peeling the apples significantly reduced all pesticide residues. In the case of detectable pesticide residues, 1-24% were distributed in the juice and in the peeled apple. None of the pesticide residues was significantly reduced when the apples were subject to simple washing or coring. Storing significantly reduced five of the pesticide residues: diazinon, chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, kresoxim-methyl and tolylfluanid, by 25-69%. Residues of the metabolite endosulfan sulfate were increased by 34% during storage. Boiling significantly reduced residues of fenitrothion and tolylfluanid by 32 and 81%, respectively. Only a few of the observed effects of processing could be explained by the physical or chemical characteristics of the pesticides. No differences in effect of processing due to apple variety were identified.

Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Poulsen, Mette Erecius

2003-01-01

104

Evaluation of the Potential of GC-APCI-MS for the Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Fatty Matrices  

Science.gov (United States)

A method based on gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-MS) has been developed for the analysis of pesticides in meat by using quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS). Ionization and MS conditions were studied for 71 compounds, although only 51 showed acceptable performance. The protonated form of the analytes was mainly found ([M + H]+), although some compounds generated the molecular ion (M+•). A fast and generic extraction procedure was applied in sample pretreatment. The analytical method was suitable for qualitative analysis, and it was also evaluated for quantitative analysis, obtaining adequate recovery and precision values for most of the studied analytes at two concentration levels (50 and 150 ?g/kg). Several operational drawbacks were found with this instrument, such as slow stabilization and moderate sensitivity, although the fast switching between LC and GC allows the increase of its applicability.

Gómez-Pérez, María Luz; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Romero-González, Roberto; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

2014-05-01

105

Pesticide residues and bees--a risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees. PMID:24718419

Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

2014-01-01

106

76 FR 69692 - Withdrawal of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities  

Science.gov (United States)

...of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on...

2011-11-09

107

[Investigation of pesticide residues in foods distributed in Kitakyushu City].  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated 160 kinds of pesticide residues in 715 samples of 116 kinds of foods distributed in Kitakyushu city. Sixty kinds of pesticides were detected in 55 kinds of foods (204 samples) in the range of 0.002-22 mg/kg. Five kinds of pesticides in 7 samples violated the residue standards and the indication of "unused". The detection ratios of unregulated pesticide in domestic and imported foods were 27.8 and 33.0%, respectively. Iprodione, dicofol, diethofencarb, procymidone and chlorfenapyr (for domestic food) and total bromine, benomyl, chlorpyrifos, dicofol, fenvalerate, cypermethrin and dimethoate (for imported food) showed relatively high detection ratios. Chinese cabbage, garland chrysanthemum, tomatoes and green teas (domestic) and broccoli, bananas, grapefruit, lemons, oranges, frozen edamame and frozen kidney beans (imported) showed high relative pesticide detection ratios. Residual pesticides were detected with relatively high frequency in imported fruits, imported frozen foods and imported processed foods. PMID:15272606

Ishikawa, Seiichi; Naetoko, Eri; Kawamura, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Rika; Higuchi, Masayuki; Kojima, Tsutomu; Yamato, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Masaki

2004-04-01

108

Determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of the TLC for determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains was studied using corn, rice and wheat as representative commodities and atrazine, captan, chlorpyrifos, chlortoluron, diazinon, diuron, fenitrothion, metoxuron, prochloraz, triforine as representative compounds. Following the extraction with ethyl acetate the efficiency of extraction was tested with Bio-Rad SX-3 gel, GPC, silica gel, florisil and RP-18 reverse phase silica cartridge. The GPC alone or in combination with silica or florisil cleanup were the most suitable for cleanup of the extracts. The TLC elution characteristics of 131 pesticide active ingredients were tested with eight elution systems. The detectability of the selected compounds was determined with six detection methods including two chemical and four bioassay procedures. In addition to the basic methods, the non-toxic Penicillium cyclopium fungi spore inhibition was introduced and it was found very sensitive for some fungicide compounds. The minimum detectable quantities of the tested compounds ranged from 1 ng to 100 ng. The average recoveries from rice and wheat ranged from 78% to 89%, and the limits of quantitation, LOQ, were between 0.01 and 0.2 mg/kg for the selected ten compounds. (author)

109

The 2010 European Union Report on Pesticide Residues in Food  

OpenAIRE

This report presents the results of the control of pesticide residues in food commodities sampled during the calendar year 2010 in the 27 EU Member States and two EFTA countries (Iceland and Norway). The report also comprises the outcome of the consumer risk assessment of pesticide residues. EFSA presents for the first time the results of a pilot cumulative risk assessment (CRA) to multiple chemical residues. Finally, the report provides some recommendations aimed at the improvement of the fu...

European Food Safety Authority

2013-01-01

110

Rapid detection of pesticide residue in apple based on Raman spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of Raman spectroscopy in the analysis of low concentration organic contaminants on apples' surface was evidenced in this study. Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus pesticide, was used as a probe for this purpose. The characteristic peaks of fingerprints of pesticide on an aluminum substrate and apple fruit cuticle without pesticide residue were acquired first. Then a concentration range of chlorpyrifos (commercial products at 40%) solutions were made using deionised and distilled water. Single 100 ?L droplets of the chlorpyrifos solutions were placed gently on apple fruit cuticles and left to dry before analysis. Through comparative analysis of the Raman spectra data collected, 341, 632 and 1237cm-1 were identified to detect the chlorpyrifos pesticide residue on apple surface. Based on the relationship between the Raman intensity of the most prominent peak at around 632cm-1 and the pesticide concentrations, the limit of detection of ordinary Raman spectrum for chlorpyrifos was estimated to be 48ppm.

Li, Yongyu; Sun, Yunyun; Peng, Yankun; Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Liu, Qiaoqiao

2012-05-01

111

Nuclear applications for pesticide residue studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiotracer techniques offer a powerful tool in understanding the fate of pesticides in soil, plant or food and can be utilised to take suitable corrective procedures to minimise the environmental effects of pesticides. 9 refs

112

[Organochlorine pesticide residues in 4 types of vegetable oils].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study had as objectives to identify and to quantify organochlorine pesticide residues (OCP) hexachlorobenzene (HCB), lindane, cis-chlordane, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and o,p'-DDT in vegetable oils of corn, soybean, sunflower and mixtures of oils, sold in the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela. 30 samples of 4 types of vegetable oils of 10 commercial brands were analyzed. The extraction of OCP residues was done according to the Official Method of AOAC. A gas chromatograph with an electronic capture detector (GC-ECD) was used for identification and quantification of OCP residues and confirmation was done with a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). All the OCP residues investigated were detected in the analyzed samples. Aldrin (0.0088), lindane (0.0054) and o,p'-DDT (0.0035) were the OCP residues detected in higher concentrations (microg/g). The statistical analysis showed significant differences (Poils. Lindane concentration in the corn oil (0.0125 microg/g), as well as cischlordane (0.0091 microg/g) and aldrín (0.0287 microg/g) in the soybean oil exceeded maximal residual limits (MRL) established by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). In conclusion, it was detected a high incidence of OCP residues in vegetable oils analyzed. PMID:18524325

Piñero González, María; Izquierdo Córser, Pedro; Allara Cagnasso, María; García Urdaneta, Aiza

2007-12-01

113

Bound pesticide residues in soils and plants and their determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the environmental significance of pesticide residues in soil and plants one must distinguish between two types of residues: those that are extractable with solvents, and those residues that are not extractable with solvent. The extent of bound (non-extractable) residues varies with the plant and pesticide involved and generally increases with time after treatment Bound pesticide residues have been detected in the organic matter fractions of soil, i.e. humic acid, fulvic acid and humin. Several studies have shown that lignin, hemicellulose and pectic polysaccharide are the major bound residues fraction of pesticide in plants. Attempts have been made to extract bound pesticide residues by the milder to harsher methods. Drastic extractive procedures destroy the structure of soil or plants often results in the destruction of the identity of bound residues. The High Temperature Distillation (HTD) and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) techniques may provide possible means for extraction and identification of bound residues in food products. Regulatory agencies should also consider placing further emphasis on employing more effective extraction techniques and procedures to quantitatively remove bound residues

114

Fate of pesticide residues on tea from leaf to cup  

OpenAIRE

This comprehensive review of the fate of pesticides deposited on tea leaves focuses on the wide variations in MRL levels fixed by different agencies viz., EU, EPA, Codex, which may differ by as much as 200 times in individual chemicals. Hence, there is a need for harmonization of pesticide residue limits, which should be agreed to by all the stakeholders. The main factors that determine the pesticide load are the characteristics of chemicals; prevailing field conditions; the process of manufa...

Shanker, A.; Kumar, V.; Tewary, D. K.

2003-01-01

115

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fresh and Greenhouse Vegetables  

OpenAIRE

Regarding the public concerns about serious health risks from pesticide, the occurrences of 105 pesticide residues including Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, Organonitrogen, Dicarboximides, Strobilurin, Triazine, Pyrethroids were assessed using a descriptive method in 25 fresh and greenhouse vegetable samples (fresh carrot, greenhouse tomato and cucumber). Ethyl acetate was used for extraction of pesticides from samples and the extract was cleaned up by Envicarb Solid Phase Extraction column...

Azizi, M. H.; Hadian, Z.

2008-01-01

116

Note on pesticide residues as a function of formulation used  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The total quantities of pesticides needed for adequate pest control may be minimized by the correct choice of methods of formulation and application. This will diminish the total burden of residues in the environment but not necessarily in the crop. Radiolabelled pesticides are useful for small-scale and laboratory tests to elucidate the principles which determine the behaviour of pesticides in the environment and to check analytical methods used for field-scale tests. (author)

117

Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but long term exposure can cause serious health hazards to human health and environment as well. The reports on occurrence of pesticides residues in animal products manufactured in India are fragmentary, but provide confirmation to the fact Indian consumers do get dietary exposure to these pesticides. The role of Insecticide Act and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act enforced in India for judicious pesticide use and safety of consumers of animal products is discussed. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 178-182

Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

2011-08-01

118

FOR HEALTHY KIDS: REDUCTION OF HOME PESTICIDE RESIDUE EXPOSURES  

Science.gov (United States)

For Healthy Kids focuses on preventing children's exposure to pesticides by educating agricultural workers on preventing "the take home pathway" for pesticide residue. A baseline survey encompassing over 570 households in the Yakima valley was conducted in the summer of 1999. Ho...

119

Removal of trace pesticide residues from farm produce  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of current food production practices, we must accept the fact that small quantities of pesticide residues will be present in our food supply. The significance of minute quantities of these chemical residues in food over an extended period of time is much debated question and has become a problem for man to face in controlling the total insult to his environment. Tolerance of pesticide residues in food are occasionally revised, some being revised downward. Against this background, it becomes obvious that the effects of processing chemical residues in food is an area where available information should be consolidated and missing information obtained through further research. This is particularly important for developing countries where 'persistent' pesticides are in use and where farmers treat crops with exaggerated quantities of pesticide chemicals to guarantee yields, rmoval of, residues in food processing is affected by type of food, insecticide type; and nature and severity of processing procedure used. Examples of processing methods include peeling; washing, hot water blanching, cooking, canning, chemical and physical treatments for oil refinement, processing of grain into flour and bread, milk into cream and cheese, etc. Removal of pesticide residues is usually incidental to the processing operation. In the present paper the effect of washing and peeling on the decontamination of pesticide residue in mangoes are discussed. (author)scussed. (author)

120

Rapid analysis of multiple pesticide residues in fruit-based baby food using programmed temperature vaporiser injection–low pressure gas chromatography–high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid method using programmed temperature vaporizer injection–low-pressure gas chromatography–high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTV–LP-GC–HRTOFMS) for the analysis of multiple pesticide residues in fruit-based baby food was developed. The fast and inexpensive buffered QuEChERS ext...

121

ANALYSIS OF AGED IN-HOME CARPETING TO DETERMINE THE DISTRIBUTION OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES BETWEEN DUST, CARPET, AND PAD COMPARTMENTS  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents results of a study to determine the distribution of pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) between dust and carpet components in aged carpeting. Carpeting in eight homes in the Research Triangle Area, which...

122

Use of activated charcoal in a solid-phase extraction technique for analysis of pesticide residues in tomatoes  

OpenAIRE

The present work describes extraction and purification methods that were developed to determine and to monitor the content of organophosphorus pesticides in tomato crops from the agricultural district of Florianópolis, Brazil. SPE technique with activated charcoal was used for purification and recovery of the pesticides methamidophos, acephate, malation and methyl parathion. The solvents used for sample extraction and elution were chosen after several comparative tests. Best results were ach...

Kaipper Beatriz I. A.; Madureira Luiz A. S.; Corseuil Henry X.

2001-01-01

123

Effects of different washing methods on pesticide organophosphorus residues  

OpenAIRE

Objective To compare the effects of different washing methods for removing of organophosphorus pesticides residual from the vegetable samples. Methods Four non-toxic substances (rice washing water, flour water, baking soda and dietary alkali) were used for the removing of organophosphorus pesticides residual (omethoate was taken for instance) from the vegetable samples (cabbage), then detected through phosphor molydate blue after extraction and concentration. Results It was showed the leas...

Wang, Xiao-wei; Yu, Rui-xiang; Shen, Yi-ping; Ding, Zhuo-ping

2013-01-01

124

Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Plankton, Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand  

OpenAIRE

Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method reco...

Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

2008-01-01

125

Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization Q-Orbitrap mass spectrometry for the analysis of 451 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: method development and validation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an application of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap MS) for the determination of 451 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. Pesticides were extracted from samples using the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure. UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap MS in full MS scan mode acquired full MS data for quantification, and UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap Full MS/dd-MS(2) (i.e., data-dependent scan mode) obtained product ion spectra for identification. UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap MS quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibration curves along with the use of isotopically labeled standards or a chemical analogue as internal standards to achieve optimal method accuracy. The method performance characteristics include overall recovery, intermediate precision, and measurement uncertainty evaluated according to a nested experimental design. For the 10 matrices studied, 94.5% of the pesticides in fruits and 90.7% in vegetables had recoveries between 81 and 110%; 99.3% of the pesticides in fruits and 99.1% of the pesticides in vegetables had an intermediate precision of ?20%; and 97.8% of the pesticides in fruits and 96.4% of the pesticides in vegetables showed measurement uncertainty of ?50%. Overall, the UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap MS demonstrated acceptable performance for the quantification of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. The UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap Full MS/dd-MS(2) along with library matching showed great potential for identification and is being investigated further for routine practice. PMID:25265038

Wang, Jian; Chow, Willis; Chang, James; Wong, Jon W

2014-10-22

126

77 FR 59576 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals...regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals...to help readers determine whether this document...the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals...meat byproducts; milk; and sheep,...

2012-09-28

127

Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos-methyl, difenconazole, epoxiconazole, glyphosate, iprodione, malathion, pirimicarb, prochloraz, spiroxamin and trifloxystrobin. After harvest, the test material was additionally spiked in the laboratory with three pesticides, that where the residues were too low, and axozystrobin. In total, 72 laboratories submitted results and z-scores were calculated for all laboratories and pesticides, except for glyphosate where only five laboratories submitted results and summed weighted z-scores were calculated for the laboratories with a sufficient scope. For several pesticides, the submitted results were strongly depending on the extraction procedure and consequently the assigned values were calculated based on part of the results. Acceptable z-scores were obtained by 56-97% of the participants.

Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre

2009-01-01

128

[Pesticide residual status in litchi orchard soils in Guangdong, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Litchi is a famous tropical and subtropical fruit originated in South China. Guangdong is one of the most important litchi production areas in China. Two hundred and eight soil samples were collected in litchi orchards after harvesting the fruit, in which nine often-used pesticides including metalaxyl, mancozeb, carbendazim, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, dipterex, dimethoate and dichlorvos were detected. The results showed that the detectable rates of various pesticides were ranked cypermethrin (59.1%) > carbendazim (51.0%) > mancozeb (11.1%) > metalaxyl (6.7%) > cyhalothrin (3.4%). Dimethoate and dichlorvos were detectable in few soil samples, and deltamethrin and dipterex were undetectable in all samples. The percentages of soil samples where different pesticides could be detected in one sample followed the order: one pesticide detectable (40.4%) > two pesticides simultaneously detectable (31.3%) > pesticide undetectable (18.8%) > three pesticides simultaneously detectable (8.2%) > four pesticides simultaneously detectable (1.4%). The concentrations of mancozeb in detectable samples averaged 39.05 microg x kg(-1), and that of cypermethrin was 7.83 microg x kg(-1). The mean concentrations of the other five pesticides ranged from 0.19 microg x kg(-1) to 1.65 microg x kg(-1). Totally, the pesticide residue status in litchi orchards in Guangdong was venial. PMID:21250457

Yao, Li-Xian; Huang, Lian-Xi; Li, Guo-Liang; He, Zhao-Huan; Zhou, Chang-Min; Yang, Bao-Mei; Guo, Bin

2010-11-01

129

Airborne pesticide residues along the Mississippi River  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence, concentration, and geographical distribution of agricultural pesticides were determined in air over the Mississippi River from New Orleans, LA, to St. Paul, MN, during the first 10 days of June 1994. Air samples were collected from a research vessel by pulling air through polyurethane foam plugs at about 100 L/min for up to 24 h. Each sample was analyzed for 42 pesticides and 3 pesticide transformation products. Twenty- five compounds-15 herbicides, 7 insecticides, and 3 pesticide transformation products-were detected in one or more samples with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 80 ng/m3. Alachlor, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, fonofos, malathion, methyl parathion, metolachlor, metribuzin, pendimethalin, and trifluralin were detected in 80% or more of the samples. The highest concentrations for chlorpyrifos (1.6 ng/m3), diazinon (0.36 ng/m3), and malathion (4.6 ng/m3) all occurred near major metropolitan areas. These samples represent a 'snapshot in time', a spatial and temporal integration of which pesticides were present in the air during each sampling period. The occurrence and atmospheric concentrations of the observed pesticides were most closely related to their use on cropland within 40 km of the river.The occurrence, concentration, and geographical distribution of agricultural pesticides were determined in air over the Mississippi River from New Orleans, LA, to St. Paul, MN, during the first 10 days of June 1994. Air samples were collected from a research vessel by pulling air through polyurethane foam plugs at about 100 L/min for up to 24 h. Each sample was analyzed for 42 pesticides and 3 pesticide transformation products. Twenty-five compounds-15 herbicides, 7 insecticides, and 3 pesticide transformation products-were detected in one or more samples with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 80 ng/m3. Alachlor, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, fonofos, malathion, methyl parathion, metolachlor, metribuzin, pendimethalin, and trifluralin were detected in 80% or more of the samples. The highest concentrations for chlorpyrifos (1.6 ng/m3), diazinon (0.36 ng/m3), and malathion (4.6 ng/m3) all occurred near major metropolitan areas. These samples represent a 'snapshot in time', a spatial and temporal integration of which pesticides were present in the air during each sampling period. The occurrence and atmospheric concentrations of the observed pesticides were most closely related to their use on cropland within 40 km of the river.

Majewski, M.S.; Foreman, W.T.; Goolsbys, D.A.; Nakagaki, N.

1998-01-01

130

A review of organochlorine pesticide residues in ferruginous hawk eggs  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten Ferruginous Hawk nests in northeast Oregon were studied from 1978 to 1980. Pesticide residues, eggshell thickness, and reproductive success from these nests will be reviewed. In addition, egg residues from other published studies in the Pacific Northwest and elsewhere will be discussed.

Henny, C.J.

1985-01-01

131

An optical instrument to test pesticide residues in agricultural products  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide is one of the indispensability materials in modern agricultural management, however the excessive use of pesticides has threatened the ecological environment and people's health. This paper introduced an optical instrument to test the pesticide residues in agricultural products based on the inhibition rate of organophosphates against acrtyl-cholinesterase (AchE). The instrument consists mainly of a solid light source with 410nm wavelength, a sampling container, an optical sensor, a temperature sensor, and a MCU based data acquisition board. The light illuminated through the liquid in the sampling container, and the absorptivity was determined by the amount of the pesticide residues in the liquid. This paper involves the design of optical testing system, the data acquisition and calibration of the optical sensor, the design of microcontroller-based electrical board. Tests were done to reveal the affection of temperature and reacting time on AchE, to establish the relationship between the amount of methamidophos and dichlorvos with AchE. The results showed that the absorption rate was related to the pesticide residues and it could be concluded that the pesticide residues exceeded the normal level when the inhibition rate was over 50 percent. The instrument has potential application in vegetable markets.

Qiu, Zhengjun; Zheng, Wenzhong; Fang, Hui; He, Yong

2005-10-01

132

Extraction of pesticide residues from biological and environmental samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various procedures that show potential in offering shorter extraction times with higher recoveries and low consumption of organic solvents are discussed. Solid phase extraction is attracting increasing attention for the isolation of pesticide residues from aqueous solutions and constitutes an alternative to liquid-liquid extraction. Microwave assisted extraction of stable pesticide residues from soil samples appears to be a viable alternative to conventional Soxhlet extraction. Thermal desorption involving high temperature distillation is an innovative method for efficiently extracting certain pesticides from soil, sediment and plant samples. Supercritical fluid extraction is emerging as a valuable technique for the isolation of pesticide residues from soil, plant and food samples, using supercritical fluids as the extraction media. It represents an excellent alternative to the potentially hazardous solvents currently used in conventional methods. The feasibility of employing water based systems for the extraction of certain pesticides from fruits and vegetables has also been investigated. A brief survey is given of these extraction procedures and a comparison made with the techniques widely used for the extraction of pesticides residues from biological and environmental samples. (author). 22 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

133

Use of activated charcoal in a solid-phase extraction technique for analysis of pesticide residues in tomatoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work describes extraction and purification methods that were developed to determine and to monitor the content of organophosphorus pesticides in tomato crops from the agricultural district of Florianopolis, Brazil. SPE technique with activated charcoal was used for purification and recovery of the pesticides methamidophos, acephate, malation and methyl parathion. The solvents used for sample extraction and elution were chosen after several comparative tests. Best results were achieved using ethyl acetate for extraction and dichloromethane - ethyl acetate (7:3) for elution. Average recoveries from the matrices fortified with 0.20 to 0.60 {mu}g g{sup -1} ranged from 85.2 to 100 % with overall coefficients of variation of 1.3 to 6.3 %. The limits of detection of the method varied between 0.04 and 0.12 ng g{sup -1}. Activated charcoal demonstrated to be efficient for tomato matrix purification and for quantitative recovery of the analytes. (author)

Kaipper, Beatriz I.A.; Madureira, Luiz A.S. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: madureira@qmc.ufsc.br; Corseuil, Henry X. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria

2001-07-01

134

Use of activated charcoal in a solid-phase extraction technique for analysis of pesticide residues in tomatoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work describes extraction and purification methods that were developed to determine and to monitor the content of organophosphorus pesticides in tomato crops from the agricultural district of Florianópolis, Brazil. SPE technique with activated charcoal was used for purification and recovery of the pesticides methamidophos, acephate, malation and methyl parathion. The solvents used for sample extraction and elution were chosen after several comparative tests. Best results were achieved using ethyl acetate for extraction and dichloromethane - ethyl acetate (7:3 for elution. Average recoveries from the matrices fortified with 0.20 to 0.60 mug g-1 ranged from 85.2 to 100 % with overall coefficients of variation of 1.3 to 6.3 %. The limits of detection of the method varied between 0.04 and 0.12 ng g-1. Activated charcoal demonstrated to be efficient for tomato matrix purification and for quantitative recovery of the analytes.

Kaipper Beatriz I. A.

2001-01-01

135

Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80% of European Maximum Residue Levels (EU MRL) and that the number of residues present at levels above 0.01 mg kg(-1) should be limited to a maximum of four. The strategies fulfilled the requirement to use combinations of different active substances in order to prevent the emergence of resistance to pesticides. The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were monitored during the season in order to evaluate the efficacy of the different strategies. The efficacies of the different strategies against apple scab and powdery mildew were between 84% and 100% successful. In general, the level of pesticide residues found correlated with application rate and time, and no measured residue level exceeded the EU-MRL. The numbers of residues present at > 0.01 mg kg(-1) were between two and five.

Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.

2009-01-01

136

Wide-scope analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues in animal feed by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fast and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous monitoring of >250 pesticides and veterinary drugs (VDs) in animal feed. A 'dilute-and-shoot' extraction with water and acetonitrile (1% formic acid) followed by a clean-up step with Florisil cartridges was applied. The extracts were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid analyser quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry using both positive and negative electrospray ionisation. The detection of the residues was accomplished by retention time and accurate mass using an in-house database. The identification of the detected compounds was carried out by searching of fragment ions for each compound and isotopic pattern. The optimised method was validated and recoveries ranged from 60% to 120% at three concentrations (10, 50 and 100 ?g kg(-1)) for 30%, 68% and 80% of compounds, respectively, included in the database (364) in chicken feed. Document SANCO 12495/2011 and Directive 2002/657/CE were used as guidelines for method validation. Intra-day and inter-day precisions, expressed as relative standard deviations, were lower than 20% for more than 90% of compounds. The limits of quantification ranged from 4 to 200 ?g kg(-1) for most analytes, which are sufficient to verify compliance of products with legal tolerances. The applicability of the procedure was further tested on different types of feed (chicken, hen, rabbit and horse feed), evaluating recoveries and repeatability. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of 18 feed samples, detecting some VDs (sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, robenidin and monensin Na) and only one pesticide (chlorpyrifos). PMID:23712649

Aguilera-Luiz, María M; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

2013-08-01

137

A comparative study of allowable pesticide residue levels on produce in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The U.S. imports a substantial and increasing portion of its fruits and vegetables. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration currently inspects less than one percent of import shipments. While countries exporting to the U.S. are expected to comply with U.S. tolerances, including allowable pesticide residue levels, there is a low rate of import inspections and few other incentives for compliance. Methods This analysis estimates the quantity of excess pesticide residue that could enter the U.S. if exporters followed originating country requirements but not U.S. pesticide tolerances, for the top 20 imported produce items based on quantities imported and U.S. consumption levels. Pesticide health effects data are also shown. Results The model estimates that for the identified items, 120 439 kg of pesticides in excess of U.S. tolerances could potentially be imported to the U.S., in cases where U.S. regulations are more protective than those of originating countries. This figure is in addition to residues allowed on domestic produce. In the modeling, the top produce item, market, and pesticide of concern were oranges, Chile, and Zeta-Cypermethrin. Pesticides in this review are associated with health effects on 13 body systems, and some are associated with carcinogenic effects. Conclusions There is a critical information gap regarding pesticide residues on produce imported to the U.S. Without a more thorough sampling program, it is not possible accurately to characterize risks introduced by produce importation. The scenario presented herein relies on assumptions, and should be considered illustrative. The analysis highlights the need for additional investigation and resources for monitoring, enforcement, and other interventions, to improve import food safety and reduce pesticide exposures in originating countries.

Neff Roni A

2012-01-01

138

Pesticide residue monitoring in Korean agricultural products, 2003-05.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 2003 and 2005, a total of 11,716 samples were collected and analysed to determine the level of pesticides residues. Multi-residue methods (MRMs) capable of simultaneously determining 250 pesticides were used. Of the 11,716 samples, 89.1% had no detectable residues and 1.7% had violative residues. The detection rates by commodity group were 11.4, 8.6, 0.3, and 0.02% for vegetables, fruit, grain, mushrooms, and the others, respectively. Agricultural products with pesticide residues were pepper, Perilla frutescens, leafy lettuce and spinach in decreasing order. Of the 250 pesticides that were monitored, 70 pesticides were actually found. Procymidone, endosulfan, chlorfenapyr, metalaxyl, and diethofencarb were frequently detected. Of the samples, parsley, Petasites hybridus, Aster scaber and leek had high violative rates of 23.1, 12.6, 8.2, and 7.9%, respectively. From violative samples, procymidone, endosulfan, metalaxyl, diazinon and chlorpyrifos were frequently detected. The violation rates were 1.71, 1.68, and 1.76% in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively, and the detection rates were 8.5, 12.0, and 13.3% in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively. PMID:24784964

Cho, T H; Kim, B S; Jo, S J; Kang, H G; Choi, B Y; Kim, M Y

2009-01-01

139

Residues of organochlorinated pesticides in soils from the Czech Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

National POPs inventories carried out currently in many countries as a part of the implementation of Stockholm Convention revealed the need for detailed information about a distribution of pollutants in various regions. Screening for the residues of selected organochlorinated pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, isodrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, methoxychlor, mirex) in soil and biotic samples from the Czech Republic was performed. Although these pesticides have never been used in large quantities in this region, results indicate that their residues still persist in the top layer soils more than 20 years after they have been banned. The fact that their soil concentrations in the mountains are generally higher than those in agricultural areas, and detection of the traces of pesticides that have never been used in this region suggest on their occurrence in soils due to the atmospheric redistribution rather than as a result of direct application. - Organochlorinated pesticides persist in soils

140

The Organochlorine Pesticides Residue Levels in Karun River Water  

OpenAIRE

Background: The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are among the most commonly used in water streams around the world. Most of these contaminants are highly hydrophobic and persist in sediments of rivers and lakes. Studies have suggested that OCPs may affect the normal function of the human and wildlife endocrine systems.Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides residues [OP'DDT, PP'DDT, alderin, dieldrin, heptachlor, (?,ß,?,?...

Behrooz Jannat; Abdolazim Behfar; Zahra Nazari; Mohammad Hassan Rabiee; Gholamreza Raeesi; Mohammad Reza Oveisi; Nafiseh Sadeghi

2013-01-01

141

75 FR 11173 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...initial notice of filing of pesticide petition (PP) 9E7651 in...tolerances in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of the...

2010-03-10

142

Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) in Determination of Pesticide Residues in Soil Samples  

OpenAIRE

The basic principles and application possibilities of the methods based on solid phase microextraction (SPME) in the analysis of pesticide residues in soil samples are presented in the paper. The most important experimental parameters which affect SPME efficacy in pesticide determination (type and thickness of microextraction fiber, duration of microextraction, temperature at which it is conducted, effect of addition of salts (the effect of efflorescence), ...

Rada ?urovi?

2011-01-01

143

Comparison of different types of coatings in headspace solid phase micro extraction for the analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the continuing development of solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) fiber coatings, their selection presents some difficulties for analytes in choosing the appropriate fiber for a particular application. There are many types of SPME coatings available commercially. The most widely used for determination of pesticide residues in vegetable and fruits are polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyacrylate (PA). A headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) procedure using these two commercialized fibers (PDMS and PA) is presented for the determination of selected groups of organo chlorine and organophosphorus pesticides. The extraction performances of these compounds were compared using these two fibers. The optimal experimental procedures for the adsorption and desorption of pesticides were determined. An explanation for the extraction differences is suggested based on the different thickness, polarity of the polymeric film of fibers and the different extracting matrices. In addition, the higher detector response of the pesticides after addition of aliquots of water and an organic solvent to the vegetable and fruit samples are also discussed. The SPME fibers were reusable until a maximum of 120 extractions. Finally, the optimized procedures were applied successfully for the determination of these compounds in vegetable and fruits samples. Mean recoveries for all pesticides were between 75.0-97 % with RSD below 7 %. (author)

144

The 2010 European Union Report on Pesticide Residues in Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report presents the results of the control of pesticide residues in food commodities sampled during the calendar year 2010 in the 27 EU Member States and two EFTA countries (Iceland and Norway. The report also comprises the outcome of the consumer risk assessment of pesticide residues. EFSA presents for the first time the results of a pilot cumulative risk assessment (CRA to multiple chemical residues. Finally, the report provides some recommendations aimed at the improvement of the future monitoring programmes and the enforcement of the European pesticide residue legislation. In total, more than 77,000 samples of approximately 500 different types of food (raw or processed were analysed for pesticide residues by national competent authorities. Considering the results concerning both the national and the EU-coordinated programmes, the total number of analytical determinations reported among all the countries amounted to more than 14 million. The results of the EU-coordinated programme for 2010 showed that 1.6% of total samples analysed exceeded the European legal limits (MRLs. EFSA concluded that the long-term exposure of consumers did not raise health concerns. In assessing the short-term exposure, the pesticide monitoring results revealed that a risk could not be excluded for 79 samples concerning 30 different pesticides if the pertinent food was consumed in high amounts. The results of the CRA are considered indicative as the work on establishing which groups of pesticides are expected to share the same toxicological effects is not yet complete and the final methodological approach needs to be further elaborated. The outcome of the pilot CRA demonstrated that the exposure calculations are affected by significant uncertainties, mainly related to the analytical results reported as “non-detected”. The methodology used in this pilot exercise will be further revised to reduce the uncertainties of the exposure assessment.

European Food Safety Authority

2013-03-01

145

Ecological risk of pesticide residues in the British Columbia environment: 1973-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

An updated ecological risk assessment was conducted to re-evaluate and review the overall risk of pesticide residues to certain aquatic life. The focus was the impact on offsite non-target, freshwater organisms of pesticide operational sprays in British Columbia from 1973 until 2012. The values of risk quotients for pesticides of selected indicator organisms were determined to measure the effect. When compared with organophosphorus, carbamate, and other miscellaneous pesticides, this risk assessment analysis suggests that the historical use of persistent and highly toxic organochlorine pesticides posed, and continue to pose, a deleterious ecological risk. The risk is both short-term acute and long-term sub-acute, chronic toxicity to offsite, non-target aquatic invertebrates and juvenile salmonid fish. Data indicated that these organisms were, and remain, subjected to harmful effects of pesticide residues to varying degrees. Most vulnerable were, and also are, benthic organisms inhabiting bottom sediments. This substrate is the natural sink for persistent pesticide residues, predominantly organochlorine pesticides from historical use, as well as dioxins, furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wood preservatives, and other sources. Environment Canada's main aquatic protection strategy was a 10 metre no-treatment buffer zone, augmented with an additional appropriate setback along shorelines of fishery and wildlife resource-sensitive water bodies. This study discusses why this guideline was necessary, useful and effective, but was only partially successful. The physical-chemical properties of pesticide residues, from either an individual compound or different compounds in combination, also influence the nature of biological impacts on non-target, aquatic organisms. Few studies have been conducted in British Columbia aquatic environments to investigate the significance of this aspect. PMID:23431973

Wan, Michael T

2013-01-01

146

Monitoring pesticides residues and contaminants for some leafy vegetables at the market level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pesticide residues and contaminants in selected leafy vegetables, namely (lettuce, garden rocket and salad onion) were monitored at market level in Riyadh City in Saudi Arabia, during the period june to july 2001. Fifteen samples of vegetables from the City vegetable market of Riyadh were collected and subjected to multi-pesticide residue detection and analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometer and electron capture detectors (GC/MS,ECD). Results of sample extracts analysis showed that the two vegetables of: garden rocket and salad onion contain pesticide residues and contaminants which have no Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) prescribed by Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) collaborate with World Health and Food and Agriculture Organizations (WHO/FAO). Whereas lettuce vegetable was found free of any identified pesticide residues or contaminants. Garden rocket was shown to contain dibutyl phthalate (0.04 ppm)-steryl chloride (0.02 ppm) tridecane (0.06 ppm)-hexadecane (0.07 ppm)-BIS (ethylhexyl) phthalate (0.006 ppm) and pyridinium, 1-hexyl chloride (0.01 ppm). The salad onion was found to contain 9-octadecanamide (0.13 ppm)-tridecane (0.15 ppm) and tetradecane (0.16 ppm). There are no established MRL s for these pesticides and contaminants detected in garden rocket and salad onion, although when impacts on human health were reviewed some of them were found probably hazardous. (Author)

147

Pesticide persistence and bound residues in soil - regulatory significance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses key aspects of the European Union (EU) regulatory policy related to the persistence and bound residues of agricultural pesticide active substances in soil. This is examined in the context of the EU Authorisations Directive (91/414/EEC) which will gradually replace existing national systems of agricultural pesticide regulation within EU Member States. Discussion is concentrated on this directive, looking in particular at the Uniform Principles therein and the possible ways that these decision-making guidelines could be developed into a regulatory framework. The aim in this process of negotiated development is to identify any questions or data requirements that will be needed for persistent pesticides or soil bound residues, over and above those generally required for all compounds. The present EU regulatory position on soil non-extractable or bound residues is examined and possible future improvements to the system are described and discussed

148

Levels of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus Tissues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study investigated the extent of contamination of with p,p- DDT, p,p-DDE, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, lindane ((?-HCH and ?-HCH, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, alpha-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlordane, heptachlor and methoxychlor in tissues of grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus, obtained from the Gomoa East district of Ghana. The organochlorine pesticide residues in the samples were soxhlet extracted using a mixture of hexane and acetone. The extracts were cleaned up using florisil and analysed using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron detector (GCECD. The results indicated that all the analyzed samples were contaminated with the studied organochlorine pesticides. Aldrin and heptachlor were the principal contaminants in all the samples. The muscle had the highest pollutant load followed by the liver and then the kidney. The levels of organochlorine pesticide residues detected in all the tissues were below the accepted Maximum Residue Limits (MRL, as adopted by the WHO/FAO Codex Alimentarius Commission (2005.

Sarah Blankson-Arthur

2011-06-01

149

Pesticide Residues Evaluation in Pulp, Juice and Nectar of Fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrial processing of fruit in order to produce juice and nectar can contribute to over exposure of some contaminants, such as pesticide residues. Thus, this work aimed to check the compliance with the Maximum Residue Levels (MRL. In our research, 162 samples of frozen pulps, 16 of juice and 2 of nectar, were evaluated for pesticide residues, as well as the acceptable dietary intake (ADI. A multi-residue method was employed and almost 140 active ingredients were studied. Positive results were detected only in pulps, corresponding to 40% of the amount of samples. According to the Brazilian and the Codex Alimentarius legislation, none of the pesticide residues found were above the MRL. The most frequently found compounds were: pyridaphenthion, azinphos-methyl and carbendazim in peach and endosulfan in strawberry samples. Multiple findings were found in strawberry (29.6% and peach (7.8%. Chronic dietary intake was not exceeded. The results demonstrated the necessity of pesticide residue control in fruit.

Claudia Helena Pastor Ciscato

2012-04-01

150

The determination of pesticide residues and contaminants in vegetables by means of neutron activation analysis. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear detection and analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron activation techniques have been applied to study the existence of pesticide residues (As, Br, Hg) and pollutants (Cd, Co, Zn) in local vegetable and fruit samples, polished and unpolished glutinous and non-glutinous milled rice, and fish caught in polluted and unpolluted areas of the Gulf of Thailand. Since the baseline levels of these toxic elements in vegetables, fruits, rice and fish are not known as yet, the results cannot be regarded as conclusive. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in the concentration of these elements in fish caught in polluted and unpolluted areas. The Gulf of Thailand does not therefore appear to be polluted at present. The substoichiometric isotope dilution technique was successfully applied to mercury determinations, and only to a limited extent to Cd due to shutdown of the TRR-1 reactor

151

40 CFR 180.7 - Petitions proposing tolerances or exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw agricultural...  

Science.gov (United States)

...tolerances or exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw agricultural...TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations...tolerances or exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw...

2010-07-01

152

Assessment of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticide Residues in Cigarette Tobacco with a Novel Cell Biosensor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The conventional analysis of pesticide residues in analytical commodities, such as tobacco and tobacco products is a labor intensive procedure, since it is necessary to cover a wide range of different chemicals, using a single procedure. Standard analysis methods include extensive sample pretreatment (with solvent extraction and partitioning phases and determination by GC and HPLC to achieve the necessary selectivity and sensitivity for the different classes of compounds under detection. As a consequence, current methods of analysis provide a limited sample capacity. In the present study, we report on the development of a novel cell biosensor for detecting organophosphate and carbamate pesticide residues in tobacco. The sensor is based on neuroblastoma N2a cells and the measurement of changes of the cell membrane potential, according to the working principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA. The presence of pesticide residues is detected by the degree of inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE. The sensor instantly responded to both the organophoshate pesticide chlorpyriphos and the carbamate carbaryl in a concentration-dependent pattern, being able to detect one part per billion (1 ppb. Additionally, tobacco leaf samples (in blended dry form were analyzed with both the novel biosensor and conventional methods, according to a double-blind protocol. Pesticide residues in tobacco samples caused a considerable cell membrane hyperpolarization to neuroblastoma cells immobilized in the sensor, as indicated by the increase of the negative sensor potential, which was clearly distinguishable from the sensor’s response against pesticide-free control samples. The observed response was quite reproducible, with an average variation of +5,6%. Fluorescence microscopy observations showed that treatment of the cells with either chlorpyrifos or carbaryl was associated with increased [Ca2+]cyt . The novel biosensor offers fresh perspectives for ultra-rapid, sensitive and low-cost monitoring of pesticide residues in tobacco as well as other food and agricultural commodities.

Spiridon Kintzios

2008-04-01

153

MSPD sample preparation approach for reversed-phase liquid chromatographic analysis of pesticide residues in stem of coconut palm.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was developed using matrix solid-phase dispersion, together with liquid chromatography with ultraviolet diode array detector for determination of carbofuran, difenoconazole, ?-cyfluthrin, spirodiclofen and thiophanate-methyl in stem of coconut palm. The best results were obtained using 2.0 g of stem, 1.6 g of Florisil as sorbent and cyclohexane:acetone mixture (4:1). The method was validated using stem samples spiked with pesticides at four concentration levels (0.05-2.0 ?g/g). Average recoveries ranged from 70 % to 114.3 %, with relative standard deviations between 1.2 % and 19.2 %. Detection and quantification limits were in the ranges 0.02-0.03 and 0.05-0.1 ?g/g, respectively. PMID:23722654

Ferreira, Jordana Alves; Santos, Luís Fabrício Santana; Souza, Nicaellen Roberta da Silva; Navickiene, Sandro; de Oliveira, Frederico Alberto; Talamini, Viviane

2013-08-01

154

Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from South America – A Nordic project  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from South America. A total of 724 samples of 46 different fruits and vegetables from eight South American countries were collected in 2007. In 19% of the samples no residues were found, 72% of samples contained pesticide residues at or below MRL, and 8.4% of samples contained pesticide residues above MRL. Thiabendazole, imazalil and chlorpyrifos were the pesticide most frequently found. Thirty-seven pesticides were found with frequencies higher that 1% in the samples. The results emphasize the need for continuous monitoring of pesticide residues, especially in imported fruits and vegetables.

Hjorth, Karen; Johansen, K.

2011-01-01

155

Organophosphorus pesticide residues in the total diet of Kuwait  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Levels of phosphorylated pesticide residues in the total diet of Kuwait were determined. A total of 136 core samples (and 90 related items) were analyzed by following the multi-residue methods listed in PAM1. The results indicated that 25 of the items (about 18%) in the Kuwaiti diet contained detectable residues. In total 6 pesticides were detected. Monocrotophos (0.2 mg/kg), diazinon (0.05 mg/kg), and quinalphos (0.022 mg/kg) were present only in one sample. Chloropyriphos-methyl and fenitrothion were the most commonly detected pesticides. Chloropyriphos-methyl was present in 19 items and ranged from (0.01 to 0.33 mg/kg) while fenitrothion was detected in 8 samples, ranging from 0.016 to 0.84 mg/kg. The levels of Chloropyriphos ranged from 0.054 to 0.073 mg/kg, and it was present in 3 samples. The levels of residues were generally low in most of the positive samples. MRL was exceeded in only one of the core samples. Fenitrothion levels in the brown bread were higher than MRL. Pesticides present in wheat flour were responsible for the residues in most of the positive samples. (author)

156

78 FR 16243 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR)  

Science.gov (United States)

...Inspection Service [Docket No. FSIS-2013-0012] Codex Alimentarius Commission: Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR) AGENCY...that will be discussed at the 45th Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR) of...

2013-03-14

157

77 FR 3229 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR)  

Science.gov (United States)

...Inspection Service [Docket No. FSIS-2011-0035] Codex Alimentarius Commission: Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR) AGENCY...that will be discussed at the 44th Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR) of...

2012-01-23

158

76 FR 3601 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues  

Science.gov (United States)

...Inspection Service [Docket No. FSIS-2010-0044] Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues AGENCY: Office...will be discussed at the 43rd Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR)...

2011-01-20

159

"Keep a low profile": pesticide residue, additives, and freon use in Australian tobacco manufacturing  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To review the Australian tobacco industry's knowledge of pesticide residue on Australian tobacco and its policies and practices on resisting calls by tobacco control advocates that consumers should be informed about pesticide residue as well as additives.

Chapman, S.

2003-01-01

160

Determination of pesticide residues in IPM and non-IPM samples of mango (Mangifera indica).  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were conducted to analyze the residue of commonly used pesticides viz. methyl parathion, chloropyrifos, endosulfan, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, carbendazim, imidacloprid and carbaryl in mango, Dashehari variety, integrated pest management (IPM) and non-IPM samples were collected from the IPM and non-IPM orchards, Lucknow, India. We also present a method for the simultaneous determination of these pesticides in mango samples. Residues of methyl parathion, chloropyriphos, endosulfan, cypermethrin, fenvalerate were extracted from the samples with acetone: cyclohexane: ethyl acetate in the ratio 2:1:1 followed by cleanup using neutral alumina. Analysis was performed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) with a megabore column (OV-1). Residues of carbendazim, imidacloprid and carbaryl were extracted with acetone and after cleanup, analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using photo diode array (PDA) detector. Recoveries of all the pesticides ranged between 72.7-110.6%, at 0.1 and 1.0 microg g(-1) level of fortification. The residues detected in non-IPM samples of mango were found to be below the prescribed limits of maximum residue limit (MRL) while IPM samples were free from pesticide residues. PMID:18437617

Singh, Shashi B; Mukherjee, Irani; Maisnam, Jaya; Kumar, Praveen; Gopal, Madhuban; Kulshrestha, Gita

2008-05-01

161

Pesticide residue in water-a challenging task in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern agriculture practices reveal an increase in use of pesticides to meet the food demand of increasing population which results in contamination of the environment. In India, crop production increased to 100 %, but the cropping area has increased marginally by 20 %. Pesticides have played a major role in achieving the maximum crop production but maximum usage and accumulation of pesticide residues is highly detrimental to aquatic and other ecosystem. Pesticide residues in drinking water have become a major challenge over the last few years. It has been monitored in public water supply resources in National capital territory, i.e., Delhi. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), mainly isomers of hexachlorohexane (HCH), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), endosulphan, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and heptachlore, were identified from potable water samples. Results suggested that continuous consumption of contaminated water can pose severe health threats to local residents of this area. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi, had found ? and ? isomers of endosulphan residues in the Yamuna river. High concentrations of ?-HCH (0.259 ?g/l) and malathion (2.618 ?g/l) were detected in the surface water samples collected from the river Ganga in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (UP). High concentration of methyl parathion, endosulfan, and DDT were observed in water samples collected from the river at Bhagalpur, Bihar. The Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC), Lucknow (UP) study also found 0.5671 ppb concentrations of endosulfan in the river at Allahabad, UP. Similar results were found in other water samples in India. PMID:25638058

Agarwal, Akriti; Prajapati, Rajmani; Singh, Om Pal; Raza, S K; Thakur, L K

2015-02-01

162

Pesticide residues in agricultural drains, southeastern desert area, California  

Science.gov (United States)

A study is being made to determine the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the agricultural drains for approximately 3/4 million irrigated acres in the southeastern desert area of California. This report describes the results of the first year of sampling and analyzing (1) water in the drains , (2) bed material in the drains, (3) water from field tile-drainage lines, and (4) irrigation tailwater and water in the drains directly exposed to drift from aerial application of pesticides. Residues of almost all the pesticides selected for monitoring were found in water in the drains. Examination of the data to determine the probable source of pesticides indicated generally slight concentrations from bed material in the drains, usually no detectable concentrations from field tile-drainage lines, and apparently large concentrations from irrigation tailwater and drift from aerial application. (Woodard-USGS)

Eccles, Lawrence A.

1979-01-01

163

Use of activated charcoal in a solid-phase extraction technique for analysis of pesticide residues in tomatoes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho foram desenvolvidos métodos de extração e purificação a fim de determinar e monitorar as concentrações dos pesticidas organofosforados mais utilizados em tomates na grande Florianópolis. A técnica de EFS com carvão ativo foi utilizada para a purificação e recuperação dos pestici [...] das metamidofós, acefato, malation e paration metílico. Os solventes para a extração e eluição foram escolhidos após diversas análises, sendo que os melhores resultados foram alcançados através da extração dos pesticidas com acetato de etila e eluição com CH2Cl2 - acetato de etila (7:3). A média recuperada dos analitos das matrizes fortificadas com 0,20 - 0,60 mig g-1 variou entre 85,2 e 100 %, com coeficientes de variação entre 1,3 e 6,3 %. Os limites de detecção foram de 0,04 a 0,12 ng g-1. O adsorvente carvão ativo mostrou-se eficiente para a purificação da matriz de tomate e para a recuperação quantitativa dos analitos, especialmente os mais polares. Abstract in english The present work describes extraction and purification methods that were developed to determine and to monitor the content of organophosphorus pesticides in tomato crops from the agricultural district of Florianópolis, Brazil. SPE technique with activated charcoal was used for purification and recov [...] ery of the pesticides methamidophos, acephate, malation and methyl parathion. The solvents used for sample extraction and elution were chosen after several comparative tests. Best results were achieved using ethyl acetate for extraction and dichloromethane - ethyl acetate (7:3) for elution. Average recoveries from the matrices fortified with 0.20 to 0.60 mug g-1 ranged from 85.2 to 100 % with overall coefficients of variation of 1.3 to 6.3 %. The limits of detection of the method varied between 0.04 and 0.12 ng g-1. Activated charcoal demonstrated to be efficient for tomato matrix purification and for quantitative recovery of the analytes.

Beatriz I. A., Kaipper; Luiz A. S., Madureira; Henry X., Corseuil.

2001-08-01

164

Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from South America – A Nordic project  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from South America. A total of 724 samples of 46 different fruits and vegetables from eight South American countries were collected in 2007. In 19% of the samples no residues were found, 72% of samples contained pesticide residues at or below MRL, and 8.4% of samples contained pesticide residues above MRL. Thiabendazole, imazalil and chlorpyrifos were the pesticide most frequently found. Thirty-...

Hjorth, Karen; Johansen, K.; Holen, B.; Andersson, A.; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Siivinen, K.; Toome, M.

2011-01-01

165

Pesticide residues in the soil of the Central Jordan Valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil samples were taken from three zones in the Central Jordan Valley to evaluate the range of contamination with pesticides. Several pesticides belonging to different groups, particularly chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides such as the DDT family and cyclodienes, were detected. In zone I, most of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides occurred in open fields cultivated with tomatoes at a depth of 30-60 cm, at 0-15 and 15-30 cm in zone II, and at 0-15 and 30-60 cm in zone III. When considering pesticide residues under plastic house conditions cultivated with tomatoes, most of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide residues were detected at a depth of 0-15 and 15-30 cm in zone I, at 0-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm in zone II, and at 0-15 and 15-30 cm in zone III of the Central Jordan Valley. (author). 13 refs, 3 tabs

166

Guidelines for predicting the dietary intake of pesticide residues*  

OpenAIRE

These guidelines have been developed to describe procedures for predicting the dietary intake of pesticide residues, and will assist national authorities in their considerations of the acceptability of the Codex maximum residue limits (MRLs). The relevant authorities are invited to consider the basic approaches described in these guidelines, which have been designed to provide reasonable assurance that such MRLs would not result in dietary intakes that exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI)...

1988-01-01

167

Radiotracer studies of pesticide residues in stored products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current programme was initiated in 1983 and was designed to assist scientists of developing Member States to make safe and effective use of radiotracer techniques for studying pesticide residue problems in stored products. This report represents an appraisal of a group of studies with particular emphasis given to terminal residues at the time of human consumption. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 12 papers

168

A review of organochlorine pesticide residues in Swainson's hawk eggs  

Science.gov (United States)

U. s. Fish and Wildlife Service research projects during the last 10 years in the Pacific Northwest resulted in the collecting of a sample egg from 35 Swainson's Hawk nests (Henny and Kaiser, 1979. Murrelet 60:2-5; Henny et al. 1984. Raptor Research 18:41-48). Pesticide residues, eggshell thickness, and reproductive success from these nests will be reviewed. In addition, egg residues from other published studies in the Pacific Northwest and elsewhere will be discussed.

Henny, C.J.

1985-01-01

169

Effects of different washing methods on pesticide organophosphorus residues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective To compare the effects of different washing methods for removing of organophosphorus pesticides residual from the vegetable samples. Methods Four non-toxic substances (rice washing water, flour water, baking soda and dietary alkali were used for the removing of organophosphorus pesticides residual (omethoate was taken for instance from the vegetable samples (cabbage, then detected through phosphor molydate blue after extraction and concentration. Results It was showed the least residual quantity was using flour water. Using single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment, the conditions of best cleaning effect were flour water concentration for 3.5 g per 500 mL water, soaking time for 17 min, soaking temperature for 32 ?, and the pesticide removal rate reached to 83%. A good linear range was obtained between 0.8~32.0 ?g/mL, and the linear equation was Y =0.011X-0.005 with correlation coefficient of 0.9955, the limit of detection was 0.8 ?g/mL. Conclusion It is effective to reduce pesticide residues on the fruits and vegetables by using flour water, and the method is simple, convenient and cheap, and suitable for use in daily life.

WANG Xiao-Wei

2013-02-01

170

PESTICIDE SURFACE RESIDUE MEASUREMENTS BY A PRESS SAMPLER  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides on household surfaces are a source of exposure to children. Accurate measurements of residues on surfaces are needed to determine amounts available for transfer to foods and other objects handled or eaten by a child. Wiping the surface with a solvent has been the acc...

171

CHARACTERIZING PESTICIDE RESIDUE TRANSFER EFFICIENCIES USING FLUORESCENT TRACER IMAGING TECHNIQUES  

Science.gov (United States)

To reduce the uncertainty associated with current estimates of children's exposure to pesticides by dermal contact and non-dietary ingestion, residue transfer data are required. Prior to conducting exhaustive studies, a screening study was conducted to identify the important pa...

172

Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Mussels of Greek Island Evia  

OpenAIRE

A simple and effective analytical procedure was developed for the determination of some organochlorine residues inmussel samples of two sampling points in Evia Island, Greece. The sample extraction was performed on lyophilizedsamples using either the Microwave Assisted Solvent Extraction (MASE) or the Soxhlet extraction technique. Using bothtechniques aldrin, endrin and endosulfan sulfate were determined. The quantification of these pesticides was carried outby Gas Chr...

Kasiotis, Konstantinos M.

2009-01-01

173

77 FR 8755 - Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Temporary Tolerance Exemption for Residues of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...amendment of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...regulation in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...modification of regulations for residues of pesticides in or on food various...

2012-02-15

174

Pesticide residues in composited milk collected through the U.S. Pasteurized Milk Network.  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has implemented a comprehensive monitoring program to determine the incidence and levels of organohalogen pesticide residues in milk representing most of the U.S. supply consumed in metropolitan areas. Residue findings for 806 composite milks collected through the Pasteurized Milk Program by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1990-1991 are reported. Milk was collected on a monthly basis from 63 stations selected by EPA for radionuclide monitoring. These stations provide an estimated 80% of the milk delivered to U.S. population centers. At each station, milk from selected sources had been composited to represent the milk routinely consumed in its metropolitan area. Portions of these composites were forwarded to an FDA contract laboratory for pesticide residue analysis. Pesticide residues were found in 398 (49.4%) of 806 test samples, on the basis of a 0.0005 ppm limit of detection for each residue on a whole-product basis. A total of 455 occurrences of pesticide residues were found; p,p'-DDE and dieldrin accounted for 384 (84.4%) of these occurrences. The highest level was 0.019 ppm p,p'-DDE. PMID:8286959

Trotter, W J; Dickerson, R

1993-01-01

175

Enzyme Biosensor for Detection of Organophosphate Pesticide Residues Base on Screen Printed Carbon Electrode (SPCE)-Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA)  

OpenAIRE

The maximum level of organophosphate pesticide residues in rice is 0.1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg in vegetables. The control of pesticide residues in agricultural products required a method of analysis quickly and accurately. The research developed a biosensor for the detection of organophosphate pesticide residues in agricultural products. The research studied immobilized organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) mass and characterization of biosensor. Th...

Ani Mulyasuryani; Mochammad Dofir

2014-01-01

176

Demographic and seasonal influences on human serum pesticide residue levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was intended to characterize more fully the distribution of serum concentrations of 16 pesticide residues with regard to key demographic and seasonal variables in a subsample of persons from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between the ages of 12 and 74 yr old. Blood sera in 2-ml aliquots were analyzed, and the results were confirmed for 5994 persons. Almost all participants (99.5%) had p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) concentrations greater than or equal to 1 ppb, ranging as high as 378.6 ppb. For the other pesticide residues, only beta-benzene hexachloride (beta-BHC) (quantified in 17.2% of the sera), dieldrin (10.6%), and another DDT-related residue, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) (35.7%) were found at quantifiable levels in more than 10% of the serum specimens. Of the remaining analytes, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), trans-nonachlor (TNC), and heptachlor epoxide (HE) were found at quantifiable concentrations in 1-10% of the specimens, whereas o,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, mirex, alpha-BHC, gamma-BHC, heptachlor, delta-BHC, and aldrin were found in less than 1% of the serum specimens. Results showed that increasing age, residing on a farm, or being a male conferred increased risks of exposure to most of the pesticide residues, independent of all other demographic and seasonal factors. In a pattern less consistent across the different pesticide residues and for fewer of the pesticides, persons who lived below the national poverty level, were nonwhite, resided in the South or West, or were examined in the spring or winter also seemed to have an increased likelihood of having quantifiable serum levels. PMID:2760935

Stehr-Green, P A

1989-01-01

177

The Concept of Withholding Period and Pesticide Residue in Grain Storage  

OpenAIRE

This review focuses on pesticides, their unquantifiable benefits to agriculture, pesticide residue, maximum pesticide residue limit, and withholding period in grain storage. It delved into the origin of synthetic pesticide and its introduction to Nigeria in the 1950s, it maintained that pesticide have posed major health and social challenges, and have had negative, unintended, catastrophic, fatal consequences to man, animals, and even the environment especially when instructions on their labe...

Adegbola, J. A.; Anugwom, U. D.; Awagu, F.; Adu, E. A.

2012-01-01

178

Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME in Determination of Pesticide Residues in Soil Samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The basic principles and application possibilities of the methods based on solid phase microextraction (SPME in the analysis of pesticide residues in soil samples are presented in the paper. The most important experimental parameters which affect SPME efficacy inpesticide determination (type and thickness of microextraction fiber, duration of microextraction,temperature at which it is conducted, effect of addition of salts (the effect of efflorescence,temperature and time of desorption, the choice of optimal solvent for pesticide exctraction from the soil and the optimal number of extraction steps, as well as general guidelines for their optimization are also shown. In the end, current applications of SPMEmethods in the analysis of pesticide residues in soil samples are presented.

Rada ?urovi?

2011-01-01

179

Organochlorine pesticide residues in chicken fat: a survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and five chicken fat samples were collected between April, 1980 and February, 1982 from seven geographical locations in Kenya (15 samples/area). The samples were subjected to standard extraction and clean up procedures to recover organochlorine pesticides and were subsequently analysed using gas-liquid-chromatography. alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane/benzene hexachloride (HCH/BHC; Lindane), aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, [1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene] (p,p'-DDE), [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1, 1-dichloroethane] (o,p'-DDD/TDE), p,p'-DDD, [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1, 1-trichloroethane] (o,p'-DDT), and p,p'-DDT were detected in the samples in varying concentrations. A few samples had lindane, dieldrin, and total DDT residue levels above the respective practical residue limit (PRL) values, but for all pesticides, the mean residue values were below the PRL. PMID:3737518

Kahunyo, J M; Maitai, C K; Frøslie, A

1986-06-01

180

Dietary Exposure to Pesticide Residues from Commodities Alleged to Contain the Highest Contamination Levels  

OpenAIRE

Probabilistic techniques were used to characterize dietary exposure of consumers to pesticides found in twelve commodities implicated as having the greatest potential for pesticide residue contamination by a United States-based environmental advocacy group. Estimates of exposures were derived for the ten most frequently detected pesticide residues on each of the twelve commodities based upon residue findings from the United States Department of Agriculture's Pesticide Data Program. All pest...

Katz, Josh M.; Winter, Carl K.

2011-01-01

181

Quantification of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Buffalo Milk Samples of Delhi City, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ill effects of green revolution include residues of extensively used chemical pesticides in various environmental components. The present study was designed to analyze the levels of organochlorine pesticide residues along with chemical composition in buffalo milk samples collected from different localities of Delhi. Milk monitoring can yield information about the kinds and quantities of pesticides in the environment as well as in our daily diet. In this study, the residue of three different organochlorine pesticides, namely Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and Endosulfan have been reported. Residues of Lindane exceeded the Maximum Residual Limit values in 50% of the samples is a cause of serious concern. The p,p’-DDT was detected in 70% of the samples with p,p’-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in 80% of the milk samples of different parts of Delhi state. DDD (Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane another metabolite of p,p’-DDT was detected in 65% of the milk samples. The analysis indicates that DDT is the major contaminants in different parts of Delhi state. ? and ? endosulfan were detected in 35% and 40% of the samples analyzed. The statistical correlation shows no significant correlation between chemical compositions of the samples. The presence of multiple chemicals in virtually all samples of buffalo milk raises new questions about the possible toxicological impacts of chemical mixtures on an infant’s developing nervous and immune systems and reproductive organs.

Mohd Aslam

2013-08-01

182

Organochlorine pesticides residue in lakes of Khorezm, Uzbekistan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Khorezm province in northwest Uzbekistan is a productive agricultural area within the Aral Sea Basin that produces cotton, rice and wheat. Various organochlorine pesticides were widely used for cotton production before Uzbekistan's independence in 1991. In Khorezm, small lakes have formed in natural depressions that receive inputs mostly from agricultural runoff. Samples from lake waters and sediments, as well as water from the Amu Darya River (which is the source of most of the lake water) have been analyzed to study variations in the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides residues during the year. Low concentrations of DDT, DDD, DDE, a-HCH and y-HCH compounds were found in water and sediment samples. The concentration of persistent organochlorine pesticides (DDT and HCH) in water and sediment is much lower than the maximum permissible concentrations that exist for water and soil. According to these preliminary results, the investigated lakes in Khorezm appear to be suitable for recreation or for aquaculture.

Rosen, Michael R.; Nishonov, B.; Fayzieva, D.; Saito, L.; Lamers, J.

2009-01-01

183

EFSA’s contribution to the implementation of the EU legislation on pesticide residues in food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The active involvement of EFSA in the area of pesticide residues assessment started in 2006 following the adoption of new legislation on maximum residue levels (MRLs of pesticides in food (Regulation (EC No 396/2005. EFSA took on a new role as an independent risk assessment body in the process of MRL setting, providing important contributions in the EU-wide harmonisation of MRLs. With the development of a risk assessment model (EFSA PRIMo the risk assessment process has become more transparent. EFSA is now involved in all routine MRL setting processes by giving advice to the risk managers and, so far, has given recommendations on ca. 1 200 MRLs. EFSA also provides other scientific assessments, in many cases where urgent advice is needed due to unexpected incidences which require immediate risk management action. Currently, high priority is given to the systematic MRL review, which involves making a comprehensive inventory of the scientific studies and performing risk assessments for the pesticides covered by this programme. Another major task for EFSA is the drafting of the Annual Report on Pesticide Residues, which gives an overview of the pesticide residues in food available to European consumers. EFSA has revised the data collection of monitoring results to allow more powerful data analysis to identify potential consumer risks and weak points in the food production system, and to develop strategies for improvements. EFSA places major emphasis on risk communication on topics related to pesticide residues, which is an integral part of EFSA’s tasks as risk assessor. Building on the achievements of the last six years, future challenges for EFSA include the continued improvement of risk assessment methodologies (updating risk assessment models, developing new methodologies for cumulative risk assessment and the timely provision of risk assessments for MRL applications and MRL reviews.

Reich H

2012-10-01

184

A novel chemiluminescence assay of organophosphorous pesticide quinalphos residue in vegetable with luminol detection  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Organophosphorous pesticides are the most popular pesticides used in agriculture. As acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, organophosphorous pesticides are toxic organic chemicals. The control and detection of organophosphorous pesticide residue in food, water, and environment therefore plays a very important role in maintaining physical health. A sensitive, rapid, simple chemiluminescence(CL) method has been developed for the determination of quinalphos based ...

Yao Xin; Jiang Feng; Liu Xiaoyu; Hu Haoyu; Cui Xiaocheng

2010-01-01

185

The Organochlorine Pesticides Residue Levels in Karun River Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs are among the most commonly used in water streams around the world. Most of these contaminants are highly hydrophobic and persist in sediments of rivers and lakes. Studies have suggested that OCPs may affect the normal function of the human and wildlife endocrine systems.Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides residues [OP'DDT, PP'DDT, alderin, dieldrin, heptachlor, (?,ß,?,? HCH, (?, ß endosulfan and metoxychlor] in samples from Karun River water at Khuzestan province in Iran , by GC-µ-ECD.Materials and Methods: Water was extracted with n-hexane and then purified by passing through a glass column packed with Florisil and Na2SO4, which was then eluted with ether: hexane solution v/v.Results: In general, all of 12 investigated organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were detected. Regardless of the kind of OCPs, the highest OCP pollution level in Karun River were seen from August to November 2009 ranging 71.43 – 89.34 µg/L, and the lowest were seen from Dec 2010 to March 2011 at levels of 22.25 - 22.64 µg/L. The highest and lowest mean concentrations of 12 investigated pesticides were ß-Endosulfan and pp' DDT with 28.51and 0.01 µg/L respectively.Conclusions: Comparison of total organochlorine pesticides residues concentration with WHO guidelines revealed that the Karun River had total OCPs residues above the probable effect level (0.2-20 µg/L, P < 0.05, which could pose a risk to aquatic life.

Behrooz Jannat

2013-01-01

186

Alternative calibration techniques for counteracting the matrix effects in GC-MS-SPE pesticide residue analysis - a statistical approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the efficiency of application of four different multivariate calibration techniques, namely matrix-matched internal standard (MMIS), matrix-matched external standard (MMES), solvent-only internal standard (SOIS) and solvent-only external standard (SOES) on the detection and quantification of 20 organochlorine compounds from high, low and blank matrix water sample matrices by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled to solid phase extraction (SPE). Further statistical testing, using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) by applying MANOVA, T-tests and Levene's F tests indicates that matrix composition has a more significant effect on the efficiency of the analytical method than the calibration method of choice. Matrix effects are widely described as one of the major sources of errors in GC-MS multiresidue analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics proved that the matrix-matched internal standard calibration was the best approach to use for samples of varying matrix composition as it produced the most precise average mean recovery of 87% across all matrices tested. The use of an internal standard calibration overall produced more precise total recoveries than external standard calibration, with mean values of 77% and 64% respectively. The internal standard calibration technique produced a particularly high overall standard deviation of 38% at 95% confidence level indicating that it is less robust than the external standard calibration method which had an overall standard error of 32% at 95% confidence level. Overall, the matrix-matched external standard calibration proved to be the best calibration approach for analysis of low matrix samples which consisted of the real sample matrix as it had the most precise recovery of 98% compared to other calibration approaches for the low-matrix samples. PMID:24968235

Rimayi, Cornelius; Odusanya, David; Mtunzi, Fanyana; Tsoka, Shepherd

2015-01-01

187

Towards accreditation of MINT pesticide residue laboratory - a journey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The laboratory accreditation process under ISO/IEC 17025 is a complex journey, due to several compulsory inputs necessary for obtaining the accreditation. This paper dwells on most of those inputs in the context of MINT Pesticide Residue Laboratory (MPRL), including: 1) Quality work culture; 2) Management commitment; 3) Sustainability of laboratory service appointment; 4) Laboratory personnel; 5) Laboratory equipment; 6) Continual training of personnel; 7) Technical co-operation; 8) Laboratory safety; 9) Special and general budget; 10) Consultancy service; 11) Quality Manual, Procedure, Work Instruction and related documents; 12) Internal Quality Audit (IQA) by MINT Quality Unit, and 13) Teamwork spirit. Based on experience faced and knowledge gained, multiple problems arising during this journey towards MINT Pesticide Residue Laboratory accreditation are also discussed in general, including their solutions. (Author)

188

Acetylcholinesterase Based Detection of Residual Pesticides on Cotton  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study describes the measurement of bio-electrical signals caused by enzymatic inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE for the detection of organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides which are the strong inhibitors of AChE and prevents its normal function of the rapid removal of acetylcholine (Ach. Biosensor Toxicity Analyzer (BTA was used for the testing and enzyme activity was determined by acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCCl as enzyme substrate. The monitoring of changes in bio-electrical signals caused by the interaction of biological substances and residues were evaluated. Two samples of cotton were analyzed. Cryogenic homogenization was carried out for sample pretreatment and Soxhlet extraction method (SOX was used for extraction. The resulted extracts were concentrated and then injected in the BTA. The method shows reasonable results and can successfully be utilized for the detection of residual pesticides on different types of cotton.

Jiri Militky

2012-02-01

189

Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruit from Poland and health risk assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study an effort has been made to evaluate the residues of insecticides, fungicides and herbicides in fruit fromPolandand their health risks assessed. Accredited multiresidue methods based on gas and liquid chromatography, and spectroscopic technique were used to determine the concentrations above 160 pesticides. A total of 392 samples of 15 different fruit were collected during the May 2010 to October 2012. In 48.2% of samples no residues were found, 45.9% of samples contained pesticide residues at or below the EU MRL, and 5.9% of samples contained pesticide residues above MRL. Sour cherries (66% and apples (63% were the commodities in which pesticide residues the most frequently occurred. Thirty one different pesticides were detected in total. Dithiocarbamate, captan, cyprodinil and boscalid were the pesticide most frequently found. Multiple pesticides ( > 1 pesticide were detected in about 30.1% samples. The dietary intake of residues of some pesticides can pose acute hazards. Data obtained were used for estimating the potential health risks associated with the exposures to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs for children were: 22% for dimethoate and 112% for diazinone of the ADI. The most critical commodity was apple, contributing 1.30 to the acute Hazard Index for flusilazole. The results show that despite a high occurrence of pesticide residues in fruit it could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in fruit is recommended.

B. ?ozowicka

2013-05-01

190

Quantification of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Buffalo Milk Samples of Delhi City, India  

OpenAIRE

The ill effects of green revolution include residues of extensively used chemical pesticides in various environmental components. The present study was designed to analyze the levels of organochlorine pesticide residues along with chemical composition in buffalo milk samples collected from different localities of Delhi. Milk monitoring can yield information about the kinds and quantities of pesticides in the environment as ...

Mohd Aslam; Sumbul Rais; Masood Alam

2013-01-01

191

Pesticide residues in grapes from integrated production of the Slovene origin The CORRECTED TITLE is: Pesticide residues in grapes from vineyards included in integrated pest management in Slovenia.  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Although the list of pesticides used in integrated pest management (IPM) in grape growing and their annual application rates are limited, we are still confronted with the problem of pesticide residues in grapes. The paper presents the results of pesticide monitoring in 47 samples of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) of the 2006 vintage from the vineyards included in IPM. The grape samples were analysed for the presence of 67 pesticides. Among them, 20 were allowed in IPM in ...

Bas?a C?esnik, Helena; Gregorc?ic?, Ana; C?us?, Franc

2008-01-01

192

Levels of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) Tissues  

OpenAIRE

The study investigated the extent of contamination of with p,p- DDT, p,p-DDE, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, lindane ((?-HCH) and ?-HCH, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, alpha-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlordane, heptachlor and methoxychlor in tissues of grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus), obtained from the Gomoa East district of Ghana. The organochlorine pesticide residues in the samples were soxhlet extracted using a mixture of hexane and acetone. The ext...

Sarah Blankson-Arthur; Owiredu Yeboah, P.; Abledze Golow; Anita Osei Tutu; Dzifa Denutsui

2011-01-01

193

Organochlorine pesticide residues in chicken eggs: a survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and five chicken egg samples were taken from seven geographical locations in Kenya and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues using gas-liquid chromatography. Nine organochlorine compounds were detected: alpha- and gamma-HCH/BHC (hexachlorocyclohexane/benzene hexachloride), aldrin, dieldrin, p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], p,p'-DDD (TDE) [2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane] (tetrachlorodiphenylethane), o,p'-DDD [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane], o,p'-DDT [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane], and p,p'-DDT. Eighteen of the samples contained DDT levels exceeding the practical residue limit (0.5 ppm). The mean DDT residue content was 0.68 ppm, a result influenced greatly by the high contamination in the 18 samples. Both individual and mean residue levels for other organochlorine pesticides detected were well within the respective practical residue limits. PMID:3411637

Kahunyo, J M; Froslie, A; Maitai, C K

1988-01-01

194

COMPARISON OF CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY, RESIDUE LEVELS, AND URINARY METABOLITE EXCRETION OF RATS EXPOSED TO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood cholinesterase activity, urinary levels of phenolic and organophosphorus metabolites, and residues of intact compounds in blood and fat were determined following exposure of rats to organophosphorus pesticides. The eight pesticides studied included representative halogenate...

195

A multi-residue method for the analysis of pesticides and pesticide degradates in water using HLB solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was developed for the analysis of over 60 pesticides and degradates in water by HLB solid-phase extraction and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. Method recoveries and detection limits were determined using two surface waters with different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. In the lower DOC water, recoveries and detection limits were 80%-108% and 1-12 ng/L, respectively. In the higher DOC water, the detection limits were slightly higher (1-15 ng/L). Additionally, surface water samples from four sites were analyzed and 14 pesticides were detected with concentrations ranging from 4 to 1,200 ng/L. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Hladik, M.L.; Smalling, K.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

2008-01-01

196

Adverse Effects of Pesticides Residues on Biochemical Markers in Pakistani Tobacco Farmers  

OpenAIRE

Tobacco is an important cash crop of Pakistan and tremendous amount of irrational pesticides are being used to control insect growth. The frequency of plasma pesticide residues above acceptable daily intake (ADI) and its correlation with biochemical markers for assessment of adverse health effects in the tobacco farmers at district Sawabi, Pakistan was determined. Total 109 adult males consisting of 55 tobacco farmers exposed to pesticides and 54 controls were included. Pesticides residues in...

Khan, Dilshad A.; Bhatti, Mahwish M.; Khan, Farooq A.; Naqvi, Syed T.; Karam, A.

2008-01-01

197

Assessmet of temporal distribution of pesticide residues in vineyard soils of La Rioja (Spain)  

Science.gov (United States)

The use and application of pesticides in vineyard is a common practice, which is important to prevent pest and diseases and improve the crop health and production, but on the other hand it could involve a potential risk for humans and the environment. For this reason, it is important to develop and validate a simple and fast multiresidue method to determine the presence of these compounds in soils. La Rioja region (Spain) is one of the most important wine-growing regions in Spain, which also entails that could be an important area of pesticide pollution. The objective of this work is to assess the temporal distribution of the possible pesticide pollution in soils from different areas of La Rioja (Spain). The pesticides selected in this study included fungicides (metalaxyl, and its metabolite CGA62826, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole, myclobutanil, kresoxim-methyl, triadimenol and flutriafol); herbicides (fluometuron, terbuthylazine and its metabolites desethylterbuthylazine and hydroxyterbuthylazine, lenacil, ethofumesate and acetochlor) and insecticides (methoxyfenozide and pirimicarb). The pesticide residues were evaluated by two analytical techniques, gas chromatography and liquid chromatography (GC-MS and LC-MS). The extraction procedure of pesticides from soils was optimized using two soil samples (blank soils) with different texture and characteristics collected from areas without pesticide application. Recoveries were studied in soil samples fortified with all pesticides at two levels of concentrations (the agronomic dose, 0.1 mg kg-1, and ten times this dose, 1 mg kg-1). Different extraction solvents were tested. The best results were obtained with methanol:acetone (50:50) mixture or methanol:CaCl2 0.01 M (50:50) mixture for hydroxyterbuthylazine and CGA62826. The accuracy (average recovery) and precision (reproducibility and repeatability) of the method were assessed using six replicates and the limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were estimated. Recoveries were above 70% for all pesticides. Good linear relationships of the calibration curves (0.01-1 ?g mL-1) were obtained for all the compounds by the two analytical methods with regression coefficients (r2) higher than 0.99 in the range of concentrations studied. Detection limits were terbuthylazine. Fungicide residues were detected in greater concentrations in samples collected in September. Both behaviours may be related with the time of application of both types of compounds. Herbicides are commonly applied in March-April and fungicides are usually applied in summer, when different grapevine diseases like botrytis or mildiu commonly appear. Moreover, new pesticide residues were detected in March 2012, which were not detected in September 2011 in any soil sample. Further analysis of results is in course.

Pose Juan, Eva; Herrero Hernandez, Eliseo; Soledad Andrades, Maria; Rodriguez Cruz, Maria Sonia; Sanchez Martin, Maria Jesus

2013-04-01

198

Multi-residue methodology for pesticide screening in wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

A multi-residue solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/electron-capture detection method for pesticide screening (nine organochlorine, eleven organophosphorous and a tiadiazine insecticides, a benzoylurea acaricide and a halogenated sulfamide fungicide) in wine was developed. Fiber coating, extraction time and temperature, exposure of the fiber to the headspace or to the liquid phase and the ethanol effect on pesticides extraction were the parameters studied. The best results were obtained for a 100 microm poly(dimethylsiloxane) fiber, with 30 min immersion, in a 3 ml sample, at 45 degrees C. Pesticides extraction yield from aqueous spiked solutions was studied, for different ethanol concentrations (9%, 12.5% and 20%, v/v), which are representative of the main types of Portuguese wines. Calibration curves for extracted standards gave linear responses for all the pesticides, except dichlorvos, mevinphos, disulfoton and methidathion. Average detection limits were lower than 5 ppb and no significant interference from the matrix was found in the conditions studied, except for buprofezin. PMID:10985536

Correia, M; Delerue-Matos, C; Alves, A

2000-08-11

199

Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination : Field and experimental assessment of detoxification capabilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from conventional cultivation to organic pasture. Soil multiresidual pesticide analysis revealed up to 9 molecules including atrazine up to 2.4 ng g -1 dry soil. Exposure history of endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica modified their responses to pesticides. In the field, activities of soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and catalase increased with soil pesticide contamination in A. caliginosa. Pesticide stress was reflected in depletion of energy reserves in A. chlorotica. Acute exposure of pre-adapted and naïve A. caliginosa to pesticides (fungicide Opus ®, 0.1 ?g active ingredient epoxiconazole g-1 dry soil, RoundUp Flash®, 2.5 ?g active ingredient glyphosate g-1 dry soil, and their mixture), revealed that environmental pre-exposure accelerated activation of the detoxification enzyme sGST towards epoxiconazole. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise

2014-01-01

200

Assessment of pesticide residues in freshwater areas affected by rice paddy effluents in Southern Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide residues in five freshwater areas that are directly affected by rice paddy effluents in southern Japan were measured to determine their maximum concentrations and temporal variations. Water samples were collected every week during the 2005 rice planting season in Kagoshima Prefecture and stations were established in Amori River, Sudo River, Nagaida River (that drains into the bigger Kotsuki River), rice paddy drainage canal, and wastewater reservoir (that collects effluents from rice paddy fields). Of the 14 target pesticides examined, a total of 11 were detected in all stations. Mefenacet, fenobucarb, and flutolanil were the three pesticides with the highest maximum concentrations and were also detected frequently. Analysis of temporal variations of pesticides showed that herbicides had relatively higher concentrations in the earlier stages of the rice planting season, while insecticides and fungicides had relatively higher concentrations at the later stages. There was no significant difference among stations with regards to the temporal patterns of the top three pesticides. The calculated toxic units were less than 1 in all stations, implying low or negligible environmental risk of pesticides detected to freshwater organisms. PMID:19089593

Añasco, Nathaniel; Uno, Seiichi; Koyama, Jiro; Matsuoka, Tatsuro; Kuwahara, Naoya

2010-01-01

201

Pesticide Residues, Results from the period 2004-2011  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present report presents the results from the 2004-2011 period of the monitoring programmes conducted by The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration. The programmes included commodities of fruit, vegetable, cereals and animal origin using random sampling from food on the Danish market. Since the beginning of the 1960, Denmark has monitored fruit and vegetables for pesticides residues. For the periods 1993-1997 and 1998-2003, results were collated and the dietary exposure was calculated. In this report data for the analyses carried out in the period 2004-2011 are reported as well as the exposure calculations performed on the background of the residues found. All the analyses have been carried out by the laboratory of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration in Ringsted. The samples were collected by the food control offices. The residue data have been combined with consumption data and the exposures for different consumer groups have been estimated.

Petersen, Annette; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg

2013-01-01

202

Exposure assessment of the Belgian population to pesticide residues through fruit and vegetable consumption  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The exposure of the Belgian consumer to pesticide residues via the consumption of fruit and vegetables was determined based on data collected in the Belgian food consumption survey performed by the Scientific Institute for Public Health and data of the monitoring programme 2005 of the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain. A first screening of pesticide residue exposure was performed by a deterministic approach. For most pesticide residues studied, the ex...

2008-01-01

203

Perspective on Dietary Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Organic Food  

OpenAIRE

Previous studies have shown that organically produced food has lower risks of pesticide contamination than food that is not organically produced. However, organically produced food is not entirely free of pesticide residues. A large, high-quality U.S. Department of Agriculture database reports pesticide residues in several dozen organic and conventionally grown foods on an annual basis, and supports detailed analyses of the frequency of residues in conventional and organic food, the number of...

Benbrook, Charles M.; Baker, Brian P.

2014-01-01

204

Validation of a methodology multi-residue for the determination of pesticides residuals in strawberry (fragraria spp.) by gas chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study describes the validation of multi-residue analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of 19 organ chlorine, organophosphorus and organ nitrogen pesticides in strawberry. Pesticides residues were extracted from strawberry samples with ethyl acetate, the extracts were cleaned-up by GPC, the quantitative analysis was carried out by high resolution gas chromatography (GC) with a pulsed splitless injection mode and simultaneous detection by m-ECD and NPD coupled in parallel. The methodology is specific, selective, and accurate and robust the calibration curves in matrix matched analytical standards show linearity over the concentration range of 0.04-5.00 mg/kg with limits of detection and quantitation between 0.007-0.5 mg/kg and 0.01-1.00 mg/kg respectively. The recovery experiments yielding averages between 80-110% for most of the pesticides. The distribution of analyze in the laboratory sample was evaluated and it was found its homogeneity. The methodology was applied in field samples and was mainly found Captan residues below MRL

205

Multi-Residue studies of pesticides in fermented dried cocoa beans and selected cocoa products produced in Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cocoa is a major cash crop and contributes significantly to Ghana's economy. Majority of this contribution is as a result of foreign earnings in foreign trade partnership. Cocoa products are consumed locally aside it generating foreign income for the country. Pesticide residues above allowable limits in cocoa beans have potential detrimental effects on human health, depending on the frequency of exposure and/or the potency or toxicity of the pesticide. Pesticide residues on cocoa also attract trade sanctions from international trading partners. The approved pesticides, which are used to control pests in the growing cocoa in Ghana, are: Diazinon, Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Acetamiprid, Imidicloprid and Pyrethrums; nevertheless some unapproved pesticides on cocoa such as Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyrifos, Endosulfan, Fenitrotion, Fenvalerate, Permethrin and others find their way for use on cocoa in Ghana. The main objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticide residues in fermented dried cocoa beans produced and ready for export in Ghana, using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. It also seeks to provide the baseline information on contamination levels of pesticide residues in semi-finished and selected finished fermented dried cocoa beans products. Fermented dried cocoa beans were sampled at random in the two main COCOBOD warehouses located in Tema and Takoradi. Semi-finished and finished cocoa products were obtained from processing industries in Temobtained from processing industries in Tema. Two extraction methods were used. The second extraction method was as by the QuEChERS method for vegetable oils which was used for the cocoa butter samples only, after being liquefied in water bath at 40 degrees celsius. The investigated pesticides consisted of fifteen organochlorine pesticides, thirteen organophosphorous pesticides and nine synthetic pyrethroids pesticides. Percentage recoveries ranged from 70-110 percent, with instrumental detection limits of 0.3ug/kg, 0.15ug/g and 0.15ug/g for the organochlorine, organophosphorous and synthetic pyrethroids pesticides respectively. Multivariate analysis on the residue data obtained from fermented dried cocoa beans in R-mode and Q-mode grouped the detected pesticides into currently used, previously used and drift from neighbouring crops pesticides applications. It also grouped sampled cocoa beans into four major clusters based on similarities in crop storage and farm practices. Beta-HCH (18.7 ?g/kg), Gamma-chlordane (152.0 ?g/kg), Methamidophos (18.5 ?g/kg), Profenofos (31.8 ?g/kg), Allethrin (10.5 ?g/kg), Cypermethrin (32.0 ?g/kg) and Fenvalerate (14.6 ?g/kg) were the average residues concentrations of pesticides that exceeded the Japanese maximum residue levels (MRLs). However, all the detected pesticides with exception of Allethrin were below the MRLs for European Union. From results recorded in semi-finished and finished cocoa beans products produced in Ghana, de-shelling and roasting temperatures drastically reduced the residue levels in the cocoa products, but these were not enough solution for pesticide residues in cocoa beans. And thus raises concern about the health implication of these chemicals for domestic consumption of these products. It is highly recommended that a national quality control laboratory be established to continually monitor pesticides efficacy in order to avoid overdose of pesticides application.[au

206

REDUCTION OF MATRIX EFFECTS IN PESTICIDE RESIDUE ANALYSIS IN FOOD BY PROGRAMMABLE TEMPERATURE VAPORIZER / REDUCCIÓN DEL EFECTO MATRIZ EN EL ANÁLISIS DE RESIDUOS DE PLAGUICIDAS EN ALIMENTOS MEDIANTE EL USO DEL INYECTOR DE TEMPERATURA PROGRAMADA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in english Background: The phenomenon known as the ''matrix-induced chromatographic response enhancement'' commonly affects the sensibility, precision, and accuracy in pesticide residue analysis. The presence of matrix effects can be given by adsorption and/or thermal decomposition of pesticides on the gas chr [...] omatograph injection port. Objective: To reduce the matrix-induced chromatographic response enhancement on pesticide residues analysis in food through the use of several operational modes of programmable temperature vaporizer inlet. Methods: The analyses were carried out in potato (Solanum tuberosum) extracts by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detector. In this study, four programmable temperature vaporizer splitless modes were investigated: hot, pulsed, cold and solvent vent. Another topic developed in this study has to do with the influence of injection volume, assessed for the matrix effects. Results: The analysis of variance (ANOVA) (? = 0.05) indicates that when the hot splitless is used most compounds are subjected to matrix-induced chromatographic response enhancement. Furthermore, with the pulsed splitless, a decrease in the number of compounds with matrix-induced chromatographic response enhancement was found, approximately 20% compared to the classic hot splitless. Finally, a remarkable decrease in matrix-induced effects was found when cold splitless mode was used, since there was up to 55% reduction in the compounds, relative to traditional hot splitless, that showed statistical differences between responses in matrix-free standards and matrix-matched standards. Conclusions: It was found that the use of conventional hot splitless and pulsed splitless modes caused matrix-induced effects in more than 70% of the studied compounds. In addition, the results indicate that for most compounds there is an inverse relationship between matrix-induced chromatographic response enhancement and the volume of injection.

D.A, AHUMADA; J.A., GUERRERO.

2013-12-01

207

[Study on pesticides residue monitoring data in some countries of the world].  

Science.gov (United States)

In May 2006, the positive list system for residues of pesticide and veterinary medicines in food was introduced in Japan. Under this system, the number of regulated pesticides remarkably increased. The information of food items and foods/origins combinations in which pesticides were frequently detected over the detection limits and/or exceeding MRL in the foreign pesticides residue monitoring are useful to achieve the Japanese pesticides residue monitoring programme more efficiently and effectively. We investigated pesticides residue monitoring data published by food safety authorities of North America, Europe and Oceania countries in their web sites. We focused food items and foods/origins combinations which Japan imported in large quantity. Most of pesticides residues detected in twelve food items were mainly fungicides and insecticides, and some residues level of their samples were exceeding the MRLs (maximum residue limits) established in Japan. Most of pesticides residues detected in European countries were also fungicides (e.g. maneb-group and procymidone) and insecticides (e.g. pirimiphos-methyl and malathion), but herbicides were less detected. We provided the collection of Web links to information sites of MRLs and the pesticides residue monitoring reports published by food safety authorities of other countries. PMID:18220046

Toda, Miou; Sugita, Takiko; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Shiho; Uneyama, Chikako; Yamamoto, Miyako; Morikawa, Kaoru

2007-01-01

208

Some organochlorine pesticide residues in fish species in Konya, Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

The levels of organochlorine pesticides were measured in 18 fish species from Konya markets, Turkey. These species were selected on the basis of their importance to local human fish consumption. The extracted residues were analyzed on a micro capillary gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. Total 14 different organochlorine pesticides were determined. These residues were detected in all fish species, except in trout, horse mackerel and bonito. DDT and its metabolites and HCH were the predominant contaminants in fish muscles. The mean concentrations of summation operator DDT were in the range between 0.0008 and 0.0828 microg g(-1). DDT was the predominant residue in Sparus aurata. Detectable levels of HCH, aldrin, and heptachlor were found in most samples. However, dieldrin, endrin, beta endosulfan, p-p' DDT, and p-p' DDD were not found in Salmo trutta. The mean of endrin ranged from 0.0040 microg g(-1) (Triglia lineate) to 0.0326 microg g(-1) (Trachurus trachurus). These results give no indication of important health risks associated with the consumption of these fishes in Konya markets. PMID:19103455

Kalyoncu, Leyla; Agca, Ihsan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

2009-02-01

209

A comparative study of allowable pesticide residue levels on produce in the United States  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The U.S. imports a substantial and increasing portion of its fruits and vegetables. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration currently inspects less than one percent of import shipments. While countries exporting to the U.S. are expected to comply with U.S. tolerances, including allowable pesticide residue levels, there is a low rate of import inspections and few other incentives for compliance. Methods This analysis estimates the quantity of ex...

Neff Roni A; Hartle Jennifer C; Laestadius Linnea I; Dolan Kathleen; Rosenthal Anne C; Nachman Keeve E

2012-01-01

210

Exposure assessment of fruit contaminated with pesticide residues from Valencia, 2001-2003  

OpenAIRE

Abstract A total of 634 samples of oranges, tangerines, peaches, nectarines, khakis, and watermelons were collected from an Agricultural Valencia Community Cooperative during May 2001 to April 2003 campaigns and analyzed for fifteen pesticides among those recommended for their pest treatment. A conventional multi-residue analytical procedure based on a ethyl acetate extraction was used followed by gas chromatography coupled to nitrogen phosphorus detector for routine analysis and ...

Berrada, Houda; Ferna?ndez, Mo?nica; Ruiz, Maria Jose; Molto?, Juan Carlos; Man?ez, Jordi

2006-01-01

211

Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables and Related Health Risk Assessment in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of present research study was to assess the concentration of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from markets in Kumasi and to generate awareness about the lethal effects of these pesticides on human beings as well as to estimate the potential health risks associated with the pesticide residue with regard to consumers. A total of 350 locally produced fruits and vegetables were purchased from six main markets in Kumasi and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for organochlorine (gamma-HCH, methoxychlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, p,p’-DDE, p,p’-DDT and pyrethroid (permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin residues. The residual concentrations of selected pesticides in the various fruit and vegetable samples and the potential health risks associated with the exposure to these pesticides were also assessed. The results obtained showed that 37.5% of the fruit and vegetable samples analyzed contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides, 19.0% of the samples gave results with levels of insecticides residues above the MRL, while 43.5% of the samples showed results below the MRL. The analysis of health risk estimates revealed that none of the pesticides exceeded the reference dose in both fruit and vegetables except endrin which exceeded reference dose in vegetables, suggesting a great potential for systemic toxicity in children considered the most vulnerable population subgroup. Based on observations made in these studies, it is proposed that more extensive monitoring investigation covering all fruits and vegetables in all the ten regions of Ghana be carried out to find the exact position of pesticide residues.

Crentsil Kofi Bempah

2011-11-01

212

Development, validation and determination of multiclass pesticide residues in cocoa beans using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

An efficient and rapid method for the analysis of pesticide residues in cocoa beans using gas and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed, validated and applied to imported and domestic cocoa beans samples collected over 2 years from smallholders and Malaysian ports. The method was based on solvent extraction method and covers 26 pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides) of different chemical classes. The recoveries for all pesticides at 10 and 50 ?g/kg were in the range of 70-120% with relative standard deviations of less than 20%. Good selectivity and sensitivity were obtained with method limit of quantification of 10 ?g/kg. The expanded uncertainty measurements were in the range of 4-25%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the routine analysis of pesticide residues in cocoa beans via a monitoring study where 10% of them was found positive for chlorpyrifos, ametryn and metalaxyl. PMID:25442595

Zainudin, Badrul Hisyam; Salleh, Salsazali; Mohamed, Rahmat; Yap, Ken Choy; Muhamad, Halimah

2015-04-01

213

Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Mussels of Greek Island Evia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple and effective analytical procedure was developed for the determination of some organochlorine residues inmussel samples of two sampling points in Evia Island, Greece. The sample extraction was performed on lyophilizedsamples using either the Microwave Assisted Solvent Extraction (MASE or the Soxhlet extraction technique. Using bothtechniques aldrin, endrin and endosulfan sulfate were determined. The quantification of these pesticides was carried outby Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS working in the Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM mode and therecoveries ranged from 75 to 102% at two spiking levels for 6 replicates.

Konstantinos M. Kasiotis

2009-07-01

214

Levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organochlorine pesticide residues have been determined in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues from a total of 45 grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) meat samples obtained from the Gomoa district, a vegetable farming area in the Central Region of Ghana. All samples were analyzed for their residue content of the following organochlorine pesticides; DDT, DDE, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, lindane (?-HCH) and ?-HCH, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, alpha endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlordane, heptachlor and methoxychlor. The results indicated that all the analyzed samples were contaminated with the studied organochlorine pesticides. Aldrin and heptachlor were the principal contaminants in all the samples. The muscle had the highest pollutant load. All organochlorine pesticides investigated were detected in the muscle tissues of the grasscutter at the following mean concentrations; aldrin 1.833?g /kg, heptachlor 0.695?g /kg, ?-HCH 0.283?g /kg, ?-HCH 0.108?g /kg, dieldrin 0.040 ?g /kg, p,p'-DDT 0.019?g /kg. p,p'-DDE 0.014?g /kg, endrin 0.018?g /kg, endrin aldehyde 0.090?g /kg, endrin ketone 0.340?g /kg, ?-endosulfan 0.162?g /kg, endosulfan sulfate 0.183?g /kg, gamma-chlordane 0.174?g /kg and methoxychlor 0.101?g /kg wet weight. The organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in the liver tissues at the following mean concentrations; aldrin 1.315?g /kg, heptachlor 0.530?g /kg, dieldrin 0.050?g /kg, ?-HCH 0.233?g /k, ?-HCH 0.233?g /kg, ?-HCH 0.070?g /kg, p,p'-DDT 0.123?g /kg. p,p'-DDE 0.043?g /kg endrin aldehyde 0.110?g /kg, endrin ketone 0.115?g /kg, gamma-chlordane 0.093?g /kg and methoxychlor 0.128?g /kg wet weight. No endrin was however detected in the liver. The highest concentrations of ?-HCH, ?-HCH, endrin ketone and endrin aldehyde were measured in the kidney. The mean concentrations of ?-HCH and ?-HCH in the kidney were 0.435?g /kg and 0.107?g /kg respectively. Endrin aldehyde was detected at 0.135?g /kg in the kidney. The level of endrin ketone was higher than endrin aldehyde in all the tissues analyzed. The mean concentration of endrin ketone was 0.347 ?g /kg in the kidney. The mean concentration of ?-endosulfan was 0.140?g /kg wet weight. Endosulfan sulfate was detected at 0.033 ?g /kg in the kidney. The mean concentration of gamma-chlordane was 0.020 ?g /kg kidney. Methoxychlor was detected at 0.183?g /kg, wet weight in the kidney. The levels of organochlorine pesticides residues detected in all the tissues were below the accepted maximum residue limits (MRL), as adopted by the WHO/FAO Codex Alimentarius Commission.

215

[Study on experiment of absorption spectroscopy detection of pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice].  

Science.gov (United States)

Absorption spectra were studied for the carbendazim, in the mixed solution of orange juice and carbendazim using spectrophotometer. The most intensive characteristic peak (285 nm) was found in the spectrum of carbendazim standard solution. Compared with the carbendazim drug solution, the peak position of absorption spectrum has the blue shift (285-280 nm) when carbendazim (0.28 mg x mL(-1))was added in the orange juice. So that we can conclude that interaction happened between the orange juice and carbendazim. Through the method of least squares fitting, the prediction models between the absorbance of orange juice and carbendazim content was obtained with a good linear relationship. The linear function model was: I = 2.41 + 9.26x, the correlation coefficient was 0.996, and the recovery was: 81%-102%. According to the regression model, we can obtain the amount of carbendazim pesticide residues in orange juice. It was verified that the method of using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra was feasible to detect the carbendazim residues in orange juice. The result proved that it is possible to detect pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice, and it can meet the needs of rapid analysis. This study provides a new way for the detection of pesticide residues. PMID:25208400

Ji, Ren-Dong; Chen, Meng-Lan; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Xing-Yue; Wang, Le-Xin; Liu, Quan-Jin

2014-03-01

216

75 FR 51047 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Complex Polymeric Polyhydroxy...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-8837-7] Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Complex Polymeric Polyhydroxy...of an initial filing of a pesticide petition. This document is...Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental...

2010-08-18

217

[Laser Raman spectrum analysis of carbendazim pesticide].  

Science.gov (United States)

Raman signal of solid and liquid carbendazim pesticide was collected by laser Raman spectrometer. The acquired Raman spectrum signal of solid carbendazim was preprocessed by wavelet analysis method, and the optimal combination of wavelet denoising parameter was selected through mixed orthogonal test. The results showed that the best effect was got with signal to noise ratio (SNR) being 62.483 when db2 wavelet function was used, decomposition level was 2, the threshold option scheme was 'rigisure' and reset mode was 'sln'. According to the vibration mode of different functional groups, the de-noised Raman bands could be divided into 3 areas: 1 400-2 000, 700-1 400 and 200-700 cm(-1). And the de-noised Raman bands were assigned with and analyzed. The characteristic vibrational modes were gained in different ranges of wavenumbers. Strong Raman signals were observed in the Raman spectrum at 619, 725, 964, 1 022, 1 265, 1 274 and 1 478 cm(-1), respectively. These characteristic vibrational modes are characteristic Raman peaks of solid carbendazim pesticide. Find characteristic Raman peaks at 629, 727, 1 001, 1 219, 1 258 and 1 365 cm(-1) in Raman spectrum signal of liquid carbendazim. These characteristic peaks were basically tallies with the solid carbendazim. The results can provide basis for the rapid screening of pesticide residue in food and agricultural products based on Raman spectrum. PMID:25358165

Wang, Xiao-bin; Wu, Rui-mei; Liu, Mu-hua; Zhang, Lu-ling; Lin, Lei; Yan, Lin-yuan

2014-06-01

218

A Survey of Determination for Organophosphorus Pesticide Residue in Agricultural Products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to find a fast, high efficient determination method of Organophosphorus Pesticides (OPPs residue because OPPs widely used in crops pest control fields in China are causing fearful risks for environment as well as animals and human health, traditional and advanced determination methods were discussed in the study. Based on the spectrum analysis technology combined colorimetric OPPs residue detection experiments in leafy vegetables showed that the absorbance of color reaction between OPPs residues and suitable colorimetric reagents can be distinguished in ppm level of OPPs residues. The detection limit of chlorpyrifos after color reaction with 0.5% Pbcl2 in acetic acid solution is 0.5 ppm. The conclusion was drawn that the detection technologies were diversified, however, a simple, efficient, rapid and nondestructive detection method is lacking and the spectrum analysis technology combined colorimetric can be a new fast and efficient determination method in the future.

Wen Li

2013-04-01

219

Residues of 18 organochlorine pesticides in 30 traditional Chinese medicines.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed 30 different traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) to determine levels of contamination with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). We tested for 18 pesticides: benzene hexachloride (BHC, including alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, gamma-BHC, delta-BHC), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, tecnazene, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, methyl pentachlorophenyl sulphide (MPCPS), alpha-endosulfan, trans-chlorodane, cis-chlorodane, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDT. The sample extracts were analyzed by GC-ECD. A total of 280 samples of 30 different TCMs were analyzed. Our results showed that 75.8% of samples contained at least one of the above pesticides. The pesticides detected were tecnazene, hexachlorobenzene, PCNB, heptachlor, aldrin, alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, gamma-BHC, delta-BHC, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD p,p'-DDT. More than 50% of samples contained alpha-BHC (55.8%) and PCNB (55.8%); hexachlorobenzene was detected in 40.9% of samples, tecnazene in 19.5%, gamma-BHC in 16.7% and p,p'-DDE in 16.0%. Less than 10% of samples contained beta-BHC, delta-BHC, heptachlor, aldrin, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDD. None of the 280 samples contained heptachlor epoxide, MPCPS, alpha-endosulfan, trans-chlorodane, or cis-chlorodane. Concentrations of OCPs in four samples exceeded the maximum allowable residue limits (MRLs) specified in the PRC Pharmacopoeia 2005. The results indicate that the most common contaminants among the 280 samples were alpha-BHC, PCNB, hexachlorobenzene, and tecnazene. Our results suggest that contamination of TCMs with OCPs is widespread. The MRLs for other OCPs commonly found in TCMs (e.g. hexachlorobenzene and tecnazene) should be set as quickly as possible, and the MRLs of OCPs in other TCMs should be established. PMID:18160094

Xue, Jian; Hao, Lili; Peng, Fei

2008-04-01

220

Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw buffalo milk from agroindustrial areas in Assiut, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Raw buffalo milk samples from the agroindustrial zone in upper Egypt were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Five organochlorine pesticides namely, alachlor, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, lindane and methoxychlor and three organophosphorus pesticides chlorpyrifos, malathion, and parathion-methyl were detected in the milk samples. In 44% of the samples, the concentrations of lindane and malathion residues exceeded tolerance levels set by the European Commission (EC) in 2008. In addition, the concentrations of chlorpyrifos, methoxychlor, and hexachlorobenzene residues exceeded the 2008 EC maximum residual limits (MRLs) by 33, 66, and 88% of the examined samples, respectively. However, the levels of alachlor, dieldrin, and parathion-methyl residues were below EC MRLs. The results of this study confirm the risks of pesticide residues exposure that threaten consumer health in Egypt. Thus, we recommend that pesticide residue monitoring programs be instituted in all the developing countries. PMID:25575291

Shaker, Eman M; Elsharkawy, Eman E

2015-01-01

221

Analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries and soils by GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS and two-dimensional GC-time-of-flight MS comparing organic and integrated pest management farming  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue of pesticide residues in foods is growing in importance due to greater global food trade and increasing public concern. Therefore, appropriate control and monitoring of residues in food must be conducted. In this study, we analyzed 22 strawberry and soil samples after their collection over...

222

Reduction of hazardous organic solvent in sample preparation for hydrophilic pesticide residues in agricultural products with conventional liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

An original extraction method using water as an extractant has been established for environmentally friendly sample preparation procedures for hydrophilic pesticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, flonicamid, imidacloprid, methomyl, pymetrozine, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) in agricultural samples with conventional HPLC. Water-based extraction and cleanup with two solid-phase extraction cartridges can recover target hydrophilic pesticides quantitatively. The matrix effects of tested samples on the proposed method developed herein were negligibly small. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of almost all tested pesticides were 70-120% with satisfactory precision (%CV < 20%). The analytical data are in good accordance with Japanese or European Union guidelines for pesticide residue analysis. The reduction rate of hazardous organic solvents used for the proposed method and by reducing the sample size for extraction was about 70% compared with the Japanese authorized reference method used in this work. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed sample preparation procedures for hydrophilic pesticides. PMID:23614723

Watanabe, Eiki; Kobara, Yuso; Baba, Koji; Eun, Heesoo

2013-05-22

223

MONITORING OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN THE YEARS 2003 AND 2004 IN SLOVENIA  

OpenAIRE

Agricultural Institute of Slovenia was performing national monitoring for pesticide residues in agricultural products according to the Decree on Monitoring of Pesticides in Foodstuffs and in Agricultural Products (Offi cial Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia No. 13/99). Constant measurements are necessary due to intensive agricultural production and use of chemical substances for plant protection. Due to the nutrition characteristic for the Slovenians pesticide residues are monitored each ye...

Bas?a C?esnik, Helena; Gregorc?ic?, Ana; Velikonja Bolta, S?pela

2006-01-01

224

Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticide Residues in Beans from Markets in Lagos State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Foods treated with pesticides for protection against destructive pests often contain residues of these chemicals. The levels of pesticide residues in food are often determined as a means of assessing appropriate use as well as the level of human exposure to these chemicals and hence their potential human health hazards. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides in beans samples collected from markets in Lagos State and compare these v...

Ogah C.O; Coker H.B; Adepoju-Bello A.A

2011-01-01

225

Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Commonly Used Fruits in Hyderabad Region, Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

A market based survey was carried out to evaluate the level of 26 pesticides in some commonly used fruits in Hyderabad region, Pakistan. Gas chromatography coupled with micro electron capture detector was used to assess the levels of pesticide residues. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was also applied for the confirmation of results. Out of total 131 analyzed samples, 53 (40%) were found contaminated with pesticide residues while only 3 (2%) samples were exceeded the MRLs of some...

Yawar Latif; Syed Tufail Hussain Sherazi; Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger

2011-01-01

226

Biosensors for detection of pesticide residues: current status, challenges and future perspectives  

OpenAIRE

Public concerns over pesticide residues in food had been increasing because of their bioaccumulation effects and their great danger to the environments and human’s heath. It was therefore imperative to detect the pesticide residue using all available analytical methods, especially highly sensitive, simple, rapid and low cost. The biosensor detection strategies held a great promise for the detection of agricultural pesticides, attributing to their key features such as high sensitivity, fast ...

Yao, Xue-peng; Liu, Shao-qin

2013-01-01

227

Health risk for children and adults consuming apples with pesticide residue.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of pesticide residues in apples raises serious health concerns, especially when the fresh fruits are consumed by children, particularly vulnerable to the pesticide hazards. This study demonstrates the results from nine years of investigation (2005-2013) of 696 samples of Polish apples for 182 pesticides using gas and liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric techniques. Only 33.5% of the samples did not contain residues above the limit of detection. In 66.5% of the samples, 34 pesticides were detected, of which maximum residue level (MRL) was exceeded in 3%. Multiple residues were present in 35% of the samples with two to six pesticides, and one sample contained seven compounds. A study of the health risk for children, adults and the general population consuming apples with these pesticides was performed. The pesticide residue data have been combined with the consumption of apples in the 97.5 percentile and the mean diet. A deterministic model was used to assess the chronic and acute exposures that are based on the average and high concentrations of residues. Additionally, the "worst-case scenario" and "optimistic case scenario" were used to assess the chronic risk. In certain cases, the total dietary pesticide intake calculated from the residue levels observed in apples exceeds the toxicological criteria. Children were the group most exposed to the pesticides, and the greatest short-term hazard stemmed from flusilazole at 624%, dimethoate at 312%, tebuconazole at 173%, and chlorpyrifos methyl and captan with 104% Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) each. In the cumulative chronic exposure, among the 17 groups of compounds studied, organophosphate insecticides constituted 99% acceptable daily intake (ADI). The results indicate that the occurrence of pesticide residues in apples could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring and tighter regulation of pesticide residues is recommended. PMID:25260164

Lozowicka, Bozena

2015-01-01

228

40 CFR 180.7 - Petitions proposing tolerances or exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw agricultural...  

Science.gov (United States)

...proposing tolerances or exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw agricultural commodities or processed foods. 180.7 Section...proposing tolerances or exemptions for pesticide residues in or on raw agricultural commodities or processed foods....

2010-07-01

229

Removal of chloropyrifos ethyl, tetradifon and chlorothalonil pesticide residues from citrus by using ozone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The removal of chloropyrifos ethyl, tetradifon and chlorothalonil pesticide residues from the lemon, orange and grapefruit matrices were achieved by ozonation. All of chlorothalonil residues adsorbed onto the orange matrix were completely removed after 5 min ozonation. The highest removal percentages of tetradifon and chloropyrifos ethyl were achieved as 98.6 and 94.2%, respectively for the lemon and grapefruit matrices. All of diffused chlorothalonil and chloropyrifos ethyl residues were completely removed from both orange and grapefruit matrices after 5 min ozonation. Increasing of applied ozone dosage was not significantly effect on the removal percentages of pesticides whereas increasing of ozonation temperature caused a negative effect on the removal percentages of pesticides. The washing of the matrices with tap water was not as effective as ozonation in the removal of residual pesticides. Our results show that ozone treatment has a great potential for removing of residual pesticides from lemon, orange and grapefruit matrices. PMID:23058925

Kusvuran, Erdal; Yildirim, Deniz; Mavruk, Funda; Ceyhan, Mehmet

2012-11-30

230

Investigation of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits grown in various regions of Hatay, Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, 175 pesticide residues in various vegetable and fruit samples grown in different regions of Hatay, Turkey, were investigated. Residue analyses were performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with the QuEChERS method. In tomato, plum and apricot samples, pesticide residues were below the limits of detection. In other samples, at least one pesticide residue was detected. Twelve pesticides (acetamiprid, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, fenarimol, fludioxonil, hexythiazox, imidacloprid, metalaxyl, pyridaben, pyriproxyfen, thiabendozole, triadimenol) were found at levels between 0.003 and 0.759 mg kg(-1). Only in cucumber samples, acetamiprid residues were found at levels greater than the maximum acceptable limit in Turkish Food Codex and European Union maximum residue limits (EU MRLs). In other samples, the detected residue amounts are less than the MRLs declared in the Turkish Food Codex and EU MRLs. PMID:24786407

Sungur, Sana; Tunur, Cetin

2012-01-01

231

Distribution of pesticide residues within homes in central New York State.  

Science.gov (United States)

Residues for 17 pesticides were analyzed in 41 households in central New York State that represented farm, rural, and urban houses. Samples were taken in both summer and winter of 2000-2001 from the same households from four locations; family room carpet; adjacent smooth floor; flat tabletop surface; and settled dust collected in a Petri dish on a tabletop. Pesticide residues were analyzed to identity factors that influence both the transport into and the redistribution of pesticides in the indoor environment. Differences were observed between the various pesticides and pesticide classifications relative to location within and between households as well as by season. Variations in the pesticide residues were related to a number of factors. Higher residues were observed in the farm households, particularly in summer, with the highest amount observed for chloropyrifos in carpet (33 microg/m2). For many pesticides, the frequency of detection and the amount of residues were higher in summer, which relates to usage patterns in agriculture and horticulture; however, larger amounts of insecticides such as mecoprop, resmethrin, and tetramethrin were found on flat surfaces in winter, indicating household use and possible redistribution within the home. Distribution patterns suggest that routines within a household may cause high variation in residues; these practices include indoor pets and treatment for fleas and ticks, use of termiticides, and fastidiousness of occupants. Frequency of pesticide detection was highest in carpet for both summer and winter for all households, indicating that carpets hold pesticides over time. Adsorbent fibrous materials such as textiles hold pesticides by macro- and micro-occlusion in their complex structures. Amounts of pesticide residue were higher in carpets than on smooth floors, particularly for rural farm households where the farmer was a certified pesticide applicator. The maximum amount of pesticide residue on a smooth floor surface was 13.6 microg/m2 malathion while the maxima on wiped surfaces and in settled dust were 1.8 microg/m2 2, 4 D and 3 microg/m2 pendimethalin, respectively. Physical properties of individual pesticides such as vapor pressure influenced the distribution of the pesticide within the households. Evidence of volatilization of pesticides and redeposition on surfaces was observed, indicating that this is a mechanism for contamination of surfaces in addition to adsorption on airborne particles and tracking. High residues in winter are evidence that closure of households in winter that reduces ventilation results in redistribution of pesticides within households. PMID:16237496

Obendorf, S K; Lemley, A T; Hedge, A; Kline, A A; Tan, K; Dokuchayeva, T

2006-01-01

232

Screening analysis of pesticide residues in plant foodstuffs by capillary gas chromatography using the DFG multiresidue method S19: a comparison of customary detection by ECD/NPD with the novel atomic emission detector (AED).  

Science.gov (United States)

Over a period of 7 months nearly 240 plant foodstuffs taken fresh from the market were analysed for pesticide residues using the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) multiresidue method (MRM) S19. The analysed foodstuffs were a representative cross-section of different fruits and vegetables offered on sale on the German market. With the slightly modified MRM S19, up to 400 pesticides and metabolites amenable to gas chromatography (GC) can be determined. The screening analysis was performed with the combination GC-electron-capture detector (ECD)/nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD) as well as with the combination GC-atomic emission detector (AED) in parallel. Results obtained from both screening systems agree over the whole concentration range observed. With so-called "problem foodstuffs" the combination GC-AED is clearly more suitable. Confirmation of positive results was performed by GC-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. On account of its higher selectivity and its wide linear dynamic range down to the lowest detectable concentrations, the GC-AED system produces more reliable quantitative results compared to those obtained from the GC-ECD/NPD system. PMID:8059558

Linkerhägner, M; Stan, H J

1994-06-01

233

Practical tracer investigations of pesticide residues in agricultural ecosystem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the FAO's latest estimates, the world food supply can only be guaranteed if the 1982 agricultural production is increased by approx. 50% by the year 2000. 2/3 of this production increase must be achieved on areas already under cultivation. This means that in addition to balanced mineral fertilization the use of pesticides will have to be intensively continued in order to fully exploit the improved yield potential of the cultivated plants achieved by breeding. The primary research objective is therefore to extend our knowledge of the uptake and effects of pesticides in the plant as well as their persistence in agricultural ecosystems in order to be able to apply them both more efficiently and more safely. The Institute of Radioagronomy at the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Juelich Nuclear Research Centre) is carrying out practical experiments into these problems using 14C-labelled pesticides under field conditions. In this way statements will become possible on the uptake and residue situation in plants, translocation and metabolism in the soil, the balance in the year of application as well as on the uptake of untreated cultures in the crop rotation. Parallel to this, uptake after leaf spraying or after seed grain treatment is being studied under standardized conditions, as well as for example the mineralization, sorption and fixation of active substances and metabolites in the soil. Results from the past 12 years are being utilized as a bae past 12 years are being utilized as a basis for an evaluation of the state of knowledge. (orig.)

234

Pesticide residues in sediments and aquatic species in Lake Nokoué and Cotonou Lagoon in the Republic of Bénin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lake Nokoué and Cotonou Lagoon are the most important and most productive continental freshwaters in Bénin, with an estimated fish production of over 2 tonnes per hectare in Lake Nokoué. Organochlorine pesticides are used in agriculture and to repel tsetse flies, malaria mosquitoes and other diseases raised. Sediment, fish, shrimp and oyster species were collected in Lake Nokoué and Cotonou Lagoon for pesticide residues analysis. The main pesticides identified in sediment were pp'-DDT and its metabolites pp-DDE and pp'-DDD, with residue levels between the detection limit and 24.4 ?g/kg dry weight. Fish species commonly consumed such as Elops lacerta, Podamasys jubelini, Gobbienellus occidentalis, Ethmalosa fimbriata, Mugil cephalus and Hemichromis fasciatus were contaminated with residues of seven to nine pesticides, including pp-DDE, op'-DDD, pp'-DDD, op'-DDT, pp'-DDT, ?-endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane. The levels ranged from detection limit to 289 ng/g lipid. The same pesticides were also detected in other aquatic species, such as shrimp and oysters. A summed risk assessment, comparing pesticide intake levels through fish consumption with tolerable daily intake levels proposed by the World Health Organization, showed in all cases a low risk for human health. PMID:23942697

Yehouenou A Pazou, Elisabeth; Aléodjrodo, Patrick Edorh; Azehoun, Judicaël P; van Straalen, Nico M; van Hattum, Bert; Swart, Kees; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

2014-01-01

235

Chlorinated pesticide residues in milk of Iranian nursing mothers.  

Science.gov (United States)

One-hundred-thirty-one samples of human milk were collected during October, 1974, to January, 1976, throughout the Tehran area. Sources included four maternity hospitals as well as individual nursing mothers outside of hospitals. The samples were collected 1 to 8 days after child birth from women 14 to 42 yr old and from all social strata. The samples were analyzed for chlorinated pesticide residues by gas-liquid chromatography. Insecticides 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) (with its metabolites), isomer of benzene hexachloride (gamma BHC), and dieldrin were detected in varying concentration in 101, 108, and 47 samples, respectively. The means and ranges were .024 (.001 to .333) ppm, .008 (.001 to .046) ppm, and (.001 to .028) ppm. These concentrations in human milk represented insecticidal ingestion by infants. The mean dieldrin exceeded the World Health Organization limit and may pose a health hazard. There was no significant relationship between economic status of donors and pesticide in the milk; however, milk from the older nursing mothers contained more DDT than that from young mothers. PMID:74381

Hashemy-Tonkabony, S E; Fateminassab, F

1977-12-01

236

Assessment of dermal exposure to pesticide residues during re-entry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, the determination of health risks to pesticide applicators from dermal exposure to these chemicals is assessed using either a concentrate of the compound or a relevant aqueous dilution. Neither of these conditions reflects a normal exposure of an individual when re-entering an area after pesticide application, that is, contact with dried residue of the diluted product on foliage. Methodology has therefore been developed to determine a relevant estimate of this potential dermal re-entry exposure from pesticide residues. Potential delivery platforms have been characterized for the transfer of pesticide residue to skin. Spin coating has been used to deposit uniform pesticide layers on to each platform. Five pesticides have been chosen to encompass a wide range of physicochemical properties: atrazine, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos, and acetochlor. In vitro (Franz diffusion cell) experiments have been performed to monitor the transfer of these pesticides from the delivery platforms onto and through excised porcine skin. Parallel experiments were also conducted with aqueous pesticide dilutions for comparison, and a final in vivo measurement using ibuprofen (as a model compound) complemented the in vitro data. The results demonstrate that transfer of chemical residue onto and subsequently through the skin is dependent on the physical attributes of the residue formed. Thus, assessing dermal exposure to pesticides based on skin contact with either the chemical concentrate or a relevant aqueous dilution may incorrectly estimate the risk for re-entry scenarios. PMID:21510672

Belsey, Natalie A; Cordery, Sarah F; Bunge, Annette L; Guy, Richard H

2011-05-15

237

Pesticide Residues in Conventional, IPM-grown and Organic Foods: Insights from Three U.S. Data Sets  

Science.gov (United States)

The above mentioned report by Brian P. Baker, Charles M. Benbrook, Edward Groth III, and Karen Lutz Benbrook was published in the May 2002 edition of Food Additives and Contaminants, Volume 19, No. 5. The Consumers Union (an independent nonprofit testing, educational, and information organization) has released a summary of this report for Internet viewers. According to the Consumer Union (CU), this report is the first detailed analysis of pesticide residue data in foods grown organically and conventionally. The report reveals that consumers who purchase organic fruits and vegetables are exposed to only one-third as many residues as in conventionally grown foods. The authors gathered and analyzed test data on pesticide residues in organic and non-organic foods from three independent sources: tests done on selected foods by CU in 1997; surveys of residues in foods in the US market conducted by the Pesticide Data Program of the US Department of Agriculture in 1994 through 1999; and surveys of residues in foods sold in California, tested by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation in 1989 through 1998. The combined residue data sets covered more than 94,000 food samples from more than 20 different crops of which 1,291 were organically grown. A complete copy of the paper may be purchased from the publishers of Food Additives and Contaminants.

Baker, Brian P., 1958-; Benbrook, Charles.; Benbrook, Karen L.; Groth, Edward, 1944-

2002-01-01

238

Nondestructive detection pesticide residue on navel orange surface using laser image  

Science.gov (United States)

To detect pesticide residue on navel orange surface by nondestructive means, five group oranges sprayed water, fenvalerate, isocarbophos, fenpropathrin, carbendazim pesticides respectively were chosen as experimental samples. Laser imaging system was built for acquiring images of fruits. Unitary nonlinear regression function was fitted by analyzing gray histogram curves of images within 12-40 range. The coefficient or eigenvalue of functions was different about every navel orange. The threshold coefficient was confirmed by data processing, which can establish fruits surface sprayed pesticide or not. The result showed that laser imaging technique is feasible for detecting pesticide residue on navel orange surface.

Yao, Mingyin; Liu, Muhua; Yao, Lintao

2009-07-01

239

Pesticide residue assessment in three selected agricultural production systems in the Choluteca River Basin of Honduras  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a basic lack of information about the presence of pesticide residues in the environment in Central America. Over the period of February 1995 to June 1997, river, well, lagoon and spring water samples, as well as soil, fish tissue, lagoon bed sediments and some foodstuffs were taken from the greater Cholutecan River Basin of Honduras and analyzed for pesticide residues. These were collected at three separate sites (La Lima, Zamorano and Choluteca), each characterized by differing agricultural production systems. The main pesticide residues found in soil samples were dieldrin and p,p'-DDT, while river water samples were found to have detectable levels of heptachlor, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos, with lagoon and well water also being shown to contain heptachlor. These pesticides detected were in more than 20% of the samples assessed. In river water samples more pesticide residues at higher concentrations were found to be associated with areas of more intensive agricultural production. The fewest pesticides with lowest concentrations were found in the small subwatershed associated with traditional agricultural production. Although the pesticides found in the soils at the three sites were generally similar they tended to be higher in the southern part of the Cholutecan watershed, followed by the central zone, with the lowest concentrations being found in the more traditional production zone. In lagoon and well water samples more pesticides, but mostly in lower concentrations were detected at the traditional production site than at the others. Ten pesticide compounds were detected in fish tissue, mainly organochlorines, some of which were also found in lagoon sediments. In terms of food products, almost no pesticides were detected in vegetables, but the kidney adipose tissue taken from slaughtered cows was shown to have a tendency to contain some organochlorines. Spring water in the traditional agricultural production zone contained three organochlorine compounds as well as chlorpyrifos, but these were detected only in the rainy season. This study indicates that pesticide residues are present and strongly associated with areas of intensive agriculture, although even in the areas practicing more traditional agriculture, pesticide residues were not absent. Further pesticide monitoring is necessary to obtain a more complete picture of the situation and based on this data an effective policy framework to assist in minimizing pesticide residue accumulation may be developed to reduce the adverse impact these compounds are known to have on the environment and human health. This snapshot of the pesticide distribution in three agriculturally distinct regions within the Choluteca watershed indicates that the situation is stable, but should be monitored to determine if pesticides residues will pose a health hazard in the future. (author)

240

Validation of a residue method to determine pesticide residues in cucumber by using nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a multi-residue method using ethyl acetate for extraction and gel permeation chromatography for clean-up was validated to determine chlorpyrifos, malathion and dichlorvos in cucumber by gas chromatography. For this purpose, homogenized cucumber samples were fortified with pesticides at 0.02 0.2, 0.8 and 1 mg/kg levels. The efficiency and repeatability of the method in extraction and cleanup steps were performed using 14C-carbaryl by radioisotope tracer technique. 14C-carbaryl recoveries after the extraction and cleanup steps were between 92.63-111.73 % with a repeatability of 4.85% (CV) and 74.83-102.22 % with a repeatability of 7.19% (CV), respectively. The homogeneity of analytical samples and the stability of pesticides during homogenization were determined using radio tracer technique and chromatographic methods, respectively.

241

Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the Aegean region, Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the Aegean region of Turkey. A total of 1423 samples of fresh fruit and vegetables were collected from 2010 to 2012. The samples were analysed to determine the concentrations of 186 pesticide residues. The analyses utilized ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) confirmed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after a multi-residue extraction procedure (the QuEChERS method). The results were evaluated according to maximum residue limits (MRLs) for each commodity and pesticide by Turkish Regulation. All pomegranate, cauliflower and cabbage samples were pesticides-free. A total of 754 samples contained detectable residues at or below MRLs, and 48 (8.4%) of the fruit samples and 83 (9.8%) of the vegetable samples contained pesticide residues above MRLs. MRL values were most often exceeded in arugula, cucumber, lemon, and grape commodities. All detected pesticides in apricot, carrot, kiwifruit and leek were below the MRLs. Acetamiprid, chlorpyriphos and carbendazim were the most detected pesticide residues. PMID:24799252

Bak?rc?, Gözde Türköz; Yaman Acay, Dilek Bengü; Bak?rc?, Fatih; Ötle?, Semih

2014-10-01

242

Effect of background derivatization on the signal enhancement of pesticide residues extracted from edible oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of background derivatization on the signal enhancement of pesticide residues extracted from edible oil samples was studied by GC with negative chemical ionization MS. The analytes were extracted by a solvent extraction process, and the extract was subjected to rapid low-temperature fat precipitation. The residual fatty acids were silylated by derivatization with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. The chromatograms obtained from the derivatized samples showed higher signal intensity and lower detection levels when compared to the direct analysis without derivatization. The sensitivity levels of the method are either better or comparable to that of previously reported methodologies. The LODs of the analyzed organochlorine, organophosphorus, and synthetic pyrethroid residues in sunflower, rice bran, and ground oil samples were in the range of 0.02–0.5 ng/g, and the LOQs were in the range of 0.1–2 ng/g. The intraday and interday accuracies were in the range of 81–116% with RSDs less than 14%. The recoveries obtained were in the range of 53–89% with the RSD values less than 13% for all the studied pesticide residues. PMID:24132997

Deme, Pragney; Azmeera, Tirupathi; Bethala, Prabhavathi Devi L A; Jonnalagadda, Padmaja R; Rachapudi, Prasad B N; Upadhyayula, Vijaya Sarathi V R

2013-12-01

243

Multi pesticide and PCB residues in Nile tilapia and catfish in Assiut city, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study investigated the levels of multi pesticide residues in the highly consumed types of Nile fish in Egypt: tilapia and cat fish. A total of 50 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and 50 African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were collected from two areas in Assiut city, where most industries are situated and where agricultural activities and raising of farm animals are the main activities. In the first area, Elwasta, there is an electrical power station, and the second area, Mankbad, there is a cement factory. Fish samples were analyzed by High Resolution Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Average pesticide residue concentrations±SE in muscle of tilapia and catfish (n = 10 pooled samples with five fish each) were determined. The results indicated the presence of different types of organophosphorous (OPs), organochlorine (OC), polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and trifluralin pesticides in Elwasta and Mankbad in varying degrees. Diazenon was the only OP pesticide which exceeded the permissible limit in both investigated areas with the two types of fish. On the other hand, OCs, PCBs, HCB and trifluralin pesticide residue levels have not exceeded the maximum allowable concentration limit. In general, a higher pesticide residue level was obtained in Mankbad than Elwasta. In addition, higher values are realized for the detected pesticide residues in cat fish than tilapia. The results of the study have shown the extensive and recent use of these types of pesticides in the present time in Egypt. PMID:23911921

Yahia, Doha; Elsharkawy, Eman E

2014-01-01

244

Pesticide residue legal standards for beverages: risk regulation and public perception  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Exposure to pesticide residues in dietary sources is a major concern of Europeans. Meanwhile, drinking water and food safety authorities establish and implement maximum residue levels (MRLs) for pesticides in drinking water and food. This study compares MRLs between EU, US and Codex authorities for both drinking water and other beverages, i.e. milk, juice and wine, investigating differences between authorites as well as between beverage types. These results were confronted with public perceptions towards pesticide residues in beverages, based on a consumer survey conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. Seven frequently-occurring pesticides were selected for this study. Results show that since no specific MRLs for juice and wine exist, MRLs for the raw products were used instead. Furthermore, established MRLs are significantly greater for pesticides in beverages when compared to legal standards for drinking water. Maximum levels in drinking water, if available, are generally low (0.0001 mg/L in the EU), while MRLs for pesticides in milk, juice and wine range from 0.05 to 60 mg/L. At the same time, questionnaire participants were equally concerned about their exposure to pesticide residues in drinking water and other beverage types. These findings reveal some inconsistencies in setting legal maximum concentrations for pesticide residues in different dietary sources as well as between different drinking water and food safety authorities.

Grieger, Khara Deanne; Trapp, Stefan

2007-01-01

245

Decontamination of spills and residues of some pesticides and of protective clothing worn during the handling of the pesticides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Users of pesticides may have waste or surplus quantities or spills for disposal. One alternative is to deactivate the pesticide at the handling site by using a straightforward chemical reaction. This option can be practical for those who use relatively small quantities of a large variety of pesticides, for example, greenhouse workers, small farmers, and agricultural researchers. This paper describes practical on-site methods for the disposal of spills or small waste quantities of five commonly used pesticides, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Iprodione, 2,4-D, and Captan. These have been tested in the laboratory for the rate of disappearance of the pesticide, the degree of conversion to nontoxic products, the nature and identity of the products, the practicality of the method, and the ease of reproducibility. Methods selected were shown to be safe for the operator, reliable, and reproducible. Greater than 99% of the starting material had to be reacted under reasonable conditions and length of time. Detailed descriptions of the reactions are presented, so that they can be performed with reproducible results. Protective clothing worn during the handling and application of pesticides may become contaminated. Simple laundering does not always remove all of the pesticide residues. Thus, chronic dermal exposure may result from the pesticide-contaminated clothing. Appropriate methods of laundering using specific pretreatments have been determined. 7 refs.

Armour, M.A.; Nelson, C.; Sather, P. Briker, Y. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

1996-12-31

246

Analysis of organo-chlorine pesticides residue in raw coffee with a modified "quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe" extraction/clean up procedure for reducing the impact of caffeine on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurement.  

Science.gov (United States)

The control of pesticide residues on raw coffee is a task of great importance due to high consumption of this beverage in Italy and in many other countries. High caffeine content can hamper extraction and measurement of any pesticide residue. A tandem extraction protocol has been devised by exploiting the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) scheme for extraction, coupled to a dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) in order to drastically reduce caffeine content in the final extract. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used for quantification of organo-chlorine pesticides in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Method has been validated and performances meet the criteria prescribed by European Union regulations. PMID:25537171

Bresin, Bruno; Piol, Maria; Fabbro, Denis; Mancini, Maria Antonietta; Casetta, Bruno; Del Bianco, Clorinda

2015-01-01

247

The Assessment of Pesticides Residues in Some Organic Cultivated and Wild-Collected Medicinal Plants in Albania  

OpenAIRE

Pesticide residues in environment are found in soil, water and plants due to the extensive use of pesticides for agricultural purposes. The residues of pesticides in medicinal plants are of high concern as they are toxic for human life since these plants are used for medicinal purposes. The objective of current study was to estimate the presence of pesticide residues in some organic cultivated and wild-collected medicinal plants in Albania during the years 2010–2013. The determination of pe...

FERDI BRAHUSHI; ENDRIT KULLAJ

2014-01-01

248

Assessment of pesticide residues in some fruits using gas chromatography coupled with micro electron capture detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A very sensitive analytical method for the determination of 26 pesticides in some fruits based on solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup was developed using gas chromatography (GC) coupled with micro electron capture detector (mu ECD). The identity of the pesticides was confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Ethyl acetate was used as a solvent for the extraction of pesticide residues with assistance of sonication. For cleanup an octadecyl, C18 SPE column was used. A linear response of mu ECD was observed for all pesticides with good correlation coefficients (>0.9992). Proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of pesticide residues in the orange, apple, and grape fruits. Average recoveries achieved for all of the pesticides at fortification levels of 0.05, 1.0 and 2.0 mu g g/sup -1/ in analyzed fruits were above 90% with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 6%. (author)

249

Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat  

OpenAIRE

Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but l...

Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

2011-01-01

250

Perspective on Dietary Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Organic Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that organically produced food has lower risks of pesticide contamination than food that is not organically produced. However, organically produced food is not entirely free of pesticide residues. A large, high-quality U.S. Department of Agriculture database reports pesticide residues in several dozen organic and conventionally grown foods on an annual basis, and supports detailed analyses of the frequency of residues in conventional and organic food, the number of residues found in an average sample of food, residue levels, and potential dietary risk. These data are used to estimate pesticide dietary exposures and relative risk levels, and to assess the impacts of the current pesticide-related provisions of the National Organic Program (NOP rule. Fraud appears to be rare based on the available data. Most prohibited residues found in organic produce are detected at levels far below the residues typically found in food grown with pesticides. Relatively high-risk residues are more common in imported foods—both organic and conventional—compared to domestically grown food. The authors conclude that incorporating relative dietary risk into the organic standard would be a more precautionary, risk-based approach than targeting enforcement to organic foods found to contain 5% or more of the applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA tolerance.

Charles M. Benbrook

2014-05-01

251

Independent evaluation of a commercial deconvolution reporting software for gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) deconvolution reporting software (DRS) from Agilent Technologies has been evaluated for its ability as a screening tool to detect a large number of pesticides in incurred and fortified samples extracted with acetone/dichloromethane/light petroleum (Mini-Luke method). The detection of pesticides is based on fixed retention times using retention time locking (RTL) and full scan mass spectral comparison with a partly customer built automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system (AMDIS) database. The GC-MS was equipped with a programmable temperature vaporising (PTV) injector system which enables more sample to be injected. In a blind study of 52 real samples a total number of 158 incurred pesticides were found. In addition to the 85 pesticides found by manual interpretation of GC-NPD/ECD chromatograms, the DRS revealed 73 more pesticides (+46%). The DRS system also shows its potential to discover pesticides which are normally not searched for (EPN in long beans from Thailand). A spiking experiment was performed to blank matrices of apple, orange and lettuce with 177 different pesticides at concentration levels 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg. The samples were analysed on GC-MS full scan and the AMDIS match factor was used as a mass spectral quality criterion. The threshold level of the AMDIS match factor was set at 20 to eliminate most of the false positives. AMDIS match factors from 20 up to 69 are regarded only as indication of a positive hit and must be followed by manual interpretation. Pesticides giving AMDIS match factors at > or = 70 are regarded as identified. To simplify and decrease the large amount of data generated at each concentration level, the AMDIS match factors > or = 20 was averaged (mean AMF) for each pesticide including the commodities and their replicates. Among 177 different pesticides spiked at 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg level, the percentage of mean AMF values > or = 70 were 23% and 80%, respectively. For 531 individual detections of pesticides (177 pesticides x 3 replicates) giving AMDIS match factor 20 in apple, orange and lettuce, the detection rates at 0.02 mg/kg were 71%, 63% and 72%, respectively. For the 0.1 mg/kg level the detection rates were 89%, 85% and 89%, respectively. In real samples some manual interpretation must be performed in addition. However, screening by GC-MS/DRS is about 5-10 times faster compared to screening with GC-NPD/ECD because the time used for manual interpretation is much shorter and there is no need for re-injection on GC-MS for the identification of suspect peaks found on GC-NPD/ECD. PMID:20172528

Norli, Hans Ragnar; Christiansen, Agnethe; Holen, Børge

2010-03-26

252

Organophosphorus pesticide poisonings in humans: determination of residues and metabolites in tissues and urine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analyses of four organophosphorus pesticide poisoning cases, three of which resulted in death, are reported. The case histories of the subjects, along with the analysis of tissues, urine, and blood for the levels of pesticides and metabolites are given. The pesticides involved include dicrotophos, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and parathion. The methods of analysis were adapted from previously published methods that provide a very rapid means of identification of organophosphorus pesticides in the tissues or in the blood of poisoned patients. PMID:81664

Lores, E M; Bradway, D E; Moseman, R F

1978-01-01

253

Pesticide management and their residues in sediments and surface and drinking water in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public concern in Vietnam is increasing with respect to pesticide pollution of the environment and of drinking water resources. While established monitoring programs in the Mekong Delta (MD) focus on the analysis of organochlorines and some organophosphates, the environmental concentrations of more recently used pesticides such as carbamates, pyrethroides, and triazoles are not monitored. In the present study, household level pesticide use and management was therefore surveyed and combined with a one year environmental monitoring program of thirteen relevant pesticides (buprofezin, butachlor, cypermethrin, ?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan, endosulfan-sulfate, fenobucarb, fipronil, isoprothiolane, pretilachlor, profenofos, propanil, and propiconazole) in surface water, soil, and sediment samples. The surveys showed that household level pesticide management remains suboptimal in the Mekong Delta. As a consequence, a wide range of pesticide residues were present in water, soil, and sediments throughout the monitoring period. Maximum concentrations recorded were up to 11.24 ?g l(-1) in water for isoprothiolane and up to 521 ?g kg(-1) dm in sediment for buprofezin. Annual average concentrations ranged up to 3.34 ?g l(-1) in water and up to 135 ?g kg(-1) dm in sediment, both for isoprothiolane. Occurrence of pesticides in the environment throughout the year and co-occurrence of several pesticides in the samples indicate a considerable chronic exposure of biota and humans to pesticides. This has a high relevance in the delta as water for drinking is often extracted from canals and rivers by rural households (GSO, 2005, and own surveys). The treatment used by the households for preparing surface water prior to consumption (flocculation followed by boiling) is insufficient for the removal of the studied pesticides and boiling can actually increase the concentration of non-volatile pollutants. PMID:23500396

Toan, Pham Van; Sebesvari, Zita; Bläsing, Melanie; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Renaud, Fabrice G

2013-05-01

254

Adverse Effects of Pesticides Residues on Biochemical Markers in Pakistani Tobacco Farmers  

Science.gov (United States)

Tobacco is an important cash crop of Pakistan and tremendous amount of irrational pesticides are being used to control insect growth. The frequency of plasma pesticide residues above acceptable daily intake (ADI) and its correlation with biochemical markers for assessment of adverse health effects in the tobacco farmers at district Sawabi, Pakistan was determined. Total 109 adult males consisting of 55 tobacco farmers exposed to pesticides and 54 controls were included. Pesticides residues in blood were analyzed on HPLC and GC-NPD. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was analyzed by Ellman's method. Biochemical markers including serum calcium, phosphorus, urea, creatinine, bilirubin and liver enzymes were measured on Selectra-E auto analyzer. The tobacco farmers had multiple pesticides residues above ADI in their blood consisting of 35 (63%) methomyl; 31 (56%) thiodicarb; 34(62%) cypermethrin; 27 (49%) Imidacloprid; 18 (32%) Methamidophos and 15 (27%) endosulfan. BChE activity was significantly decreased in the pesticides exposed farmers as compared to controls (P<0.001). Plasma biochemical markers including ALT, AST, CK, LDH and phosphate were significantly raised in the pesticides exposed farmers as compared to control group (P<0.001). Total pesticides residues revealed a significant positive correlation with AST (r=0.42), LDH(r= 0.47), ALT (r=0.20) and phosphorus (r=0.51). Excessive exposure to pesticide caused cytotoxic changes in the hepatic and renal biochemical markers which were positively correlated with pesticide residue. Hence these biomarkers might be used in addition to BChE activity for monitoring of adverse effects of pesticides on the health of farm workers. PMID:19079663

Khan, Dilshad A; Bhatti, Mahwish M; Khan, Farooq A; Naqvi, Syed T; Karam, A

2008-01-01

255

MONITORING THE TRANSFER OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES FROM SOFT SURFACES TO FOODS  

Science.gov (United States)

The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires assessing pesticide residue exposures to children. Contact of soft surfaces by foods and the ingestion of the food represents a pesticide exposure pathway. Chlorpyrifos has widespread use indoors and would be protected from envir...

256

Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

2013-02-01

257

Gas chromatographic determination of pesticide residues in white mustard.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new analytical method employing gas chromatography coupled to electron capture and nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC-ECD/NPD) has been developed and validated for the screening and quantification of 51 pesticides in a matrix of high chlorophyll content - white mustard (Sinapis alba L.). For preparation of the sample extract, the citrate buffered QuEChERS procedure was followed. However certain changes were made to adapt the method to our needs and available laboratory resources. The sample size was reduced to 5 g, 10 mL water was added and exchange of solvent before GC analysis was done. The samples spiked with the target pesticides at the concentration level 0.01 mg/kg and a higher level (depending on the compound) yielded average recoveries in the range of 70-120% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) 0-19% except for HCB, S-metolachlor and teflubenzuron, and displayed very good linearity (R(2)>0.99) for nearly all the analytes. Limit of quantification was 0.01 mg/kg for the majority of the analytes. The expanded measurement uncertainties were estimated employing a "top-down" empirical model as being between 6% and 32% and yielding an average value of 18% (coverage factor k=2, confidence level 95%). PMID:25466117

S?owik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Szpyrka, Ewa; Walorczyk, Stanis?aw

2015-04-15

258

Residual Component Analysis  

CERN Document Server

Probabilistic principal component analysis (PPCA) seeks a low dimensional representation of a data set in the presence of independent spherical Gaussian noise, Sigma = (sigma^2)*I. The maximum likelihood solution for the model is an eigenvalue problem on the sample covariance matrix. In this paper we consider the situation where the data variance is already partially explained by other factors, e.g. covariates of interest, or temporal correlations leaving some residual variance. We decompose the residual variance into its components through a generalized eigenvalue problem, which we call residual component analysis (RCA). We show that canonical covariates analysis (CCA) is a special case of our algorithm and explore a range of new algorithms that arise from the framework. We illustrate the ideas on a gene expression time series data set and the recovery of human pose from silhouette.

Kalaitzis, Alfredo A

2011-01-01

259

Development of an optical instrument to determine the pesticide residues in vegetables  

Science.gov (United States)

An optical instrument was developed to determine the pesticide residues in vegetables based on the inhibition rate of organophosphates against acrtyl-cholinesterase (AChE). The instrument consists mainly of a solid light source with 410nm wavelength, a sampling container to store the liquid, an optical sensor to test the intensity of transmission light, a temperature sensor, and a MCU based data acquisition board. The light illuminates the liquid in the sampling container, and the absorptivity was determined by the amount of the pesticide residues in the liquid. This paper involves the design of optical testing system, the data acquisition and calibration of the optical sensor, the design of microcontroller-based electrical board. Tests show that the absorption rate is related to the pesticide residues and it can be concluded that the pesticide residues exceed the normal level when the inhibition rate is over 50 percent.

Qiu, Zhengjun; Fang, Hui; Li, Weimin; He, Yong

2005-12-01

260

STUDY TO IDENTIFY IMPORTANT PARAMETERS FOR CHARACTERIZING PESTICIDE RESIDUE TRANSFER EFFICIENCIES  

Science.gov (United States)

To reduce the uncertainty associated with current estimates of children's exposure to pesticides by dermal contact and non-dietary ingestion, residue transfer data are required. Prior to conducting exhaustive studies, a screening study to identify the important parameters for...

261

Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application  

OpenAIRE

In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application versus coarse spray quality application on residue levels. The applications included boscalid, bupirimate, captan, fenoxycarb, indoxacarb, pirimicarb, pyraclostrobin and thiophanate-methyl. Apples were c...

Poulsen, M.; Wenneker, M.; Withagen, J. C. M.; Christensen, H. B.

2012-01-01

262

Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion), two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin) pesticide residues in twelve samples of three comm...

Md. Shakhaoat Hossain; Md. Alamgir Hossain; Md. Abdur Rahman; Md Mainul Islam; Md. Atiqur Rahman, , and; Tanveer Mehedi Adyel

2013-01-01

263

Effects of processing treatment on pesticide residues in fruits and their products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of processing treatments on pesticide residues in fruits and their products was reviewed. The effects on pesticide residues and relative control treatments for each processing step, including peeling, washing, sterilization, juicing, clarification, filtration, drying and fermentation, were discussed, respectively. Meanwhile we analyzed the future development prospectin of this field, in order to provide some suggestions for commercial fruit industry and consumers' health. (authors)

264

Current status of pesticides application and their residue in the water environment in Ireland  

OpenAIRE

Pesticides have been listed by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency as potentially dangerous pollutants that may pose a significant risk to the water environment in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). Although this analysis of pesticides data was based on the existing pesticides application survey in ROI, this study aims to produce a geographical information system profile for the amount of pesticides used in agriculture and the distribution of their use in different parts of the country. The...

Zhao, Y. Q.; Singleton, P.; Meredith, S.; et al.

2013-01-01

265

Monitoring of some pesticides residue in consumed tea in Tehran market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Tea is an agricultural product of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of various cultivars and sub-varieties of the Camellia sinensis plant, processed and vulcanized using various methods. Tea is a main beverage in Iranian food basket so should be free from toxic elements such as pesticides residue. There is no data bank on the residue of pesticides in the consumed black tea in Iran. The present study is the first attempt for monitoring of 25 pesticide residues from different chemical groups in tea samples obtained from local markets in Tehran, I.R. Iran during the period 2011. A reliable and accurate method based on spiked calibration curve and QuEChERS sample preparation was developed for determination of pesticide residues in tea by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The using of spiked calibration standards for constructing the calibration curve substantially reduced adverse matrix-related effects and negative recovery affected by GCB on pesticides. The recovery of pesticides at 3 concentration levels (n = 3 was in range of 81.4 - 99.4%. The method was proved to be repeatable with RSDr lower than 20%. The limits of quantification for all pesticides were ?20 ng/g. 53 samples from 17 imported and manufactured brand were analyzed. Detectable pesticides residues were found in 28.3% (15 samples of the samples. All of the positive samples were contaminated with unregulated pesticides (Endosulfan Sulfate or Bifenthrin which are established by ISIRI. None of the samples had contamination higher than maximum residue limit set by EU and India.

Hamedani Morteza Pirali

2013-01-01

266

Monitoring of Some Pesticides Residue in Consumed tea in Tehran Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tea is an agricultural product of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of various cultivars and sub-varieties of the Camellia sinensis plant, processed and vulcanized using various methods. Tea is a main beverage in Iranian food basket so should be free from toxic elements such as pesticides residue. There is no data bank on the residue of pesticides in the consumed black tea in Iran. The present study is the first attempt for monitoring of 25 pesticide residues from different chemical groups in tea samples obtained from local markets in Tehran, I.R. Iran during the period 2011. A reliable and accurate method based on spiked calibration curve and QuEChERS sample preparation was developed for determination of pesticide residues in tea by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The using of spiked calibration standards for constructing the calibration curve substantially reduced adverse matrix-related effects and negative recovery affected by GCB on pesticides. The recovery of pesticides at 3 concentration levels (n = 3 was in range of 81.4 - 99.4%. The method was proved to be repeatable with RSDr lower than 20%. The limits of quantification for all pesticides were <=20 ng/g. 53 samples from 17 imported and manufactured brand were analyzed. Detectable pesticides residues were found in 28.3% (15 samples of the samples. All of the positive samples were contaminated with unregulated pesticides (Endosulfan Sulfate or Bifenthrin which are established by ISIRI. None of the samples had contamination higher than maximum residue limit set by EU and India.

Maryam Amirahmadi

2013-01-01

267

Detection of cyclodiene pesticide residues in buffalo meat and effect of cooking on residual level of endosulfan  

OpenAIRE

Levels of cyclodiene pesticides (aldrin, ?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate and heptachlor) residues in muscle, liver and kidney tissues of buffalo were estimated. The effects of common cooking methods (microwave cooking, boiling, broiling and pressure cooking) on the levels of endosulfan were determined. Aldrin and total endosulfan (?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate) residues were found in 42.86 and 64.29% of buffalo tissue samples, with overall mean residual con...

Muthukumar, M.; Sudhakar Reddy, K.; Narendra Reddy, C.; Kondal Reddy, K.; Gopala Reddy, A.; Jagdishwar Reddy, D.; Kondaiah, N.

2010-01-01

268

The Concept of Withholding Period and Pesticide Residue in Grain Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review focuses on pesticides, their unquantifiable benefits to agriculture, pesticide residue, maximum pesticide residue limit, and withholding period in grain storage. It delved into the origin of synthetic pesticide and its introduction to Nigeria in the 1950s, it maintained that pesticide have posed major health and social challenges, and have had negative, unintended, catastrophic, fatal consequences to man, animals, and even the environment especially when instructions on their labels are not adhered to. Again, it maintained that withholding periods are often stipulated on the labels of genuine pesticides, it reiterated that not adhering to the stipulated withholding period can have catastrophic consequences on consumers of grain and grain products. Furthermore, it dwelt on the activities of Nigerian stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI and National Food Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC, their mandates and quest to nip pesticide poisoning in the bud. Finally, recommendations were put forward to check the seeming ignorance and dearth of information about pesticide residue limit and withholding period, and dangers that are concomitants of not adhering to these.

Adegbola, J. A.

2012-12-01

269

Occurrence of pesticide non extractable residues in physical and chemical fractions from two natural soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Distribution of pesticide non extractable residues resulted from the incubation of two natural soils with each of the isoproturon, diazinon and cypermethrin pesticide was assessed in this study. Pesticide non extractable residues distribution in soil physical and chemical fractions is known to ultimately affect their fate. This study aimed to address the fate and behaviour of the non extractable residues in the context of their association with soil physical and chemical fractions with varying properties and characteristics. Non extractable residues were formed from incubation of each pesticide in the two natural soils over a period of 24 months. Soils containing the non extractable residues were fractionated into three solid phase fractions using a physical fractionation procedure as follows: Sediment (SED, >20 ?m), (II) Microaggregate (MA, 20-2 ?m) and (III) Colloid phase (COL, 2-0.05 ?m). Each soil fraction was then fractionated into organic carbon chemical fractionations as follows: Fulvic acid (FA), Humic acid (HA) and Humin (HM). Significant amount of the pesticides was lost during the incubation period. Enrichment factors for the organic carbon and the 14C-pesticide residues were higher in the MA and COL fraction rather than the SED fraction. Greater association and enrichment of the fulvic acid fraction of the organic carbon in the soil was observed. Non extractable residues at the FA fraction showed to diminish while in the HA fraction were increased with decreasing the fraction size. An appreciable amount of non extractable residues were located in the HM fraction but this was less than the amount recovered in the humic substances. Long term fate of pesticide non extractable residues in the soil structural components is important in order to assess any risk associated with them.

Andreou, K.; Jones, K.; Semple, K.

2009-04-01

270

[Residual pesticide concentrations after processing various types of tea and tea infusions].  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of processing to produce various types of tea or infusion on the levels of pesticide residues in tea were investigated for three insecticides (chlorfenapyr, pyrimiphos-methyl, and clothianidin). Tea plants were sprayed with one of the three pesticides and cultivated under cover. The levels of pesticide residues in tea decreased after processing according to the time and temperature of heating, as well as fermentation. Although significant differences were not observed among the three pesticides in the ratio of decreased of pesticide concentration after processing to green tea, clothianidin, which is a neonicotinoid insecticide and has a lower log Pow value, tended to be transferred more than the other two insecticides into infusions. However, no significant difference in the ratios of clothianidin transferred to infusions was observed among green tea with three different leaf sizes. PMID:24025203

Kondo, Takahide; Watanabe, Ayaka; Shitara, Hiroshi; Kaburagi, Yasuo; Shibata, Masahisa; Kanda, Noriko; Kurokawa, Chieko; Inoue, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Togawa, Masayuki; Ozawa, Akihito; Uchiyama, Toru; Koizumi, Yutaka; Nakamura, Yoriyuki; Masuda, Shuichi; Maitani, Tamio

2013-01-01

271

Biosensors for detection of pesticide residues: current status, challenges and future perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Public concerns over pesticide residues in food had been increasing because of their bioaccumulation effects and their great danger to the environments and human’s heath. It was therefore imperative to detect the pesticide residue using all available analytical methods, especially highly sensitive, simple, rapid and low cost. The biosensor detection strategies held a great promise for the detection of agricultural pesticides, attributing to their key features such as high sensitivity, fast response, robustness, low cost, and miniaturization. This paper reviewed the advances in the design and fabrication of biosensor for pesticide detection and their applications in the food and environment safety. Both advantages and drawbacks of these techniques were summarized. Finally, challenges and perspectives in further developing pesticide biosensors were also discussed.

YAO Xue-Peng

2013-02-01

272

Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants in fish using fast, low-pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for analysis of POPs and novel flame retardants in catfish was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is based on a QuEChERS extraction, d-SPE clean-up and low pressure GC/MS-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method validation demonstrated good recoveries and low detection limits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples from the market. - Abstract: A multi-class, multi-residue method for the analysis of 13 novel flame retardants, 18 representative pesticides, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in catfish muscle was developed and evaluated using fast low pressure gas chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS-MS). The method was based on a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction with acetonitrile and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up with zirconium-based sorbent prior to LP-GC/MS-MS analysis. The developed method was evaluated at 4 spiking levels and further validated by analysis of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 1974B and 1947. Sample preparation for a batch of 10 homogenized samples took about 1 h/analyst, and LP-GC/MS-MS analysis provided fast separation of multiple analytes within 9 min achieving high throughput. With the use of isotopically labeled internal standards, recoveries of all but one analyte were between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations less than 20% (n = 5). The measured values for both SRMs agreed with certified/reference values (72-119% accuracy) for the majority of analytes. The detection limits were 0.1-0.5 ng g{sup -1} for PCBs, 0.5-10 ng g{sup -1} for PBDEs, 0.5-5 ng g{sup -1} for select pesticides and PAHs and 1-10 ng g{sup -1} for flame retardants. The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples from the market.

Sapozhnikova, Yelena, E-mail: yelena.sapozhnikova@ars.usda.gov [US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 193038 (United States); Lehotay, Steven J. [US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 193038 (United States)

2013-01-03

273

Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants in fish using fast, low-pressure gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A method for analysis of POPs and novel flame retardants in catfish was developed. ? The method is based on a QuEChERS extraction, d-SPE clean-up and low pressure GC/MS–MS. ? The method validation demonstrated good recoveries and low detection limits. ? The method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples from the market. - Abstract: A multi-class, multi-residue method for the analysis of 13 novel flame retardants, 18 representative pesticides, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in catfish muscle was developed and evaluated using fast low pressure gas chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS–MS). The method was based on a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction with acetonitrile and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up with zirconium-based sorbent prior to LP-GC/MS–MS analysis. The developed method was evaluated at 4 spiking levels and further validated by analysis of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 1974B and 1947. Sample preparation for a batch of 10 homogenized samples took about 1 h/analyst, and LP-GC/MS–MS analysis provided fast separation of multiple analytes within 9 min achieving high throughput. With the use of isotopically labeled internal standards, recoveries of all but one analyte were between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviith relative standard deviations less than 20% (n = 5). The measured values for both SRMs agreed with certified/reference values (72–119% accuracy) for the majority of analytes. The detection limits were 0.1–0.5 ng g?1 for PCBs, 0.5–10 ng g?1 for PBDEs, 0.5–5 ng g?1 for select pesticides and PAHs and 1–10 ng g?1 for flame retardants. The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples from the market.

274

Organochlorine pesticide residues in European sardine, horse mackerel and Atlantic mackerel from Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the results for the surveillance of nine organochlorine pesticides (HCH isomers (alpha, beta, e, gamma), p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, HCB and aldrin) in muscle of three fish species, European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus), Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus). Analytical methodology included n-hexane extraction, clean-up with 2% deactivated Florisil, and quantification with gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The highest mean concentrations were found for p,p'-DDT in sardine and mackerel at levels of 30.1 and 109.9 microg kg(-1), respectively, and for p,p'-DDD in horse mackerel at 51.9 microg kg(-1). Three species had higher levels for S-DDT than S-HCH. The estimated daily intake of organochlorine pesticides in the three species showed that in sardine, the highest EDIs were found for aldrin, at 1.8 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), which represents 1.8% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), and for ss-HCH, at 4.0 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), representing 0.4% of ADI. Lowest values were found for Atlantic mackerel. Statistical analysis to determine the differences in mean concentrations of pesticides between species, and any correlation between groups of residues related with each one of the species, was undertaken. PMID:16019839

Campos, A; Lino, C M; Cardoso, S M; Silveira, M I N

2005-07-01

275

Monitoring pesticide residues in greenhouse tomato by combining acetonitrile-based extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A multiclass and multiresidue method for pesticide analysis in tomato was validated. Extraction and pre-concentration of the pesticide residues from acetonitrile extracts was performed by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique, followed by gas chromatography-mass detection. DLLME was performed using carbon tetrachloride as extractive solvent and acetonitrile extract as dispersive solvent, in order to increase enrichment factor of the extraction procedure. Validation parameters indicated the suitability of the method for routine analyses of thirty pesticides in a large number of samples. In general, pesticide recoveries ranged between 70% and 110% and repeatability ranged between 1% and 20%. The proposed method was applied to the monitoring of pesticides in tomatoes grown during winter in greenhouses. Among the compounds considered in this work, cyprodinil was found in tomato at concentrations of 0.33mg/kg, other pesticides like azoxystrobin, fenhexanid, tolyfluanid, ?-cyhalothrin and trifloxystrobin were also detected, but, not quantified. PMID:22953826

Melo, Armindo; Cunha, Sara C; Mansilha, Catarina; Aguiar, Ana; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

2012-12-01

276

Pesticide residues in raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) and dietary risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the residues of 140 pesticides in raspberries from north-eastern Poland (2005-2010). Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC-NPD) was used. Among the 128 samples, 66 (51.6%) were found to detect residues: 14.1% contained one pesticide and around 38% multiple pesticide residues. The most frequently detected were pyrimethanil residues (36.0%). Twenty-seven (21.1%) raspberry samples exceeded the maximum residue limits. The estimated daily intakes ranged from 0.003% to 3.183% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for adults 0.008% and 9.7% for toddlers, respectively. The most critical case is procymidone, the acute risk was 180.9% of acute reference dose (ARfD) for toddlers and for adults (83% of ARfD) which is high. PMID:24779781

?ozowicka, B; Kaczy?ski, P; Jankowska, M; Rutkowska, E; Hrynko, I

2012-01-01

277

Pesticide residues in ground water of the San Joaquin Valley, California  

Science.gov (United States)

A regional assessment of non-point-source contamination of pesticide residues in ground water was made of the San Joaquin Valley, an intensively farmed and irrigated structural trough in central California. About 10% of the total pesticide use in the USA is in the San Joaquin Valley. Pesticides detected include atrazine, bromacil, 2.4-DP, diazinon, dibromochloropropane, 1,2-dibromoethane, dicamba, 1,2-dichloropropane, diuron, prometon, prometryn, propazine and simazine. All are soil applied except diazinon. Pesticide leaching is dependent on use patterns, soil texture, total organic carbon in soil, pesticide half-life and depth to water table. Leaching is enhanced by flood-irrigation methods except where the pesticide is foliar applied such as diazinon. Soils in the western San Joaquin Valley are fine grained and are derived primarily from marine shales of the Coast Ranges. Although shallow ground water is present, the fewest number of pesticides were detected in this region. The fine-grained soil inhibits pesticide leaching because of either low vertical permeability or high surface area; both enhance adsorption on to solid phases. Soils of the valley floor tend to be fine grained and have low vertical permeability. Soils in the eastern part of the valley are coarse grained with low total organic carbon and are derived from Sierra Nevada granites. Most pesticide leaching is in these alluvial soils, particularly in areas where depth to ground water is less than 30m. The areas currently most susceptible to pesticide leaching are eastern Fresno and Tulare Counties. Tritium in water molecules is an indicator of aquifer recharge with water of recent origin. Pesticide residues transported as dissolved species were not detected in non-tritiated water. Although pesticides were not detected in all samples containing high tritium, these samples are indicative of the presence of recharge water that interacted with agricultural soils. ?? 1992.

Domagalski, J.L.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

1992-01-01

278

Pesticide residues in ground water of the San Joaquin Valley, California  

Science.gov (United States)

A regional assessment of non-point-source contamination of pesticide residues in ground water was made of the San Joaquin Valley, an intensively farmed and irrigated structural trough in central California. About 10% of the total pesticide use in the USA is in the San Joaquin Valley. Pesticides detected include atrazine, bromacil, 2.4-DP, diazinon, dibromochloropropane, 1,2-dibromoethane, dicamba, 1,2-dichloropropane, diuron, prometon, prometryn, propazine and simazine. All are soil applied except diazinon. Pesticide leaching is dependent on use patterns, soil texture, total organic carbon in soil, pesticide half-life and depth to water table. Leaching is enhanced by flood-irrigation methods except where the pesticide is foliar applied such as diazinon. Soils in the western San Joaquin Valley are fine grained and are derived primarily from marine shales of the Coast Ranges. Although shallow ground water is present, the fewest number of pesticides were detected in this region. The fine-grained soil inhibits pesticide leaching because of either low vertical permeability or high surface area; both enhance adsorption on to solid phases. Soils of the valley floor tend to be fine grained and have low vertical permeability. Soils in the eastern part of the valley are coarse grained with low total organic carbon and are derived from Sierra Nevada granites. Most pesticide leaching is in these alluvial soils, particularly in areas where depth to ground water is less than 30m. The areas currently most susceptible to pesticide leaching are eastern Fresno and Tulare Counties. Tritium in water molecules is an indicator of aquifer recharge with water of recent origin. Pesticide residues transported as dissolved species were not detected in non-tritiated water. Although pesticides were not detected in all samples containing high tritium, these samples are indicative of the presence of recharge water that interacted with agricultural soils.

Domagalski, Joseph L.; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

1992-01-01

279

Occurrence of non extractable pesticide residues in physical and chemical fractions of two soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Soils are considered to be a significant sink for organic contaminants, including pesticides, in the environment. Understanding the distribution and localisation of aged pesticide residues in soil is of great importance for assessing the mobility and availability of these chemicals in the environment. This study aimed to characterise the distribution of radiolabeled herbicide isoproturon and the radiolabeled insecticides diazinon and cypermethrin in two organically managed soils. The soils were spiked and aged under laboratory conditions for 17 months. The labile fraction of the pesticides residues was recovered in CaCl2 (0.01M) and then subjected to physical size fractionation using sedimentation and centrifugation steps, with >20?m, 20-2?m and 2-0.1?m soil factions collected. Further, the distribution of the pesticide residues in the organic matter of the fractionated soil was investigated using a sequential alkaline extraction (0.1N NaOH) into humic and fulvic acid and humin. Soil fractions of 20-2?m and 2-0.1?m had the largest burden of the 14C-residues. Different soil constituents have different capacities to form non-extractable residues. Soil solid fractions of 20-2 µm and 20 µm). Fulvic acid showed to play a vital role in the formation and stabilisation of non-extractable 14C-pesticide residues in most cases.Assessment of the likelihood of the pesticide residues to become available to soil biota requires an understanding of the structure of the SOM matrix and the definition of the kinetics of the pesticide residues in different SOM pools as a function of the time.

Andreou, Kostas; Semple, Kirk; Jones, Kevin

2010-05-01

280

Determination of pesticide residue in selected fruits and vegetable  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food contamination due to indiscriminate use of pesticides has become a serious problem. Fruits samples of tomato, grapes, musk melon, parsimen and vegetable samples of potato, pea, spinach, cabbage and pumpkin ere collected from local market of Peshawar, coming from different regions. All samples were extracted, purified and analyzed for the commonly used pesticides. Dichlorovas, BHC, Atrazine, Daizinon, Methadiathion and Cypermethrin were detected by Gas Chromatography. These pesticides were detected in vegetable samples Id Atrazine were found in potato sample and not detected in other samples. Large concentration of Cypermethrin (44.6) was detected in the pea sample. All the vegetables samples have maximum concentration of pesticides, which is higher than their MRLs, but in pumpkin no one of the above pesticides were detected. In fruits samples, dichlorovas, atrazine, diazinon, methadiathion. Cypermethrin were detected. BHC was not present in fruits samples. All these pesticides were above the MRLs. The study concluded that agriculture crops are highly contaminated due to the uncontrolled use of pesticides in project area and suggested that pesticides should be applied in calculated dose to avoid resistance and persistence due to over and under dose application. (author)

281

Radiotracer studies of pesticide residues in food plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Researches using radiotracers as means for the rapid generation of background data critical for the efficient and safe use of pesticides at the Pesticide Toxicology and Chemistry Laboratory of the National Crop Protection Center, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna are described. Methodologies as well as results and discussions of the researches done are given. (ELC) 4 tabs.; 11 figs.; 16 refs

282

Monitoring of pesticide residues levels in fresh vegetable form Heibei Province, North China.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, 226 samples of seven types of domestic vegetables collected from several vegetable-growing regions in Hebei Province of China were tested for the presence of 38 different agricultural pesticides using a gas chromatograph equipped with electron capture and nitrogen phosphorus detectors. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of pesticides in main vegetables from Hebei Province. Results showed that, in 65.93% of the samples, no residues were found, 31.42% of the samples contained pesticide residues at or below the maximum residue levels (MRLs), and 2.65% of the samples contained pesticide residues above MRL. The most frequently detected pesticides were acephate (31), followed by cyhalothrin (15), bifenthrin (8), omethoate (6), isazophos (6), dimethoate (5), chlorpyrifos (2), and malathion (1). Some (1.33%) of the samples contained multiple residues. The results provide useful information on the current contamination status of a key agricultural area in North China, and points to the continuous monitoring and strict regulation of pesticide use on vegetables are necessary. PMID:24869955

Li, Weihao; Tai, Lingyu; Liu, Jianxia; Gai, Zikuan; Ding, Guotao

2014-10-01

283

[Identification of pesticide residues in common fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry].  

Science.gov (United States)

A new screening method was developed for the determination of 152 pesticide multi-residues in different chemical species with a Carbon NH2 column using solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF MS). In the first stage (MS1) accurate mass database, up to three-five ions of the pesticides were monitored. The presence of at least three ions and the accomplishment of the intensity ratio (Q/q(i)) within the established tolerances were used as the confirmation of intensity criteria. The pesticides which have less characteristic ions or the peaks of the characteristic ions detected were up the tolerance were determined in the second stage (MS2) and the spectral difference was evaluated using MS2 library for the identified. Cabbage, tomato, pear were selected as typical fruits and vegetables to spike and detected all the 152 pesticides at two concentration levels of 5.0 and 10.0 microg/kg. The recoveries in the range of 70%-120% at two concentration levels were 91.45% and 94.08% for cabbage, 88.20% and 88.80% for tomato, 86.84% and 92.10% for pear respectively. Using the established 152 pesticide MS2 library some suspected pesticides were identified, and at the same time the analysis scope was expanded. PMID:24984467

Li, Xiaoying; Zhang, Hongyi; Chang, Qiaoying; Fan, Chunlin; Spang, Guofang; Cao, Zhe; Wang, Wenwen

2014-03-01

284

Pesticide residues in the marine environment and analytical quality assurance of the results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief review is given of the information that is available on the distribution and levels of pesticide residues in marine systems. Residues detected in coastal waters largely reflect the regional use of pesticides (e.g. DDTs, atrazine), although for more volatile and environmentally persistent compounds (e.g. hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane) long range atmospheric transport also contributes to their far field dispersal in the oceans. Despite the increasing number of pesticide reports in the scientific literature, data on residues are still very scarce for extensive coastal areas in regions of intensive pesticide usage such as the tropics. Therefore, the aim of IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programmes is to assist with the implementation of pesticide monitoring in tropical coastal ecosystems and with experimental research on pesticide cycling and its effects on the marine environment. The results of worldwide laboratory intercomparison exercises organized by the IAEA for analyses of the organochlorine pesticides in marine samples highlight the need to further improve quality control of the analytical results. Although research on marine contamination by pesticide residues is progressing, in view of the high number of compounds and formulations in use it is unlikely that all the data required for environmental risk assessment of agrochemical residues in marine ecosystems will be generated with sufficient rapidity. Therefore, enhanced development through experimental reseaced development through experimental research with model compounds and subsequent modelling is required. Nevertheless, from current knowledge it is clear that environmental management programmes for coastal ecosystems should urgently adopt measures to prevent or reduce the impact of agrochemical residues on biological resources such as fisheries and aquaculture. (author). 71 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

285

Pesticide residues in grapes from vineyards included in integrated pest management in Slovenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the list of pesticides used in integrated pest management (IPM) in grape growing and their annual application rates are limited, we are still confronted with the problem of pesticide residues in grapes. This paper presents the results of pesticide monitoring of 47 samples of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) from the 2006 vintage from vineyards included in IPM. The grape samples were analysed for the presence of 67 pesticides. Among them 20 were allowed in IPM in 2006. Grapes were sampled at harvest. Two internal analytical methods were used for the determination of pesticides: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the determination of dithiocarbamates and a multi-residue GC-MS method. One grape sample (2.1%) contained no residues or they were below the limit of detection, 28 samples (59.6%) contained residues lower or equal than maximum residue levels (MRLs), and 18 samples (38.3%) exceeded national MRLs for cyprodinil (the concentration range was 0.03-0.40 mg kg(-1) of cyprodinil) and fludioxonil (concentration was 0.03 mg kg(-1) of fludioxonil). Multiple residues were found in 41 samples (87.2%). The highest number of pesticides detected per sample was seven. No violation of pesticides allowed in IPM was observed. Folpet (97.9%), cyprodinil (51.1%), dithiocarbamates (44.7%), chlorothalonil (23.4%), chlorpyriphos (19.1%) and pyrimethanil (14.9%) were the most frequently found pesticides in grapes. Risk assessment showed that the exceeded concentrations of cyprodinil and fludioxonil did not represent any risk for consumer's health (the national estimate of short-term intake as a percentage of the acceptable daily intake was below 100%). PMID:18348043

Cesnik, H Basa; Gregorcic, A; Cus, F

2008-04-01

286

Quantitative Structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the cattle milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk of cattle was collected from various localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pesticides concentration was determined by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The residue analysis revealed that about 40% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SE levels (ppm of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.38±0.02, 0.26±0.02, 0.072±0.01 and 0.085±0.02, respectively. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models were used to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the milk of cattle using their known physicochemical properties such as molecular weight (MW, melting point (MP, and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w as well as the milk characteristics such as pH, % fat, and specific gravity (SG in this species. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.91 for cattle QSAR model. The coefficient for Ko/w for the studied pesticides was higher in cattle milk. Risk analysis was conducted based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes. The daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study were 3, 11, 2.5 times higher, respectively in cattle milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

Faqir Muhammad*, Ijaz Javed, Masood Akhtar1, Zia-ur-Rahman, Mian Muhammad Awais1, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2 and Muhammad Irfan Anwar3

2012-10-01

287

Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Major Rivers of Southern Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental contaminations by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs of inland water have been a global issue, since most of these compounds are very persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic compounds. Due to the widespread use of DDT for malaria vector eradication programs in the past and no comprehensive works have been conducted to assess trace organic pollutants in river waters, this work is the first effort to assess the contamination levels of OCPs in the major rivers of Southern Thailand. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration levels of OCPs and oil and grease in the 3 major rivers and to compare the present results with surrounding regions for further assessment of OCPs contamination status in inland waters of Southern Thailand. The water samples were collected along the 3 major rivers (Saiburi, Patani and Tiba River during June 2007-February 2008. Water samples were solid phase extracted with Supelco C-18 cartridge (1g/6 mL and quantified by gas chromatograph (GC-ECD. The concentration of oil and grease was determined by gravimetric method and reported as hexane extractable material (HEM and silica gel treated hexane extractable material (SGT-HEM. Several parameters of waters such as total suspended solid, pH, turbidity, and conductivity were measured. The commonly found OCP residues in these rivers were ?-HCH, ?-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan 1, p,p’- DDE and endrin aldehyde. The overall results showed that Saiburi River was more polluted with OCPs than Patani and Tiba River, especially p, p’-DDE which was detected in the wide range concentration of 9.6 to 203.1 ng/mL. For oil and grease contamination, Tiba River waters were found to be more polluted than either Patani or Saiburi River. The experimental procedures and analytical results together with the possible sources of OCPs and its environmental impacts are presented.

Abd Naser Haji Samoh

2009-01-01

288

Pesticide residues in the water and fish (lagoon tilapia samples from lagoons in Ghana  

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Full Text Available This study was to ascertain the presence and subsequent amount of four organochlorine pesticides: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (2,4’-DDE, 4,4’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (4,4’-DDD, p,p’-dichloro- diphenyltrichloroethane [p,p’-DDT (r (i (f] and Propiconazol (f; and four organophosphorous pesticides: Fenitrothion (i, Chlorpyrifos (i, Dichlorvos (a (i and Diazinon (a (i in Chemu lagoon (Tema, Korle lagoon (Accra, Fosu lagoon (Cape Coast and the Etsii lagoon (Abandzi. Liquid-liquid and liquid-solid extraction technique was employed to extract pesticide residues in water and fish samples, respectively, using 1:1 (v/v ethyl acetate/dichloromethane mixture before being analyzed by gas chromatography. The highest level of pesticide contaminations was recorded in the Chemu lagoon as compared to the Korle lagoon and Fosu lagoon, with the Etsii lagoon showing the least contamination. The total average pesticide residues in water samples from the four lagoons: Chemu, Korle, Fosu and Etsii are 2.6384 mg/L, 0.4992 mg/L, 0.3045 mg/L and 1.3629 mg/L, respectively. The total average pesticide residues obtained in fish samples (Sarotherodon melaanothern from the Fosu and Etsii lagoons are 0.0155 mg/kg and 0.0088 mg/kg, respectively. This shows some level of exposure of pesticide which would be harmful to human.

D.K. Essumang

2009-04-01

289

Ecological risk assessment of pesticide residues in coastal lagoons of Nicaragua.  

Science.gov (United States)

A detailed investigation on the contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphorous pesticides of the coastal lagoon system of Chinandega district, Nicaragua, allowed the identification of contaminant sources and lagoon areas currently more contaminated. The discharge of rivers into the lagoons is the main transport pathway of pesticide residues; whereas atmospheric depositions are likely to be the main pathway for the introduction of PCBs into the lagoons. Analysis of water samples indicates widespread contamination with soluble organophosphorous compounds, such as dichlorvos, up to 410 ng L(-1), diazinon, up to 150 ng L(-1), and chlorpyrifos, up to 83 ng L(-1). Analyses of suspended matter for low solubility organochlorine (OC) compounds revealed very high concentrations of toxaphene, up to 17,450 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), total DDTs up to 478 ng g(-1), Aroclor 1254, up to 119 ng g(-1) (dw), and lower concentrations for other compounds. Lagoon sediments contain high concentrations also of toxaphene, from 7.9 to 6,900 ng g(-1) (dw), and DDTs, from 1.5 to 321 ng g(-1) (dw), and lower concentrations of chlorpyrifos, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane and other residues. Concentrations of OCs in soft tissues of clams are statistically correlated with the concentrations of the same compounds in bottom sediments, indicating that sediments are a source of contaminants to biota. In some areas of the lagoon system, concentration of residues in sediments are far above recommended threshold guideline values for protection of aquatic life, and may cause acute and chronic toxic effects on more sensitive aquatic species. Despite the ban on the use of toxaphene and DDT, residues of these compounds are still entering the lagoons due to erosion of, and leaching from, agriculture soils in the region. Measures for protection of the lagoon ecosystem are discussed. PMID:12400931

Carvalho, Fernando P; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cattini, Chantal; Tolosa, Immaculada; Montenegro-Guillén, S; Lacayo, Martha; Cruz, Adela

2002-10-01

290

Monitoring of multiple pesticide residues in some fruits in Karachi, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One hundred and twenty samples of different fruits including apple, apricot, persimmon, chiku, citrus, grapes, guava, mango, papaya, peach, plum and pomegranate procured from different selling points of Karachi, Pakistan during 2008-2009, were analyzed for monitoring of multiple pesticide residues using GC/FID and HPLC/UV. The results showed exceeding level of contamination. On an average 62.5% samples contained residues of pesticides while 22% samples exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) as given by FAO/WHO (Anon., 2000). (author)

291

Increased occurrence of pesticide residues on crops grown in protected environments compared to crops grown in open field conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crops grown under plastic-clad structures or in greenhouses may be prone to an increased frequency of pesticide residue detections and higher concentrations of pesticides relative to equivalent crops grown in the open field. To test this we examined pesticide data for crops selected from the quarterly reports (2004-2009) of the UK's Pesticide Residue Committee. Five comparison crop pairs were identified whereby one crop of each pair was assumed to have been grown primarily under some form of physical protection ('protected') and the other grown primarily in open field conditions ('open'). For each pair, the number of detectable pesticide residues and the proportion of crop samples containing pesticides were statistically compared (n=100s samples for each crop). The mean concentrations of selected photolabile pesticides were also compared. For the crop pairings of cabbage ('open') vs. lettuce ('protected') and 'berries' ('open') vs. strawberries ('protected') there was a significantly higher number of pesticides and proportion of samples with multiple residues for the protected crops. Statistically higher concentrations of pesticides, including cypermethrin, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, boscalid and iprodione were also found in the protected crops compared to the open crops. The evidence here demonstrates that, in general, the protected crops possess a higher number of detectable pesticides compared to analogous crops grown in the open. This may be due to different pesticide-use regimes, but also due to slower rates of pesticide removal in protected systems. The findings of this study raise implications for pesticide management in protected-crop systems. PMID:25465948

Allen, Gina; Halsall, Crispin J; Ukpebor, Justina; Paul, Nigel D; Ridall, Gareth; Wargent, Jason J

2015-01-01

292

Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Commonly Used Fruits in Hyderabad Region, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available A market based survey was carried out to evaluate the level of 26 pesticides in some commonly used fruits in Hyderabad region, Pakistan. Gas chromatography coupled with micro electron capture detector was used to assess the levels of pesticide residues. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS was also applied for the confirmation of results. Out of total 131 analyzed samples, 53 (40% were found contaminated with pesticide residues while only 3 (2% samples were exceeded the MRLs of some pesticides. Chlorpyrifos and dieldrin were detected in almost all analyzed samples. Residues of chlorpyrifos (1256 µg/kg and endosulfan sulfate (1236 µg/kg were found higher in orange and apple samples, respectively. The findings of this study provided important data about contamination of pesticide residue in some fruits sold in Hyderabad, Pakistan, and recommended that monitoring studies should be expanded to other fruits grown in different agro climatic regions, which may serve as basis for future policy about the standards and quality control of pesticides.

Yawar Latif

2011-12-01

293

Analysis of pesticide residues in lettuce by large volume-difficult matrix introduction-gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LV-DMI-GC-TOF-MS).  

Science.gov (United States)

A multi-residue method is described that eliminates the need for a clean-up step and thus allows the rapid determination of pesticides in crude extracts of lettuce. Samples were extracted with a mixture of ethyl acetate, Na2SO4 and NaHCO3 and the crude extracts analysed directly using large volume-difficult matrix introduction (LV-DMI) in combination with gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). The LV-DMI procedure described was evaluated for the analysis of dimethoate, pyrimethanil, chlorothalonil, vinclozolin, furalaxyl and oxadixyl. Satisfactory response was obtained at the lowest calibrated level (LCL) of 0.0025 microg ml(-1), with good linearity over the range 0.0025-0.5 microg ml(-1) (0.005-1.0 mg kg(-1) equivalent). Average recoveries between 73 and 118% were obtained at the 0.01-0.5 mg kg(-1) levels with RSD values < or = 13%. PMID:14667157

Patel, Katan; Fussell, Richard J; Goodall, David M; Keely, Brendan J

2003-10-01

294

Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Artificial Antigen and Its Application in the Detection of Pesticide Residue  

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Full Text Available Recent advances in the research of artificial antigen have shown that artificial antigens can be valuable approach for the treatment of some diseases as well as the detection of pesticide residues. By directly/indirectly coupling hapten to an appropriated carrier (macromolecule, artificial antigen can induce animals to produce hapten-specific antibody. Based on this principle, various vaccines have been developed. More impotently, new analytical method, immunological analysis has also been established. Comparing the conventional technologies, such as chromatographic methods, this promising method offers an alternative with high specificity, sensitivity, simplicity and suitability for the analysis of a large number of samples in a short period of time. In this review, we describe the recent advances in the synthesis of artificial antigen and its application in the detection of pesticide residues.

Tong Dewen

2007-01-01

295

The Assessment of Pesticides Residues in Some Organic Cultivated and Wild-Collected Medicinal Plants in Albania  

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Full Text Available Pesticide residues in environment are found in soil, water and plants due to the extensive use of pesticides for agricultural purposes. The residues of pesticides in medicinal plants are of high concern as they are toxic for human life since these plants are used for medicinal purposes. The objective of current study was to estimate the presence of pesticide residues in some organic cultivated and wild-collected medicinal plants in Albania during the years 2010–2013. The determination of pesticides residues in medicinal plants was achieved by using extraction of plant material with organic solvent, clean up procedure and followed by detection with chromatography techniques. Among the detected pesticide residuesin the wild–collected plants as Malva sylvestris, Fragaria vesca, Bellis perennis were DDT, Dimethoat, Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyriphos-ethyl, Carbendazim/Benomyl, Acetamiprid and Diphenylamine. Whereas in the cultivated medicinal plants as Calendula officinalis, Centaurea cyani, Salvia officinalis, Sideritis raeseri, the most common detected pesticide residues were Dimethoat, Chlorpyriphos, Pirimiphos-methyl, DDT and Carbendazim. The presence of pesticides in medicinal plant is related to the past use of pesticides as DDT and actual use of pesticides like Dimethoat, Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyriphos, Acetamiprid, etc. Therefore, the quality of medicinal plants can be evaluated through estimation of pesticides residues in medicinal plants and comparison of the obtained values with acceptable limit values.

FERDI BRAHUSHI

2014-06-01

296

Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Artificial Antigen and Its Application in the Detection of Pesticide Residue  

OpenAIRE

Recent advances in the research of artificial antigen have shown that artificial antigens can be valuable approach for the treatment of some diseases as well as the detection of pesticide residues. By directly/indirectly coupling hapten to an appropriated carrier (macromolecule), artificial antigen can induce animals to produce hapten-specific antibody. Based on this principle, various vaccines have been developed. More impotently, new analytical method, immunological analysis has also been e...

Tong Dewen; Hesheng Yang; Wang Jinyi

2007-01-01

297

Reduction of pesticide residues on fresh vegetables with electrolyzed water treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Degradation of the 3 pesticides (acephate, omethoate, and dimethyl dichloroviny phosphate [DDVP]) by electrolyzed water was investigated. These pesticides were commonly used as broad-spectrum insecticides in pest control and high-residual levels had been detected in vegetables. Our research showed that the electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (pH 2.3, available chlorine concentration:70 ppm, oxidation-reduction potential [ORP]: 1170 mV) and the electrolyzed reducing (ER) water (pH 11.6, ORP: -860 mV) can reduce the pesticide residues effectively. Pesticide residues on fresh spinach after 30 min of immersion in electrolyzed water reduced acephate by 74% (EO) and 86% (ER), omethoate by 62% (EO) and 75% (ER), DDVP by 59% (EO) and 46% (ER), respectively. The efficacy of using EO water or ER water was found to be better than that of using tap water or detergent (both were reduced by more than 25%). Besides spinach, the cabbage and leek polluted by DDVP were also investigated and the degradation efficacies were similar to the spinach. Moreover, we found that the residual level of pesticide residue decreased with prolonged immersion time. Using EO or ER water to wash the vegetables did not affect the contents of Vitamin C, which inferred that the applications of EO or ER water to wash the vegetables would not result in loss of nutrition. PMID:22420563

Hao, Jianxiong; Wuyundalai; Liu, Haijie; Chen, Tianpeng; Zhou, Yanxin; Su, Yi-Cheng; Li, Lite

2011-05-01

298

[Survey of pesticide residues in imported frozen vegetables and fruits (1989.4~2008.3)].  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of pesticide residues in 595 imported frozen products on the Tokyo market from April 1989 to March 2008 was carried out. Forty three kinds of pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, carbamate, pyrethroid and others, were detected between levels of trace (below 0.01 ppm) and 4.6 ppm from 162 samples. Chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and omethoate were frequently detected in green vegetables (komatsuna leaf and spinach), cypermethrin and methamidophos were detected in pods and seeds (green soybean and string pea), chlorpropham (CIPC) was detected in potato, and captan and carbaryl were detected in berries (blueberry, raspberry and strawberry). The hydrophilic pesticide methamidophos was detected in flesh of lychee. Residue levels of these pesticides were calculated as between less than 0.5% and 30% of their ADI values according to the daily intake of frozen products. Therefore, these frozen products should be safe when they were eaten in customary amounts. PMID:21515967

Kobayashi, Maki; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Kageyama, Yuriko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro

2011-01-01

299

Gas chromatography with flame photometric detection of 31 organophosphorus pesticide residues in Alpinia oxyphylla dried fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple, rapid and effective gas chromatography-flame photometric detection method was established for simultaneous multi-component determination of 31 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) residues in Alpinia oxyphylla, which is widely consumed as a traditional medicine and food in China. Sample preparation was completed in a single step without any clean-up procedure. All pesticides expressed good linear relationships between 0.004 and 1.0 ?g/mL with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9973. The method gave satisfactory recoveries for most pesticides. The limits of detection varied from 1 to 10 ng/mL, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 4 and 30 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to 55 commercial samples purchased from five different areas. Five pesticide residues were detected in four (7.27%) samples. The positive samples were confirmed by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). PMID:24874387

Zhao, Xiangsheng; Kong, Weijun; Wei, Jianhe; Yang, Meihua

2014-11-01

300

Valuation of solid phase extraction disks in the determination of pesticide residues in surface and groundwater in Panama  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Panama large quantities of pesticides are used in agriculture and livestock farming and there is increasing concern about their impact on public health and the environment. Chiriqui is the Province that registers the largest number of producers whose activities have impact on the environment, especially on surface and groundwater. Systematic monitoring programmes are non-existent due, in part, to the high cost of laboratory determination of environmental residues of pesticides. Within the framework of the FAO/IAEA/SIDA Coordinated Research Programme, efforts were focused on evaluating and optimising the use of solid phase extraction C18 membrane disks in the analysis of surface and groundwater samples to determine pesticide residues. Factors studied were the effect of pre-washing and conditioning of the disks, flow rates, concentration level and matrix effects of field samples. Four pesticides, carbofuran, chlorothalonil, ametryn and chlorpyrifos were selected for these tests because preliminary analysis showed their presence in surface and groundwater. The technique significantly reduces the amount of organic solvents used as compared with the liquid-liquid extraction method. Quantifiable detection limits (QL) for the method were found to be 0.003 ?g/L carbofuran, 0.016 ?g/L chlorothalonil, 0.007 ?g/L ametryn and 0.003 ?g/L chlorpyrifos, when using standard spiked solutions. Recovery (%) was high when standard mixtures were used for the test runs but low when real surface water samples were tested, especially for chlorothalonil which was not recovered at all. (author)

301

A review on the fermentation of foods and the residues of pesticides-biotransformation of pesticides and effects on fermentation and food quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Residues of pesticides in food are influenced by processing such as fermentation. Reviewing the extensive literature showed that in most cases, this step leads to large reductions in original residue levels in the fermented food, with the formation of new pesticide by-products. The behavior of residues in fermentation can be rationalized in terms of the physical-chemical properties of the pesticide and the nature of the process. In addition, the presence of pesticides decrease the growth rate of fermentative microbiota (yeasts and bacterias), which provokes stuck and sluggish fermentations. These changes have in consequence repercussions on several aspects of food sensory quality (physical-chemical properties, polyphenolic content, and aromatic profile) of fermented food. The main aim of this review is to deal with all these topics to propose challenging needs in science-based quality management of pesticides residues in food. PMID:24915365

Regueiro, Jorge; López-Fernández, Olalla; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

2015-01-01

302

Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Soil of Cocoa Farms in Ondo State Central District, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Ondo State being the highest producer of Cocoa in Nigeria constitutes the most probable area with the highest use of chemical pesticides to enhance cocoa production. As effective as these chemicals may be in achieving this goal, the incidence of their residues on non-targeted substances and the total environment, with the attendant adverse effects have being of serious concerns. Our objective in this paper is to assess contamination of farm soils by organochlorine pesticides applied on coc...

Aiyesanmi, Ademola F.; Idowu, Gideon A.

2012-01-01

303

MARKET BASKET SURVEY FOR SOME PESTICIDES RESIDUES IN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FROM GHANA  

OpenAIRE

A study was conducted to investigate the organochlorine, organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from markets in Ghana. For this purpose, a total of 309 fruits and vegetable samples, were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The obtained results showed that the predominance of organochlorine followed by organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in most of the analyzed samples. The detected concent...

Crentsil Kofi Bempah; Jacob Asomaning; Juliana Boateng

2012-01-01

304

Regulatory science and uncertainty in the risk assessment of pesticide residues  

OpenAIRE

In this thesis I examine how the scientific advisory system in England and Wales has responded to concerns about the risks of pesticide residues in food and demands for wider engagement in the formulation of advice. Specifically, I explore how the Advisory Committee on Pesticides (ACP) frames scientific uncertainties in risk assessment, and why some bodies outside and within government are critical of the ACP’s approach that is centred in the conventional single-chemical, high-dose-respons...

Diggle, Rebecca

2010-01-01

305

Assessment of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Surface Sediments of River Yamuna in Delhi, India  

OpenAIRE

The present study reports the concentration levels and distribution patterns of the organochlorine pesticide residues in the surface sediments of river Yamuna in the Indian capital state, Delhi. Analytical measurements were carried out for twenty organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Pre-monsoon, Monsoon and Post-monsoon seasons, at six different sampling locations along the 22 km stretch of the river Yamuna in Delhi. The results revealed contamination of the surface sediments with several ...

Puneeta Pandey; Khillare, P. S.; Krishan Kumar,

2011-01-01

306

Solid phase extraction and chromatographic determination of pesticide residues in water samples: DDT and its metabolites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid phase extraction cartridge embedded with octadecyl C/sub 18/ chain bounded to silica particles were used for the isolation and trace enrichment of pesticides from water samples collected from cotton, rice growing and municipal areas. The eluents were analyzed with HPLC using methanol (100%) as mobiles phase at different UV-Visible wavelengths. DDT and its metabolites were found in all areas but were not present in all samples. Concentration of pesticide residues varies from sample to sample and was in the range of 0.017 ng ml/sup -1/. Overall, recoveries ranged from 84%-91% for all target pesticides. (author)

307

SETTING MRLS FOR PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOOD BASED ON EU UNIFORM CRITERIA  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Pesticides are used worldwide. They are applied during the growing season and part of the amount may remain in or on treated crop. Pesticides can drift to nearby areas and contaminate crops that were not treated. The MRLs are the maximum amount of a pesticide permitted in or on food (& feed), expressed in mg/kg or ppm and always defined for the active substance – crop combination. MRL should be set according to residue trials under Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) and under the c...

Christova-bagdassarian, Valentina L.; Tishkova, Julieta A.; JULIANA RUMENOVA TASHEVA-PETKOVA; Atanassova, M.

2014-01-01

308

Residual Effects of Some Conventional and Biorational Pesticides on Ladybird Beetle, Adonia variegata Goeze  

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Full Text Available A variety of pesticides is used in alfalfa field to control pests. Biological control agents are also used to control these pests, therefore it is important to understand the effects of such pesticides on these beneficial insects. The present study was carried out to examine the residual effects of Dursban and Fenvalerate as conventional pesticides as well as Bio-Fly and Bio-Neem as biorational pesticides on ladybird beetle, Adonia variegata Goeze using panel exposure technique. Dursban was highly toxic to ladybird beetles at ?, 1 and 2 folds of the recommended dosages, where mortality percentages ranging from 46.7-50, 50 and 55-55.33%, respectively during the period of 1-120 h. Fenvalerate produced moderate toxic effects on the coccinellids, where mortality percentages were 10-47.7, 20-50 and 13.33-50% following the residual exposure of ?, 1 and 2 folds of the recommended dosages. On the other hand, the biorational pesticides Bio-Neem and Bio-Fly showed slight toxicity of a maximum of 10% mortality, produced after 5-day exposure of their recommended and half the recommended dosages. When the dose was doubled the toxicity of Bio-Fly did not increase, however, that of Bio-Neem reached 26.7 after 5 days. It can be concluded that in IPM programs, the application of conventional pesticides must be considered carefully for use, whereas biorational pesticides can be used with natural enemies with minimum effects.

Mohammed A. Al-Doghairi

2004-01-01

309

MONITORING OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN THE YEARS 2003 AND 2004 IN SLOVENIA  

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Full Text Available Agricultural Institute of Slovenia was performing national monitoring for pesticide residues in agricultural products according to the Decree on Monitoring of Pesticides in Foodstuffs and in Agricultural Products (Offi cial Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia No. 13/99. Constant measurements are necessary due to intensive agricultural production and use of chemical substances for plant protection. Due to the nutrition characteristic for the Slovenians pesticide residues are monitored each year in the samples of potato, lettuce and apples; the choice of other agricultural products and active substances analysed are adapted to the guidelines indicated in the EU recommendations. In the years 2003 and 2004 we analysed the presence of pesticide residues in 361 samples of agricultural products: caulifl ower, head cabbage, grapes, apples, strawberries, potatoes, peppers, tomatoes, wheat and lettuce from eight different growing areas of Slovenia. All agricultural products were analysed in 2003 for the presence of 51 active substances and in 2004 for the presence of 57 active substances. The maximum residue level (MRL was exceeded by 6.6 % samples inspected. Potato contributed a major share to this, since in 5.0 % of samples exceeded values of dithiocarbamate residues were determined, however, they were the only active substance found in potato. In 39.1 % of analysed samples residues lower than MRL were determined, in 54.3 % of samples residues were not found or they were below the level of detection method. The greatest number of pesticide residues which did not exceed MRLs was found in fruit, f. ex.: eight in apples and six in strawberries. Residues of dithiocarbamates were the most frequently found active substance in agricultural products.

Helena BAŠA ?ESNIK

2006-10-01

310

Photoacoustic Spectroscopy as a Non-destructive Tool for Quantification of Pesticide Residue in Apple Cuticle  

Science.gov (United States)

Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), the non-destructive method to detect residue of dimethyl-dichloro-vinyl-phosphate (DDVP) pesticide in a cuticle of apple, is described. After constructing the PA experimental setup and identifying three characteristic peaks of DDVP in the near ultraviolet region, the PA spectra of an apple cuticle contaminated with DDVP were collected. The artificial neural network method was then applied to analyze data quantitatively. The results show a correlation coefficient exceeding 0.99 and a detection limit of 0.2 ppm, which is within the national food safety standard for maximum residue limits for pesticides in food (GB 2763-2012). This fact and the non-destructive character of PAS make the approach promising for detection of pesticide residue in fruits.

Liu, Lixian; Wang, Yafei; Gao, Chunming; Huan, Huiting; Zhao, Binxing; Yan, Laijun

2014-08-01

311

Pesticides Residues in Smoked Fish Samples from North-Eastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Smoked fish species, Clarias sp., Gymnarchus niloticus and Tilapia sp., sampled from the open markets in North-Eastern Nigeria were investigated for the presence and concentration levels of pesticide residues of DDT, dichlorvos and lindane. The GC-MS and GC-FID techniques were employed in the determination of the pesticide residue. The obtained results showed positive identification of op-DDT (2.844-4.220 ?g g-1, pp-DDT (3.821-4.479 ?g g-1, dichlorvos (2.844-4.220 ?g g-1 and lindane (3.479-9.878 ?g g-1. Gymnarchus niloticus showed consistently higher pesticide residue levels in the studied smoked fish samples followed by Clarias sp. and then Tilapia sp.

A. Mustapha

2010-01-01

312

Monitoring and risk assessment of 74 pesticide residues in Pu-erh tea produced in Yunnan, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of 100 Pu-erh tea samples from the 2013 harvest in Yunnan Province (China) were analysed for 74 pesticides. A total of 11 pesticides were detected. At least one pesticide was detected in 56% of the samples. None of these samples contained the 74 monitored pesticides at concentrations above the Chinese maximum residual levels. Imidacloprid, bifenthrin and acetamiprid were most frequently found, with percentages of 53%, 46% and 31%, respectively. These were also the top three pesticides with maximum concentrations of 140, 246 and 672 ?g kg(-1), respectively. Residual levels of the monitored pesticides showed no significant correlation with the production time or area of Pu-erh tea. Whereas a high incidence of pesticide residues was detected in Pu-erh tea, the contamination levels observed do not pose any serious health risks. PMID:25308103

Chen, Hongping; Wang, Qinghua; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Chuanpi; Yin, Peng; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

2014-12-01

313

Determination of pesticide residues in foods by acetonitrile extraction and partitioning with magnesium sulfate: collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A collaborative study was conducted to determine multiple pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables using a quick, simple, inexpensive, and effective sample preparation method followed by concurrent analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). For short, the method is known as QuEChERS, which stands for quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe. Twenty representative pesticides were fortified in 3 matrixes (grapes, lettuces, and oranges) at 3 duplicate levels unknown to the collaborators ranging from 10 to 1000 ng/g. Additionally, 8 incurred pesticide residues were determined. Thirteen laboratories from 7 countries provided results in the study, and a variety of different instruments were used by collaborators. The QuEChERS procedure simply entails 3 main steps: (1) a 15 g homogenized sample is weighed into a 50 mL centrifuge tube to which 15 mL acetonitrile containing 1% HOAc is added along with 6 g MgSO4 and 1.5 g NaOAc, and the tube is shaken and centrifuged; (2) a portion of the extract is mixed with 3 + 1 (w/w) MgSO4-primary secondary amine sorbent (200 mg/mL extract) and centrifuged; and (3) the final extract is analyzed by GC/MS and LC/MS/MS. To detect residues <10 ng/g in GC/MS, large-volume injection of 8 microL is typically needed, or the extract can be concentrated to 4 g/mL in toluene, in which case 2 microL splitless injection is used. In the study, the averaged results for data from 7-13 laboratories (not using internal standardization) for the 18 blind duplicates at the 9 spiking levels in the 3 matrixes are as follows [%recovery and reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R), %)]: atrazine, 92 (18); azoxystrobin, 93 (15); bifenthrin, 90 (16); carbaryl, 96 (20); chlorothalonil, 70 (34); chlorpyrifos, 89 (25); cyprodinil, 89 (19); o,p'-DDD, 89 (18); dichlorvos, 82 (21); endosulfan sulfate, 80 (27); imazalil, 77 (33); imidacloprid, 96 (16); linuron, 89 (19); methamidophos, 87 (17); methomyl, 96 (17); procymidone, 91 (20); pymetrozine, 69 (19); tebuconazole, 89 (15); tolylfluanid (in grapes and oranges), 68 (33); and trifluralin, 85 (20). For incurred pesticides, kresoxim-methyl (9.2 +/- 3.2 ng/g) and cyprodinil (112 +/- 18) were found in the grapes; permethrins (112 +/- 41), lamda-cyhalothrin (58 +/- 11), and imidacloprid (12 +/- 2) were determined in the lettuces; and ethion (198 +/- 36), thiabendazole (53 +/- 8), and imazalil (13 +/- 4) were determined in the oranges. Chlorpyrifosmethyl (200 ng/g) was used as a quality control standard added during sample homogenization and yielded 86% recovery and 19% RSD(R). Intralaboratory repeatabilities for the method averaged 9.8% RSD for all analytes. The results demonstrate that the method is fit-for-purpose to monitor many pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables, and the Study Director recommends that it be adopted Official First Action. PMID:17474521

Lehotay, Steven J

2007-01-01

314

Detection of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residue in herbal plants which are commonly used in the herbal formulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbal formulations are getting popular throughout the world and commercialized extensively for various medicinal properties. WHO has emphasized the need for quality assurance of herbal products, including testing of heavy metals and pesticides residues. In view of WHO guidelines, single herbal drugs used in herbal formulations were collected from local market, for testing heavy metals and persistent pesticides residue. Therefore, in the present case, we have examined few local samples of certain herbs viz. Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and Withania somnifera. The present studies were selected for estimation of four heavy metals namely Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury. Apart from these, pesticide residue Viz. Organochlorine pesticides, Organophosphorus pesticides, and Pyrethroids were analyzed in the four samples of single crude drugs. Heavy metals and pesticide residue were found below detection limits in all the samples. PMID:21210215

Rao, Mruthyumjaya Meda; Kumarmeena, Ajay; Galib

2011-10-01

315

Guidelines for the validation of qualitative multi-residue methods used to detect pesticides in food  

OpenAIRE

There is a current trend for many laboratories to develop and use qualitative gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based multi-residue methods (MRMs) in order to greatly increase the number of pesticides that they can target. Before these qualitative MRMs can be used for the monitoring of pesticide residues in food, their fitness-for-purpose needs to be established by initial method validation. This paper sets out to assess the per...

Mol, J. G. J.; Reynolds, S. L.; Fussell, R. J.; Stajnbaher, D.

2012-01-01

316

Monitoring the Residue Level of Three Selected Pesticides in Red Amaranth  

OpenAIRE

A study was undertaken in the Department of Biochemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to monitor the level of three selected pesticides at various dose levels. In this case edible part of red amaranth was extracted and analyzed for applied pesticide residues. It was found that after one day 0.0065 ?g of cypermethrin retained per g of plant sample, which was 0.23% of the applied dose. While on the 3rd day of spray the level of residue was found to decrease (0.0024 ?...

Jahan Ara Khatoon; Md. Shariful Islam; Nur Mohammad Talukder; Md. Afzal Hossain

2004-01-01

317

EFSA’s contribution to the implementation of the EU legislation on pesticide residues in food  

OpenAIRE

The active involvement of EFSA in the area of pesticide residues assessment started in 2006 following the adoption of new legislation on maximum residue levels (MRLs) of pesticides in food (Regulation (EC) No 396/2005). EFSA took on a new role as an independent risk assessment body in the process of MRL setting, providing important contributions in the EU-wide harmonisation of MRLs. With the development of a risk assessment model (EFSA PRIMo) the risk assessment process has become mo...

Reich H; Brocca D; Dujardin B; Bergman P; Fontier H

2012-01-01

318

Determination of Organophosphorous and Carbamat Pesticides Residue in Drinking Water Resources of Hamadan in 2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Water contamination by pesticides is considered as an environmentalproblem today. In terms of agricultural development and diversity of plant pests, the use of pesticides has been increasing. Hamedan province has a suitable agricultural condition, it has enjoyed significant development in this respect. Among all the cities of Hamedan province, Hamedan city has the highest rank in tiller crops. Therefore, yearly use of pesticides is increasing in this area; which could be a serious threat to water resources of the city. The aim of this survey was determinaton of Organophosphorous and Carbamat pesticides residue in drinking water resources of Hamadan in 2007."nMaterials and Methods: In this survey, 126 water samples were collected from 7 drinking water resources of Hamedan during 12 consecutive months in 2007. for determination of these pesticides,two methods (solid- phase extraction and Liquid-Liquid extraction were adopted .and samples were analyzed by means of HPLC and GC/MS applying standard methods."nResults: Final results showed that the most concentration of Chlorpyrifos and Carbaryl pesticides were found to be about 3.85 ppb (part per billion and 1.8 ppb in spring and June respectively; the maximum concentration of Diazinon was about 36.5ppb in October (autumn.The minimum concentration of the three pesticides was detected in winter. According to the statistical test Two - Way ANOWA there were significant differences among pesticides concentrations in the water samples in different seasons (p<0.05 . However, there wasn't a significant difference in pesticides concentrations in surface and ground water samples(p>0.05. "nConclusion: Different studies have shown that pesticides residue concentration in water samples have a relationship with the amount of pesticides used in an area, physical and chemical refractory properties of pesticides; and environmental conditions. Thus, using resistant pollutants such as pesticides will be a serious threat to health of water consumers if they are not properly controlled.

A Allahresani

2010-02-01

319

Isotopic control of methods for the determination of residues of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of residues of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides is of importance mainly in case of foods of animal origin. However, this determination is made slower or even inhibited by a number of difficulties. Extraction and clean-up procedures are of primary importance even in case of the most polished methods of pesticide analysis problems. The isotopic method was used for testing the mentioned steps. Experiments were carried out with radioactive C-14 isotope. According to the results of control tests, data varying within relatively wide limits have been obtained, depending on the applied method. In each case where the boiling point of the solvent permits, the use of the Kuderna--Danish instrument is advisable. In case of a solvent of higher boiling point a combined method is more expedient. For this purpose a method has been suggested which enables the evaporation of the sample to be carried out without any practical loss of agent, thus the obtained analytical results can be considered as perfectly reliable ones. (P.J.)

320

Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables and Related Health Risk Assessment in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana  

OpenAIRE

The objective of present research study was to assess the concentration of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from markets in Kumasi and to generate awareness about the lethal effects of these pesticides on human beings as well as to estimate the potential health risks associated with the pesticide residue with regard to consumers. A total of 350 locally produced fruits and vegetables were purchased from six main markets in Kumasi and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with elec...

Crentsil Kofi Bempah; Archibold Buah-Kwofie; Dzifa Denutsui; Jacob Asomaning; Anita Osei Tutu

2011-01-01

321

Efficiency of wipe sampling on hard surfaces for pesticides and PCB residues in dust.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are commonly found in house dust and have been described as a valuable matrix to assess indoor pesticide and PCB contamination. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency and precision of cellulose wipe for collecting 48 pesticides, eight PCBs, and one synergist at environmental concentrations. First, the efficiency and repeatability of wipe collection were determined for pesticide and PCB residues that were directly spiked onto three types of household floors (tile, laminate, and hardwood). Second, synthetic dust was used to assess the capacity of the wipe to collect dust. Third, we assessed the efficiency and repeatability of wipe collection of pesticides and PCB residues that was spiked onto synthetic dust and then applied to tile. In the first experiment, the overall collection efficiency was highest on tile (38%) and laminate (40%) compared to hardwood (34%), psynthetic dust. Cellulose wipes appear to be efficient to sample the pesticides and PCBs that adsorb onto dust on smooth and hard surfaces. PMID:25306091

Cettier, Joane; Bayle, Marie-Laure; Béranger, Rémi; Billoir, Elise; Nuckols, John R; Combourieu, Bruno; Fervers, Béatrice

2015-02-01

322

Effect of Chinese traditional cooking on eight pesticides residue during cowpea processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal processing can concentrate residues or convert residues to more toxic metabolites in food. Chinese traditional cooking pays more attention to thermal processing and more vegetables were eaten after thermal processing. In this study, the effect of Chinese traditional cooking (washing, blanching, stir-frying, frying and combined operations) on eight pesticides residues (pyridaben, procymidone, chlorothalonil, difenoconazole, ?-cypermethrin, bifenthrin, S-fenvalerate and ?-cyhalothrin) in cowpea which was one of the most important legume crops in China was examined. Result showed washing and blanching could reduce residues with low Kow while stir-frying and frying were more effective to residues with high Kow; stir-frying and frying could concentrate residues with low Kow; the residue levels in oil increased following increasing frying time and frequency especially the residues with high Kow; one metabolite studied in this paper was not detected. Blanching (5 min) followed by stir-frying (3 min) was the most effective combined operation. PMID:25306325

Huan, Zhibo; Xu, Zhi; Jiang, Wayne; Chen, Zhiqiang; Luo, Jinhui

2015-03-01

323

Compound specific isotope analysis of organophosphorus pesticides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has been established as a tool to study the environmental fate of a wide range of contaminants. In this study, CSIA was developed to analyse the stable carbon isotope signatures of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides: dichlorvos, omethoate and dimethoate. The linearity of the GC-C-IRMS system was tested for target pesticides and led to an acceptable isotope composition within the uncertainty of the instrument. In order to assess the accuracy of the developed method, the effect of the evaporation procedure on measured carbon isotope composition (?(13)C) values was studied and showed that concentration by evaporation of solvents had no significant isotope effect. The CSIA was then applied to investigate isotope fractionation of the hydrolysis and photolysis of selected pesticides. The carbon isotope fractionation of tested pesticides was quantified by the Rayleigh model, which revealed a bulk enrichment factor (?) of -0.2±0.1‰ for hydrolysis of dichlorvos, -1.0±0.1‰ and -3.7±1.1‰ for hydrolysis and photolysis of dimethoate respectively. This study is a first step towards the application of CSIA to trace the transport and degradation of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment. PMID:24997952

Wu, Langping; Yao, Jun; Trebse, Polonca; Zhang, Ning; Richnow, Hans H

2014-09-01

324

Survey of pesticide residues in table grapes: Determination of processing factors, intake and risk assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The differences in residue pattern between Italy and South Africa, the main exporters of table grapes to the Danish market, were investigated. The results showed no major differences with respect to the number of samples with residues, with residues being found in 54-78% of the samples. Exceedances of the European Union maximum residue limit (MRL) were found in five samples from Italy. A number of samples were rinsed to study the possible reduction of residues. For copper, iprodione, procymidone and dithiocarbamates a significant effect of rinsing was found (20-49% reduction of residues). However, no significant effect was found for organophosphorus pesticides and pyrethroids, whereas the number of samples with residues of benzilates, phenylamids and triazoles was insufficient to demonstrate any significant effects. An intake calculation showed that the average intake from Italian grapes was 3.9 mu g day(-1) for pesticides and 21 mu g day(-1) for copper. Correspondingly, the intakes from South African grapes were 2.6 and 5.7 mu g day(-1) respectively. When the total exposure of pesticides from grapes were related to acceptable daily intake, expressed as the sum of Hazard Quotients, the exposure were approximately 0.5% for Italian samples and 1% for South African samples.

Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H.K.

2007-01-01

325

Consumer exposure to pesticide residues in apples from the region of south-eastern Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of apples in Poland is the largest among the countries of the European Union, and therefore, the consumption of these fruits is high in our country. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pesticide residues in Polish apples and to assess if these residues pose a risk to the health of the consumer. Furthermore, compliance with legal regulations concerning the use of plant protection products in crop cultivation was ascertained. Pesticide residues were found in 192 samples (61.5% of tested samples). In six samples (1.9%), residues exceeded maximum residue limits. Violations concerned the insecticides: indoxacarb, diazinon and fenitrothion. The highest long-term consumer exposure was found in the case of consumption of apples with diazinon residue for both groups, adults and toddlers [4% acceptable daily intake (ADI), adults; 21% ADI, toddlers]. The highest values of short-term exposure were obtained in the case of consumption of apples with indoxacarb [5% acute reference dose (ARfD), adults; 27% ARfD, toddlers] and fenitrothion (4% ARfD, adults; 23% ARfD, toddlers). Although fungicides are the pesticides found most often in apples, the consumption of apples with insecticide residues constitutes the greatest hazard to human health. PMID:23666120

Szpyrka, Ewa; Kurdziel, Anna; S?owik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Grzegorzak, Magdalena; Matyaszek, Aneta

2013-11-01

326

Organochlorinated pesticide residues in coastal sediment from the Muda rice granary area, Peninsular Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was done on the speciation and analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediment collected from coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia along the Straits of Malacca, namely the coastal water areas of Kedah, Perlis and Perak. Sediment samples were collected using a box coring device at four stations in coastal waters along the Muda rice granary area and four other stations outside the area. The main objective of the study was to monitor the level of contamination by compounds that have been used to control pests particularly in rice granary areas. The detection and quantification of the compounds were done with the GC-ECD. The capability of the method used was examined by analysis of Standard Reference Material obtained from NIST, USA. The mean concentrations of organochlorine pesticide compounds in the coastal water area along the Muda area was 11.17 ± 3.76 ng/g, dry weight (range 7.64-19.86 ng/g, dry weight) whilst those in other areas was 4.14 ± 1.36 ng/g, dry weight (range 2.29-5.10 ng/g, dry weight). The average concentration of the DDT group in the Muda area was 4.22 ± 2.39 ng/g, dry weight, whilst the non-DDT group was 6.94 ± 2.01 ng/g, dry weight. Outside the Muda area, the average concentration of the DDT group was 1.26 ± 0.58 ng/g, dry weight. The non-DDTgroup had a mean concentration of 2.88 ± 0.80 ng/g, dry weight. Even though the concentration of the organochlorinated pesticides in the Muda area was higher, it was still lower than levels reporte was still lower than levels reported worldwide. For example, at the Gulf of Mexico (range DDT<0.02-454.00 ng/g, dry weight), Arabian Sea (range DDT 7.4-179.1 ng/g), Gulf of Bengal (range DDT<0.22-720.0 ng/g, dry weight) and Colombian Caribbean (range DDT 38.0-266.0 ng/g, dry weight). Being aware of the sensitivity of marine life, especially crustacean to organochlorines and ensuring the sustainability of rice production in the Muda area, continued monitoring of the level of pesticides residues of the coastal water of the Muda granary area should be undertaken, lack of which could be damaging to the marine ecosystem as the compounds are persistent in the environment. (Author)

327

MARKET BASKET SURVEY FOR SOME PESTICIDES RESIDUES IN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FROM GHANA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the organochlorine, organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from markets in Ghana. For this purpose, a total of 309 fruits and vegetable samples, were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The obtained results showed that the predominance of organochlorine followed by organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in most of the analyzed samples. The detected concentrations of them were most significant in vegetable samples. The results obtained showed that 39.2 % of the fruits and vegetable samples analyzed contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides, 51.0 % of the samples gave results with trace levels of pesticide residues below the maximum residue limit (MRL, while 9.8 % of the samples were above the MRL. The findings point to the urgent need to establish reliable monitoring programs for pesticides, so that any exceedance in concentration over environmental quality standards can be detected and appropriate actions taken.

Crentsil Kofi Bempah

2012-12-01

328

Residual pesticide detection on food with particle-enhanced Raman scattering  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern farming relies highly on pesticides to protect agricultural food items from insects for high yield and better quality. Increasing use of pesticide has raised concern about its harmful effects on human health and hence it has become very important to detect even small amount of pesticide residues. Raman spectroscopy is a suitable nondestructive method for pesticide detection, however, it is not very effective for low concentration of pesticide molecules. Here, we report an approach based on plasmonic enhancement, namely, particle enhanced Raman spectroscopy (PERS), which is rapid, nondestructive and sensitive. In this technique, Raman signals are enhanced via the resonance excitation of localized plasmons in metallic nanoparticles. Gold nanostructures are promising materials that have ability to tune surface plasmon resonance frequency in visible to near-IR, which depends on shape and size of nanostructures. We synthesized gold nanorods (GNRs) with desired shape and size by seed mediated growth method, and successfully detected very tiny amount of pesticide present on food items. We also conformed that the detection of pesticide was not possible by usual Raman spectroscopy.

Ranjan, Bikas; Huang, LiChuan; Masui, Kyoko; Saito, Yuika; Verma, Prabhat

2014-08-01

329

Pesticide residues in fish with emphasis on the application of nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fish play an important role in the assessment of the fate and effect of pesticides in the aquatic environment, both on intentional and unintentional release. The roles of fish toxicity and human consumption are discussed with respect to uptake, metabolism and excretion, and including residues. In this context a great deal of work has been done with labelled pesticides which has had to be evaluated comparatively with other organisms. Accumulation, as a factor of pesticide mobility and an indicator of toxicity, has been very intensively studied in fish. As the latter are model ecological organisms for accumulation, many parallel investigations have been carried out with labelled and non-labelled material. Owing to the generally low metabolic rate detected, accumulation in fish is largely due to the parent compound in the case of persistent pesticides. The methods used ranged from simple laboratory tests to experiments in the open environment. (author)

330

Quantitative Structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the cattle milk  

OpenAIRE

Milk of cattle was collected from various localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pesticides concentration was determined by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The residue analysis revealed that about 40% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SE levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.38±0.02, 0.26±0.02, 0.072±0.01 and 0.085±0.02, respectively. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were used to predict the res...

Faqir Muhammad, Ijaz Javed

2012-01-01

331

Using a Hazard Quotient to Evaluate Pesticide Residues Detected in Pollen Trapped from Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) in Connecticut  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of pollen trapped from honey bees as they return to their hives provides a method of monitoring fluctuations in one route of pesticide exposure over location and time. We collected pollen from apiaries in five locations in Connecticut, including urban, rural, and mixed agricultural sites, for periods from two to five years. Pollen was analyzed for pesticide residues using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis. Sixty pesticides or metabolites were detected. Because the dose lethal to 50% of adult worker honey bees (LD50) is the only toxicity parameter available for a wide range of pesticides, and among our pesticides there were contact LD50 values ranging from 0.006 to >1000 ?g per bee (range 166,000X), and even among insecticides LD50 values ranged from 0.006 to 59.8 ?g/bee (10,000X); therefore we propose that in studies of honey bee exposure to pesticides that concentrations be reported as Hazard Quotients as well as in standard concentrations such as parts per billion. We used both contact and oral LD50 values to calculate Pollen Hazard Quotients (PHQ = concentration in ppb ÷ LD50 as ?g/bee) when both were available. In this study, pesticide Pollen Hazard Quotients ranged from over 75,000 to 0.01. The pesticides with the greatest Pollen Hazard Quotients at the maximum concentrations found in our study were (in descending order): phosmet, Imidacloprid, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, thiamethoxam, azinphos-methyl, and fenthion, all with at least one Pollen Hazard Quotient (using contact or oral LD50) over 500. At the maximum rate of pollen consumption by nurse bees, a Pollen Hazard Quotient of 500 would be approximately equivalent to consuming 0.5% of the LD50 per day. We also present an example of a Nectar Hazard Quotient and the percentage of LD50 per day at the maximum nectar consumption rate. PMID:24143241

Stoner, Kimberly A.; Eitzer, Brian D.

2013-01-01

332

Using a hazard quotient to evaluate pesticide residues detected in pollen trapped from honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Connecticut.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of pollen trapped from honey bees as they return to their hives provides a method of monitoring fluctuations in one route of pesticide exposure over location and time. We collected pollen from apiaries in five locations in Connecticut, including urban, rural, and mixed agricultural sites, for periods from two to five years. Pollen was analyzed for pesticide residues using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis. Sixty pesticides or metabolites were detected. Because the dose lethal to 50% of adult worker honey bees (LD50) is the only toxicity parameter available for a wide range of pesticides, and among our pesticides there were contact LD50 values ranging from 0.006 to >1000 ?g per bee (range 166,000X), and even among insecticides LD50 values ranged from 0.006 to 59.8 ?g/bee (10,000X); therefore we propose that in studies of honey bee exposure to pesticides that concentrations be reported as Hazard Quotients as well as in standard concentrations such as parts per billion. We used both contact and oral LD50 values to calculate Pollen Hazard Quotients (PHQ = concentration in ppb ÷ LD50 as ?g/bee) when both were available. In this study, pesticide Pollen Hazard Quotients ranged from over 75,000 to 0.01. The pesticides with the greatest Pollen Hazard Quotients at the maximum concentrations found in our study were (in descending order): phosmet, Imidacloprid, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, thiamethoxam, azinphos-methyl, and fenthion, all with at least one Pollen Hazard Quotient (using contact or oral LD50) over 500. At the maximum rate of pollen consumption by nurse bees, a Pollen Hazard Quotient of 500 would be approximately equivalent to consuming 0.5% of the LD50 per day. We also present an example of a Nectar Hazard Quotient and the percentage of LD50 per day at the maximum nectar consumption rate. PMID:24143241

Stoner, Kimberly A; Eitzer, Brian D

2013-01-01

333

Organochlorine pesticide residues in woodcock, soils and earthworms in Louisiana, 1965  

Science.gov (United States)

Woodcock (Philohela minor), earthworms, and soil samples were collected from January-March 1965, from fields in southeastern Louisiana approximately 3 years after discontinuance of areal treatments with heptachlor in this region. Heptachlor epoxide residues in woodcock averaged 0.42 ppm (dry weight), conspicuously lower than in 1961 and 1962. Residues of DDE in woodcock averaged 3.62 pprn, higher than in birds taken in the same area in 1961-62. Earthworms and soils contained traces of several organochlorine pesticides.

McLane, M.A.R.; Stickel, L.F.; Newsom, J.D.

1971-01-01

334

Safe apples for baby food production:search for pesticide preparations leaving minimum residues  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Altogether 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agriculture practise within 6 trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods, premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and matured fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, c...

Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

2007-01-01

335

Focused microwave assistance for extracting some pesticide residues from strawberries into water before their determination by SPME/HPLC/DAD.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel and simple method for the determination of some pesticide residues in strawberries using both focused microwave-assisted extraction (FMAE) and solid-phase micro extraction (SPME), coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), has been developed. The pesticides were first extracted from strawberries with water and the assistance of focused microwaves at 30 W for 7 min. Then, an aliquot of the resulting aqueous extract was subjected to SPME with a 60-microm thick poly(dimethylsiloxane)/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber for 45 min at room temperature, with the solution being stirred at 1000 rpm. The extracted pesticides on the SPME fiber were desorbed into the SPME/HPLC interface for quantitative analysis with a diode array detector (DAD). The whole sample pretreatment procedure before chromatographic analysis did not use any organic solvents or involve any blending or centrifugation steps. The five compounds (carbendazim, diethofencarb, azoxystrobine, napropamide, and bupirimate) were chosen because they cannot be analyzed easily by GC. The efficiency of this relatively fast procedure was comparable to that of previously reported methods, with detection limits at low microg/kg levels and linear responses in the range from 0.05 to 1 mg/kg of pesticide in strawberries, with RSDs between 3 and 7.3%, depending on the analyte. In all but one case results obtained by this method for field-incurred samples were comparable to those obtained with traditional methods. PMID:11714287

Falqui-Cao, C; Wang, Z; Urruty, L; Pommier, J J; Montury, M

2001-11-01

336

Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship and Risk Analysis of Some Pesticides in the Goat milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean+/-SEM levels (ppm of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34+/-0.007, 0.063+/-0.002, 0.034+/-0.002 and 0.092+/-0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW, melting point (MP, and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985 for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

Faqir Muhammad

2013-01-01

337

Comparison of Wipe Materials and Wetting Agents for Pesticide Residue Collection from Hard Surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Different wipe materials and wetting agents have been used to collect pesticide residues from surfaces, but little is known about their comparability. To inform the selection of a wipe for the National Children's Study, the analytical feasibility, collection efficiency, and preci...

338

75 FR 9596 - Notice of Filing of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of a Aspergillus flavus AF36 on Corn Food...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Notice of Filing of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of a Aspergillus flavus...modification of regulations for residues of a pesticide chemical in or on various...in 40 CFR part 180 for residues of a pesticide chemical in or on...

2010-03-03

339

Effect of home processing on the distribution and reduction of pesticide residues in apples.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of home processing (washing, peeling, coring and juicing) on residue levels of chlorpyrifos, ?-cypermethrin, tebuconazole, acetamiprid and carbendazim in apple segments was investigated. The pesticide residues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS and GC with a flame photometric (FPD) and electron capture detection (ECD). The results indicated that the pesticide residue levels in the apple peel and core were higher compared with in the apple flesh. After peeled and cored apple was processed into apple juice and pomace, chlorpyrifos, ?-cypermethrin and tebuconazole were concentrated in the apple pomace. However, residues of acetamiprid and carbendazim were exceptions. The apple pomace was free of acetamiprid, which was mainly present in the apple juice. After washing the mean loss of chlorpyrifos, ?-cypermethrin, tebuconazole, acetamiprid and carbendazim from apples under recommended dosage and twofold higher dosage were 17-21%, 6.7-7.1%, 13-32%, 42-67% and 47-50%, respectively. The pesticide residues were significantly reduced in the edible part of the apple except for ?-cypermethrin during peeling and coring process. The removal effect of apple juicing was found to be the most pronounced on ?-cypermethrin residue, which was reduced in the range of 81-84%, and the reductions of chlorpyrifos, tebuconazole, acetamiprid and carbendazim upon apple juicing were in the range of 15-36%. PMID:22738391

Kong, Z; Shan, W; Dong, F; Liu, X; Xu, J; Li, M; Zheng, Y

2012-08-01

340

Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Indian flue-cured tobacco with gas chromatography-single quadrupole mass spectrometer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presence of pesticide residues in tobacco increases health risk of both active and passive smokers, apart from the imminent potential health problems associated with it. Thus, monitoring of pesticide residue is an important issue in terms of formulating stringent policies, enabling global trade and safeguarding the consumer's safety. In this study, a gas chromatography-single quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method based upon quantifier-qualifier ions (m/z) ratio was employed for detecting and assessing ten organochlorine pesticide residues (?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, endrin, ?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate) in 152 flue-cured (FC) tobacco leave samples from two major tobacco growing states, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, of India. In the majority of samples, pesticide residue levels were below the limit of quantification (LOQ). In few samples, pesticide residues were detected and they found to comply with the guidance residue levels (GRL) specifications of the Cooperation Center for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA). Detection of the phase out pesticides like DDT/HCH might be due to transfer of persistent residues from the environmental components to the plant. This is the first report on these ten organochlorine pesticide residues in Indian FC tobacco. PMID:24687692

Ghosh, Rakesh Kumar; Khan, Zareen S; Rao, C V N; Banerjee, Kaushik; Reddy, D Damodar; Murthy, T G K; Johnson, Nalli; Ray, Deb Prasad

2014-08-01

341

Multi-residue determination of pesticides in tropical fruits using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring pesticide residues in tropical fruits is of great interest for many countries, e.g., from South America, that base an important part of their economy on the exportation of these products. In this work, a LC-MS/MS multi-residue method using a triple quadrupole analyzer has been developed for around 30 pesticides in seven Colombian tropical fruits of high commercial value for domestic and international markets (uchuva, tamarillo, granadilla, gulupa, maracuya, papaya, and pithaya). After sample extraction with acetonitrile, an aliquot of the extract was diluted with water and directly injected into the HPLC-MS/MS system (electrospray interface) without any cleanup step. The formation of sodium adducts-of poor fragmentation-was minimized using 0.1% formic acid in the mobile phase, which favored the formation of the protonated molecule. However, the addition of ammonium acetate made the formation of the ammonium adducts in some particular cases possible, avoiding the presence of the sodium adducts. The highest sensitivity was observed in positive electrospray ionization for the wide majority of pesticides, with a few exceptions for acidic compounds that gave better response in the negative mode (e.g., 2,4-D, fluazinan). Thus, simultaneous acquisition on the positive/negative mode was applied. Two MS/MS transitions were acquired for each compound to ensure a reliable quantification and identification of the compounds detected in samples, although for malathion a third transition was acquired due to the presence of interfering isobaric compounds in the sample extracts. A detailed study of matrix effects was made by a comparison of standards in solvent and in matrix. Both ionization suppression and ionization enhancement were observed depending on the analyte/matrix combination tested. Correction of matrix effects was made by the application of calibration in matrix. Three matrices were selected (uchuva, maracuya, gulupa) to perform matrix calibration in the analysis of all seven fruit varieties studied. The method was validated by recovery experiments in samples spiked at two levels (0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg). The data were satisfactory for the wide majority of analyte/matrix combinations, with most recoveries between 70% and 110% and the RSD below 15%. Several samples collected from the market were finally analyzed. Positive findings were confirmed by evaluating the experimental Q/q ratios and retention times, and comparing them with those of reference standards. PMID:21983979

Botero-Coy, A M; Marín, J M; Ibáñez, M; Sancho, J V; Hernández, F

2012-03-01

342

De-contamination of pesticide residues in food by ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of gamma irradiation on removal of pesticides in aqueous solutions or in vegetables and fruits was investigated. Radiation - induced decontamination of pesticides is generally greater in aqueous solutions than in selected vegetables and fruits. Residues of malathion (0.5 ppm in potatoes, 8 ppm in onions and dates), pirimiphos-methyl (1 ppm in onions and grapes) and cypermethrin (0.05 ppm in potatoes and 0.1 ppm in onions) were not reduced to below maximum residue limits (MRLs) for irradiation doses up to 1 kGy. The same trend was observed when irradiation was performed for grapes fortified with malathion (8 ppm) and cypermethrin (2 ppm) for absorbed doses up to 2 kGy. Ionizing radiation reduced the residues of pirimiphos-methyl (0.05 ppm in potatoes at1 kGy, 1 ppm in grapes at 2 kGy and 0.1 ppm in dates at1 kGy), malathion (8 ppm in grapes at 7 kGy) and cypermethrin (2 ppm in grapes at 7 kGy) to below maximum residue limits (MRLs). - Highlights: ? The role of irradiation on removal of pesticides in aqueous solutions or in food products was investigated. ? Radiation-induced removal of pesticides is generally greater in aqueous solutions than in food products. ? Radiation can reduce the pirimiphos-methyl in potatoes, grapes and dates to below MRLs. ? Radiation can reduce the malathion and cypermethrin in grapes to below MRLs. ? Radiation is used for dual objectives of reducing pesticide residues and improving food safety.y.

343

Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application versus coarse spray quality application on residue levels. The applications included boscalid, bupirimate, captan, fenoxycarb, indoxacarb, pirimicarb, pyraclostrobin and thiophanate-methyl. Apples were collected from four zones in the tree and pesticide residues were detected in the individual apples. None of the results for the pesticides residues measured in individual apples exceeded the EU Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). However, there was a large variation in the residues levels in the apples, with levels from 0.01 to 1.4 mg kg?1 for captan, the pesticide with the highest variation, and from 0.01 to 0.2 mg kg?1 for pyraclostrobin, the pesticide with the lowest variation. Residues of fenoxycarb and indoxacarb were only found in a few apples, probably due to the early application time of these two compounds. The evaluation of the effect of spray quality did not show any major difference between fine and coarse spray quality, except for carbendazim, the degradation product of thiophanate-methyl, where fine spray quality resulted in higher carbendazim residue levels than coarse spray quality. To examine the relationship between individual results and average results from ten apples, 20 composite samples were statistically constructed from sets of ten of the individual results. The variability factors for the individual samples (n = 80) at the 97.5 percentile were calculated for both standard and air induction nozzle application and were in the range of 0.9–9.4. The variability factor of seven used when EU member states calculate possible exceeding of Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) was adequate to encompass almost all the average results from the analyses of ten individual apples. However, for captan up to 9% of the results werenot covered depending on which of the mathematically constructed composite concentrations was chosen. The variability factor of three, recommend by Codex, seems to be too low, because up to 30% of the apple samples for captan were not covered if the worst case scenario was chosen. The factor of three seems was also too low for thiophanate-methyl.

Poulsen, Mette E.; Wenneker, Marcel

2012-01-01

344

[Determination of 239 pesticide residues in soil by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for the determination of 239 pesticides in soil samples by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) is presented. The sample was prepared with AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) QuEChERS method for the extraction (acetonitrile, anhydrous MgSO4, CH3 COONa). After filtered with a 0.2 microm membrane, the sample was separated and detected by UPLC-MS/MS performing on positive/ negative electrospray ionization (ESI +/-) and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. In this study, 236 of the 239 pesticides' correlation coefficients were above 0.99, which counted 99% of all the analytes. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged in 0.69 - 29.04 microg/kg (S/N = 3). The recoveries of all the pesticides at 40 microg/kg spiked level were in the range of 50% - 150%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were below 20%. In addition, the recoveries of 209 pesticides were in the range of 70% - 120%, and RSDs of 161 pesticides were less than 10%. The method is efficient, fast, simple, and accurate. The procedure is suitable for the determination of multi pesticide residues in soil. PMID:24392622

Zhu, Yongzhe; Feng, Yanan; Kim, Jeonghan

2013-09-01

345

Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Soil of Cocoa Farms in Ondo State Central District, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ondo State being the highest producer of Cocoa in Nigeria constitutes the most probable area with the highest use of chemical pesticides to enhance cocoa production. As effective as these chemicals may be in achieving this goal, the incidence of their residues on non-targeted substances and the total environment, with the attendant adverse effects have being of serious concerns. Our objective in this paper is to assess contamination of farm soils by organochlorine pesticides applied on cocoa farms within the Central Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected from selected cocoa farms and analysed for organochlorine pesticides residues using GC-MS. Some soil physicochemical properties including pH, particle size and organic matter that may influence the dynamics of the pollutants were also determined. Organochlorine compounds detected at varied concentrations include Endosulfan I and Endosulfan II occurring most frequently with highest concentrations of 350.10 mg/kg and 3.55 mg/kg respectively. Other organochlorine compounds detected were Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide, Aldrin, Deldrin,, isomers of Benzene hexachloride: ?-BHC, ?-BHC, ?-BHC, and ?-BHC (lindane. The concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides (mg/kg measured in the soil samples showed significant (p<0.05 correlation with the total organic matter contents of the soil. Findings from this research thus, provide information on the current and health risk residue levels of organochlorine pesticides in soil from this region with which future environmental performance on the use of pesticides on cocoa farms could be progressively monitored.

Ademola F. Aiyesanmi

2012-05-01

346

Investigation and Measurement of Pesticidal Residues; Benomil and Mancazeb in Cucumber Produced in Mazandaran.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the importance and usefulness of fruits in people’s daily diet as they play an important role in determining public health and also considering the significance of pesticide residues in foods and fruits , measurement of which has been repeatedly reiterated by WHO and FAO, this research was done. Irregular use of pesticides by farmers knowingly or unknowingly without observing its caress period has led to the contact of these pesticides with humans through foods and fruits and in the long run, they will surely cause chronic complications . Methods: In this study, after collecting cucumbers form 76 sample regions, we rinsed them carefully, sliced them thinly and mashed them up. Then, we extracted them three times with n butyl acetate. Later, we evaporated the solvent. At the end, we measured the residue by chromatographic gas (GC and detector (ECD. Results and Conclusion: The results obtained were analyzed with the help of two-way ANOVA. It indicated that there is a correlation between the investigated regions and the residual amount (P>0.05. Calculation of the mean ratings showed that the levels of these two pesticides are higher than the acceptable level in most of the regions. (0.01

B Shabankhani

2006-01-01

347

Pesticide Residues Contamination of Vegetables and their Public Health Implications in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the residues concentrations of pesticides in vegetables, and assessing the health risk due to the daily consumption of contaminated vegetables for adults in the prominent farming community of Akumadan in Ghana. Fifteen pooled samples, belonging to five vegetable types (tomato, cabbage, pepper, onion and eggplants purchased from local markets across Ghana were analysed for DDTs, endosulfan, HCHs, methoxychlor, dimethoate and lambda-cyhalothrin using GC-MS. The concentrations of the pesticides ranged from 0.01 to 46.95 µg/kg wet weight. Dietary data were collected from 130 residents. By combining the dietary and contaminant data, dietary exposure to the identified pesticides was calculated. Dietary exposure to pesticide residues at Akumadan is low and there is no associated health risk. However, the results of persistent contaminants are of particular health concern because of this persistence. The estimated exposure distributions were shown to be insensitive to valuation of the non-detect residue samples.

Botwe, B. O.

2011-08-01

348

A residue-free green synergistic antifungal nanotechnology for pesticide thiram by ZnO nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we reported a residue-free green nanotechnology which synergistically enhance the pesticides efficiency and successively eliminate its residue. We built up a composite antifungal system by a simple pre-treating and assembling procedure for investigating synergy. Investigations showed 0.25 g/L ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with 0.01 g/L thiram could inhibit the fungal growth in a synergistic mode. More importantly, the 0.25 g/L ZnO NPs completely degraded 0.01 g/L thiram under simulated sunlight irradiation within 6 hours. It was demonstrated that the formation of ZnO-thiram antifungal system, electrostatic adsorption of ZnO NPs to fungi cells and the cellular internalization of ZnO-thiram composites played important roles in synergy. Oxidative stress test indicated ZnO-induced oxidative damage was enhanced by thiram that finally result in synergistic antifungal effect. By reducing the pesticides usage, this nanotechnology could control the plant disease economically, more significantly, the following photocatalytic degradation of pesticide greatly benefit the human social by avoiding negative influence of pesticide residue on public health and environment.

Xue, Jingzhe; Luo, Zhihui; Li, Ping; Ding, Yaping; Cui, Yi; Wu, Qingsheng

2014-07-01

349

Evaluation of Pesticide Residues in Human Blood Samples of Agro Professionals and Non-Agro Professionals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pesticide residues in human blood samples of volunteers related to Hyderabad and Mirpurkhas districts, Pakistan. The volunteers of both districts were divided into four groups on the basis of their exposure period to pesticides i.e. Group A-5 to 9 years, Group B-10 to 14 years, Group C-15 to19 years and Group D-above 20 years. Out of total 188 volunteers, 145 volunteers (77.1% were agro–professionals and 43 volun- teers (32.9% were non–agro professionals. Chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, 1, 1, 1-trichloro-2, 2-bis (p-chorophenyl ethane (p,p'-DDT and parathion residues were detected in many samples. The predominant pesticides found in blood samples of both district volunteers were chlorpyrifos (with highest mean concentration of 0.37 mg kg-1 in the D group of Mirpurkhas and endosulfan (with highest mean concentration of 0.30 mg kg-1 in the D group of Hyderabad. The quantity of pesticide residues detected in some blood samples of agro-professionals were found to be at the alarming level.

Yawar Latif

2012-08-01

350

Spatial and temporal distribution of pesticide residues in surface waters in northeastern Greece.  

Science.gov (United States)

A monitoring study of 147 compounds in surface river waters from northeastern Greece near Greek/Bulgarian/Turkish borders was carried out during 1999-2007. Based on agricultural use eight sampling points along the rivers Ardas, Evros and Erythropotamos were set up, covering the distance from the Greek/Bulgarian borders down to the river's discharge (river's delta) in the Greek territory. In total, 88 sampling events were carried out from 1999 to 2007. Pesticides were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) using a multiresidue in-house analytical method including pesticides belonging to different chemical classes. Aquatic risk concerning the detected pesticides was assessed on the basis of the risk quotient (RQ = PEC/PNEC). From the 28 compounds (pesticides, metabolites and caffeine) that were detected in surface waters of northeastern Greece the soil applied pesticides were the most frequently detected. High pesticide concentrations were detected within 2 months of their application. Extreme pesticide concentrations were detected in the beginning of the irrigation season or just after high rainfall events. Generally, low levels of pesticide residues were found in the first sampling point (Greek/Bulgarian borders) of all rivers, however o',p' DDT, o',p' DDE and gamma-HCH were mainly detected in this sampling point regarded as cross-boundary contamination. The most commonly encountered compounds in the river waters were atrazine, DEA, alachlor, trifluralin, prometryne, molinate, carbofuran, carbaryl and diazinon. Increased loading (primary as well as secondary peaks) seemed to be a consequence of application (timing, rate, frequency) and intense rainfall during the application period. Aquatic risk assessment revealed that from the 28 compounds that were constantly detected 12 showed non-acceptable risk when median concentrations were used as PEC and 18 when extreme concentrations were used as PEC values. PMID:18947852

Vryzas, Z; Vassiliou, G; Alexoudis, C; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, E

2009-01-01

351

A rapid spectrophotometric assay of some organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetable samples  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of some organophosphorus insecticides, i.e. malathion, dimethoate and phorate is described. It is based on the oxidation of organophosphorus pesticide with slight excess of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and the unconsumed NBS is determined with rhodamine B (lambda max: 550 nm). Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 0.108-1.08, 0.056-0.56 and 0.028-0.28 ?g mL -1 for malathion, phorate and dimethoate, respectively. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in various vegetable samples.

Mathew, Sunitha B.; Pillai, Ajai K.; Gupta, Vinay K.

2007-08-01

352

[Determination of pesticide residues from seed coating reagent in agricultural products using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].  

Science.gov (United States)

An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of eight pesticide residues from seed coating in fruits, vegetable and grain. The sample was extracted by methanol-water (1:1, v/v) and determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in positive mode (ESI+) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The UPLC analyses were performed on an Acquity UPLC C18 column with gradient eluation. The utility of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of crude extracts, with no sample clean up, from soybean. The linear range was 1 - 200 microg/L. The correlation coefficients (r) were under 0.997. The average recoveries of eight pesticides in samples (from 0.006 to 1.2 mg/kg) ranged from 60% to 110%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10%. The results indicate that the method is easier, faster, more sensitive, and suitable for the qualitative and quantitative confirmation of pesticide residues from seed coating reagent in fruit, vegetable and grain samples. PMID:19253551

Chen, Yue; Wang, Jinhua; Lu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Wanchun; Huang, Mei; Xu, Chaoyi

2008-11-01

353

Influence of the nature and age of cover crop residues on the sorption of three pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

In agricultural fields, soil and water quality preservation is strongly influenced by pesticides use and behavior. To limit the environmental impacts of agricultural activities, best management practices such as the use of cover crops are encouraged. Cover crops during the fallow period were found to be efficient in reducing nitrate leaching, controlling soil erosion, improving soil organic content and enhancing soil biological activity. This technique was also found to modify soil water dynamics in the following crop. According to these effects, modifications on pesticide behavior in soil, such as sorption, degradation and transport, are expected (Alletto et al., 2012 ; 2013). In this study, the impact of the nature and level of decomposition of cover crop was studied on the sorption characteristics of three pesticides. These pesticides differed in their physicochemical characteristics (hydrophobicity, solubility, persistence) and were two herbicides, S-metolachlor and glyphosate, which are largely used in maize production and predominantly found as pollutants in water; and one fungicide, epoxiconazole. Correlations between pesticide sorption and physicochemical characteristics of the cover crop residues were studied. Residues of oat, turnip rape, red clover and phacelia were collected in March 2011 and incubated at 28°C and at the water holding capacity during 0, 6, 28 or 56 days. For each date, adsorption of the three radiolabeled pesticides was measured in batch on the different cover crop residues, and their biochemical composition (Van Soest fractionation), hydrophobicity (contact angle measurement) and C/N ratio were determined. Results showed that the adsorption of the pesticides differed significantly according to (i) the pesticide, (ii) the nature of cover crop, (iii) the decomposition level of the cover crop and the interaction cover crop x decomposition time. Epoxiconazole was the most adsorbed molecule, with Kd values ranging from 161 ± 30 L/Kg (oat, turnip rape, phacelia) to 206 ± 45 L/Kg (red clover); and glyphosate was the less adsorbed, with Kd values ranging from 1 ± 1 L/Kg (oat, red clover) to 9 ± 1 L/Kg (phacelia) at day 0. Differences between pesticides were expected considering the hydrophobicity of these molecules. Adsorption of the three pesticides increased with decomposition time (up to sevenfold for glyphosate on oat), and was negatively correlated with C/N ratio (-0.73soil surface influenced the mobility of pesticides as it was observed in decomposing mulch of crop residues (Aslam et al., 2013). As a result, the type of cover crop and the changes of cover crop residues composition during decomposition in field may control differently the movement of non-ionic pesticides compared to ionic compounds such as glyphosate, largely used in conservation agriculture practices. Keywords : Cover crops ; Glyphosate ; S-metolachlor ; Epoxiconazole ; Mulch; Sorption ; Biochemical composition References Alletto L., Benoit P., Justes E., Coquet Y. 2012. Effects of tillage and fallow period management on the fate of the herbicide isoxaflutole in an irrigated continuous-maize field. Agriculture, Ecosystems Environment, 153, 40- 49. http://dx.doi:10.1016/j.agee.2012.03.002 Alletto L., Benoit P., Coufignal M., Bergheaud V., Dumény V., Longueval D., Barriuso E. 2013. Sorption and mineralization of S-metolachlor in 51 fields cultivated with conservation tillage. Soil Tillage Research 128, 97-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2012.11.005 Aslam S., Garnier P., Rumpel C., Parent S., Benoit P. 2013. Adsor

Cassigneul, Ana; Alletto, Lionel; Chuette, Delphine; Le Gac, Anne-Laure; Hatier, Jules; Etievant, Veronique; Bergheaud, Valérie; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Méchin, Valérie; Justes, Eric; Benoit, Pierre

2013-04-01

354

Australian national residue survey – closing the loop on pesticide residue risk management for Australian grain  

OpenAIRE

Australia exports a major proportion of its agricultural production and is highly dependent on maintaining and developing access to, and competitiveness in, export markets. To preserve Australia’s status as a provider of high quality grain, the majority of Australian primary producers rely on pesticides to protect their crops from pests and diseases, particularly in post-harvest situations. The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) supports Australian agriculture ...

Reichstein, I.; Healy, K.; James, A.; Murray, B.

2010-01-01

355

Impact of long term applications of cotton pesticides on soil biological properties, dissipation of [14C]-methyl parathion and persistence of multi-pesticide residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biological parameters were followed in soils from a cotton farm (Tatui) where the recommended pesticides have been used for years, and from an experimental field (Sao Paulo) which was subdivided in two areas: one received the recommended pesticides and the other was maintained untreated. The soil bioactivities monitored from 1995 to 1998, after different pesticide applications, were: basal and glucose-induced respiration; anaerobic activity; nitrification rate; activity of the enzymes: dehydrogenase, aryl sulfatase and arginine deaminase; the soil capacity to mineralize an aromatic pesticide molecule ([14C]-2,4-D), fungal and bacterial contributions for soil respiration until the beginning of 1998, and fungal and bacterial numbers from the beginning of 1998. The dissipation of [14C]-methyl parathion - one of the recommended pesticides - was followed by radiometric techniques only in Sao Paulo, but persistence of multi-residues was determined in both soils by gas-liquid chromatography. All the biological parameters varied each sampling time and values also varied among soil samples, being inhibited or stimulated by the different pesticide applications, but they mostly recovered the initially detected activity. Dissipation of methyl parathion was fast and not affected by the other pesticide applications. Pesticide residues varied between the two soils but were mostly low after all applications, which indicates their dissipation. (author)

356

Comparison of the variability in the levels of pesticide residue observed in Japanese cabbage and grape units.  

Science.gov (United States)

To estimate variations in pesticide residue levels in crops, the variability factors (VFs, the 97.5th percentile of the residue levels in the sample divided by the average residue levels in the lot) in residue levels of acetamiprid and cypermethrin applied to cabbage and grapes were investigated, respectively. The VFs in the residue levels of both pesticides in cabbage (2.00 and 2.39, respectively) were clearly higher than those in grapes (1.82 and 1.63, respectively). Although the residue levels of both pesticides in grapes showed a normal distribution, those values in cabbage were slightly skewed at lower residue levels. Individual residue levels in grapes had a good agreement between acetamiprid and cypermethrin. In contrast, the distribution of cypermethrin residue levels in cabbage was slightly skewed at higher residue levels as compared to that of acetamiprid. These results indicate that the difference in the relative distribution of the two pesticides between cabbage and grapes might be due to the influence of various factors such as differences in crop species, plant cultivation methods, and physicochemical properties of the pesticides. PMID:22263932

Fujita, Masahiro; Yajima, Tomonari; Iijima, Kazuaki; Sato, Kiyoshi

2012-02-15

357

Análise de resíduos de agrotóxicos em tomates empregando dispersão da matriz em fase sólida (DMFS) e cromatografia gasosa / Analysis of pesticide residue in tomato using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and gas chromatography  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english This work was aimed on optimization of the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique using gas chromatography for analyzing residues of chlorpyriphos, ?-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in tomatoes. The results showed that silica was more efficient for the clean up of extracts, but fl [...] orisil provided the highest recovery rates. A 2³ complete factorial design was carried out to evaluate the absorbent/sample ratio, presence of co-column (silica) and ultrasonic bath on the extraction rate. The percentage of extraction of the pesticides chlorpyriphos, ?-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin were 64.7, 88.3, 99.2 and 89.2%, respectively, with relative standard deviations below 5%.

Gevany P., Pinho; Antônio A., Neves; Maria Eliana L. R., Queiroz.

358

Análise de resíduos de agrotóxicos em tomates empregando dispersão da matriz em fase sólida (DMFS e cromatografia gasosa Analysis of pesticide residue in tomato using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD and gas chromatography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work was aimed on optimization of the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD technique using gas chromatography for analyzing residues of chlorpyriphos, ?-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in tomatoes. The results showed that silica was more efficient for the clean up of extracts, but florisil provided the highest recovery rates. A 2³ complete factorial design was carried out to evaluate the absorbent/sample ratio, presence of co-column (silica and ultrasonic bath on the extraction rate. The percentage of extraction of the pesticides chlorpyriphos, ?-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin were 64.7, 88.3, 99.2 and 89.2%, respectively, with relative standard deviations below 5%.

Gevany P. Pinho

2009-01-01

359

Presence of pesticide residues in water, sediment and biological samples taken from aquatic environments in Honduras  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to detect the presence of persistent pesticides in water, sediment and biological samples taken from aquatic environments in Honduras during the period 1995-98. Additionally, the LC50 for 2 fungicides and 2 insecticides on post-larval Penaeus vannamei was determined in static water bioassays. A total of 80 water samples, 16 sediment samples and 7 biological samples (fish muscle tissue) were analyzed for detection of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues. The results of sample analyses indicate a widespread contamination of Honduran continental and coastal waters with organochlorine pesticides. Most detections were of low (50 values and were therefore found to be much more toxic to the post-larval shrimp than the fungicides tridemorph and propiconazole. (author)

360

Guidelines for selection and presentation of pesticide residue values  

OpenAIRE

Residubeoordelingen van bestrijdingsmiddelen worden uitgevoerd om wettelijke residulimieten (MRLs = maximum residue limits) vast te leggen. MRLs worden afgeleid uit de resultaten van die residuproeven met bestrijdingsmiddelen die volgens kritisch "Good Agricultural Practice" zijn uitgevoerd. Er mag slechts een residugehalte per residuproef geselecteerd worden voor de afleiding van de MRL. Het huidige rapport beschrijft een voorstel voor de selectie en weergave van residugeh...

Velde-Koerts T van der; Ph, Hoeven-arentzen; Bc, Ossendorp

2007-01-01

361

7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...weight of the residue per one million parts by weight of the tobacco (ppm) are: CHLORDANE 3.0 DIBROMOCHLOROPROPANE (DBCP) 1.0 DICAMBA (Temporary) 5.0 ENDRIN 0.1 ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE (EDB) 0.1 FORMOTHION 0.5...

2010-01-01

362

Organochlorine pesticide residues in bed sediments of the San Joaquin River, California  

Science.gov (United States)

Bed sediments of the San Joaquin River and its tributaries were sampled during October 7–11, 1985, and analyzed for organochiorine pesticide residues in order to determine their areal distribution and to evaluate and prioritize needs for further study. Residues of DDD, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin are widespread in the fine-grained bed sediments of the San Joaquin River and its tributaries despite little or no use of these pesticides for more than 15 years. The San Joaquin River has among the highest bed-sediment concentrations of DDD, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin residues of major rivers in the United States. Concentrations of all four pesticides were correlated with each other and with the amount of organic carbon and fine-grained particles in the bed sediments. The highest concentrations occurred in bed sediments of westside tributary streams. Potential tributary loads of DDD, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin to the San Joaquin River were computed from bed-sediment concentrations and data on streamfiow and suspended-sediment concentration in order to identify the general magnitude of differences between streams and to determine study priorities. The estimated loads indicate that the most important sources of residues during the study period were Salt Slough because of a high load of fine sediment, and Newman Wasteway, Orestimba Creek, and Hospital Creek because of high bed-sediment concentrations. Generally, the highest estimated loads of DDD, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin were in Orestimba and Hospital Creeks.

Gilliom, Robert J.; Clifton, Daphne G.

1990-01-01

363

Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in the Breast Milk of Some Primiparae Mothers in La Community, Accra, Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the types and levels of Organochlorine pesticide residues in the breast milk of 21 primiparae mothers in La, a suburb of Accra an urban community in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Liquid-liquid extraction procedure was employed and extract clean-up was done using silica gel solid phase extraction. Fourteen (14 different organochlorine pesticides residues namely p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, Endrin, endrin-aldehyde, endrin-ketone, alpha-endosulphan, endosulphan-sulphate, gamma-chlordane, dieldrin, and methoxychlor were identified and quantified in the individual breast milk samples using a Gas Chromatograph (GC with an Electron C apture detector. The GC recoveries of spiked samples were between 89 to 97%. P,p’- DDE recorded 100% incidence ratio. Also p,p’-DDT, delta-HCH, gamma-HCH, and endosulfan sulfate recorded incidence ratios of 76.79, 95.25, 80.95 and 85.71%, respectively for the breast milk samples. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues in the human breast milk samples ranged from 1.839 to 99.05 :?g/kg fats. With the exception of Endosulphan Sulphate whose mean concentration (99.052 :?g/kg was above the Australian Maximum Residue Limit (MRL of 20 :?g/kg for milk, the mean concentrations for all the other organochlorines detected were below their respective limits.

Anita Osei Tutu

2011-03-01

364

77 FR 15012 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...  

Science.gov (United States)

...311). [emsp14]Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS...listed at the end of the pesticide petition summary of...adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the pesticides discussed in this document...cottonseed, apples, soil, and oranges...

2012-03-14

365

Novel approach to fast determination of multiple pesticide residues using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid, high-throughput method employing ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed and optimized for simultaneous quantification and confirmation of 64 pesticide residues and their toxic metabolites in fruit extracts prepared by a buffered QuEChERS procedure. The total time required for UPLC-MS/MS analysis was 8 min plus 2 min for re-equilibration to the initial UPLC conditions. Performance characteristics were determined for apple extracts spiked at 10 microg kg(-1). The repeatability of measurements expressed as relative standard deviations was in the range 1.5-13% at this level for most analytes. Thanks to very low limits of quantification (pesticides), an optimized method allows for the reliable control of not only common maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by European Union regulation for various pesticides/fruit combinations, but also of a uniform MRL of 10 microg kg(-1)endorsed for baby food. PMID:18348044

Kovalczuk, T; Lacina, O; Jech, M; Poustka, J; Hajslová, J

2008-04-01

366

Management-oriented sensitivity analysis for pesticide transport in watershed-scale water quality modeling using SWAT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated for hydrology conditions in an agricultural watershed of Orestimba Creek, California, and applied to simulate fate and transport of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The model showed capability in evaluating pesticide fate and transport processes in agricultural fields and instream network. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis was conducted by applied stochastic SWAT simulations for pesticide distribution. Results of sensitivity analysis identified the governing processes in pesticide outputs as surface runoff, soil erosion, and sedimentation in the study area. By incorporating sensitive parameters in pesticide transport simulation, effects of structural best management practices (BMPs) in improving surface water quality were demonstrated by SWAT modeling. This study also recommends conservation practices designed to reduce field yield and in-stream transport capacity of sediment, such as filter strip, grassed waterway, crop residue management, and tailwater pond to be implemented in the Orestimba Creek watershed. - Selected structural BMPs are recommended for reducing loads of OP pesticides.

367

Management-oriented sensitivity analysis for pesticide transport in watershed-scale water quality modeling using SWAT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated for hydrology conditions in an agricultural watershed of Orestimba Creek, California, and applied to simulate fate and transport of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The model showed capability in evaluating pesticide fate and transport processes in agricultural fields and instream network. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis was conducted by applied stochastic SWAT simulations for pesticide distribution. Results of sensitivity analysis identified the governing processes in pesticide outputs as surface runoff, soil erosion, and sedimentation in the study area. By incorporating sensitive parameters in pesticide transport simulation, effects of structural best management practices (BMPs) in improving surface water quality were demonstrated by SWAT modeling. This study also recommends conservation practices designed to reduce field yield and in-stream transport capacity of sediment, such as filter strip, grassed waterway, crop residue management, and tailwater pond to be implemented in the Orestimba Creek watershed. - Selected structural BMPs are recommended for reducing loads of OP pesticides.

Luo Yuzhou [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Zhang Minghua, E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.ed [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

2009-12-15

368

Further studies on the bound pesticide residues in soil and plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data presented in this paper demonstrate that the various physiological groups of microbes used in this study have the enzymatic and/or biological potential to release bound pesticide residues from soil. The release was not influenced by the nature of the microbial population present, thereby indicating that the process involved cometabolism or that the residues are bound in various matrices, or both. Our studies also indicate that the in vitro incubation of chicken liver homogenate with plant tissues containing bound 14C residues released and metabolized some of these residues. However, no apparent release of 14C residues was observed when the incubation involved rumen liquor. It appears that in the liver homogenate incubation system, bound 2-chloro dealkylated metabolites in the plant tissues were released and subsequently metabolized to 2-hydroxy analogues

369

[Pesticide residues in drinking water of an agricultural community in the state of Mérida, Venezuela].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pesticides in drinking water from six aqueducts in a region of intense agricultural activity in the state of Merida, Venezuela. The study was conducted for four continuous weeks, between May and June 2008. Pesticide residues were analyzed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detector (DAD). The method SPE-HPLC-DAD met the criteria of analytical validation, with good linearity (R2: 0.9840 to 0.9999), precision (coefficient of inter-day variability from 1.47 to 6.25%), accuracy (relative standard deviation 0.9 to 9.20%) and sensitivity (LOD mancozeb with 0.400 microg/L). Seven of the thirteen selected pesticides have a recovery rate between 100% and 70%, the rest between 61% and 37%. Ten pesticides of the following chemical groups, were detected in 72 samples analyzed: organophosphates, carbamates, triazines and urea derivatives. The pesticides with the highest frequency of detection were: carbofuran and atrazine (39%), malathion (25%), dimethoate and metribuzin (19%). The pesticides found at high levels were diazinon (26.31 microg/L), methamidophos (10.99 microg/L), malathion (2.03 microg/L) and mancozeb (1.27 microg/L). Pesticide levels did not exceed the maximum allowed by Venezuelan law, however, according to international standards (EU and EPA-USA) values were above the maximum permissible levels. This study demonstrates the urgent need for systematic monitoring of the quality of water for human consumption in regions of high agricultural productivity. PMID:22523840

Flores-García, Mery Elisa; Molina-Morales, Yuri; Balza-Quintero, Alirio; Benítez-Díaz, Pedro Rafael; Miranda-Contreras, Leticia

2011-12-01

370

Organochlorine pesticide residues in bed sediments of the San Joaquin River and its tributary streams, California  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution and concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues in bed sediments were assessed from samples collected at 24 sites in the San Joaquin River and its tributaries in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Sampling was designed to collect the finest grained bed sediments present in the vicinity of each site. One or more of the 14 pesticides analyzed were detected at every site. Pesticides detected at one or more sites were chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, endosulfan, mirex, and toxaphene. Pesticides not detected were endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, methoxychlor, and perthane. The most frequently detected pesticides were DDD (83% of sites), DDE (all sites), DDT (33% of sites), and dieldrin (58% of sites). Maximum concentrations of these pesticides, which were correlated with each other and with the amount of organic carbon in the sample, were DDD, 260 micrograms/kg; DDE, 430 micrograms/kg; DDT, 420 micrograms/kg; and dieldrin, 8.9 micrograms/kg. Six small tributary streams that drain agricultural areas west of the San Joaquin River had the highest concentrations. Water concentrations and loads were estimated for each pesticide from its concentration in bed sediments, the concentration of suspended sediment, and streamflow. Estimated loadings of DDD, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin from tributaries to the San Joaquin River indicate that most of the loading to the river at the time of the study was probably from the westside tributaries. Estimated water concentrations exceeded the aquatic life criterion for the sum of DDD, DDE, and DDt of 0.001 microgram/L at nine of the 24 sites sampled. Five of the nine sites are westside tributaries and one is the San Joaquin River near Vernalis. (Author 's abstract)

Gilliom, R.J.; Clifton, D.G.

1987-01-01

371

LITERATURE REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE EPA FOOD-CHAIN (KENAGA) NOMOGRAM, AN INSTRUMENT FOR ESTIMATING PESTICIDE RESIDUES ON PLANTS  

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The Kenaga nomogram is a simple device developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the early 1980s and is currently used to predict the maximum potential pesticide residue levels in the food chain of wildlife before pesticide registration. o evaluate the accura...

372

Development of methodology for determination of pesticides residue in water by SPE/HPLC/DAD.  

Science.gov (United States)

To boost crop yield, sugarcane growers are using increasing amounts of pesticides to combat insects and weeds. But residues of these compounds can pollute water resources, such as lakes, rivers and aquifers. The present paper reports the results of a study of water samples from the Feijão River, which is the source of drinking water for the city of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil. The samples were evaluated for the presence of four leading pesticides--ametryn, atrazine, diuron and fipronil--used on sugarcane, the dominant culture in the region. The samples were obtained from three points along the river: the headwaters, along the middle course of the river and just before the municipal water intake station. The pesticides were extracted from the water samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and then analyzed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (LC-DAD). The analytical method was validated by traditional methods, obtaining recovery values between 90 and 95%, with precision deviations inferior to 2.56%, correlation coefficients above 0.99 and detection and quantification limits varying from 0.02 to 0.05 mg L(-1) and 0.07 to 0.17 mg L(-1), respectively. No presence of residues of the pesticides was detected in the samples, considering the detection limits of the method employed. PMID:23393971

Cappelini, Luciana Teresa Dias; Cordeiro, Daniela; Brondi, Silvia Helena Govoni; Prieto, Kátia Roberta; Vieira, Eny Maria

2012-01-01

373

SETTING MRLS FOR PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOOD BASED ON EU UNIFORM CRITERIA  

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Full Text Available Objective: Pesticides are used worldwide. They are applied during the growing season and part of the amount may remain in or on treated crop. Pesticides can drift to nearby areas and contaminate crops that were not treated. The MRLs are the maximum amount of a pesticide permitted in or on food (& feed, expressed in mg/kg or ppm and always defined for the active substance – crop combination. MRL should be set according to residue trials under Good Agricultural Practice (GAP and under the condition that: Daily Consumer Intake < Acceptable Daily Intake. The residue definition of active substance is derived from plant and animal metabolism. Supervised trials are the primary source of information for estimating maximum residue levels and calculating International Estimated Daily Intake. The agricultural practice the worst-case situation should be used to generate data from supervised trials to define the MRL. As the number of controlled field tests, and hence the data for MRL proposal is not large, the usual statistical models are inappropriate. Methods: Two methods for calculating proposed pre-harvest intervals (PHI and maximum residue levels are used. The first one (Rmax has proved its worth in many cases since 1981, and the second (Rber has been developed by the Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in Braunschweig/Germany. Both methods are described briefly. The first one is suitable for a larger number of data. It assumes a normal distribution of random variables, which are not always assumed with sufficient certainty. The second one uses a non-parametric distribution- and it is appropriate for more limited number of trials. Several case studies are discussed. The MRL Regulation on pesticide residues in food is a great progress towards better protection of children and consumer in general. Conclusions: Uniform criteria have to be used for evaluation of residue trials and MRLs setting process. Knowledge of the European approach in establishing the pesticide residue levels is useful for all countries in the world that have a policy of restriction of persistent organic pollutants in the environment aiming towards food safety for people of all ages.

VALENTINA L. CHRISTOVA-BAGDASSARIAN

2014-07-01

374

Quantification, nature and bioavailability of bound 14C-pesticide residues in soil, plants and food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Joint FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme on isotopic tracer aided studies of unextractable or bound pesticide residues in soil, plants and food was initiated in 1980. The first meeting was held in 1981 and the second meeting was held in 1983. The current programme was designed to assist scientists of developing countries to make safe and effective use of nuclear techniques for studying pesticide interactions with various components of the agricultural ecosystem. The third and final research co-ordination meeting was held in March 1985, and the papers presented there by the scientists participating in this programme are published in these Proceedings. The book also contains a report on the results of a collaborative study using a model protocol for the determination of bound residues in soil and an appraisal of the overall programme accomplishments. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

375

SELECTED PESTICIDE RESIDUES AND METABOLITES IN URINE FROM A SURVEY OF THE U.S. GENERAL POPULATION  

Science.gov (United States)

Residues of toxic chemicals in human tissues and fluids can be important indicators of exposure. Urine collected from a subsample of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for organochlorine, organophosphorus, and chlorophenoxy pesticides or the...

376

Guidance on the use of probabilistic methodology for modelling dietary exposure to pesticide residues  

OpenAIRE

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues to provide guidance on methodology for performing probabilistic dietary exposure assessment of single or multiple active substances, as a potential additional tool to supplement or complement the standard deterministic methodologies which are currently used in the EU for conducting dietary exposure assessments for pesticides. Specific guidance is provided for basic assessments but not for...

Efsa, Panel On Plant Protection Products And Their Residues

2012-01-01

377

Pesticide Residues Contamination of Vegetables and their Public Health Implications in Ghana  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed at determining the residues concentrations of pesticides in vegetables, and assessing the health risk due to the daily consumption of contaminated vegetables for adults in the prominent farming community of Akumadan in Ghana. Fifteen pooled samples, belonging to five vegetable types (tomato, cabbage, pepper, onion and eggplants) purchased from local markets across Ghana were analysed for DDTs, endosulfan, HCHs, methoxychlor, dimethoate and lambda-cyhalothrin using GC-MS. Th...

Botwe, B. O.; Ntow, W. J.; Kelderman, P.; Drechsel, P.; Professor Derick Carboo; Nartey, Professor Vincent K.; Gijzen, H. J.

2011-01-01

378

Organochlorine pesticide residues in paddy fish in Malaysia and the associated health risk to farmers*  

OpenAIRE

Paddy fish (Trichogaster pectoralis Regan) were collected from five sampling locations in a major paddy-growing area of Malaysia and analysed for organochlorine residues. During the same period, ten farming families, chosen at random from each of the five sampling sites, were interviewed. Information was obtained about the quantity of paddy fish consumed, the amount and type of pesticide used on the paddy-field, and the frequency of application.

Chen, Donald F.; Meier, Peter G.; Hilbert, Morton S.

1984-01-01

379

Endocrine disrupting activity in fruits and vegetables evaluated with the E-screen assay in relation to pesticide residues.  

OpenAIRE

Food is likely to be one of the most important routes of human exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). In the present study, we evaluated the total estrogenic activity of fruits and vegetables, which was calculated using the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay (E-screen), in relation to pesticide residues. We analysed 44 food samples, 30 fruits and 14 vegetables. Of these samples, 10 did not contain any pesticide residues. The other 34 samples contained fr...

Gilli, Giorgio; Schiliro, Tiziana

2011-01-01

380

Evaluation of pesticide residues in farmgate samples of vegetables in Karnataka, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty Vegetable samples (Beans, Brinjal, Cabbage and Carrot) grown in Kolar district of Karnataka, India were analysed for 20 pesticide residues by gas liquid chromatography equipped with ECD and FTD. Recovery studies were performed at 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg(-1) fortification levels of each compound and the recoveries obtained ranged from 73.0% to 96.6% with relative standard deviations lower than 7.5%. The method showed good linearity over the range assessed 0.01-1.0 mg Kg(-1) with correlation coefficient >0.998 and the detection and quantification limits for the pesticides studied varied from 0.0001 to 0.002 mg Kg(-1) and 0.0001-0.001 mg Kg(-1), respectively. All the samples were found to be contaminated, the organo chlorines (97%) dominated followed by organophosphates (83%) and pyrethroids (60%). However, 58% of the samples were found to contain the residues of these insecticides above their respective maximum residue limits (MRL). It is therefore proposed to perform extensive monitoring studies covering all the vegetable crops from different agro-climatic regions of the Karnataka to know the exact status of pesticide contamination. PMID:22825007

Ananda Gowda, S R; Somashekar, R K

2012-09-01

381

Determination of pesticide residues in fruits of Nawabshah district, Sindh, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eight fruit samples of apple, guava, orange, grapes, pear, persimmon, banana and pear purchased from the local markets of Nawabshah district, Sindh and residues of pesticide of organophosphate (OP), pyrethroid and organochlorine (OC) (i.e., dichlorvos, fenvalerate, dimethoate, methyl parathion, fenitrothion, cypermethrin, endosulfan, deltamethrin, mevinphos, chlorpyriphos, profenofos and dicofol) were monitored in fruit samples by Gas Chromatography (GC). All the fruit samples were found contaminated except banana and among these only apple samples were found exceeding the maximum residue limits (MRL) of Codex Alimentarius Commission. (author)

382

Bound pesticide residues in soil, plants and food with particular emphasis on the application of nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although so-called bound residues have been detected for all classes of chemicals investigated so far, their quantitative levels have wide-ranging differences, depending on the chemical structure of the pesticide; phenols and nitrogen-containing pesticides exhibit the highest binding rates. The portion of bound residues in soil and plants increases with time and varies with environmental conditions (soil and plant type, climatic conditions, etc.). So far the chemical identity of bound residues has only been elucidated for a limited number of model substances by using various liberation techniques. Most information is available on anilines; models have been developed demonstrating their copolymerization into natural macromolecules (humic acids, lignin). Misinterpretation of natural products assimilated from totally degraded pesticides, as bound xenobiotic residues can only be excluded by the sophisticated separation and identification procedures of all residues. Studies on the persistence of bound residues showed differing mineralization rates, depending on the chemical structures of the pesticides; research on the bioavailability revealed that for all pesticides low amounts of soil-bound residues are taken up by plants, and that plant-bound residues are eliminated rather quickly by mammals in the faeces. (author)

383

Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production. PMID:17487602

Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

2007-06-01

384

Formation of non-extractable pesticide residues: observations on compound differences, measurement and regulatory issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Six major use pesticides (Atrazine, Dicamba, Isoproturon, Lindane, Paraquat and Trifluralin) with differing physico-chemical properties were evaluated for the significance of 'bound' or non extractable residue formation. Investigations were carried out in purpose-built microcosms where mineralization, volatilisation, 'soil water' extractable and organic solvent extractable residues could be quantified. Extractable residues were defined as those accessible by sequential extraction where the solvent used became increasingly non-polar. Dichloromethane was the 'harshest' solvent used at the end of the sequential extraction procedure. {sup 14}C-labelled volatilised and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} fractions were trapped on exit from the microcosm. The pesticides were categorised into 3 classes based on their behaviour. (i) Type A (Atrazine, Lindane and Trifluralin) in which ring degradation was limited as was the formation of non-extractable residues; the remainder of the {sup 14}C-activity was found in the extractable fraction. (ii) Type B (Dicamba and Isoproturon) in which approximately 25% of the {sup 14}C-activity was mineralised and a large portion was found in the non-extractable fraction after 91 days. Finally, Type C (Paraquat) in which almost all of the {sup 14}C-activity was quickly incorporated into the non-extractable fraction. The implications of the data are discussed, with respect to the variability and significance of regulatory aspects of non-extractable residues.

Mordaunt, Catriona J.; Gevao, Bondi; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T

2005-01-01

385

Organophosphorus pesticide residues in Greek virgin olive oil: levels, dietary intake and risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of organophosphorus pesticide (OPs) and their metabolite residues was investigated in 167 samples of Greek virgin olive oil during a 2-year (2004-2005) sampling campaign. A total of 30.5% of samples contained detectable residues, although only one sample contained dimethoate residues above the maximum residue limit. Among the seven detected OPs, fenthion and fenthion sulfoxide residues were detected in 10.8 and 14.4% of the samples, respectively, at levels of 0.003-0.61 mg kg(-1). Dimethoate was detected in 10.2% of the samples at 0.003-0.057 mg kg(-1). The acute dietary risk assessment was undertaken by determining the national estimated short-term intake (NESTI); for chronic dietary risk assessment, the national theoretical maximum daily intake (NTMDI) and national estimated daily intake (NEDI) were calculated. The estimated intakes (NESTI and NEDI) of each pesticide were <7 and <0.86% of the corresponding acute reference doses (ARfDs) and acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), respectively. A cumulative risk assessment was performed using the hazard index (HI) and toxicity equivalence factor (TEF), taking into account that OPs share the same toxicological mechanism. The determined HI and TEF values were found to represent only a small portion of the respective ADIs or ARfDs. These results indicate that there is neither acute nor chronic risk for the Greek population through olive oil consumption. PMID:18636365

Tsoutsi, C S; Konstantinou, I K; Hela, D G

2008-10-01

386

Pesticides  

Science.gov (United States)

... yourself and your family from pesticides on non-organic fruits and vegetables, remove the outer leaves of leafy vegetables and ... mixed with salt and lemon juice or vinegar. Organic growers do ... vegetables. HOME SAFETY AND PESTICIDES When using pesticides at ...

387

Examination of Some Pesticide Residues in Surface Water, Sediment and Fish Tissue of Elechi Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available An investigation into the levels of selected pesticides in surface waters, sediment and fish (Mudskipper in the Elechi creek was carried out in two seasons and at three pre-determined sites. A higher concentration of 2, 4-diamine was observed in all stations and matrixes, while propoxur was least observed. Pesticide concentration in sediment is significantly different from that of water and fish tissue, which had the highest residual concentration. Concentration of pesticides ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 ?g/L in water, 0.01 to 0.06 ?g/gdw in sediment and 0.01 to 0.07 ?g/gdw in fish, respectively. There was bioaccumulation of pesticides in fish samples. Observed residues are generally higher than stipulated limit of 0.01 ?g/L by USEPA for pesticides of aquatic life, therefore, possess an ecological risk to the ecosystem and consequently human health.

F. Upadhi

2012-11-01

388

Solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography: a complementary technique to solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography for the analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography has been studied for the analysis of methiocarb, napropamide, fenoxycarb and bupirimate in strawberries. The strawberries were blended and centrifuged. Then, an aliquot of the resulting extracting solution was subjected to solid-phase microextraction (SPME) on a 60 microns polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibre for 45 min at room temperature. The extracted pesticides on the SPME fibre were desorbed into SPME/high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interface for HPLC analysis with diode-array detection (DAD). The method is organic solvent-free for the whole extraction process and is simple and easy to manipulate. The detection limits were shown to be at low microgram kg-1 level and the linear response covered the range from 0.05 to 2 mg kg-1 of pesticides in strawberries with a regression coefficient larger than 0.99. A good repeatability with RSDs between 2.92 and 9.25% was obtained, depending on compounds. PMID:11271705

Wang, Z; Hennion, B; Urruty, L; Montury, M

2000-11-01

389

Toxaphene and other chlorinated pesticide residues in butter (1972 - 1978) and canned beef (1976 - 1977) in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports the analysis of butter sample manufactured 1972-1978 and canned beef samples manufactured 1976-1977 in Kenya for pesticide residues, particularly for toxaphene, the main acaricide in use from 1960-1976. It was found that levels of toxaphene in butter ranged from 6.5-16.2 ppm (fat basis) during extensive use of acricide, which gradually decreased to non-detectable levels by 1978. Toxaphene residues in canned beef ranged from 1.2-18.5 ppm (fat basis) during 1976. Traces were still evident (0.2-0.7 ppm) by 1977. Low levels of BHC and DDE were also indicated in the samples. The levels ranged from 0.1-0.28 ppm total BHC and 0.02-0.27 DDE (fat basis ) in the butter. Canned beef samples indicated levels of 0.02-0.06 ppm total BHC and 0.02-0.57 ppmDDE(fat basis). (author)

390

Monitoring of pesticide residues in human milk, soil, water, and food samples collected from Kafr El-Zayat Governorate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pesticide residues in human milk and environmental samples from Kafr El-Zayat Governorate in Egypt were analyzed. This governorate is located near one of the biggest pesticide factories in Egypt. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides were monitored, including those that have been prohibited from use in Egypt. Human milk samples (31 samples) from Kafr El-Zayat were compared with 11 samples collected from Cairo. Data were compared with results from studies performed in 1987 and 1990. The present study showed that aldrin and dieldrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide, and endrin residues have been eliminated from human milk. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of DDT complex and gamma-HCH by breast-fed infants in Kafr El-Zayat were 85.96 and 3.1% of the respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). beta-HCH residues showed an increasing pattern, especially in human milk samples from Cairo. DDT complex and HCH isomers in orange, spinach, lettuce, potatoes, and clover samples ranged from undetectable to very low concentrations. Higher levels of DDT and HCH were detected, but aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and the heptachlors were not detected in food of animal origin. Residues in fish samples were below maximum residue limits established by some developed countries. Those in animal milk samples approached the extraneous residue limits of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues. HCH residues in soil were negligible, but DDT residues in soil were somewhat higher. Among water samples, groundwater samples had the highest residues of HCHs and DDTs, followed by Nile River water and then tap water. However, the organochlorine pesticide residues were found at concentrations below the maximum allowable limits set by the World Health Organization for drinking water. Among 12 organophosphorus pesticides monitored as parent compounds, dimethoate, malathion, methamidophos, and chlorpyrifos residues were detected in low concentrations in soil samples from a pesticide factory. No organophosphorus pesticide residues were found in plant samples, except for very low residues of dimethoate in an orange sample. Water samples were devoid of organophosphorus residues as parent compounds. PMID:8620102

Dogheim, S M; Mohamed el-Z; Gad Alla, S A; el-Saied, S; Emel, S Y; Mohsen, A M; Fahmy, S M

1996-01-01

391

Retraction: Adyel et al. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Foods 2013, 2, 64–75  

OpenAIRE

The following article [1], doi: 10.3390/foods2010064, website: http://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/2/1/64, has been retracted by the authors because of some major errors in broad field of pesticide residues identification and concentrations. During random cross check retention time of pesticides by HPLC did not match with the standards of detected pesticides. As a result concentration of all detected pesticides, maximum residue limits (MRLs) and health risk assessments were changed. All these error...

Md. Shakhaoat Hossain; Md. Alamgir Hossain; Md. Abdur Rahman; Md Mainul Islam; Md Atiqur Rahman; Tanveer Mehedi Adyel

2013-01-01

392

Residues of organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in honey, an indicator of ambient environment, a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of honey were screened to monitor residues of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides. The study meant to examine the quality of honey, and to use honey as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Residue levels were determined by gas chromatography (GC-?ECD). Samples had a wide spectrum of organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroids pesticides, with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as the most frequently detected organochlorine, followed by permethrin, heptachlor epoxide. Only one sample had a concentration of ?-HCH higher than maximum residue limit of honey (0.01mgkg(-1)). Residues of organochlorines detected, indicate the presence of some fresh supplies, despite the ban imposed on their use. The study confirmed that honey bee and beehive matrices could be used as gauge for monitoring environment contamination. From public health point of view, the observed levels of pesticide residues in honey do not pose a serious health risk to the consumers, but raises questions of the source of organochlorines. PMID:25243805

Malhat, Farag M; Haggag, Mohamed N; Loutfy, Naglaa M; Osman, Mohamed A M; Ahmed, Mohamed Tawfic

2015-02-01

393

Analysis of Coupling the Pesticide Use Reduction with Environmental Policy for Agricultural Sustainability in Taiwan  

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Full Text Available As Taiwan has a dense population and only limited natural resources, the government began actively establishing a Taiwan’s sustainable development indicators (TSDI system in 2003 to evaluate the progress towards sustainability. Commonly used pesticides could pose a risk of causing adverse effects to food sanitation, human health and the environment. Thus, the pesticide usage rate per hectare of farmland and the area of organic cultivation have been selected as agricultural sustainability indicators. The objective of this paper was to describe an analysis of current status of pesticide use and regulatory policy for environmental sustainability in Taiwan. Furthermore, it can be connected with the regulatory infrastructure, which has been established by the joint-venture of the central competent authorities (i.e., Council of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Administration, Department of Health, Ministry of Economic Affairs, and Council of Labor Affairs for controlling and/or preventing pesticide distribution in the environment. The significant progress is that the residual pesticides have notably declined in the past decade, which was in parallel with the pesticide usage rate decreased and organic farming area increased. For example, total area of organically certified cropping in Taiwan has been increased from 900 hectares (ha in 2001 to about 4,500 ha in 2010. Finally, some recommendations for the pollution prevention and toxicity reduction of pesticide use were also addressed to progress towards a sustainable agriculture in Taiwan.

Wen-Tien Tsai

2013-03-01

394

Influence of pH on pesticide sorption by soil containing wheat residue-derived char  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field burning of crop residues incorporates resulting chars into soil and may thus influence the environmental fate of pesticides in the soil. This study evaluated the influence of pH on the sorption of diuron, bromoxynil, and ametryne by a soil in the presence and absence of a wheat residue-derived char. The sorption was measured at pHs ?3.0 and ?7.0. Wheat char was found to be a highly effective sorbent for the pesticides, and its presence (1% by weight) in soil contributed >70% to the pesticide sorption (with one exception). The sorption of diuron was not influenced by pH, due to its electroneutrality. Bromoxynil becomes dissociated at high pHs to form anionic species. Its sorption by soil and wheat char was lower at pH ?7.0 than at pH ?3.0, probably due to reduced partition of the anionic species of bromoxynil into soil organic matter and its weak interaction with the carbon surface of the char. Ametryne in its molecular form at pH ?7.0 was sorbed by char-amended soil via partitioning into soil organic matter and interaction with the carbon surface of the char. Protonated ametryne at pH ?3.0 was substantially sorbed by soil primarily via electrostatic forces. Sorption of protonated ametryne by wheat char was also significant, likely due not only to the interaction with the carbon surface but also to interactions with hydrated silica and surface functional groups of the char. Sorption of ametryne by char-amended soil at pH ?3.0 was thus influenced by ?3.0 was thus influenced by both the soil and the char. Environmental conditions may thus significantly influence the sorption and behavior of pesticides in agricultural soils containing crop residue-derived chars. - Wheat char was effective for adsorption of pesticides in soil, with efficacy varying with pH and particular pesticides

395

Influence of pH on pesticide sorption by soil containing wheat residue-derived char  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Field burning of crop residues incorporates resulting chars into soil and may thus influence the environmental fate of pesticides in the soil. This study evaluated the influence of pH on the sorption of diuron, bromoxynil, and ametryne by a soil in the presence and absence of a wheat residue-derived char. The sorption was measured at pHs {approx}3.0 and {approx}7.0. Wheat char was found to be a highly effective sorbent for the pesticides, and its presence (1% by weight) in soil contributed >70% to the pesticide sorption (with one exception). The sorption of diuron was not influenced by pH, due to its electroneutrality. Bromoxynil becomes dissociated at high pHs to form anionic species. Its sorption by soil and wheat char was lower at pH {approx}7.0 than at pH {approx}3.0, probably due to reduced partition of the anionic species of bromoxynil into soil organic matter and its weak interaction with the carbon surface of the char. Ametryne in its molecular form at pH {approx}7.0 was sorbed by char-amended soil via partitioning into soil organic matter and interaction with the carbon surface of the char. Protonated ametryne at pH {approx}3.0 was substantially sorbed by soil primarily via electrostatic forces. Sorption of protonated ametryne by wheat char was also significant, likely due not only to the interaction with the carbon surface but also to interactions with hydrated silica and surface functional groups of the char. Sorption of ametryne by char-amended soil at pH {approx}3.0 was thus influenced by both the soil and the char. Environmental conditions may thus significantly influence the sorption and behavior of pesticides in agricultural soils containing crop residue-derived chars. - Wheat char was effective for adsorption of pesticides in soil, with efficacy varying with pH and particular pesticides.

Sheng Guangyao [Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States)]. E-mail: gsheng@uark.edu; Yang Yaning [Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Huang Minsheng [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Yang Kai [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

2005-04-01

396

Organochlorine pesticide residues in catfish, Tachysurus thalassinus (Ruppell, 1835), from the South Patches of the Bay of Bengal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pesticide concentrations in fish were lower than recommended for human consumption. - Organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, aldrin, lindane, and heptachlor) were measured in muscle tissue of catfish (Tachysurus thalassinus) during the dry and wet season. Catfish were collected from the South Patches of the Bay of Bengal during October-December 1997 and May-July 1998. Tissue residues were analyzed by using gas-chromatography (GC) in electron capture detector (ECD) mode and were verified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The pesticide residues levels were found in order of ? DDT>Heptachlor>Lindane>Aldrin. Higher levels of pesticide residues were found in all samples during dry season, as compared with the wet season, primarily due to elevated lipid content in fishes. A positive correlation and linear relationship was observed between the pesticide residues (?DDT and ?OCs) and lipid content of fishes. However, the concentrations of pesticide residues in the muscle were found to be lower than the FAO/WHO [(1993) Food standards programme. Codex Alimentarius Commission, vol. 9 (4) pp. 149-158] recommended permissible limit for human consumption

397

Pesticide residues in food of plant origin from Southeast Asia – A Nordic project  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fruits and vegetables from Souteast Asia were analysed for the presence of pesticide residues. A total of 721 samples of 63 different commodities were collected in 2011. The products were imported to Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from ten countries; about 80% were imported from Thailand. The reason for the increased control for certain food products from Southeast Asia was that the official control had revealed many products with too high levels of pesticide residues. In 60% of the samples we did not find any residues, while 28% had residues below or at the MRLs. Results above the MRLs were found in 12% of the samples. In comparison 6% of surveillance samples from third countries and 1.5% of surveillance samples from the EU and EFTA countries exceeded the MRL in the EU monitoring program in 2011. The estimated acute intake was higher than 100% of the ARfD in several samples and some of the products were assessed to represent possible acute health risk for consumers.

Skretteberg, L. G.; Lyrån, B.

2015-01-01

398

De-contamination of pesticide residues in food by ionizing radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of gamma irradiation on removal of pesticides in aqueous solutions or in vegetables and fruits was investigated. Radiation - induced decontamination of pesticides is generally greater in aqueous solutions than in selected vegetables and fruits. Residues of malathion (0.5 ppm in potatoes, 8 ppm in onions and dates), pirimiphos-methyl (1 ppm in onions and grapes) and cypermethrin (0.05 ppm in potatoes and 0.1 ppm in onions) were not reduced to below maximum residue limits (MRLs) for irradiation doses up to 1 kGy. The same trend was observed when irradiation was performed for grapes fortified with malathion (8 ppm) and cypermethrin (2 ppm) for absorbed doses up to 2 kGy. Ionizing radiation reduced the residues of pirimiphos-methyl (0.05 ppm in potatoes at1 kGy, 1 ppm in grapes at 2 kGy and 0.1 ppm in dates at1 kGy), malathion (8 ppm in grapes at 7 kGy) and cypermethrin (2 ppm in grapes at 7 kGy) to below maximum residue limits (MRLs).

Basfar, Ahmed A.; Mohamed, Khaled A.; Al-Saqer, Omar A.

2012-04-01

399

Isotope aided studies of pesticide residues during food processing. Report of a final research co-ordination meeting held in Bangkok, Thailand, 31 January - 4 February 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of agrochemicals in general and pesticides in particular has greatly aided crop production, protected man from diseases, decreased losses of stored grains and has generally improved man's welfare. One of the steps in ensuring safety of pesticides is adequate monitoring programmes for residue levels in food products and the agricultural environment. Oil-bearing plants often receive heavy pesticide treatment and known to accumulate high concentration of pesticide residues. Technical documents included in this volume report effect of refining or processing of various oil crops like soybean, olive oil, coconut, rapeseed, sunflower cottonseed corn, peanut oil on 14C-compound pesticide residues. Refs, figs and tabs

400

Resíduos de agrotóxicos em alimentos: uma preocupação ambiental global - Um enfoque às maçãs / Residues of pesticides in food: a global environmental preoccupation - Focussing on apples  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english This paper describes the use of pesticides in agriculture. Research has shown that significant quantities of pesticide residues have been found in many types of foods. Thus, an overview is given of pesticide residue determinations in fruits and vegetables, with special attention to apples. The toxic [...] ity and the adverse effects possibly caused by the exposure of these compounds are alerting the scientific community to develop studies about the validation of analytical methods for multiresidue pesticide determination in these samples. This review shows that pesticide-residue determination in apples is becoming a very important and challenging issue.

Isabel Cristina Sales Fontes, Jardim; Juliano de Almeida, Andrade; Sonia Claudia do Nascimento de, Queiroz.

401

Resíduos de agrotóxicos em alimentos: uma preocupação ambiental global - Um enfoque às maçãs Residues of pesticides in food: a global environmental preoccupation - Focussing on apples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the use of pesticides in agriculture. Research has shown that significant quantities of pesticide residues have been found in many types of foods. Thus, an overview is given of pesticide residue determinations in fruits and vegetables, with special attention to apples. The toxicity and the adverse effects possibly caused by the exposure of these compounds are alerting the scientific community to develop studies about the validation of analytical methods for multiresidue pesticide determination in these samples. This review shows that pesticide-residue determination in apples is becoming a very important and challenging issue.

Isabel Cristina Sales Fontes Jardim

2009-01-01

402

Monitoring of pesticide residues in apples, lettuce and potato of the Slovene origin, 2001-04.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apples, lettuce and potatoes (404 samples) produced in the Republic of Slovenia were analysed for pesticide residues at the Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, Ljubljana, in 2001-04. Sampling from eight agricultural production areas was performed at market producers at the harvesting of products or in storehouses after the pre-harvest interval of plant protection products used. Samples exceeding the maximum residue levels were the following: three apple samples (2.0%) containing 0.33-2.24 mg kg(-1) (phosalone and tolylfluanid), three lettuce samples (3.1%) containing 0.14-6.36 mg kg(-1) (dimethoate, dithiocarbamates and metalaxyl) and 36 potato samples (23.1%) containing 0.06-0.51 mg kg(-1) (dithiocarbamates). Residues of two or more active substances were found in 73 apple samples (48.3%), of which the maximum residue limit (MRL) was exceeded by three samples (2.0%) with the values ranging from 0.33 to 2.24 mg kg(-1), and nine lettuce samples (9.3%), for which the MRL was exceeded by three samples (3.1%) with values from 0.14 to 6.36 mg kg(-1). In potato samples, only residues of dithiocarbamates or no residues at all were found. Residues of the dithiocarbamate group were the most frequently found, i.e. in 66 apple samples (43.7%), 30 lettuce samples (30.9%) and 38 potato samples (24.4%). PMID:16449059

Cesnik, H Basa; Gregorcic, A; Bolta, S Velikonja; Kmecl, V

2006-02-01

403

Investigations on antibody binding to a micro-cantilever coated with a BAM pesticide residue  

Science.gov (United States)

The attachment of an antibody to an antigen-coated cantilever has been investigated by repeated experiments, using a cantilever-based detection system by Cantion A/S. The stress induced by the binding of a pesticide residue BAM (2,6 dichlorobenzamide) immobilized on a cantilever surface to anti-BAM antibody is measured using the CantiLab4© system from Cantion A/S with four gold-coated cantilevers and piezo resistive readout. The detection mechanism is in principle label-free, but fluorescent-marked antibodies have been used to subsequently verify the binding on the cantilever surface. The bending and increase in mass of each cantilever has also been investigated using a light interferometer and a Doppler Vibrometer. The system has been analyzed during repeated measurements to investigate whether the CantiLab4© system is a suited platform for a pesticide assay system.

Bache,